Development of HyPEP, A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Young Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Won Jae; Shin, Young Joon; Kim, Jong Ho; Hong, Sung Deok; Lee, Seung Wook; Hwang, Moon Kyu
2007-12-01
Development of HyPEP program for assessing the steady-state hydrogen production efficiency of the nuclear hydrogen production facilities was carried out. The main developmental aims of the HyPEP program are the extensive application of the GUI for enhanced user friendliness and the fast numerical solution scheme. These features are suitable for such calculations as the optimisation calculations. HyPEP was developed with the object-oriented programming techniques. The components of the facility was modelled as objects in a hierarchical structure where the inheritance property of the object oriented program were extensively applied. The Delphi program language which is based on the Object Pascal was used for the HyPEP development. The conservation equations for the thermal hydraulic flow network were setup and the numerical solution scheme was developed and implemented into HyPEP beta version. HyPEP beta version has been developed with working GUI and the numerical solution scheme implementation. Due to the premature end of this project the fully working version of HyPEP was not produced
HyPEP-FY 07 Annual Report: A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang Oh
2007-09-01
The Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled to the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) process is one of two reference integrated systems being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory for the production of hydrogen. In this concept the VHTR outlet temperature of 900 °C provides thermal energy and high efficiency electricity for the electrolysis of steam in the HTSE process. In the second reference system the Sulfur Iodine (SI) process is coupled to the VHTR to produce hydrogen thermochemically. In the HyPEP project we are investigating and characterizing these two reference systems with respect to production, operability, and safety performance criteria. Under production, plant configuration and working fluids are being studied for their effect on efficiency. Under operability, control strategies are being developed with the goal of maintaining equipment within operating limits while meeting changes in demand. Safety studies are to investigate plant response for equipment failures. Specific objectives in FY07 were (1) to develop HyPEP Beta and verification and validation (V&V) plan, (2) to perform steady state system integration, (3) to perform parametric studies with various working fluids and power conversion unit (PCU) configurations, (4) the study of design options such as pressure, temperature, etc. (5) to develop a control strategy and (6) to perform transient analyses for plant upsets, control strategy, etc for hydrogen plant with PCU. This report describes the progress made in FY07 in each of the above areas. (1) The HyPEP code numeric scheme and Graphic User Interface have been tested and refined since the release of the alpha version a year ago. (2) The optimal size and design condition for the intermediate heat exchanger, one of the most important components for integration of the VHTR and HTSE plants, was estimated. (3) Efficiency calculations were performed for a variety of working fluids for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Yagawa, Genki.
1982-03-01
A finite element computer program EPAS-J1 was developed to calculate the stress intensity factors of three-dimensional cracks. In the program, the stress intensity factor is determined by the virtual crack extension method together with the distorted elements allocated along the crack front. This program also includes the connection elements based on the Lagrange multiplier concept to connect such different kinds of elements as the solid and shell elements, or the shell and beam elements. For the structure including three-dimensional surface cracks, the solid elements are employed only at the neighborhood of a surface crack, while the remainder of the structure is modeled by the shell or beam elements due to the reason that the crack singularity is very local. Computer storage and computational time can be highly reduced with the application of the above modeling technique for the calculation of the stress intensity factors of the three-dimensional surface cracks, because the three-dimensional solid elements are required only around the crack front. Several numerical analyses were performed by the EPAS-J1 program. At first, the accuracies of the connection element and the virtual crack extension method were confirmed using the simple structures. Compared with other techniques of connecting different kinds of elements such as the tying method or the method using anisotropic plate element, the present connection element is found to provide better results than the others. It is also found that the virtual crack extension method provides the accurate stress intensity factor. Furthermore, the results are also presented for the stress intensity factor analyses of cylinders with longitudinal or circumferential surface cracks using the combination of the various kinds of elements together with the connection elements. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Shuxiang; Zhang, Han; Wang, Mengqi; Zang, Qiyong; Zhang, Jingyu; Chen, Yixue
2017-01-01
Point kernel integration (PKI) method is widely used in the visualization of radiation field in engineering applications because of the features of quickly dealing with large-scale complicated geometry space problems. But the traditional PKI programs have a lot of restrictions, such as complicated modeling, complicated source setting, 3D fine mesh results statistics and large-scale computing efficiency. To break the traditional restrictions for visualization of radiation field, ARShield was developed successfully. The results show that ARShield can deal with complicated plant radiation shielding problems for visualization of radiation field. Compared with SuperMC and QAD, it can be seen that the program is reliable and efficient. Also, ARShield can meet the demands of calculation speediness and interactive operations of modeling and displaying 3D geometries on a graphical user interface, avoiding error modeling in calculation and visualization. (authors)
Calculation of the counting efficiency for extended sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korun, M.; Vidmar, T.
2002-01-01
A computer program for calculation of efficiency calibration curves for extended samples counted on gamma- and X ray spectrometers is described. The program calculates efficiency calibration curves for homogeneous cylindrical samples placed coaxially with the symmetry axis of the detector. The method of calculation is based on integration over the sample volume of the efficiencies for point sources measured in free space on an equidistant grid of points. The attenuation of photons within the sample is taken into account using the self-attenuation function calculated with a two-dimensional detector model. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Steen; Momsen, Günther; Sundberg, Karin
2011-01-01
-A) in maternal plasma from unaffected pregnancies. Means and SDs of these parameters in unaffected and affected pregnancies are used in the risk calculation program. Unfortunately, our commercial program for risk calculation (Astraia) did not allow use of local medians. We developed 2 alternative risk...... calculation programs to assess whether the screening efficacies for T13, T18, and T21 could be improved by using our locally estimated medians....
Computer programs for lattice calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keil, E.; Reich, K.H.
1984-01-01
The aim of the workshop was to find out whether some standardisation could be achieved for future work in this field. A certain amount of useful information was unearthed, and desirable features of a ''standard'' program emerged. Progress is not expected to be breathtaking, although participants (practically from all interested US, Canadian and European accelerator laboratories) agreed that the mathematics of the existing programs is more or less the same. Apart from the NIH (not invented here) effect, there is a - to quite some extent understandable - tendency to stay with a program one knows and to add to it if unavoidable rather than to start using a new one. Users of the well supported program TRANSPORT (designed for beam line calculations) would prefer to have it fully extended for lattice calculations (to some extent already possible now), while SYNCH users wish to see that program provided with a user-friendly input, rather than spending time and effort for mastering a new program
Stock, Joachim W.; Kitzmann, Daniel; Patzer, A. Beate C.; Sedlmayr, Erwin
2018-06-01
For the calculation of complex neutral/ionized gas phase chemical equilibria, we present a semi-analytical versatile and efficient computer program, called FastChem. The applied method is based on the solution of a system of coupled nonlinear (and linear) algebraic equations, namely the law of mass action and the element conservation equations including charge balance, in many variables. Specifically, the system of equations is decomposed into a set of coupled nonlinear equations in one variable each, which are solved analytically whenever feasible to reduce computation time. Notably, the electron density is determined by using the method of Nelder and Mead at low temperatures. The program is written in object-oriented C++ which makes it easy to couple the code with other programs, although a stand-alone version is provided. FastChem can be used in parallel or sequentially and is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 at https://github.com/exoclime/FastChem together with several sample applications. The code has been successfully validated against previous studies and its convergence behavior has been tested even for extreme physical parameter ranges down to 100 K and up to 1000 bar. FastChem converges stable and robust in even most demanding chemical situations, which posed sometimes extreme challenges for previous algorithms.
Calculation methods in program CCRMN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chonghai, Cai [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Dept. of Physics; Qingbiao, Shen [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing, BJ (China)
1996-06-01
CCRMN is a program for calculating complex reactions of a medium-heavy nucleus with six light particles. In CCRMN, the incoming particles can be neutrons, protons, {sup 4}He, deuterons, tritons and {sup 3}He. the CCRMN code is constructed within the framework of the optical model, pre-equilibrium statistical theory based on the exciton model and the evaporation model. CCRMN is valid in 1{approx} MeV energy region, it can give correct results for optical model quantities and all kinds of reaction cross sections. This program has been applied in practical calculations and got reasonable results.
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY CALCULATION WITH HEAT TRANSFER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriu Dragan
2017-12-01
and manner under which the efficiency itself is calculated. The paper presents a more robust approach to measuring efficiency, regardless of the heat transfer within the turbomachinery itself. Possible applications of the study may range from cold-start regime simulation to the optimization of inter-cooling setup or even flow angle control without mechanically actuated OGV
Efficient sound barrier calculations with the BEM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente
2018-01-01
The Boundary Element Method has been used for calculating the effect of introducing sound barriers for some decades. The method has also been used for optimizing the shape of the barrier and in some cases the effects of introducing sound absorption. However, numerical calculations are still quite...... time consuming and inconvenient to use, which is limiting their use for many practical problems. Moreover, measurements are mostly taken in one-third or full octave bands opposed to the numerical computations at specific frequencies, which then has to be conducted using a fine density in frequencies....... This paper addresses some of the challenges and possible solutions for developing BEM into a more efficient tool for sound barrier calculations....
Multi-directional program efficiency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmild, Mette; Balezentis, Tomas; Hougaard, Jens Leth
2016-01-01
The present paper analyses both managerial and program efficiencies of Lithuanian family farms, in the tradition of Charnes et al. (Manag Sci 27(6):668–697, 1981) but with the important difference that multi-directional efficiency analysis rather than the traditional data envelopment analysis...... approach is used to estimate efficiency. This enables a consideration of input-specific efficiencies. The study shows clear differences between the efficiency scores on the different inputs as well as between the farm types of crop, livestock and mixed farms respectively. We furthermore find that crop...... farms have the highest program efficiency, but the lowest managerial efficiency and that the mixed farms have the lowest program efficiency (yet not the highest managerial efficiency)....
Data calculation program for RELAP 5 code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestre, Larissa J.B.; Sabundjian, Gaiane
2015-01-01
As the criteria and requirements for a nuclear power plant are extremely rigid, computer programs for simulation and safety analysis are required for certifying and licensing a plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors. A major difficulty in the simulation using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data leads to a very large number of mathematical operations for calculating the geometry of the components. Therefore, a mathematical friendly preprocessor was developed in order to perform these calculations and prepare RELAP5 input data. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) combined with Microsoft EXCEL demonstrated to be an efficient tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. Due to the absence of necessary information about some RELAP5 components, this work aims to make improvements to the Mathematic Preprocessor for RELAP5 code (PREREL5). For the new version of the preprocessor, new screens of some components that were not programmed in the original version were designed; moreover, screens of pre-existing components were redesigned to improve the program. In addition, an English version was provided for the new version of the PREREL5. The new design of PREREL5 contributes for saving time and minimizing mistakes made by users of the RELAP5 code. The final version of this preprocessor will be applied to Angra 2. (author)
Data calculation program for RELAP 5 code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silvestre, Larissa J.B.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: larissajbs@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2015-07-01
As the criteria and requirements for a nuclear power plant are extremely rigid, computer programs for simulation and safety analysis are required for certifying and licensing a plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors. A major difficulty in the simulation using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data leads to a very large number of mathematical operations for calculating the geometry of the components. Therefore, a mathematical friendly preprocessor was developed in order to perform these calculations and prepare RELAP5 input data. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) combined with Microsoft EXCEL demonstrated to be an efficient tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. Due to the absence of necessary information about some RELAP5 components, this work aims to make improvements to the Mathematic Preprocessor for RELAP5 code (PREREL5). For the new version of the preprocessor, new screens of some components that were not programmed in the original version were designed; moreover, screens of pre-existing components were redesigned to improve the program. In addition, an English version was provided for the new version of the PREREL5. The new design of PREREL5 contributes for saving time and minimizing mistakes made by users of the RELAP5 code. The final version of this preprocessor will be applied to Angra 2. (author)
Efficient Finite Element Calculation of Nγ
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, K.
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the computational aspects of the Mohr-Coulomb material model, in particular the calculation of the bearing capacity factor Nγfor a strip and a circular footing.......This paper deals with the computational aspects of the Mohr-Coulomb material model, in particular the calculation of the bearing capacity factor Nγfor a strip and a circular footing....
Simplified method for calculating SNCR system efficiency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pronobis Marek
2017-01-01
Full Text Available SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction technology is aimed at reducing NOx emissions. SNCR efficiency is appropriately high only for the reaction temperature range called ‘the SNCR temperature window’. It is a narrow temperature range defined in various ways in the literature, which makes it difficult to evaluate the DeNOx system’s efficiency. Therefore, this study attempts to approximate the relationship between SNCR system efficiency and the flue gas temperature. The approximation was performed on the basis of literature data and verified using data from an experiment. Measurements were performed in a Polish boiler with a maximum continuous rating of 230 t/h. The verified, evaluated function could be used to forecast efficiency of SNCR systems in existing units that use urea or ammonia as a reagent. The approximation results are polynomial functions that depend on flue gas temperature, which fit the literature data with the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.83-0.86. Therefore, these equations could be used by the designer or operator of the boiler for preliminary determination of current SNCR system efficiency.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Steen; Momsen, Günther; Sundberg, Karin
2011-01-01
Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in mate......Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP...
Calculation of the efficiency of accounting outsourcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.I. Liakhovych
2018-04-01
Full Text Available To ensure the best performance, enterprises pass on individual business processes for outsourcing. However, the implementation of this step requires an assessment of the effectiveness of such actions. The purpose of the article is to analyze the approaches to assessing the effectiveness of accounting outsourcing and to develop proposals for its methodology, taking into account the main goal of reducing transaction costs. The article defines the composition of the elements of the cost of maintaining accounting in the enterprise. It is proved that the efficiency of accounting outsourcing should be considered in two aspects: 1 it is related to economic efficiency (saving of internal resources of the enterprise due to the transfer of business processes for accounting on outsourcing; 2 is related to the efficiency of the outsourcer's work and the uninterrupted functioning of the enterprise that has taken advantage of outsourcing services. In order to assess the efficiency of the company's services, the outsourcer proposes to use a methodology that takes into account the indicators: the timeliness of the execution of works and the provision of services in accordance with the terms of the contract on outsourcing; completeness of performance of works and provision of services in accordance with the terms of the contract on outsourcing.
Efficient pseudospectral methods for density functional calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, R. B.; Cao, Y.; Beachy, M. D.; Ringnalda, M. N.; Friesner, R. A.
2000-01-01
Novel improvements of the pseudospectral method for assembling the Coulomb operator are discussed. These improvements consist of a fast atom centered multipole method and a variation of the Head-Gordan J-engine analytic integral evaluation. The details of the methodology are discussed and performance evaluations presented for larger molecules within the context of DFT energy and gradient calculations. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
A mathematical method to calculate efficiency of BF3 detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan; Peng Taiping
2009-01-01
In order to calculate absolute efficiency of the BF 3 detector, MCNP/4C code is applied to calculate relative efficiency of the BF 3 detector first, and then absolute efficiency is figured out through mathematical techniques. Finally an energy response curve of the BF 3 detector for 1-20 MeV neutrons is derived. It turns out that efficiency of BF 3 detector are relatively uniform for 2-16 MeV neutrons. (authors)
Some calculator programs for particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohl, C.G.
1982-01-01
Seven calculator programs that do simple chores that arise in elementary particle physics are given. LEGENDRE evaluates the Legendre polynomial series Σa/sub n/P/sub n/(x) at a series of values of x. ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE evaluates the first-associated Legendre polynomial series Σb/sub n/P/sub n/ 1 (x) at a series of values of x. CONFIDENCE calculates confidence levels for chi 2 , Gaussian, or Poisson probability distributions. TWO BODY calculates the c.m. energy, the initial- and final-state c.m. momenta, and the extreme values of t and u for a 2-body reaction. ELLIPSE calculates coordinates of points for drawing an ellipse plot showing the kinematics of a 2-body reaction or decay. DALITZ RECTANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a rectangular Dalitz plot. DALITZ TRIANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a triangular Dalitz plot. There are short versions of CONFIDENCE (EVEN N and POISSON) that calculate confidence levels for the even-degree-of-freedom-chi 2 and the Poisson cases, and there is a short version of TWO BODY (CM) that calculates just the c.m. energy and initial-state momentum. The programs are written for the HP-97 calculator
An Efficient Method for Electron-Atom Scattering Using Ab-initio Calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Yuan; Yang, Yonggang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang [Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China)
2017-02-15
We present an efficient method based on ab-initio calculations to investigate electron-atom scatterings. Those calculations profit from methods implemented in standard quantum chemistry programs. The new approach is applied to electron-helium scattering. The results are compared with experimental and other theoretical references to demonstrate the efficiency of our method.
Program for the surface muon spectra calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkatov, Yu.M.; Voloshchuk, V.I.; Zolenko, V.A.; Prokhorets, I.M.; Soldatov, S.A.
1987-01-01
Program for the ''surface'' muon spectrum calculation is described. The algorithm is based on simulation of coordinates of π-meson birth point and direction of its escape from meson-forming target (MFT) according to angular distribution with the use of Monte Carlo method. Ionization losses of π-(μ)-mesons in the target are taken into account in the program. Calculation of ''surface'' muon spectrum is performed in the range of electron energies from 150 MeV up to 1000 MeV. Spectra of π-mesons are calculated with account of ionization losses in the target and without it. Distributions over lengths of π-meson paths in MFT and contribution of separate sections of the target to pion flux at the outlet of meson channel are calculated as well. Meson-forming target for calculation can be made of any material. The program provides for the use of the MFT itself in the form of photon converter or photon converter is located in front of the target. The program is composed of 13 subprograms; 2 of them represent generators of pseudorandom numbers, distributed uniformly in the range from 0 up to 1, and numbers with Gauss distribution. Example of calculation for copper target of 3 cm length, electron beam current-1 μA, energy-300 MeV is presented
Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy
Rapid Calculation of Spacecraft Trajectories Using Efficient Taylor Series Integration
Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.
2011-01-01
A variable-order, variable-step Taylor series integration algorithm was implemented in NASA Glenn's SNAP (Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program) code. SNAP is a high-fidelity trajectory propagation program that can propagate the trajectory of a spacecraft about virtually any body in the solar system. The Taylor series algorithm's very high order accuracy and excellent stability properties lead to large reductions in computer time relative to the code's existing 8th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Head-to-head comparison on near-Earth, lunar, Mars, and Europa missions showed that Taylor series integration is 15.8 times faster than Runge- Kutta on average, and is more accurate. These speedups were obtained for calculations involving central body, other body, thrust, and drag forces. Similar speedups have been obtained for calculations that include J2 spherical harmonic for central body gravitation. The algorithm includes a step size selection method that directly calculates the step size and never requires a repeat step. High-order Taylor series integration algorithms have been shown to provide major reductions in computer time over conventional integration methods in numerous scientific applications. The objective here was to directly implement Taylor series integration in an existing trajectory analysis code and demonstrate that large reductions in computer time (order of magnitude) could be achieved while simultaneously maintaining high accuracy. This software greatly accelerates the calculation of spacecraft trajectories. At each time level, the spacecraft position, velocity, and mass are expanded in a high-order Taylor series whose coefficients are obtained through efficient differentiation arithmetic. This makes it possible to take very large time steps at minimal cost, resulting in large savings in computer time. The Taylor series algorithm is implemented primarily through three subroutines: (1) a driver routine that automatically introduces auxiliary variables and
Calculator Programming Engages Visual and Kinesthetic Learners
Tabor, Catherine
2014-01-01
Inclusion and differentiation--hallmarks of the current educational system--require a paradigm shift in the way that educators run their classrooms. This article enumerates the need for techno-kinesthetic, visually based activities and offers an example of a calculator-based programming activity that addresses that need. After discussing the use…
Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods. Hemolytic potency of drugs. Raghava et al., (1994) Biotechniques 17: 1148. FPMAP: methods for classification and identification of microorganisms 16SrRNA. graphical display of restriction and fragment map of ...
Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...
GENMOD - A program for internal dosimetry calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunford, D.W.; Johnson, J.R.
1987-12-01
The computer code GENMOD was created to calculate the retention and excretion, and the integrated retention for selected radionuclides under a variety of exposure conditions. Since the creation of GENMOD new models have been developed and interfaced to GENMOD. This report describes the models now included in GENMOD, the dosimetry factors database, and gives a brief description of the GENMOD program
Calculating the Efficiency of Steam Boilers Based on Its Most Effecting Factors: A Case Study
Nabil M. Muhaisen; Rajab Abdullah Hokoma
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with calculating boiler efficiency as one of the most important types of performance measurements in any steam power plant. That has a key role in determining the overall effectiveness of the whole system within the power station. For this calculation, a Visual-Basic program was developed, and a steam power plant known as El-Khmus power plant, Libya was selected as a case study. The calculation of the boiler efficiency was applied by using heating ...
Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-08-01
The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.
Calculation program development for spinning reserve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
This study is about optimal holding of spinning reserve and optimal operation for it. It deals with the purpose and contents of the study, introduction of the spinning reserve electricity, speciality of the spinning reserve power, the result of calculation, analysis for limited method of optimum load, calculation of requirement for spinning reserve, analysis on measurement of system stability with summary, purpose of the analysis, cause of impact of the accident, basics on measurement of spinning reserve and conclusion. It has the reference on explanation for design of spinning reserve power program and using and trend about spinning reserve power in Korea.
PFP total operating efficiency calculation and basis of estimate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SINCLAIR, J.C.
1999-01-01
The purpose of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Total Operating Efficiency Calculation and Basis of Estimate document is to provide the calculated value and basis of estimate for the Total Operating Efficiency (TOE) for the material stabilization operations to be conducted in 234-52 Building. This information will be used to support both the planning and execution of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Deactivation Project's (hereafter called the Project) resource-loaded, integrated schedule
Proteins in vacuo. A more efficient means of calculating ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
given bath gas particle and the protein. Calculations of savg. , though in principle straightforward, are time consuming. In the work presented below, it was investigated whether a more efficient calculation scheme can be employed without sacrificing too much accuracy. In the new scheme, atomic-scale protein surface ...
Ionization efficiency calculations for cavity thermoionization ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turek, M.; Pyszniak, K.; Drozdziel, A.; Sielanko, J.; Maczka, D.; Yuskevich, Yu.V.; Vaganov, Yu.A.
2009-01-01
The numerical model of ionization in a thermoionization ion source is presented. The review of ion source ionization efficiency calculation results for various kinds of extraction field is given. The dependence of ionization efficiency on working parameters like ionizer length and extraction voltage is discussed. Numerical simulations results are compared to theoretical predictions obtained from a simplified ionization model
Calculation of Si(Li) x-ray detector efficiencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaluzec, N.; Holton, R.
1984-01-01
The calculation of detector efficiency functions is an important step in the quantitative analysis of x-ray spectra when approached by a standardless technique. In this regard, it becomes essential that the analyst not only model the physical aspects of the absorption and transmission of the various windows present, but also use the most accurate data available for the mass absorption coefficients required in these calculations. The topic of modeling the size and shape of the windows present is beyond the scope of this paper and the authors instead concentrate on the mass absorption coefficients used in the calculations and their implications to efficiency calculations. For the purposes of this paper, the authors consider that the relative detector efficiency function of a conventional Si(Li) detector can be modeled by a simple expression
Direct calculation of current drive efficiency in FISIC code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.
1996-01-01
Two-dimensional RF modeling codes use a parameterization (1) of current drive efficiencies to calculate fast wave driven currents. This parameterization assumes a uniform quasi-linear diffusion coefficient and requires a priori knowledge of the wave polarizations. These difficulties may be avoided by a direct calculation of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient from the Kennel-Englemann form with the field polarizations calculated by the full wave code, FISIC (2). Current profiles are calculated using the adjoint formulation (3). Comparisons between the two formulations are presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
DETEF a Monte Carlo system for the calculation of gamma spectrometers efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornejo, N.; Mann, G.
1996-01-01
The Monte Carlo method program DETEF calculates the efficiency of cylindrical NaI, Csi, Ge or Si, detectors for photons energy until 2 MeV and several sample geometric. These sources could be punctual, plane cylindrical or rectangular. The energy spectrum appears on the screen simultaneously with the statistical simulation. The calculated and experimental estimated efficiencies coincidence well in the standards deviations intervals
Study on VDI-2048 for Plant Efficiency Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hanseol; Heo, Gyunyoung
2014-01-01
It is a representative example when main steam mass flow of a steam generator is measured lower than main feedwater mass flow of outlet, or when efficiency of low pressure turbine is analyzed excessively low or exceeds 100 percent. Therefore, we need to obtain measured data minimizing uncertainty to calculate thermal efficiency as exactly as possible. In calculating the efficiency of an Nuclear Power Plant(NPP), measurement uncertainty is the most difficult to be solved technically and data reconciliation methodology is one method of ensuring to minimize uncertainty. In this paper, the case study on previous nuclear power plants was carried out by using redundancy of measured data from measuring instrument for plant operation, so as to calculate nuclear power plant efficiency accurately. As explain above, we performed the case study on data reconciliation methodology by using measurement redundancy and physical redundancy. The former comes up because of installing multiple measuring instruments for plant operation, and the latter is acquired based on the physical association like the first law of thermodynamics (the law of conservation of mass and energy). Through this case study, we got the reconciled data, which satisfies the constraint and minimizes data uncertainty measured in the nuclear power plant secondary system at the same time. The expected effects from data reconciliation methodology provided in VDI-2048, are considered totally four. First, this method can contribute to monitoring on-line efficiency in the operating nuclear power plant. Second, it can also improve the reliability of calculated results, minimizing the measurement uncertainty
Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varman, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.
2006-01-01
The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification
Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2006-10-15
The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.
Standardization of P-33 by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Simpson, BRS
2004-02-01
Full Text Available The activity of the pure beta-emitter phosphorus-33 (P-33) has been directly determined by the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) efficiency calculation technique, thus extending the number of radionuclides that have been standardized...
Analysis of remote working practice AND CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. S. Ermakov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to description of working from home practice at Allianz Insurance UK и Ernst & Young, UK & Ireland. It fulfilled the analysis of the best practices in the use of new forms of social and labor relations - remote work. The characteristics of using types of distance work, the policy of implementation and realization of such work in the company, the criteria for the transfer of employees to work remotely, the possibility of a flexible approach to workflow are given. The calculation of the economic efficiency of technology telecommuting at an aviation company of the Russian Federation is done. The method of calculating the cost-effectiveness based on several factors, such as costs for the organization and content of the workplace, change in labor productivity and others, was proposed by the authors. The calculation of economic efficiency by using the number of working hours, the impact on capital inputs and the impact on quit rates is considered.
Calculations of efficiency and economy of solar heating systems in Scandinavian climate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeglund, Ingemar; Girdo, Valdis
1978-10-15
Conceivable fields of application and saving possibilities up to the year 1995 are discussed - starting from energy and power requirements for different kinds of buildings and from the efficiency and distribution of solar radiation in the northern country. Since hardly any calculations of energy costs for solar heating systems in Sweden are available, calculations of efficiency and economy of different solar heating systems are made for several places in this country. The calculations are performed with a computer program, which has been developed at the Division of Building Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1981-05-01
A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)
Programming PHREEQC calculations with C++ and Python a comparative study
Charlton, Scott R.; Parkhurst, David L.; Muller, Mike
2011-01-01
The new IPhreeqc module provides an application programming interface (API) to facilitate coupling of other codes with the U.S. Geological Survey geochemical model PHREEQC. Traditionally, loose coupling of PHREEQC with other applications required methods to create PHREEQC input files, start external PHREEQC processes, and process PHREEQC output files. IPhreeqc eliminates most of this effort by providing direct access to PHREEQC capabilities through a component object model (COM), a library, or a dynamically linked library (DLL). Input and calculations can be specified through internally programmed strings, and all data exchange between an application and the module can occur in computer memory. This study compares simulations programmed in C++ and Python that are tightly coupled with IPhreeqc modules to the traditional simulations that are loosely coupled to PHREEQC. The study compares performance, quantifies effort, and evaluates lines of code and the complexity of the design. The comparisons show that IPhreeqc offers a more powerful and simpler approach for incorporating PHREEQC calculations into transport models and other applications that need to perform PHREEQC calculations. The IPhreeqc module facilitates the design of coupled applications and significantly reduces run times. Even a moderate knowledge of one of the supported programming languages allows more efficient use of PHREEQC than the traditional loosely coupled approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selim, Y S; Abbas, M I; Fawzy, M A [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Aleaxndria (Egypt)
1997-12-31
Total efficiency of clad right circular cylindrical Nal(TI) scintillation detector from a coaxial isotropic radiating circular disk source has been calculated by the of rigid mathematical expressions. Results were tabulated for various gamma energies. 2 figs., 5 tabs.
HTC Experimental Program: Validation and Calculational Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernex, F.; Ivanova, T.; Bernard, F.; Letang, E. [Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, F-92262 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Fouillaud, P. [CEA Valduc, Serv Rech Neutron and Critcite, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Thro, J. F. [AREVA NC, F-78000 Versailles (France)
2009-05-15
In the 1980's a series of the Haut Taux de Combustion (HTC) critical experiments with fuel pins in a water-moderated lattice was conducted at the Apparatus B experimental facility in Valduc (Commissariat a I'Energie Atomique, France) with the support of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire and AREVA NC. Four series of experiments were designed to assess profit associated with actinide-only burnup credit in the criticality safety evaluation for fuel handling, pool storage, and spent-fuel cask conditions. The HTC rods, specifically fabricated for the experiments, simulated typical pressurized water reactor uranium oxide spent fuel that had an initial enrichment of 4. 5 wt% {sup 235}U and was burned to 37.5 GWd/tonne U. The configurations have been modeled with the CRISTAL criticality package and SCALE 5.1 code system. Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis has been employed to evaluate the HTC experiments and to study their applicability for validation of burnup credit calculations. This paper presents the experimental program, the principal results of the experiment evaluation, and modeling. The HTC data applicability to burnup credit validation is demonstrated with an example of spent-fuel storage models. (authors)
Efficient methods for time-absorption (α) eigenvalue calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, T.R.
1983-01-01
The time-absorption eigenvalue (α) calculation is one of the options found in most discrete-ordinates transport codes. Several methods have been developed at Los Alamos to improve the efficiency of this calculation. Two procedures, based on coarse-mesh rebalance, to accelerate the α eigenvalue search are derived. A hybrid scheme to automatically choose the more-effective rebalance method is described. The α rebalance scheme permits some simple modifications to the iteration strategy that eliminates many unnecessary calculations required in the standard search procedure. For several fast supercritical test problems, these methods resulted in convergence with one-fifth the number of iterations required for the conventional eigenvalue search procedure
Relative efficiency calculation of a HPGe detector using MCNPX code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Lopes, Jose M.; Silva, Ademir X.
2015-01-01
High-purity germanium detectors (HPGe) are mandatory tools for spectrometry because of their excellent energy resolution. The efficiency of such detectors, quoted in the list of specifications by the manufacturer, frequently refers to the relative full-energy peak efficiency, related to the absolute full-energy peak efficiency of a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (diameter x height) NaI(Tl) crystal, based on the 1.33 MeV peak of a 60 Co source positioned 25 cm from the detector. In this study, we used MCNPX code to simulate a HPGe detector (Canberra GC3020), from Real-Time Neutrongraphy Laboratory of UFRJ, to survey the spectrum of a 60 Co source located 25 cm from the detector in order to calculate and confirm the efficiency declared by the manufacturer. Agreement between experimental and simulated data was achieved. The model under development will be used for calculating and comparison purposes with the detector calibration curve from software Genie2000™, also serving as a reference for future studies. (author)
Tegen - an onedimensional program to calculate a thermoelectric generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, M.A.P.; Ferreira, P.A.; Castro Lobo, P.D. de.
1990-01-01
A computer program for the solution of the one-dimensional, steady-state temperature equation in the arms of a thermoelectric generator. The discretized equations obtained through a finite difference scheme are solved by Gaussian Elimination. Due to nonlinearities caused by the temperature dependence of the coefficients of such equations, an iterative procedure is used to obtain the temperature distribution in the arms. Such distributions are used in the calculation of the efficiency, electric power, load voltage and other relevant parameters for the design of a thermoelectric generator. (author)
Monte Carlo calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counter, by microcomputer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandes Neto, J.M.
1987-01-01
A computer programming using the Monte Carlo method for calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counting of body radiation distribution is presented. An analytical simulator (for man e for child) incorporated with 99m Tc, 131 I and 42 K is used. (M.A.C.) [pt
Structured Parallel Programming Patterns for Efficient Computation
McCool, Michael; Robison, Arch
2012-01-01
Programming is now parallel programming. Much as structured programming revolutionized traditional serial programming decades ago, a new kind of structured programming, based on patterns, is relevant to parallel programming today. Parallel computing experts and industry insiders Michael McCool, Arch Robison, and James Reinders describe how to design and implement maintainable and efficient parallel algorithms using a pattern-based approach. They present both theory and practice, and give detailed concrete examples using multiple programming models. Examples are primarily given using two of th
Efficient calculation of dissipative quantum transport properties in semiconductor nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greck, Peter
2012-11-26
We present a novel quantum transport method that follows the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but side steps any self-consistent calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. We termed this method the multi-scattering Buettiker-Probe (MSB) method. It generalizes the so-called Buettiker-Probe model but takes into account all relevant individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully selfconsistent non-equilibrium Green's function calculation for realistic devices, yet accurately reproduces the results of the latter method as well as experimental data. This method is fairly easy to implement and opens the path towards realistic three-dimensional quantum transport calculations. In this work, we review the fundamentals of the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for quantum transport calculations. Then, we introduce our novel MSB method after briefly reviewing the original Buettiker-Probe model. Finally, we compare the results of the MSB method to NEGF calculations as well as to experimental data. In particular, we calculate quantum transport properties of quantum cascade lasers in the terahertz (THz) and the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral domain. With a device optimization algorithm based upon the MSB method, we propose a novel THz quantum cascade laser design. It uses a two-well period with alternating barrier heights and complete carrier thermalization for the majority of the carriers within each period. We predict THz laser operation for temperatures up to 250 K implying a new temperature record.
Efficient evaluation of atom tunneling combined with electronic structure calculations.
Ásgeirsson, Vilhjálmur; Arnaldsson, Andri; Jónsson, Hannes
2018-03-14
Methodology for finding optimal tunneling paths and evaluating tunneling rates for atomic rearrangements is described. First, an optimal JWKB tunneling path for a system with fixed energy is obtained using a line integral extension of the nudged elastic band method. Then, a calculation of the dynamics along the path is used to determine the temperature at which it corresponds to an optimal Feynman path for thermally activated tunneling (instanton) and a harmonic approximation is used to estimate the transition rate. The method is illustrated with calculations for a modified two-dimensional Müller-Brown surface but is efficient enough to be used in combination with electronic structure calculations of the energy and atomic forces in systems containing many atoms. An example is presented where tunneling is the dominant mechanism well above room temperature as an H 3 BNH 3 molecule dissociates to form H 2 . Also, a solid-state example is presented where density functional theory calculations of H atom tunneling in a Ta crystal give close agreement with experimental measurements on hydrogen diffusion over a wide range in temperature.
Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry in parallel PDF calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Liuyan; Lantz, Steven R.; Ren Zhuyin; Pope, Stephen B.
2009-01-01
In parallel calculations of combustion processes with realistic chemistry, the serial in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm [S.B. Pope, Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry using in situ adaptive tabulation, Combustion Theory and Modelling, 1 (1997) 41-63; L. Lu, S.B. Pope, An improved algorithm for in situ adaptive tabulation, Journal of Computational Physics 228 (2009) 361-386] substantially speeds up the chemistry calculations on each processor. To improve the parallel efficiency of large ensembles of such calculations in parallel computations, in this work, the ISAT algorithm is extended to the multi-processor environment, with the aim of minimizing the wall clock time required for the whole ensemble. Parallel ISAT strategies are developed by combining the existing serial ISAT algorithm with different distribution strategies, namely purely local processing (PLP), uniformly random distribution (URAN), and preferential distribution (PREF). The distribution strategies enable the queued load redistribution of chemistry calculations among processors using message passing. They are implemented in the software x2f m pi, which is a Fortran 95 library for facilitating many parallel evaluations of a general vector function. The relative performance of the parallel ISAT strategies is investigated in different computational regimes via the PDF calculations of multiple partially stirred reactors burning methane/air mixtures. The results show that the performance of ISAT with a fixed distribution strategy strongly depends on certain computational regimes, based on how much memory is available and how much overlap exists between tabulated information on different processors. No one fixed strategy consistently achieves good performance in all the regimes. Therefore, an adaptive distribution strategy, which blends PLP, URAN and PREF, is devised and implemented. It yields consistently good performance in all regimes. In the adaptive parallel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Wees, F.G.H.
1992-01-01
During the last few years the Business Unit ESC-Energy Studies of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) developed calculation programs to determine the economic efficiency of energy technologies, which programs support several studies for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. All these programs form the so-called BRET programs. One of these programs is ERWIN (Economische Rentabiliteit WINdenergiesystemen or in English: Economic Efficiency of Wind Energy Systems) of which an updated manual (ERWIN2) is presented in this report. An outline is given of the possibilities and limitations to carry out calculations with the model
Elementary function calculation programs for the central processor-6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrolyubov, L.V.; Ovcharenko, G.A.; Potapova, V.A.
1976-01-01
Subprograms of elementary functions calculations are given for the central processor (CP AS-6). A procedure is described to obtain calculated formulae which represent the elementary functions as a polynomial. Standard programs for random numbers are considered. All the programs described are based upon the algorithms of respective programs for BESM computer
Efficient parallel implicit methods for rotary-wing aerodynamics calculations
Wissink, Andrew M.
Euler/Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods are commonly used for prediction of the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of modern rotary-wing aircraft. However, their widespread application to large complex problems is limited lack of adequate computing power. Parallel processing offers the potential for dramatic increases in computing power, but most conventional implicit solution methods are inefficient in parallel and new techniques must be adopted to realize its potential. This work proposes alternative implicit schemes for Euler/Navier-Stokes rotary-wing calculations which are robust and efficient in parallel. The first part of this work proposes an efficient parallelizable modification of the Lower Upper-Symmetric Gauss Seidel (LU-SGS) implicit operator used in the well-known Transonic Unsteady Rotor Navier Stokes (TURNS) code. The new hybrid LU-SGS scheme couples a point-relaxation approach of the Data Parallel-Lower Upper Relaxation (DP-LUR) algorithm for inter-processor communication with the Symmetric Gauss Seidel algorithm of LU-SGS for on-processor computations. With the modified operator, TURNS is implemented in parallel using Message Passing Interface (MPI) for communication. Numerical performance and parallel efficiency are evaluated on the IBM SP2 and Thinking Machines CM-5 multi-processors for a variety of steady-state and unsteady test cases. The hybrid LU-SGS scheme maintains the numerical performance of the original LU-SGS algorithm in all cases and shows a good degree of parallel efficiency. It experiences a higher degree of robustness than DP-LUR for third-order upwind solutions. The second part of this work examines use of Krylov subspace iterative solvers for the nonlinear CFD solutions. The hybrid LU-SGS scheme is used as a parallelizable preconditioner. Two iterative methods are tested, Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES) and Orthogonal s-Step Generalized Conjugate Residual (OSGCR). The Newton method demonstrates good
SCRAM: a program for calculating scram times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourquin, R.D.; Birney, K.R.
1975-01-01
Prediction of scram times is one facet of design analysis for control rod assemblies. Parameters for the entire control rod sub-system must be considered in such analyses and experimental verification is used when it is available. The SCRAM computer program was developed for design analysis of improved control rod assemblies for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). A description of the evolution of the program from basic equations to a functional design analysis tool is presented
HP-67 calculator programs for thermodynamic data and phase diagram calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brewer, L.
1978-01-01
This report is a supplement to a tabulation of the thermodynamic and phase data for the 100 binary systems of Mo with the elements from H to Lr. The calculations of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria were carried out from 5000 0 K to low temperatures. This report presents the methods of calculation used. The thermodynamics involved is rather straightforward and the reader is referred to any advanced thermodynamic text. The calculations were largely carried out using an HP-65 programmable calculator. In this report, those programs are reformulated for use with the HP-67 calculator; great reduction in the number of programs required to carry out the calculation results
Development, application and also modern condition of the calculated program Imitator of a reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aver'yanova, S.P.; Kovel', A.I.; Mamichev, V.V.; Filimonov, P.E.
2008-01-01
Features of the calculated program Imitator of a reactor (IR) for WWER-1000 operation simulation are discussed. It is noted that IR application at NPP provides for the project program (BIPR-7) on-line working. This offers a new means, on the one hand, for the efficient prediction and information support of operator, on the other hand, for the verification and development of calculated scheme and neutron-physical model of the WWER-1000 projection program [ru
Computer program for calculation of ideal gas thermodynamic data
Gordon, S.; Mc Bride, B. J.
1968-01-01
Computer program calculates ideal gas thermodynamic properties for any species for which molecular constant data is available. Partial functions and derivatives from formulas based on statistical mechanics are provided by the program which is written in FORTRAN 4 and MAP.
MPBEC, a Matlab Program for Biomolecular Electrostatic Calculations.
Vergara-Perez, Sandra; Marucho, Marcelo
2016-01-01
One of the most used and efficient approaches to compute electrostatic properties of biological systems is to numerically solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. There are several software packages available that solve the PB equation for molecules in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Most of these software packages are useful for scientists with specialized training and expertise in computational biophysics. However, the user is usually required to manually take several important choices, depending on the complexity of the biological system, to successfully obtain the numerical solution of the PB equation. This may become an obstacle for researchers, experimentalists, even students with no special training in computational methodologies. Aiming to overcome this limitation, in this article we present MPBEC, a free, cross-platform, open-source software that provides non-experts in the field an easy and efficient way to perform biomolecular electrostatic calculations on single processor computers. MPBEC is a Matlab script based on the Adaptative Poisson Boltzmann Solver, one of the most popular approaches used to solve the PB equation. MPBEC does not require any user programming, text editing or extensive statistical skills, and comes with detailed user-guide documentation. As a unique feature, MPBEC includes a useful graphical user interface (GUI) application which helps and guides users to configure and setup the optimal parameters and approximations to successfully perform the required biomolecular electrostatic calculations. The GUI also incorporates visualization tools to facilitate users pre- and post- analysis of structural and electrical properties of biomolecules.
MPBEC, a Matlab Program for Biomolecular Electrostatic Calculations
Vergara-Perez, Sandra; Marucho, Marcelo
2016-01-01
One of the most used and efficient approaches to compute electrostatic properties of biological systems is to numerically solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. There are several software packages available that solve the PB equation for molecules in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Most of these software packages are useful for scientists with specialized training and expertise in computational biophysics. However, the user is usually required to manually take several important choices, depending on the complexity of the biological system, to successfully obtain the numerical solution of the PB equation. This may become an obstacle for researchers, experimentalists, even students with no special training in computational methodologies. Aiming to overcome this limitation, in this article we present MPBEC, a free, cross-platform, open-source software that provides non-experts in the field an easy and efficient way to perform biomolecular electrostatic calculations on single processor computers. MPBEC is a Matlab script based on the Adaptative Poisson-Boltzmann Solver, one of the most popular approaches used to solve the PB equation. MPBEC does not require any user programming, text editing or extensive statistical skills, and comes with detailed user-guide documentation. As a unique feature, MPBEC includes a useful graphical user interface (GUI) application which helps and guides users to configure and setup the optimal parameters and approximations to successfully perform the required biomolecular electrostatic calculations. The GUI also incorporates visualization tools to facilitate users pre- and post-analysis of structural and electrical properties of biomolecules.
Efficient gamma index calculation using fast Euclidean distance transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Mingli; Lu Weiguo; Chen Quan; Ruchala, Kenneth; Olivera, Gustavo [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, WI 53717 (United States)], E-mail: wlu@tomotherapy.com
2009-04-07
The gamma index is a tool for dose distribution comparison. It combines both dose difference (DD) and distance to agreement (DTA) into a single quantity. Though it is an effective measure, making up for the inadequacy of DD or DTA alone, its calculation can be very time-consuming. For a k-D space with N quantization levels in each dimension, the complexity of the exhaustive search is O(N{sup 2k}). In this work, we proposed an efficient method that reduces the complexity from O(N{sup 2k}) to O(N{sup k}M), where M is the number of discretized dose values and is comparable to N. More precisely, by embedding the reference dose distribution in a (k+1)-D spatial-dose space, we can use fast Euclidean distance transform with linear complexity to obtain a table of gamma indices evaluated over a range of the (k+1)-D spatial-dose space. Then, to obtain gamma indices for the test dose distribution, it requires only table lookup with complexity O(N{sup k}). Such a table can also be used for other test dose distributions as long as the reference dose distribution is the same. Simulations demonstrated the efficiency of our proposed method. The speedup for 3D gamma index calculation is expected to be on the order of tens of thousands (from O(N{sup 6}) to O(N{sup 3}M)) if N is a few hundreds, which makes clinical usage of the 3D gamma index feasible. A byproduct of the gamma index table is that the gradient of the gamma index with respect to either the spatial or dose dimension can be easily derived. The gradient can be used to identify the main causes of the discrepancy from the reference distribution at any dose point in the test distribution or incorporated in treatment planning and machine parameter optimization.
Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions
Laubach, Sharon
2014-01-01
The duration of a mission--and subsequently, the minimum spacecraft lifetime--is a key component in designing the capabilities of a spacecraft during mission formulation. However, determining the duration is not simply a function of how long it will take the spacecraft to execute the activities needed to achieve mission objectives. Instead, the effects of the interaction between the spacecraft and ground operators must also be taken into account. This paper describes a method, using "operations efficiency factors", to account for these effects for Mars surface missions. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission development cycle, and has not been able to influence mission or spacecraft design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission--and the effect that change would have on operations productivity and mission objective choices--has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL, the (now-cancelled) joint NASA-ESA 2018 Mars rover, and the proposed rover for Mars 2020). Since MSL had a single control center and sun-synchronous relay assets (like MER), estimates of productivity derived from MER prime and extended missions were used. However, Mars 2018's anticipated complexity (there would have been control centers in California and Italy, and a non-sun-synchronous relay asset) required the development of an explicit model of operations efficiency that could handle these complexities. In the case of the proposed Mars 2018 mission, the model was employed to assess the mission return of competing operations concepts, and as an input to component lifetime requirements. In this paper we provide examples of how to calculate the operations efficiency factor for a given operational configuration, and how to apply the factors to surface mission scenarios. This model can be applied to future missions to enable early effective trades between operations design, science mission
Program for TI programmable 59 calculator for calculation of 3H concentration of water samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, S.D.; Asghar, G.
1982-09-01
A program has been developed for TI Programmable 59 Calculator of Texas Instruments Inc. to calculate from the observed parameters such as count rate etc. the 3 H (tritium) concentration of water samples processed with/without prior electrolytic enrichment. Procedure to use the program has been described in detail. A brief description of the laboratory treatment of samples and the mathematical equations used in the calculations have been given. (orig./A.B.)
Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions
Layback, Sharon L.
2014-01-01
enough time to capture variations in relay asset interactions, Earth/Mars time phasing, and seasonal variations in holidays). This model is used to estimate the ops efficiency factor for each operations configuration. The second model in a separate Excel spreadsheet is a scenario model, which uses the sol types to rack up the total number of "scenario sols" for that scenario (in other words, the ideal number of sols it would take to perform the scenario objectives). Then, the number of sols requiring ground in the loop is calculated based on the soil types contained in the given scenario. Next, the scenario contains a description of what sequence of operations configurations is used, for how many days each, and this is used with the corresponding ops efficiency factors for each configuration to calculate the "ops duration" corresponding to that scenario. Finally, a margin is applied to determine the minimum surface lifetime required for that scenario. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission, and has not been able to influence mission design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission - and the effect that that move would have on surface mission productivity and mission objective choices - has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL and Mars 2018).
Finite difference program for calculating hydride bed wall temperature profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, J.E.
1992-01-01
A QuickBASIC finite difference program was written for calculating one dimensional temperature profiles in up to two media with flat, cylindrical, or spherical geometries. The development of the program was motivated by the need to calculate maximum temperature differences across the walls of the Tritium metal hydrides beds for thermal fatigue analysis. The purpose of this report is to document the equations and the computer program used to calculate transient wall temperatures in stainless steel hydride vessels. The development of the computer code was motivated by the need to calculate maximum temperature differences across the walls of the hydrides beds in the Tritium Facility for thermal fatigue analysis
Who should administer energy-efficiency programs?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen
2005-01-01
The restructuring of the US electricity industry created a crisis for utility operated energy-efficiency programs. This paper briefly describes the reasons for the crisis and some of its consequences. Then the paper focuses on issues related to program administration and discusses the relative merits of entities--utilities, state agencies, and non-profit corporations--that might be administrators. Four criteria are developed for choosing among program administration options: compatibility with public policy goals, effectiveness of the incentive structure, ability to realize economies of scale and scope, and contribution to the development of an energy-efficiency infrastructure. We examine one region, the Pacific Northwest, and three states, New York, Vermont, and Connecticut, which have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. We observe that no single administrative structure for energy-efficiency programs has yet emerged in the US that is clearly superior to all of the other alternatives. We conclude that this is not likely to happen soon for three reasons. First, policy environments differ significantly among the states. Second, the structure and regulation of the electric utility industry differs among the regions of the US. Third, market transformation and resource acquisition, two program strategies that were once seen as alternatives, are increasingly coming to be seen as complements. Energy-efficiency programs going forward are likely to include elements of both strategies. But, the administrative arrangements that are best suited to support market transformation may be different from the arrangements that are best for resource acquisition
Newnes circuit calculations pocket book with computer programs
Davies, Thomas J
2013-01-01
Newnes Circuit Calculations Pocket Book: With Computer Programs presents equations, examples, and problems in circuit calculations. The text includes 300 computer programs that help solve the problems presented. The book is comprised of 20 chapters that tackle different aspects of circuit calculation. The coverage of the text includes dc voltage, dc circuits, and network theorems. The book also covers oscillators, phasors, and transformers. The text will be useful to electrical engineers and other professionals whose work involves electronic circuitry.
Building an IDE for the Calculational Derivation of Imperative Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dipak L. Chaudhari
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an IDE called CAPS (Calculational Assistant for Programming from Specifications for the interactive, calculational derivation of imperative programs. In building CAPS, our aim has been to make the IDE accessible to non-experts while retaining the overall flavor of the pen-and-paper calculational style. We discuss the overall architecture of the CAPS system, the main features of the IDE, the GUI design, and the trade-offs involved.
Calculation of contribution of multiple interactions and efficiency of neutron detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.; Kazakov, L.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Poletaev, E.D.
1986-01-01
Results of calculation of multiple neutron interactions contribution to efficiency of detectors with 6 Li glass and 10 B plate in the energy range of 0.01-1 MeV are given. The calculation was performed by the Monte-Carlo method using BRAND program complex. It is shown that a correction value for multiple neutron interaction in 6 Li glass of 1 mm thickness constitutes 4.5 % at energy of up to 100 keV and at higher energies has a complex energy dependence reaching 25 % at 440 keV
Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs
A nonproprietary, nonsecret program for calculating Stirling cryocoolers
Martini, W. R.
1985-01-01
A design program for an integrated Stirling cycle cryocooler was written on an IBM-PC computer. The program is easy to use and shows the trends and itemizes the losses. The calculated results were compared with some measured performance values. The program predicts somewhat optimistic performance and needs to be calibrated more with experimental measurements. Adding a multiplier to the friction factor can bring the calculated rsults in line with the limited test results so far available. The program is offered as a good framework on which to build a truly useful design program for all types of cryocoolers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Wankui; Liu Yaoguang; Ma Jimin; Yang Xin; Wang Guanbo
2014-01-01
MCBMPI, a parallelized burnup calculation program, was developed. The program is modularized. Neutron transport calculation module employs the parallelized MCNP5 program MCNP5MPI, and burnup calculation module employs ORIGEN2, with the MPI parallel zone decomposition strategy. The program system only consists of MCNP5MPI and an interface subroutine. The interface subroutine achieves three main functions, i.e. zone decomposition, nuclide transferring and decaying, data exchanging with MCNP5MPI. Also, the program was verified with the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cell burnup benchmark, the results showed that it's capable to apply the program to burnup calculation of multiple zones, and the computation efficiency could be significantly improved with the development of computer hardware. (authors)
Cell verification of parallel burnup calculation program MCBMPI based on MPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Wankui; Liu Yaoguang; Ma Jimin; Wang Guanbo; Yang Xin; She Ding
2014-01-01
The parallel burnup calculation program MCBMPI was developed. The program was modularized. The parallel MCNP5 program MCNP5MPI was employed as neutron transport calculation module. And a composite of three solution methods was used to solve burnup equation, i.e. matrix exponential technique, TTA analytical solution, and Gauss Seidel iteration. MPI parallel zone decomposition strategy was concluded in the program. The program system only consists of MCNP5MPI and burnup subroutine. The latter achieves three main functions, i.e. zone decomposition, nuclide transferring and decaying, and data exchanging with MCNP5MPI. Also, the program was verified with the pressurized water reactor (PWR) cell burnup benchmark. The results show that it,s capable to apply the program to burnup calculation of multiple zones, and the computation efficiency could be significantly improved with the development of computer hardware. (authors)
Numerical calculation of particle collection efficiency in an ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Theoretical and numerical research has been previously done on ESPs to predict the efficiency ... Lagrangian simulations of particle transport in wire–plate ESP were .... The collection efficiency can be defined as the ratio of the number of ...
CALCULATION OF ACOUSTIC EFFICIENCY OF PORTABLE ACOUSTIC SCREEN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandr Skvortsov
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The research of influence of life environment adverse factors on physical development and health of population is an actual problem of ecology. The aspects of the most actual problems of the modern world, namely environmental industrial noise pollution are considered in the article. Industrial facilities everywhere have noisy equipment. Noise is a significant factors of negative influenceon people and environment. Combined effects of noise and of other physical pollutions on people may cause amplification of their negative impact. If the noise pollution level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (MPL, noise protection measures can be initiated. Today, the most common design decisions for noise protection are sound absorbing construction, noise screens and barriers, acousting housings, soundproff cabins. Many of them are popular, others are less known. The article deals with one of the most wide spread means of noise protection – a portable acoustic screen. The aim of the research is to determine the efficiency of portable acoustic screens. It is shown that the installation of such structures can reduce the average value of the sound level. The authors analyzed acoustic screens as device to reduce noise pollution. The authors offer a potable acoustic screen differing from the used easyness, mobility, minimum price and good sound protective properties. Effectiveness, a sound absorption coefficient and sound conductivity coefficient of a portable acoustic screen are evaluated. The descriptions of the algorithm calculations and the combination of technical solutions have practical originality. The results of the research demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in the agro-industrial complex.
Isochronous cyclotron closed equilibrium orbit calculation program description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiyan, I.N.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Tarashkevich, R.
2003-01-01
The Equilibrium Orbit Research Program - EORP, written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ is described. The program is intended for the calculation of the particle rotation frequency and particle kinetic energy in the closed equilibrium orbits of an isochronous cyclotron, where the closed equilibrium orbits are described through the radius and particle momentum angle: r eo (θ) and φ p (θ). The program algorithm was developed on the basis of articles, lecture notes and original analytic calculations. The results of calculations by the EORP were checked and confirmed by using the results of calculations by the numerical methods. The discrepancies between the EORP results and the numerical method results for the calculations of the particle rotation frequency and particle kinetic energy are within the limits of ±1·10 -4 . The EORP results and the numerical method results for the calculations of r eo (θ) and φ p (θ) practically coincide. All this proves the accuracy of calculations by the EORP for the isochronous cyclotrons with the azimuthally varied fields. As is evident from the results of calculations, the program can be used for the calculations of both straight - sector and spiral-sector isochronous cyclotrons. (author)
NLOM - a program for nonlocal optical model calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, B.T.; Kyum, M.C.; Hong, S.W.; Park, M.H.; Udagawa, T.
1992-01-01
A FORTRAN program NLOM for nonlocal optical model calculations is described. It is based on a method recently developed by Kim and Udagawa, which utilizes the Lanczos technique for solving integral equations derived from the nonlocal Schroedinger equation. (orig.)
Calculation of cosmic ray induced single event upsets: Program CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program)
Shapiro, P.
1983-09-01
This report documents PROGRAM CRUP, COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic ray induced single-event error rates in microelectronic circuits exposed to several representative cosmic-ray environments.
Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Methods in Molecular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Methods in Molecular Biology. GMAP: A program for mapping potential restriction sites. RE sites in ambiguous and non-ambiguous DNA sequence; Minimum number of silent mutations required for introducing a RE sites; Set ...
Efficiency calculation on 10 MW experimental steam turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoznedl Michal
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with defining flow path efficiency of an experimental steam turbine by using measurement of flow, torque, pressures and temperatures. The configuration of the steam turbine flow path is briefly described. Measuring points and devices are defined. The paper indicates the advantages as well as disadvantages of flow path efficiency measurement using enthalpy and torque on the shaft. The efficiency evaluation by the help pressure and temperature measurement is influenced by flow parameter distribution and can provide different values of flow path efficiency. The efficiency determination by using of torque and mass flow measurement is more accurate and it is recommended for using. The disadvantage is relatively very complicated and expensive measuring system.
Calculations in cytogenetic dosimetry by means of the dosgen program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia Lima, O.; Zerquera, J.T.
1996-01-01
The DOSGEN program sums up the different calculations routing that are more often used in cytogenetic dosimetry. It can be implemented in a compatible IBM PC by cytogenetic experts having a basic knowledge of computing. The programs has been successfully applied using experimental data and its advantages have been acknowledge by Latin American and Asian Laboratories dealing with this medical branch. The program is written in Pascal Language and requires 42 K bytes
Injection Molding Parameters Calculations by Using Visual Basic (VB) Programming
Tony, B. Jain A. R.; Karthikeyen, S.; Alex, B. Jeslin A. R.; Hasan, Z. Jahid Ali
2018-03-01
Now a day’s manufacturing industry plays a vital role in production sectors. To fabricate a component lot of design calculation has to be done. There is a chance of human errors occurs during design calculations. The aim of this project is to create a special module using visual basic (VB) programming to calculate injection molding parameters to avoid human errors. To create an injection mold for a spur gear component the following parameters have to be calculated such as Cooling Capacity, Cooling Channel Diameter, and Cooling Channel Length, Runner Length and Runner Diameter, Gate Diameter and Gate Pressure. To calculate the above injection molding parameters a separate module has been created using Visual Basic (VB) Programming to reduce the human errors. The outcome of the module dimensions is the injection molding components such as mold cavity and core design, ejector plate design.
Method and program for complex calculation of heterogeneous reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikov, A.G.; Glebov, A.P.; Elovskaya, L.F.; Kuznetsova, L.I.
1988-01-01
An algorithm and the GITA program for complex one-dimensional calculation of a heterogeneous reactor which permits to conduct calculations for the reactor and its cell simultaneously using the same algorithm are described. Multigroup macrocross sections for reactor zones in the thermal energy range are determined according to the technique for calculating a cell with complicate structure and then the continuous multi group calculation of the reactor in the thermal energy range and in the range of neutron thermalization is made. The kinetic equation is solved using the Pi- and DSn- approximations [fr
TRING: a computer program for calculating radionuclide transport in groundwater
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maul, P.R.
1984-12-01
The computer program TRING is described which enables the transport of radionuclides in groundwater to be calculated for use in long term radiological assessments using methods described previously. Examples of the areas of application of the program are activity transport in groundwater associated with accidental spillage or leakage of activity, the shutdown of reactors subject to delayed decommissioning, shallow land burial of intermediate level waste and geologic disposal of high level waste. Some examples of the use of the program are given, together with full details to enable users to run the program. (author)
Efficient calculation of atomic rate coefficients in dense plasmas
Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg J.
2017-03-01
Modelling electron statistics in a cold, dense plasma by the Fermi-Dirac distribution leads to complications in the calculations of atomic rate coefficients. The Pauli exclusion principle slows down the rate of collisions as electrons must find unoccupied quantum states and adds a further computational cost. Methods to calculate these coefficients by direct numerical integration with a high degree of parallelism are presented. This degree of optimization allows the effects of degeneracy to be incorporated into a time-dependent collisional-radiative model. Example results from such a model are presented.
The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhn, W.L.; Gephart, J.M.
1994-08-01
The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The ESPIP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESPIP supports applied R ampersand D leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Examples of current ESPIP-funded separations technologies are described here
MONO: A program to calculate synchrotron beamline monochromator throughputs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, D.
1989-01-01
A set of Fortran programs have been developed to calculate the expected throughput of x-ray monochromators with a filtered synchrotron source and is applicable to bending magnet and wiggler beamlines. These programs calculate the normalized throughput and filtered synchrotron spectrum passed by multiple element, flat un- focussed monochromator crystals of the Bragg or Laue type as a function of incident beam divergence, energy and polarization. The reflected and transmitted beam of each crystal is calculated using the dynamical theory of diffraction. Multiple crystal arrangements in the dispersive and non-dispersive mode are allowed as well as crystal asymmetry and energy or angle offsets. Filters or windows of arbitrary elemental composition may be used to filter the incident synchrotron beam. This program should be useful to predict the intensities available from many beamline configurations as well as assist in the design of new monochromator and analyzer systems. 6 refs., 3 figs
Computer program 'TRIO' for third order calculation of ion trajectory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuo, Takekiyo; Matsuda, Hisashi; Fujita, Yoshitaka; Wollnik, H.
1976-01-01
A computer program for the calculation of ion trajectory is described. This program ''TRIO'' (Third Order Ion Optics) is applicable to any ion optical system consisting of drift spaces, cylindrical or toroidal electric sector fields, homogeneous or inhomogeneous magnetic sector fields, magnetic and electrostatic Q-lenses. The influence of the fringing field is taken into consideration. A special device is introduced to the method of matrix multiplication to shorten the calculation time and the required time proves to be about 40 times shorter than the ordinary method as a result. The trajectory calculation is possible to execute with accuracy up to third order. Any one of three dispersion bases, momentum, energy, mass and energy, is possible to be selected. Full LIST of the computer program and an example are given. (auth.)
Proteins in vacuo. A more efficient means of calculating ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
and dynamic behavior, studies of protein ions in vacuo have become popular in recent years. ... descriptors include radius of gyration Rgyr, principal moments of inertia {Ii}, and root-mean- square deviations (RMSD) from a standard structure. ..... modelling the effects of molecular fluctuations on the cross section calculations.
Efficient Calculation of Near Fields in the FDTD Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franek, Ondrej
2011-01-01
When calculating frequency-domain near fields by the FDTD method, almost 50 % reduction in memory and CPU operations can be achieved if only E-fields are stored during the main time-stepping loop and H-fields computed later. An improved method of obtaining the H-fields from Faraday's Law is prese...
Economic efficiency and risk character of fire management programs, Northern Rocky Mountains
Thomas J. Mills; Frederick W. Bratten
1988-01-01
Economic efficiency and risk have long been considered during the selection of fire management programs and the design of fire management polices. The risk considerations was largely subjective, however, and efficiency has only recently been calculated for selected portions of the fire management program. The highly stochastic behavior of the fire system and the high...
Blow.MOD2: a program for blowdown transient calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doval, A.
1990-01-01
The BLOW.MOD2 program has been developed to calculate the blowdown phase in a pressurized vessel after a break/valve is opened. It is a one volume model where break height and flow area are specified. Moody critical flow model was adopted under saturation conditions for flow calculation through the break. Heat transfer from structures and internals have been taken into account. Long term depressurization results and a more complex model are compared satisfactorily. (Author)
Mass: Fortran program for calculating mass-absorption coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, Aa.; Svane Petersen, T.
1980-01-01
Determinations of mass-absorption coefficients in the x-ray analysis of trace elements are an important and time consuming part of the arithmetic calculation. In the course of time different metods have been used. The program MASS calculates the mass-absorption coefficients from a given major element analysis at the x-ray wavelengths normally used in trace element determinations and lists the chemical analysis and the mass-absorption coefficients. The program is coded in FORTRAN IV, and is operational on the IBM 370/165 computer, on the UNIVAC 1110 and on PDP 11/05. (author)
Isochronous Cyclotron Closed Equilibrium Orbit Calculation Program Description
Kian, I N; Tarashkevich, R
2003-01-01
The Equilibrium Orbit Research Program - EORP, written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ is described. The program is intended for the calculation of the particle rotation frequency and particle kinetic energy in the closed equilibrium orbits of an isochronous cyclotron, where the closed equilibrium orbits are described through the radius and particle momentum angle: r_{eo}(\\theta) and \\varphi_{p}(\\theta). The program algorithm was developed on the basis of articles, lecture notes and original analytic calculations. The results of calculations by the EORP were checked and confirmed by using the results of calculations by the numerical methods. The discrepancies between the EORP results and the numerical method results for the calculations of the particle rotation frequency and particle kinetic energy are within the limits of \\pm1\\cdot10^{-4}. The EORP results and the numerical method results for the calculations of r_{eo}(\\theta) and \\varphi_{p}(\\theta) practically coincide. All this proves the accuracy of ca...
Efficient Color-Dressed Calculation of Virtual Corrections
Giele, Walter; Winter, Jan
2010-01-01
With the advent of generalized unitarity and parametric integration techniques, the construction of a generic Next-to-Leading Order Monte Carlo becomes feasible. Such a generator will entail the treatment of QCD color in the amplitudes. We extend the concept of color dressing to one-loop amplitudes, resulting in the formulation of an explicit algorithmic solution for the calculation of arbitrary scattering processes at Next-to-Leading order. The resulting algorithm is of exponential complexity, that is the numerical evaluation time of the virtual corrections grows by a constant multiplicative factor as the number of external partons is increased. To study the properties of the method, we calculate the virtual corrections to $n$-gluon scattering.
MP.EXE Microphone pressure sensitivity calibration calculation program
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Knud
1999-01-01
MP.EXE is a program which calculates the pressure sensitivity of LS1 microphones as defined in IEC 61094-1, based on measurement results performed as laid down in IEC 61094-2.A very early program was developed and written by K. Rasmussen. The code of the present heavily extended version is writte...... by E.S. Olsen.The present manual is written by K.Rasmussen and E.S. Olsen....
GRUCAL, a computer program for calculating macroscopic group constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woll, D.
1975-06-01
Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy averaged nuclear data to describe the interaction of neutrons with individual isotopes in material compositions of reactor zones. The code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but will be read at the actual execution time from a separate instruction file. This allows to accomodate GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts. (orig.) [de
HEXANN-EVALU - a Monte Carlo program system for pressure vessel neutron irradiation calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lux, Ivan
1983-08-01
The Monte Carlo program HEXANN and the evaluation program EVALU are intended to calculate Monte Carlo estimates of reaction rates and currents in segments of concentric angular regions around a hexagonal reactor-core region. The report describes the theoretical basis, structure and activity of the programs. Input data preparation guides and a sample problem are also included. Theoretical considerations as well as numerical experimental results suggest the user a nearly optimum way of making use of the Monte Carlo efficiency increasing options included in the program
Programmable calculator programs to solve softwood volume and value equations.
Janet K. Ayer. Sachet
1982-01-01
This paper presents product value and product volume equations as programs for handheld calculators. These tree equations are for inland Douglas-fir, young-growth Douglas-fir, western white pine, ponderosa pine, and western larch. Operating instructions and an example are included.
RADSHI: shielding calculation program for different geometries sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelen, A.; Alvarez, I.; Lopez, H.; Manso, M.
1996-01-01
A computer code written in pascal language for IBM/Pc is described. The program calculates the optimum thickness of slab shield for different geometries sources. The Point Kernel Method is employed, which enables the obtention of the ionizing radiation flux density. The calculation takes into account the possibility of self-absorption in the source. The air kerma rate for gamma radiation is determined, and with the concept of attenuation length through the equivalent attenuation length the shield is obtained. The scattering and the exponential attenuation inside the shield material is considered in the program. The shield materials can be: concrete, water, iron or lead. It also calculates the shield for point isotropic neutron source, using as shield materials paraffin, concrete or water. (authors). 13 refs
Efficient Detection of Repeating Sites to Accelerate Phylogenetic Likelihood Calculations.
Kobert, K; Stamatakis, A; Flouri, T
2017-03-01
The phylogenetic likelihood function (PLF) is the major computational bottleneck in several applications of evolutionary biology such as phylogenetic inference, species delimitation, model selection, and divergence times estimation. Given the alignment, a tree and the evolutionary model parameters, the likelihood function computes the conditional likelihood vectors for every node of the tree. Vector entries for which all input data are identical result in redundant likelihood operations which, in turn, yield identical conditional values. Such operations can be omitted for improving run-time and, using appropriate data structures, reducing memory usage. We present a fast, novel method for identifying and omitting such redundant operations in phylogenetic likelihood calculations, and assess the performance improvement and memory savings attained by our method. Using empirical and simulated data sets, we show that a prototype implementation of our method yields up to 12-fold speedups and uses up to 78% less memory than one of the fastest and most highly tuned implementations of the PLF currently available. Our method is generic and can seamlessly be integrated into any phylogenetic likelihood implementation. [Algorithms; maximum likelihood; phylogenetic likelihood function; phylogenetics]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.
Efficiency of individual dosage of digoxin with calculated concentration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao L
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Li Zhao,1,* Peng Yang,2,* Pengmei Li,1 Xiaoxing Wang,1 Wangjun Qin,1 Xianglin Zhang1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Department of Cardiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Digoxin is a frequently prescribed drug, particularly in the elderly population, in which there is an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation and cardiac failure. With its complex pharmacokinetic profile and narrow therapeutic index, use of digoxin requires regular monitoring of blood levels. Recent evidence suggests that a lower concentration range (0.4–1.0 ng/mL is preferable in patients with congestive heart failure and a higher range (0.8–2.0 ng/mL is needed in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmia. The Konishi equation is widely used to predict the serum digoxin concentration (SDC in Japan. This study assessed the correlation between SDC predicted by the Konishi equation and that actually measured in Chinese patients and investigated the impact of renal function on SDC. Methods: The study subjects comprised 72 patients with cardiac failure or/and atrial tachyarrhythmia seen at our hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. The patients were divided into five groups according to Kidney Diseases Outcome Quality Initiative guidelines. SDCs were measured using the Abbott Architect i1000 immunology analyzer. The correlations between measured SDCs and calculated SDCs and between clearance of digoxin and creatinine clearance rate were assessed retrospectively.Results: The correlation between measured and predicted SDC calculated by the Konishi equation was significant (r=0.655, P<0.001 for the 72 patients overall; however, correlations within the different stages of renal function were nonsignificant, with a correlation found only in patients with stage 3 (30 mL per minute < creatinine clearance <60 mL per minute. With regard to the correlation between clearance of
Energy-efficient Public Procurement: Best Practice in Program Delivery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Weber, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Semple, Abby [Public Procurement Analysis, London (United Kingdom)
2013-02-15
This document illustrates the key issues and considerations involved in implementing energy-efficient public procurement. Our primary sources of information have been our partners in the Super Efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative Procurement Working Group. Where applicable, we have highlighted specific ways in which working group participants have successfully overcome barriers to delivering effective programs. The following key points emerge from this analysis of programs for energy-efficient public procurement. Lessons for both developed and developing programs are highlighted throughout the guide. 1. Policy: Policy provides the initiative to begin a transition from first cost to life-cycle cost based purchasing methods and culture. Effective policy is well-communicated, establishes accountability from top to bottom of organizations and simplifies the processes necessary to comply. Flexibility and responsiveness are essential in policy development and implementation. Mandatory and voluntary policies may complement one another. 2. Procurement Criteria: Procurement staff must be confident that energy-efficient procurement criteria offer the best long-term value for their organization’s money and represent real environmental gains. Involving multiple stakeholders at the early stages of the criteria creation process can result in greater levels of cooperation from private industry. Criteria should make comparison of products easy for purchasers and require minimal additional calculations. Criteria will need to be regularly updated to reflect market developments. 3. Training: Resources for the creation of training programs are usually very limited, but well-targeted training is necessary in order for a program to be effective. Training must emphasize a process that is efficient for purchasers and simplifies compliance. Purchaser resources and policy must be well designed for training to be effective. Training program development is an
Validation experience with the core calculation program karate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hegyi, Gy.; Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Makai, M.; Maraczy, Cs.
1995-01-01
A relatively fast and easy-to-handle modular code system named KARATE-440 has been elaborated for steady-state operational calculations of VVER-440 type reactors. It is built up from cell, assembly and global calculations. In the frame of the program neutron physical and thermohydraulic process of the core at normal startup, steady and slow transient can be simulated. The verification and validation of the global code have been prepared recently. The test cases include mathematical benchmark and measurements on operating VVER-440 units. Summary of the results, such as startup parameters, boron letdown curves, radial and axial power distributions of some cycles of Paks NPP is presented. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, P.D.
1978-02-01
A special purpose computer program, TRAFIC, is presented for calculating the release of metallic fission products from an HTGR core. The program is based upon Fick's law of diffusion for radioactive species. One-dimensional transient diffusion calculations are performed for the coated fuel particles and for the structural graphite web. A quasi steady-state calculation is performed for the fuel rod matrix material. The model accounts for nonlinear adsorption behavior in the fuel rod gap and on the coolant hole boundary. The TRAFIC program is designed to operate in a core survey mode; that is, it performs many repetitive calculations for a large number of spatial locations in the core. This is necessary in order to obtain an accurate volume integrated release. For this reason the program has been designed with calculational efficiency as one of its main objectives. A highly efficient numerical method is used in the solution. The method makes use of the Duhamel superposition principle to eliminate interior spatial solutions from consideration. Linear response functions relating the concentrations and mass fluxes on the boundaries of a homogeneous region are derived. Multiple regions are numerically coupled through interface conditions. Algebraic elimination is used to reduce the equations as far as possible. The problem reduces to two nonlinear equations in two unknowns, which are solved using a Newton Raphson technique
Efficient k⋅p method for the calculation of total energy and electronic density of states
Iannuzzi, Marcella; Parrinello, Michele
2001-01-01
An efficient method for calculating the electronic structure in large systems with a fully converged BZ sampling is presented. The method is based on a k.p-like approximation developed in the framework of the density functional perturbation theory. The reliability and efficiency of the method are demostrated in test calculations on Ar and Si supercells
PCRELAP5: data calculation program for RELAP 5 code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestre, Larissa Jacome Barros
2016-01-01
Nuclear accidents in the world led to the establishment of rigorous criteria and requirements for nuclear power plant operations by the international regulatory bodies. By using specific computer programs, simulations of various accidents and transients likely to occur at any nuclear power plant are required for certifying and licensing a nuclear power plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most widely used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors in Brazil and worldwide. A major difficulty in the simulation by using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data requires a great number of mathematical operations to calculate the geometry of the components. Thus, for those calculations performance and preparation of RELAP5 input data, a friendly mathematical preprocessor was designed. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) for Microsoft Excel demonstrated to be an effective tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. In order to meet the needs of RELAP5 users, the RELAP5 Calculation Program (Programa de Calculo do RELAP5 - PCRELAP5) was designed. The components of the code were codified; all entry cards including the optional cards of each one have been programmed. In addition, an English version for PCRELAP5 was provided. Furthermore, a friendly design was developed in order to minimize the time of preparation of input data and errors committed by users. In this work, the final version of this preprocessor was successfully applied for Safety Injection System (SIS) of Angra 2. (author)
Efficient heterogeneous execution of Monte Carlo shielding calculations on a Beowulf cluster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewar, D.; Hulse, P.; Cooper, A.; Smith, N.
2005-01-01
Recent work has been done in using a high-performance 'Beowulf' cluster computer system for the efficient distribution of Monte Carlo shielding calculations. This has enabled the rapid solution of complex shielding problems at low cost and with greater modularity and scalability than traditional platforms. The work has shown that a simple approach to distributing the workload is as efficient as using more traditional techniques such as PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). In addition, when used in an operational setting this technique is fairer with the use of resources than traditional methods, in that it does not tie up a single computing resource but instead shares the capacity with other tasks. These developments in computing technology have enabled shielding problems to be solved that would have taken an unacceptably long time to run on traditional platforms. This paper discusses the BNFL Beowulf cluster and a number of tests that have recently been run to demonstrate the efficiency of the asynchronous technique in running the MCBEND program. The BNFL Beowulf currently consists of 84 standard PCs running RedHat Linux. Current performance of the machine has been estimated to be between 40 and 100 Gflop s -1 . When the whole system is employed on one problem up to four million particles can be tracked per second. There are plans to review its size in line with future business needs. (authors)
Point efficiency of the notion in multi objective programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kampempe, B.J.D.; Manya, N.L.
2010-01-01
The approaches to the problem of multi-objective linear programming stochastic (PLMS) which have been proposed so far in the literature are not really satisfactory (9,11), so we want, in this article, to approach the problem of PLMS using the concept of efficiency point. It is also necessary to define what is meant by efficiency point in the context of PLMS. This is precisely the purpose of this article. In fact, it seeks to provide specific definitions of effective solutions that are not only mathematically consistent, but also have significance to a decision maker faced with such a decision problem. As a result, we have to use the concept of dominance in the time of PLMS, in the context where one has ordinal preference but no utility functions. In this paper, we propose to further explore the concepts of dominance and efficiency point. Indeed, the whole point P effective solutions are usually very broad and as we shall see, it can be identical to X. Accordingly, we will try to relax the definition of dominance relation >p in order to obtain other types of dominance point less demanding and generating subsets may be more effective especially interesting for a decision maker. We shall have to distinguish two other families of dominance relations point : the dominance and dominance scenario test, and within sets of efficient solutions proposed by these last two relations, we will focus on subsets of efficient solutions called sponsored and unanimous. We will study the properties of these various relationships and the possible links between the different effective resulting sets in order to find them and to calculate them explicitly. Finally we will establish some connections between different notions of efficiency and timely concept of Pareto-efficient solution on the deterministic case (PLMD)
75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program
2010-03-30
... how much the proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and... 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No... 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, M. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D.; Sun, G. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
To calculate the full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency for arbitrary volume sample, we developed and verified the Effective Solid Angle (ESA) Code. The procedure for semi-empirical determination of the FE efficiency for the arbitrary volume sources and the calculation principles and processes about ESA code is referred to, and the code was validated with a HPGe detector (relative efficiency 32%, n-type) in previous studies. In this study, we use different type and efficiency of HPGe detectors, in order to verify the performance of the ESA code for the various detectors. We calculated the efficiency curve of voluminous source and compared with experimental data. We will carry out additional validation by measurement of various medium, volume and shape of CRM volume sources with detector of different efficiency and type. And we will reflect the effect of the dead layer of p-type HPGe detector and coincidence summing correction technique in near future.
EPP Energy Efficiency Calculation and Influencing Factor Analysis: Cases in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingmin Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Efficiency power plant (EPP promotes the use of energy efficiency power plant technology and energy efficient equipment, coupled with its low-input, zero pollution, zero emissions, and other advantages, having an important role in the control of energy consumption and energy saving. In order to carry out scientific EPP investment decisions, the level of energy efficiency is an important basis for investment decisions. This paper introduces total factor energy efficiency (TFEE in energy efficiency calculation of EPP, constructs energy efficiency calculation model considering environmental benefits, and takes the micro and macro cases in China for analysis; the results show that the TFEE of both single energy efficiency project and EPP are at a relatively high level (above 0.7, and there is a huge gap between calculation results considering and without considering the environmental benefit. In order to discuss energy efficiency influencing factors, the paper analyzes generalized technological advances variation feature of China typical provinces implementing EPP based on generalized technological advances decomposition model by Malmquist index, finding that the steady growth of M index in these provinces is derived from the management level of implementation of EPP and the large-scale production capacity of formation and management. We hope the models and conclusions could provide some references on EPP energy efficiency calculation and decision.
Lean and Efficient Software: Whole-Program Optimization of Executables
2015-09-30
Lean and Efficient Software: Whole-Program Optimization of Executables” Project Summary Report #5 (Report Period: 7/1/2015 to 9/30/2015...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lean and Efficient Software: Whole-Program Optimization of Executables 5a...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Lean and Efficient Software: Whole-Program
The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto
2010-01-01
This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)
'BLOC' program for elasto-plastic calculation of fissured media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pouyet, P.; Picaut, J.; Costaz, J.L.; Dulac, J.
1983-01-01
The method described is used to test failure mechanisms and to calculate the corresponding ultimate loads. The main advantages it offers are simple modelling, the possibility of representing all the prestressing and reinforcement steels simply and correctly, and fewer degrees of freedom, hence lower cost (the program can be run on a microcomputer). However, the model is sensitive to the arrangement of the interface elements, presupposing a given failure mechanism. This normally means testing several different models with different kinematically possible failure patterns. But the ease of modelling and low costs are ideal for this type of approach. (orig./RW)
BASIC Program for the calculation of radioactive activities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cortes P, A.; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.
1990-04-01
When one makes a measure of radioactive activity with a detection system that operates with a gamma radiation detector (Ge or of NaI (Tl) detector), it is necessary to take in account parameters and correction factors that making sufficiently difficult and tedious those calculations to using a considerable time by part of the person that carries out these measures. Also, this frequently, can to take to erroneous results. In this work a computer program in BASIC language that solves this problem is presented. (Author)
A microcomputer program for coupled cycle burnup calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Driscoll, M.J.; Downar, T.J.; Taylor, E.L.
1986-01-01
A program, designated BRACC (Burnup, Reactivity, And Cycle Coupling), has been developed for fuel management scoping calculations, and coded in the BASIC language in an interactive format for use with microcomputers. BRACC estimates batch and cycle burnups for sequential reloads for a variety of initial core conditions, and permits the user to specify either reload batch properties (enrichment, burnable poison reactivity) or the target cycle burnup. Most important fuel management tactics (out-in or low-leakage loading, coastdown, variation in number of assemblies charged) can be simulated
Parallelization for first principles electronic state calculation program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Hiroshi; Oguchi, Tamio.
1997-03-01
In this report we study the parallelization for First principles electronic state calculation program. The target machines are NEC SX-4 for shared memory type parallelization and FUJITSU VPP300 for distributed memory type parallelization. The features of each parallel machine are surveyed, and the parallelization methods suitable for each are proposed. It is shown that 1.60 times acceleration is achieved with 2 CPU parallelization by SX-4 and 4.97 times acceleration is achieved with 12 PE parallelization by VPP 300. (author)
Activity computer program for calculating ion irradiation activation
Palmer, Ben; Connolly, Brian; Read, Mark
2017-07-01
A computer program, Activity, was developed to predict the activity and gamma lines of materials irradiated with an ion beam. It uses the TENDL (Koning and Rochman, 2012) [1] proton reaction cross section database, the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) (Biersack et al., 2010) code, a Nuclear Data Services (NDS) radioactive decay database (Sonzogni, 2006) [2] and an ENDF gamma decay database (Herman and Chadwick, 2006) [3]. An extended version of Bateman's equation is used to calculate the activity at time t, and this equation is solved analytically, with the option to also solve by numeric inverse Laplace Transform as a failsafe. The program outputs the expected activity and gamma lines of the activated material.
An application program for fission product decay heat calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham, Ngoc Son; Katakura, Jun-ichi
2007-10-01
The precise knowledge of decay heat is one of the most important factors in safety design and operation of nuclear power facilities. Furthermore, decay heat data also play an important role in design of fuel discharges, fuel storage and transport flasks, and in spent fuel management and processing. In this study, a new application program, called DHP (Decay Heat Power program), has been developed for exact decay heat summation calculations, uncertainty analysis, and for determination of the individual contribution of each fission product. The analytical methods were applied in the program without any simplification or approximation, in which all of linear and non-linear decay chains, and 12 decay modes, including ground state and meta-stable states, are automatically identified, and processed by using a decay data library and a fission yield data file, both in ENDF/B-VI format. The window interface of the program is designed with optional properties which is very easy for users to run the code. (author)
Calculation of efficiency of high-energy neutron detection by plastic scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telegin, Yu.N.
1977-01-01
A computer was used to calculate neutron (5-30O MeV) registration effeciencies with plastic scintillators 2,5,10, 20,30,40 and 50 cm thick. The results are shown in the form of tables. The contributions to efficiency of various processes have been analysed. The calculation results may be used in planning experiments with neutron counters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.
2011-02-25
Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriarty, K.J.M.; Blackshaw, J.E.
1983-01-01
The computer program calculates the average action per plaquette for SU(6)/Z 6 lattice gauge theory. By considering quantum field theory on a space-time lattice, the ultraviolet divergences of the theory are regulated through the finite lattice spacing. The continuum theory results can be obtained by a renormalization group procedure. Making use of the FPS Mathematics Library (MATHLIB), we are able to generate an efficient code for the Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice gauge theory calculations which compares favourably with the performance of the CDC 7600. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamaeva, O.B.; Polevoj, V.B.
1983-01-01
Realization of BESM-6 computer of a technique is described for calculating a wide class of reactivity disturbances by plotting trajectories in undisturbed and disturbed systems using one sequence of random numbers. The technique was realized on the base of earlier created programs of calculation of widespreed (PERL) and local (LAVR) reactivity disturbances. The efficiency of the technique and programs is demonstrated by calculation of change of effective neutron-multiplication factor when absorber is substituted for fuel element in a BFS-40 critical assembly and by calculation of control drum characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milostan, Catharina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Muehleisen, Ralph T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guzowski, Leah Bellah B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2017-01-01
Many electric utilities operate energy efficiency incentive programs that encourage increased dissemination and use of energy-efficient (EE) products in their service territories. The programs can be segmented into three broad categories—downstream incentive programs target product end users, midstream programs target product distributors, and upstream programs target product manufacturers. Traditional downstream programs have had difficulty engaging Small Business/Small Portfolio (SBSP) audiences, and an opportunity exists to expand Commercial Midstream Incentive Programs (CMIPs) to reach this market segment instead.
Efficiency of free-energy calculations of spin lattices by spectral quantum algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Master, Cyrus P.; Yamaguchi, Fumiko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2003-01-01
Ensemble quantum algorithms are well suited to calculate estimates of the energy spectra for spin-lattice systems. Based on the phase estimation algorithm, these algorithms efficiently estimate discrete Fourier coefficients of the density of states. Their efficiency in calculating the free energy per spin of general spin lattices to bounded error is examined. We find that the number of Fourier components required to bound the error in the free energy due to the broadening of the density of states scales polynomially with the number of spins in the lattice. However, the precision with which the Fourier components must be calculated is found to be an exponential function of the system size
77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program
2012-09-06
... CFR Parts 1710, 1717, 1721, 1724, and 1730 RIN 0572-AC19 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan..., proposing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of rural...
2012-03-12
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket No. EESEP0216] State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program, in support of energy...
Efficient dynamic optimization of logic programs
Laird, Phil
1992-01-01
A summary is given of the dynamic optimization approach to speed up learning for logic programs. The problem is to restructure a recursive program into an equivalent program whose expected performance is optimal for an unknown but fixed population of problem instances. We define the term 'optimal' relative to the source of input instances and sketch an algorithm that can come within a logarithmic factor of optimal with high probability. Finally, we show that finding high-utility unfolding operations (such as EBG) can be reduced to clause reordering.
Efficient Incremental Checkpointing of Java Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles
2000-01-01
This paper investigates the optimization of language-level checkpointing of Java programs. First, we describe how to systematically associate incremental checkpoints with Java classes. While being safe, the genericness of this solution induces substantial execution overhead. Second, to solve...
Determination of the burn-up of TRIGA fuel elements by calculation with new TRIGLAV program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.
1996-01-01
The results of fuel element burn-up calculations with new TRIGLAV program are presented. TRIGLAV program uses two dimensional model. Results of calculation are compared to results calculated with program, which uses one dimensional model. The results of fuel element burn-up measurements with reactivity method are presented and compared with the calculated results. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, H.H.; Dowdy, E.J.; Estes, G.P.; Lucas, M.C.; Mack, J.M.; Moss, C.E.; Hamm, M.E.
1983-01-01
Monte Carlo calculations of a bismuth-germanate scintillator's efficiency agree closely with experimental measurements. For this comparison, we studied the absolute gamma-ray photopeak efficiency of a scintillator (7.62 cm long by 7.62 cm in diameter) at several gamma-ray energies from 166 to 2615 keV at distances from 0.5 to 152.4 cm. Computer calculations were done in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry with the Monte Carlo coupled photon-electron code CYLTRAN. For the experiment we measured 11 sources with simple spectra and precisely known strengths. The average deviation between the calculations and the measurements is 3%. Our calculated results also closely agree with recently published calculated results
Energy efficiency program at the Welfare Ministry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Marco Aurelio Lenzi; Ferreira Filho, Anesio de Leles; Monteiro, Fernando Figueiredo de
2003-01-01
his article presents the detailed study performed at the annexe building of the Welfare Ministry, viewing an implantation of a efficient and rational use of energy. The article also presents the results of installed load assesment and for correction of the power factor with capacitor bank
The Efficiency of Linda for General Purpose Scientific Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy G. Mattson
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Linda (Linda is a registered trademark of Scientific Computing Associates, Inc. is a programming language for coordinating the execution and interaction of processes. When combined with a language for computation (such as C or Fortran, the resulting hybrid language can be used to write portable programs for parallel and distributed multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD computers. The Linda programming model is based on operations that read, write, and erase a virtual shared memory. It is easy to use, and lets the programmer code in a very expressive, uncoupled programming style. These benefits, however, are of little value unless Linda programs execute efficiently. The goal of this article is to demonstrate that Linda programs are efficient making Linda an effective general purpose tool for programming MIMD parallel computers. Two arguments for Linda's efficiency are given; the first is based on Linda's implementation and the second on a range of case studies spanning a complete set of parallel algorithm classes.
Radiation damage calculations for the APT materials test program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corzine, R.K.; Wechsler, M.S.; Dudziak, D.J.; Ferguson, P.D.; James, M.R.
1999-01-01
A materials irradiation was performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the fall of 1996 and spring of 1997 in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. Testing of the irradiated materials is underway. In the proposed APT design, materials in the target and blanket are to be exposed to protons and neutrons over a wide range of energies. The irradiation and testing program was undertaken to enlarge the very limited direct knowledge presently available of the effects of medium-energy protons (∼1 GeV) on the properties of engineering materials. APT candidate materials were placed in or near the LANSCE accelerator 800-MeV, 1-mA proton beam and received roughly the same proton current density in the center of the beam as would be the case for the APT facility. As a result, the proton fluences achieved in the irradiation were expected to approach the APT prototypic full-power-year values. To predict accurately the performance of materials in APT, radiation damage parameters for the materials experiment must be determined. By modeling the experiment, calculations for atomic displacement, helium and hydrogen cross sections and for proton and neutron fluences were done for representative samples in the 17A, 18A, and 18C areas. The LAHET code system (LCS) was used to model the irradiation program, LAHET 2.82 within LCS transports protons > 1 MeV, and neutrons >20 MeV. A modified version of MCNP for use in LCS, HMCNP 4A, was employed to tally neutrons of energies <20 MeV
Economic efficiency in forest service program development
Robert J. Hrubes
1984-01-01
This report analyzes the procedures used in three regions of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, for selecting the projects that constitute their annual program budget. Personnel at the Southwest (R-3), Pacific Southwest (R-5), and Southern (R-8) Regions were interviewed during September and October 1982. Of special concern was the extent to which...
Advanced Lockouts: Reengineering Safety Programs for Efficiency.
Michalscheck, Jimi
2015-08-01
Remember one golden rule when engineering out lockout/tagout: No additional risk can be introduced to the employees by using alternative procedures. If you can design alternative procedures and an overall alternative program to ensure equivalent protection for specific tasks...the sky is the limit to enhancing productivity.
Energy efficient industrialized housing research program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))
1989-01-01
This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)
SU-E-J-60: Efficient Monte Carlo Dose Calculation On CPU-GPU Heterogeneous Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, K; Chen, D. Z; Hu, X. S [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Zhou, B [Altera Corp., San Jose, CA (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: It is well-known that the performance of GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation implementations is bounded by memory bandwidth. One major cause of this bottleneck is the random memory writing patterns in dose deposition, which leads to several memory efficiency issues on GPU such as un-coalesced writing and atomic operations. We propose a new method to alleviate such issues on CPU-GPU heterogeneous systems, which achieves overall performance improvement for Monte Carlo dose calculation. Methods: Dose deposition is to accumulate dose into the voxels of a dose volume along the trajectories of radiation rays. Our idea is to partition this procedure into the following three steps, which are fine-tuned for CPU or GPU: (1) each GPU thread writes dose results with location information to a buffer on GPU memory, which achieves fully-coalesced and atomic-free memory transactions; (2) the dose results in the buffer are transferred to CPU memory; (3) the dose volume is constructed from the dose buffer on CPU. We organize the processing of all radiation rays into streams. Since the steps within a stream use different hardware resources (i.e., GPU, DMA, CPU), we can overlap the execution of these steps for different streams by pipelining. Results: We evaluated our method using a Monte Carlo Convolution Superposition (MCCS) program and tested our implementation for various clinical cases on a heterogeneous system containing an Intel i7 quad-core CPU and an NVIDIA TITAN GPU. Comparing with a straightforward MCCS implementation on the same system (using both CPU and GPU for radiation ray tracing), our method gained 2-5X speedup without losing dose calculation accuracy. Conclusion: The results show that our new method improves the effective memory bandwidth and overall performance for MCCS on the CPU-GPU systems. Our proposed method can also be applied to accelerate other Monte Carlo dose calculation approaches. This research was supported in part by NSF under Grants CCF
Efficient GW calculations using eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition of the dielectric matrix
Nguyen, Huy-Viet; Pham, T. Anh; Rocca, Dario; Galli, Giulia
2011-03-01
During the past 25 years, the GW method has been successfully used to compute electronic quasi-particle excitation spectra of a variety of materials. It is however a computationally intensive technique, as it involves summations over occupied and empty electronic states, to evaluate both the Green function (G) and the dielectric matrix (DM) entering the expression of the screened Coulomb interaction (W). Recent developments have shown that eigenpotentials of DMs can be efficiently calculated without any explicit evaluation of empty states. In this work, we will present a computationally efficient approach to the calculations of GW spectra by combining a representation of DMs in terms of its eigenpotentials and a recently developed iterative algorithm. As a demonstration of the efficiency of the method, we will present calculations of the vertical ionization potentials of several systems. Work was funnded by SciDAC-e DE-FC02-06ER25777.
DASS: efficient discovery and p-value calculation of substructures in unordered data.
Hollunder, Jens; Friedel, Maik; Beyer, Andreas; Workman, Christopher T; Wilhelm, Thomas
2007-01-01
Pattern identification in biological sequence data is one of the main objectives of bioinformatics research. However, few methods are available for detecting patterns (substructures) in unordered datasets. Data mining algorithms mainly developed outside the realm of bioinformatics have been adapted for that purpose, but typically do not determine the statistical significance of the identified patterns. Moreover, these algorithms do not exploit the often modular structure of biological data. We present the algorithm DASS (Discovery of All Significant Substructures) that first identifies all substructures in unordered data (DASS(Sub)) in a manner that is especially efficient for modular data. In addition, DASS calculates the statistical significance of the identified substructures, for sets with at most one element of each type (DASS(P(set))), or for sets with multiple occurrence of elements (DASS(P(mset))). The power and versatility of DASS is demonstrated by four examples: combinations of protein domains in multi-domain proteins, combinations of proteins in protein complexes (protein subcomplexes), combinations of transcription factor target sites in promoter regions and evolutionarily conserved protein interaction subnetworks. The program code and additional data are available at http://www.fli-leibniz.de/tsb/DASS
The calculation of the detection efficiency in the calibration of gross alpha-beta systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marian Romeo Calin; Ileana Radulescu; Alexandru Erminiu Druker
2013-01-01
This paper presents a method for efficiency calibration of a measuring alpha-beta system PROTEAN ORTEC, MPC-2000-DP, using standard radioactive sources. The system is used to measure gross alpha-beta activity concentrations in environmental samples. The calculated efficiencies of detection were subsequently introduced in the system for two working geometries: measuring geometry-gross alpha-beta ε α g = 31,37 ± 0.25 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β g 44.94 ± 0.69 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk g = 25.59 ± 0.50 (%) and measuring geometry up alpha-beta ε α u 36.23 ± 0.29 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β u = 48.53 ± 0.74 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk u 31.08 ± 0.60 (%). (author)
Criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters during and after design basis accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.; Gilbert, H.; Jacox, J.W.
1994-12-01
We have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data
Regenerator heat exchanger – calculation of heat recovery efficiency and pressure loss
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per Kvols
Performance of heat exchangers is determined based on two main parameters: efficiency to exchange / recover heat and pressure loss due to friction between fluid and exchanger surfaces. These two parameters are contradicting each other which mean that the higher is efficiency the higher becomes...... pressure loss. The aim of the optimized design of heat exchanger is to reach the highest or the required heat efficiency and at the same time to keep pressure losses as low as possible keeping total exchanger size within acceptable size. In this report is presented analytical calculation method...... to calculate efficiency and pressure loss in the regenerator heat exchanger with a fixed matrix that will be used in the decentralized ventilation unit combined in the roof window. Moreover, this study presents sensitivity study of regenerator heat exchanger performance, taking into account, such parameters as...
Calculation of neutron detection efficiency for the thick lithium glass using Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Guoyou; Bao Shanglian; Li Yulin; Zhong Wenguan
1989-08-01
The neutron detector efficiencies of a NE912 (45mm in diameter, 9.55 mm in thickness) and 2 pieces of ST601 (40mm in diameter, 3 and 10 mm in thickness respectively) lithium glasses have been calculated with a Monte Carlo computer code. The energy range in the calculation is 10 keV to 2.0 MeV. The effect of time delayed caused by neutron multiple scattering in the detectors (prompt neutron detection efficiency) has been considered
Calculation method of efficiency factor in Alford's force
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, X.; Yang, Y.; Chen, W.; Huang, S.; Zheng, C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Energy and Power Engineering
2006-07-01
The mechanism of gas excitation for wheel eccentricity and to calculate Alford's force are introduced. On the basis of the blade-and-flow parameters a new formulation is derived and validated. The calculation results are consistent with current theory and experimental conclusions. The physical meaning of the ranges of numerical values of the efficiency factor are discussed. This gets rid of the difficulty of selecting the efficiency factor in Alford's formulation and lays a theoretical foundation for the stability analysis to increases turbine rotor stability. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avdic, S.; Pesic, M.
1992-01-01
The ORTEC 580 Neutron Spectrometer system contains a detector unit in diode coincidence arrangement for measurement of fast neutron spectrum in the energy range from 1 MeV to 14 MeV. Numerical code HE3 for computation of semiconductor 3 He detector efficiency in a collimated neutron beam is based on analytical method in infinite diode approximation and Monte Carlo method for real spectrometer geometry. Calculations are performed in the first collision approximation in the detector active volume including evaluation of correction factors. Accuracy of relative detector efficiency calculation is improved by using neutron cross section from nuclear library ENDF/B-6. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung
2014-01-01
In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles
A new method for calculating volumetric sweeps efficiency using streamline simulation concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hidrobo, E A
2000-01-01
One of the purposes of reservoir engineering is to quantify the volumetric sweep efficiency for optimizing reservoir management decisions. The estimation of this parameter has always been a difficult task. Until now, sweep efficiency correlations and calculations have been limited to mostly homogeneous 2-D cases. Calculating volumetric sweep efficiency in a 3-D heterogeneous reservoir becomes difficult due to inherent complexity of multiple layers and arbitrary well configurations. In this paper, a new method for computing volumetric sweep efficiency for any arbitrary heterogeneity and well configuration is presented. The proposed method is based on Datta-Gupta and King's formulation of streamline time-of-flight (1995). Given the fact that the time-of-flight reflects the fluid front propagation at various times, then the connectivity in the time-of-flight represents a direct measure of the volumetric sweep efficiency. The proposed approach has been applied to synthetic as well as field examples. Synthetic examples are used to validate the volumetric sweep efficiency calculations using the streamline time-of-flight connectivity criterion by comparison with analytic solutions and published correlations. The field example, which illustrates the feasibility of the approach for large-scale field applications, is from the north Robertson unit, a low permeability carbonate reservoir in west Texas
Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program overview
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerdes, K.D. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Harness, J.L. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuhn, W.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1997-10-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Science and Technology (formerly the Office of Technology Development), as part of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites and wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety, and the environment and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with federal, state, and local regulations by the year 2019. The Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) is charged with developing and implementing new technologies that are safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than current methods. To focus resources and address opportunities, EM-50 has targeted four major remediation and waste management problem areas within the DOE complex for action based on risk, prevalence, or need for technology development to meet environmental requirements and regulations. Other areas may be added or current areas further partitioned to ensure that research technology development programs remain focused on EM`s most pressing remediation and waste management needs. These major problem areas, called Focus Areas are: high-level waste tank remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; subsurface contaminants; and facility transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition.
Industrial burner and process efficiency program
Huebner, S. R.; Prakash, S. N.; Hersh, D. B.
1982-10-01
There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This burner is operated by a microprocessor to fire in a discrete pulse mode using Frequency Modulation (FM) for furnace temperature control by regulating the pulse duration. A flame safety system has been designed to monitor the pulse firing burners using Factory Mutual approved components. The FM combustion system has been applied to an industrial batch hardening furnace (1800 F maximum temperature, 2500 lbs load capacity).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strindehag, O; Tollander, B
1968-08-15
Calculated values of the absolute total detection efficiencies of cylindrical scintillation crystals viewing spherical sources of various sizes are presented. The calculation is carried out for 2 x 2 inch and 3 x 3 inch Nal(Tl) crystals and for sources which have the radii 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and 1 times the crystal radius. Source-detector distances of 5-20 cm and gamma energies in the range 0.1 - 5 MeV are considered. The correction factor for absorption in the sample container wall and in the detector housing is derived and calculated for a practical case.
Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes
Explore how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.
Efficient Calculation of Born Scattering for Fixed-Offset Ground-Penetrating Radar Surveys
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meincke, Peter
2007-01-01
A formulation is presented for efficient calculation of linear electromagnetic scattering by buried penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of fixed-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems. The actual radiation patterns of the GPR antennas are incorporated in the scattering...
Improving the Efficiency of Free Energy Calculations in the Amber Molecular Dynamics Package.
Kaus, Joseph W; Pierce, Levi T; Walker, Ross C; McCammont, J Andrew
2013-09-10
Alchemical transformations are widely used methods to calculate free energies. Amber has traditionally included support for alchemical transformations as part of the sander molecular dynamics (MD) engine. Here we describe the implementation of a more efficient approach to alchemical transformations in the Amber MD package. Specifically we have implemented this new approach within the more computational efficient and scalable pmemd MD engine that is included with the Amber MD package. The majority of the gain in efficiency comes from the improved design of the calculation, which includes better parallel scaling and reduction in the calculation of redundant terms. This new implementation is able to reproduce results from equivalent simulations run with the existing functionality, but at 2.5 times greater computational efficiency. This new implementation is also able to run softcore simulations at the λ end states making direct calculation of free energies more accurate, compared to the extrapolation required in the existing implementation. The updated alchemical transformation functionality will be included in the next major release of Amber (scheduled for release in Q1 2014) and will be available at http://ambermd.org, under the Amber license.
An efficient method for hybrid density functional calculation with spin-orbit coupling
Wang, Maoyuan; Liu, Gui-Bin; Guo, Hong; Yao, Yugui
2018-03-01
In first-principles calculations, hybrid functional is often used to improve accuracy from local exchange correlation functionals. A drawback is that evaluating the hybrid functional needs significantly more computing effort. When spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is taken into account, the non-collinear spin structure increases computing effort by at least eight times. As a result, hybrid functional calculations with SOC are intractable in most cases. In this paper, we present an approximate solution to this problem by developing an efficient method based on a mixed linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) scheme. We demonstrate the power of this method using several examples and we show that the results compare very well with those of direct hybrid functional calculations with SOC, yet the method only requires a computing effort similar to that without SOC. The presented technique provides a good balance between computing efficiency and accuracy, and it can be extended to magnetic materials.
A program for calculating and plotting soft x-ray optical interaction coefficients for molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, M.M.; Davis, J.C.; Jacobsen, C.J.; Perera, R.C.C.
1989-08-01
Comprehensive tables for atomic scattering factor components, f1 and f2, were compiled by Henke et al. for the extended photon region 50 - 10000 eV. Accurate calculations of optical interaction coefficients for absorption, reflection and scattering by material systems (e.g. filters, multi-layers, etc...), which have widespread application, can be based simply upon the atomic scattering factors for the elements comprising the material, except near the absorption threshold energies. These calculations based upon the weighted sum of f1 and f2 for each atomic species present can be very tedious if done by hand. This led us to develop a user friendly program to perform these calculations on an IBM PC or compatible computer. By entering the chemical formula, density and thickness of up to six molecules, values of the f1, f2, mass absorption transmission efficiencies, attenuation lengths, mirror reflectivities and complex indices of refraction can be calculated and plotted as a function of energy or wavelength. This program will be available distribution. 7 refs., 1 fig
A comment on the calculation of the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Ming-Chung
2013-01-01
This study provides a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index originally proposed by Hu and Wang (2006). The TFEE index serves as a very well-known and popular means of estimating overall energy efficiency. While many previous studies have used the indicator of energy inefficiency, including the indicator of energy intensity (i.e., Energy input/Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) to measure energy efficiency, Hu and Kao (2007) point out that the indicator of energy intensity is not only a partial-factor energy efficiency indicator, but that this partial-factor ratio is also quite inappropriate for analyzing the impact of changing energy use over time. The TFEE index overcomes the disadvantage of the indicator of energy intensity as mentioned above, but five steps are needed to calculate the TFEE score. In this study, we provide a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the TFEE score. Furthermore, we extend this no-output growth model to an output growth model. This study concludes that the output growth model not only makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index than the model proposed by Hu and Wang (2006) and Hu and Kao (2007), but that it can also obtain better TFEE scores. - Highlights: ► The comment is on the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index. ► Two extension models are no-output growth model and output growth model. ► The model in this study makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index.
Resource values in analyzing fire management programs for economic efficiency
Irene A. Althaus; Thomas J. Mills
1982-01-01
In analyzing fire management programs for their economic efficiency, it is necessary to assign monetary values to the changes in resource outputs caused by, fire. The derivation of resource values is complicated by imperfect or nonexistent commercial market structures. The valuation concept recommended for fire program analyses is willingness-to-pay because it permits...
13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.
2010-01-01
... making available online, the information and materials developed under the program to small business... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. 101.500 Section 101.500 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...
Efficient C/C++ programming smaller, faster, better
Heller, Steve
1994-01-01
Efficient C/C++ Programming describes a practical, real-world approach to efficient C/C++ programming. Topics covered range from how to save storage using a restricted character set and how to speed up access to records by employing hash coding and caching. A selective mailing list system is used to illustrate rapid access to and rearrangement of information selected by criteria specified at runtime.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins by discussing factors to consider when deciding whether a program needs optimization. In the next chapter, a supermarket price lookup system is used to
Monte Carlo Calculation Of HPGe GEM 15P4 Detector Efficiency In The 59 - 2000 keV Energy Range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trinh Hoai Vinh; Pham Nguyen Thanh Vinh; Hoang Ba Kim; Vo Xuan An
2011-01-01
A precise model of a 15% relative efficiency p-type HPGe GEM 15P4 detector was created for peak efficiency curves determination using the MCNP5 code developed by The Los Alamos Laboratory. The dependence of peak efficiency on distance from the source to detector was also investigated. That model was validated by comparing experimental and calculated results using six standard point sources including 133 Ba, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 60 Co, 22 Na and 65 Zn. The sources used for more simulating are 241 Am, 75 Se, 113 Sn, 85 Sr, 54 Mn, 137 Cs, 56 Co, 94 Nb, 111 In, 139 Ce, 228 Th, 243 Am, 154 Eu, 152 Eu and 88 Y according to IAEA-TECDOC-619 document. All these sources have the same geometry. The ratio of the experimental efficiencies to calculated ones are higher than 0.94. This result indicates that our simulation program based on MCNP5 code is good enough for later studies on this HPGe spectrometer which is located in Nuclear Physics Laboratory at HCMC University of Pedagogy. (author)
A Mathematical Programming Approach to Brand Efficiency of Smartphones in the US Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiu-Wan Hung
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study applied mathematical programming approach to investigate the brand efficiency of smartphone brands by collecting data of 2013–2015 from Consumer Report. The brand efficiency was completed by employing the slack-based measure in data envelopment analysis. The degree of inefficiency of each brand was evaluated, and each brand’s metatechnology ratio was calculated using the metafrontier concept. The results revealed that the sampled smartphone brands reach the highest average brand efficiency in 2013, where Apple exhibited the highest brand efficiency among the sampled brands. The high brand efficiency in 2013 was attributed to the small number of product types at beginning of the growth period of smartphones. Finally, this study examined the efficiency of smartphone brands among four major telecommunications operators in the United States. It was found that Apple demonstrated the highest efficiency with all four operators, while no significant difference was noted among operators and smartphone brands.
Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis
2018-03-01
The calculation of polytropic efficiencies is a very important task, especially during the development of new compression units, like compressor impellers, stages and stage groups. Such calculations are also crucial for the determination of the performance of a whole compressor. As processors and computational capacities have substantially been improved in the last years, the need for a new, rigorous, robust, accurate and at the same time standardized method merged, regarding the computation of the polytropic efficiencies, especially based on thermodynamics of real gases. The proposed method is based on the rigorous definition of the polytropic efficiency. The input consists of pressure and temperature values at the end points of the compression path (suction and discharge), for a given working fluid. The average relative error for the studied cases was 0.536 %. Thus, this high-accuracy method is proposed for efficiency calculations related with turbocompressors and their compression units, especially when they are operating at high power levels, for example in jet engines and high-power plants.
GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.
2013-11-12
This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.
Calculation of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent detectors to space radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilski, P.
2011-01-01
Thermoluminescent (TL) detectors are often used for measurements of radiation doses in space. While space radiation is composed of a mixture of heavy charged particles, the relative TL efficiency depends on ionization density. The question therefore arises: what is the relative efficiency of TLDs to the radiation present in space? In the attempt to answer this question, the relative TL efficiency of two types of lithium fluoride detectors for space radiation has been calculated, based on the theoretical space spectra and the experimental values of TL efficiency to ion beams. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti detectors for radiation encountered at typical low-Earth’s orbit was found to be close to unity, justifying a common application of these TLDs to space dosimetry. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is significantly lower. It was found that a shielding may have a significant influence on the relative response of TLDs, due to changes caused in the radiation spectrum. In case of application of TLDs outside the Earth’s magnetosphere, one should expect lower relative efficiency than at the low-Earth’s orbit.
Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rittmann, P.D.
1984-08-01
Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices
Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 2: Evaluation summaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, A.D.; Mayi, D.; Edgemon, S.D.
1997-04-01
This document presents summaries of code and utility building program evaluations reviewed as the basis for the information presented in Energy-Efficient Buildings Program Evaluations, Volume 1: Findings and Recommendations, DOE/EE/OBT-11569, Vol. 1. The main purpose of this volume is to summarize information from prior evaluations of similar programs that may be useful background for designing and conducting an evaluation of the BSGP. Another purpose is to summarize an extensive set of relevant evaluations and provide a resource for program designers, mangers, and evaluators.
An efficient parallel algorithm for the calculation of canonical MP2 energies.
Baker, Jon; Pulay, Peter
2002-09-01
We present the parallel version of a previous serial algorithm for the efficient calculation of canonical MP2 energies (Pulay, P.; Saebo, S.; Wolinski, K. Chem Phys Lett 2001, 344, 543). It is based on the Saebo-Almlöf direct-integral transformation, coupled with an efficient prescreening of the AO integrals. The parallel algorithm avoids synchronization delays by spawning a second set of slaves during the bin-sort prior to the second half-transformation. Results are presented for systems with up to 2000 basis functions. MP2 energies for molecules with 400-500 basis functions can be routinely calculated to microhartree accuracy on a small number of processors (6-8) in a matter of minutes with modern PC-based parallel computers. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 23: 1150-1156, 2002
Successive collision calculation of resonance absorption (AWBA Development Program)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, E.; Eisenhart, L.D.
1980-07-01
The successive collision method for calculating resonance absorption solves numerically the neutron slowing down problem in reactor lattices. A discrete energy mesh is used with cross sections taken from a Monte Carlo library. The major physical approximations used are isotropic scattering in both the laboratory and center-of-mass systems. This procedure is intended for day-to-day analysis calculations and has been incorporated into the current version of MUFT. The calculational model used for the analysis of the nuclear performance of LWBR includes this resonance absorption procedure. Test comparisons of results with RCPO1 give very good agreement
Geometric efficiency calculations for solid state track detectors (SSTD) in radon measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gil, L.R.; Marques, A.; Rivera, A.
1992-01-01
Geometric efficiencies for SSTD cut into rectangular pieces are calculated by simulation technique. The procedure involves introducing a sampling volume that depends on α-ray ranges in air which has to be used in converting observed number of tracks into activity concentrations. A quick procedure for computing ranges in air at different meteorological conditions is also included. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebeida, Mohamed Salah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rushdi, Ahmad A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Abdelkader, Ahmad [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2015-09-01
This SAND report summarizes our work on the Sandia National Laboratory LDRD project titled "Efficient Probability of Failure Calculations for QMU using Computational Geometry" which was project #165617 and proposal #13-0144. This report merely summarizes our work. Those interested in the technical details are encouraged to read the full published results, and contact the report authors for the status of the software and follow-on projects.
Development of internal dose calculation programing via food ingestion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H. J.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, M. S.
1998-01-01
Most of dose for public via ingestion pathway is calculating for considering several pathways; which start from radioactive material released from a nuclear power plant to diffusion and migration. But in order to model these complicate pathways mathematically, some assumptions are essential and lots of input data related with pathways are demanded. Since there is uncertainty related with environment in these assumptions and input data, the accuracy of dose calculating result is not reliable. To reduce, therefore, these uncertain assumptions and inputs, this paper presents exposure dose calculating method using the activity of environmental sample detected in any pathway. Application of dose calculation is aim at peoples around KORI nuclear power plant and the value that is used to dose conversion factor recommended in ICRP Publ. 60
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Beom Woo; Joo, Han Gyu
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The stiffness confinement method is combined with multigroup CMFD with SENM nodal kernel. • The systematic methods for determining the shape and amplitude frequencies are established. • Eigenvalue problems instead of fixed source problems are solved in the transient calculation. • It is demonstrated that much larger time step sizes can be used with the SCM–CMFD method. - Abstract: An improved Stiffness Confinement Method (SCM) is formulated within the framework of the coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation for efficient multigroup spatial kinetics calculation. The algorithm for searching for the amplitude frequency that makes the dynamic eigenvalue unity is developed in a systematic way along with the methods for determining the shape and precursor frequencies. A nodal calculation scheme is established within the CMFD framework to incorporate the cross section changes due to thermal feedback and dynamic frequency update. The conditional nodal update scheme is employed such that the transient calculation is performed mostly with the CMFD formulation and the CMFD parameters are conditionally updated by intermittent nodal calculations. A quadratic representation of amplitude frequency is introduced as another improvement. The performance of the improved SCM within the CMFD framework is assessed by comparing the solution accuracy and computing times for the NEACRP control rod ejection benchmark problems with those obtained with the Crank–Nicholson method with exponential transform (CNET). It is demonstrated that the improved SCM is beneficial for large time step size calculations with stability and accuracy enhancement
Comparison of energy efficiency incentive programs: Rebates and white certificates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Transue, Morghan; Felder, Frank A. [Center for Energy, Economic, and Environmental Policy, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)
2010-06-15
With increased interest in energy efficiency in recent years, energy efficiency portfolio standards (EEPS) have gained popularity in state policymaking. This analysis employed New Jersey specific data to compare two incentive based approaches to EEPS implementation: rebates and white certificates. Quantitative modeling suggests that white certificate approaches that depend on market-clearing prices generate much larger upfront incentive outlays than rebate programs. They do not however increase societal burden. Both programs overcome high upfront efficiency measure costs and both recoup the expenses over the long run. Administration costs and participation rates can affect this dynamic however and require additional research to determine which approaches are most cost effective for various energy efficiency measures. (author)
ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.
1998-04-01
As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.
Efficiency and Generalized Convex Duality for Nondifferentiable Multiobjective Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bae KwanDeok
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce nondifferentiable multiobjective programming problems involving the support function of a compact convex set and linear functions. The concept of (properly efficient solutions are presented. We formulate Mond-Weir-type and Wolfe-type dual problems and establish weak and strong duality theorems for efficient solutions by using suitable generalized convexity conditions. Some special cases of our duality results are given.
An efficient and accurate method for calculating nonlinear diffraction beam fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Hyun Jo; Cho, Sung Jong; Nam, Ki Woong; Lee, Jang Hyun [Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
This study develops an efficient and accurate method for calculating nonlinear diffraction beam fields propagating in fluids or solids. The Westervelt equation and quasilinear theory, from which the integral solutions for the fundamental and second harmonics can be obtained, are first considered. A computationally efficient method is then developed using a multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) model that easily separates the diffraction effects from the plane wave solution. The MGB models provide accurate beam fields when compared with the integral solutions for a number of transmitter-receiver geometries. These models can also serve as fast, powerful modeling tools for many nonlinear acoustics applications, especially in making diffraction corrections for the nonlinearity parameter determination, because of their computational efficiency and accuracy.
Lean and Efficient Software: Whole Program Optimization of Executables
2016-12-31
19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 12/31/2016 Final Technical Report (Phase I - Base Period) 30-06-2014 - 31-12-2016 Lean and Efficient...Software: Whole-Program Optimization of Executables Final Report Evan Driscoll Tom Johnson GrammaTech, Inc. 531 Esty Street Ithaca, NY 14850 Office of...hardening U U U UU 30 Tom Johnson (607) 273-7340 x.134 Page 1 of 30 “ Lean and Efficient Software: Whole-Program Optimization of Executables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picton, D.J.; Harris, R.G.; Randle, K.; Weaver, D.R.
1995-01-01
This paper describes a simple, accurate and efficient technique for the calculation of materials perturbation effects in Monte Carlo photon transport calculations. It is particularly suited to the application for which it was developed, namely the modelling of a dual detector density tool as used in borehole logging. However, the method would be appropriate to any photon transport calculation in the energy range 0.1 to 2 MeV, in which the predominant processes are Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption. The method enables a single set of particle histories to provide results for an array of configurations in which material densities or compositions vary. It can calculate the effects of small perturbations very accurately, but is by no means restricted to such cases. For the borehole logging application described here the method has been found to be efficient for a moderate range of variation in the bulk density (of the order of ±30% from a reference value) or even larger changes to a limited portion of the system (e.g. a low density mudcake of the order of a few tens of mm in thickness). The effective speed enhancement over an equivalent set of individual calculations is in the region of an order of magnitude or more. Examples of calculations on a dual detector density tool are given. It is demonstrated that the method predicts, to a high degree of accuracy, the variation of detector count rates with formation density, and that good results are also obtained for the effects of mudcake layers. An interesting feature of the results is that relative count rates (the ratios of count rates obtained with different configurations) can usually be determined more accurately than the absolute values of the count rates. (orig.)
Numerical calculation of elastohydrodynamic lubrication methods and programs
Huang, Ping
2015-01-01
The book not only offers scientists and engineers a clear inter-disciplinary introduction and orientation to all major EHL problems and their solutions but, most importantly, it also provides numerical programs on specific application in engineering. A one-stop reference providing equations and their solutions to all major elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) problems, plus numerical programs on specific applications in engineering offers engineers and scientists a clear inter-disciplinary introduction and a concise program for practical engineering applications to most important EHL problems
GenLocDip: A Generalized Program to Calculate and Visualize Local Electric Dipole Moments.
Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen
2016-09-30
Local dipole moments (i.e., dipole moments of atomic or molecular subsystems) are essential for understanding various phenomena in nanoscience, such as solvent effects on the conductance of single molecules in break junctions or the interaction between the tip and the adsorbate in atomic force microscopy. We introduce GenLocDip, a program for calculating and visualizing local dipole moments of molecular subsystems. GenLocDip currently uses the Atoms-In-Molecules (AIM) partitioning scheme and is interfaced to various AIM programs. This enables postprocessing of a variety of electronic structure output formats including cube and wavefunction files, and, in general, output from any other code capable of writing the electron density on a three-dimensional grid. It uses a modified version of Bader's and Laidig's approach for achieving origin-independence of local dipoles by referring to internal reference points which can (but do not need to be) bond critical points (BCPs). Furthermore, the code allows the export of critical points and local dipole moments into a POVray readable input format. It is particularly designed for fragments of large systems, for which no BCPs have been calculated for computational efficiency reasons, because large interfragment distances prevent their identification, or because a local partitioning scheme different from AIM was used. The program requires only minimal user input and is written in the Fortran90 programming language. To demonstrate the capabilities of the program, examples are given for covalently and non-covalently bound systems, in particular molecular adsorbates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blackhurst, Michael; Lima Azevedo, Ines; Scott Matthews, H.; Hendrickson, Chris T.
2011-01-01
Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO 2 eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: → We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. → We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. → Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. → Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. → We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.
Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blackhurst, Michael, E-mail: mfb@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lima Azevedo, Ines, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Scott Matthews, H., E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Hendrickson, Chris T., E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)
2011-09-15
Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO{sub 2} eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: > We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. > We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. > Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. > Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. > We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.
An Efficient numerical method to calculate the conductivity tensor for disordered topological matter
Garcia, Jose H.; Covaci, Lucian; Rappoport, Tatiana G.
2015-03-01
We propose a new efficient numerical approach to calculate the conductivity tensor in solids. We use a real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism where both diagonal and off-diagonal conductivities are treated in the same footing. We adopt a formulation of the Kubo theory that is known as Bastin formula and expand the Green's functions involved in terms of Chebyshev polynomials using the kernel polynomial method. Within this method, all the computational effort is on the calculation of the expansion coefficients. It also has the advantage of obtaining both conductivities in a single calculation step and for various values of temperature and chemical potential, capturing the topology of the band-structure. Our numerical technique is very general and is suitable for the calculation of transport properties of disordered systems. We analyze how the method's accuracy varies with the number of moments used in the expansion and illustrate our approach by calculating the transverse conductivity of different topological systems. T.G.R, J.H.G and L.C. acknowledge Brazilian agencies CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono, Flemish Science Foundation for financial support.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beattie, D.; Wolfson, M.
2001-01-01
This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencies' implementation of energy and water efficiency methods and renewable energy projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardner, D.G.
1975-01-01
A large amount of cross section and spectral information for neutron-induced reactions will be required for the CTR design program. To undertake to provide the required data through a purely experimental measurement program alone may not be the most efficient way of attacking the problem. It is suggested that a preliminary theoretical calculation be made of all relevant reactions on the dozen or so elements that now seem to comprise the inventory of possible construction materials to find out which are actually important, and over what energy ranges they are important. A number of computer codes for calculating cross sections for neutron induced reactions have been evaluated and extended. These will be described and examples will be given of various types of calculations of interest to the CTR program. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uosif, M.A.M.
2006-01-01
A new 9 th degree polynomial fit function has been constructed to calculate the absolute γ-ray detection efficiencies (ηth) of Ge(Li) and HPGe Detectors, for calculating the absolute efficiency at any interesting γ-energy in the energy range between 25 and 2000 keV and distance between 6 and 148 cm. The total absolute γ -ray detection efficiencies have been calculated for six detectors, three of them are Ge(Li) and three HPGe at different distances. The absolute efficiency of the different detectors was calculated at the specific energy of the standard sources for each measuring distances. In this calculation, experimental (η e xp) and fitting (η f it) efficiency have been calculated. Seven calibrated point sources Am-241, Ba-133, Co-57, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Ra-226 were used. The uncertainties of efficiency calibration have been calculated also for quality control. The measured (η e xp) and (η f it) calculated efficiency values were compared with efficiency, which calculated, by Gray fit function (time)- The results obtained on the basis of (η e xp)and (η f it) seem to be in very good agreement
ORBITALES. A program for the calculation of wave functions with an analytical central potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yunta Carretero; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.
1974-01-01
In this paper is described the objective, basis, carrying out in FORTRAN language and use of the program ORBITALES. This program calculate atomic wave function in the case of ths analytical central potential (Author) 8 refs
The transition equation of the state intensities for exciton model and the calculation program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Xian; Zheng Jiwen; Liu Guoxing; Chen Keliang
1995-01-01
An equation set of the exciton model is given and calculation program is developed. The process of approaching to equilibrium state has been investigated with the program for 12 C + 64 Ni reaction at energy 72 MeV
A Hartree-Fock program for atomic structure calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitroy, J.
1999-01-01
The Hartree-Fock equations for a general open shell atom are described. The matrix equations that result when the single particle orbitals are written in terms of a linear combination of analytic basis functions are derived. Attention is paid to the complexities that occur when open shells are present. The specifics of a working FORTRAN program which is available for public use are described. The program has the flexibility to handle either Slater-type orbitals or Gaussian-type orbitals. It can be obtained over the internet at http://lacebark.ntu.edu.au/j_mitroy/research/atomic.htm Copyright (1999) CSIRO Australia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Klumpp
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Sustainability performance and efficiency is an important topic in transportation and for forwarders. This is shown, for example, by the fact that major logistics service providers LSP publish sustainability reports, often within the annual legal business report. However, in depth research is missing regarding the efficiency of forwarders regarding the established triple bottom line approach for sustainability, including economic, social, and ecology performance areas. This is especially true for a dynamic time-series perspective, as usually only static analyses for one point in time are presented (in most cases single business years. Therefore, the operations research technique of a data envelopment analysis (DEA Malmquist index calculation is used in order to provide a longitudinal calculation of efficiency, incorporating multiple objectives regarding the triple bottom line approach for European forwarders. Several indicators are tested, including total revenues and assets as input types, profit (EBIT and dividend volume (economic dimension, employment and gender equality in management (social, and carbon-equivalent emissions (environmental as output types.
New results to BDD truncation method for efficient top event probability calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mo, Yuchang; Zhong, Farong; Zhao, Xiangfu; Yang, Quansheng; Cui, Gang
2012-01-01
A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a graph-based data structure that calculates an exact top event probability (TEP). It has been a very difficult task to develop an efficient BDD algorithm that can solve a large problem since its memory consumption is very high. Recently, in order to solve a large reliability problem within limited computational resources, Jung presented an efficient method to maintain a small BDD size by a BDD truncation during a BDD calculation. In this paper, it is first identified that Jung's BDD truncation algorithm can be improved for a more practical use. Then, a more efficient truncation algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can generate truncated BDD with smaller size and approximate TEP with smaller truncation error. Empirical results showed this new algorithm uses slightly less running time and slightly more storage usage than Jung's algorithm. It was also found, that designing a truncation algorithm with ideal features for every possible fault tree is very difficult, if not impossible. The so-called ideal features of this paper would be that with the decrease of truncation limits, the size of truncated BDD converges to the size of exact BDD, but should never be larger than exact BDD.
Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.
1996-01-01
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program. Bibliography, 1993 edition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, K.H.
1993-06-01
The Bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of Bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.
Efficiency improvement opportunities in TVs: Implications for market transformation programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie
2013-01-01
Televisions (TVs) account for a significant portion of residential electricity consumption and global TV shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of TVs that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that TV efficiency will likely improve by over 60% by 2015 with savings potential of 45 terawatt-hours [TW h] per year in 2015, compared to today’s technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost effectiveness of three of them. At least one of these options improves efficiency by at least 20% cost effectively beyond ongoing market trends. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy savings potential from TVs which we estimate to be up to 23 TW h per year in 2015. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the recent TV market transition on TV energy consumption. • We review TV technology options that could be realized in the near future. • We assess the cost-effectiveness of selected energy-efficiency improvement options. • We estimate global electricity savings potential in selected scenarios. • We discuss possible directions of market transformation programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carpenter, K.H.
1976-11-01
A description is given of FORTRAN programs for transient eddy current calculations in thin, non-magnetic conductors using a perturbation-polynomial expansion technique. Basic equations are presented as well as flow charts for the programs implementing them. The implementation is in two steps--a batch program to produce an intermediate data file and interactive programs to produce graphical output. FORTRAN source listings are included for all program elements, and sample inputs and outputs are given for the major programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skjerpe, P.
1989-01-01
This report describes a computer program which is useful in transmission electron microscopy. The program is written in FORTRAN and calculates kinematical electron diffraction patterns in any zone axis from a given crystal structure. Quite large unit cells, containing up to 2250 atoms, can be handled by the program. The program runs on both the Helcules graphic card and the standard IBM CGA card
2010-04-01
... mortgage insurance premiums for Program mortgages. 4001.203 Section 4001.203 Housing and Urban Development... HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM HOPE FOR HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM Rights and Obligations Under the Contract of Insurance § 4001.203 Calculation of upfront and annual mortgage insurance premiums for Program mortgages. (a...
PULSTRI-1 computer program for mixed core pulse calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravnik, M.; Mele, I.; Dimic, V.
1990-01-01
PUISTRI-1 is a computer code designed for calculations of the pulse parameters of TRIGA Mark II reactor with mixed core. The code is provided with data for four types of fuel elements: standard 8.5 and 12 w/o, LEU and FLIP. The pulse parameters, such as maximum power, prompt pulse energy and average fuel temperatures are calculated in adiabatic point kinetics, approximation, modified by taking into account temperature dependence of fuel temperature reactivity coefficient and thermal capacity factor averaged over all elements in the core. Maximal fuel temperature at power peaking location is calculated from total released energy using total power peaking factor and heat capacity of the element at the location of the power peaking. Results of the code were compared to data found in references (mainly General Atomics safety analysis reports) showing good agreement for all main pulse parameters. The most important parameters, average and maximal fuel temperature, are found to be systematically slightly overpredicted (20 C and 50 C, respectively). Other parameters (energy, peak power, width) agree within ± 10 % to the reference values. The code is written in FORTRAN for IBM PC computer. The input is user friendly. running time of IBM PC AT is a few seconds. It is designed for practical applications in pulse experiments as an analytical tool for predicting pulse parameters. (orig.)
RAFT: a computer program for fault tree risk calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seybold, G.D.
1977-11-01
A description and user instructions are presented for RAFT, a FORTRAN computer code for calculation of a risk measure for fault tree cut sets. RAFT calculates release quantities and a risk measure based on the product of probability and release quantity for cut sets of fault trees modeling the accidental release of radioactive material from a nuclear fuel cycle facility. Cut sets and their probabilities are supplied as input to RAFT from an external fault tree analysis code. Using the total inventory available of radioactive material, along with release fractions for each event in a cut set, the release terms are calculated for each cut set. Each release term is multiplied by the cut set probability to yield the cut set risk measure. RAFT orders the dominant cut sets on the risk measure. The total risk measure of processed cut sets and their fractional contributions are supplied as output. Input options are available to eliminate redundant cut sets, apply threshold values on cut set probability and risk, and control the total number of cut sets output. Hash addressing is used to remove redundant cut sets from the analysis. Computer hardware and software restrictions are given along with a sample problem and cross-reference table of the code. Except for the use of file management utilities, RAFT is written exclusively in FORTRAN language and is operational on a Control Data, CYBER 74-18--series computer system. 4 figures
MPBEC, a Matlab Program for Biomolecular Electrostatic Calculations
Vergara-Perez, Sandra; Marucho, Marcelo
2015-01-01
One of the most used and efficient approaches to compute electrostatic properties of biological systems is to numerically solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. There are several software packages available that solve the PB equation for molecules in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Most of these software packages are useful for scientists with specialized training and expertise in computational biophysics. However, the user is usually required to manually take several important choices, de...
The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckert, J B
1995-07-01
The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Homb, Anders; Uvsloekk, Sivert
2012-11-01
SINTEF has carried out a project for Cultural Heritage and Enova to document specific qualities of energy-efficient and preservable windows. The work has been based on an older type two-rams window with simple frames and one glass divided into three squares of horizontal crossbars. There were produced two kinds of commodity window, respectively, with single glazing with Insulating. Measurements and calculations have been performed with two different distances from the outer glass to the last frame. The project had the following contents: Measurements of the U-value, Calculation of U-value of accurate and simplified method, Measurements of air density and drying ability, Measurement and evaluation of sound insulation, Estimation of the heat balance (eb)
Systematic, efficient and consistent LCA calculations for chemical and biochemical processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petchkaewkul, Kaesinee; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul
2016-01-01
that allow a wider coverage of chemical and biochemical processes. Improvements of LCIA calculations and eco-efficiency evaluation are introduced. Also, a new model for photochemical ozone formation has been developed and implemented. Performance of LCSoft in terms of accuracy and reliability is compared......Life Cycle Assessment or LCA is a technique, which is applied for the study and evaluation of quantitative environmental impacts through the entire life cycle of products, processes or services in order to improve and/or evaluate the design of existing as well as new processes. The LCA factors can...... with another well-known LCA-software, SimaPro for a biochemical process – the production of bioethanol from cassava rhizome. The results show a very good match of new added impact categories. Also, the results from a new feature in LCSoft, which is eco-efficiency evaluation, are presented....
Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G
2010-12-01
Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
About efficient quasi-Newtonian schemes for variational calculations in nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puddu, G.
2009-01-01
The Broyden-Fletcher-Goldhaber-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newtonian scheme is known as the most efficient scheme for variational calculations of energies. This scheme is actually a member of a one-parameter family of variational methods, known as the Broyden β-family. In some applications to light nuclei using microscopically derived effective Hamiltonians starting from accurate nucleon-nucleon potentials, we actually found other members of the same family which have better performance than the BFGS method. We also extend the Broyden β -family of algorithms to a two-parameter family of rank-three updates which has even better performances. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey Kharitonov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Optimum transport infrastructure usage is an important aspect of the development of the national economy of the Russian Federation. Thus, development of instruments for assessing the efficiency of infrastructure is impossible without constant monitoring of a number of significant indicators. This work is devoted to the selection of indicators and the method of their calculation in relation to the transport subsystem as airport infrastructure. The work also reflects aspects of the evaluation of the possibilities of algorithmic computational mechanisms to improve the tools of public administration transport subsystems.
Exploring efficacy of residential energy efficiency programs in Florida
Taylor, Nicholas Wade
Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the U.S. have committed and continue to invest substantial resources in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. Program investments, and the demand for impact evaluations that accompany them, are projected to grow in coming years due to increased pressure from state-level energy regulation, costs and challenges of building additional production capacity, fuel costs and potential carbon or renewable energy regulation. This dissertation provides detailed analyses of ex-post energy savings from energy efficiency programs in three key sectors of residential buildings: new, single-family, detached homes; retrofits to existing single-family, detached homes; and retrofits to existing multifamily housing units. Each of the energy efficiency programs analyzed resulted in statistically significant energy savings at the full program group level, yet savings for individual participants and participant subgroups were highly variable. Even though savings estimates were statistically greater than zero, those energy savings did not always meet expectations. Results also show that high variability in energy savings among participant groups or subgroups can negatively impact overall program performance and can undermine marketing efforts for future participation. Design, implementation, and continued support of conservation programs based solely on deemed or projected savings is inherently counter to the pursuit of meaningful energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. To fully understand and optimize program impacts, consistent and robust measurement and verification protocols must be instituted in the design phase and maintained over time. Furthermore, marketing for program participation must target those who have the greatest opportunity for savings. In most utility territories it is not possible to gain access to the type of large scale
Efficient implementation of core-excitation Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations
Gilmore, K.; Vinson, John; Shirley, E. L.; Prendergast, D.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Kas, J. J.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.
2015-12-01
We present an efficient implementation of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) method for obtaining core-level spectra including X-ray absorption (XAS), X-ray emission (XES), and both resonant and non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra (N/RIXS). Calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) electronic structures generated either by ABINIT or QuantumESPRESSO, both plane-wave basis, pseudopotential codes. This electronic structure is improved through the inclusion of a GW self energy. The projector augmented wave technique is used to evaluate transition matrix elements between core-level and band states. Final two-particle scattering states are obtained with the NIST core-level BSE solver (NBSE). We have previously reported this implementation, which we refer to as OCEAN (Obtaining Core Excitations from Ab initio electronic structure and NBSE) (Vinson et al., 2011). Here, we present additional efficiencies that enable us to evaluate spectra for systems ten times larger than previously possible; containing up to a few thousand electrons. These improvements include the implementation of optimal basis functions that reduce the cost of the initial DFT calculations, more complete parallelization of the screening calculation and of the action of the BSE Hamiltonian, and various memory reductions. Scaling is demonstrated on supercells of SrTiO3 and example spectra for the organic light emitting molecule Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) are presented. The ability to perform large-scale spectral calculations is particularly advantageous for investigating dilute or non-periodic systems such as doped materials, amorphous systems, or complex nano-structures.
Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars
2012-01-01
This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component invento...... of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives of rationalizing a product program.......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...
A program system for ab initio MO calculations on vector and parallel processing machines. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernenwein, R.; Rohmer, M.M.; Benard, M.
1990-01-01
We present a program system for ab initio molecular orbital calculations on vector and parallel computers. The present article is devoted to the computation of one- and two-electron integrals over contracted Gaussian basis sets involving s-, p-, d- and f-type functions. The McMurchie and Davidson (MMD) algorithm has been implemented and parallelized by distributing over a limited number of logical tasks the calculation of the 55 relevant classes of integrals. All sections of the MMD algorithm have been efficiently vectorized, leading to a scalar/vector ratio of 5.8. Different algorithms are proposed and compared for an optimal vectorization of the contraction of the 'intermediate integrals' generated by the MMD formalism. Advantage is taken of the dynamic storage allocation for tuning the length of the vector loops (i.e. the size of the vectorization buffer) as a function of (i) the total memory available for the job, (ii) the number of logical tasks defined by the user (≤13), and (iii) the storage requested by each specific class of integrals. Test calculations carried out on a CRAY-2 computer show that the average number of finite integrals computed over a (s, p, d, f) CGTO basis set is about 1180000 per second and per processor. The combination of vectorization and parallelism on this 4-processor machine reduces the CPU time by a factor larger than 20 with respect to the scalar and sequential performance. (orig.)
A Methodology to Measure Synergy Among Energy-Efficiency Programs at the Program Participant Level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tonn, B.E.
2003-11-14
This paper presents a methodology designed to measure synergy among energy-efficiency programs at the program participant level (e.g., households, firms). Three different definitions of synergy are provided: strong, moderate, and weak. Data to measure synergy can be collected through simple survey questions. Straightforward mathematical techniques can be used to estimate the three types of synergy and explore relative synergistic impacts of different subsets of programs. Empirical research is needed to test the concepts and methods and to establish quantitative expectations about synergistic relationships among programs. The market for new energy-efficient motors is the context used to illustrate all the concepts and methods in this paper.
EELOSS: the program for calculation of electron energy loss data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Shun-ichi
1980-10-01
A computer code EELOSS has been developed to obtain the electron energy loss data required for shielding and dosimetry of beta- and gamma-rays in nuclear plants. With this code, the following data are obtainable for any energy from 0.01 to 15 MeV in any medium (metal, insulator, gas, compound, or mixture) composed of any choice of 69 elements with atomic number 1 -- 94: a) Collision stopping power, b) Restricted collision stopping power, c) Radiative stopping power, and d) Bremsstrahlung production cross section. The availability of bremsstrahlung production cross section data obtained by the EELOSS code is demonstrated by the comparison of calculated gamma-ray spectrum with measured one in Pb layer, where electron-photon cascade is included implicitly. As a result, it is concluded that the uncertainty in the bremsstrahlung production cross sections is negligible in the practical shielding calculations of gamma rays of energy less than 15 MeV, since the bremsstrahlung production cross sections increase with the gamma-ray energy and the uncertainty for them decreases with increasing the gamma-ray energy. Furthermore, the accuracy of output data of the EELOSS code is evaluated in comparison with experimental data, and satisfactory agreements are observed concerning the stopping power. (J.P.N.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, R.G.
1987-06-01
Due to the strong influence of vapour bubbles on the nuclear chain reaction, an exact calculation of neutron physics and thermal hydraulics in light water reactors requires consideration of subcooled boiling. To this purpose, in the present study a dynamic model is derived from the time-dependent conservation equations. It contains new methods for the time-dependent determination of evaporation and condensation heat flow and for the heat transfer coefficient in subcooled boiling. Furthermore, it enables the complete two-phase flow region to be treated in a consistent manner. The calculation model was verified using measured data of experiments covering a wide range of thermodynamic boundary conditions. In all cases very good agreement was reached. The results from the coupling of the new calculation model with a neutron kinetics program proved its suitability for the steady-state and transient calculation of reactor cores. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Licks, Leticia A.; Pires, Marcal
2008-01-01
This work intends to evaluate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emitted by the burning of fossil coal in Brazil. So, a detailed methodology is proposed for calculation of CO 2 emissions from the carbon emission coefficients specific for the Brazilian carbons. Also, the using of secondary fuels (fuel oil and diesel oil) were considered and the power generation for the calculation of emissions and efficiencies of each power plant as well. The obtained results indicate carbon emissions for the year 2002 approximately of the order of 1,794 Gg, with 20% less than the obtained by the official methodology (MCT). Such differences are related to the non consideration of the humidity containment of the coals as well as the using of generic coefficients not adapted to the Brazilian coals. The obtained results indicate the necessity to review the emission inventories and the modernization of the burning systems aiming the increase the efficiency and reduction of the CO 2 and other pollutants, as an alternative for maintaining the sustainable form of using the fossil coal in the country
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina
2014-03-19
End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new
GENGTC-JB: a computer program to calculate temperature distribution for cylindrical geometry capsule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Someya, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Niimi, Motoji; Hoshiya, Taiji; Harayama, Yasuo
1987-09-01
In design of JMTR irradiation capsules contained specimens, a program (named GENGTC) has been generally used to evaluate temperature distributions in the capsules. The program was originally compiled by ORNL(U.S.A.) and consisted of very simple calculation methods. From the incorporated calculation methods, the program is easy to use, and has many applications to the capsule design. However, it was considered to replace original computing methods with advanced ones, when the program was checked from a standpoint of the recent computer abilities, and also to be complicated in data input. Therefore, the program was versioned up as aim to make better calculations and improve input method. The present report describes revised calculation methods and input/output guide of the version-up program. (author)
Novel and Efficient Methods for Calculating Pressure in Polymer Lattice Models
Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Qiang
2014-03-01
Pressure calculation in polymer lattice models is an important but nontrivial subject. The three existing methods - thermodynamic integration, repulsive wall, and sedimentation equilibrium methods - all have their limitations and cannot be used to accurately calculate the pressure at all polymer volume fractions φ. Here we propose two novel methods. In the first method, we combine Monte Carlo simulation in an expanded grand-canonical ensemble with the Wang-Landau - Optimized Ensemble (WL-OE) simulation to calculate the pressure as a function of polymer volume fraction, which is very efficient at low to intermediate φ and exhibits negligible finite-size effects. In the second method, we introduce a repulsive plane with bridging bonds, which is similar to the repulsive wall method but eliminates its confinement effects, and estimate the two-dimensional density of states (in terms of the number of bridging bonds and the contact number) using the 1/ t version of Wang-Landau algorithm. This works well at all φ, especially at high φ where all the methods involving chain insertion trial moves fail.
Normal Mode Analysis in Zeolites: Toward an Efficient Calculation of Adsorption Entropies.
De Moor, Bart A; Ghysels, An; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel; Marin, Guy B
2011-04-12
An efficient procedure for normal-mode analysis of extended systems, such as zeolites, is developed and illustrated for the physisorption and chemisorption of n-octane and isobutene in H-ZSM-22 and H-FAU using periodic DFT calculations employing the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package. Physisorption and chemisorption entropies resulting from partial Hessian vibrational analysis (PHVA) differ at most 10 J mol(-1) K(-1) from those resulting from full Hessian vibrational analysis, even for PHVA schemes in which only a very limited number of atoms are considered free. To acquire a well-conditioned Hessian, much tighter optimization criteria than commonly used for electronic energy calculations in zeolites are required, i.e., at least an energy cutoff of 400 eV, maximum force of 0.02 eV/Å, and self-consistent field loop convergence criteria of 10(-8) eV. For loosely bonded complexes the mobile adsorbate method is applied, in which frequency contributions originating from translational or rotational motions of the adsorbate are removed from the total partition function and replaced by free translational and/or rotational contributions. The frequencies corresponding with these translational and rotational modes can be selected unambiguously based on a mobile block Hessian-PHVA calculation, allowing the prediction of physisorption entropies within an accuracy of 10-15 J mol(-1) K(-1) as compared to experimental values. The approach presented in this study is useful for studies on other extended catalytic systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.
1991-03-01
Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.
A versatile program for the calculation of linear accelerator room shielding.
Hassan, Zeinab El-Taher; Farag, Nehad M; Elshemey, Wael M
2018-03-22
This work aims at designing a computer program to calculate the necessary amount of shielding for a given or proposed linear accelerator room design in radiotherapy. The program (Shield Calculation in Radiotherapy, SCR) has been developed using Microsoft Visual Basic. It applies the treatment room shielding calculations of NCRP report no. 151 to calculate proper shielding thicknesses for a given linear accelerator treatment room design. The program is composed of six main user-friendly interfaces. The first enables the user to upload their choice of treatment room design and to measure the distances required for shielding calculations. The second interface enables the user to calculate the primary barrier thickness in case of three-dimensional conventional radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and total body irradiation (TBI). The third interface calculates the required secondary barrier thickness due to both scattered and leakage radiation. The fourth and fifth interfaces provide a means to calculate the photon dose equivalent for low and high energy radiation, respectively, in door and maze areas. The sixth interface enables the user to calculate the skyshine radiation for photons and neutrons. The SCR program has been successfully validated, precisely reproducing all of the calculated examples presented in NCRP report no. 151 in a simple and fast manner. Moreover, it easily performed the same calculations for a test design that was also calculated manually, and produced the same results. The program includes a new and important feature that is the ability to calculate required treatment room thickness in case of IMRT and TBI. It is characterised by simplicity, precision, data saving, printing and retrieval, in addition to providing a means for uploading and testing any proposed treatment room shielding design. The SCR program provides comprehensive, simple, fast and accurate room shielding calculations in radiotherapy.
OPORTUNITIES PROGRAM IN MEXICO AND SONORA: IMPACT, EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irasema Lilian Mancillas-Alvarez
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The concept of poverty is based on the monetary approach, which is measured by the method of poverty lines (Foster, Greer and Thoerbecke, 1984; Sen, 1976; while the static microsimulation technique (Bourguignon and Spadaro, 2006 helps quantify the impact of Oportunities in reducing poverty in Mexico and Sonora during the years 2010-2012. The information for this study is obtained from the National Survey of Income and Expenditure Household INEGI (2010, 2012.Lower percentages of poverty were found in Sonora in comparison with the country and no significant impact from the program; the greatest impact was seen in the country since food poverty was reduced (-2.14%, capabilities poverty (- 1.86% and patrimonial poverty (-0.81%. In regards to targeting of the program, in the country there is a slight improvement in efficiency but not in effectiveness and Sonora experienced a significant improvement in efficiency and effectiveness.
Efficient scale for photovoltaic systems and Florida's solar rebate program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkart, Christopher S.; Arguea, Nestor M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a critical view of Florida's photovoltaic (PV) subsidy system and proposes an econometric model of PV system installation and generation costs. Using information on currently installed systems, average installation cost relations for residential and commercial systems are estimated and cost-efficient scales of installation panel wattage are identified. Productive efficiency in annual generating capacity is also examined under flexible panel efficiency assumptions. We identify potential gains in efficiency and suggest changes in subsidy system constraints, providing important guidance for the implementation of future incentive programs. Specifically, we find that the subsidy system discouraged residential applicants from installing at the cost-efficient scale but over-incentivized commercial applicants, resulting in inefficiently sized installations. - Highlights: ► Describe a PV solar incentive system in the U.S. state of Florida. ► Combine geocoded installation site data with a detailed irradiance map. ► Estimate installation and production costs across a large sample. ► Identify inefficiencies in the incentive system. ► Suggest changes to policy that would improve economic efficiency.
Test of Effective Solid Angle code for the efficiency calculation of volume source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, M. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, G. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
It is hard to determine a full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency curve for an arbitrary volume source by experiment. That's why the simulation and semi-empirical methods have been preferred so far, and many works have progressed in various ways. Moens et al. determined the concept of effective solid angle by considering an attenuation effect of γ-rays in source, media and detector. This concept is based on a semi-empirical method. An Effective Solid Angle code (ESA code) has been developed for years by the Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University. ESA code converts an experimental FE efficiency curve determined by using a standard point source to that for a volume source. To test the performance of ESA Code, we measured the point standard sources and voluminous certified reference material (CRM) sources of γ-ray, and compared with efficiency curves obtained in this study. 200∼1500 KeV energy region is fitted well. NIST X-ray mass attenuation coefficient data is used currently to check for the effect of linear attenuation only. We will use the interaction cross-section data obtained from XCOM code to check the each contributing factor like photoelectric effect, incoherent scattering and coherent scattering in the future. In order to minimize the calculation time and code simplification, optimization of algorithm is needed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Ivaschenko
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The program module has been developed on the basis of package of applied MATLAB programs which allows to calculate speed of coating sedimentation over the section of plasma stream taking into account magnetic field influence of a stabilizing coil, and also to correct the obtained value of sedimentation speed depending on the value of negative accelerating potential, arch current, technological gas pressure. The program resolves visualization of calculation results.
Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL
2015-01-01
The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.
Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parker, G B; Currie, J W
1992-03-01
This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semi-annual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semi-annually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.
Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.
1992-03-01
This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semi-annual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semi-annually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khuat, Quang Huy; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho
2015-01-01
This technique is known as Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method and it is implemented in SCALE code system. In the CADIS method, adjoint transport equation has to be solved to determine deterministic importance functions. Using the CADIS method, a problem was noted that the biased adjoint flux estimated by deterministic methods can affect the calculation efficiency and error. The biases of adjoint function are caused by the methodology, calculation strategy, tolerance of result calculated by the deterministic method and inaccurate multi-group cross section libraries. In this paper, a study to analyze the influence of the biased adjoint functions into Monte Carlo computational efficiency is pursued. In this study, a method to estimate the calculation efficiency was proposed for applying the biased adjoint fluxes in the CADIS approach. For a benchmark problem, the responses and FOMs using SCALE code system were evaluated as applying the adjoint fluxes. The results show that the biased adjoint fluxes significantly affects the calculation efficiencies
An innovative educational program for residential energy efficiency. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laquatra, J.; Chi, P.S.K.
1996-09-01
Recognizing the importance of energy conservation, under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Cornell University conducted a research and demonstration project entitled An Innovative Educational Program for Residential Energy Efficiency. The research project examined the amount of residential energy that can be saved through changes in behavior and practices of household members. To encourage these changes, a workshop was offered to randomly-selected households in New York State. Two surveys were administered to household participants (Survey 1 and Survey 2, Appendix A) and a control group; and a manual was developed to convey many easy but effective ways to make a house more energy efficient (see Residential Manual, Appendix B). Implementing methods of energy efficiency will help reduce this country`s dependence on foreign energy sources and will also reduce the amount of money that is lost on inefficient energy use. Because Cornell Cooperative Extension operates as a component of the land-grant university system throughout the US, the results of this research project have been used to develop a program that can be implemented by the Cooperative Extension Service nationwide. The specific goals and objectives for this project will be outlined, the population and sample for the research will be described, and the instruments utilized for the survey will be explained. A description of the workshop and manual will also be discussed. This report will end with a summary of the results from this project and any observed changes and/or recommendations for future surveys pertaining to energy efficiency.
ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roselaine Cristina Pereira
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.
SCMAG series of programs for calculating superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1974-10-01
Programs SCMAG1, SCMAG2, SCMAG3, and SCMAG4 are a group of programs used to design and calculate the characteristics of conductor dominated superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets. These magnets are used to bend and focus beams of high energy particles and are being used to design the superconducting magnets for the LBL ESCAR accelerator. The four programs are briefly described. (TFD)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
1998-03-01
Application programs for personal computers are developed to calculate the decay heat power and delayed neutron activity from fission products. The main programs can be used in any computers from personal computers to main frames because their sources are written in Fortran. These programs have user friendly interfaces to be used easily not only for research activities but also for educational purposes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigorov, Grigor N.; Chow, James C.L.; Grigorov, Lenko; Jiang, Runqing; Barnett, Rob B.
2006-01-01
The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is a predictor of radiobiological effect for organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the NTCP is based on the dose-volume-histogram (DVH) which is generated by the treatment planning system after calculation of the 3D dose distribution. Including the NTCP in the objective function for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization would make the planning more effective in reducing the postradiation effects. However, doing so would lengthen the total planning time. The purpose of this work is to establish a method for NTCP determination, independent of a DVH calculation, as a quality assurance check and also as a mean of improving the treatment planning efficiency. In the study, the CTs of ten randomly selected prostate patients were used. IMRT optimization was performed with a PINNACLE3 V 6.2b planning system, using planning target volume (PTV) with margins in the range of 2 to 10 mm. The DVH control points of the PTV and OAR were adapted from the prescriptions of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol P-0126 for an escalated prescribed dose of 82 Gy. This paper presents a new model for the determination of the rectal NTCP ( R NTCP). The method uses a special function, named GVN (from Gy, Volume, NTCP), which describes the R NTCP if 1 cm 3 of the volume of intersection of the PTV and rectum (R int ) is irradiated uniformly by a dose of 1 Gy. The function was 'geometrically' normalized using a prostate-prostate ratio (PPR) of the patients' prostates. A correction of the R NTCP for different prescribed doses, ranging from 70 to 82 Gy, was employed in our model. The argument of the normalized function is the R int , and parameters are the prescribed dose, prostate volume, PTV margin, and PPR. The R NTCPs of another group of patients were calculated by the new method and the resulting difference was <±5% in comparison to the NTCP calculated by the PINNACLE3 software where Kutcher's dose
Padgett, R; Kotre, C J
2005-01-01
This project aimed to produce programs to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray systems, given a suitable digital image. The MTF was calculated using the edge technique and the NPS was calculated from a flat field image. Both programs require a suitably edited DICOM image as input. The DQE was then calculated from the output of MTF and NPS programs. This required data external to the DQE program to estimate the number of quanta per mm2 in the beam which formed the NPS image. All three programs run independent of each other on a PC and require no special software to be installed. Results for MTF, NPS and DQE for a Philips AC3 CR system are presented. In addition, the results for MTF from a Siemens Duo CT scanner with a specially designed PTFE edge are also shown.
Program for calculating multi-component high-intense ion beam transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazarinov, N.Yu.; Prejzendorf, V.A.
1985-01-01
The CANAL program for calculating transport of high-intense beams containing ions with different charges in a channel consisting of dipole magnets and quadrupole lenses is described. The equations determined by the method of distribution function momenta and describing coordinate variations of the local mass centres and r.m.s. transverse sizes of beams with different charges form the basis of the calculation. The program is adapted for the CDC-6500 and SM-4 computers. The program functioning is organized in the interactive mode permitting to vary the parameters of any channel element and quickly choose the optimum version in the course of calculation. The calculation time for the CDC-6500 computer for the 30-40 m channel at the integration step of 1 cm is about 1 min. The program is used for calculating the channel for the uranium ion beam injection from the collective accelerator into the heavy-ion synchrotron
TEMP-M program for thermal-hydraulic calculation of fast reactor fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogoslovskaya, C.P.; Sorokin, A.P.; Tikhomirov, B.B.; Titov, P.A.; Ushakov, P.A.
1983-01-01
TEMP-M program (Fortran, BESM-6 computer) for thermal-hydraulic calculation of fast reactor fuel assemblies is described. Results of calculation of temperature field in a 127 fuel element assembly of BN-600, reactor accomplished according to TEMP-N program are considered as an example. Algorithm, realized in the program, enables to calculate the distributions of coolant heating, fuel element temperature (over perimeter and length) and assembly shell temperature. The distribution of coolant heating in assembly channels is determined from a solution of the balance equation system which accounts for interchannel exchange, nonadiabatic conditions on the assembly shell. The TEMP-M program gives necessary information for calculation of strength, seviceability of fast reactor core elements, serves an effective instrument for calculations when projecting reactor cores and analyzing thermal-hydraulic characteristics of operating reactor fuel assemblies
A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage
Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.
2006-10-01
A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with
Monte Carlo based geometrical model for efficiency calculation of an n-type HPGe detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padilla Cabal, Fatima, E-mail: fpadilla@instec.c [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, ' Quinta de los Molinos' Ave. Salvador Allende, esq. Luaces, Plaza de la Revolucion, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400 (Cuba); Lopez-Pino, Neivy; Luis Bernal-Castillo, Jose; Martinez-Palenzuela, Yisel; Aguilar-Mena, Jimmy; D' Alessandro, Katia; Arbelo, Yuniesky; Corrales, Yasser; Diaz, Oscar [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, ' Quinta de los Molinos' Ave. Salvador Allende, esq. Luaces, Plaza de la Revolucion, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400 (Cuba)
2010-12-15
A procedure to optimize the geometrical model of an n-type detector is described. Sixteen lines from seven point sources ({sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 152}Eu) placed at three different source-to-detector distances (10, 20 and 30 cm) were used to calibrate a low-background gamma spectrometer between 26 and 1408 keV. Direct Monte Carlo techniques using the MCNPX 2.6 and GEANT 4 9.2 codes, and a semi-empirical procedure were performed to obtain theoretical efficiency curves. Since discrepancies were found between experimental and calculated data using the manufacturer parameters of the detector, a detail study of the crystal dimensions and the geometrical configuration is carried out. The relative deviation with experimental data decreases from a mean value of 18-4%, after the parameters were optimized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Havu, V.; Blum, V.; Havu, P.; Scheffler, M.
2009-01-01
We consider the problem of developing O(N) scaling grid-based operations needed in many central operations when performing electronic structure calculations with numeric atom-centered orbitals as basis functions. We outline the overall formulation of localized algorithms, and specifically the creation of localized grid batches. The choice of the grid partitioning scheme plays an important role in the performance and memory consumption of the grid-based operations. Three different top-down partitioning methods are investigated, and compared with formally more rigorous yet much more expensive bottom-up algorithms. We show that a conceptually simple top-down grid partitioning scheme achieves essentially the same efficiency as the more rigorous bottom-up approaches.
GoSam: A program for automated one-loop calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cullen, G; Greiner, N; Heinrich, G; Mastrolia, P; Reiter, T; Luisoni, G; Ossola, G; Tramontano, F
2012-01-01
The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples.
GoSam. A program for automated one-loop calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cullen, G.; Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Reiter, T.; Luisoni, G.
2011-11-01
The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples. (orig.)
GoSam. A program for automated one-loop calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cullen, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Reiter, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, G. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, G. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; Tramontano, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
2011-11-15
The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples. (orig.)
On calculation of detection efficiency of gamma spectrometers with germanium detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sima, O.
2001-01-01
High resolution gamma spectrometer represents a powerful analysis technique of use in various fields from basic research to the study of environmental radioactivity, from medical investigations to geological surveys. Direct experimental calibration cannot cover the large range of measurement configurations of interest. Actually, it can be appropriately applied in an only limited number of cases, as for instance, in case of point-like sources or liquid phase volume sources. To assist the treatment of experimental calibration of germanium detectors, in the frame of Atomic and Nuclear Physics Chair of Department of Physics, a number of calculation methods were developed. These methods are generally based on Monte Carlo simulation but simplified and fast analytical methods were also worked out. Initially, these studies were dedicated to application in the field of environmental activity and radiation protection, but later on these were extended also to other fields as, for instance, the neutron activation or radionuclide metrology. First, the effects of matrices were calculated for the case of volume sources. Applying the matrix corrections allows obtaining the source calibration curves on the basis of experimental calibration data obtained with liquid sources, in the same geometry. An algorithm based on Monte Carlo calculation and using techniques of correlated selection was obtained. This algorithm can be implemented in the gamma analysis programs giving for the first time the possibility of correct evaluation of matrix effects even during the analysis of gamma spectra. We used a set of additive relations applicable in case of volume sources with negligible self-absorption and obtained a number of linear relations useful in calibrating the large volume sources in presence of self-absorption, based on small volume standard sources. Also, we proposed analytical relations useful in the case of measurements of large volume samples, in case of Marinelli geometry. To
pyRMSD: a Python package for efficient pairwise RMSD matrix calculation and handling.
Gil, Víctor A; Guallar, Víctor
2013-09-15
We introduce pyRMSD, an open source standalone Python package that aims at offering an integrative and efficient way of performing Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD)-related calculations of large sets of structures. It is specially tuned to do fast collective RMSD calculations, as pairwise RMSD matrices, implementing up to three well-known superposition algorithms. pyRMSD provides its own symmetric distance matrix class that, besides the fact that it can be used as a regular matrix, helps to save memory and increases memory access speed. This last feature can dramatically improve the overall performance of any Python algorithm using it. In addition, its extensibility, testing suites and documentation make it a good choice to those in need of a workbench for developing or testing new algorithms. The source code (under MIT license), installer, test suites and benchmarks can be found at https://pele.bsc.es/ under the tools section. victor.guallar@bsc.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Use of spatial symmetry in atomic--integral calculations: an efficient permutational approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouzo, H.L.
1979-01-01
The minimal number of independent nonzero atomic integrals that occur over arbitrarily oriented basis orbitals of the form R(r).Y/sub lm/(Ω) is theoretically derived. The corresponding method can be easily applied to any point group, including the molecular continuous groups C/sub infinity v/ and D/sub infinity h/. On the basis of this (theoretical) lower bound, the efficiency of the permutational approach in generating sets of independent integrals is discussed. It is proved that lobe orbitals are always more efficient than the familiar Cartesian Gaussians, in the sense that GLOS provide the shortest integral lists. Moreover, it appears that the new axial GLOS often lead to a number of integrals, which is the theoretical lower bound previously defined. With AGLOS, the numbers of two-electron integrals to be computed, stored, and processed are divided by factors 2.9 (NH 3 ), 4.2 (C 5 H 5 ), and 3.6 (C 6 H 6 ) with reference to the corresponding CGTOS calculations. Remembering that in the permutational approach, atomic integrals are directly computed without any four-indice transformation, it appears that its utilization in connection with AGLOS provides one of the most powerful tools for treating symmetrical species. 34 references
Efficient Sample Delay Calculation for 2-D and 3-D Ultrasound Imaging.
Ibrahim, Aya; Hager, Pascal A; Bartolini, Andrea; Angiolini, Federico; Arditi, Marcel; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Benini, Luca; De Micheli, Giovanni
2017-08-01
Ultrasound imaging is a reference medical diagnostic technique, thanks to its blend of versatility, effectiveness, and moderate cost. The core computation of all ultrasound imaging methods is based on simple formulae, except for those required to calculate acoustic propagation delays with high precision and throughput. Unfortunately, advanced three-dimensional (3-D) systems require the calculation or storage of billions of such delay values per frame, which is a challenge. In 2-D systems, this requirement can be four orders of magnitude lower, but efficient computation is still crucial in view of low-power implementations that can be battery-operated, enabling usage in numerous additional scenarios. In this paper, we explore two smart designs of the delay generation function. To quantify their hardware cost, we implement them on FPGA and study their footprint and performance. We evaluate how these architectures scale to different ultrasound applications, from a low-power 2-D system to a next-generation 3-D machine. When using numerical approximations, we demonstrate the ability to generate delay values with sufficient throughput to support 10 000-channel 3-D imaging at up to 30 fps while using 63% of a Virtex 7 FPGA, requiring 24 MB of external memory accessed at about 32 GB/s bandwidth. Alternatively, with similar FPGA occupation, we show an exact calculation method that reaches 24 fps on 1225-channel 3-D imaging and does not require external memory at all. Both designs can be scaled to use a negligible amount of resources for 2-D imaging in low-power applications and for ultrafast 2-D imaging at hundreds of frames per second.
Experimental verification of photon: A program for use in x-ray shielding calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brauer, E.; Thomlinson, W.
1987-01-01
At the National Synchrotron Light Source, a computer program named PHOTON has been developed to calculate radiation dose values around a beam line. The output from the program must be an accurate guide to beam line shielding. To test the program, a series of measurements of radiation dose were carried out using existing beam lines; the results were compared to the theoretical calculations of PHOTON. Several different scattering geometries, scattering materials, and sets of walls and shielding materials were studied. Results of the measurements allowed many advances to be made in the program, ultimately resulting in good agreement between the theory and experiment. 3 refs., 6 figs
Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1980-05-23
The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagag, O.M.; Nafee, S.S.; Naeem, M.A.; El Khatib, A.M.
2011-01-01
The direct mathematical method has been developed for calculating the total efficiency of many cylindrical gamma detectors, especially HPGe and NaI detector. Different source geometries are considered (point and disk). Further into account is taken of gamma attenuation from detector window or any interfacing absorbing layer. Results are compared with published experimental data to study the validity of the direct mathematical method to calculate total efficiency for any gamma detector size.
KAPSIES: A program for the calculation of multi-step direct reaction cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.
1994-09-01
We present a program for the calculation of continuum cross sections, sepctra, angular distributions and analyzing powers according to various quantum-mechanical theories for statistical multi-step direct nuclear reactions. (orig.)
Bennett, R. M.; Bland, S. R.; Redd, L. T.
1973-01-01
Computer programs for calculating the stability characteristics of a balloon tethered in a steady wind are presented. Equilibrium conditions, characteristic roots, and modal ratios are calculated for a range of discrete values of velocity for a fixed tether-line length. Separate programs are used: (1) to calculate longitudinal stability characteristics, (2) to calculate lateral stability characteristics, (3) to plot the characteristic roots versus velocity, (4) to plot the characteristic roots in root-locus form, (5) to plot the longitudinal modes of motion, and (6) to plot the lateral modes for motion. The basic equations, program listings, and the input and output data for sample cases are presented, with a brief discussion of the overall operation and limitations. The programs are based on a linearized, stability-derivative type of analysis, including balloon aerodynamics, apparent mass, buoyancy effects, and static forces which result from the tether line.
CRYOCOL a computer program to calculate the cryogenic distillation of hydrogen isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, S.R.
1993-02-01
This report describes the computer model and mathematical method coded into the AECL Research computer program CRYOCOL. The purpose of CRYOCOL is to calculate the separation of hydrogen isotopes by cryogenic distillation. (Author)
Boyd, O.S.
2006-01-01
We have created a second-order finite-difference solution to the anisotropic elastic wave equation in three dimensions and implemented the solution as an efficient Matlab script. This program allows the user to generate synthetic seismograms for three-dimensional anisotropic earth structure. The code was written for teleseismic wave propagation in the 1-0.1 Hz frequency range but is of general utility and can be used at all scales of space and time. This program was created to help distinguish among various types of lithospheric structure given the uneven distribution of sources and receivers commonly utilized in passive source seismology. Several successful implementations have resulted in a better appreciation for subduction zone structure, the fate of a transform fault with depth, lithospheric delamination, and the effects of wavefield focusing and defocusing on attenuation. Companion scripts are provided which help the user prepare input to the finite-difference solution. Boundary conditions including specification of the initial wavefield, absorption and two types of reflection are available. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emily Saurman
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP is a telehealth solution providing specialist emergency mental health care to rural and remote communities across western NSW, Australia. This is the first time and motion (T&M study to examine program efficiency and capacity for a telepsychiatry program. Clinical services are an integral aspect of the program accounting for 6% of all activities and 50% of the time spent conducting program activities, but half of this time is spent completing clinical paperwork. This finding emphasizes the importance of these services to program efficiency and the need to address variability of service provision to impact capacity. Currently, there is no efficiency benchmark for emergency telepsychiatry programs. Findings suggest that MHEC-RAP could increase its activity without affecting program responsiveness. T&M studies not only determine activity and time expenditure, but have a wider application assessing program efficiency by understanding, defining, and calculating capacity. T&M studies can inform future program development of MHEC-RAP and similar telehealth programs, both in Australia and overseas.
Study on the output from programs in calculating lattice with transverse coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Jianming
1994-01-01
SYNCH and MAD outputs in calculating lattice with coordinate rotation have been studied. The result shows that the four dispersion functions given by SYNCH output in this case are wrong. There are large discrepancies between the Twiss Parameters given by these two programs. One has to be careful in using these programs to calculate or match lattices with coordinate rotations (coupling between two transverse motions) so that to avoid wrong results
FISPRO: a simplified computer program for general fission product formation and decay calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiacoletti, R.J.; Bailey, P.G.
1979-08-01
This report describes a computer program that solves a general form of the fission product formation and decay equations over given time steps for arbitrary decay chains composed of up to three nuclides. All fission product data and operational history data are input through user-defined input files. The program is very useful in the calculation of fission product activities of specific nuclides for various reactor operational histories and accident consequence calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoogenboom, J. E.
2004-01-01
Although Russian roulette is applied very often in Monte Carlo calculations, not much literature exists on its quantitative influence on the variance and efficiency of a Monte Carlo calculation. Elaborating on the work of Lux and Koblinger using moment equations, new relevant equations are derived to calculate the variance of a Monte Carlo simulation using Russian roulette. To demonstrate its practical application the theory is applied to a simplified transport model resulting in explicit analytical expressions for the variance of a Monte Carlo calculation and for the expected number of collisions per history. From these expressions numerical results are shown and compared with actual Monte Carlo calculations, showing an excellent agreement. By considering the number of collisions in a Monte Carlo calculation as a measure of the CPU time, also the efficiency of the Russian roulette can be studied. It opens the way for further investigations, including optimization of Russian roulette parameters. (authors)
HEINBE; the calculation program for helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Sato, Minoru
1992-11-01
HEINBE is a program on personal computer for calculating helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The program can also calculate the tritium production in beryllium. Considering many nuclear reactions and their multi-step reactions, helium and tritium productions in beryllium materials irradiated at fusion reactor or fission reactor may be calculated with high accuracy. The calculation method, user's manual, calculated examples and comparison with experimental data were described. This report also describes a neutronics simulation method to generate additional data on swelling of beryllium, 3,000-15,000 appm helium range, for end-of-life of the proposed design for fusion blanket of the ITER. The calculation results indicate that helium production for beryllium sample doped lithium by 50 days irradiation in the fission reactor, such as the JMTR, could be achieved to 2,000-8,000 appm. (author)
Program system for calculating streaming neutron radiation field in reactor cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Zhongliang; Zhao Shu.
1986-01-01
The A23 neutron albedo data base based on Monte Carlo method well agrees with SAIL albedo data base. RSCAM program system, using Monte Carlo method with albedo approach, is used to calculate streaming neutron radiation field in reactor cavity and containment operating hall. The dose rate distributions calculated with RSCAM in square concrete duct well agree with experiments
Computer program FPIP-REV calculates fission product inventory for U-235 fission
Brown, W. S.; Call, D. W.
1967-01-01
Computer program calculates fission product inventories and source strengths associated with the operation of U-235 fueled nuclear power reactor. It utilizes a fission-product nuclide library of 254 nuclides, and calculates the time dependent behavior of the fission product nuclides formed by fissioning of U-235.
MP.EXE, a Calculation Program for Pressure Reciprocity Calibration of Microphones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Knud
1998-01-01
A computer program is described which calculates the pressure sensitivity of microphones based on measurements of the electrical transfer impedance in a reciprocity calibration set-up. The calculations are performed according to the International Standard IEC 6194-2. In addition a number of options...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gast, R.C.
1981-08-01
A procedure for defining diffusion coefficients from Monte Carlo calculations that results in suitable ones for use in neutron diffusion theory calculations is not readily obtained. This study provides a survey of the methods used to define diffusion coefficients from deterministic calculations and provides a discussion as to why such traditional methods cannot be used in Monte Carlo. This study further provides the empirical procedure used for defining diffusion coefficients from the RCP01 Monte Carlo program
COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CALCULATION MICROCHANNEL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga V. Olshevska
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Creating a computer program to calculate microchannel air condensers to reduce design time and carrying out variant calculations. Software packages for thermophysical properties of the working substance and the coolant, the correlation equation for calculating heat transfer, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, the thermodynamic equations for the irreversible losses and their minimization in the heat exchanger were used in the process of creating. Borland Delphi 7 is used for creating software package.
Thermal Hydraulic Fortran Program for Steady State Calculations of Plate Type Fuel Research Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khedr, H.
2008-01-01
The safety assessment of Research and Power Reactors is a continuous process over their life and that requires verified and validated codes. Power Reactor codes all over the world are well established and qualified against a real measuring data and qualified experimental facilities. These codes are usually sophisticated, require special skills and consume much more running time. On the other hand, most of the Research Reactor codes still requiring more data for validation and qualification. Therefore it is benefit for a regulatory body and the companies working in the area of Research Reactor assessment and design to have their own program that give them a quick judgment. The present paper introduces a simple one dimensional Fortran program called THDSN for steady state best estimate Thermal Hydraulic (TH) calculations of plate type fuel RRs. Beside calculating the fuel and coolant temperature distribution and pressure gradient in an average and hot channel the program calculates the safety limits and margins against the critical phenomena encountered in RR such as the burnout heat flux and the onset of flow instability. Well known TH correlations for calculating the safety parameters are used. THDSN program is verified by comparing its results for 2 and 10 MW benchmark reactors with that published in IAEA publications and good agreement is found. Also the program results are compared with those published for other programs such as PARET and TERMIC. An extension for this program is underway to cover the transient TH calculations
Mathematical model and calculation of water-cooling efficiency in a film-filled cooling tower
Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.
2016-10-01
Different approaches to simulation of momentum, mass, and energy transfer in packed beds are considered. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a wetted packed bed for turbulent gas flow and laminar wave counter flow of the fluid film in sprinkler units of a water-cooling tower is presented. The packed bed is represented as the set of equivalent channels with correction to twisting. The idea put forward by P. Kapitsa on representation of waves on the interphase film surface as elements of the surface roughness in interaction with the gas flow is used. The temperature and moisture content profiles are found from the solution of differential equations of heat and mass transfer written for the equivalent channel with the volume heat and mass source. The equations for calculation of the average coefficients of heat emission and mass exchange in regular and irregular beds with different contact elements, as well as the expression for calculation of the average turbulent exchange coefficient are presented. The given formulas determine these coefficients for the known hydraulic resistance of the packed bed element. The results of solution of the system of equations are presented, and the water temperature profiles are shown for different sprinkler units in industrial water-cooling towers. The comparison with experimental data on thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is made; this allows one to determine the temperature of the cooled water at the output. The technical solutions on increasing the cooling tower performance by equalization of the air velocity profile at the input and creation of an additional phase contact region using irregular elements "Inzhekhim" are considered.
Efficient voxel navigation for proton therapy dose calculation in TOPAS and Geant4
Schümann, J.; Paganetti, H.; Shin, J.; Faddegon, B.; Perl, J.
2012-06-01
A key task within all Monte Carlo particle transport codes is ‘navigation’, the calculation to determine at each particle step what volume the particle may be leaving and what volume the particle may be entering. Navigation should be optimized to the specific geometry at hand. For patient dose calculation, this geometry generally involves voxelized computed tomography (CT) data. We investigated the efficiency of navigation algorithms on currently available voxel geometry parameterizations in the Monte Carlo simulation package Geant4: G4VPVParameterisation, G4VNestedParameterisation and G4PhantomParameterisation, the last with and without boundary skipping, a method where neighboring voxels with the same Hounsfield unit are combined into one larger voxel. A fourth parameterization approach (MGHParameterization), developed in-house before the latter two parameterizations became available in Geant4, was also included in this study. All simulations were performed using TOPAS, a tool for particle simulations layered on top of Geant4. Runtime comparisons were made on three distinct patient CT data sets: a head and neck, a liver and a prostate patient. We included an additional version of these three patients where all voxels, including the air voxels outside of the patient, were uniformly set to water in the runtime study. The G4VPVParameterisation offers two optimization options. One option has a 60-150 times slower simulation speed. The other is compatible in speed but requires 15-19 times more memory compared to the other parameterizations. We found the average CPU time used for the simulation relative to G4VNestedParameterisation to be 1.014 for G4PhantomParameterisation without boundary skipping and 1.015 for MGHParameterization. The average runtime ratio for G4PhantomParameterisation with and without boundary skipping for our heterogeneous data was equal to 0.97: 1. The calculated dose distributions agreed with the reference distribution for all but the G4
Maneval, Daniel; Bouchard, Hugo; Ozell, Benoît; Després, Philippe
2018-01-01
The equivalent restricted stopping power formalism is introduced for proton mean energy loss calculations under the continuous slowing down approximation. The objective is the acceleration of Monte Carlo dose calculations by allowing larger steps while preserving accuracy. The fractional energy loss per step length ɛ was obtained with a secant method and a Gauss-Kronrod quadrature estimation of the integral equation relating the mean energy loss to the step length. The midpoint rule of the Newton-Cotes formulae was then used to solve this equation, allowing the creation of a lookup table linking ɛ to the equivalent restricted stopping power L eq, used here as a key physical quantity. The mean energy loss for any step length was simply defined as the product of the step length with L eq. Proton inelastic collisions with electrons were added to GPUMCD, a GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation code. The proton continuous slowing-down was modelled with the L eq formalism. GPUMCD was compared to Geant4 in a validation study where ionization processes alone were activated and a voxelized geometry was used. The energy straggling was first switched off to validate the L eq formalism alone. Dose differences between Geant4 and GPUMCD were smaller than 0.31% for the L eq formalism. The mean error and the standard deviation were below 0.035% and 0.038% respectively. 99.4 to 100% of GPUMCD dose points were consistent with a 0.3% dose tolerance. GPUMCD 80% falloff positions (R80 ) matched Geant’s R80 within 1 μm. With the energy straggling, dose differences were below 2.7% in the Bragg peak falloff and smaller than 0.83% elsewhere. The R80 positions matched within 100 μm. The overall computation times to transport one million protons with GPUMCD were 31-173 ms. Under similar conditions, Geant4 computation times were 1.4-20 h. The L eq formalism led to an intrinsic efficiency gain factor ranging between 30-630, increasing with the prescribed accuracy of simulations. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, K.; Vossebrecker, H.
The Monte Carlo Program ALBEMO calculates the distribution of neutrons and gamma rays in void volumes which are bounded by reflecting walls with x, y, z coordinates. The program is based on the albedo method. The effect of significant simplifying assumptions is investigated. Comparisons with experiments show satisfying agreement
The Influence of Using TI-84 Calculators with Programs on Algebra I High Stakes Examinations
Spencer, Misty
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference in scores on the Mississippi Algebra I SATP2 when one group was allowed to use programs and the other group was not allowed to use programs on TI-84 calculators. An additional purpose of the study was also to determine if there was a significant difference in the…
SCMAG series of programs for calculating superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1974-01-01
A general description is given of four computer programs for calculating the characteristics of superconducting magnets used in the bending and focusing of high-energy particle beams. The programs are being used in the design of magnets for the LBL ESCAR (Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring) accelerator. (U.S.)
Gordon, S.; Mcbride, B.; Zeleznik, F. J.
1984-01-01
An addition to the computer program of NASA SP-273 is given that permits transport property calculations for the gaseous phase. Approximate mixture formulas are used to obtain viscosity and frozen thermal conductivity. Reaction thermal conductivity is obtained by the same method as in NASA TN D-7056. Transport properties for 154 gaseous species were selected for use with the program.
WAD, a program to calculate the heat produced by alpha decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarvis, R.G.; Bretzlaff, C.I.
1982-09-01
The FORTRAN program WAD (Watts from Alpha Decay) deals with the alpha and beta decay chains to be encountered in advanced fuel cycles for CANDU reactors. The data library covers all necessary alpha-emitting and beta-emitting nuclides and the program calculates the heat produced by alpha decay. Any permissible chain can be constructed very simply
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oka Simeon
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleury, W.H.; Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.
1975-09-01
A set of computer programs for the calculation of the flexural and torsional resonant frequencies of rectangular section bars of materials of orthotropic or higher symmetry are described. The calculations are used in the experimental determination and verification of the elastic constants of anisotropic materials. The simple finite element technique employed separates the inertial and elastic properties of the beam element into station and field transfer matrices respectively. It includes the Timoshenko beam corrections for flexure and Lekhnitskii's theory for torsion-flexure coupling. The programs also calculate the vibration shapes and surface nodal contours or Chladni figures of the vibration modes. (author)
SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.
1985-07-01
A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3{sup H} and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3{sup H} and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14{sup C}. The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs.
SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.
1985-01-01
A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3 H and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3 H and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14 C . The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs
Scinfi, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.
1984-01-01
A code, Scinfi, was developed, written in Basic, to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3 H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3 H and the problem (e.g. 14 C). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14 C. Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have been checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14 C standardized samples. (author)
SCINFI, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.
1984-01-01
A code, SCINFI, was developed, written in BASIC, to compute the efficiency- quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3H and the problem (e.g. 14 C ). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14 c . Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have bean checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14 c standardized samples. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
V Carmona, V.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Lliso, F.; Richart Sancho, J.; Ballester, F.; Pujades-Claumarchirant, M.C.; Munoz, M.
2010-01-01
In this work a program is presented that independently checks for each patient the treatment planning system calculations in low dose rate, high dose rate and pulsed dose rate brachytherapy. The treatment planning system output text files are automatically loaded in this program in order to get the source coordinates, the desired calculation point coordinates and the dwell times when it is the case. The source strength and the reference dates are introduced by the user. The program allows implementing the recommendations about independent verification of the clinical brachytherapy dosimetry in a simple and accurate way, in few minutes. (Author).
FORTRAN program for calculating liquid-phase and gas-phase thermal diffusion column coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutherford, W.M.
1980-01-01
A computer program (COLCO) was developed for calculating thermal diffusion column coefficients from theory. The program, which is written in FORTRAN IV, can be used for both liquid-phase and gas-phase thermal diffusion columns. Column coefficients for the gas phase can be based on gas properties calculated from kinetic theory using tables of omega integrals or on tables of compiled physical properties as functions of temperature. Column coefficients for the liquid phase can be based on compiled physical property tables. Program listings, test data, sample output, and users manual are supplied for appendices
DWPI: a computer program to calculate the inelastic scattering of pions from nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eisenstein, R A; Miller, G A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics
1976-02-01
Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of pions are generated using the distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA). The cross section for a given transition is calculated by summing a partial wave expansion. The T-matrix elements are calculated using distorted pion waves from the program PIRK, and therefore include elastic scattering to all orders. The excitation is treated in first order only. Several optical potentials and nuclear densities are available in the program. The transition form factor may be uncoupled from the ground-state density. Coulomb excitation, which interferes coherently with the strong interaction, is a program option.
Comparison of the results of radiation transport calculation obtained by means of different programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbatkov, D.V.; Kruchkov, V.P.
1995-01-01
Verification of calculational results of radiation transport, obtained by the known, programs and constant libraries (MCNP+ENDF/B, ANISN+HILO, FLUKA92) by means of their comparison with the precision results calculations through ROZ-6N+Sadko program constant complex and with experimental data, is carried out. Satisfactory agreement is shown with the MCNP+ENDF/B package data for the energy range of E<14 MeV. Analysis of the results derivations, obtained trough the ANISN-HILO package for E<400 MeV and the FLUKA92 programs of E<200 GeV is carried out. 25 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karlberg, O.; Schwartz, H.; Forssen, B.-H.; Marklund, J.-E.
1979-01-01
UNIDOSE is a program system for calculating the consequences of a radioactive release to the atmosphere. The program is applicable for computation of dispersion in a rnage of 0 - 50 km from the release point. The Gaussion plume model is used for calculating the external dose from activity in the atmosphere, on the ground and the internal dose via inhalation. Radioactive decay, as well as growth and decay of daughter products are accounted for. The influence of dry deposition and wash-out are also considered. It is possible to treat time-dependent release-rates of 1 - 24 hours duration and constant release-rates for up to one year. The program system also contains routines for the calculation of collective dose and health effects. The system operates in a statistical manner. Many weather-situations, based on measured data, can be analysed and statistical properties, such as cumulative frequences, can be calculated. (author)
2012-05-16
... Provisions to Promote Program Efficiency, Transparency, and Burden Reduction; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal..., Transparency, and Burden Reduction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final... on providers of care. CMS has also identified non-regulatory changes to increase transparency and to...
A flexible framework for secure and efficient program obfuscation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solis, John Hector
2013-03-01
In this paper, we present a modular framework for constructing a secure and efficient program obfuscation scheme. Our approach, inspired by the obfuscation with respect to oracle machines model of [4], retains an interactive online protocol with an oracle, but relaxes the original computational and storage restrictions. We argue this is reasonable given the computational resources of modern personal devices. Furthermore, we relax the information-theoretic security requirement for computational security to utilize established cryptographic primitives. With this additional flexibility we are free to explore different cryptographic buildingblocks. Our approach combines authenticated encryption with private information retrieval to construct a secure program obfuscation framework. We give a formal specification of our framework, based on desired functionality and security properties, and provide an example instantiation. In particular, we implement AES in Galois/Counter Mode for authenticated encryption and the Gentry-Ramzan [13]constant communication-rate private information retrieval scheme. We present our implementation results and show that non-trivial sized programs can be realized, but scalability is quickly limited by computational overhead. Finally, we include a discussion on security considerations when instantiating specific modules.
Weighted curve-fitting program for the HP 67/97 calculator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stockli, M.P.
1983-01-01
The HP 67/97 calculator provides in its standard equipment a curve-fit program for linear, logarithmic, exponential and power functions that is quite useful and popular. However, in more sophisticated applications, proper weights for data are often essential. For this purpose a program package was created which is very similar to the standard curve-fit program but which includes the weights of the data for proper statistical analysis. This allows accurate calculation of the uncertainties of the fitted curve parameters as well as the uncertainties of interpolations or extrapolations, or optionally the uncertainties can be normalized with chi-square. The program is very versatile and allows one to perform quite difficult data analysis in a convenient way with the pocket calculator HP 67/97
Efficiency evaluation of grant policy in sport by principles of program financing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimír Hobza
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns with mutual interconnection of goals of municipal development concepts and methods of their assessment. Based on grant policy of selected municipalities (regions, communities and on the principles of program financing, a specific method of evaluation performance is suggested, which enables to evaluate closer control of sport development, visions, proclaimed goals and sport support programs. The principle of the proposed procedure is based on the use of indicators and methods: CEA, CBA, CUA and CMA in program financing of sport - a field where it is not possible to calculate only direct economic results but it is necessary to consider the impact of externalities (benefits. The authors suggest procedures, which lead to a higher level of control, transparency and efficiency of public spending in the municipal sphere. The goal of this contribution is to point out possible means of assessing grant proposals, as a support tool for decision-making and subsequent control.
Energy efficiency programs for niche markets: The Labs21 program as an exemplar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wirdzek, Phillip; Lintner, William; Mathew, Paul; Carlisle, Nancy
2004-06-01
Most federal programs that promote energy efficiency and environmental sustainability in the building industry focus on the larger market segments such as offices, residential buildings, etc. Niche markets such as laboratories are often overlooked and beyond the scope of such programs, for at least two reasons: (a) by definition, niche markets are a relatively small ''wedge'' of the overall energy consumption ''pie''; and (b) laboratories have health and safety concerns, complex flexibility requirements and are perceived to be less amenable to broadly applicable strategies. Nevertheless, laboratories and other ''high-tech'' buildings demand the attention of the energy efficiency and sustainable design community for several reasons: (1) They are a growing segment of the building sector. (2) They are very energy and resource intensive laboratories on average are four to six times as energy intensive as office buildings, and five to ten times as expensive to build. (3) There are significant opportunities for efficiency and conservation, especially when compared to other buildings. In this paper, we describe how the Labs21 program, a joint program of the US EPA and US DOE, is structured to meet these needs recognizing that laboratories require very specialized engineering and design knowledge not addressed in academia or industry, and not readily shared to a level commensurate with the needs of this building sector. While Labs21 is focused on one niche market, we also highlight some experiences from this program applicable to other specialized building types.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.
2010-04-14
Efficiency (2007) presented commonly used definitions for EM&V in the context of energy efficiency programs: (1) Evaluation (E) - The performance of studies and activities aimed at determining the effects and effectiveness of EE programs; (2) Measurement and Verification (M&V) - Data collection, monitoring, and analysis associated with the calculation of gross energy and demand savings from individual measures, sites or projects. M&V can be a subset of program evaluation; and (3) Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) - This term is frequently seen in evaluation literature. EM&V is a catchall acronym for determining both the effectiveness of program designs and estimates of load impacts at the portfolio, program and project level. This report is a scoping study that assesses current practices and methods in the evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs, with a focus on methods and practices currently used for determining whether projected (ex-ante) energy and demand savings have been achieved (ex-post). M&V practices for privately-funded energy efficiency projects (e.g., ESCO projects) or programs where the primary focus is greenhouse gas reductions were not part of the scope of this study. We identify and discuss key purposes and uses of current evaluations of end-use energy efficiency programs, methods used to evaluate these programs, processes used to determine those methods; and key issues that need to be addressed now and in the future, based on discussions with regulatory agencies, policymakers, program administrators, and evaluation practitioners in 14 states and national experts in the evaluation field. We also explore how EM&V may evolve in a future in which efficiency funding increases significantly, innovative mechanisms for rewarding program performance are adopted, the role of efficiency in greenhouse gas mitigation is more closely linked, and programs are increasingly funded from multiple sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.
1980-03-01
A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon
2014-01-01
KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist
2010-06-07
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket Number EERE-BT-PET-0024] Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for Exemption From Federal Preemption of Massachusetts' Energy Efficiency Standard for Residential Non...
2012-05-30
...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...
78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact
2013-08-16
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program... implementing its new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. The FONSI decision document is based on... entitled ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program,'' which expands upon policies and procedures...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Dae Sup; Hong, Dong Ki; Back, Geum Mun; Kwak, Jung Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-03-15
There was a problem with using MU verification programs for the reasons that there were errors of MU when using MU verification programs based on Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) Algorithm with radiation treatment plans around lung using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA). On this study, we studied the methods that can verify the calculated treatment plans using AAA. Using Eclipse treatment planning system (Version 8.9, Varian, USA), for each 57 fields of 7 cases of Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), we have calculated using PBC and AAA with dose calculation algorithm. By developing MU of established plans, we compared and analyzed with MU of manual calculation programs. We have analyzed relationship between errors and 4 variables such as field size, lung path distance of radiation, Tumor path distance of radiation, effective depth that can affect on errors created from PBC algorithm and AAA using commonly used programs. Errors of PBC algorithm have showned 0.2{+-}1.0% and errors of AAA have showned 3.5{+-}2.8%. Moreover, as a result of analyzing 4 variables that can affect on errors, relationship in errors between lung path distance and MU, connection coefficient 0.648 (P=0.000) has been increased and we could calculate MU correction factor that is A.E=L.P 0.00903+0.02048 and as a result of replying for manual calculation program, errors of 3.5{+-}2.8% before the application has been decreased within 0.4{+-}2.0%. On this study, we have learned that errors from manual calculation program have been increased as lung path distance of radiation increases and we could verified MU of AAA with a simple method that is called MU correction factor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Dae Sup; Hong, Dong Ki; Back, Geum Mun; Kwak, Jung Won
2012-01-01
There was a problem with using MU verification programs for the reasons that there were errors of MU when using MU verification programs based on Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) Algorithm with radiation treatment plans around lung using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA). On this study, we studied the methods that can verify the calculated treatment plans using AAA. Using Eclipse treatment planning system (Version 8.9, Varian, USA), for each 57 fields of 7 cases of Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), we have calculated using PBC and AAA with dose calculation algorithm. By developing MU of established plans, we compared and analyzed with MU of manual calculation programs. We have analyzed relationship between errors and 4 variables such as field size, lung path distance of radiation, Tumor path distance of radiation, effective depth that can affect on errors created from PBC algorithm and AAA using commonly used programs. Errors of PBC algorithm have showned 0.2±1.0% and errors of AAA have showned 3.5±2.8%. Moreover, as a result of analyzing 4 variables that can affect on errors, relationship in errors between lung path distance and MU, connection coefficient 0.648 (P=0.000) has been increased and we could calculate MU correction factor that is A.E=L.P 0.00903+0.02048 and as a result of replying for manual calculation program, errors of 3.5±2.8% before the application has been decreased within 0.4±2.0%. On this study, we have learned that errors from manual calculation program have been increased as lung path distance of radiation increases and we could verified MU of AAA with a simple method that is called MU correction factor.
Monteray Mark-I: Computer program (PC-version) for shielding calculation with Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pudjijanto, M.S.; Akhmad, Y.R.
1998-01-01
A computer program for gamma ray shielding calculation using Monte Carlo method has been developed. The program is written in WATFOR77 language. The MONTERAY MARH-1 is originally developed by James Wood. The program was modified by the authors that the modified version is easily executed. Applying Monte Carlo method the program observe photon gamma transport in an infinity planar shielding with various thick. A photon gamma is observed till escape from the shielding or when its energy less than the cut off energy. Pair production process is treated as pure absorption process that annihilation photons generated in the process are neglected in the calculation. The out put data calculated by the program are total albedo, build-up factor, and photon spectra. The calculation result for build-up factor of a slab lead and water media with 6 MeV parallel beam gamma source shows that they are in agreement with published data. Hence the program is adequate as a shielding design tool for observing gamma radiation transport in various media
FLOWNET: A Computer Program for Calculating Secondary Flow Conditions in a Network of Turbomachinery
Rose, J. R.
1978-01-01
The program requires the network parameters, the flow component parameters, the reservoir conditions, and the gas properties as input. It will then calculate all unknown pressures and the mass flow rate in each flow component in the network. The program can treat networks containing up to fifty flow components and twenty-five unknown network pressures. The types of flow components that can be treated are face seals, narrow slots, and pipes. The program is written in both structured FORTRAN (SFTRAN) and FORTRAN 4. The program must be run in an interactive (conversational) mode.
BUCKL: a program for rapid calculation of x-ray deposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cole, R.K. Jr.
1970-07-01
A computer program is described which has the fast execution time of exponential codes but also evaluates the effects of fluorescence and scattering. The program makes use of diffusion calculations with a buckling correction included to approximate the effects of finite transverse geometry. Theory and derivations necessary for the BUCKL code are presented, and the code results are compared with those of earlier codes for a variety of problems. Inputs and outputs of the program are described, and a FORTRAN listing is provided. Shortcomings of the program are discussed and suggestions are provided for possible future improvement. (U.S.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čársky, Petr
2010-01-01
Roč. 43, č. 17 (2010), s. 175204 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09079; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10046; GA ČR GA202/08/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electron scattering * polyatomic molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2010
Use of the 'DRAGON' program for the calculation of reactivity devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mollerach, Ricardo; Fink, Jose
2003-01-01
DRAGON is a computer program developed at the Ecole Polytechnique of the University of Montreal and adopted by AECL for the transport calculations associated to reactivity devices. This report presents aspects of the implementation in NASA of the DRAGON program. Some cases of interest were evaluated. Comparisons with results of known programs as WIMS D5, and with experiments were done. a) Embalse (CANDU 6) cell without burnup and leakage. Calculations of macroscopic cross sections with WIMS and DRAGON show very good agreement with smaller differences in the thermal constants. b) Embalse fresh cell with different leakage options. c) Embalse cell with leakage and burnup. A comparison of k-infinity and k-effective with WIMS and DRAGON as a function of burnup shows that the differences ((D-W)/D) for fresh fuel are -0.17% roughly constant up to about 2500 MWd/tU, and then decrease to -0.06 % for 8500 MWd/tU. Experiments made in 1977 in ZED-2 critical facility, reported in [3], were used as a benchmark for the cell and supercell DRAGON calculations. Calculated fluxes were compared with experimental values and the agreement is so good. d) ZED-2 cell calculation. The measured buckling was used as geometric buckling. This case can be considered an experimental verification. The calculated reactivity with DRAGON is about 2 mk, and can be considered satisfactory. WIMS k-effective value is about one mk higher. e) Supercell calculations for ZED-2 vertical and horizontal tube and rod adjuster using 2D and 3D models were done. Comparisons between measured and calculated fluxes in the vicinity of the adjuster rods. Incremental cross sections for these adjusters were calculated using different options. f) ZED-2 reactor calculations with PUMA reveal a good concordance with critical heights measured in experiments. The report describes also particular features of the code and recommendations regarding its use that may be useful for new users. (author)
Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program. Technology summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-06-01
The Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE Complex. The ESP funds several multi-year tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R and D) leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE-EM. Treating essentially all DOE defense wastes requires separation methods that concentrate the contaminants and/or purify waste streams for release to the environment or for downgrading to a waste form less difficult and expensive to dispose of. Initially, ESP R and D efforts focused on treatment of high-level waste (HLW) from underground storage tanks (USTs) because of the potential for large reductions in disposal costs and hazards. As further separations needs emerge and as waste management and environmental restoration priorities change, the program has evolved to encompass the breadth of waste management and environmental remediation problems
DCHAIN: A user-friendly computer program for radioactive decay and reaction chain calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
East, L.V.
1994-05-01
A computer program for calculating the time-dependent daughter populations in radioactive decay and nuclear reaction chains is described. Chain members can have non-zero initial populations and be produced from the preceding chain member as the result of radioactive decay, a nuclear reaction, or both. As presently implemented, chains can contain up to 15 members. Program input can be supplied interactively or read from ASCII data files. Time units for half-lives, etc. can be specified during data entry. Input values are verified and can be modified if necessary, before used in calculations. Output results can be saved in ASCII files in a format suitable for including in reports or other documents. The calculational method, described in some detail, utilizes a generalized form of the Bateman equations. The program is written in the C language in conformance with current ANSI standards and can be used on multiple hardware platforms
Galerkin, Y. B.; Voinov, I. B.; Drozdov, A. A.
2017-08-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used for centrifugal compressors design and flow analysis. The calculation results are dependent on the chosen software, turbulence models and solver settings. Two of the most widely applicable programs are NUMECA Fine Turbo and ANSYS CFX. The objects of the study were two different stages. CFD-calculations were made for a single blade channel and for full 360-degree flow paths. Stage 1 with 3D impeller and vaneless diffuser was tested experimentally. Its flow coefficient is 0.08 and loading factor is 0.74. For stage 1 calculations were performed with different grid quality, a different number of cells and different models of turbulence. The best results have demonstrated the Spalart-Allmaras model and mesh with 1.854 million cells. Stage 2 with return channel, vaneless diffuser and 3D impeller with flow coefficient 0.15 and loading factor 0.5 was designed by the known Universal Modeling Method. Its performances were calculated by the well identified Math model. Stage 2 performances by CFD calculations shift to higher flow rate in comparison with design performances. The same result was obtained for stage 1 in comparison with measured performances. Calculated loading factor is higher in both cases for a single blade channel. Loading factor performance calculated for full flow path (“360 degrees”) by ANSYS CFX is in satisfactory agreement with the stage 2 design performance. Maximum efficiency is predicted accurately by the ANSYS CFX “360 degrees” calculation. “Sector” calculation is less accurate. Further research is needed to solve the problem of performances mismatch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strenge, D.L.; Watson, E.C.; Houston, J.R.
1975-06-01
A computer program, SUBDOSA, was developed for calculating external γ and β doses to individuals from the accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Characteristics of SUBDOSA are: doses from both γ and β radiation are calculated as a function of depth in tissue, summed and reported as skin, eye, gonadal, and total body dose; doses are calculated for releases within each of several release time intervals and nuclide inventories and atmospheric dispersion conditions are considered for each time interval; radioactive decay is considered during the release and/or transit using a chain decay scheme with branching to account for transitions to and from isomeric states; the dose from gamma radiation is calculated using a numerical integration technique to account for the finite size of the plume; and the program computes and lists the normalized air concentrations at ground level as a function of distance from the point of release. (auth)
Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Arakawa
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.
Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldberg, Amelie [Institute for Industrial Productivity (United States); Taylor, Robert P. [Institute for Industrial Productivity (United States); Hedman, Bruce [Institute for Industrial Productivity (United States)
2014-03-21
This report provides state regulators, utilities, and other program administrators with an overview of U.S. industrial energy efficiency programs and assesses some of the key features of programs that have generated increased energy savings.
Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.
1994-01-01
This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.
FUP1--an unified program for calculating all fast neutron data of fissile nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Chonghai; Zuo Yixin
1990-01-01
FUP1 is the first edition of an unified program for calculating all the fast neutron data in ENDF/B-4 format for fissile nucleus. Following data are calculated with FUP1 code: the total cross section, elastic scattering cross section, nonelastic cross section, total including up to 40 isolated levels and continuum state inelastic cross sections. In FUP1 the energy region of incident neutron is restricted to 10 Kev to 20 Mev. The advantages of this program are its perfect function, convenient to users and running very fast
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabrillat, J.C.; Arnaud, G.; Calamand, D.; Manent, G.; Tavassoli, A.A.
1984-09-01
For the Super Phenix reactor, the evolution, versus the irradiation of the mechanical properties of the core diagrid steel is the object of studies and is particularly monitored. The specimens irradiated, now in PHENIX and will be later irradiated in SUPER PHENIX as soon as the first operating cycles. An important dosimetry program coupling calculation and measurement, is parallely carried out. This paper presents the reasons, the definition of the structure, of the development and of materials used in this program of dosimetry, as also the first results of a calculation-measurement comparison [fr
A computer program to calculate the committed dose equivalent after the inhalation of radioactivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Woude, S.
1989-03-01
A growing number of people are, as part of their occupation, at risk of being exposed to radiation originating from sources inside their bodies. The quantification of this exposure is an important part of health physics. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed a first-order kinetics compartmental model to determine the transport of radioactive material through the human body. The model and the parameters involved in its use, are discussed. A versatile computer program was developed to do the following after the in vivo measurement of either the organ- or whole-body activity: calculate the original amount of radioactive material which was inhaled (intake) by employing the ICRP compartmental model of the human body; compare this intake to calculated reference levels and state any action to be taken for the case under consideration; calculate the committed dose equivalent resulting from this intake. In the execution of the above-mentioned calculations, the computer program makes provision for different aerosol particle sizes and the effect of previous intakes. Model parameters can easily be changed to take the effects of, for instance, medical intervention into account. The computer program and the organization of the data in the input files are such that the computer program can be applied to any first-order kinetics compartmental model. The computer program can also conveniently be used for research on problems related to the application of the ICRP model. 18 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esteve Sanchez, S.; Martinez Albaladejo, M.; Garcia Fuentes, J. D.; Bejar Navarro, M. J.; Capuz Suarez, B.; Moris de Pablos, R.; Colmenares Fernandez, R.
2015-01-01
We assessed the reliability of the program with 80 patients in the usual points of prescription of each pathology. The average error of the calculation points is less than 0.3% in 95% of cases, finding the major differences in the axes of the applicators (maximum error -0.798%). The program has proved effective previously testing him with erroneous dosimetry. Thanks to the implementation of this program is achieved by the calculation of the dose and part of the process of quality assurance program in a few minutes, highlighting the case of HDR prostate due to having a limited time. Having separate data sheet allows each institution to its protocols modify parameters. (Author)
Calculation of pressure distribution in vacuum systems using a commercial finite element program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howell, J.; Wehrle, B.; Jostlein, H.
1991-01-01
The finite element method has proven to be a very useful tool for calculating pressure distributions in complex vacuum systems. A number of finite element programs have been developed for this specific task. For those who do not have access to one of these specialized programs and do not wish to develop their own program, another option is available. Any commercial finite element program with heat transfer analysis capabilities can be used to calculate pressure distributions. The approach uses an analogy between thermal conduction and gas conduction with the quantity temperature substituted for pressure. The thermal analogies for pumps, gas loads and tube conductances are described in detail. The method is illustrated for an example vacuum system. A listing of the ANSYS data input file for this example is included. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Programs for data processing in radioimmunoassay using the HP-41C programmable calculator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-09-01
The programs described provide for analysis, with the Hewlett Packard HP-41C calculator, of counting data collected in radioimmunoassays or other related in-vitro assays. The immediate reason for their development was to assist laboratories having limited financial resources and serious problems of quality control. The programs are structured both for ''off-line'' use, with manual entry of counting data into the calculator through the keyboard, and, in a slightly altered version, for ''on-line'' use, with automatic data entry from an automatic well scintillation counter originally designed at the IAEA. Only the off-line variant of the programs is described. The programs determine from appropriate counting data the concentration of analyte in unknown specimens, and provide supplementary information about the reliability of these results and the consistency of current and past assay performance
Calculation of the detection efficiency in liquid scintillators. II. Single positron emitters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia Torano, E.
1982-01-01
Counting efficiency as a function of the figure of merit for 30 positron emitters has been computed from the positron energy spectrum. Only the efficiency contribution of positrons has been taken into consideration. The contribution of the annihilation photons depending on the volume of the scintillator will be investigated in a near future. Efficiency vs figure of merit is plotted and tabulated. (Author) 19 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verschuur, K.A.
1996-10-01
Neutron-transport calculations with the FURNACE(2) program system, in support of the Neutron Diagnostic Group at JET, have been performed since 1980, i.e. since the construction phase of JET. FURNACE(2) is a ray-tracing/multiple-reflection transport program system for toroidal geometries, that orginally was developed for blanket neutronics studies and which then was improved and extended for application to the neutron-diagnostics at JET. (orig./WL)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ropero, M.
1978-01-01
Efigie is a program written in Fortran V which can calculate the concentration of radionuclides produced by neutron irradiation of a target made of either a single isotope or several isotopes. The program includes optimization criteria that can be applied when the goal is the production of a single nuclide. The effect of a cooling time before chemical processing of the target is also accounted for.(author) [es
GRUCAL: a program system for the calculation of macroscopic group constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woll, D.
1984-01-01
Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy-averaged neutron physical data in order to decribe the interaction between neutrons and isotopes. The multigroup cross section code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given material compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but are read in from an instruction file. This makes it possible to adapt GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts
PTOLEMY, a program for heavy-ion direction-reaction calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gloeckner, D.H.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Pieper, S.C.
1976-03-01
Ptolemy is an IBM/360 program for the computation of nuclear elastic and direct-reaction cross sections. It carries out both optical-model fits to elastic-scattering data at one or more energies, and DWBA calculations for nucleon-transfer reactions. Ptolemy has been specifically designed for heavy-ion calculations. It is fast and does not require large amounts of core. The input is exceptionally flexible and easy to use. This report outlines the types of calculation that Ptolemy can carry out, summarizes the formulas used, and gives a detailed description of its input
Ptolemy: a program for heavy-ion direct-reaction calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macfarlane, M.H.; Pieper, S.C.
1978-04-01
Ptolemy is an IBM/360 program for the computation of nuclear elastic and direct-reaction cross sections. It carries out optical-model fits to elastic-scattering data at one or more energies and for one or more combinations of projectile and target, collective model DWBA calculations of excitation processes, and finite-range DWBA calculations of nucleon-transfer reactions. It is fast and does not require large amounts of core. The input is exceptionally flexible and easy to use. The types of calculations that Ptolemy can carry out are outlined, the formulas used are summarized, and a detailed description of its input is given
Gordon, Sanford
1991-01-01
The NNEP is a general computer program for calculating aircraft engine performance. NNEP has been used extensively to calculate the design and off-design (matched) performance of a broad range of turbine engines, ranging from subsonic turboprops to variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Recently, however, there has been increased interest in applications for which NNEP is not capable of simulating, such as the use of alternate fuels including cryogenic fuels and the inclusion of chemical dissociation effects at high temperatures. To overcome these limitations, NNEP was extended by including a general chemical equilibrium method. This permits consideration of any propellant system and the calculation of performance with dissociation effects. The new extended program is referred to as NNEP89.
Berent, Jarosław
2010-01-01
This paper presents the new DNAStat version 2.1 for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations. The popularization of DNA studies employed in the judicial system has led to the necessity of developing appropriate computer programs. Such programs must, above all, address two critical problems, i.e. the broadly understood data processing and data storage, and biostatistical calculations. Moreover, in case of terrorist attacks and mass natural disasters, the ability to identify victims by searching related individuals is very important. DNAStat version 2.1 is an adequate program for such purposes. The DNAStat version 1.0 was launched in 2005. In 2006, the program was updated to 1.1 and 1.2 versions. There were, however, slight differences between those versions and the original one. The DNAStat version 2.0 was launched in 2007 and the major program improvement was an introduction of the group calculation options with the potential application to personal identification of mass disasters and terrorism victims. The last 2.1 version has the option of language selection--Polish or English, which will enhance the usage and application of the program also in other countries.
Tajuddin, Nor'ain Mohd; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Konting, Mohd Majid; Ali, Wan Zah Wan
2009-01-01
This quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group post-test only design was conducted to investigate the effects of using graphing calculators in mathematics teaching and learning on Form Four Malaysian secondary school students' performance and their meta-cognitive awareness level. Graphing calculator strategy refers to the use of…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-ku Shi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The composite stiffness of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness is difficult to calculate using traditional integral equations. Numerical integration or FEA may be used but will require computer-aided software and long calculation times. An efficient method for calculating the composite stiffness of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness is developed and evaluated to reduce the complexity of calculation and shorten the calculation time. A simplified model for double-leaf springs with variable stiffness is built, and a composite stiffness calculation method for the model is derived using displacement superposition and material deformation continuity. The proposed method can be applied on triple-leaf and multileaf springs. The accuracy of the calculation method is verified by the rig test and FEA analysis. Finally, several parameters that should be considered during the design process of springs are discussed. The rig test and FEA analytical results indicate that the calculated results are acceptable. The proposed method can provide guidance for the design and production of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness. The composite stiffness of the leaf spring can be calculated quickly and accurately when the basic parameters of the leaf spring are known.
Using an implicit min/max KD-Tree for doing efficient terrain line of sight calculations
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Duvenhage, B
2009-02-01
Full Text Available -dimensional tree (kd-tree) based raytracing approach, to calculating LOS information, is efficient. A new implicit min/max kd-tree algorithm is discussed for evaluating LOS queries on large scale spherical terrain. In particular the value of low resolution boundary...
Are the program packages for molecular structure calculations really black boxes?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANA MRAKOVIC
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In this communication it is shown that the widely held opinion that compact program packages for quantum–mechanical calculations of molecular structure can safely be used as black boxes is completely wrong. In order to illustrate this, the results of computations of equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies for all homonuclear diatomic molecules involving the atoms from the first two rows of the Periodic Table, performed using the Gaussian program package are presented. It is demonstrated that the sensible use of the program requires a solid knowledge of quantum chemistry.
'PRIZE': A program for calculating collision probabilities in R-Z geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitcher, H.H.W.
1964-10-01
PRIZE is an IBM7090 program which computes collision probabilities for systems with axial symmetry and outputs them on cards in suitable format for the PIP1 program. Its method of working, data requirements, output, running time and accuracy are described. The program has been used to compute non-escape (self-collision) probabilities of finite circular cylinders, and a table is given by which non-escape probabilities of slabs, finite and infinite circular cylinders, infinite square cylinders, cubes, spheres and hemispheres may quickly be calculated to 1/2% or better. (author)
'PRIZE': A program for calculating collision probabilities in R-Z geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pitcher, H.H.W. [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)
1964-10-15
PRIZE is an IBM7090 program which computes collision probabilities for systems with axial symmetry and outputs them on cards in suitable format for the PIP1 program. Its method of working, data requirements, output, running time and accuracy are described. The program has been used to compute non-escape (self-collision) probabilities of finite circular cylinders, and a table is given by which non-escape probabilities of slabs, finite and infinite circular cylinders, infinite square cylinders, cubes, spheres and hemispheres may quickly be calculated to 1/2% or better. (author)
REITP3-Hazard evaluation program for heat release based on thermochemical calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Kawakatsu, Yuichi. [Oji Paper Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, Tadao. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Engineering
1999-06-30
REITP3-A hazard evaluation program for heat release besed on thermochemical calculation has been developed by modifying REITP2 (Revised Estimation of Incompatibility from Thermochemical Properties{sup 2)}. The main modifications are as follows. (1) Reactants are retrieved from the database by chemical formula. (2) As products are listed in an external file, the addition of products and change in order of production can be easily conducted. (3) Part of the program has been changed by considering its use on a personal computer or workstation. These modifications will promote the usefulness of the program for energy hazard evaluation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perry, R.T.; Gorenflo, H.; Daenner, W.
1976-01-01
INDRA is a program system for calculating the neutronics and photonics characteristics of fusion reactor blankets. It incorporates a total of 19 different codes and 5 large data libraries. 10 of the codes are available from the code distribution organizations. Some of them, however, have been slightly modified in order to permit a convenient transfer of information from one program module to the next. The remaining 9 programs have been prepared by the authors to complete the system with respect to flexibility and to facilitate the handling of the results. (orig./WBU) [de
CREST : a computer program for the calculation of composition dependent self-shielded cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapil, S.K.
1977-01-01
A computer program CREST for the calculation of the composition and temperature dependent self-shielded cross-sections using the shielding factor approach has been described. The code includes the editing and formation of the data library, calculation of the effective shielding factors and cross-sections, a fundamental mode calculation to generate the neutron spectrum for the system which is further used to calculate the effective elastic removal cross-sections. Studies to explore the sensitivity of reactor parameters to changes in group cross-sections can also be carried out by using the facility available in the code to temporarily change the desired constants. The final self-shielded and transport corrected group cross-sections can be dumped on cards or magnetic tape in a suitable form for their direct use in a transport or diffusion theory code for detailed reactor calculations. The program is written in FORTRAN and can be accommodated in a computer with 32 K work memory. The input preparation details, sample problem and the listing of the program are given. (author)
A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs. The POWHEG BOX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alioli, Simone [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, Paolo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Oleari, Carlo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy); Re, Emanuele [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology
2010-02-15
In this work we illustrate the POWHEG BOX, a general computer code framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs according to the POWHEG method. Aim of this work is to provide an illustration of the needed theoretical ingredients, a view of how the code is organized and a description of what a user should provide in order to use it. (orig.)
d'plus: A program to calculate accuracy and bias measures from detection and discrimination data.
Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D
1997-01-01
The program d'plus calculates accuracy (sensitivity) and response-bias parameters using Signal Detection Theory. Choice Theory, and 'nonparametric' models. is is appropriate for data from one-interval, two- and three-interval forced-choice, same different, ABX, and oddity experimental paradigms.
BLOW.MOD2: program for a vessel depressurization calculation with the contribution of structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doval, A.
1990-01-01
The BLOW.MOD2 program developed to calculate pressure vessels' depressurization is presented, considering heat contribution of the structures. The results are opposite to those obtained from other more complex numerical models, being the comparison extremely satisfactory. BLOW.MOD2 is a software of the 'Systems Sub-Branch', INVAP S.E. (Author) [es
A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs. The POWHEG BOX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alioli, Simone; Nason, Paolo; Oleari, Carlo; Re, Emanuele
2010-02-01
In this work we illustrate the POWHEG BOX, a general computer code framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs according to the POWHEG method. Aim of this work is to provide an illustration of the needed theoretical ingredients, a view of how the code is organized and a description of what a user should provide in order to use it. (orig.)
Curvers, J.M.P.M.; Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Knauss, K.; Larson, P.
1985-01-01
The procedure for calculating linear temperature programmed indices as described in part 1 has been evaluated using five different nonpolar columns, with OV-1 as the stationary phase. For fourty-three different solutes covering five different classes of components, including n-alkanes and
SERKON program for compiling a multigroup library to be used in BETTY calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Phuoc Lan.
1982-11-01
A SERKON-type program was written to compile data sets generated by FEDGROUP-3 into a multigroup library for BETTY calculation. A multigroup library was generated from the ENDF/B-IV data file and tested against the TRX-1 and TRX-2 lattices with good results. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandes, P.
1982-01-01
An improvement has been made to the LALA program to compute resonant frequencies and fields for all the modes of the lowest TM 01 band-pass of multicell structures. The results are compared with those calculated by another popular rf cavity code and with experimentally measured quantities. (author)
Computer program TMOC for calculating of pressure transients in fluid filled piping networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siikonen, T.
1978-01-01
The propagation of a pressure wave in fluid filles tubes is significantly affected by the pipe wall motion and vice versa. A computer code TMOC (Transients by the Method of Characteristics) is being developed for the analysis of the coupled fluid and pipe wall transients. Because of the structural feedback, the pressure can be calculated more accurately than in the programs commonly used. (author)
The Weak Link HP-41C hand-held calculator program
Ross A. Phillips; Penn A. Peters; Gary D. Falk
1982-01-01
The Weak Link hand-held calculator program (HP-41C) quickly analyzes a system for logging production and costs. The production equations model conventional chain saw, skidder, loader, and tandemaxle truck operations in eastern mountain areas. Production of each function of the logging system may be determined so that the system may be balanced for minimum cost. The...
Ye, Congting; Ji, Guoli; Li, Lei; Liang, Chun
2014-01-01
Inverted repeats are present in abundance in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and can form DNA secondary structures--hairpins and cruciforms that are involved in many important biological processes. Bioinformatics tools for efficient and accurate detection of inverted repeats are desirable, because existing tools are often less accurate and time consuming, sometimes incapable of dealing with genome-scale input data. Here, we present a MATLAB-based program called detectIR for the perfect and imperfect inverted repeat detection that utilizes complex numbers and vector calculation and allows genome-scale data inputs. A novel algorithm is adopted in detectIR to convert the conventional sequence string comparison in inverted repeat detection into vector calculation of complex numbers, allowing non-complementary pairs (mismatches) in the pairing stem and a non-palindromic spacer (loop or gaps) in the middle of inverted repeats. Compared with existing popular tools, our program performs with significantly higher accuracy and efficiency. Using genome sequence data from HIV-1, Arabidopsis thaliana, Homo sapiens and Zea mays for comparison, detectIR can find lots of inverted repeats missed by existing tools whose outputs often contain many invalid cases. detectIR is open source and its source code is freely available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/detectir.
A computationally efficient software application for calculating vibration from underground railways
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M F M; Hunt, H E M
2009-01-01
The PiP model is a software application with a user-friendly interface for calculating vibration from underground railways. This paper reports about the software with a focus on its latest version and the plans for future developments. The software calculates the Power Spectral Density of vibration due to a moving train on floating-slab track with track irregularity described by typical values of spectra for tracks with good, average and bad conditions. The latest version accounts for a tunnel embedded in a half space by employing a toolbox developed at K.U. Leuven which calculates Green's functions for a multi-layered half-space.
Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bray, L.A.
1995-09-01
This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task open-quotes Develop and Test Sorbents,close quotes the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A ampersand M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A ampersand M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hirokazu Takaki
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present an efficient computation technique for ab-initio electron transport calculations based on density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism for application to heterostructures with two-dimensional (2D interfaces. The computational load for constructing the Green’s functions, which depends not only on the energy but also on the 2D Bloch wave vector along the interfaces and is thus catastrophically heavy, is circumvented by parallel computational techniques with the message passing interface, which divides the calculations of the Green’s functions with respect to energy and wave vectors. To demonstrate the computational efficiency of the present code, we perform ab-initio electron transport calculations of Al(100-Si(100-Al(100 heterostructures, one of the most typical metal-semiconductor-metal systems, and show their transmission spectra, density of states (DOSs, and dependence on the thickness of the Si layers.
ptchg: A FORTRAN program for point-charge calculations of electric field gradients (EFGs)
Spearing, Dane R.
1994-05-01
ptchg, a FORTRAN program, has been developed to calculate electric field gradients (EFG) around an atomic site in crystalline solids using the point-charge direct-lattice summation method. It uses output from the crystal structure generation program Atoms as its input. As an application of ptchg, a point-charge calculation of the EFG quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite is demonstrated. Although point-charge calculations of electric field gradients generally are limited to ionic compounds, the computed quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite, a highly covalent material, are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.
1980-03-01
A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.
Skolubovich, Yuriy; Skolubovich, Aleksandr; Voitov, Evgeniy; Soppa, Mikhail; Chirkunov, Yuriy
2017-10-01
The article considers the current questions of technological modeling and calculation of the new facility for cleaning natural waters, the clarifier reactor for the optimal operating mode, which was developed in Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SibSTRIN). A calculation technique based on well-known dependences of hydraulics is presented. A calculation example of a structure on experimental data is considered. The maximum possible rate of ascending flow of purified water was determined, based on the 24 hour clarification cycle. The fractional composition of the contact mass was determined with minimal expansion of contact mass layer, which ensured the elimination of stagnant zones. The clarification cycle duration was clarified by the parameters of technological modeling by recalculating maximum possible upward flow rate of clarified water. The thickness of the contact mass layer was determined. Likewise, clarification reactors can be calculated for any other lightening conditions.
Hritz, J.; Oostenbrink, C.
2009-01-01
Compounds with high intramolecular energy barriers represent challenging targets for free energy calculations because of the difficulty to obtain sufficient conformational sampling. Existing approaches are therefore computationally very demanding, thus preventing practical applications for such
New Light-Harvesting Materials Using Accurate and Efficient Bandgap Calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Hüser, Falco; Pandey, Mohnish
2014-01-01
Electronic bandgap calculations are presented for 2400 experimentally known materials from the Materials Project database and the bandgaps, obtained with different types of functionals within density functional theory and (partial) self-consistent GW approximation, are compared for 20 randomly...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Belkadi, Abdelkrim; Yan, Wei; Moggia, Elsa
2013-01-01
Compositional reservoir simulations are widely used to simulate reservoir processes with strong compositional effects, such as gas injection. The equations of state (EoS) based phase equilibrium calculation is a time consuming part in this type of simulations. The phase equilibrium problem can....... Application of the shadow region method to skip stability analysis can further cut the phase equilibrium calculation time. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.C.
1988-01-01
A prototype energy conversion system is presently in operation at Cadarache, France. Such a device is planned for installation on each six neutral beam injectors for use in the Tore Supra experiment in 1989. We present calculations of beam performance that may influence design considerations. The calculations are performed with the DART charged particle beam code. We investigate the effects of cold plasma, direct energy conversion and neutral beam production. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs
2012-06-29
... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...
2013-02-11
... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J...
78 FR 8444 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic Environmental Assessment
2013-02-06
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1710 Energy Efficiency and... new program that will implement the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program (EE). The PEA is... 12 to authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to reduce demand on electric...
An Efficiency Comparison of MBA Programs: Top 10 versus Non-Top 10
Hsu, Maxwell K.; James, Marcia L.; Chao, Gary H.
2009-01-01
The authors compared the cohort group of the top-10 MBA programs in the United States with their lower-ranking counterparts on their value-added efficiency. The findings reveal that the top-10 MBA programs in the United States are associated with statistically higher average "technical and scale efficiency" and "scale efficiency", but not with a…
A program for calculating group constants on the basis of libraries of evaluated neutron data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinitsa, V.V.
1987-01-01
The GRUKON program is designed for processing libraries of evaluated neutron data into group and fine-group (having some 300 groups) microscopic constants. In structure it is a package of applications programs with three basic components: a monitor, a command language and a library of functional modules. The first operative version of the package was restricted to obtaining mid-group non-block cross-sections from evaluated neutron data libraries in the ENDF/B format. This was then used to process other libraries. In the next two versions, cross-section table conversion modules and self-shielding factor calculation modules, respectively, were added to the functions already in the package. Currently, a fourth version of the GRUKON applications program package, for calculation of sub-group parameters, is under preparation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cliffe, K.A.; Morris, S.T.; Porter, J.D.
1998-05-01
NAMMU is a computer program for modelling groundwater flow and transport through porous media. This document provides an overview of the use of the program for geosphere modelling in performance assessment calculations and gives a detailed description of the program itself. The aim of the document is to give an indication of the grounds for having confidence in NAMMU as a performance assessment tool. In order to achieve this the following topics are discussed. The basic premises of the assessment approach and the purpose of and nature of the calculations that can be undertaken using NAMMU are outlined. The concepts of the validation of models and the considerations that can lead to increased confidence in models are described. The physical processes that can be modelled using NAMMU and the mathematical models and numerical techniques that are used to represent them are discussed in some detail. Finally, the grounds that would lead one to have confidence that NAMMU is fit for purpose are summarised
Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs
Discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states are using these tests, and how the tests can be used to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira
2001-07-01
In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)
A modified CAS-CI approach for an efficient calculation of magnetic exchange coupling constants
Fink, Karin; Staemmler, Volker
2013-09-01
A modification of the conventional wavefunction-based CAS-CI method for the calculation of magnetic exchange coupling constants J in small molecules and transition metal complexes is presented. In general, CAS-CI approaches yield much too small values for J since the energies of the important charge transfer configurations are calculated with the ground state orbitals and are therefore much too high. In the present approach we improve these energies by accounting for the relaxation of the orbitals in the charge transfer configurations. The necessary relaxation energies R can be obtained in separate calculations using mononuclear or binuclear model systems. The method is applied to a few examples, small molecules, binuclear transition metal complexes, and bulk NiO. It allows to obtaining fairly reliable estimates for J at costs that are not higher than those of conventional CAS-CI calculations. Therefore, extended and very time-consuming perturbation theory (PT2), configuration interaction (CI), or coupled cluster (CC) schemes on top of the CAS-CI calculation can be avoided and the modified CAS-CI (MCAS-CI) approach can be applied to rather large systems.
Memory-efficient calculations of adjoint-weighted tallies by the Monte Carlo Wielandt method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Sung Hoon; Shim, Hyung Jin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The MC Wielandt method is applied to reduce memory for the adjoint estimation. • The adjoint-weighted kinetics parameters are estimated in the MC Wielandt calculations. • The MC S/U analyses are conducted in the MC Wielandt calculations. - Abstract: The current Monte Carlo (MC) adjoint-weighted tally techniques based on the iterated fission probability (IFP) concept require a memory amount which is proportional to the numbers of the adjoint-weighted tallies and histories per cycle to store history-wise tally estimates during the convergence of the adjoint flux. Especially the conventional MC adjoint-weighted perturbation (AWP) calculations for the nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis suffer from the huge memory consumption to realize the IFP concept. In order to reduce the memory requirement drastically, we present a new adjoint estimation method in which the memory usage is irrelevant to the numbers of histories per cycle by applying the IFP concept for the MC Wielandt calculations. The new algorithms for the adjoint-weighted kinetics parameter estimation and the AWP calculations in the MC Wielandt method are implemented in a Seoul National University MC code, McCARD and its validity is demonstrated in critical facility problems. From the comparison of the nuclear data S/U analyses, it is demonstrated that the memory amounts to store the sensitivity estimates in the proposed method become negligibly small.
Program realization of mathematical model of kinetostatical calculation of flat lever mechanisms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Vasechkin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Global computerization determined the dominant position of the analytical methods for the study of mechanisms. As a result, kinetostatics analysis of mechanisms using software packages is an important part of scientific and practical activities of engineers and designers. Therefore, software implementation of mathematical models kinetostatical calculating mechanisms is of practical interest. The mathematical model obtained in [1]. In the language of Turbo Pascal developed a computer procedure that calculates the forces in kinematic pairs in groups Assur (GA and a balancing force at the primary level. Before use appropriate computational procedures it is necessary to know all external forces and moments acting on the GA and to determine the inertial forces and moments of inertia forces. The process of calculations and constructions of the provisions of the mechanism can be summarized as follows. Organized cycle in which to calculate the position of an initial link of the mechanism. Calculate the position of the remaining links of the mechanism by referring to relevant procedures module DIADA in GA [2,3]. Using the graphics mode of the computer displaying on the display the position of the mechanism. The computed inertial forces and moments of inertia forces. Turning to the corresponding procedures of the module, calculated all the forces in kinematic pairs and the balancing force at the primary level. In each kinematic pair build forces and their direction with the help of simple graphical procedures. The magnitude of these forces and their direction are displayed in a special window with text mode. This work contains listings of the test programs MyTеst, is an example of using computing capabilities of the developed module. As a check on the calculation procedures of module in the program is reproduced an example of calculating the balancing forces according to the method of Zhukovsky (Zhukovsky lever.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jachic, J.
1985-01-01
It is presented the ONEDM neutronic simulator for RZ spatial calculation, two energy groups, aiming at researching and optimization of a low power fast reactor design. The simulator's methodology is based in RZ calculation from radial and axial calculation iteractively coupled and in macroscopic cross sections corrected by power density and asymmetry of the spectrum in the feedback process with phase library for reference neutronic state. The transversal area which are determined by energy groups and material region in the iteration are introduced in the spatial calculation. The simulator efficiency is tested and compared with the CITATION and 2DB codes. The cross sections are generated by 1DX code. (M.C.K.) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, Marvin J.; Bertoldi, Paolo
2015-01-01
This study is an impact analysis of European Union (EU) energy efficiency policy that employs both top-down energy consumption data and bottom-up energy efficiency statistics or indicators. As such, it may be considered a contribution to the effort called for in the EU's 2006 Energy Services Directive (ESD) to develop a harmonized calculation model. Although this study does not estimate the realized savings from individual policy measures, it does provide estimates of realized energy savings for energy efficiency policy measures in aggregate. Using fixed effects panel models, the annual cumulative savings in 2011 of combined household and manufacturing sector electricity and natural gas usage attributed to EU energy efficiency policies since 2000 is estimated to be 1136 PJ; the savings attributed to energy efficiency policies since 2006 is estimated to be 807 PJ, or the equivalent of 5.6% of 2011 EU energy consumption. As well as its contribution to energy efficiency policy analysis, this study adds to the development of methods that can improve the quality of information provided by standardized energy efficiency and sustainable resource indexes. - Highlights: • Impact analysis of European Union energy efficiency policy. • Harmonization of top-down energy consumption and bottom-up energy efficiency indicators. • Fixed effects models for Member States for household and manufacturing sectors and combined electricity and natural gas usage. • EU energy efficiency policies since 2000 are estimated to have saved 1136 Petajoules. • Energy savings attributed to energy efficiency policies since 2006 are 5.6 percent of 2011 combined electricity and natural gas usage.
Magnetic particle movement program to calculate particle paths in flow and magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inaba, Toru; Sakazume, Taku; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Shinya
2014-01-01
We developed an analysis program for predicting the movement of magnetic particles in flow and magnetic fields. This magnetic particle movement simulation was applied to a capturing process in a flow cell and a magnetic separation process in a small vessel of an in-vitro diagnostic system. The distributions of captured magnetic particles on a wall were calculated and compared with experimentally obtained distributions. The calculations involved evaluating not only the drag, pressure gradient, gravity, and magnetic force in a flow field but also the friction force between the particle and the wall, and the calculated particle distributions were in good agreement with the experimental distributions. Friction force was simply modeled as static and kinetic friction forces. The coefficients of friction were determined by comparing the calculated and measured results. This simulation method for solving multiphysics problems is very effective at predicting the movements of magnetic particles and is an excellent tool for studying the design and application of devices. - Highlights: ●We developed magnetic particles movement program in flow and magnetic fields. ●Friction force on wall is simply modeled as static and kinetic friction force. ●This program was applied for capturing and separation of an in-vitro diagnostic system. ●Predicted particle distributions on wall were agreed with experimental ones. ●This method is very effective at predicting movements of magnetic particles
SHIELD 1.0: development of a shielding calculator program in diagnostic radiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Romulo R.; Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da; Friedrich, Barbara Q.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da
2013-01-01
In shielding calculation of radiological facilities, several parameters are required, such as occupancy, use factor, number of patients, source-barrier distance, area type (controlled and uncontrolled), radiation (primary or secondary) and material used in the barrier. The shielding design optimization requires a review of several options about the physical facility design and, mainly, the achievement of the best cost-benefit relationship for the shielding material. To facilitate the development of this kind of design, a program to calculate the shielding in diagnostic radiology was implemented, based on data and limits established by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 147 and SVS-MS 453/98. The program was developed in C⌗ language, and presents a graphical interface for user data input and reporting capabilities. The module initially implemented, called SHIELD 1.0, refers to calculating barriers for conventional X-ray rooms. The program validation was performed by the comparison with the results of examples of shielding calculations presented in NCRP 147.
Guidelines for calculating and enhancing detection efficiency of PIT tag interrogation systems
Connolly, Patrick J.
2010-01-01
With increasing use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and reliance on stationary PIT tag interrogation systems to monitor fish populations, guidelines are offered to inform users how best to use limited funding and human resources to create functional systems that maximize a desired level of detection and precision. The estimators of detection efficiency and their variability as described by Connolly et al. (2008) are explored over a span of likely performance metrics. These estimators were developed to estimate detection efficiency without relying on a known number of fish passing the system. I present graphical displays of the results derived from these estimators to show the potential efficiency and precision to be gained by adding an array or by increasing the number of PIT-tagged fish expected to move past an interrogation system.
Slicken 1.0: Program for calculating the orientation of shear on reactivated faults
Xu, Hong; Xu, Shunshan; Nieto-Samaniego, Ángel F.; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana A.
2017-07-01
The slip vector on a fault is an important parameter in the study of the movement history of a fault and its faulting mechanism. Although there exist many graphical programs to represent the shear stress (or slickenline) orientations on faults, programs to quantitatively calculate the orientation of fault slip based on a given stress field are scarce. In consequence, we develop Slicken 1.0, a software to rapidly calculate the orientation of maximum shear stress on any fault plane. For this direct method of calculating the resolved shear stress on a planar surface, the input data are the unit vector normal to the involved plane, the unit vectors of the three principal stress axes, and the stress ratio. The advantage of this program is that the vertical or horizontal principal stresses are not necessarily required. Due to its nimble design using Java SE 8.0, it runs on most operating systems with the corresponding Java VM. The software program will be practical for geoscience students, geologists and engineers and will help resolve a deficiency in field geology, and structural and engineering geology.
Effective Dose Calculation Program (EDCP) for the usage of NORM-added consumer product.
Yoo, Do Hyeon; Lee, Jaekook; Min, Chul Hee
2018-04-09
The aim of this study is to develop the Effective Dose Calculation Program (EDCP) for the usage of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) added consumer products. The EDCP was developed based on a database of effective dose conversion coefficient and the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) program to incorporate a Graphic User Interface (GUI) for ease of use. To validate EDCP, the effective dose calculated with EDCP by manually determining the source region by using the GUI and that by using the reference mathematical algorithm were compared for pillow, waist supporter, eye-patch and sleeping mattress. The results show that the annual effective dose calculated with EDCP was almost identical to that calculated using the reference mathematical algorithm in most of the assessment cases. With the assumption of the gamma energy of 1 MeV and activity of 1 MBq, the annual effective doses of pillow, waist supporter, sleeping mattress, and eye-patch determined using the reference algorithm were 3.444 mSv year -1 , 2.770 mSv year -1 , 4.629 mSv year -1 , and 3.567 mSv year -1 , respectively, while those calculated using EDCP were 3.561 mSv year -1 , 2.630 mSv year -1 , 4.740 mSv year -1 , and 3.780 mSv year -1 , respectively. The differences in the annual effective doses were less than 5%, despite the different calculation methods employed. The EDCP can therefore be effectively used for radiation protection management in the context of the usage of NORM-added consumer products. Additionally, EDCP can be used by members of the public through the GUI for various studies in the field of radiation protection, thus facilitating easy access to the program. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
User's Guide to Handlens - A Computer Program that Calculates the Chemistry of Minerals in Mixtures
Eberl, D.D.
2008-01-01
HandLens is a computer program, written in Excel macro language, that calculates the chemistry of minerals in mineral mixtures (for example, in rocks, soils and sediments) for related samples from inputs of quantitative mineralogy and chemistry. For best results, the related samples should contain minerals having the same chemical compositions; that is, the samples should differ only in the proportions of minerals present. This manual describes how to use the program, discusses the theory behind its operation, and presents test results of the program's accuracy. Required input for HandLens includes quantitative mineralogical data, obtained, for example, by RockJock analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and quantitative chemical data, obtained, for example, by X-ray florescence (XRF) analysis of the same samples. Other quantitative data, such as sample depth, temperature, surface area, also can be entered. The minerals present in the samples are selected from a list, and the program is started. The results of the calculation include: (1) a table of linear coefficients of determination (r2's) which relate pairs of input data (for example, Si versus quartz weight percents); (2) a utility for plotting all input data, either as pairs of variables, or as sums of up to eight variables; (3) a table that presents the calculated chemical formulae for minerals in the samples; (4) a table that lists the calculated concentrations of major, minor, and trace elements in the various minerals; and (5) a table that presents chemical formulae for the minerals that have been corrected for possible systematic errors in the mineralogical and/or chemical analyses. In addition, the program contains a method for testing the assumption of constant chemistry of the minerals within a sample set.
Efficient Finite Element Calculation of N_{y}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, K.
2007-01-01
The performance of a return mapping scheme for plasticity with linear yield planes in principal stress space is evaluated in relation to a Mohr-Coulomb material. For purely frictional materials this material model is known to cause problems in numerical calculations, but these problems...
Giurgiu, I. I.
1974-01-01
The sound insulating capacity of building elements made up of light concretes is considered. Analyzing differentially the behavior of light concrete building elements under the influence of incident acoustic energy and on the basis of experimental measurements, coefficients of correction are introduced into the basic formulas for calculating the sound insulating capacity for the 100-3,2000 Hz frequency band.
An Efficient Algorithm to Calculate the Minkowski Sum of Convex 3D Polyhedra
Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
2001-01-01
A new method is presented to calculate the Minkowski sum of two convex polyhedra A and B in 3D. These graphs are given edge attributes. From these attributed graphs the attributed graph of the Minkowski sum is constructed. This graph is then transformed into the Minkowski sum of A and B. The running
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langenback, E.G.; Foster, W.M.; Bergofsky, E.H.
1989-01-01
We determined the overall external counting efficiency of radiolabeled particles deposited in the sheep lung. This efficiency permits the noninvasive calculation of the number of particles and microcuries from gamma-scintillation lung images of the live sheep. Additionally, we have calculated the attenuation of gamma radiation (120 keV) by the posterior chest wall and the gamma-scintillation camera collection efficiency of radiation emitted from the lung. Four methods were employed in our experiments: (1) by light microscopic counting of discrete carbonized polystyrene particles with a count median diameter (CMD) of 2.85 microns and tagged with cobalt-57, we delineated a linear relationship between the number of particles and the emitted counts per minute (cpm) detected by well scintillation counting; (2) from this conversion relationship we determined the number of particles inhaled and deposited in the lungs by scintillation counting fragments of dissected lung at autopsy; (3) we defined a linear association between the number of particles or microcuries contained in the lung and the emitted radiation as cpm detected by a gamma scintillation camera in the live sheep prior to autopsy; and (4) we compared the emitted radiation from the lungs of the live sheep to that of whole excised lungs in order to calculate the attenuation coefficient (ac) of the chest wall. The mean external counting efficiency was 4.00 X 10(4) particles/cpm (5.1 X 10(-3) microCi/cpm), the camera collection efficiency was 1 cpm/10(4) disintegrations per minute (dpm), and the ac had a mean of 0.178/cm. The external counting efficiency remained relatively constant over a range of particles and microcuries, permitting a more general use of this ratio to estimate number of particles or microcuries depositing after inhalation in a large mammalian lung if a similarly collimated gamma camera system is used
SUBGR: A Program to Generate Subgroup Data for the Subgroup Resonance Self-Shielding Calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2016-06-06
The Subgroup Data Generation (SUBGR) program generates subgroup data, including levels and weights from the resonance self-shielded cross section table as a function of background cross section. Depending on the nuclide and the energy range, these subgroup data can be generated by (a) narrow resonance approximation, (b) pointwise flux calculations for homogeneous media; and (c) pointwise flux calculations for heterogeneous lattice cells. The latter two options are performed by the AMPX module IRFFACTOR. These subgroup data are to be used in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) neutronic simulator MPACT, for which the primary resonance self-shielding method is the subgroup method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelsey IV, Charles T.; Prinja, Anil K.
2011-01-01
We evaluate the Monte Carlo calculation efficiency for multigroup transport relative to continuous energy transport using the MCNPX code system to evaluate secondary neutron doses from a proton beam. We consider both fully forward simulation and application of a midway forward adjoint coupling method to the problem. Previously we developed tools for building coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries and showed consistent results for continuous energy and multigroup proton/neutron transport calculations. We observed that forward multigroup transport could be more efficient than continuous energy. Here we quantify solution efficiency differences for a secondary radiation dose problem characteristic of proton beam therapy problems. We begin by comparing figures of merit for forward multigroup and continuous energy MCNPX transport and find that multigroup is 30 times more efficient. Next we evaluate efficiency gains for coupling out-of-beam adjoint solutions with forward in-beam solutions. We use a variation of a midway forward-adjoint coupling method developed by others for neutral particle transport. Our implementation makes use of the surface source feature in MCNPX and we use spherical harmonic expansions for coupling in angle rather than solid angle binning. The adjoint out-of-beam transport for organs of concern in a phantom or patient can be coupled with numerous forward, continuous energy or multigroup, in-beam perturbations of a therapy beam line configuration. Out-of-beam dose solutions are provided without repeating out-of-beam transport. (author)
Klumpp, Matthias
2017-01-01
Sustainability performance and efficiency is an important topic in transportation and for forwarders. This is shown, for example, by the fact that major logistics service providers LSP publish sustainability reports, often within the annual legal business report. However, in depth research is
Farr, W. M.; Mandel, I.; Stevens, D.
2015-01-01
Selection among alternative theoretical models given an observed dataset is an important challenge in many areas of physics and astronomy. Reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) is an extremely powerful technique for performing Bayesian model selection, but it suffers from a fundamental difficulty and it requires jumps between model parameter spaces, but cannot efficiently explore both parameter spaces at once. Thus, a naive jump between parameter spaces is unlikely to be accepted in the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm and convergence is correspondingly slow. Here, we demonstrate an interpolation technique that uses samples from single-model MCMCs to propose intermodel jumps from an approximation to the single-model posterior of the target parameter space. The interpolation technique, based on a kD-tree data structure, is adaptive and efficient in modest dimensionality. We show that our technique leads to improved convergence over naive jumps in an RJMCMC, and compare it to other proposals in the literature to improve the convergence of RJMCMCs. We also demonstrate the use of the same interpolation technique as a way to construct efficient ‘global’ proposal distributions for single-model MCMCs without prior knowledge of the structure of the posterior distribution, and discuss improvements that permit the method to be used in higher dimensional spaces efficiently. PMID:26543580
Efficient calculation of broadband acoustic scattering from a partially, obliquely buried cylinder
Nijhof, M.J.J.; Espana, A.; Williams, K.
2013-01-01
An efficient model for the Target In Environment Response (TIER) of buried/half buried, mine-like objects and UXOs is essential for the development and training of automatic target detection and classification methods and for use in sonar performance prediction models. For instance, to investigate
Skouteris, Dimitris; Gervasi, Osvaldo; Laganà, Antonio
2009-03-01
A program that uses the time-dependent wavepacket method to study the motion of structureless particles in a force field of quasi-cylindrical symmetry is presented here. The program utilises cylindrical polar coordinates to express the wavepacket, which is subsequently propagated using a Chebyshev expansion of the Schrödinger propagator. Time-dependent exit flux as well as energy-dependent S matrix elements can be obtained for all states of the particle (describing its angular momentum component along the nanotube axis and the excitation of the radial degree of freedom in the cylinder). The program has been used to study the motion of an H atom across a carbon nanotube. Program summaryProgram title: CYLWAVE Catalogue identifier: AECL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3673 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 35 237 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: RISC workstations Operating system: UNIX RAM: 120 MBytes Classification: 16.7, 16.10 External routines: SUNSOFT performance library (not essential) TFFT2D.F (Temperton Fast Fourier Transform), BESSJ.F (from Numerical Recipes, for the calculation of Bessel functions) (included in the distribution file). Nature of problem: Time evolution of the state of a structureless particle in a quasicylindrical potential. Solution method: Time dependent wavepacket propagation. Running time: 50000 secs. The test run supplied with the distribution takes about 10 minutes to complete.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.
1995-01-01
We have reviewed the literature on the performance of HEPA filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509[1]. Other HEPA filter designs such as the mini-pleat and separatorless filters are not included in this study. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. There are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen. The estimation of the efficiency of the HEPA filters under DBA conditions involves three steps: (1) The filter pressure drop and environmental parameters are determined during and after the DBA, (2) Comparing the filter pressure drop to a set of threshold values above which the filter is damaged. There is a different threshold value for each combination of environmental parameters, and (3) Determining the filter efficiency. If the filter pressure drop is greater than the threshold value, the filter is damaged and is assigned 0% efficiency. If the pressure drop is less, then the filter is not damaged and the efficiency is determined from literature values of the efficiency at the environmental conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others
1995-02-01
We have reviewed the literature on the performance of HEPA filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509[1]. Other HEPA filter designs such as the mini-pleat and separatorless filters are not included in this study. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. There are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen. The estimation of the efficiency of the HEPA filters under DBA conditions involves three steps: (1) The filter pressure drop and environmental parameters are determined during and after the DBA, (2) Comparing the filter pressure drop to a set of threshold values above which the filter is damaged. There is a different threshold value for each combination of environmental parameters, and (3) Determining the filter efficiency. If the filter pressure drop is greater than the threshold value, the filter is damaged and is assigned 0% efficiency. If the pressure drop is less, then the filter is not damaged and the efficiency is determined from literature values of the efficiency at the environmental conditions.
Building America: The Advanced Whole-Home Efficiency Program (Presentation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engebrecht, C.
2012-02-01
This presentation discusses the Building America Program. This presentation discusses the background and goals of the program. A few hot topic technologies are discussed. Outreach activities are discussed as well.
Fission product inventory calculation by a CASMO/ORIGEN coupling program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jung, In Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
A CASMO/ORIGEN coupling utility program was developed to predict the composition of all the fission products in spent PWR fuels. The coupling program reads the CASMO output file, modifies the ORIGEN cross section library and reconstructs the ORIGEN input file at each depletion step. In ORIGEN, the burnup equation is solved for actinides and fission products based on the fission reaction rates and depletion flux of CASMO. A sample calculation has been performed using a 14 x 14 PWR fuel assembly and the results are given in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (Author)
Fission product inventory calculation by a CASMO/ORIGEN coupling program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jung, In Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
A CASMO/ORIGEN coupling utility program was developed to predict the composition of all the fission products in spent PWR fuels. The coupling program reads the CASMO output file, modifies the ORIGEN cross section library and reconstructs the ORIGEN input file at each depletion step. In ORIGEN, the burnup equation is solved for actinides and fission products based on the fission reaction rates and depletion flux of CASMO. A sample calculation has been performed using a 14 x 14 PWR fuel assembly and the results are given in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (Author)
Application of the REMIX thermal mixing calculation program for the Loviisa reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kokkonen, I.; Tuomisto, H.
1987-08-01
The REMIX computer program has been validated to be used in the pressurized thermal shock study of the Loviisa reactor pressure vessel. The program has been verified against the data from the thermal and fluid mixing experiments. These experiments have been carried out in Imatran voima Oy to study thermal mixing of the high-pressure safety injection water in the Loviisa VVER-440 type pressurized water reactor. The verified REMIX-versions were applied to reactor calculations in the probabilistic pressurized thermal shock study of the Loviisa Plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuitto, P.J.
1996-12-31
VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuitto, P J
1997-12-31
VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains
AFG-MONSU. A program for calculating axial heterogeneities in cylindrical pin cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neltrup, H.; Kirkegaard, P.
1978-08-01
The AGF-MONSU program complex is designed to calculate the flux in cylindrical fuel pin cells into which heterogeneities are introduced in a regular array. The theory - integral transport theory combined with Monte Carlo by help of a superposition principle - is described in some detail. Detailed derivation of the superposition principle as well as the formulas used in the DIT (Discrete Integral Transport) method is given in the appendices along with a description of the input structure of the AFG-MONSU program complex. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
2015-01-01
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present several methods on how to deal with yield surface discontinuities. The explicit formulations, first presented by Koiter (1953), result in multisingular constitutive matrices which can cause numerical problems in elasto-plastic finite element...... documented in the literature all present “easy” calculation examples, e.g. low friction angles and few elements. The amendments presented in this paper result in robust elasto-plastic computations, making the solution of “hard” problems possible without introducing approximations in the yield surfaces...... calculations. These problems, however, are not documented in previous literature. In this paper an amendment to the Koiter formulation of the constitutive matrices for stress points located on discontinuities is proposed. Design/methodology/approach – First, a review of existing methods of handling yield...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohmmadnia, Meysam; Pazirandeh, Ali; Sedighi, Mostafa; Bahabadi, Mohammad Hassan Jalili; Tayefi, Shima
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The atomic densities of light and heavy materials are calculated. ► The solution is obtained using Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. ► The material depletion is calculated for constant flux and constant power condition. - Abstract: The present work investigates an appropriate way to calculate the variations of nuclides composition in the reactor core during operations. Specific Software has been designed for this purpose using C#. The mathematical approach is based on the solution of Bateman differential equations using a Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. Material depletion at constant flux and constant power can be calculated with this software. The inputs include reactor power, time step, initial and final times, order of Taylor Series to calculate time dependent flux, time unit, core material composition at initial condition (consists of light and heavy radioactive materials), acceptable error criterion, decay constants library, cross sections database and calculation type (constant flux or constant power). The atomic density of light and heavy fission products during reactor operation is obtained with high accuracy as the program outputs. The results from this method compared with analytical solution show good agreements
Fourier Bessel transform method for efficiently calculating the magnetic field of solenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nachamkin, J.; Maggiore, C.J.
1980-01-01
A numerical procedure for calculating the magnetic field of a selenoid is derived. Based on the properties of Bessel functions, the procedure is shown to be convergent everywhere, including within the windings of the solenoid. The most critical part of the procedure is detailed in the main text. A simple method is used to ensure numerical significance while allowing economical computational times. In the appendix the procedure is generalized to universal convergence by appropriate partitioning of the solenoid windings
A computer program (COSTUM) to calculate confidence intervals for in situ stress measurements. V. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzik, E.J.; Walker, J.R.; Martin, C.D.
1989-03-01
The state of in situ stress is one of the parameters required both for the design and analysis of underground excavations and for the evaluation of numerical models used to simulate underground conditions. To account for the variability and uncertainty of in situ stress measurements, it is desirable to apply confidence limits to measured stresses. Several measurements of the state of stress along a borehole are often made to estimate the average state of stress at a point. Since stress is a tensor, calculating the mean stress and confidence limits using scalar techniques is inappropriate as well as incorrect. A computer program has been written to calculate and present the mean principle stresses and the confidence limits for the magnitudes and directions of the mean principle stresses. This report describes the computer program, COSTUM
Efficient free energy calculations by combining two complementary tempering sampling methods.
Xie, Liangxu; Shen, Lin; Chen, Zhe-Ning; Yang, Mingjun
2017-01-14
Although energy barriers can be efficiently crossed in the reaction coordinate (RC) guided sampling, this type of method suffers from identification of the correct RCs or requirements of high dimensionality of the defined RCs for a given system. If only the approximate RCs with significant barriers are used in the simulations, hidden energy barriers with small to medium height would exist in other degrees of freedom (DOFs) relevant to the target process and consequently cause the problem of insufficient sampling. To address the sampling in this so-called hidden barrier situation, here we propose an effective approach to combine temperature accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD), an efficient RC-guided sampling method, with the integrated tempering sampling (ITS), a generalized ensemble sampling method. In this combined ITS-TAMD method, the sampling along the major RCs with high energy barriers is guided by TAMD and the sampling of the rest of the DOFs with lower but not negligible barriers is enhanced by ITS. The performance of ITS-TAMD to three systems in the processes with hidden barriers has been examined. In comparison to the standalone TAMD or ITS approach, the present hybrid method shows three main improvements. (1) Sampling efficiency can be improved at least five times even if in the presence of hidden energy barriers. (2) The canonical distribution can be more accurately recovered, from which the thermodynamic properties along other collective variables can be computed correctly. (3) The robustness of the selection of major RCs suggests that the dimensionality of necessary RCs can be reduced. Our work shows more potential applications of the ITS-TAMD method as the efficient and powerful tool for the investigation of a broad range of interesting cases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucatero, Marco A.; Palacios-Hernandez, Javier C.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier; Xolocostli-Munguia, J. Vicente; Gomez-Torres, Armando M.
2010-01-01
Materials surveillance programs are required to detect and prevent degradation of safety-related structures and components of a nuclear power reactor. In this work, following the directions in the Regulatory Guide 1.190, a calculational methodology is implemented as additional support for a reactor pressure vessel and internals surveillance program for a BWR. The choice of the neutronic methods employed was based on the premise of being able of performing all the expected future survey calculations in relatively short times, but without compromising accuracy. First, a geometrical model of a typical BWR was developed, from the core to the primary containment, including jet pumps and all other structures. The methodology uses the Synthesis Method to compute the three-dimensional neutron flux distribution. In the methodology, the code CORE-MASTER-PRESTO is used as the three-dimensional core simulator; SCALE is used to generate the fine-group flux spectra of the components of the model and also used to generate a 47 energy-groups job cross section library, collapsed from the 199-fine-group master library VITAMIN-B6; ORIGEN2 was used to compute the isotopic densities of uranium and plutonium; and, finally, DORT was used to calculate the two-dimensional and one-dimensional neutron flux distributions required to compute the synthesized three-dimensional neutron flux. Then, the calculation of fast neutron fluence was performed using the effective full power time periods through six operational fuel cycles of two BWR Units and until the 13th cycle for Unit 1. The results showed a maximum relative difference between the calculated-by-synthesis fast neutron fluxes and fluences and those measured by Fe, Cu and Ni dosimeters less than 7%. The dosimeters were originally located adjacent to the pressure vessel wall, as part of the surveillance program. Results from the computations of peak fast fluence on pressure vessel wall and specific weld locations on the core shroud are
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schick, W.C. Jr.; Milani, S.; Duncombe, E.
1980-03-01
A model has been devised for incorporating into the thermal feedback procedure of the PDQ few-group diffusion theory computer program the explicit calculation of depletion and temperature dependent fuel-rod shrinkage and swelling at each mesh point. The model determines the effect on reactivity of the change in hydrogen concentration caused by the variation in coolant channel area as the rods contract and expand. The calculation of fuel temperature, and hence of Doppler-broadened cross sections, is improved by correcting the heat transfer coefficient of the fuel-clad gap for the effects of clad creep, fuel densification and swelling, and release of fission-product gases into the gap. An approximate calculation of clad stress is also included in the model
Abstract of programs for nuclear reactor calculation and kinetic equations solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marakazov, A.A.
1977-01-01
The collection includes about 50 annotations of programmes,developed in the Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute in 1971-1976. The programmes are intended for calculating the neutron flux, for solving systems of multigroup equations in P 3 approximation, for calculating the reactor cell, for analysing the system stability, breeding ratio etc. The programme annotations are compiled according to the following diagram: 1.Programme title. 2.Computer type. 3.Physical problem. 4.Solution method. 5.Calculation limitations. 6.Characteristic computer time. 7.Programme characteristic features. 8.Bound programmes. 9.Programme state. 10.Literature allusions in the programme. 11.Required memory resourses. 12.Programming language. 13.Operation system. 14.Names of authors and place of programme adjusting
de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth
2006-01-01
Conditional cash transfer programs are now used extensively to encourage poor parents to increase investments in their children's human capital. These programs can be large and expensive, motivating a quest for greater efficiency through increased impact of the programs' imposed conditions on human capital formation. This requires designing the programs' targeting and calibration rules spe...
Calculator: A Hardware Design, Math and Software Programming Project Base Learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Criado
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation by the students of a complex calculator in hardware. This project meets hardware design goals, and also highly motivates them to use competences learned in others subjects. The learning process, associated to System Design, is hard enough because the students have to deal with parallel execution, signal delay, synchronization … Then, to strengthen the knowledge of hardware design a methodology as project based learning (PBL is proposed. Moreover, it is also used to reinforce cross subjects like math and software programming. This methodology creates a course dynamics that is closer to a professional environment where they will work with software and mathematics to resolve the hardware design problems. The students design from zero the functionality of the calculator. They are who make the decisions about the math operations that it is able to resolve it, and also the operands format or how to introduce a complex equation into the calculator. This will increase the student intrinsic motivation. In addition, since the choices may have consequences on the reliability of the calculator, students are encouraged to program in software the decisions about how implement the selected mathematical algorithm. Although math and hardware design are two tough subjects for students, the perception that they get at the end of the course is quite positive.
A computer program for unilateral renal clearance calculation by a modified Oberhausen method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueggemann, G.
1980-01-01
A FORTAN program is presented which, on the basis of data obtained with NUKLEOPAN M, calculates the glomerular filtration rate with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, the unilateral effective renal plasma flow with 131 I-hippuran, and the parameters for describing the isotope rephrogram (ING) with 131 I-hippuran. The results are calculated fully automatically upon entry of the data, and the results are processed and printed out. The theoretical fundamentals of ING and whole-body clearance calculation are presented as well as the methods available for unilateral clearance calculation, and the FORTAN program is described in detail. The standard values of the method are documented, as well as a comparative gamma camera study of 48 patients in order to determine the accuracy of unilateral imaging with the NUKLEOPAN M instrument, a comparison of unilateral clearances by the Oberhausen and Taplin methods, and a comparison between 7/17' plasma clearance and whole-body clearance. Problems and findings of the method are discussed. (orig./MG) [de
Program for photon shielding calculations. Examination of approximations on irradiation geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isozumi, Yasuhito; Ishizuka, Fumihiko; Miyatake, Hideo; Kato, Takahisa; Tosaki, Mitsuo
2004-01-01
Penetration factors and related numerical data in 'Manual of Practical Shield Calculation of Radiation Facilities (2000)', which correspond to the irradiation geometries of point isotropic source in infinite thick material (PI), point isotropic source in finite thick material (PF) and vertical incident to finite thick material (VF), have been carefully examined. The shield calculation based on the PI geometry is usually performed with effective dose penetration factors of radioisotopes given in the 'manual'. The present work cleary shows that such a calculation may lead to an overestimate more than twice larger, especially for thick shield of concrete and water. Employing the numerical data in the 'manual', we have fabricated a simple computer program for the estimation of penetration factors and effective doses of radioisotopes in the different irradiation geometries, i.e., PI, PF and VF. The program is also available to calculate the effective dose from a set of radioisotopes in the different positions, which is necessary for the γ-ray shielding of radioisotope facilities. (author)
CDFMC: a program that calculates the fixed neutron source distribution for a BWR using Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez T, A.M.; Xolocostli M, J.V.; Palacios H, J.C.
2006-01-01
The three-dimensional neutron flux calculation using the synthesis method, it requires of the determination of the neutron flux in two two-dimensional configurations as well as in an unidimensional one. Most of the standard guides for the neutron flux calculation or fluences in the vessel of a nuclear reactor, make special emphasis in the appropriate calculation of the fixed neutron source that should be provided to the used transport code, with the purpose of finding sufficiently approximated flux values. The reactor core assemblies configuration is based on X Y geometry, however the considered problem is solved in R θ geometry for what is necessary to make an appropriate mapping to find the source term associated to the R θ intervals starting from a source distribution in rectangular coordinates. To develop the CDFMC computer program (Source Distribution calculation using Monte Carlo), it was necessary to develop a theory of independent mapping to those that have been in the literature. The method of meshes overlapping here used, is based on a technique of random points generation, commonly well-known as Monte Carlo technique. Although the 'randomness' of this technique it implies considering errors in the calculations, it is well known that when increasing the number of points randomly generated to measure an area or some other quantity of interest, the precision of the method increases. In the particular case of the CDFMC computer program, the developed technique reaches a good general behavior when it is used a considerably high number of points (bigger or equal to a hundred thousand), with what makes sure errors in the calculations of the order of 1%. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grudzevich, O.D.; Zelenetskij, A.V.; Pashchenko, A.B.
1986-01-01
The last version of the KOP program for calculating cross sections of neutron and charged particle interaction with atomic nuclei within the scope of the optical model is described. The structure and program organization, library of total parameters of the optical potential, program identificators and peculiarities of its operation, input of source data and output of calculational results for printing are described in detail. The KOP program is described in Fortran- and adapted for EC-1033 computer
Automated calculation of myocardial external efficiency from a single 11C-acetate PET/CT scan
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Hansson, Nils Henrik
of this study was to develop and validate an automated method of calculating MEE from a single dynamic 11C-acetate PETscan. Methods: 21 subjects underwent a dynamic 27 min 11C-acetate PETscan on a Siemens Biograph TruePoint 64 PET/CTscanner. Using cluster analysis, the LV-aortic time-activity curve (TACLV......). Conclusion: Myocardial efficiencycanbe derived directly andautomatically froma single dynamic 11C-acetate PET scan. This eliminates the need for a separate CMR scan and eliminates any potential errors due to different loading conditions between CMR and PETscans.......Background: Dynamic PETwith 11C-acetate can be used to assess myocardial oxygen use which in turn is usedto calculate myocardial external efficiency (MEE), anearly marker of heart failure. MEE is defined as the ratio of total work (TW) and total energy use (TE). Calculation of TW and TE requires...
Petrenko, Taras; Rauhut, Guntram
2017-03-01
Vibrational configuration interaction theory is a common method for calculating vibrational levels and associated IR and Raman spectra of small and medium-sized molecules. When combined with appropriate configuration selection procedures, the method allows the treatment of configuration spaces with up to 1010 configurations. In general, this approach pursues the construction of the eigenstates with significant contributions of physically relevant configurations. The corresponding eigenfunctions are evaluated in the subspace of selected configurations. However, it can easily reach the dimension which is not tractable for conventional eigenvalue solvers. Although Davidson and Lanczos methods are the methods of choice for calculating exterior eigenvalues, they usually fall into stagnation when applied to interior states. The latter are commonly treated by the Jacobi-Davidson method. This approach in conjunction with matrix factorization for solving the correction equation (CE) is prohibitive for larger problems, and it has limited efficiency if the solution of the CE is based on Krylov's subspace algorithms. We propose an iterative subspace method that targets the eigenvectors with significant contributions to a given reference vector and is based on the optimality condition for the residual norm corresponding to the error in the solution vector. The subspace extraction and expansion are modified according to these principles which allow very efficient calculation of interior vibrational states with a strong multireference character in different vibrational structure problems. The convergence behavior of the method and its performance in comparison with the aforementioned algorithms are investigated in a set of benchmark calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamykowski, E.A. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Bethpage, NY (United States))
1992-07-15
Boron-loaded scintillators offer the potential for neutron spectrometers with a simplified, peak-shaped response. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used to calculate the detector characteristics of a scintillator made of a boron-loaded plastic, BC454, for neutrons between 1 and 7 MeV. Comparisons with measurements are made of spectral response for neutron energies between 4 and 6 MeV and of intrinsic efficiencies for neutrons up to 7 MeV. In order to compare the calculated spectra with measured data, enhancements to MCNP were introduced to generate tallies of light output spectra for recoil events terminating in a final capture by {sup 10}B. The comparison of measured and calculated spectra shows agreement in response shape, full width at half maximum, and recoil energy deposition. Intrinsic efficiencies measured to 7 MeV are also in agreement with the MCNP calculations. These results validate the code predictions and affirm the value of MCNP as a useful tool for development of sensor concepts based on boron-loaded plastics. (orig.).
Efficient SPECT scatter calculation in non-uniform media using correlated Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beekman, F.J.
1999-01-01
Accurate simulation of scatter in projection data of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is computationally extremely demanding for activity distribution in non-uniform dense media. This paper suggests how the computation time and memory requirements can be significantly reduced. First the scatter projection of a uniform dense object (P SDSE ) is calculated using a previously developed accurate and fast method which includes all orders of scatter (slab-derived scatter estimation), and then P SDSE is transformed towards the desired projection P which is based on the non-uniform object. The transform of P SDSE is based on two first-order Compton scatter Monte Carlo (MC) simulated projections. One is based on the uniform object (P u ) and the other on the object with non-uniformities (P ν ). P is estimated by P-tilde=P SDSE P ν /P u . A tremendous decrease in noise in P-tilde is achieved by tracking photon paths for P ν identical to those which were tracked for the calculation of P u and by using analytical rather than stochastic modelling of the collimator. The method was validated by comparing the results with standard MC-simulated scatter projections (P) of 99m Tc and 201 Tl point sources in a digital thorax phantom. After correction, excellent agreement was obtained between P-tilde and P. The total computation time required to calculate an accurate scatter projection of an extended distribution in a thorax phantom on a PC is a only few tens of seconds per projection, which makes the method attractive for application in accurate scatter correction in clinical SPECT. Furthermore, the method removes the need of excessive computer memory involved with previously proposed 3D model-based scatter correction methods. (author)
Barber, Duncan Henry
During some postulated accidents at nuclear power stations, fuel cooling may be impaired. In such cases, the fuel heats up and the subsequent increased fission-gas release from the fuel to the gap may result in fuel sheath failure. After fuel sheath failure, the barrier between the coolant and the fuel pellets is lost or impaired, gases and vapours from the fuel-to-sheath gap and other open voids in the fuel pellets can be vented. Gases and steam from the coolant can enter the broken fuel sheath and interact with the fuel pellet surfaces and the fission-product inclusion on the fuel surface (including material at the surface of the fuel matrix). The chemistry of this interaction is an important mechanism to model in order to assess fission-product releases from fuel. Starting in 1995, the computer program SOURCE 2.0 was developed by the Canadian nuclear industry to model fission-product release from fuel during such accidents. SOURCE 2.0 has employed an early thermochemical model of irradiated uranium dioxide fuel developed at the Royal Military College of Canada. To overcome the limitations of computers of that time, the implementation of the RMC model employed lookup tables to pre-calculated equilibrium conditions. In the intervening years, the RMC model has been improved, the power of computers has increased significantly, and thermodynamic subroutine libraries have become available. This thesis is the result of extensive work based on these three factors. A prototype computer program (referred to as SC11) has been developed that uses a thermodynamic subroutine library to calculate thermodynamic equilibria using Gibbs energy minimization. The Gibbs energy minimization requires the system temperature (T) and pressure (P), and the inventory of chemical elements (n) in the system. In order to calculate the inventory of chemical elements in the fuel, the list of nuclides and nuclear isomers modelled in SC11 had to be expanded from the list used by SOURCE 2.0. A
Investigations and calculations toward increasing the efficiency of muon catalyzed fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monkhorst, H.J.
1989-11-01
A brief summary of results during this report period is given. Some of the topics investigated includes: (1) calculations of sticking fractions and d-t fusion from dtμ(JV) states, (2) ddμ sticking fractions, (3) the reactivation coefficient in d-t fusion, (4) fusion rates for all XYμ(JV)(JV=0,1), (5) nuclear effects on energy shifts and fusion rates for (J=O) states of dtμ, (6) and some comments on cold fusion
Simple and efficient way of speeding up transmission calculations with k-point sampling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesper Toft Falkenberg
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The transmissions as functions of energy are central for electron or phonon transport in the Landauer transport picture. We suggest a simple and computationally “cheap” post-processing scheme to interpolate transmission functions over k-points to get smooth well-converged average transmission functions. This is relevant for data obtained using typical “expensive” first principles calculations where the leads/electrodes are described by periodic boundary conditions. We show examples of transport in graphene structures where a speed-up of an order of magnitude is easily obtained.
Calculation of the energy-dependent efficiency of gridded 3He fast-neutron ionization chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prussin, S.G.
1982-01-01
Research and development activities under this contract proceeded along several lines, including development of a gas jet facility for the transport and isolation of fission product activities with half lives in the range T/sub 1/2/ less than or equal to 2 sec, studies on the factors affecting the energy and timing resolution of gridded 3 He ionization detectors for delayed neutron spectroscopy and the development of simple models for calculation of the beta-decay characteristics of short-lived fission products near A = 90. Brief outlines of the activities in the areas are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mordant, Maurice.
1981-04-01
To solve a multigroup stationary neutron transport equation in two-dimensional geometries (X-Y), (R-O) or (R-Z) generally on uses discrete ordinates and rectangular meshes. The way to do it is then well known, well documented and somewhat obvious. If one needs to treat awkward geometries or distorted meshes, things are not so easy and the way to do it is no longer straightforward. We have studied this problem at Limeil Nuclear Center and as an alternative to Monte Carlo methods and code we have implemented in ZEPHYR code at least two efficient finite element solutions for Lagrangian meshes involving any kind of triangles and quadrilaterals
MCFT: a program for calculating fast and thermal neutron multigroup constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Shunhai; Sang Xinzeng
1993-01-01
MCFT is a program for calculating the fast and thermal neutron multigroup constants, which is redesigned from some codes for generation of thermal neutron multigroup constants and for fast neutron multigroup constants adapted on CYBER 825 computer. It uses indifferently as basic input with the evaluated nuclear data contained in the ENDF/B (US), KEDAK (Germany) and UK (United Kingdom) libraries. The code includes a section devoted to the generation of resonant Doppler broadened cross section in the framework of single-or multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. The program can compute the thermal neutron scattering law S (α, β, T) as the input data in tabular, free gas or diffusion motion form. It can treat up to 200 energy groups and Legendre moments up to P 5 . The output consists of various reaction multigroup constants in all neutron energy range desired in the nuclear reactor design and calculation. Three options in input file can be used by the user. The output format is arbitrary and defined by user with a minimum of program modification. The program includes about 15,000 cards and 184 subroutines. FORTRAN 5 computer language is used. The operation system is under NOS 2 on computer CYBER 825
A new program for calculating matrix elements of one-particle operators in jj-coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyper, N.C.; Grant, I.P.; Beatham, N.
1978-01-01
The aim of this paper is to calculate the matrix elements of one-particle tensor operators occurring in atomic and nuclear theory between configuration state functions representing states containing any number of open shells in jj-coupling. The program calculates the angular part of these matrix elements. The program is essentially a new version of RDMEJJ, written by J.J. Chang. The aims of this version are to eliminate inconsistencies from RDMEJJ, to modify its input requirements for consistency with MCP75, and to modify its output so that it can be stored in a discfile for access by other compatible programs. The program assumes that the configurational states are built from a common orthonormal set of basis orbitals. The number of electrons in a shell having j>=9/2 is restricted to be not greater than 2 by the available CFP routines . The present version allows up to 40 orbitals and 50 configurational states with <=10 open shells; these numbers can be changed by recompiling with modified COMMON/DIMENSION statements. The user should ensure that the CPC library subprograms AAGD, ACRI incorporate all current updates and have been converted to use double precision floating point arithmetic. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Le, T.H.A.; Pham, D. T.; Canh, Nam Nguyen
2010-01-01
Both the efficient and weakly efficient sets of an affine fractional vector optimization problem, in general, are neither convex nor given explicitly. Optimization problems over one of these sets are thus nonconvex. We propose two methods for optimizing a real-valued function over the efficient...... and weakly efficient sets of an affine fractional vector optimization problem. The first method is a local one. By using a regularization function, we reformulate the problem into a standard smooth mathematical programming problem that allows applying available methods for smooth programming. In case...... the objective function is linear, we have investigated a global algorithm based upon a branch-and-bound procedure. The algorithm uses Lagrangian bound coupling with a simplicial bisection in the criteria space. Preliminary computational results show that the global algorithm is promising....
EBRPOCO - a program to calculate detailed contributions of power reactivity components of EBR-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.
1981-01-01
The EBRPOCO program has been developed to facilitate the calculations of the power coefficients of reactivity of EBR-II loadings. The program enables contributions of various components of the power coefficient to be delineated axially for every subassembly. The program computes the reactivity contributions of the power coefficients resulting from: density reduction of sodium coolant due to temperature; displacement of sodium coolant by thermal expansions of cladding, structural rods, subassembly cans, and lower and upper axial reflectors; density reductions of these steel components due to temperature; displacement of bond-sodium (if present) in gaps by differential thermal expansions of fuel and cladding; density reduction of bond-sodium (if present) in gaps due to temperature; free axial expansion of fuel if unrestricted by cladding or restricted axial expansion of fuel determined by axial expansion of cladding. Isotopic spatial contributions to the Doppler component my also be obtained. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashkinuze, V G; Reznikovskiy, P T
1978-01-01
An examination is made of the program support of the Automated System of Planned Calculations (ASPC) of the oil and Gas Extracting Administration (OGEA). Specific requirements for the ASPC of the OGEA are indicated and features of its program realization. In developing the program support of the system, an approach of parametric programming was used. A formal model of the ASPC OGEA is described in detail. It was formed in a theoretical-multiple language. Sets with structure of a tree are examined. They illustrate the production and administrative hierarchical structure of the planning objects in the oil region. The top of the tree corresponds to the OGEA as a whole. In the simplest realization, the tree has two levels of hierarchy: association and field. In general features, a procedure is described for possible use of the system by the planning workers. A plan is presented for program support of the ASPC OGEA, in light of whose specific nature a large part of the programs which realize this system are written in a language ASSEMBLER.
1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead evaluation. Volume I - report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warwick, W.M.
1995-01-01
The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) provides wholesale electric power to over 100 retail distribution utilities in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville is faced with meeting growing loads from these utilities. It acquires conservation as one means of meeting this load growth. Bonneville has offered a variety of conservation programs since 1980. Efficient showerheads have been a feature in residential conservation programs ever since. Bonneville launched the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program to focus on water-heater energy conservation opportunities in 1992. The Residential Appliance Efficiency Program consists of two parts, a water-heater efficiency program, and a hot-water efficiency program. This report evaluates the savings and costs of the first two years of the showerhead portion of the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program (the showerhead program). Although it is not a formal evaluation of the program limited to implementation or a {open_quotes}process{close_quotes} evaluation, observations about program design and implementation are included as appropriate. Results of this evaluation are limited to program participants within the Bonneville service territory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan
2008-02-02
Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, R.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Godart, J.; Langendijk, J. A.; Veld, A. A. van't; Korevaar, E. W.; Groot, M. de
2013-01-01
Purpose: Advanced radiotherapy treatments require appropriate quality assurance (QA) to verify 3D dose distributions. Moreover, increase in patient numbers demand efficient QA-methods. In this study, a time efficient method that combines model-based QA and measurement-based QA was developed; i.e., the hybrid-QA. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the model-based QA and to evaluate time efficiency of the hybrid-QA method. Methods: Accuracy of the model-based QA was determined by comparison of COMPASS calculated dose with Monte Carlo calculations for heterogeneous media. In total, 330 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were evaluated based on the mean gamma index (GI) with criteria of 3%/3mm and classification of PASS (GI ≤ 0.4), EVAL (0.4 0.6), and FAIL (GI ≥ 0.6). Agreement between model-based QA and measurement-based QA was determined for 48 treatment plans, and linac stability was verified for 15 months. Finally, time efficiency improvement of the hybrid-QA was quantified for four representative treatment plans. Results: COMPASS calculated dose was in agreement with Monte Carlo dose, with a maximum error of 3.2% in heterogeneous media with high density (2.4 g/cm 3 ). Hybrid-QA results for IMRT treatment plans showed an excellent PASS rate of 98% for all cases. Model-based QA was in agreement with measurement-based QA, as shown by a minimal difference in GI of 0.03 ± 0.08. Linac stability was high with an average GI of 0.28 ± 0.04. The hybrid-QA method resulted in a time efficiency improvement of 15 min per treatment plan QA compared to measurement-based QA. Conclusions: The hybrid-QA method is adequate for efficient and accurate 3D dose verification. It combines time efficiency of model-based QA with reliability of measurement-based QA and is suitable for implementation within any radiotherapy department.
Efficient Finite Element Models for Calculation of the No-load losses of the Transformer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamran Dawood
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Different transformer models are examined for the calculation of the no-load losses using finite element analysis. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element analyses are used for the simulation of the transformer. Results of the finite element method are also compared with the experimental results. The Result shows that 3-dimensional provide high accuracy as compared to the 2 dimensional full and half model. However, the 2-dimensional half model is the less time-consuming method as compared to the 3 and 2-dimensional full model. Simulation time duration taken by the different models of the transformer is also compared. The difference between the 3-dimensional finite element method and experimental results are less than 3%. These numerical methods can help transformer designers to minimize the development of the prototype transformers.
Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo, E-mail: bzuniga.51@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A2, Procesos Industriales, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A3, Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Simon-Bastida, Patricia [Universidad Tecnlógica de Tulancingo, División Electromecánica, Camino a Ahuehuetitla No. 301, Col. Las Presas, C.P. 43642 Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M. [Departamento de Química, CINVESTAV, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, A.P. 14-740, México D.F. 07000 (Mexico)
2015-09-14
The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H{sup 12}C–{sup 12}CH–DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.
Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo; Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica; Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso; Simon-Bastida, Patricia; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M.
2015-01-01
The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H 12 C– 12 CH–DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated
Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory.
Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo; Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica; Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso; Simon-Bastida, Patricia; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M
2015-09-14
The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H(12)C-(12)CH-DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.
An efficient parallel algorithm for the calculation of unrestricted canonical MP2 energies.
Baker, Jon; Wolinski, Krzysztof
2011-11-30
We present details of our efficient implementation of full accuracy unrestricted open-shell second-order canonical Møller-Plesset (MP2) energies, both serial and parallel. The algorithm is based on our previous restricted closed-shell MP2 code using the Saebo-Almlöf direct integral transformation. Depending on system details, UMP2 energies take from less than 1.5 to about 3.0 times as long as a closed-shell RMP2 energy on a similar system using the same algorithm. Several examples are given including timings for some large stable radicals with 90+ atoms and over 3600 basis functions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zeng, Lang; He, Yu; Povolotskyi, Michael; Liu, XiaoYan; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann
2013-06-01
In this work, the low rank approximation concept is extended to the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method to achieve a very efficient approximated algorithm for coherent and incoherent electron transport. This new method is applied to inelastic transport in various semiconductor nanodevices. Detailed benchmarks with exact NEGF solutions show (1) a very good agreement between approximated and exact NEGF results, (2) a significant reduction of the required memory, and (3) a large reduction of the computational time (a factor of speed up as high as 150 times is observed). A non-recursive solution of the inelastic NEGF transport equations of a 1000 nm long resistor on standard hardware illustrates nicely the capability of this new method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Duancheng; Friák, Martin; Pezold, Johann von; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Jörg
2015-01-01
We propose an approach for the computationally efficient and quantitatively accurate prediction of solid-solution strengthening. It combines the 2-D Peierls–Nabarro model and a recently developed solid-solution strengthening model. Solid-solution strengthening is examined with Al–Mg and Al–Li as representative alloy systems, demonstrating a good agreement between theory and experiments within the temperature range in which the dislocation motion is overdamped. Through a parametric study, two guideline maps of the misfit parameters against (i) the critical resolved shear stress, τ 0 , at 0 K and (ii) the energy barrier, ΔE b , against dislocation motion in a solid solution with randomly distributed solute atoms are created. With these two guideline maps, τ 0 at finite temperatures is predicted for other Al binary systems, and compared with available experiments, achieving good agreement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gel'fand, E.K.; Man'ko, B.V.; Serov, A.Ya.; Sychev, B.S.
1979-01-01
A complex of programs for modelling various radiation situations at high energy proton accelerators is considered. The programs are divided into there main groups according to their purposes. The first group includes programs for preparing constants describing the processes of different particle interaction with a substanc The second group of programs calculates the complete function of particle distribution arising in shields under irradiation by high energy nucleons. Concrete radiation situations arising at high energy proton accelerators are calculated by means of the programs of the third group. A list of programs as well as their short characteristic are given
The market penetration of energy-efficiency programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berry, L.
1990-04-01
The focus of this report is on one source of resource planning uncertainty: the expected market penetration of DSM (Demand Site Management) programs. Its purpose is to help refine planning assumptions and reduce uncertainty about the market penetration of utility DSM programs by: (1) investigating concepts and definitions of market penetration, (2) reviewing data that characterize patterns of variation (including ranges, averages and maximum levels) in program participation rates, (3) identifying the factors that affect participation, and (4) reviewing the structure and data requirements of models that forecast market penetration. 84 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kataoka, M; Okamoto, Y [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Endo, M; Noguchi, K [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y; Akabane, H [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Agu, M [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)
1997-05-27
An efficient calculation method of potential distribution in the presence of an embedded body in multi-layer earth has been proposed by expanding the method of image with a consideration of multiple reflection between the ground surface and each underground boundary. For this method, when solving boundary integral equation with the potential of embedded body surface as only one unknown, i.e., when obtaining discretization equation, ordinary boundary element program developed for analyzing the finite closed region can be used. As an example, numerical calculation was conducted for the two-layer earth. The analysis expression of potential distribution in the case of the certain embedded body in two-layer earth has never published. Accordingly, the calculated results were compared with those by the integral equation method. As a result, it was concluded that the primary potential obtained from the present method agreed well with that obtained from the integral equation method. However, there was a disregarded difference in the secondary potential. For confirming the effectiveness, it was necessary to compare with another numerical calculation method, such as finite element method. 5 refs., 5 figs.
Satin: A high-level and efficient grid programming model
van Nieuwpoort, R.V.; Wrzesinska, G.; Jacobs, C.J.H.; Bal, H.E.
2010-01-01
Computational grids have an enormous potential to provide compute power. However, this power remains largely unexploited today for most applications, except trivially parallel programs. Developing parallel grid applications simply is too difficult. Grids introduce several problems not encountered
A program to calculate pulse transmission responses through transversely isotropic media
Li, Wei; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Zou, Changchun; Chen, Xiwei
2018-05-01
We provide a program (AOTI2D) to model responses of ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements through arbitrarily oriented transversely isotropic rocks. The program is built with the distributed point source method that treats the transducers as a series of point sources. The response of each point source is calculated according to the ray-tracing theory of elastic plane waves. The program could offer basic wave parameters including phase and group velocities, polarization, anisotropic reflection coefficients and directivity patterns, and model the wave fields, static wave beam, and the observed signals for pulse transmission measurements considering the material's elastic stiffnesses and orientations, sample dimensions, and the size and positions of the transmitters and the receivers. The program could be applied to exhibit the ultrasonic beam behaviors in anisotropic media, such as the skew and diffraction of ultrasonic beams, and analyze its effect on pulse transmission measurements. The program would be a useful tool to help design the experimental configuration and interpret the results of ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements through either isotropic or transversely isotropic rock samples.
Development and application of the PCRELAP5 - Data Calculation Program for RELAP 5 Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestre, Larissa J.B.; Sabundjian, Gaianê
2017-01-01
Nuclear accidents in the world led to the establishment of rigorous criteria and requirements for nuclear power plant operations by the international regulatory bodies. By using specific computer programs, simulations of various accidents and transients likely to occur at any nuclear power plant are required for certifying and licensing a nuclear power plant. Some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most widely used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors in Brazil and worldwide. A major difficulty in the simulation by using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. Thus, for those calculations performance and preparation of RELAP5 input data, a friendly mathematical preprocessor was designed. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) for Microsoft Excel demonstrated to be an effective tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. In order to meet the needs of RELAP5 users, the RELAP5 Calculation Program (Programa de Cálculo do RELAP5 – PCRELAP5) was designed. The components of the code were codified; all entry cards including the optional cards of each one have been programmed. An English version for PCRELAP5 was provided. Furthermore, a friendly design was developed in order to minimize the time of preparation of input data and errors committed by users. The final version of this preprocessor was successfully applied for Safety Injection System (SIS) of Angra-2. (author)
Development and application of the PCRELAP5 - Data Calculation Program for RELAP 5 Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silvestre, Larissa J.B.; Sabundjian, Gaianê, E-mail: larissajbs@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
Nuclear accidents in the world led to the establishment of rigorous criteria and requirements for nuclear power plant operations by the international regulatory bodies. By using specific computer programs, simulations of various accidents and transients likely to occur at any nuclear power plant are required for certifying and licensing a nuclear power plant. Some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most widely used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors in Brazil and worldwide. A major difficulty in the simulation by using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. Thus, for those calculations performance and preparation of RELAP5 input data, a friendly mathematical preprocessor was designed. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) for Microsoft Excel demonstrated to be an effective tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. In order to meet the needs of RELAP5 users, the RELAP5 Calculation Program (Programa de Cálculo do RELAP5 – PCRELAP5) was designed. The components of the code were codified; all entry cards including the optional cards of each one have been programmed. An English version for PCRELAP5 was provided. Furthermore, a friendly design was developed in order to minimize the time of preparation of input data and errors committed by users. The final version of this preprocessor was successfully applied for Safety Injection System (SIS) of Angra-2. (author)
Efficient Calculation of Exact Exchange Within the Quantum Espresso Software Package
Barnes, Taylor; Kurth, Thorsten; Carrier, Pierre; Wichmann, Nathan; Prendergast, David; Kent, Paul; Deslippe, Jack
Accurate simulation of condensed matter at the nanoscale requires careful treatment of the exchange interaction between electrons. In the context of plane-wave DFT, these interactions are typically represented through the use of approximate functionals. Greater accuracy can often be obtained through the use of functionals that incorporate some fraction of exact exchange; however, evaluation of the exact exchange potential is often prohibitively expensive. We present an improved algorithm for the parallel computation of exact exchange in Quantum Espresso, an open-source software package for plane-wave DFT simulation. Through the use of aggressive load balancing and on-the-fly transformation of internal data structures, our code exhibits speedups of approximately an order of magnitude for practical calculations. Additional optimizations are presented targeting the many-core Intel Xeon-Phi ``Knights Landing'' architecture, which largely powers NERSC's new Cori system. We demonstrate the successful application of the code to difficult problems, including simulation of water at a platinum interface and computation of the X-ray absorption spectra of transition metal oxides.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graf, Peter; Damiani, Rick R.; Dykes, Katherine; Jonkman, Jason M.
2017-01-09
A new adaptive stratified importance sampling (ASIS) method is proposed as an alternative approach for the calculation of the 50 year extreme load under operational conditions, as in design load case 1.1 of the the International Electrotechnical Commission design standard. ASIS combines elements of the binning and extrapolation technique, currently described by the standard, and of the importance sampling (IS) method to estimate load probability of exceedances (POEs). Whereas a Monte Carlo (MC) approach would lead to the sought level of POE with a daunting number of simulations, IS-based techniques are promising as they target the sampling of the input parameters on the parts of the distributions that are most responsible for the extreme loads, thus reducing the number of runs required. We compared the various methods on select load channels as output from FAST, an aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool for the design and analysis of wind turbines developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Our newly devised method, although still in its infancy in terms of tuning of the subparameters, is comparable to the others in terms of load estimation and its variance versus computational cost, and offers great promise going forward due to the incorporation of adaptivity into the already powerful importance sampling concept.
Sink efficiency calculation of dislocations in irradiated materials by phase-field modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouchette, Adrien
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to develop a modelling technique for diffusion of crystallographic migrating defects in irradiated metals and absorption by sinks to better predict the microstructural evolution in those materials.The phase field technique is well suited for this problem, since it naturally takes into account the elastic effects of dislocations on point defect diffusion in the most complex cases. The phase field model presented in this work has been adapted to simulate the generation of defects by irradiation and their absorption by the dislocation cores by means of a new order parameter associated to the sink morphology. The method has first been validated in different reference cases by comparing the sink strengths obtained numerically with analytical solutions available in the literature. Then, the method has been applied to dislocations with different orientations in zirconium, taking into account the anisotropic properties of the crystal and point defects, obtained by state-of-the-art atomic calculations.The results show that the shape anisotropy of the point defects promotes the vacancy absorption by basal loops, which is consistent with the experimentally observed zirconium growth under irradiation. Finally, the rigorous investigation of the dislocation loop case proves that phase field simulations give more accurate results than analytical solutions in realistic loop density ranges. (author)
2013-09-03
.... EERE-2013-BT-STD-0030] RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...
2013-02-21
.... EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...
76 FR 47178 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedure for Lighting Systems (Luminaires)
2011-08-04
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket Number EERE-2011-BT-TP-0041] RIN 1904-AC50 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedure for Lighting Systems (Luminaires) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... (``DOE'' or the ``Department'') is currently evaluating energy efficiency test procedures for luminaires...
2010-06-03
.... EERE-2010-BT-STD-0011] RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...
A Case Study in Market Transformation for Residential Energy Efficiency Programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Building Technologies Office
2017-09-01
This case study describes how the Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (MEEA) partnered with gas and electric utilities in Iowa to establish the Iowa residential heating, ventilation, and air conditioning System Adjustment and Verified Efficiency (HVAC SAVE) program, taking it to scale improving the performance and energy efficiency of HVAC systems, growing businesses, and gaining consumer trust.
Evaluation and enhancement of COBRA-TF efficiency for LWR calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuervo, Diana; Avramova, Maria; Ivanov, Kostadin; Miro, Rafael
2006-01-01
Detailed representations of the reactor core generate computational meshes with a high number of cells where the fluid dynamics equations must be solved. An exhaustive analysis of the CPU times needed by the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code COBRA-TF for different stages in the solution process has revealed that the solution of the linear system of pressure equations is the most time consuming process. To improve code efficiency two optimized matrix solvers, Super LU library and Krylov non-stationary iterative methods have been implemented in the code and their performance has been tested using a suite of five test cases. The results of performed comparative analyses have demonstrated that for large cases, the implementation of the Bi-Conjugate Gradient Stabilized (Bi-CGSTAB) Krylov method combined with the incomplete LU factorization with dual truncation strategy (ILUT) pre-conditioner reduced the time used by the code for the solution of the pressure matrix by a factor of 20. Both new solvers converge smoothly regardless of the nature of simulated cases and the mesh structures and improve the stability and accuracy of results compared to the classic Gauss-Seidel iterative method. The obtained results indicate that the direct inversion method is the best option for small cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubec, Adam; Braun, Stefan; Gawlitza, Peter; Menzel, Maik; Leson, Andreas
2016-01-01
Diffractive X-ray optical elements made by thin film coating techniques such as multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) and multilayer zone plates (MZP) are promising approaches to achieve resolutions in hard X-ray microscopy applications of less than 10 nm. The challenge is to make a lens with a large numerical aperture on the one hand and a decent working distance on the other hand. One of the limiting factors with the coated structures is the internal stress in the films, which can lead to significant bending of the substrate and various types of unwanted diffraction effects. Several approaches have been discussed to overcome this challenge. One of these is a three-material combination such as Mo/MoSi_2/Si, where four single layers per period are deposited. Mo and Si represent the absorber and spacer in this case while MoSi_2 forms a diffusion barrier; in addition the thicknesses of absorber and spacer are chosen to minimize residual stress of the overall coating. Here the diffraction efficiency as well as the profile of the beam in the focal plane are discussed in order to find a tradeoff between lowest residual stress and best diffraction properties.
A computer program for calculation of the fuel cycle in pressurized water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solanilla, R.
1976-01-01
The purpose of the FUCEFURE program is two-fold: first, it is designed to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle cost in one pressurized light water reactor calculation. The code was developed primarily for comparative and sensitivity studies. The program contains simple correlations between exposure and available depletion data used to predict the uranium and plutonium content of the fuel as a function of the fuel initial enrichment. Second, it has been devised to evaluate the nuclear fuel demand associated with an expanding nuclear power system. Evaluation can be carried out at any time and stage in the fuel cycle. The program can calculate the natural uranium and separate work requirements of any final and tails enrichment. It also can determine the nuclear power share of each reactor in the system when a decision has been made about the long-term nuclear power installations to be used and the types of PWR and fast breeder reactor characteristics to be involved in them. (author)
SpekCalc: a program to calculate photon spectra from tungsten anode x-ray tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poludniowski, G; Evans, P M; Landry, G; DeBlois, F; Verhaegen, F
2009-01-01
A software program, SpekCalc, is presented for the calculation of x-ray spectra from tungsten anode x-ray tubes. SpekCalc was designed primarily for use in a medical physics context, for both research and education purposes, but may also be of interest to those working with x-ray tubes in industry. Noteworthy is the particularly wide range of tube potentials (40-300 kVp) and anode angles (recommended: 6-30 deg.) that can be modelled: the program is therefore potentially of use to those working in superficial/orthovoltage radiotherapy, as well as diagnostic radiology. The utility is free to download and is based on a deterministic model of x-ray spectrum generation (Poludniowski 2007 Med. Phys. 34 2175). Filtration can be applied for seven materials (air, water, Be, Al, Cu, Sn and W). In this note SpekCalc is described and illustrative examples are shown. Predictions are compared to those of a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo code (BEAMnrc) and, where possible, to an alternative, widely-used, spectrum calculation program (IPEM78). (note)
Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Technical assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)
1997-08-01
The purpose of this assessment is to characterize the economic energy efficiency potential and investment requirements for space heating and hot water provided by district heat in the stock of state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The assessment involves three activities. The first is a survey of state and municipal institutions to characterize the stock of institutional buildings. The second is to develop an estimate of the cost-effective efficiency potential. The third is to estimate the investment requirements to acquire the efficiency resource. Institutional buildings are defined as nonresidential buildings owned and occupied by state and municipal organizations. General categories of institutional buildings are education, healthcare, and cultural. The characterization activity provides information about the number of buildings, building floorspace, and consumption of space heating and hot water energy provided by the district system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, W.Y.; Meachum, T.R.; Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.
2000-01-01
The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) passive active neutron (PAN) radioassay system is used to certify transuranic (TRU) waste drums in terms of quantifying plutonium and other TRU element activities. Depending on the waste form involved, significant systematic and random errors need quantification in addition to the counting statistics. To determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results, a statistical sampling and verification approach has been developed. In this approach, the total performance of the PAN nondestructive assay system is simulated using the computer models of the assay system, and the resultant output is compared with the known input to assess the total uncertainty. The supporting steps in performing the uncertainty analysis for the passive assay measurements in particular are as follows: (1) Create simulated waste drums and associated conditions; (2) Simulate measurements to determine the basic counting data that would be produced by the PAN assay system under the conditions specified; and (3) Apply the PAN assay system analysis algorithm to the set of counting data produced by simulating measurements to determine the measured plutonium mass. The validity of this simulation approach was verified by comparing simulated output against results from actual measurements using known plutonium sources and surrogate waste drums. The computer simulation of the PAN system performance uses the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Code System to produce a neutron transport calculation for a simulated waste drum. Specifically, the passive system uses the neutron coincidence counting technique, utilizing the spontaneous fission of 240 Pu. MCNP application to the SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis has been very useful for a variety of waste types contained in 208-ell drums measured by a passive radioassay system. The application of MCNP to the active radioassay system is also feasible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheong, Jae Hak; Park, Won Jae
2003-01-01
As a follow up to the Agenda 21's policy statement for safe management of radioactive waste adopted at Rio Conference held in 1992, the UN invited the IAEA to develop and implement indicators of sustainable development for the management of radioactive waste. The IAEA finalized the indicators in 2002, and is planning to calculate the member states' values of indicators in connection with operation of its Net-Enabled Waste Management Database system. In this paper, the basis for introducing the indicators into the radioactive waste management was analyzed, and calculation methodology and standard assessment procedure were simply depicted. In addition, a series of innate limitations in calculation and comparison of the indicators was analyzed. According to the proposed standard procedure, the indicators for a few major countries including Korea were calculated and compared, by use of each country's radioactive waste management framework and its practices. In addition, a series of measures increasing the values of the indicators was derived so as to enhance the sustainability of domestic radioactive waste management program.
Program TOTELA calculating basic cross sections in intermediate energy region by using systematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukahori, Tokio; Niita, Koji
2000-01-01
Program TOTELA can calculate neutron- and proton-induced total, elastic scattering and reaction cross sections and angular distribution of elastic scattering in the intermediate energy region from 20 MeV to 3 GeV. The TOTELA adopts the systematics modified from that by Pearlstein to reproduce the experimental data and LA150 evaluation better. The calculated results compared with experimental data and LA150 evaluation are shown in figures. The TOTELA results can reproduce those data almost well. The TOTELA was developed to fill the lack of experimental data of above quantities in the intermediate energy region and to use for production of JENDL High Energy File. In the case that there is no experimental data of above quantities, the optical model parameters can be fitted by using TOTELA results. From this point of view, it is also useful to compare the optical model calculation by using RIPL with TOTELA results, in order to verify the parameter quality. Input data of TOTELA is only atomic and mass numbers of incident particle and target nuclide and input/output file names. The output of TOTELA calculation is in ENDF-6 format used in the intermediate energy nuclear data files. It is easy to modify the main routine by users. Details are written in each subroutine and main routine
Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R
2013-10-15
Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows.
Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, Nicholas W.; Jones, Pierce H.; Kipp, M. Jennison
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Improving DSM program impacts by targeting high energy users. • DSM energy savings potential hinges on pre-participation performance. • Targeting can benefit different utilities and energy efficiency programs. • Overall performance can be improved by up to 250% via targeting strategies. - Abstract: Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the US have committed and continue to invest substantial resources – including billions of dollars of financial capital – in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. While most of these programs are deemed to be cost effective, and therefore in the public interest, opportunities exist to improve cost effectiveness by targeting programs to those customers with the greatest potential for energy savings. This article details an analysis of three DSM programs offered by three Florida municipal electric utilities to explore such opportunities. First, we estimate programs’ energy savings impacts; second, we measure and compare energy savings across subgroups of program participants as determined by their pre-intervention energy performance, and third, we explore potential changes in program impacts that might be realized by targeting specific customers for participation in the DSM programs. All three programs resulted in statistically significant average (per-participant) energy savings, yet average savings varied widely, with the customers who performed best (i.e., most efficient) before the intervention saving the least energy and those who performed worst (i.e., least efficient) before the intervention saving the most. Assessment of alternative program participation scenarios with varying levels of customer targeting suggests that program impacts could be increased by as much as 80% for a professional energy audit program, just over 100% for a high-efficiency heat pump upgrade program, and nearly 250% for an attic insulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrashkevich, A.G.; Puzynin, I.V.; Vinitskij, S.I.
1997-01-01
A FORTRAN 77 program is presented which calculates asymptotics of potential curves and adiabatic potentials with an accuracy of O(ρ -2 ) in the framework of the hyperspherical adiabatic (HSA) approach. It is shown that matrix elements of the equivalent operator corresponding to the perturbation ρ -2 have a simple form in the basis of the Coulomb parabolic functions in the body-fixed frame and can be easily computed for high values of total orbital momentum and threshold number. The second-order corrections to the adiabatic curves are obtained as the solutions of the corresponding secular equation. The asymptotic potentials obtained can be used for the calculation of the energy levels and radial wave functions of two-electron systems in the adiabatic and coupled-channel approximations of the HSA approach
Calculation and evaluation methodology of the flawed pipe and the compute program development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chang; Qian Hao; Yao Weida; Liang Xingyun
2013-01-01
Background: The crack will grow gradually under alternating load for a pressurized pipe, whereas the load is less than the fatigue strength limit. Purpose: Both calculation and evaluation methodology for a flawed pipe that have been detected during in-service inspection is elaborated here base on the Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) criteria. Methods: In the compute, the depth and length interaction of a flaw has been considered and a compute program is developed per Visual C++. Results: The fluctuating load of the Reactor Coolant System transients, the initial flaw shape, the initial flaw orientation are all accounted here. Conclusions: The calculation and evaluation methodology here is an important basis for continue working or not. (authors)
Development of a National Program For the Energy Efficiency of Buildings in Egypt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algohary, S. A.
2008-01-01
Today energy efficiency programs are among the most popular strategy of most countries all over the world. Many countries have introduced energy efficiency standards with very successful results. Governments all over the world have developed a variety of programs to overcome the barriers that slow the implementation of cost effective, energy efficient technologies and strategies in buildings. The main types of programs are information, labels, standards, economic instruments, mandatory programs, voluntary programs. For several thousands of years, Egyptians have been designing buildings that are well adapted to local climate conditions. The result has been a long outstanding tradition of Egyptian Buildings that are beautiful, functional, efficient and comfortable. However, because of multiple institutional, social and technological changes, most new Egyptian buildings have lost touch with many traditional design techniques while adopting new technologies in often very inefficient ways. As a result, many new Egyptian buildings today use more energy than necessary. This paper attempts to study and assess the different constrains and obstacles that limit the utilization of efficient energy use in buildings in Egypt and to develop a national program for the energy efficiency of buildings in Egypt. This program will help the designers, owners, and policy makers to implement an energy efficiency program in buildings
Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Norris, Thomas R.
2009-12-31
This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.
Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M
2016-12-01
The Struve functions H n (z), n=0, 1, ... are approximated in a simple, accurate form that is valid for all z≥0. The authors previously treated the case n = 1 that arises in impedance calculations for the rigid-piston circular radiator mounted in an infinite planar baffle [Aarts and Janssen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2635-2637 (2003)]. The more general Struve functions occur when other acoustical quantities and/or non-rigid pistons are considered. The key step in the paper just cited is to express H 1 (z) as (2/π)-J 0 (z)+(2/π) I(z), where J 0 is the Bessel function of order zero and the first kind and I(z) is the Fourier cosine transform of [(1-t)/(1+t)] 1/2 , 0≤t≤1. The square-root function is optimally approximated by a linear function ĉt+d̂, 0≤t≤1, and the resulting approximated Fourier integral is readily computed explicitly in terms of sin z/z and (1-cos z)/z 2 . The same approach has been used by Maurel, Pagneux, Barra, and Lund [Phys. Rev. B 75, 224112 (2007)] to approximate H 0 (z) for all z≥0. In the present paper, the square-root function is optimally approximated by a piecewise linear function consisting of two linear functions supported by [0,t̂ 0 ] and [t̂ 0 ,1] with t̂ 0 the optimal take-over point. It is shown that the optimal two-piece linear function is actually continuous at the take-over point, causing a reduction of the additional complexity in the resulting approximations of H 0 and H 1 . Furthermore, this allows analytic computation of the optimal two-piece linear function. By using the two-piece instead of the one-piece linear approximation, the root mean square approximation error is reduced by roughly a factor of 3 while the maximum approximation error is reduced by a factor of 4.5 for H 0 and of 2.6 for H 1 . Recursion relations satisfied by Struve functions, initialized with the approximations of H 0 and H 1 , yield approximations for higher order Struve functions.
DIFMIG - A computer program for calculation of diffusive migration through multi-barrier systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bo, P.; Carlsen, L.
1981-11-01
The FORTRAN IV program DIFMIG calculates one-dimensionally (i.e. column) the diffusive migration of single substances through arbitrary multibarrier systems. Time dependent changes in concentration other than dispersion/diffusion (e.g. slow dissolution of a compound from a repository, radioactive decay, and/or build up of daughter products), and possible time dependent variations in the effective dispersion into account. The diffusion equation is solved by a finite difference implicite method, the resulting trigonal matrix equation being solved by standard methods. (author)
Programs and subroutines for calculating cadmium body burdens based on a one-compartment model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, C.V.; Novak, K.M.
1980-08-01
A pair of FORTRAN programs for calculating the body burden of cadmium as a function of age is presented, together with a discussion of the assumptions which serve to specify the underlying, one-compartment model. Account is taken of the contributions to the body burden from food, from ambient air, from smoking, and from occupational inhalation. The output is a set of values for ages from birth to 90 years which is either longitudinal (for a given year of birth) or cross-sectional (for a given calendar year), depending on the choice of input parameters
Mohr, Stephan; Dawson, William; Wagner, Michael; Caliste, Damien; Nakajima, Takahito; Genovese, Luigi
2017-10-10
We present CheSS, the "Chebyshev Sparse Solvers" library, which has been designed to solve typical problems arising in large-scale electronic structure calculations using localized basis sets. The library is based on a flexible and efficient expansion in terms of Chebyshev polynomials and presently features the calculation of the density matrix, the calculation of matrix powers for arbitrary powers, and the extraction of eigenvalues in a selected interval. CheSS is able to exploit the sparsity of the matrices and scales linearly with respect to the number of nonzero entries, making it well-suited for large-scale calculations. The approach is particularly adapted for setups leading to small spectral widths of the involved matrices and outperforms alternative methods in this regime. By coupling CheSS to the DFT code BigDFT, we show that such a favorable setup is indeed possible in practice. In addition, the approach based on Chebyshev polynomials can be massively parallelized, and CheSS exhibits excellent scaling up to thousands of cores even for relatively small matrix sizes.
Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendrickson, P.L.
1986-11-01
This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anunciacion, Jesus C.
1997-01-01
The thrust of the Philippine energy sector. specifically the government side, is to involve the active participation of not only all the government agencies involved in energy activities but the private sector as well. This participation shall mean technical and financial participation, directly and indirectly. The Department of Energy is on the process involving the continuing update and development of a Philippine Energy Plan (PEP) which has a 30-year time scope, which will help the country monitor and determine energy supply and demand vis-a-vis the growing demands of an industrializing country like the Philippines. Among the most vital component of the PEP is the thrust to pursue national programs for energy efficiency and demand-side management. Seven energy efficiency sub-programs have been identified for implementation, with a target savings of 623 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (MMBFOE). A cumulative net savings of 237 billion pesos shall be generated against a total investment cost of 54.5 billion pesos. The Philippine energy sector will continue to develop and implement strategies to promote the efficient utilization of energy which will cover all aspects of the energy industry. The plan is focussed on the training and education of the various sectors on the aspects involved in the implementation of energy efficiency and demand-side management elements on a more aggressive note. The implementation of technical strategies by the department will continue on a higher and more extensive level, these are: energy utilization monitoring, consultancy and engineering services, energy efficiency testing and labelling program, and demand-side management programs for each sector. In summary, the PEP, as anchored in energy efficiency and demand-side management tools, among others, will ensure a continuous energy supply at affordable prices while incorporating environmental and social considerations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunes, Carlos Eduardo A.; Barros, Ricardo C.
2009-01-01
This paper describes a computational program for result simulation of neutron transport problems at one velocity with isotropic scattering in Cartesian onedimensional geometry. Describing the physical modelling, the next phase is a mathematical modelling of the physical problem for simulation of the neutron distribution. The mathematical modelling uses the linearized Boltzmann equation which represents a balance among the production and loss of particles. The formulation of the discrete ordinates S N consists of discretization of angular variables at N directions (discrete ordinates), and using a set of angular quadratures for the approximation of integral terms of scattering sources. The S N equations are numerically solved. This work describes three numerical methods: diamond difference, step and characteristic step. The paper also presents numerical results for illustration of the efficiency of the developed program
78 FR 73355 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program
2013-12-05
... generation and transmission (G&T) borrowers or their distribution members or unaffiliated distribution... Program will be generation and transmission (G&T) borrowers, their distribution members, or unaffiliated...(g), and 1710.408(i). Each of those sections state borrowers shall follow a bulletin or other...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.
1994-05-01
The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.
Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane
2008-06-15
This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Epifanovsky, Evgeny [Q-Chem, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Krylov, Anna I. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
2016-07-26
Coupled-cluster methods provide highly accurate models of molecular structure by explicit numerical calculation of tensors representing the correlation between electrons. These calculations are dominated by a sequence of tensor contractions, motivating the development of numerical libraries for such operations. While based on matrix-matrix multiplication, these libraries are specialized to exploit symmetries in the molecular structure and in electronic interactions, and thus reduce the size of the tensor representation and the complexity of contractions. The resulting algorithms are irregular and their parallelization has been previously achieved via the use of dynamic scheduling or specialized data decompositions. We introduce our efforts to extend the Libtensor framework to work in the distributed memory environment in a scalable and energy efficient manner. We achieve up to 240 speedup compared with the best optimized shared memory implementation. We attain scalability to hundreds of thousands of compute cores on three distributed-memory architectures, (Cray XC30&XC40, BlueGene/Q), and on a heterogeneous GPU-CPU system (Cray XK7). As the bottlenecks shift from being compute-bound DGEMM's to communication-bound collectives as the size of the molecular system scales, we adopt two radically different parallelization approaches for handling load-imbalance. Nevertheless, we preserve a uni ed interface to both programming models to maintain the productivity of computational quantum chemists.
Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)
2013-08-01
The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamano, N.; Brockmann, J.E.
1989-05-01
This report describes the features and use of the Aerosol Sampling and Transport Efficiency Calculation (ASTEC) Code. The ASTEC code has been developed to assess aerosol transport efficiency source term experiments at Sandia National Laboratories. This code also has broad application for aerosol sampling and transport efficiency calculations in general as well as for aerosol transport considerations in nuclear reactor safety issues. 32 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs
Fatique Resistant, Energy Efficient Welding Program, Final Technical Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Egland, Keith; Ludewig, Howard
2006-05-25
The program scope was to affect the heat input and the resultant weld bead geometry by synchronizing robotic weave cycles with desired pulsed waveform shapes to develop process parameters relationships and optimized pulsed gas metal arc welding processes for welding fatique-critical structures of steel, high strength steel, and aluminum. Quality would be addressed by developing intelligent methods of weld measurement that accurately predict weld bead geometry from process information. This program was severely underfunded, and eventually terminated. The scope was redirected to investigate tandem narrow groove welding of steel butt joints during the one year of partial funding. A torch was designed and configured to perform a design of experiments of steel butt weld joints that validated the feasability of the process. An initial cost model estimated a 60% cost savings over conventional groove welding by eliminating the joint preparation and reducing the weld volume needed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolesov, V.F.; Shtarev, S.K.; Khoruzhiy, V.K. [Russia Federal Nuclear Center, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others
1995-10-01
In the limits of ABC project version of two-sectional reactor system in the form of combination of subcritical blanket on melted salts and multiplying target from threshold fissile material {sup 237}Np is considered. This research is the development of the VNIIEF`s earlier work`s (Russia) investigating of usage possibilities in ABC project the conception of multisectional blankets with single-sided neutron coupling between sections. With the help of Monte-Carlo program the calculations results of system mentioned are given. The possibility of accelerator`s considerable power reduction at the account of thorium target substitution with neptunium-237 multiplying target is shown.
The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feibus, H.
1995-12-31
The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING – EFFICIENT TOOL FOR POWER SYSTEM EXPANSION PLANNING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SIMO A.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The paper isfocusing on dynamic programming use for power system expansion planning (EP – transmission network (TNEP and distribution network (DNEP. The EP problem has been approached from the retrospective and prospective point of view. To achieve this goal, the authors are developing two software-tools in Matlab environment. Two techniques have been tackled: particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithms (GA. The case study refers to Test 25 buses test power system developed within the Power Systems Department.
Self-consistent RPA calculations with Skyrme-type interactions: The skyrme_rpa program
Colò, Gianluca; Cao, Ligang; Van Giai, Nguyen; Capelli, Luigi
2013-01-01
Random Phase Approximation (RPA) calculations are nowadays an indispensable tool in nuclear physics studies. We present here a complete version implemented with Skyrme-type interactions, with the spherical symmetry assumption, that can be used in cases where the effects of pairing correlations and of deformation can be ignored. The full self-consistency between the Hartree-Fock mean field and the RPA excitations is enforced, and it is numerically controlled by comparison with energy-weighted sum rules. The main limitations are that charge-exchange excitations and transitions involving spin operators are not included in this version. Program summaryProgram title: skyrme_rpa (v 1.00) Catalogue identifier: AENF_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5531 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 39435 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN-90/95; easily downgradable to FORTRAN-77. Computer: PC with Intel Celeron, Intel Pentium, AMD Athlon and Intel Core Duo processors. Operating system: Linux, Windows. RAM: From 4 MBytes to 150 MBytes, depending on the size of the nucleus and of the model space for RPA. Word size: The code is written with a prevalent use of double precision or REAL(8) variables; this assures 15 significant digits. Classification: 17.24. Nature of problem: Systematic observations of excitation properties in finite nuclear systems can lead to improved knowledge of the nuclear matter equation of state as well as a better understanding of the effective interaction in the medium. This is the case of the nuclear giant resonances and low-lying collective excitations, which can be described as small amplitude collective motions in the framework of
Plummer, Niel; Parkhurst, D.L.; Fleming, G.W.; Dunkle, S.A.
1988-01-01
The program named PHRQPITZ is a computer code capable of making geochemical calculations in brines and other electrolyte solutions to high concentrations using the Pitzer virial-coefficient approach for activity-coefficient corrections. Reaction-modeling capabilities include calculation of (1) aqueous speciation and mineral-saturation index, (2) mineral solubility, (3) mixing and titration of aqueous solutions, (4) irreversible reactions and mineral water mass transfer, and (5) reaction path. The computed results for each aqueous solution include the osmotic coefficient, water activity , mineral saturation indices, mean activity coefficients, total activity coefficients, and scale-dependent values of pH, individual-ion activities and individual-ion activity coeffients , and scale-dependent values of pH, individual-ion activities and individual-ion activity coefficients. A data base of Pitzer interaction parameters is provided at 25 C for the system: Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-H2O, and extended to include largely untested literature data for Fe(II), Mn(II), Sr, Ba, Li, and Br with provision for calculations at temperatures other than 25C. An extensive literature review of published Pitzer interaction parameters for many inorganic salts is given. Also described is an interactive input code for PHRQPITZ called PITZINPT. (USGS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kramer, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, E. Fadrhonc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2015-02-01
Estimates of the total opportunity for investment in cost-effective energy efficiency in the United States are typically in the range of several hundred billion dollars (Choi Granade, et al., 2009 and Fulton & Brandenburg, 2012).1,2 To access this potential, many state policymakers and utility regulators have established aggressive energy efficiency savings targets. Current levels of taxpayer and utility bill-payer funding for energy efficiency is only a small fraction of the total investment needed to meet these targets (SEE Action Financing Solutions Working Group, 2013). Given this challenge, some energy efficiency program administrators are working to access private capital sources with the aim of amplifying the funds available for investment. In this context, efficient access to secondary market capital has been advanced as one important enabler of the energy efficiency industry “at scale.”3 The question of what role secondary markets can play in bringing energy efficiency to scale is largely untested despite extensive attention from media, technical publications, advocates, and others. Only a handful of transactions of energy efficiency loan products have been executed to date, and it is too soon to draw robust conclusions from these deals. At the same time, energy efficiency program administrators and policymakers face very real decisions regarding whether and how to access secondary markets as part of their energy efficiency deployment strategy.
A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand
2013-08-01
Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.
Ha, P. T. H.
2018-04-01
The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elmahroug, Y.; Tellili, B.; Souga, C.; Manai, K.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Description of the theoretical method used by the ParShield program. • Description of the ParShield program. • Test and validation the ParShield program. - Abstract: This study aims to present a new computer program called ParShield which determines the neutron and gamma-ray shielding parameters. This program can calculate the total mass attenuation coefficients (μ t ), the effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) for gamma rays and it can also calculate the effective removal cross-sections (Σ R ) for fast neutrons for mixtures and compounds. The results obtained for the gamma rays by using ParShield were compared with the results calculated by the WinXcom program and the measured results. The obtained values of (Σ R ) were tested by comparing them with the measured results,the manually calculated results and with the results obtained by using MERCSFN program and an excellent agreement was found between them. The ParShield program can be used as a fast and effective tool to choose and compare the shielding materials, especially for the determination of (Z eff ) and (N eff ), there is no other programs in the literature which can calculate
A roadmap for navigating voluntary and mandated programs for building energy efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterman, Andrew; Kourula, Arno; Levitt, Raymond
2012-01-01
Commercial building owners and managers often face the challenge of selecting the appropriate combination of voluntary and mandated programs for commercial building energy efficiency. Using a mixed-method, both quantitative and qualitative approach, this study finds that barriers to energy efficiency can be interpreted as strategic drivers for the emergence of five forms of voluntary and mandated program forms. We argue that the links between energy efficiency programs in commercial buildings should be conceptualized in a comprehensive manner by evaluating the strategic drivers that have ultimately led to the emergence of the principal forms of voluntary programs: economic incentives; certifications; alliances and partnerships; and internal company programs. We develop a conceptual framework that helps building owners and managers: identify the primary drivers for energy efficiency efforts; assess the efficacy and limitations of available program forms; apply each program form strategically in conjunction with a number of other program forms; and, ultimately, predict the emergence of new program forms. In addition to United States Department of Energy survey data, this study draws upon data collected through semi-structured interviews with experts at major U.S.-based corporations, federally funded laboratories, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. - Highlights: ► Distills a complex system of energy efficiency programs into a single framework. ► Classify drivers, emerging forms, and shortcomings of each voluntary program form. ► Present survey and interview data from retail, real estate, and hospital experts. ► None of these programs alone meet organizational needs for energy efficiency. ► Entrepreneurs will play a key role by capitalizing on broken agency challenges.
Energy Efficiency Finance Programs: Use Case Analysis to Define Data Needs and Guidelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2014-07-01
There are over 200 energy efficiency loan programs—across 49 U.S. states—administered by utilities, state/local government agencies, or private lenders.1 This distributed model has led to significant variation in program design and implementation practices including how data is collected and used. The challenge of consolidating and aggregating data across independently administered programs has been illustrated by a recent pilot of an open source database for energy efficiency financing program data. This project was led by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the Investor Confidence Project, the Clean Energy Finance Center (CEFC), and the University of Chicago. This partnership discussed data collection practices with a number of existing energy efficiency loan programs and identified four programs that were suitable and willing to participate in the pilot database (Diamond 2014).2 The partnership collected information related to ~12,000 loans with an aggregate value of ~$100M across the four programs. Of the 95 data fields collected across the four programs, 30 fields were common between two or more programs and only seven data fields were common across all programs. The results of that pilot study illustrate the inconsistencies in current data definition and collection practices among energy efficiency finance programs and may contribute to certain barriers.
AN APPLICATION FOR EFFICIENT TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS PROVISIONING USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Augusta Soares Machado
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a practical proposition for the application of the Linear Programming quantitative method in order to assist planning and control of customer circuit delivery activities in telecommunications companies working with the corporative market. Based upon data provided for by a telecom company operating in Brazil, the Linear Programming method was employed for one of the classical problems of determining the optimum mix of production quantities for a set of five products of that company: Private Telephone Network, Internet Network, Intranet Network, Low Speed Data Network, and High Speed Data Network, in face of several limitations of the productive resources, seeking to maximize the company’s monthly revenue. By fitting the production data available into a primary model, observation was made as to what number of monthly activations for each product would be mostly optimized in order to achieve maximum revenues in the company. The final delivery of a complete network was not observed but the delivery of the circuits that make it up, and this was a limiting factor for the study herein, which, however, brings an innovative proposition for the planning of private telecommunications network provisioning.
Efficient classification of complete parameter regions based on semidefinite programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parrilo Pablo A
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current approaches to parameter estimation are often inappropriate or inconvenient for the modelling of complex biological systems. For systems described by nonlinear equations, the conventional approach is to first numerically integrate the model, and then, in a second a posteriori step, check for consistency with experimental constraints. Hence, only single parameter sets can be considered at a time. Consequently, it is impossible to conclude that the "best" solution was identified or that no good solution exists, because parameter spaces typically cannot be explored in a reasonable amount of time. Results We introduce a novel approach based on semidefinite programming to directly identify consistent steady state concentrations for systems consisting of mass action kinetics, i.e., polynomial equations and inequality constraints. The duality properties of semidefinite programming allow to rigorously certify infeasibility for whole regions of parameter space, thus enabling the simultaneous multi-dimensional analysis of entire parameter sets. Conclusion Our algorithm reduces the computational effort of parameter estimation by several orders of magnitude, as illustrated through conceptual sample problems. Of particular relevance for systems biology, the approach can discriminate between structurally different candidate models by proving inconsistency with the available data.
Technical basis for the proposed high efficiency nuclear fuel program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, P.E.; Herring, J.S.; Crawford, D.C.; Neimark, L.E.
1999-01-01
Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fired electricity generating stations will dramatically increase over the next 20 years. Nuclear energy is the only fully developed technology able to supply large amounts of electricity without generation of greenhouse gases. However, the problem of noncompetitive economics and public concerns about radioactive waste disposal, safety, and nuclear weapons proliferation may prevent the reemergence of nuclear power as a preferred option for new electric energy generation in the U.S. This paper discusses a new research program to help address these issues, by developing fuel designs capable of burnup values in excess of 60 MWD/kgU. The objectives of the program are to: improve the reliability and robustness of light water reactor fuel, thereby improving safety margins; Significantly increase the energy generated by each fuel loading, thereby achieving longer operating cycles, higher capacity factors, and lower cost electric power; Significantly reduce the volume of spent nuclear fuel discharged for disposal by allowing more energy to be extracted from each fuel element prior to discharge; Develop fuel that is much more proliferation resistant. (author)
Sensitivity analysis of efficient solution in vector MINMAX boolean programming problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir A. Emelichev
2002-11-01
Full Text Available We consider a multiple criterion Boolean programming problem with MINMAX partial criteria. The extreme level of independent perturbations of partial criteria parameters such that efficient (Pareto optimal solution preserves optimality was obtained.
Ruben, R.
2015-01-01
Provides insights regarding the possible procedures for assessing welfare, efficiency, and equity effects of value chain development (VCD) programs, taking advantage of available analytical tools derived from impact analysis, transaction cost theory, and contract choice approaches and briefly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumstein, Carl (Univ. of California, Energy Institute (United States))
2009-07-01
This paper addresses the nexus between the evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question, what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then some ways of addressing these problems are examined. Key conclusions are that 1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, 2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all of the incentive to program outcomes is misguided, and 3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumstein, Carl, E-mail: blumstei@berkeley.ed [University of California Energy Institute, 2547 Channing Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2010-10-15
This paper addresses the nexus between evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes the problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question-what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then the paper examines some ways of addressing these problems. Key conclusions are (1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, (2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all incentives to program outcomes is misguided, and (3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumstein, Carl [University of California Energy Institute, 2547 Channing Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2010-10-15
This paper addresses the nexus between evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes the problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question - what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then the paper examines some ways of addressing these problems. Key conclusions are (1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, (2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all incentives to program outcomes is misguided, and (3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blumstein, Carl
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the nexus between evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes the problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question-what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then the paper examines some ways of addressing these problems. Key conclusions are (1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, (2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all incentives to program outcomes is misguided, and (3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions.
Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 1: Findings and recommendations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, A.D.; Mayi, D.; Edgemon, S.D.
1997-04-01
This study was conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). DOE operates the Building Standards and Guidelines Program (BSGP) to increase the effectiveness of building energy codes, standards, and guidelines. The main purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for conducting an overall evaluation of the program and its effectiveness. Another purpose of this report is to summarize an extensive set of relevant evaluations and provide a building efficiency and program evaluation information resource for program designers, managers, and evaluators. This study presents information from 119 evaluations that have been conducted of both utility and code programs related to energy efficiency in new residential and commercial buildings. The authors used the information in these evaluations to identify major themes and lessons learned from utility and code programs. They also used the information to gain insights into appropriate evaluation methodologies and establish guidelines for designing future evaluations and an evaluation of the BSGP. The report presents general lessons about evaluating programs that have implications for future evaluations included the following. The evaluations provided the basis for developing an effective evaluation approach for residential building energy-efficiency codes and other energy-efficiency programs and other insights for conducting commercial building program evaluations. The findings for conducting effective evaluations are categorized by steps in the evaluation process.