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Sample records for efficacy comparison study

  1. Multiple comparisons in drug efficacy studies: scientific or marketing principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When researchers design an experiment to compare a given medication to another medication, a behavioral therapy, or a placebo, the experiment often involves numerous comparisons. For instance, there may be several different evaluation methods, raters, and time points. Although scientifically justified, such comparisons can be abused in the interests of drug marketing. This article provides two recent examples of such questionable practices. The first involves the case of the arthritis drug celecoxib (Celebrex), where the study lasted 12 months but the authors only presented 6 months of data. The second case involves the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) study evaluating the efficacy of stimulant medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder where ratings made by several groups are reported in contradictory fashion. The MTA authors have not clarified the confusion, at least in print, suggesting that the actual findings of the study may have played little role in the authors' reported conclusions.

  2. Relative efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine versus selected antidepressants by indirect comparisons of similar clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Lançon, Christophe; Brignone, Mélanie; Rive, Benoît; Salah, Samir; Ereshefsky, Larry; Francois, Clément

    2014-12-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multimodal activity which has shown efficacy in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in six of ten short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (completed end 2012). We performed meta-regression analyses to indirectly compare vortioxetine to seven marketed antidepressants with different mechanisms of action. To ensure study comparability, only experimental drug and placebo arms from placebo-controlled registration studies were included in primary analyses. The main outcomes were efficacy (standardized mean difference in change from baseline to 2 months on primary endpoint [MADRS/HAM-D]), and tolerability (withdrawal rate due to adverse events). For efficacy, estimates of treatment effect (negative estimates favor vortioxetine) for vortioxetine versus comparators were: agomelatine, -0.16 (p = 0.11); desvenlafaxine, 0.03 (p = 0.80); duloxetine, 0.09 (p = 0.42); escitalopram, -0.05 (p = 0.70); sertraline, -0.04 (p = 0.83); venlafaxine IR/XR, 0.12 (p = 0.33); and vilazodone, -0.25 (p = 0.11). For tolerability, all but one combination was numerically in favor of vortioxetine (odds ratio vortioxetine offers a comparable or favorable combination of efficacy (measured by MADRS/HAM-D) and tolerability (measured by withdrawal rate due to adverse events) versus other antidepressants in registration studies in MDD. Alternative methods like mixed-treatment comparison and inclusion of all randomized studies and active reference arms may provide complementary information to this analysis (more evidence but also more heterogeneity). Key messages: Indirect comparisons based on registration studies allow a useful comparison between a recently approved antidepressant and an approved drug. Vortioxetine offers a comparable or favorable combination of efficacy (measured by MADRS/HAM-D assessments) and tolerability (measured by withdrawal rate due to adverse events) versus other antidepressants in registration studies in MDD.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of chemicomechanical caries removal with conventional methods - a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomer, Pallvi; Jain, R L; Kaur, Harsimrat; Sood, Rahul

    2013-06-01

    There has been considerable interest in developing alternative methods of cavity preparation and caries removal due to disadvantages of using traditional rotating instruments which can result in heat, pressure ,dentin dessication, vibration and pain. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare different methods of caries removal in terms of efficacy, time taken and pain during caries removal. A total of 150 carious teeth were selected among 80 children of 6-10 years of age, following Radiovisiography (RVG) according to specific inclusion criteria and caries removal was done by hand instruments ,air rotor and carisolv respectively. The efficacy, time taken and pain threshold were evaluated during caries removal by Ericson D et al scale, Time scale (Raber H et al), visual analogue scale (Nayak R et al) and verbal pain scale (Cinzia Brunelli et al) respectively. Data was collected and statistically analysed. Mean value of time taken for removal of caries by carisolv group (580.26 sec) was found to be significantly higher as compared to conventional hand excavation and air rotor. Air rotor was found to be the most efficient method (mean value 1.20). Mean value of pain perception was significantly less with carisolv (0.82) as compared to air rotor and hand instrument. It was concluded that chemicomechanical removal of caries with Carisolv was found to be effective measure of caries removal and could be considered as viable alternatives to painful procedures like airotor in management of dental caries especially in children. How to cite this article: Goomer P, Jain R L, Kaur H, Sood R. Comparison of the Efficacy of Chemicomechanical Caries Removal with Conventional Methods - A Clinical Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):42-47.

  4. [Efficacy studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

    2014-07-01

    Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of cleaning Efficacy and Instrumentation Time between Rotary and Manual Instrumentation Techniques in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katge, Farhin; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna; Poojari, Manohar; Shetty, Shilpa; Rusawat, Bhavesh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning efficacy and instrumentation time between manual Hedstrom files (H-files) and rotary Mtwo files in primary molar root canals. A total of 90 primary root canals were selected using standardized radiographs. The canals were injected with India ink with 30 gauge insulin syringe and divided into three groups. Group I-30 root canals instrumented with H-files, group II-30 root canals instrumented with Mtwo files, and group III-control group in which no canal instrumentation was done. The teeth were cleared in various solutions and then observed under a stereomicroscope. No significant difference was seen in cleaning efficacy between H-files and Mtwo files in coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the root canal. The instrumentation time recorded for H-files (3.41 ± 0.38 minutes) was significantly less than that of Mtwo files (4.81 ± 0.52). Although there was no significant difference in cleaning capacity, further studies should be carried out using the single file systems. How to cite this article: Katge F, Chimata VK, Poojari M, Shetty S, Rusawat B. Comparison of cleaning Efficacy and Instrumentation Time between Rotary and Manual Instrumentation Techniques in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):124-127.

  6. A comparison study of the efficacy and side effects of different light sources in hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Parviz; Sadighha, Afshin; Sharifian, Ali; Razavi, Gita Meshkat

    2006-04-01

    Unwanted hairs are a common problem in which different light sources were developed as the treatment of choice. Alexandrite laser, diode laser, and intense pulsed light (IPL) were clinically used for this purpose with long-term scarce comparative results. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy, complications, and long-term hair reduction of alexandrite laser, diode laser, and IPL. Clinical trials on 232 persons using diode, alexandrite, laser and IPL were conducted. The number of sessions to reach optimal result varied between 3 and 7. Then the side effects were evaluated. Six months after the last session, optimal hair reduction was observed with no significant differences between the light sources, but a hair reduction was found to be higher using the diode laser. Side effects were observed with all light sources but more frequently with diode. Our findings indicate that all three light sources tested have similar effects on hair removal and in Iranian patients, using lower wavelengths minimizes the side effects.

  7. Comparison of efficacy of three devices of manual positive pressure ventilation: a mannequin-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M; Rao P N, Suman; Nesargi, Saudamini V; Dongara, Ashish R; Bhat, Swarnarekha

    2015-03-31

    We compared the efficacy of and consistency in manual ventilation by trained healthcare professionals using three devices: self-inflating bag, flow-inflating bag, and T-piece resuscitator. Prospective analytical study at a level III Neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital. Forty participants (consultants, postgraduates, interns, and neonatal nurses - 10 each) manually ventilated a mannequin with the above three devices for three minutes each. This procedure was video recorded. The pressure delivered during the three minutes and the breath rates for the first minute, second minute, and third minute were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population and group statistics were used for various parameters of interest. Factorial analysis of variance was conducted to determine the main effects of device and specialty of users. The mean (SD) peak inspiratory pressure of T-piece resuscitator was 16.5 (1.2), self-inflating bag (SIB) was 20.7 (4.4), and flow-inflating bag (AB) was 21.2 (5.0). The mean (SD) positive end expiratory pressure of T-piece resuscitator was 4.7 (0.9) cm of H2O and AB was 1.8 (1.7) cm of H2O. The maximum pressure delivered by T-piece resuscitator was 17.5, AB was 26.2, and SIB was 25.2 cm of H2O. Clinically appropriate breath rates were delivered using all of the devices. More effective breath rates were delivered using T-piece. There was no significant difference among the professional groups. The T-piece resuscitator provides the most consistent pressures and is most effective. Level of training has no influence on pressures delivered during manual ventilation.

  8. PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE: COMPARISON OF EFFICACY OF TWO METHODS OF ENDOSCOPIC HEMOSTASIS – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Pavel Skok

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interventional endoscopy has largely reduced mortality in patients with peptic ulcer hemorrhage.Study aims. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic hemostasis with argon plasma coagulation and injection sclerotherapy in bleeding peptic ulcer and determine the mortality of patients in a prospective, controlled study.Patients and methods. The study includes 100 patients with peptic ulcer hemorrhage (male 63, female 37, av. age 57.1 years, SD ± 16, span 26–80; gastric ulcer 50 patients, duodenal ulcer 50 patients in the period between 1 Jan. 1999 and 15 May 2000 treated in our institution. The bleeding activity was determined according to Forrest classification. Fifty patients were randomized to receive argon plasma coagulation (ARCO 2000 Electro Surgery unit, group A and in fifty patients injection sclerotherapy (sclerosing with diluted adrenalin 1:10,000 plus polidocanol 1%, group B was performed. The groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, site, severity of bleeding, use of NSAID and additional diseases.Results. Clinically and endoscopically diagnosed reebleding occured in 7/50 patients (14% in group A and in 9/50 patients (18% in group B; p = 0.78. The majority of reebleding occured within 48 hours after endoscopic hemostasis, group A 4/7 (57.1%, group B 7/9 (77.7%, p = 0.74. Repeated endoscopic hemostasis did not prove successful in 8 patients (group A 3/50, 6%, group B 5/50, 10%, p = 0.71. Seven patients were treated operatively. The total mortality rate was 9% (9/100 patients, group A 4/50, 8%, group B 5/50, 10%, p > 0.05. Only one patient died due to peptic ulcer hemorrhage, other 8 patients died due to concomitant diseases.Conclusions. Argon plasma coagulation seems to be an effective and safe alternative to injection sclerotherapy and other hemostatic modalities in peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

  9. Comparison of efficacy of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of efficacy of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine alone with bupivacaine – fentanyl and bupivacaine –tramadol combination for alleviation of post-operative pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized prospective study.

  10. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As

  11. Efficacy of Heartfulness Meditation in Moderating Vital Parameters - A Comparison Study of Experienced and New meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Amarnath G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse and compare the effect of a 30-minute Heartfulness meditation session on vital parameters of experienced and new meditators. Methodology: The study conducted on a mixed group of participants include both experienced and new meditators of various age groups, Body Mass Index (BMI; patients with known illness as well as healthy volunteers. Variations in heart rate, respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure is recorded before and after a 30-minute heartfulness meditation session and analysed statistically. Results: At baseline, average heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP is significantly lower in experienced meditators compared to new meditators. Heartfulness meditation is highly significant in moderating HR, RR and SBP. Conclusion: A 30-minute session of Heartfulness meditation produces significant relaxation of the autonomic nervous system and favourably moderates basic vital parameters across all groups. This influence is higher in New meditators particularly the younger group probably because stress is more amplified due to greater responsibilities in life and meditation is an effective tool in reducing stress. The enthusiasm and open mindedness of youth to try new things is also contributing factor for getting better benefits from the heartfulness meditation session. In the case of experienced meditators, the elderly group showed greater changes, probably because they put in the time and effort to pursue the practice of meditation seriously, and thus able to derive a greater benefit.

  12. Efficacy study and resistance detection for pre-emergence herbicides under greenhouse conditions; a method comparison for pendimethalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegat, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the presented study is to demonstrate the impact of two different irrigation methods, from below and from above, and two different pendimethalin formulations, capsule suspension (CS and suspension concentrate (SC on the control efficacy of pendimethalin against Silky bent-grass (Apera spica-venti under greenhouse conditions. We assume that changes regarding the efficacy level of pendimethalin due to methodological factors will affect the reliability of resistance detection. Five populations of Silky bent-grass were selected according to their various multi-resistance patterns. One population was a standard sensitive reference population while the remaining four populations are characterized by different resistance patterns against herbicides of the HRAC groups A, B, C2, K1 and N. Pendimethalin dose response studies were performed by taking into account the experimental factors (1 irrigation system and (2 pendimethalin formulation. The results show that a combination of CS-formulation and irrigation from above resulted in a significantly reduced efficacy of pendimethalin independent of the resistance profile of the tested populations. Therefore no differentiation between susceptible and tolerant populations was possible. In contrary the SC-formulation resulted in an overkill situation under irrigation from below even at dosages lower than 20% of the recommended field rate. Thus the differentiation between the resistant and susceptible biotype was impossible as well. For the detection of reduced tolerance against pendimethalin a combination of SC-formulation and irrigation from above was found to be favourable and thus this should become the standard procedure for pendimethalin resistance testing.

  13. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhale, Ganesh; Tathod, Yogesh; Patel, Seema; Pimpalkhute, Sonali; Raghute, Latesh; Khamkar, Ajita

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis (AR). A 2-week, single-centered, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with AR. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 67 patients were recruited and randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 2 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were total nasal symptom score (TNSS), change in total and differential count of eosinophil. In olopatadine group, there was a significantly higher reduction in TNSS (P rupatadine. Both the drugs significantly reduced the absolute eosinophil count, but olopatadine (P rupatadine group. Olopatadine is a better choice in AR in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy and safety profile.

  14. EDGE study in Russian Federation: efficacy and safety of vildagliptine in comparison with other oral antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Galstyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to international consensus, metformin is acknowledged as a first-line therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, in most cases this treatment eventually requires intensification by supplementation with other hypoglycemic medications. The aim of the EDGE study (Effective Diabetes control with vildaGliptin and vildagliptin/mEtformin was to assess the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin in comparison with other oral agents in routine management of patients with T2DM that has been poorly controlled by metformin monotherapy.

  15. The efficacy of two formulations of botulinum toxin type A for masseter reduction: a split-face comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Ungaksornpairote, Chanida; Kaewkes, Arisa; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Lektrakul, Nittaya; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2017-08-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is now extensively used to address cosmetic concerns. OnabotulinumtoxinA (ONA, Botox; Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA) received FDA approval for upper face rejuvenation, including glabella frown lines and crow's-feet lines. The other off-label uses for lower face conditions have been utilized for contouring purposes, especially masseter hypertrophy. Recently, a new Daewoong BTA, (NABOTA ® , NBT, Daewoong Pharmaceutical, Seoul, Korea), was recently introduced. To compare efficacy and safety of ONA and NBT for masseter reduction. Thirty-five subjects with masseter hypertrophy were randomly injected with 25 units of ONA on one side and 25 units of NBT on the other side into masseter. Standardized photographic documentation was obtained at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. The mean volume of masseter was acquired by using three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up visits. In addition, patients' satisfaction and side effects were also record at every follow-up visits. The mean masseter volume on the sides treated with ONA and NBT at baseline were 21.20 ± 4.23 cm 3 and 21.26 ± 4.58 cm 3 , respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean volume of both sides (p= 0.827). The mean masseter volume at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits reduced significantly on both ONA and NBT sides (pNBT sides at 3 and 6 months after treatment (p= 0.769 and p = 0.346, respectively). There was also no statistically significant difference in masseter reduction when compared between ONA and NBT sides evaluated by physicians and patients at each follow-up visit. No side effect on both sides was reported after injection. This study demonstrated that ONA and NBT provided comparable efficacy and safety for masseter reduction.

  16. [Efficacy and safety of acute bronchitis treatment in adults--a comparison of Bronchosol® syrup and synthetic preparations with ambroxol. Results of observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, Andrzej M; Schönknecht, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), including acute bronchitis, are the frequent health problems and the most common reason for acute cough in adults. Even though the infections are caused mainly by viruses, and their course is usually not complicated, febrifuges, i.a. mucokinetics, or antitussives are used in the treatment of URTI in order to improve the quality of life and safety of patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bronchosol® herbal syrup in comparison to ambroxol preparations in the treatment of acute bronchitis in adult patients. The Bronchosol®/2013 study was a non-interventional, prospective, open-label, observational study. Data from adult patients treated with Bronchosol® syrup for acute bronchitis were collected and compared with data from patients treated for the same condition with ambroxol preparations. The severity of bronchitis symptoms was evaluated with the BSS (Bronchitis Severity Score) scale, and patients'quality of life wasassessed with the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scale. Between visits patients conducted self-observations and filled out observation diaries. Moreover, the data on adverse events were collected. In 87.68% of patients the infections were cured. Most of patients considered the studied drugs to be the agent decreasing the duration of infection and its intensity. The percentage of patients who declared that they had a less intense cough than during earlier infections was higher in the group of patients treated with Bronchosol® syrup in comparison to ambroxol treated patients (60.22% vs. 45.03%). 91.94% of patients treated with Bronchosol® considered this syrup to be very safe; in the ambroxol group such a declaration was made by 76.61% of patients. Bronchosol® syrup is an efficient, well-tolerated, and safe drug. Its efficacy in the treatment of acute bronchitis symptoms in adult patients is similar to the efficacy of ambroxol preparations.

  17. A Comparison of the Efficacy and Cost of Different Venous Leg Ulcer Dressings: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed M. Asim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simple nonadherent dressings with other more expensive dressing types in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Location. The leg ulcer clinic at the University Hospital of South Manchester. Subjects and Methods. The healing rates of twelve leg ulcer patients treated with simple nonadherent dressings (e.g., NA Ultra) were compared with an equal number of patients treated with modern dressings to determine differences in healing rates and cost. Main Outcome Measures. Rate of healing as determined by reduction in ulcer area over a specified period of time and total cost of dressing per patient. Results. Simple nonadherent dressings had a mean healing rate of 0.353 cm2/week (standard deviation ± 0.319) compared with a mean of 0.415 cm2/week (standard deviation ± 0.383) for more expensive dressings. This resulted in a one-tailed p value of 0.251 and a two-tailed p value of 0.508. Multiple regression analysis gave a significance F of 0.8134. Conclusion. The results indicate that the difference in healing rate between simple and modern dressings is not statistically significant. Therefore, the cost of dressing type should be an important factor influencing dressing selection. PMID:25954532

  18. The Efficacy of Nanoemulsion-Based Delivery to Improve Vitamin D Absorption: Comparison of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadappan, Alagu Selvi; Guo, Chi; Gumus, Cansu E; Bessey, Amy; Wood, Richard J; McClements, David J; Liu, Zhenhua

    2017-12-21

    Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble vitamin that has a wide range of skeletal and non-skeletal functions. Although it can be synthesized through sun exposure and obtained from fortified foods, VD inadequacy is epidemic worldwide. Therefore innovative strategies are necessary for improving VD status. The present study examined VD absorption via nanoscale delivery systems. We examine the physical characteristics and in vitro bioaccessibility of cholecalciferol (VD3 ) in nanoemulsion using a simulated gastrointestinal tract system. To evaluate the in vivo bioavailability, we orally administer three groups of mice with VD3 nanoemulsion, VD3 coarse emulsion, or vehicle nanoemulsion without VD3 , and the serum 25(OH)D3 is measured using radioactive immunoassay. The nanoemulsion-based delivery system increases the in vitro bioaccessibility by 3.94-folds (p nanoemulsion statistically significantly increases the serum 25(OH)D3 by 73% (p nanoemulsion-based delivery system is a promising approach to improve VD bioavailability, and further studies are warranted to determine its efficacy in humans. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comparison of efficacy of three chemotherapeutic agents on Streptococcus mutans count in plaque and saliva: A randomized controlled triple blind study

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    Ajay Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need for exploration of the role of chemotherapeutic agents and its role in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC and its recurrence. Aim: The aim of this study was two-fold: (1 To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of three commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the prevention of ECC in comparison with a control and (2 To ascertain the role of chemotherapeutic agents in the prevention of ECC. Materials and Methods: Sixty children with ECC in the age group 3–6 years were randomly allocated into four groups. To each group of children after full oral rehabilitation either 10% povidone-iodine (PI, or chlorhexidine (CHX varnish (Cervitec Plus, or fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector were applied twice at an interval of 1 week, Group 4 served as control. Streptococcus mutans count in saliva and plaque were collected at baseline, 30, 60, and 90 days and the presence of S. mutans was evaluated using the Dentocult SM strip mutans kit. The efficacy of 10% PI, CHX varnish (Cervitec Plus, and fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector was compared with the control group at 30, 60, and 90 days. An intergroup comparison was also done during the same time intervals. Results: The reduction of S. mutans count in the plaque and saliva was greatest in the fluoride varnish treated groups at all time intervals (30, 60, and 90 days. Fluoride varnish, CHX varnish, and 10% PI showed significant improved efficacy when compared to the control group (P < 0.001. Fluoride varnish showed significantly lower counts of S. mutans compared to CHX varnish at all time intervals (30, 60, and 90 days and also significantly lower counts compared to 10% PI at 60 and 90 days interval (P < 0.001.

  20. Comparison of relative efficacy of two techniques of enamel stain removal on fluorosed teeth. An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, K P; Subba Reddy, V V; Poornima, P; Revathy, V; Kambalimath, H V; Karthik, B

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the relative efficacy of enamel microabrasion (using 18% HCl) and bleaching with McInnes solution in the esthetic improvement of fluorosed teeth and to check postoperative sensitivity. 30 children aged between 9-14yrs with a mild or moderate grade of fluorosis as classified according to Dean's fluorosis index and who complained of objectionable esthetics were selected. Split mouth study design was selected in our study. Each subject had one of their maxillary central incisor randomly selected for Enamel microabrasion and the contra lateral maxillary central incisor for McInnes bleaching. Esthetic improvement was assessed by comparing the pre and postoperative digital photographs. During the evaluation session, the pre and postoperative photographs of 30 subjects were incorporated into a power point presentation and were projected side by side in a darkened room. Four calibrated and blinded examiners, including a layman rated the photographs under standardized viewing conditions. Esthetic improvement was assessed for both short and long term improvement. The postoperative sensitivity was recorded for both the procedures immediately after treatment and at one, three and six months interval. The results proved that both immediate and long term (6 month) esthetic improvement achieved by McInnes bleaching were superior to enamel microabrasion. There is a reduction in aesthetics of teeth in both the procedures after six months, which was very minimal in McInnes procedure and significant in enamel micro abrasion. Postoperative sensitivity in both techniques were negligible. The sensitivity observed were transient and subsided within an one-month post operatively. None of the subjects reported sensitivity at one, three and six months intervals. McInnes bleaching is a better procedure compared to enamel microabrasion in improving the appearance of fluorosed teeth. Both techniques are conservative and safe.

  1. A controlled comparison study of the efficacy of training medical students in evidence-based medicine literature searching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Rana, Gurpreet K; Arndt, Theresa S

    2005-10-01

    Many educational programs seek to develop skills in evidence-based medicine (EBM). The authors examined the efficacy of teaching the EBM skill of efficiently searching the research literature. They compared students who received brief training in EBM searching skills with those who did not, and assessed the quality of literature searching one month after that training. The authors used a nonrandomized control group study design to quantify the impact of a single, brief (two-hour) instructional intervention on EBM-based techniques for searching Medline for evidence related to a clinical problem provided to the students. Ninety-two fourth-year medical students (34 intervention, 58 control) at the University of Michigan participated in a four-week EBM elective between 2001 and 2003. The authors conducted a pre-intervention assessment of searching skills, followed by a repeat assessment one month after the intervention. Search quality was judged by medical librarians using a structured clinical scenario and scoring algorithm. Data for 30 intervention and 40 control students could be analyzed. Intervention students had fewer search errors and correspondingly higher quality searches than did control students. The educational intervention accounted for approximately 8% of the variance in both of these outcomes. The most common search errors were a lack of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) explosion, missing MeSH terms, lack of appropriate limits, failure to search for best evidence, and inappropriate combination of all search concepts. This study provides evidence that a single, brief training session can have a marked beneficial effect on the quality of subsequent, short-term EBM literature searching performance outcomes.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of Artemisia absinthium against Hymenolepis nana: in vitro and in vivo studies in comparison with the anthelmintic praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshay, E V N

    2017-06-13

    Hymenolepis nana is a common intestinal tapeworm that affects humans. Drugs are available for the treatment of this infection, including praziquantel (PZQ), nitazoxanide and niclosamide. Although the drug of choice is praziquantel, due to its high cure rates, indicators of the development of PZQ resistance by different parasites have begun to appear over recent decades. Therefore, this study was a trial to find an alternative to PZQ by assessing the activity of the crude aqueous extract of the medicinal herb Artemisia absinthium against H. nana. In vitro, the extract was used against adult worms at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg/ml, in comparison with 1 mg/ml of PZQ. The times of worm paralysis and death were determined. Ultrastructural morphological changes were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the in vivo study, infected mice were divided into untreated, PZQ-treated and A. absinthium-treated groups (400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg). Pre- and post-treatment egg counts per gram of faeces (EPG) were performed; then, the reduction percentages of the EPG and worm burden were calculated. The best results were obtained with praziquantel. Artemisia absinthium induced worm paralysis, death and ultrastructural alterations, such as tegumental damage, lipid accumulation, and destruction of the nephridial canal and the intrauterine eggs, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, significant reductions in the EPG and worm burden were recorded in A. absinthium-treated mice. Although the results obtained with A. absinthium were promising and comparable to PZQ, further studies using different extracts, active ingredients and concentrations against different parasites should be conducted.

  3. Relation Between Subacromial Bursitis on Ultrasonography and Efficacy of Subacromial Corticosteroid Injection in Rotator Cuff Disease: A Prospective Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Hong, Ji Yeon; Lee, Michael Young; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the correlations between subacromial bursitis (bursal thickening and effusion) on ultrasonography and its response to subacromial corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff disease. Prospective, longitudinal comparison study. University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Patients with rotator cuff disease (N=69) were classified into 3 groups based on ultrasonographic findings; (1) normative bursa group (group 1, n=23): bursa and effusion thickness 2mm and effusion thickness 2mm. A single subacromial injection with 20mg of triamcinolone acetonide. Visual analog scale (VAS) of shoulder pain, Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ), angles of active shoulder range of motion (flexion, abduction, external rotation, and internal rotation), and bursa and effusion thickness at pre- and posttreatment at week 8. There were no significant differences between the 3 groups in demographic characteristics pretreatment. Groups 2 and 3 showed a significant difference compared with group 1 in changes on the VAS and abduction; group 3 showed a significant difference compared with group 1 in changes of the SDQ, internal rotation, and external rotation; and all groups showed significant differences when compared with each other (groups 1 and 3, 2 and 3, and 1 and 2) in changes of thickness. A patient with ultrasonographic observation of subacromial bursitis, instead of normative bursa, can expect better outcome with subacromial corticosteroid injection. Therefore, we recommend a careful selection of patients using ultrasonography prior to injection. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  5. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars-an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial efficacy of formocresol, 2% gluteraldehyde and iodine-potassium iodide was assessed by obtaining cultures at consecutive appointments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars. Formocresol and 2% gluteraldehyde were more effective as intracanal medicaments and caused significant reduction in the counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, thereby supporting the need for placing intracanal medicaments with antibacterial properties, in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars.

  6. A Multicenter Cohort Comparison Study of the Safety, Efficacy, and Cost of Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel in Aneurysm Flow Diverter Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin M; Adeeb, Nimer; Shallwani, Hussain; Gupta, Raghav; Patel, Apar S; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Youn, Roy; Siddiqui, Adnan; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

    2017-10-01

    Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications are among the most feared adverse events in the endovascular treatment of aneurysms, and this is particularly the case for flow diverter devices. Dual antiplatelet therapy has become standard of care; however, the safety, efficacy, and cost profiles of newer antiplatelet agents are not well characterized in the neurovascular context. To compare the safety, efficacy, and cost of one of these newer agents, ticagrelor, to the most frequently used agent, clopidogrel. A multicenter, retrospective, cohort comparison study design of consecutively treated aneurysms with flow diverter embolization device and treated with either ticagrelor or clopidogrel was performed. Data were collected on patient demographics and risk factors, procedural details, antiplatelet treatment regime, complications, and angiographic and functional outcomes. Fifty patients undergoing flow diverter device deployment and treatment with ticagrelor were compared to 53 patients undergoing flow diversion and treatment with clopidogrel. The patients' age, sex, smoking status, aneurismal morphology and size, and procedural details did not differ between the 2 groups; neither did the rate of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications, angiographical, and functional outcomes. Ticagrelor was more expensive when compared to clopidogrel. Ticagrelor is a safe and effective agent for prevention of thromboembolic complications following flow diverter deployment when compared to clopidogrel. However, ticagrelor remains significantly more expensive than clopidogrel, and, thus, we would advise ticagrelor be reserved for patients who are hyporesponsive to clopidogrel.

  7. A direct comparison of efficacy between desloratadine and rupatadine in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukat, Kf; Rivas, P; Roger, A; Kowalski, Ml; Botzen, U; Wessel, F; Sanquer, F; Agache, I; Izquierdo, I

    2013-01-01

    H1-antihistamines are recommended as the first-line symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rupatadine (RUP) versus desloratadine (DES) in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). To assess the efficacy and safety of RUP in SAR in comparison with placebo (PL) and DES. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, international, and PL-controlled study was carried out. The main selection criteria included SAR patients over 12 years old with a positive prick test to a relevant seasonal allergen for the geographic area. Symptomatic patients at screening with a nasal symptom sum score of ≥6 points (nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, sneezing, and nasal pruritus), a non-nasal score of ≥3 points (ocular pruritus, ocular redness, and tearing eyes), and a rhinorrhea score of ≥2 points with laboratory test results and electrocardiography within acceptable limits were included in the study. Change from baseline in the total symptom-score (T7SS) over the 4-week treatment period (reflective evaluation) was considered the primary efficacy variable. Secondary efficacy measures included total nasal symptom score (T4NSS) and conjunctival symptom score (T3NNSS), both of which are reflective and instantaneous evaluations. Furthermore questions related to quality of life (eg, sleep disturbances or impairment of daily activities) have also been evaluated. Safety was assessed according to adverse events reported, as well as laboratory and electrocardiography controls. A total of 379 patients were randomized, of which 356 were included and allocated to PL (n = 122), RUP (n = 117), or DES (n = 117). Mean change of T7SS over the 4-week treatment period was significantly reduced in the RUP (-46.1%, P = 0.03) and DES (-48.9%, P = 0.01) groups, compared with PL. Similarly, RUP and DES were comparable and significantly superior to PL for all secondary endpoints, including nasal and conjunctival symptoms and patients' and

  8. COMPARISON OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF BISOPROLOL VERSUS ATENOLOL IN STABLE EXERCISE-INDUCED ANGINA-PECTORIS - A MULTICENTER INTERNATIONAL RANDOMIZED STUDY OF ANGINA-PECTORIS (MIRSA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMUINCK, ED; BUCHNERMOELL, D; VANDEVEN, LLM; LIE, KI

    Bisoprolol 10 mg and atenolol 100 mg once daily were compared regarding efficacy and safety in stable effort angina in a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. Efficacy was evaluated with angina pectoris diaries and bicycle exercise tests. Spontaneously mentioned

  9. Antimicrobial and antifungal efficacy of Spilanthes acmella as an intracanal medicament in comparison to calcium hydroxide: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Sathyaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repeated endodontic failures are due to pathogens like Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans which are resistant to the common intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH] 2 . Aims: To determine the role of commonly used folk medicine, Spilanthes acmella (SPA against root canal pathogens like E. faecalis, C. albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp, and to compare its efficacy with Ca(OH 2 , a popularly used intracanal medicament. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains of S. aureus, Streptococcus sp., E. faecalis, and fungal strains of C.albicans were tested against different concentrations of SPA and Ca(OH 2 . Seven days old cultures of test organisms were seeded onto agar plates and uniformly spread with a spreader. Five to six wells (8 mm were made on agar plate to which different concentrations of the test solutions were added. The inoculated plates were kept in an incubator at 37°C for 48 h and inhibition zones were measured. Statistical Analysis: Results of SPA were compared with results of Ca(OH 2 statistically using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: A significant zone of inhibition was obtained with SPA and was found to increase as the concentration increased for C. albicans. SPA showed a significant zone of inhibition at 2-5% and 10% whereas Ca(OH 2 showed a zone of inhibition only at 10% for E. faecalis. SPA showed a zone of inhibition only at 10%, whereas, Ca(OH 2 showed a significant zone of inhibition at 5% and 10% for S. aureus and Streptococcus sp., respectively. Conclusion: SPA possesses remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity against common root canal pathogens which are responsible for repeated endodontic failures such as E. faecalis and C. albicans when compared with medicaments like Ca(OH 2 .

  10. A comparison of the efficacy of powered and manual toothbrushes in controlling plaque and gingivitis: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Y

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Yashika JainDepartment of Periodontology and Implantology, SGT Dental College and Research Institute, Gurgaon (Haryana, IndiaBackground: Plaque is intimately related to the production and progress of dental caries and inflammatory gingival and periodontal diseases. Good plaque control facilitates the return to health for patients with gingival and periodontal diseases. Daily use of a toothbrush and other oral hygiene aids is the most dependable way to achieve oral health benefits for all patients.Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of a powered toothbrush with a manual toothbrush in controlling plaque and gingivitis over a 6-week period. The sample consisted of 60 dental students of both sexes, with ages ranging from 18 to 28 years. The samples were stratified and randomly divided into two groups of 30 by a second examiner using the coin toss method; one group used a manual toothbrush and the other group used a powered toothbrush. Each participant’s gingival index, plaque index and oral hygiene index were assessed on the seventh, 14th, and 45th days on the basis of the assigned toothbrush. Collected data were analyzed and different subgroups were compared using Student’s t-test.Results: A paired t-test revealed a highly significant reduction in the gingival, plaque, and oral hygiene index scores of the manual and powered groups at the first, second, and sixth weeks (P-value < 0.0001. An unpaired t-test revealed a significant reduction between the plaque index scores of the manual and powered groups at the second week (P-value < 0.05. Another unpaired t-test revealed a highly significant reduction between the plaque index scores of the manual and powered groups at the sixth week (P-value < 0.0001.Conclusion: The subject group using the powered toothbrush demonstrated clinical and statistical improvement in overall plaque scores. Powered toothbrushes offer an individual the ability to brush the teeth in a

  11. A double-blind crossover comparison study of the safety and efficacy of mebeverine with mebeverine sustained release in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Outryve, M; Mayeur, S; Meeus, M A; Rosillon, D; Hendrickx, B; Ceuppens, M

    1995-10-01

    The safety and efficacy of the sustained release (SR) mebeverine capsule was compared to the standard plain mebeverine capsule in the treatment of 60 patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Patients, with a score of at least 44 on the Kruis scale, were randomized into a two-period crossover trial. Each treatment period lasted for 6 weeks during which the patients took mebeverine plain 135 mg, two capsules t.i.d., or mebeverine sustained release 200 mg (SR), two capsules b.i.d. After 6 weeks of each treatment, both treatments were regarded 'effective' or 'very effective' by the patient as well as the investigator in more than 80% of the cases. After 3 weeks of the first treatment, the disease score was rated light in 73% of the patients with both medications. After 6 weeks, nine patients (33%) were symptom-free with mebeverine plain, and five (18%) with mebeverine SR. During the second treatment period the number of symptom-free cases reached about 40% with both formulations. Considering the clinical general improvement, more than 70% of all patients had improved after 3 weeks of the first treatment. An additional improvement was reported in 13 patients with mebeverine plain and in 10 patients with mebeverine SR after the next 3 weeks. Abdominal pain was still present in more than 50% of patients but with lower intensity compared with baseline values. Mean scores of efficacy were very similar for both treatments after 3 and 6 weeks (2.0 for mebeverine plain vs. 1.9 for mebeverine SR). The statistical comparison of all scores between the two formulations did not show a significant difference at any time. Very few adverse events were noted and a causal relationship with the study medications was judged as improbable or definitely unrelated. Compliance was close to 100% for most of the patients. The results of the present study indicate that the mebeverine SR capsule provides equivalent efficacy and tolerance to mebeverine plain in the treatment of irritable

  12. Self-efficacy, personal goals, social comparison and scientific productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.J.; Koenis, M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which perceived self-efficacy, personal goals, and upward comparison predict the scientific productivity of academic staff members. 123 academic staff employed at different Dutch universities answered written questions about their judgment of self-efficacy in the area of

  13. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Octenidine Dihydrochloride and Chlorhexidine with and Without Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation - An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Bastin; Manjunath, Mysore Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elimination of microorganisms from infected root canals is a complicated task. Numerous measures have been described to reduce the microbial load in the root canal system, including the use of various instrumentation techniques, irrigation regimens and intracanal medicaments. The drawbacks of few commonly used irrigants include toxic and harmful side effects, microbial resistance to antimicrobial agents and staining. Hence there is a need for alternative agents which are nontoxic, effective and safe. Aim To compare and evaluate antimicrobial effects of 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) versus 0.1% Octenidine Dihydrochloride (OCT) as root canal irrigant with and without passive ultrasonic irrigation against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in vitro and to evaluate the depth of penetration of irrigant solution into the dentinal tubules at the junction of middle and apical third. Materials and Methods Forty eight freshly extracted, single rooted human mandibular premolars were decoronated and root specimen standardized to 14mm. Biofilm of E. faecalis (strain ATCC 29212) was grown for seven days and the specimens were divided into four groups (n=12) based on irrigation protocol : Group I- Conventional Syringe Irrigation (CSI) with 2% CHX, Group II- CSI + 0.1% OCT, Group III-Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) + 2% CHX and Group IV- PUI+ 0.1% OCT. Dentin shavings were collected at two depths (200μm and 400μm) and total number of colony forming units were determined. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Scheffes multiple comparison of means and paired t-test (pultrasonic irrigation proved to enhance the antimicrobial action of the irrigants. PMID:27504415

  14. A direct comparison of efficacy between desloratadine and rupatadine in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukat KF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available KF Lukat,1 P Rivas,2 A Roger,3 ML Kowalski,4 U Botzen,5 F Wessel,6 F Sanquer,7 I Agache,8 I Izquierdo9Investigators working group clinical trial 1Institute Respiratory Science, Dusseldorf, Germany; 2Hospital Viladecans, ENT Department, Barcelona, Spain; 3Hospital Universitario “German Trias i Pujol,” Badalona, Spain; 4Medical University of Lodz, Immunology, Rheumatology, and Allergy, Lodz, Poland; 5ENT, private consult, Solingen, Germany; 6Allergologist, Private Practice, Nantes, France; 7Allergologist, Private Practice, Bordeaux, France; 8Medical Clinical SC Radoi Mariana SRL, Brasov, Romania; 9Clinical Research and Development, J Uriach y Compañia, SA Barcelona, SpainBackground: H1-antihistamines are recommended as the first-line symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rupatadine (RUP versus desloratadine (DES in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR.Method: To assess the efficacy and safety of RUP in SAR in comparison with placebo (PL and DES. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, international, and PL-controlled study was carried out. The main selection criteria included SAR patients over 12 years old with a positive prick test to a relevant seasonal allergen for the geographic area. Symptomatic patients at screening with a nasal symptom sum score of ≥6 points (nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, sneezing, and nasal pruritus, a non-nasal score of ≥3 points (ocular pruritus, ocular redness, and tearing eyes, and a rhinorrhea score of ≥2 points with laboratory test results and electrocardiography within acceptable limits were included in the study. Change from baseline in the total symptom-score (T7SS over the 4-week treatment period (reflective evaluation was considered the primary efficacy variable. Secondary efficacy measures included total nasal symptom score (T4NSS and conjunctival symptom score (T3NNSS, both of which are reflective and instantaneous

  15. COMPARISON OF THE EFFICACIES OF DIAZINON ® + ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacies of diazinon® + albendazole®, ivomec® and ivojec® were compared on 12 pigs naturally infested with mange mites due to Sarcoptes scabiei and gastro-intestinal nematodes. Nematode eggs encountered include those of the Ascaris, Strongyle, Strongyloid and Trichuris. These pigs were randomly divided ...

  16. A Comparison between Collective Teacher Efficacy and Collective Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Tiffany D.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, researchers have studied teacher efficacy. In the past decade or so, however, collective teacher efficacy has been at the forefront of educational research as an extension of teacher self-efficacy. Educational researchers have been studying this construct to determine its impact on student achievement, teacher quality, and school…

  17. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide and Photodynamic Therapy Against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in Teeth With Periapical Lesions; An In Vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahangari, Zohre; Mojtahed Bidabadi, Maryam; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Rahmati, Afsaneh; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Elimination of pathological microflora of root canal systems is a major goal in endodontic treatment. This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medication and antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in teeth with periapical (PA) lesions.

  18. Comparison of the efficacy four treatment modalities for recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the efficacy four treatment modalities for recurrent acute suppurative otitis media. AO Lasisi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  19. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-03-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  20. A systematic literature review on the efficacy-effectiveness gap: comparison of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of glucose-lowering drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Adalsteinsson, Erpur; Groenwold, Rolf Hh; Ali, M Sanni; Klungel, Olaf H

    2017-01-01

    To identify a potential efficacy-effectiveness gap and possible explanations (drivers of effectiveness) for differences between results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies investigating glucose-lowering drugs. A systematic literature review was conducted in English language articles published between 1 January, 2000 and 31 January, 2015 describing either RCTs or observational studies comparing glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs (GLP-1) with insulin or comparing dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) with sulfonylurea, all with change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as outcome. Medline, Embase, Current Content, and Biosis were searched. Information on effect estimates, baseline characteristics of the study population, publication year, study duration, and number of patients, and for observational studies, characteristics related to confounding adjustment and selection- and information bias were extracted. From 312 hits, 11 RCTs and 7 observational studies comparing GLP-1 with insulin, and from 474 hits, 16 RCTs and 4 observational studies comparing DPP-4i with sulfonylurea were finally included. No differences were observed in baseline characteristics of the study populations (age, sex, body mass index, time since diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and HbA1c) or effect sizes across study designs. Mean effect sizes ranged from -0.43 to 0.91 and from -0.80 to 1.13 in RCTs and observational studies, respectively, comparing GLP-1 with insulin, and from -0.13 to 2.70 and -0.20 to 0.30 in RCTs and observational studies, respectively, comparing DPP-4i and sulfonylurea. Generally, the identified observational studies held potential flaws with regard to confounding adjustment and selection- and information bias. Neither potential drivers of effectiveness nor an efficacy-effectiveness gap were identified. However, the limited number of studies and potential problems with confounding adjustment, selection- and information bias in the

  1. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Dakhale; Yogesh Tathod; Seema Patel; Sonali Pimpalkhute; Latesh Raghute; Ajita Khamkar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis (AR). Materials and Methods: A 2-week, single-centered, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with AR. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 67 patients were recruited and randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 2 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were total nasal ...

  2. An in vivo comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and Biopure MTAD™ against enterococcus faecalis in primary teeth: A qPCR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsani, S G; Chikkanarasaiah, N; Bethur, S

    2014-01-01

    Biopure MTAD™, a new root canal irrigant has shown promising results against the most common resistant microorganism, E. faecalis, in permanent teeth. However, there is lack of studies comparing its antimicrobial effectiveness with NaOCl in primary teeth. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of NaOCl 2.5% and Biopure MTAD™ against E. faecalis in primary teeth. Forty non vital single rooted primary maxillary anterior teeth of children aged 4-8 years, were irrigated either with NaOCl 2.5% (n=15), Biopure MTAD™ (n=15) and 0.9% Saline (n=10, control group). Paper point samples were collected at baseline (S1) and after chemomechanical preparation (S2) during the pulpectomy procedure. The presence of E. faecalis in S1 & S2 was evaluated using Real time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistical significant difference was found in the antimicrobial efficacy of NaOCl 2.5 % and BioPure MTAD™ when compared to saline (p>0.05). However, no statistical significant difference was found between the efficacies of both the irrigants. NaOCl 2.5% and BioPure MTAD™, both irrigants are equally efficient against E. faecalis in necrotic primary anterior teeth. MTAD is a promising irrigant, however clinical studies are required to establish it as ideal root canal irrigant in clinical practice.

  3. Multicenter, double-blind, parallel group study investigating the non-inferiority of efficacy and safety of a 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with a 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Stanislaw A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the non-inferiority of efficacy and tolerance of 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. A randomized, double-blind, comparative, parallel group, multicenter study was done. A total of 274 patients (145 miconazole, 129 ketoconazole) were enrolled. Treatment was twice-weekly for 4 weeks. Safety and efficacy assessments were made at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Assessments included symptoms of erythema, itching, scaling ['Symptom Scale of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis' (SSSD)], disease severity and global change [Clinical Global Impressions (CGIs) and Patient Global Impressions (PGIs)]. Miconazole shampoo is at least as effective and safe as ketoconazole shampoo in treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis scalp.

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of tenofovir and entecavir for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-06

    Apr 6, 2015 ... sustained response to peginterferon alfa‑2b for hepatitis B e antigen‑positive chronic hepatitis B using on‑treatment hepatitis B surface antigen decline. Hepatology 2010;52:1251‑7. 9. Güzelbulut F, Ovünç AO, Oetinkaya ZA, Senates E, Gökden Y, Saltürk AG, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of entecavir and ...

  5. Perceived Influence of an Instructional Coaching Program on Teacher Self-Efficacy: Voluntary Participation in Comparison to Mandated Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedlich, David Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This research study explored perceived influence of an instructional coaching program on teacher self-efficacy based on voluntary participation in comparison to mandated participation. At the time of this study, the literature on instructional coaching incorporated studies that tie instructional coaching to increases in teacher self-efficacy;…

  6. Comparison of instrumentation time and cleaning efficacy of manual instrumentation, rotary systems and reciprocating systems in primary teeth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paediatric Endodontics is an important clinical procedure commonly used to manage pulpally involved or non-vital teeth in children. One of the important steps in root canal preparation in deciduous teeth is the removal of organic debris. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare instrumentation time and cleaning efficacy of manual instrumentation, rotary systems and reciprocating systems in the preparation of primary molar root canals. Materials and Methods: India ink was injected into 120 root canals of maxillary and mandibular primary molars. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups, Group one K-file (n = 30, group two ProTaper (n = 30, group three WaveOne (n = 30 and one control group (n = 30. The root canals were prepared using one of the three file system followed by clearing the teeth with different demineralizing solutions. The results were statistically evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: The file systems were compared at coronal, middle and apical level. In the coronal third, WaveOne showed more ink removal and the difference found was highly significant (P < 0.0001. In the middle third of the root canal, WaveOne performed better than ProTaper and K-file (P < 0.005. At the apical level, there was no statistical difference between the three systems. Conclusion: The reciprocating and the rotary systems showed better cleaning efficacy when compared to manual instrumentation especially, in coronal and middle one third.

  7. Comparison of the bleaching efficacy of three different agents used for intracoronal bleaching of discolored primary teeth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyone wants whiter teeth to make them feel younger and to provide beautiful smiles with the accompanying increase in self-esteem. Bleaching is an established, simple, cost-effective and conservative method for improving the color of the discolored teeth. Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the bleaching efficacy of 10% carbamide peroxide, 10% hydrogen peroxide and 2g sodium perborate as bleaching agents on the artificially discolored human primary maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human primary central incisors with intact crowns were selected for the study. Pulpectomy was performed and each tooth was artificially stained with 2 ml of fresh human blood and centrifuged. --The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 10 teeth each and the baseline color evaluation was performed. 0.04 ml of the bleaching agent is syringed into the access cavity of the tooth and, in the control group, 0.04 ml of distilled water was syringed into the access cavity and it was sealed with IRM and placed at 37°C in an incubator throughout the experiment. The color of the bleached teeth was determined at 0, 7 and 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA and Turkey′s test. Results: There was statistical significance (P = 0.00 among the carbamide peroxide, sodium perborate, hydrogen peroxide and control groups after 7 and 14 days and a significance of P = 0.013 among the carbamide peroxide, sodium perborate and hydrogen peroxide after two bleaching sessions (day 14 was seen. Conclusions: The bleaching efficacy of 10% hydrogen peroxide gel was more effective than 10% carbamide peroxide and sodium perborate in bleaching the artificially discolored primary teeth.

  8. Comparison of the bleaching efficacy of three different agents used for intracoronal bleaching of discolored primary teeth: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, R; Aruna, S; Joyson, M

    2013-01-01

    Everyone wants whiter teeth to make them feel younger and to provide beautiful smiles with the accompanying increase in self-esteem. Bleaching is an established, simple, cost-effective and conservative method for improving the color of the discolored teeth. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the bleaching efficacy of 10% carbamide peroxide, 10% hydrogen peroxide and 2g sodium perborate as bleaching agents on the artificially discolored human primary maxillary central incisors. Forty extracted human primary central incisors with intact crowns were selected for the study. Pulpectomy was performed and each tooth was artificially stained with 2 ml of fresh human blood and centrifuged. --The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 10 teeth each and the baseline color evaluation was performed. 0.04 ml of the bleaching agent is syringed into the access cavity of the tooth and, in the control group, 0.04 ml of distilled water was syringed into the access cavity and it was sealed with IRM and placed at 37°C in an incubator throughout the experiment. The color of the bleached teeth was determined at 0, 7 and 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA and Turkey's test. There was statistical significance (P = 0.00) among the carbamide peroxide, sodium perborate, hydrogen peroxide and control groups after 7 and 14 days and a significance of P = 0.013 among the carbamide peroxide, sodium perborate and hydrogen peroxide after two bleaching sessions (day 14) was seen. The bleaching efficacy of 10% hydrogen peroxide gel was more effective than 10% carbamide peroxide and sodium perborate in bleaching the artificially discolored primary teeth.

  9. Comparison of efficacy of treatments for early syphilis: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ye Liu

    Full Text Available Parenteral penicillin is the first-line regimen for treating syphilis, but unsuitable for some patients due to penicillin allergy and lacking health resources. Unfortunately, the efficacy of penicillin alternatives remains poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of ceftriaxone and doxycycline/tetracycline in treating early syphilis relative to that of penicillin, and thereby to determine which antibiotic is a better replacement for penicillin.By searching literature from PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, the Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov and systematically screening relevant studies, eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies on treatments with penicillin, doxycycline/tetracycline, and ceftriaxone for early syphilis were identified and combined in this systematic review. Estimated risk ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were utilized to compare their serological response and treatment failure rates. At 12-month follow up, serological response rates were compared by a direct meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA, while treatment failure rates were compared with a direct meta-analysis.Three RCTs and seven cohort studies were included in this research. The results of NMA demonstrated that no significant differences existed in serological response rate at 12-month follow-up between any two of the three treatments (doxycycline/tetracycline vs. penicillin RR = 1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.14; ceftriaxone vs. penicillin RR = 1.00, 95%CI 0.89-1.13; ceftriaxone vs. doxycycline/tetracycline RR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.96-1.03, which was consistent with the outcomes of the direct meta-analysis. In addition, the direct meta-analysis indicated that, at 12-month follow-up, penicillin and ceftriaxone treatment groups had similar treatment failure rates (RR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.12-6.93, while treatment failure rate was significantly lower among penicillin recipients than among

  10. Comparison of Therapeutic Efficacy and Urodynamic Findings of Solifenacin Succinate versus Mirabegron in Women with Overactive Bladder Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchioli Scaldazza, Carlo; Morosetti, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    We assessed clinical and urodynamic effects of solifenacin versus mirabegron in women with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Eighty women with OAB were randomized into 2 groups. In group A, the patients received solifenacin 5 mg once a day for 12 weeks; in group B, the patients received mirabegron 50 mg once a day for 12 weeks. Symptoms were assessed with OAB Symptom Score (OABSS). Patients underwent urodynamic investigation with pressure flow study. OABSS and urodynamic study were performed before and after treatment. Both solifenacin and mirabegron were effective in improving OAB symptoms. Mirabegron showed greater tolerability with fewer patients discontinuing therapy because of side effects. Both solifenacin and mirabegron were effective in improving the storage function in the pressure flow study, but solifenacin showed a significant reduction of the detrusor pressure in the voiding phase with an increase in the postvoid residual urine volume. Mirabegron has shown to be a drug with the better balance between efficacy and tolerability in women with OAB. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide and Photodynamic Therapy Against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in Teeth With Periapical Lesions; An In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Zohre; Mojtahed Bidabadi, Maryam; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Rahmati, Afsaneh; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Elimination of pathological microflora of root canal systems is a major goal in endodontic treatment. This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medication and antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in teeth with periapical (PA) lesions. Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 20 patients with single-rooted mandibular premolar with previously failed endodontic treatment. This study was performed as a clinical trial (IRCTID: IRCT2016090429686N1). After conventional chemo-mechanical root canal preparation (hand and rotary instruments and 2.5% NaOCl), microbiological samples were obtained using sterile paper points, then stored in thioglycolate solution and transferred to a microbiology laboratory. Group 1 (n = 10) specimens underwent aPDT (diode laser 808 nm + 50 mg/mL methylene blue), while creamy calcium hydroxide paste was used in group 2 for a duration of 1 week. A control sample was taken with sterile paper points and F3 Protaper rotary file. The samples were dispersed in transport medium, serially diluted, and cultured on selective mediums to determine the number of colony forming units (CFUs). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test at 5% significance level. The significance level for all analyses was set at P faecalis and C. albicans.

  12. A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Title: A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and management of sepsis at a district-level hospital internal medicine department in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, in comparison with the guidelines stipulated in the 2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Background. Currently there is little ...

  13. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Garg, Paridhi; Singh, Udai Pratap; Mishra, Chandrakar Chaman; Nagpal, Rajni

    2013-11-01

    Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem) etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem) group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  14. Efficacy and safety of intravenous paracetamol in comparison to ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Carlo; Poggi, Chiara; Mosca, Fabio; Schena, Federico; Lista, Gianluca; Ramenghi, Luca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Salvatori, Enrica; Rosignoli, Maria Teresa; Lipone, Paola; Comandini, Alessandro

    2016-04-02

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of most common complications in preterm infants. Although ibuprofen represents the first choice for the closure of PDA, this treatment can cause severe gastrointestinal and adverse renal effects and worsen platelet function. The successful closure of the PDA with paracetamol has been recently reported in several preterm infants, and the safety of paracetamol for this use has been suggested by the available data. We present the design of a randomized, multicenter, controlled study, whose aim is to assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous paracetamol in comparison to intravenous ibuprofen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants. A total of 110 infants born at 25(+0) to 31(+6) weeks of gestational age will be enrolled and randomized to receive paracetamol or ibuprofen (55 patients per group) starting at 24-72 h of life. The primary endpoint of the study is the comparison of the PDA closing rate observed after a 3-day course with paracetamol or ibuprofen. The secondary endpoints include the closure rate of PDA after the second course of treatment with ibuprofen, the re-opening rate of the PDA, the incidence of surgical ligation, and the occurrence of adverse effects. The results of this study will provide new information about the possible use of paracetamol in the treatment of PDA. Paracetamol could offer several important therapeutic advantages over current treatment options, and it could become the treatment of choice for the management of PDA, mainly due to its more favorable side effect profile. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02422966 . Eudract no. 2013-003883-30.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of subgingival irrigation with 2% povidone-iodine and tetracycline HCl in subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis: A clinico microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perayil, Jayachandran; Menon, Keerthy S; Biswas, Raja; Fenol, Angel; Vyloppillil, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the clinical and antimicrobial efficacy of subgingival irrigation with tetracycline and povidone-iodine as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Twenty subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis were recruited in this split-mouth study with probing pocket depth of >3 and ≤5 mm and clinical attachment loss of 3-4 mm in relation to 16, 36, and 46. In each subject, three selected periodontal pockets were assigned to receive one out of three irrigants (1) sterile water (control) in 16; (2) tetracycline at 10 mg/ml in 36; (3) 2% povidone-iodine in 46, and these sites were designated as Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. Plaque score, gingival score, pocket probing depth, and clinical attachment level were evaluated before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythensis which have been implicated as the major risk factors for periodontal disease. Subgingival plaque collected before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Data were analysed using ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA. Results were considered significant if P < 0.05. Clinical and microbiological parameters were reduced posttreatment, the reduction being significantly higher in Group B compared to Group C. It can be concluded that chemical and mechanical therapies were of slight benefit in the treatment of chronic moderate periodontitis, and there was an adjunctive effect of significance when scaling and root planing was combined with a single subgingival irrigation with tetracycline or povidone-iodine in lower concentration.

  16. Comparison of the efficacy of subgingival irrigation with 2% povidone-iodine and tetracycline HCl in subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis: A clinico microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Perayil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to evaluate and compare the clinical and antimicrobial efficacy of subgingival irrigation with tetracycline and povidone-iodine as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis were recruited in this split-mouth study with probing pocket depth of >3 and ≤5 mm and clinical attachment loss of 3-4 mm in relation to 16, 36, and 46. In each subject, three selected periodontal pockets were assigned to receive one out of three irrigants (1 sterile water (control in 16; (2 tetracycline at 10 mg/ml in 36; (3 2% povidone-iodine in 46, and these sites were designated as Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. Plaque score, gingival score, pocket probing depth, and clinical attachment level were evaluated before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythensis which have been implicated as the major risk factors for periodontal disease. Subgingival plaque collected before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Data were analysed using ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA. Results were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results: Clinical and microbiological parameters were reduced posttreatment, the reduction being significantly higher in Group B compared to Group C. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chemical and mechanical therapies were of slight benefit in the treatment of chronic moderate periodontitis, and there was an adjunctive effect of significance when scaling and root planing was combined with a single subgingival irrigation with tetracycline or povidone-iodine in lower concentration.

  17. The safety and efficacy of inhaled dry powder mannitol as a bronchial provocation test for airway hyperresponsiveness: a phase 3 comparison study with hypertonic (4.5% saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freed-Martens Ruth

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled mannitol is a new bronchial provocation test (BPT developed to improve portability and standardisation of osmotic challenge testing. Osmotic challenge tests have an advantage over the traditional methods of measuring airway hyperresponsiveness using methacholine as they demonstrate higher specificity to identify asthma and thus the need for treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. The safety and the efficacy of mannitol (M as a BPT to measure airway hyperresponsiveness were compared to hypertonic (4.5% saline (HS in people both with and without signs and symptoms of asthma. Methods A phase III, multi-centre, open label, operator-blinded, crossover design, randomised trial, with follow-up. Asthmatics and non-asthmatics (6–83 yr were recruited and 592 subjects completed the study. Mannitol was delivered using a low resistance dry powder inhaler and HS was delivered using an ultrasonic nebuliser. The FEV1 was measured 60 seconds after each dose of mannitol (5,10,20,40,80,160,160,160 mg and after each exposure to HS (0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0,8.0 minutes. A 15% fall in FEV1 defined a positive test. Adverse events were monitored and diaries kept for 7 days following the tests. Results Mean pre-test FEV1 (mean ± SD was 95.5 ± 14% predicted. 296 were positive to mannitol (M+ and 322 positive to HS (HS+. A post study physician conducted clinical assessment identified 82.3% asthmatic (44% classified mild and 17.7% non-asthmatic. Of those M+, 70.1% were taking ICS and of those mannitol negative (M-, 81.1 % were taking ICS. The % fall in FEV1 for mannitol in asthmatics was 21.0% ± 5.7 and for the non-asthmatics, 5.5% ± 4.8. The median PD15 M was 148 mg and PD15 HS 6.2 ml. The sensitivity of M to identify HS+ was 80.7% and the specificity 86.7%. The sensitivity of M compared with the clinical assessment was 59.8% and specificity 95.2% and increased to 88.7% and 95.0% respectively when the M- subjects taking ICS were excluded

  18. A comparison of efficacy between conventional and modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to develop and compare the efficacy of a modified versus conventional rat model of chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Sixty Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, a modified group (mask respiratory support and short-time chest-opening) and a conventional ...

  19. Comparison of mirabegron and imidafenacin for efficacy and safety in Japanese female patients with overactive bladder: A randomized controlled trial (COMFORT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Kageyama, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahisa; Matsumoto, Rikiya; Nagae, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Motoaki; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirabegron compared with imidafenacin for the treatment of female patients with overactive bladder. Patients (n = 89) were randomized to receive 0.1 mg imidafenacin twice daily (n = 47) or 50 mg mirabegron once daily (n = 42) for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end-point was change in total Overactive Bladder Symptom Score. Secondary efficacy end-points included change in Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, 3-day micturition diary, International Prostate Symptom Score and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire. Safety assessments included adverse events, vital signs, post-void residual volume and patient-reported incidence, and severity of distinctive symptoms related to adverse events. The mirabegron group showed a significantly reduced mean total Overactive Bladder Symptom Score from baseline, but no significant differences were noted in change of total Overactive Bladder Symptom Score compared with the imidafenacin group. Significant improvements in secondary efficacy end-points were observed regarding the mean number of micturitions/24 h, mean number of urgency episodes/24 h, mean number of incontinence episodes/24 h, mean volume voided/micturition, total International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life in both groups, with no significant differences between the groups. The overall incidence of adverse events and the incidence of dry mouth were significantly higher in the imidafenacin group than in the mirabegron group. Patient-reported incidence and the severity of dry mouth were significantly exacerbated in the imidafenacin group. Treatment with 50 mg mirabegron once daily effectively relieves overactive bladder symptoms in women with fewer adverse events than treatment with antimuscarinics. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Comparison of Preoperative Oral Ketorolac on Anesthetic Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block and Buccal and Lingual Infiltration with Articaine and Lidocaine in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Meetu; Grewal, Mandeep S; Grewal, Stutee; Deshwal, Parul

    2015-11-01

    Irreversible pulpitis (IP) commonly results in decreased anesthetic efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for mandibular molar. It has been shown that supplementary buccal and/or lingual infiltration as well as premedication with ketorolac result in improved efficacy of the IANB. One hundred fifty emergency patients who had their lower first or/and second molar diagnosed with IP participated in the study. All patients were randomly divided into 2 major IANB groups: 1 group received 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and the other group received 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 25 each: (1) buccal and lingual infiltration with articaine and lidocaine, respectively; (2) preoperative oral medication of ketorolac; and (3) preoperative oral medication of ketorolac followed by buccal and lingual infiltration with articaine and lidocaine, respectively. Endodontic access was initiated 15 minutes after solution deposition, and all patients were required to have profound lip numbness. Success of the anesthetic was defined as none or mild pain on endodontic access and initial instrumentation. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple-comparison analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis) and t tests. Articaine IANB with infiltrations plus oral ketorolac premedication significantly increased the success rate to 76%. The success rate after the administration of an articaine IANB with infiltration injections was 64%, whereas with lidocaine it was 32% (P < .05). Premedication with ketorolac significantly increases the anesthetic efficacy of articaine IANB plus infiltration in mandibular molars with IP. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Short- and Mid-term Efficacy and the Mechanisms of Gastric Bypass Surgeries on Managing Obese and Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Cheng, Zhong; Xiao, Zhu; Du, Xiao; Du, Juan; Li, Yang; Long, Yang; Yu, Hongling; Zhang, Xiangxun; Tian, Haoming

    2015-05-01

    We targeted to investigate the efficacy and the mechanisms of two gastric bypass surgeries, Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and Billroth II gastrojejunostomy on managing obese patients with T2DM and nonobese T2DM patients, respectively. Seven nonobese T2DM patients with gastric cancer submitted to Billroth II gastrojejunostomy were compared with nine obese T2DM patients undergoing RYGB about their baseline characteristics, weight loss and glycemic control, 3 months and 2 years after surgery. Meanwhile, β-cell function, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels were also investigated. Significant weight loss and improvement of glycemic control were observed in both groups and in the two follow-up periods. Reduction of body mass index was greater in obese patients with T2DM. The efficacy of Billroth II gastrojejunostomy on controlling blood glucose of nonobese T2DM was similar to that of RYGB on managing obese T2DM. Insulin levels and HOMA-IR were decreased in obese T2DM patients, whereas they remained unchanged in nonobese T2DM patients. Generally, levels of GLP-1 and PYY were increased, whereas GIP levels were decreased in both groups. Glycemic control efficacy of Billroth II gastrojejunostomy on managing nonobese T2DM is similar to that of RYGB on treating obese T2DM in the short- and mid-term. The underlying mechanisms of both surgeries may be related to weight loss and gut hormone modulations. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ramipril With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study Design: An open randomised, controlled, parallel group, single blind comparison of Ramipril with Amlodipine. Subject and Methods: Fifty-five intent to treat hypertensive subjects were sequentially recruited for the study from the medical out-patient Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. All had ...

  3. Efficacy comparison between anti-malarial drugs in Africans presenting with mild malaria in the Central Republic of Africa: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambei W.S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Plasmodium falciparum contributes to major health problems in central Africa and, as a consequence, poverty. We have analyzed the efficacy of three currently available antimalarial drugs to treat symptomatic, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in semiimmune adults living in Bangui, Central Republic of Africa. 210 consecutive individuals were enrolled in the survey, of which 45 were excluded. Those having received dihydroartemisin proved significantly less parasitemic than those having received quinine per os or sulfadoxin-pyrimethamin (χ2 = 16.93 ; p < 0.05, and 75 % recovered in two days compared to 57 and 44 %, respectively. The 25 % who did not recover benefited from a second cure with dihydroartemisin, which proved 100 % efficient. The most accurate protocol remains to be established by analyzing clinical and parasitological data and taking into account the economics of the country.

  4. Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Turmeric Extract, Morinda Citrifolia and 3% Sodium Hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis: An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Bathula Vimala; Somisetty, Kusum Valli; Diwan, Abhinav; Pasha, Shiraz; Shetty, Nandaprasad; Reddy, Yashwanth; Nadigar, Shankar

    2016-10-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), the most commonly used irrigant, has many potential properties like its unique ability to dissolve pulp tissue, excellent antimicrobial activity, but has a cytotoxic effect when injected into periapical tissues. It is also known to produce allergic reactions, foul smell and taste, and potential for corrosion. Facultative organisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and aerobes like Staphylococcus aureus are considered to be the most resistant species and one of the possible causes of root canal treatment failure. So there is a need to find an alternative to sodium hypochlorite to act against these resistant microorganisms. To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of morinda citrifolia and turmeric extract with 3% NaOCl as a root canal irrigant, against E. faecalis and S.aureus. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in vitro using agar well diffusion method. Agar plates were prepared using Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) agar. Cultures of E.faecalis and S.aureus were grown in nutrient broth at 37°C. Plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and microbial zones of inhibition were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. NaOCl (3%) showed larger zones of inhibition than herbal irrigants against both the microorganisms. Among the herbal irrigants, morinda citrifolia showed larger zones of inhibition than turmeric hydro-alcoholic extract and turmeric water extract which was statistically significant (pmorinda citrifolia and turmeric extracts. Considering the potential for undesirable properties of NaOCl, use of herbal alternatives in endodontics might prove to be advantageous.

  5. Drug efficacy by direct and adjusted indirect comparison to placebo: An illustration by Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freedberg Kenneth A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our goal was to illustrate a method for making indirect treatment comparisons in the absence of head-to-head trials, by portraying the derivation of published efficacies for prophylaxis regimens of HIV-related opportunistic infections. Results We identified published results of randomized controlled trials from the United States in which HIV-infected patients received rifabutin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, or placebo for prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. We extracted the number of subjects, follow-up time, primary MAC events, mean CD4 count, and proportion of subjects on mono or dual antiretroviral therapy (ART from each study. We derived the efficacy of each drug using adjusted indirect comparisons and, when possible, by direct comparisons. Five articles satisfied our inclusion criteria. Using direct comparison, we estimated the efficacies of rifabutin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin compared to placebo to be 53% (95% CI, 48-61%, 66% (95% CI, 61-74%, and 66% (95% CI, 60-81%, respectively. Using adjusted indirect calculations, the efficacy of rifabutin compared to placebo ranged from 41% to 44%. The adjusted indirect efficacies of clarithromycin and azithromycin were estimated to be 73% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Accurate estimates of specific drug dosages as compared to placebo are important for policy and implementation research. This study illustrates a simple method of adjusting for differences in study populations by using indirect comparisons in the absence of head-to-head HIV clinical trials.

  6. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Aripiprazole Versus Bupropion Augmentation in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unresponsive to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Randomized, Prospective, Open-Label Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Park, Young-Woo; Lee, Jong-Hun; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Sung, Hyung-Mo

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole versus bupropion augmentation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) unresponsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This is the first randomized, prospective, open-label, direct comparison study between aripiprazole and bupropion augmentation. Participants had at least moderately severe depressive symptoms after 4 weeks or more of SSRI treatment. A total of 103 patients were randomized to either aripiprazole (n = 56) or bupropion (n = 47) augmentation for 6 weeks. Concomitant use of psychotropic agents was prohibited. Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale, Iowa Fatigue Scale, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment. Overall, both treatments significantly improved depressive symptoms without causing serious adverse events. There were no significant differences in the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale, and Iowa Fatigue Scale scores, and response rates. However, significant differences in remission rates between the 2 groups were evident at week 6 (55.4% vs 34.0%, respectively; P = 0.031), favoring aripiprazole over bupropion. There were no significant differences in adverse sexual events, extrapyramidal symptoms, or akathisia between the 2 groups. The present study suggests that aripiprazole augmentation is at least comparable to bupropion augmentation in combination with SSRI in terms of efficacy and tolerability in patients with MDD. Both aripiprazole and bupropion could help reduce sexual dysfunction and fatigue in patients with MDD. Aripiprazole and bupropion may offer effective and safe augmentation strategies in patients with MDD who are unresponsive to SSRIs. Double-blinded trials are warranted to confirm the present findings.

  7. Comparison of efficacy of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet education programs in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Chul; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Cho, Yong Kyun; Ahn, Sang Bong

    2017-06-07

    Composition of macronutrients is important in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Diet education programs that mainly emphasize reducing fat consumption have been used for NAFLD patients. We compared the efficacy of conventional low-fat diet education with low-carbohydrate diet education in Korean NAFLD patients. One hundred and six NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to low-fat diet education or low-carbohydrate education groups for 8 weeks. Liver chemistry, liver / spleen ratio, and visceral fat using abdominal tomography were measured. Intrahepatic fat accumulation decreased significantly in the low-carbohydrate group compared to low-fat group (liver/spleen 0.85 vs. 0.92, P program is more realistic and effective in reducing total energy intake and hepatic fat content in Korean NAFLD patients. This trial is registered with the National Research Institute of Health: KCT0000970 (https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp). © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of three commercially available antibiotic discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of commercially available antimicrobial discs manufactured by Oxoid, UK, HiMedia Laboratories, Mumbai and Span Diagnostics, Surat. The discs were evaluated for their performance on the basis of percentage of coefficient of variation (%CV which is a measure of reproducibility, mean zone diameters which is a measure of accuracy and range of zone diameter using both standard ATCC strains and clinical isolates. The data showed variation for all three manufacturers and therefore routine and regular quality control of discs as well as meticulous following of good laboratory practices is strongly advocated in clinical laboratories

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of a new synergized pyrethrins thermofobic foam in comparison with benzyl benzoate in the treatment of scabies in convicts: the ISAC study (Studio Della scabbia in ambiente carcerario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, M; Campori, G; Colombo, R; De Giorgio, G; Frascione, P; Sali, R; Starnini, G; Milani, M

    2006-07-01

    Scabies is a very common skin infection in convicts. The SIMSPE Society (Società Italiana di Medicina e Sanità Penitenziaria) has organized and conducted a multicentre, randomized, comparative, parallel group, investigator-blinded trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of synergized pyrethrins foam (PF) in comparison with benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion. A total of 240 convicted patients, enrolled in eight National Jail Institutions, with a clinical diagnosis of scabies, were treated with PF (n = 120) for three consecutive days or BB (n = 120) for five consecutive days. Primary study endpoints were the clinical cure rate and the local tolerability. Secondary endpoints were clinical evolution of scabietic lesions and itching intensity. Study outcomes were assessed using appropriate semiquantitative scores at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks. A second treatment cycle was applied if after 2 weeks the patient was not judged clinically cured. At week 2, a total of 75% (95% CI: 66-82%) and 71% (95% CI: 62-78%) of patients showed a complete clinical cure rate in the PF and BB groups, respectively. At week 4, the percentage of totally cured patients increased up to 95% (95% CI: 89-97%) and 91% (95% CI: 83-94%) in the PF and BB groups, respectively (P = NS between groups). At week 4, 5% in the PF group and 9% in the BB group complained of itching. Burning and irritation after treatment applications were more common in the BB group in comparison with the PF group. The tolerability score was better in the PF group in comparison with to BB group (2.9 vs. 2.2; P = 0.0001). A total of 95% of patients in the PV group had a good tolerability score (i.e. = 3) in comparison with 41% in the BB group. Our results show that a 3-day treatment with pyrethrins thermofobic foam is at least as effective as a 5-day treatment with benzyl benzoate lotion in convicted subjects with scabies. The foam formulation is better tolerated than the benzyl benzoate lotion.

  10. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy of University Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Basol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions among university students across two countries, i.e., Poland and Turkey. Data were obtained through questionnaires designed to assess the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In all, 365 Polish and 278 Turkish students completed the questionnaires. Results indicated that Polish and Turkish students did not differ significantly in regard to the overall measure of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Our study contributed to the entrepreneurship literature by performing a cross-cultural comparison of the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Thus, it provided recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial self efficacy among university students.

  11. Efficacy of Barium-Based Fecal Tagging for CT Colonography: a Comparison between the Use of High and Low Density Barium Suspensions in a Korean Population - a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Seung Soo; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Choi, Eugene K.; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yeoung Nam; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2009-01-01

    Objective This preliminarily study was designed to determine and to compare the efficacy of two commercially available barium-based fecal tagging agents for CT colonography (CTC) (high-density [40% w/v] and low-density [4.6% w/v] barium suspensions) in a population in Korea. Materials and Methods In a population with an identified with an average-risk for colorectal cancer, 15 adults were administered three doses of 20 ml 40% w/v barium for fecal tagging (group I) and 15 adults were administered three doses of 200 ml 4.6% w/v barium (group II) for fecal tagging. Excluding five patients in group I and one patient in group II that left the study, ten patients in group I and 14 patients in group II were finally included in the analysis. Two experienced readers evaluated the CTC images in consensus regarding the degree of tagging of stool pieces 6 mm or larger. Stool pieces were confirmed with the use of standardized CTC criteria or the absence of matched lesions as seen on colonoscopy. The rates of complete fecal tagging were analyzed on a per-lesion and a per-segment basis and were compared between the patients in the two groups. Results Per-lesion rates of complete fecal tagging were 52% (22 of 42; 95% CI, 37.7-66.6%) in group I and 78% (28 of 36; 95% CI, 61.7-88.5%) in group II. The difference between the two groups did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.285). The per-segment rates of complete tagging were 33% (6 of 18; 95% CI, 16.1%-56.4%) in group I and 60% (9 of 15; 95% CI, 35.7%-80.3%) in group II; again, the difference between the two groups did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.171). Conclusion Barium-based fecal tagging using both the 40% w/v and the 4.6% w/v barium suspensions showed moderate tagging efficacy. The preliminary comparison did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the tagging efficacy between the use of the two tagging agents, despite the tendency toward better tagging with the use of the 4.6% w/v barium

  12. Comparison of the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential currents, and shortwave diathermy in knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaz, Funda C; Durmaz, Berrin; Baydar, Meltem; Demircioglu, Ozlem Y; Iyiyapici, Ayse; Kuran, Banu; Oncel, Sema; Sendur, Omer F

    2012-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), interferential currents (IFCs), and shortwave diathermy (SWD) against each other and sham intervention with exercise training and education as a multimodal package. A double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. Departments of physical medicine and rehabilitation in 4 centers. Patients (N=203) with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The patients were randomized by the principal center into the following 6 treatment groups: TENS sham, TENS, IFCs sham, IFCs, SWD sham, and SWD. All interventions were applied 5 times a week for 3 weeks. In addition, exercises and an education program were given. The exercises were carried out as part of a home-based training program after 3 weeks' supervised group exercise. Primary outcome was a visual analog scale (0-100mm) to assess knee pain. Other outcome measures were time to walk a distance of 15m, range of motion, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Nottingham Health Profile, and paracetamol intake (in grams). We found a significant decrease in all assessment parameters (P<.05), without a significant difference among the groups except WOMAC stiffness score and range of motion. However, the intake of paracetamol was significantly lower in each treatment group when compared with the sham groups at 3 months (P<.05). Also, the patients in the IFCs group used a lower amount of paracetamol at 6 months (P<.05) in comparison with the IFCs sham group. Although all groups showed significant improvements, we can suggest that the use of physical therapy agents in knee OA provided additional benefits in improving pain because paracetamol intake was significantly higher in the patients who were treated with 3 sham interventions in addition to exercise and education. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl, Group B (MCJ, Group C (Aloe vera, Group D (Propolis and Group E (Saline. These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5, coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. Results: 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. Conclusion: 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis.

  14. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis) in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Ballal, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ), Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl), Group B (MCJ), Group C (Aloe vera), Group D (Propolis) and Group E (Saline). These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5), coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis).

  15. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide and Photodynamic Therapy Against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in Teeth With Periapical Lesions; An In Vivo Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zohreh Ahangari; Maryam Mojtahed Bidabadi; Mohammad Asnaashari; Afsaneh Rahmati; Fahimeh Sadat Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    ...) against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in teeth with periapical (PA) lesions. Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 20 patients with single-rooted mandibular premolar with previously failed endodontic treatment...

  16. Comparative Efficacy Study of Chloroquine Dihydroartemisinin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), dihyroartemisinin (DHA) and the combination of dihyroartemisinin plus mefloquine (MQ) in Nigerian children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Method: Seventy-five subjects aged 2-13 years attending the outpatient clinic of Ijede health center, Ikorodu and ...

  17. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy between acupuncture and low level laser in the treatment of cervical myofascial pain syndrome: a single blinded randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Neck pain is a medical and public problem with a prevalence of 9-18 percent in general population. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a regional pain syndrome that is characterized with muscular tender and triggers points. Laser therapy and acupuncture are two methods applied in the treatment of MPS. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acupuncture and low level laser in cervical MPS treatment. Material and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial study, during a 15-month period, 60 patients with CMPs, referred to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic, were divided into three groups Gr1 underwent acupuncture plus drugs, Gr2 laser therapy plus drugs and Gr3 only medication. Pain severity using visual analogue scale (VAS, Range of motion (ROM with goniometry, palpation sensitivity with finger compression and daily function with neck questionnaire were assessed before, immediately after and two months after treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 16. Results: Sixty patients of CMPs were included in this study. In acupuncture group, 5 male and 15 female (mean age of 38.8±6.36, in laser group, 6 male and 14 female (mean age of 37.7±5.64 and in control group, 8 male and 12 female (mean age of 37.6±5.17 were evaluated. There was significant difference in majority of parameters in two treatment groups compared to control group. But neck ROM in left lateral bending and VAS score, showed better improvement in acupuncture group than the other 2 groups (P<0.001. Nevertheless two months afterwards, no significant difference was detected between laser and acupuncture groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that both acupuncture and laser therapy along with exercise and drugs are more effective than routine and only medication treatments in management of CMPs. However, with respect to myofascial pain pathology, acupuncture, at least in short term has more beneficial

  18. Comparison of the efficacy of the cervex brush and the extended-tip wooden spatula with conventional cytology: A longitudinal study

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    Whitaker Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the United Kingdom, the change from conventional to liquid based cytology (LBC has brought with it the universal introduction of broom style samplers, as represented by the Cervex sampler. The aim of this study was to assess whether or not there were benefits associated with a change from wooden spatulae to broom style samplers for those countries where conversion to LBC might not be readily available or is not fully supported. Methods: A longitudinal study was designed to compare the performance of Cervex brushes and extended-tip wooden spatulae as sampling devices for conventionally prepared cervical smears. General Practices serving the population of Hull and East Yorkshire (UK were provided with Cervex brushes for a period of nine months to routinely collect cervical smears. The results of 66,931 cervical smear tests were compared between those practices that were using extended-tip wooden spatulae before the trial and then returned to their use afterwards, and those who were previously using Cervex samplers and continued to use them throughout. Analyses comparing both specimen inadequacy, as recorded on the standard cervical screening request form (HMR101, and also the presence of identified transformation zone (TZ elements in smears, both indicated significant advantages associated with the Cervex brush. Results: Inadequate smears decreased from 5.96% with extended-tip spatulae to 4.77% with Cervex brushes (p< 0.001 and increased back to 7.34% when practices reverted to extended-tip spatulae after nine months. Under the same conditions, the proportion of smears containing identified TZ elements increased from 50.52% to 54.75% (p< 0.001, before reverting to 45.47% (p< 0.001. In contrast, for a control group of practices using the Cervex brush throughout, inadequate smears decreased in all phases of the study, with no significant variation in TZ sampling rates. Conclusions: Using the Cervex brush with conventional cytology

  19. Comparison of the diagnostic efficacy and perioperative outcomes of limited versus extended pelvic lymphadenectomy during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a multi-institutional retrospective study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Shuichi; Honda, Masashi; Fukasawa, Satoshi; Komaru, Atsushi; Inokuchi, Junichi; Eto, Masatoshi; Shimbo, Masaki; Hattori, Kazunori; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2017-12-11

    We conducted a retrospective study to compare the perioperative course and lymph node (LN) counts of patients undergoing limited pelvic lymphadenectomy (lPLND) or extended pelvic lymphadenectomy (ePLND) during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in an initial Japanese series. The cohort included 1333 patients who underwent either lPLND (n = 902) or ePLND (n = 431) during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy at five institutions in Japan. All complications within 28 days of surgery were recorded, and clinical data were collected retrospectively. The outcomes and complications were compared relative to the extent of lymphadenectomy, and we conducted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the predictors of the major complications. On multivariate analysis for evaluating the associations between major complications and perioperative characteristics, console time (p = 0.001) was significantly associated with major complications, although the extent of lymphadenectomy (p = 0.272) was not significantly associated with major complications. In the distribution of positive LNs removed in the extended pelvic lymphadenectomy cohort, 60.4% of patients had positive LNs only in the obturator/internal iliac region. However, 22.6% of the patients with positive LNs had no positive LNs in the obturator/internal iliac region, but only in the external/common iliac region. ePLND, which significantly increased the console time and blood loss but nearly quadrupled the lymph node yield, is considered a relatively safe and acceptable procedure. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that ePLND improves staging and removes a greater number of metastatic nodes.

  20. Efficacy of EMLA cream phonophoresis comparison with ultrasound therapy on myofascial pain syndrome of the trapezius: a single-blind, randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Nilgun; Arslan, Fatma; Mansuroglu, Ayhan; Inanoglu, Deniz; Yagız, Abdullah Erman; Guler, Hayal; Turhanoglu, Ayse Dicle

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream phonophoresis superior to conventional US over the trigger points (TPs) in terms of improvements of pain, range of motion and disability in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Fifty patients (42 female, 8 male) diagnosed with MPS were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including phonophoresis (PH) group (n = 25) and ultrasound (US) group (n = 25). PH group received EMLA cream phonophoresis (2.5 % lidocaine, 2.5 % prilocaine); US group received conventional ultrasound therapy over the all active TPs on trapezius muscle for 10 min a day for 15 sessions. Outcome measures were performed before the treatment course and at the end of a 15-session course of treatment. Student T, Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. At the end of the therapy, there was statistically significant decrease in both PH group and US group in terms of number of trigger point (NTP) (p = 0.001, p = 0.029), pain intensity on movement (p = 0.001 vs. 0.002) and right/left cervical lateral ROMs (p = 0.001/p = 0.001, p = 0.009/p = 0.020) relative to baseline. The NTP decrease in PH group was significantly higher than that in US group (1.84 ± 1.46 vs. 0.72 ± 1.45; p = 0.01). Pain intensity at rest (p = 0.001) and NPDI scores (p = 0.001) were statistically improvement in only PH group. EMLA cream phonophoresis is more effective than conventional ultrasound therapy in terms of pain and associated neck disability, and it seems the complementary treatment option for MPS.

  1. Comparison of efficacy of multimatrix mesalazine 4.8 g/day once-daily with other high-dose mesalazine in active ulcerative colitis: a randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Ogata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of high-dose multimatrix mesalazine once-daily (QD compared to another form of high-dose mesalazine.Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind study, 280 patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC received multimatrix mesalazine 4.8 g/day QD or pH-dependent-release mesalazine 3.6 g/day three times daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in the UC-Disease Activity Index (UC-DAI at the end of the treatment period.Results: The change in the UC-DAI (mean±standard deviation in the per-protocol set was −2.6±2.47 in the multimatrix mesalazine 4.8 g/day group (n=134 and −1.8±2.64 in the pH-dependent-release mesalazine 3.6 g/day group (n=129. The difference in the mean change between the 2 groups was −0.7 (two-sided 95% confidence interval, −1.3 to −0.1. The noninferiority of multimatrix mesalazine 4.8 g/day to pH-dependent-release mesalazine 3.6 g/day was verified within the noninferiority margin (1.1. The superiority of multimatrix mesalazine 4.8 g/day to pH-dependent-release mesalazine 3.6 g/day was also investigated and confirmed in the full analysis set, according to the study protocol. In subgroup analyses, the effectiveness of multimatrix mesalazine 4.8 g/day was consistent in all subgroups. There was no difference in safety between the 2 treatment groups.Conclusions: Multimatrix mesalazine 4.8 g/day has higher efficacy and shows no difference in safety in mildly to moderately active UC, in comparison with pH-dependent-release mesalazine 3.6 g/day.

  2. Clinical efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide for acne vulgaris: Comparison between Japanese and Western patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Makoto; Nagare, Toshitaka; Doi, Masaharu

    2017-11-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) has been well established as a common medication for acne vulgaris in many countries (e.g. in Europe and the USA), where clinical data have been accumulated over a long time. In Japan, the use of BPO for acne treatment was approved in 2014, and the results of clinical trials in Japanese patients have recently been reported. This review compares clinical study results between Japanese and Western patients. Clinical studies that had been performed in Western countries were searched on the basis of the criteria, double-blind studies of BPO monotherapy and comparison with a vehicle group. Two reports of Japanese studies were also selected by using the same criteria. Efficacy was assessed by comparing the mean difference between the BPO and the vehicle groups for reduction rate in the number of lesions from baseline, and there were no differences between Japanese and Western patients. Safety assessment also showed that the incidence of adverse events was higher in Japanese patients than in Western patients, but the characteristics of the adverse events were not different. Therefore, we conclude that there are no significant differences in the efficacy and safety of BPO between these patient populations. The efficacy and safety of long-term use in Japanese patients are also expected to be applicable to those in Western patients. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Comparison between the efficacy of ginger and sumatriptan in the ablative treatment of the common migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghbooli, Mehdi; Golipour, Farhad; Moghimi Esfandabadi, Alireza; Yousefi, Mehran

    2014-03-01

    Frequency and torment caused by migraines direct patients toward a variety of remedies. Few studies to date have proposed ginger derivates for migraine relief. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of ginger in the ablation of common migraine attack in comparison to sumatriptan therapy. In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who had acute migraine without aura were randomly allocated to receive either ginger powder or sumatriptan. Time of headache onset, its severity, time interval from headache beginning to taking drug and patient self-estimation about response for five subsequent migraine attacks were recorded by patients. Patients(,) satisfaction from treatment efficacy and their willingness to continue it was also evaluated after 1 month following intervention. Two hours after using either drug, mean headaches severity decreased significantly. Efficacy of ginger powder and sumatriptan was similar. Clinical adverse effects of ginger powder were less than sumatriptan. Patients' satisfaction and willingness to continue did not differ. The effectiveness of ginger powder in the treatment of common migraine attacks is statistically comparable to sumatriptan. Ginger also poses a better side effect profile than sumatriptan. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A Grouped Up-and-Down Method Used for Efficacy Comparison Between Two Different Defibrillation Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Danian; Wang, Jianjie; Yang, Kecheng; Wang, Kaifa; Quan, Weilun; Herken, Ulrich; Li, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Electrical defibrillation, which consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of the electrical current to the fibrillating heart with the aid of a defibrillator, is still the only effective way to treat life-threatening ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, the efficacy of electrical therapy for terminating VF is highly dependent on the waveform applied. When new defibrillation waveforms or techniques are developed, their efficacy needs to be accurately evaluated and compared to those in use. A common method for the comparison of defibrillation efficacy is to estimate and compare the individual defibrillation threshold (DFT) by constructing dose response curves or using an up-and-down method. Since DFT is calculated by repetitive and sequential shocks, there will be variability for each measurement and for each individual. This creates a considerable uncertainty for paired comparison. In this paper, a novel grouped up-and-down method is developed for the comparison of defibrillation efficacy between two different defibrillation waveforms or techniques. The efficacy of two commonly used biphasic defibrillation waveforms was compared in a porcine model of cardiac arrest using the developed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more sensitive for efficacy comparison and requires less defibrillation attempts compared with traditional DFT methods.

  5. A systematic review and mixed treatment comparison of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Ernest; Marshall, David; Gabriel, Zahava L; Mitchell, Stephen A; Gylee, Elizabeth; Dakin, Helen A

    2011-12-01

    To review the literature on pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia. Relative efficacy was estimated in terms of outcome measures highlighted by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Network using a Bayesian mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials reporting treatments for fibromyalgia were identified by systematically reviewing electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE; accessed February 2008) and conducting manual bibliographic searches. Forty-five randomized controlled trials met the prespecified inclusion criteria for the systematic review. There were limited robust clinical data for some therapeutic classes (tricyclic antidepressants, analgesics, sedative hypnotics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors) and only 21 studies met the more stringent criteria for inclusion in the MTC. The majority of studies included in the MTC assessed the anticonvulsant pregabalin (n = 5) or the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) duloxetine (n = 3) and milnacipran (n = 3). Licensed doses of pregabalin and duloxetine were significantly (P Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score (pregabalin 450 mg/d only). There was no significant difference between licensed doses of pregabalin and duloxetine for these outcomes. However licensed doses of pregabalin produced significantly greater improvements in sleep compared with milnacipran (as measured by Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale). The current study confirms the therapeutic efficacy of pregabalin and the SNRIs, duloxetine and milnacipran, in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Given their different modes of action, combination therapy with pregabalin plus an SNRI should be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Double-Modality Therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    The use of Ultrasound as an enhancer for Transcutaneous Drug Delivery: Phonophoresis. Physical Therapy. 75 (6) : 539 –. 553. Cagnie B., Vinck E., Rimbaut, S. and Vanderstraeten. G. (2003). Phonophoresis Versus Topical. Application of Ketoprofen: Comparison Between. Tissue and Plasma Levels. Physical Therapy. 83.

  7. A comprehensive comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of racecadotril with other treatments of acute diarrhea in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Fischbach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Racecadotril is a guideline-recommended treatment to alleviate symptoms of acute diarrhea. A systematic review of randomized studies was performed comparing efficacy and safety of treatment with racecadotril to that with placebo or active treatments in adults. In five double-blind studies, racecadotril and placebo had comparable tolerability but racecadotril was more effective. This was consistent across multiple efficacy parameters including duration of diarrhea, number of diarrheic stools, abdominal pain and meteorism; it was also consistent across countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. In six randomized studies in outpatients comparing racecadotril to loperamide, resolution of symptoms occurred with similar speed and efficacy; however, racecadotril treatment was associated with less rebound constipation and less abdominal discomfort. A seventh comparative study performed in geriatric nursing home residents reported a superior efficacy of racecadotril. In direct comparison with Saccharomyces boulardii treatment, racecadotril exhibited similar tolerability but was more efficacious. One study compared racecadotril to octreotide in patients with acute diarrhea requiring hospitalization, rehydration and antibiotic treatment; in this cohort, octreotide was more efficacious than racecadotril. In conclusion, in adults with acute diarrhea racecadotril is more efficacious than placebo or Saccharomyces boulardii, similarly efficacious as loperamide and, in patients with moderate to severe disease as add-on to antibiotics, less than octreotide. The tolerability of racecadotril is similar to that of placebo or Saccharomyces boulardii and better than that of loperamide, particularly with regard to risk of rebound constipation. Taken together these data demonstrate that racecadotril is a suitable treatment to alleviate symptoms of acute diarrhea in adults.

  8. A Comprehensive Comparison of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Racecadotril with Other Treatments of Acute Diarrhea in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Wolfgang; Andresen, Viola; Eberlin, Marion; Mueck, Tobias; Layer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Racecadotril is a guideline-recommended treatment to alleviate symptoms of acute diarrhea. A systematic review of randomized studies was performed comparing efficacy and safety of treatment with racecadotril to that with placebo or active treatments in adults. In five double-blind studies, racecadotril and placebo had comparable tolerability, but racecadotril was more effective. This was consistent across multiple efficacy parameters including duration of diarrhea, number of diarrheic stools, abdominal pain, and meteorism; it was also consistent across countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe. In six randomized studies in outpatients comparing racecadotril to loperamide, resolution of symptoms occurred with similar speed and efficacy; however, racecadotril treatment was associated with less rebound constipation and less abdominal discomfort. The seventh comparative study performed in geriatric nursing home residents reported a superior efficacy of racecadotril. In direct comparison with Saccharomyces boulardii treatment, racecadotril exhibited similar tolerability but was more efficacious. One study compared racecadotril to octreotide in patients with acute diarrhea requiring hospitalization, rehydration, and antibiotic treatment; in this cohort, octreotide was more efficacious than racecadotril. In conclusion, in adults with acute diarrhea, racecadotril is more efficacious than placebo or S. boulardii, similarly efficacious as loperamide and, in patients with moderate to severe disease as add-on to antibiotics, less than octreotide. The tolerability of racecadotril is similar to that of placebo or S. boulardii and better than that of loperamide, particularly with regard to risk of rebound constipation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that racecadotril is a suitable treatment to alleviate symptoms of acute diarrhea in adults.

  9. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine onStreptococcus mutans: Anin vivostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T P; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans . counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans . count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans .

  10. Monostrain, multistrain and multispecies probiotics - A comparison of functionality and efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Koning, C.J.M.; Mulder, L.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    This literature review was carried out to make a comparison of functionality and efficacy between monostrain, multistrain and multispecies probiotics. A monostrain probiotic is defined as containing one strain of a certain species and consequently multistrain probiotics contain more than one strain

  11. Study Skills Course Impact on Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernersbach, Brenna M.; Crowley, Susan L.; Bates, Scott C.; Rosenthal, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Although study skills courses improve student retention, the impact of study skills courses on students' academic self-efficacy has not been investigated. The present study examined pre- and posttest levels of academic self-efficacy in college students enrolled in a study skills course (n = 126) compared to students enrolled in a general education…

  12. Efficacy and safety of an oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg (24/4 regimen in three indications in the People's Republic of China: a comparison with international studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joachim Marr,1 Zirong Huang,2 Baoxi Wang,3 Hongyan Zhang,4 Katrin Roth1 1Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 2Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 4Peking University Sixth Hospital, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: While combined oral contraceptives are a popular choice in developed Western countries, they are used by only 1% of women who are married or in a relationship in the People's Republic of China. The purpose of this review is to describe the efficacy and safety of the combined oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol (EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg taken in a 24/4 regimen (YAZ®; Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany by Chinese women and to compare these results with those in women assessed in the international studies. Studies of EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in three different indications (contraception, acne, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder [PMDD] have been conducted in Chinese women. The results of these three studies indicate that the EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg combined oral contraceptive is a good long-term contraceptive option in Chinese women, providing 99% contraceptive protection over the observed 1-year treatment period, and additionally had a favorable effect on moderate acne vulgaris and relieved the symptoms of PMDD. The contraceptive efficacy, improvement in acne, and relief from PMDD symptoms observed in these studies did not differ from the effects observed in other international studies of EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg, indicating that EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg is as effective in Chinese women as in other ethnicities. Further, EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg demonstrated a similar safety and tolerability profile in women enrolled in the Chinese and international trials, with no unexpected adverse

  13. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  14. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of bilastine 20 mg vs levocetirizine 5 mg for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberbier, T; Oanta, A; Bogacka, E; Medina, I; Wesel, F; Uhl, P; Antépara, I; Jáuregui, I; Valiente, R

    2010-04-01

    Bilastine is a novel nonsedative H(1)-receptor antagonist, which may be used for the symptomatic treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CU). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of bilastine 20 mg vs levocetirizine 5 mg and placebo in CU patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms. Overall 525 male and female subjects aged 18-70 years were randomized to receive bilastine 20 mg, levocetirizine 5 mg or placebo, once daily for 28 days, in double-blind manner, in 46 centres across Europe and Argentina. Patients rated symptoms of pruritus, number of wheals, and maximum size of wheals (on predefined scales) as reflective (over past 12 h) symptoms twice daily, for assessment of change from baseline in the total symptoms scores (TSS) over 28 days as the primary efficacy measure. Changes in reflective and instantaneous symptoms scores, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and CU-associated discomfort and sleep disturbance were assessed as secondary outcomes. Safety was assessed according to adverse events, laboratory tests and electrocardiograms. Bilastine reduced patients' mean reflective and instantaneous TSS from baseline to a significantly greater degree than placebo (P bilastine-treated patients as compared with placebo-treated patients (P Bilastine 20 mg is a novel effective and safe treatment option for the management of CU.

  15. Uptake and efficacy of a systematic intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing for smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome: a multicentre before–after study with parallel group comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Reto; Gencer, Baris; Tango, Rodrigo; Nanchen, David; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Windecker, Stephan; Mach, François; Cornuz, Jacques; Humair, Jean-Paul; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of a proactive approach with a reactive approach to offer intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). Design Before–after comparison in 2 academic hospitals with parallel comparisons in 2 control hospitals. Setting Academic hospitals in Switzerland. Participants Smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Intervention In the intervention hospitals during the intervention phase, a resident physician trained in MI systematically offered counselling to all smokers admitted for ACS, followed by 4 telephone counselling sessions over 2 months by a nurse trained in MI. In the observation phase, the in-hospital intervention was offered only to patients whose clinicians requested a smoking cessation intervention. In the control hospitals, no intensive smoking cessation intervention was offered. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was 1 week smoking abstinence (point prevalence) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of smokers who received the in-hospital smoking cessation intervention and the duration of the intervention. Results In the intervention centres during the intervention phase, 87% of smokers (N=193/225) received a smoking cessation intervention compared to 22% in the observational phase (pintervention phase, 78% received a phone follow-up for a median total duration of 42 min in 4 sessions. Prescription of nicotine replacement therapy at discharge increased from 18% to 58% in the intervention phase (risk ratio (RR): 3.3 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.3; p≤0.001). Smoking cessation at 12-month increased from 43% to 51% comparing the observation and intervention phases (RR=1.20, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.46; p=0.08; 97% with outcome assessment). In the control hospitals, the RR for quitting was 1.02 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.25; p=0.8, 92% with outcome assessment). Conclusions A proactive strategy offering intensive smoking cessation intervention based on MI to all smokers

  16. Uptake and efficacy of a systematic intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing for smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome: a multicentre before-after study with parallel group comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Reto; Gencer, Baris; Tango, Rodrigo; Nanchen, David; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Windecker, Stephan; Mach, François; Cornuz, Jacques; Humair, Jean-Paul; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-09-20

    To compare the efficacy of a proactive approach with a reactive approach to offer intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). Before-after comparison in 2 academic hospitals with parallel comparisons in 2 control hospitals. Academic hospitals in Switzerland. Smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In the intervention hospitals during the intervention phase, a resident physician trained in MI systematically offered counselling to all smokers admitted for ACS, followed by 4 telephone counselling sessions over 2 months by a nurse trained in MI. In the observation phase, the in-hospital intervention was offered only to patients whose clinicians requested a smoking cessation intervention. In the control hospitals, no intensive smoking cessation intervention was offered. The primary outcome was 1 week smoking abstinence (point prevalence) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of smokers who received the in-hospital smoking cessation intervention and the duration of the intervention. In the intervention centres during the intervention phase, 87% of smokers (N=193/225) received a smoking cessation intervention compared to 22% in the observational phase (pintervention phase, 78% received a phone follow-up for a median total duration of 42 min in 4 sessions. Prescription of nicotine replacement therapy at discharge increased from 18% to 58% in the intervention phase (risk ratio (RR): 3.3 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.3; p≤0.001). Smoking cessation at 12-month increased from 43% to 51% comparing the observation and intervention phases (RR=1.20, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.46; p=0.08; 97% with outcome assessment). In the control hospitals, the RR for quitting was 1.02 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.25; p=0.8, 92% with outcome assessment). A proactive strategy offering intensive smoking cessation intervention based on MI to all smokers hospitalised for ACS significantly increases the uptake of smoking cessation counselling and might

  17. Self-Efficacy and Statistics Performance among Sport Studies Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M.; Hall, Ross; Lane, John

    2004-01-01

    The present study explored predictive paths between performance accomplishments, self-efficacy, and performance among Sport Studies students taking a Level 1 statistics module. Fifty-eight Level 1 Sport Studies undergraduate degree students completed a 44-item self-efficacy measure and an assessment of perceived academic success at the start of…

  18. A comparison between the efficacy of dydrogesterone and calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of dydrogesterone and calcium plus vitamin D on young women's general health. Method: One hundred and eighty students studying at Shiraz University were recruited. Students completed the General Health ...

  19. Comparison of efficacy of neural therapy and physical therapy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of neural therapy, and physical therapy on level of pain, disability, quality of life, and psychological status in patients with chronic low back pain. Patients admitted to the physical therapy and rehabilitation outpatient clinic with the complaint of low back pain of at ...

  20. Comparison of the Efficacy of Tenofovir and Entecavir for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An important goal in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis by suppressing HBV replication. Tenofovir and entecavir are effective viral suppression compounds. However, comparative data is scant, especially in Korea. This study ...

  1. Goal orientations, perceived self-efficacy and study results amongst beginners and advanced students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J; Zeeberg, Caroline

    2002-09-01

    On the basis of previous research, it was expected that perceived self-efficacy and social comparison would contribute to pursued goals and that these goals would influence course grades. It was further expected that a task orientation would contribute to perceived self-efficacy, and that an ego orientation would contribute to social comparison. The central question in the present study is whether the relationships between the above-mentioned motivational variables are as strongly developed in a particular area amongst beginners as they are amongst more advanced students. In view of the fact that beginners' knowledge concerning task requirements is restricted, we predicted that whilst relationships between these variables would be weak or absent in the case of beginners, they would be relatively strong amongst more advanced students. The sample consisted of 150 students from a secondary school. The participants answered questions about goal orientations, appraisals of self-efficacy, social comparison and about their personal goals. Course grades were used as a measure of study results. It was found that amongst the beginners and the advanced students perceived self-efficacy contributed to pursued goals and these goals in turn contributed to course grades. The relations between these variables were clearly less strong for the beginners than for the advanced students. Furthermore, it was ascertained that a task orientation contributed only to perceived self-efficacy amongst the advanced students, suggesting that for these students motivational variables were operative whereas they were still undeveloped amongst the beginners.

  2. Efficacy comparison of medications approved for chronic weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rekha B; Aronne, Louis J

    2015-04-01

    For the first time, patients who are obese are able to benefit from 5 different FDA approved pharmacologic agents for chronic weight management. Although weight loss from all of these medications was limited to 5% to 10% of total body weight loss in the Phase III clinical trials, patients are capable of losing more weight when a cumulative approach of diet, exercise, and multiple medications are used. A pilot study of adding phentermine to lorcaserin yielded double the weight loss than lorcaserin alone. A higher percentage of total body weight is lost with use of combination phentermine/topiramate compared to orlistat, lorcaserin, and bupropion/naltrexone but there are more contraindications to its use and potential cardiovascular adverse effects due to adrenergic agonism. Lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone yielded similar weight loss but carry different adverse effect profiles and interactions with other psychiatric medications may preclude use of one over the other. When choosing a medication for obesity, several factors need to be considered, such as comorbidities, medication interactions, and risk of potential adverse effects.

  3. Comparison of efficacy of labetalol and fentanyl for attenuating reflex responses to laryngoscopy and intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftahuzzaman, S M; Islam, M M; Ireen, S T; Islam, M R; Kabir, H; Rashid, H; Uddin, M Z

    2014-04-01

    Stress response due to laryngoscopy and intubation has been universally recognized phenomenon resulting in increase in heart rate, arterial, intracranial, and intraocular pressure. Various pharmacological approaches have been used to blunt or attenuate such pressure responses. This prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blinded study was designed to compare the efficacy of bolus dose of Labetalol and Fentanyl for attenuating reflex responses to laryngoscopy and intubation. Ninety patients with physical status of ASA I and II were scheduled for elective surgery under standard protocol of general anaesthesia, randomly allocated into three groups, consisting of 30 patients in each group, assigned as C (Control), L (Labetalol), and F (Fentanyl). In control group 10ml of 0.9% saline, in Labetalol group 0.25 mg/kg Labetalol and in Fentanyl group 2μgm/kg of Fentanyl were given intravenously at 3 minutes prior to laryngoscopy and intubation. Pulse rate, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure and rate pressure products (RPP) were recorded before and after premedication, after administration of study drugs and at 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 minutes after intubation. For statistical analysis of data, ANOVA tests were performed for comparison between groups. There were an increase in heart rate, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressures and rate pressure product in all the three groups after intubation in comparison to base line value. But the rise was minimum in L and F group as compared to C group which is statistically significant and also minimum in L group as compared to F group. So Labetalol is better agent for attenuation of laryngoscopic and intubation reflex.

  4. A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that

  5. A comparison of the efficacy of intercostal nerve block and peritubal infiltration of ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective randomised double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Jonnavithula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Intercostal nerve blockade (ICNB and peritubal infiltration of the nephrostomy tract are well-established regional anaesthetic techniques for alleviating pain after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. This prospective study compared the efficacy of ICNB and peritubal local anaesthetic infiltration of the nephrostomy tract in providing post-operative analgesia following PCNL. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status 1 and II patients scheduled for PCNL requiring nephrostomy tube were randomised to receive either peritubal infiltration or ICNB. At the completion of the procedure, patients in Group P received peritubal infiltration and those in Group I received ICNB at 10, 11, 12th spaces using fluoroscopy guidance. Postoperatively, patients were followed for 24 h for pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Dynamic VAS. Rescue analgesia was inj. tramadol 1 mg/kg IV when pain score exceeded 4. Time to first rescue analgesia, number of doses and patient's satisfaction were noted in all patients. Results: Pain scores were lower in the group I at all points of measurement than group P. The mean time to first demand for rescue analgesia was higher in Group I (13.22 ± 4.076 h vs 7.167 ± 3.92 h P - 0.001. The number of demands and the amount of analgesics consumed were less in Group I. Conclusion: ICNB provided superior analgesia as evidenced by longer time to first demand of analgesic, reduced number of demands and consumption of rescue analgesic. Peritubal infiltration, although less efficacious, may be a safe and simple alternative technique.

  6. A study of self-efficacy in job-related context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Frlec

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The article stems from an attempt to transfer the Bandura's social cognitive theory into organisational praxis. Beliefs of self-efficacy, which is defined as people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances, are constructed from 4 principal sources of information: enactive mastery experiences; vicarious experiences that alter efficacy beliefs through transmission of competencies and comparison with the attainment of others; verbal persuasion and allied types of social influences that one possesses certain capabilities; and physiological and affective states from which people partly judge their capableness, strength, and vulnerability to dysfunction. The study of self-efficacy in job-related context involved 295 employees from 3companies belonging to the same business group. Self-efficacy was assed using Schwarzer's scale, while rating scales were used for assessing the 4 principal sources of influence upon it. First, differences between companies regarding demographic characteristics of the employees, job characteristics and self-efficacy were analyzed. Dependence of employee's self-efficacy on his/her age, gender, education, work experience, employment status, job type and the four principal influence sources was tested using a regression model. Finally, we identified typical employee profiles with respect to the studied factors. We hope that our study will help human-resources specialists design appropriate interventions for developing a resilient sense of self-efficacy in the employees.

  7. Efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic drugs in comparison to insulin in treating gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalinee Poolsup

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in comparison to insulin. METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. The efficacy and safety of OADs in comparison to insulin in GDM patients were explored. Studies were identified by conducting a literature search using the electronic databases of Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus and Web of Science in addition to conducting hand search of relevant journals from inception until October 2013. RESULTS: Thirteen studies involving 2,151 patients met the inclusion criteria. These studies were randomized controlled trials of metformin and glyburide in comparison to insulin therapy. Our results indicated a significant increase in the risk for preterm births (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04-2.19, p = 0.03 with metformin compared to insulin. However, a significant decrease in the risk for gestational hypertension (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.91, p = 0.02 was found. Postprandial glucose levels also decreased significantly in patients receiving metformin (MD, -2.47 mg/dL; 95% CI, -4.00, -0.94, p = 0.002. There was no significant difference between the two groups for the remaining outcomes. There were significant increases in the risks of macrosomia (RR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.18-4.63, p = 0.03 and neonatal hypoglycemia (RR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.27-3.34, p = 0.005 in the glyburide group compared to insulin whereas results for the other analyzed outcomes remained non-significant. CONCLUSION: The available evidence suggests favorable effects of metformin in treating GDM patients. Metformin seems to be an efficacious alternative to insulin and a better choice than glyburide especially those with mild form of disease.

  8. A Comparison of the Anesthesia Efficacy of Articaine and Articaine plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Aliabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful local anesthesia is the bedrock of pain control in endodontics. Pain control is essential to reduce fear and anxiety associated with endodontic procedure. The aim of study was, identifying and comparison of the anesthesia efficacy of articaine and articaine plus morphine for buccal infiltration in mandibular posterior teeth with irriversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind clinical trial included 75 patients with symtomatically irreversible pulpitis in mandibular teeth. Patient divided 3 groups randomly received either a buccal infiltration of 4% articaine with 1:100000 epinephrine or articaine morphine with 1:100000 epinephrine or IAN block of 2% lidocaine with 1:800000 epinephrine. Self-reported pain response was recorded on VAS scale before and after local anesthetic injection during access preparation. For statistical analysis were used χ2, t-test, one way ANOVA and Mann Whitney. Results: Statistical analysis result show success rate of articaine (68%, articaine morphine (52% and lidocaine (64%. There was no statistically difference in the success rate between groups. Conclusion: Addition of the morphine to articaine does not increase success rate of buccal infiltration.

  9. Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: a comparison between students with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Meirav; Goroshit, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Academic procrastination has been seen as an impediment to students' academic success. Research findings suggest that it is related to lower levels of self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy and associated with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and illness. Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to assess, regulate, and utilize emotions and has been found to be associated with academic self-efficacy and a variety of better outcomes, including academic performance. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are well acquainted with academic difficulty and maladaptive academic behavior. In comparison to students without LD, they exhibit high levels of learned helplessness, including diminished persistence, lower academic expectations, and negative affect. This study examined the relationships among academic procrastination, EI, and academic performance as mediated by academic self-efficacy in 287 LD and non-LD students. Results indicated that the indirect effect of EI on academic procrastination and GPA was stronger in LD students than in non-LD students. In addition, results indicated that LD students scored lower than non-LD students on both EI and academic self-efficacy and higher on academic procrastination. No difference was found in GPA.

  10. Efficacy and safety of CT-P13 (biosimilar infliximab) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: comparison between switching from reference infliximab to CT-P13 and continuing CT-P13 in the PLANETRA extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Hyun; Prodanovic, Nenad; Jaworski, Janusz; Miranda, Pedro; Ramiterre, Edgar; Lanzon, Allan; Baranauskaite, Asta; Wiland, Piotr; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Oparanov, Boycho; Smiyan, Svitlana; Kim, HoUng; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Won

    2017-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of switching from the infliximab reference product (RP; Remicade) to its biosimilar CT-P13 (Remsima, Inflectra) or continuing CT-P13 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for an additional six infusions. This open-label extension study recruited patients with RA who had completed the 54-week, randomised, parallel-group study comparing CT-P13 with RP (PLANETRA; NCT01217086). CT-P13 (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously every 8 weeks from weeks 62 to 102. All patients received concomitant methotrexate. Endpoints included American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response, ACR50, ACR70, immunogenicity and safety. Data were analysed for patients who received CT-P13 for 102 weeks (maintenance group) and for those who received RP for 54 weeks and then switched to CT-P13 (switch group). Overall, 302 of 455 patients who completed the PLANETRA study enrolled into the extension. Of these, 158 had received CT-P13 (maintenance group) and 144 RP (switch group). Response rates at week 102 for maintenance versus switch groups, respectively, were 71.7% vs 71.8% for ACR20, 48.0% vs 51.4% for ACR50 and 24.3% vs 26.1% for ACR70. The proportion of patients with antidrug antibodies was comparable between groups (week 102: 40.3% vs 44.8%, respectively). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in similar proportions of patients in the two groups during the extension study (53.5% and 53.8%, respectively). Comparable efficacy and tolerability were observed in patients who switched from RP to its biosimilar CT-P13 for an additional year and in those who had long-term CT-P13 treatment for 2 years. NCT01571219; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Sodium Picosulfate/Magnesium Citrate for Bowel Preparation in a Physically Disabled Outpatient Population: A Randomized, Endoscopist-Blinded Comparison With Ascorbic Acid-Enriched Polyethylene Glycol Solution Plus Bisacodyl (The PICO-MOVI Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H; van der Vliet, Karin; Wignand-van der Storm, Inge J; Stadwijk, John S

    2018-02-01

    Because of its volume, adequate bowel preparation remains problematic in physically unfit patients. This study aimed to compare a small-volume sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate preparation with a 2-L ascorbic acid-enriched polyethylene glycol solution plus bisacodyl. This study has a noninferiority design, assuming that ascorbic acid-enriched polyethylene glycol solution plus bisacodyl is 70% efficacious in achieving an Ottawa score ≤7 and accepting a difference in success rate of ascorbic acid-enriched polyethylene glycol solution plus bisacodyl according to a split-dose regimen. Patients in the sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate group received advice on the recommended 4-L fluid intake. Patients in the ascorbic acid-enriched polyethylene glycol solution plus bisacodyl group received 2 bisacodyl tablets 2 days before and advice on the additionally recommended 2-L fluid intake. To assess bowel-cleansing adequacy, the Ottawa, Aronchick, and Boston scores were used. Colonoscopy quality measures were obtained. Safety was assessed for a 30-day follow-up period. Overall, 341 patients (169 men, mean age 57.0 years; BMI 26.2 kg/m) were included. Comorbidities were present in 76.2% of patients, and 75.4% of patients used medication. An adequate Ottawa score was obtained in 81.4% and 75.8% of patients receiving ascorbic acid-enriched polyethylene glycol solution plus bisacodyl and sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (difference of 5.6% (95% CI, -3.5 to -14.6; p = 0.023)), showing noninferiority of the sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate therapy. Ottawa segmental scores were lower for sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate in the right and transverse colon. In both groups, successful ileocecal intubation was achieved in 95%. No medication-related adverse events were reported. These results in a physically disabled ambulant population cannot be extrapolated to immobile, hospitalized patients. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate proved to be noninferior to ascorbic

  12. A randomized double blind, vehicle controlled bilateral comparison study of the efficacy and safety of finasteride 0.5% solution in combination with intense pulsed light in the treatment of facial hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshi, Susan; Mansouri, Parvin; Rafie, Faramarz

    2012-08-01

    We sought to determine whether topical finasteride can enhance the efficacy of intense pulsed light hair removal. An intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment with radiofrequency (RF) was performed every four weeks, resulting in up to three sessions, and again at the end of the study - 6 months after the start of the experiment. Each patient also applied either finasteride or placebo solution twice daily to each side of the chin in a double-blinded manner. A total of 77 patients were included in the study. Mean hair density before treatment in finasteride side of the patient's chin was 19.7 ± 11.7 and in placebo side was 19.1 ± 11.3. After three sessions of IPL + RF treatment, combined with twice daily application of finasteride and placebo solutions, at the end of 6-month period mean hair density of 8 ± 6.3 and 9 ± 5.6 was achieved in finasteride and placebo side respectively. Statistically significant difference was found between finasteride and placebo solution. We have demonstrated that the addition of finasteride solution to IPL + RF hair removal may result in a more reduction of unwanted facial hair in women when the combination is used for up to 6 months.

  13. Study of the anticancer efficacy of virus Langat

    OpenAIRE

    FORNBAUMOVÁ, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the efficacy of Langat virus as an oncolytic virus. We subsequently tried to increase its anticancer influence on the basis of combination with some imunomodulators.

  14. Comparison of the safety and efficacy of fixed-dose combination of arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate with chloroquine in acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria: a phase III, multicentric, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valecha, Neena; Savargaonkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Bina; Rao, B H Krishnamoorthy; Tripathi, Santanu K; Gogtay, Nithya; Kochar, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Nalli Babu Vijaya; Rajadhyaksha, Girish Chandra; Lakhani, Jitendra D; Solanki, Bhagirath B; Jalali, Rajinder K; Arora, Sudershan; Roy, Arjun; Saha, Nilanjan; Iyer, Sunil S; Sharma, Pradeep; Anvikar, Anupkumar R

    2016-01-27

    Chloroquine has been the treatment of choice for acute vivax malaria for more than 60 years. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax has recently shown resistance to chloroquine in some places. This study compared the efficacy and safety of fixed dose combination (FDC) of arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate (PQP) with chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated vivax malaria. Patients aged 13-65 years with confirmed mono-infection of P. vivax along with fever or fever in the previous 48 h were included. The 317 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP (n = 159) or chloroquine (n = 158) for 3 days. Primaquine was given as an anti-relapse measure on day 3 and continued for 14 consecutive days. Primary efficacy analysis included assessment of the proportion of aparasitaemic and afebrile patients at 72 h. Safety endpoints were analysis of adverse events, vital signs, laboratory data, and abnormalities on electrocardiograph. Patients participated in the study for at least 42 days. In per protocol population, the proportion of aparasitaemic and afebrile patients at 72 h was 100% (140/140) in the FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP group, and 99.3% (145/146) in the chloroquine group (Fisher, p > 0.9999). In intent to treat population, the corresponding value was reported to be 96.9% (154/159) in the FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP group and 98.7 % (156/158) in the chloroquine group (Fisher, p = 0.4479). The median parasite clearance time was 24 h in FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP group and 26 h in chloroquine group (Log-rank, p = 0.2264). Similarly, median fever clearance time was 24 h in both the groups (Log-rank, p = 0.7750). In PP population, day 28 cure rates were 100 % in both the groups (95% CI (96.52, 100.0 for FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP and 96.73, 100.0 in chloroquine group)). Incidence of adverse events was 82.4% in the FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP group and 85.4% in the chloroquine group. Most of

  15. Family Efficacy within Ethnically Diverse Families: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2017-03-01

    Family efficacy, which refers to a family's belief in its ability to produce a desired outcome, has been shown to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors. Few studies have examined family efficacy within diverse populations, however, and understanding of how efficacy is framed and formed within the context of cultural and familial values is limited. This descriptive qualitative study examined sources of family efficacy within ethnically and socioeconomically diverse families, evaluating how such families develop and exercise family efficacy with the intent to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors (i.e., marijuana and alcohol use and early sexual activity). We collected qualitative data via two semi-structured interviews, 4-6 months apart, with 31 adolescents (ages 12-14) and their parent/s, for total of 148 one-on-one interviews. Thematic analysis identified three distinct domains of family efficacy: relational, pragmatic, and value-laden. Prior experiences and cultural background influenced the domain/s utilized by families. Significantly, families that consistently tapped into all three domains were able to effectively manage personal and family difficulties; these families also had family strategies in place to prevent adolescents from risky behaviors. Health professionals could utilize this concept of multidimensional family efficacy to promote health within culturally diverse families. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  16. Study of the comparative efficacy of toltrazuril and diclazuril against ovine coccidiosis in housed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Hans-Christian; Dittmar, Katja; Daugschies, Arwid; Grzonka, Elmar; Bangoura, Berit

    2009-08-01

    A blinded, controlled and randomised field study was conducted on a sheep farm with a known history of coccidiosis and a high prevalence mainly of the pathogenic coccidium Eimeria ovinoidalis. The efficacy of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox 5% suspension) against natural infections with Eimeria crandallis and/or Eimeria ovinoidalis in housed lambs was investigated in comparison with diclazuril and untreated controls. Both drugs were administered either metaphylactically (i.e., in the prepatency of Eimeria spp.) or therapeutically (after onset of oocyst excretion). A total of 145 animals aged 1 to 5 days at the start of the study were included. Examination of faecal samples was performed every second day between days 13 and 49 of the study. The assessment of treatment efficacy was based mainly on total oocyst excretion and the number of E. crandallis and E. ovinoidalis oocysts (OPG) shed throughout the study. Oocyst excretion was reduced significantly in both groups treated with toltrazuril compared with the untreated control group and with both diclazuril-treated groups. The most prevalent and most severe diarrhoea was observed in the untreated control group. In this study, toltrazuril proved to be highly effective in controlling ovine coccidiosis both metaphylactically and therapeutically. The efficacy of toltrazuril was significantly higher than the efficacy of the control substance with regard to the duration and amount of oocyst excretion, both for the comparison of metaphylactic as well as therapeutic treatment.

  17. The efficacy of Isotretinoin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in comparison to Isotrex® on acne treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Golmohammadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Topical retinoids are considered as the first line therapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris, but they are associated with cutaneous irritation. In this study, isotretinoin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles(IT-SLN were prepared to treat the mild to moderate acne. Also using IT-SLN would minimize IT adverse effects in comparison to commercial product, Isotrex®. This study was conducted to prepare and characterize IT-SLN and assessing the efficiency of IT-SLN comparing to Isotrex® acne. IT-SLN was prepared using hot high pressure homogenization method.  IT-SLN contained 0.05% IT in 5% of lipid phase (Glyceryl monostearate- GMS and tween 80 (2.5 % w/v was used as surfactant in the aqueous phase. IT-SLN was characterized by particle size analyzing, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Encapsulation efficacy was also obtained using spectrophotometry. The efficacy of IT-SLN was evaluated in a randomized, single-blind, parallel-group study and compared with Isotrex®. Forty patients encountered in the study and divided in two groups. Treatment regimen was once-nightly topical administration accompanied with topical administration of clindamycin 2% solution twice a day for 8 weeks. The particle size of IT-SLN was around 60 nm with PDI of 0.4 and zeta potential was about -40 mV. Encapsulation efficacy of IT in SLN in crystalline form was 84±0.21%. IT-SLN produced significantly better treatment than Isotrex® in both non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions according to its recovery percent after 8 weeks. Also IT-SLN gained better global assessment scores. Our results showed that IT-SLN had higher efficacy than Isotrex® to clear non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions.

  18. A comparison of the efficacy, safety, and longevity of two different hyaluronic acid dermal fillers in the treatment of severe nasolabial folds: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind, within-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers JD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Greg J Goodman1, Phillip Bekhor2, Michael Rich3, Robert H Rosen4, Michael B Halstead5, John D Rogers51Dermatology Institute of Victoria, South Yarra, Victoria, Australia; 2Laser Dermatology, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia; 3enRich Dermatology and Cosmetic Surgery Centre, Armadale, Victoria, Australia; 4Southderm Pty Ltd, Kogarah, New South Wales, Australia; 5Allergan Australia, Gordon, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Commercially available hyaluronic acid (HA-based fillers have distinct physicochemical properties related to their specific manufacturing technology, including HA concentration, cross-linking percentage, and particle size. These factors may determine treatment effectiveness, safety, and longevity; however, this requires confirmation in the clinic.Methods: To compare the efficacy, safety, and longevity of two distinct HA-based dermal fillers in the correction of severe nasolabial folds (NLFs, a 24 mg/mL smooth gel (Juvederm ULTRA PLUS™ [JUP] and a 20 mg/mL particulate gel (Perlane® [PER] were injected in a total of 80 normal, healthy subjects using a split face design and were followed for 12 months in this prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter study.Results: Both fillers achieved a clinically relevant NLF correction (one point or more improvement, based on a validated NLF severity scale. However, JUP displayed greater longevity, with this correction maintained in a significantly larger percentage of NLFs after 6 months (physician's evaluation or 9 months (subject's evaluation and thereafter for the remainder of the study (70% vs 45%; P = 0.0002 and 62.5% vs 46.3%; P = 0.01 at month 12, based on physician and subject assessments, respectively. At month 12, 71.4% of the subjects nominated a preference for the NLF injected with JUP (P < 0.0001. Both treatments were well tolerated.Conclusion: These results suggest that different physicochemical properties of HA-based fillers, associated with distinct manufacturing

  19. Comparison of efficacy between sodium morrhuate and lauromacrogol as sclerosing agents in treatment of hepatic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Zuyun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the efficacy of sodium morrhuate versus lauromacrogol in the treatment of hepatic cyst. Methods Seventy-four patients with hepatic cyst who were admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to May 2013 were enrolled as subjects and divided into two groups. After the cystic fluid was drained by percutaneous liver biopsy, sodium morrhuate solution was injected into the cystic cavity for adhesion and sclerosis in 46 patients in group A, and lauromacrogol solution was injected in 28 patients in group B. The incidence rates of pain in patients during and after surgery were compared between the two groups. The follow-up comparison of hepatic cyst recurrence rates within one year after surgery was performed between the two groups. Between-group comparison was performed by χ2 test. Results Five patients (10.87% in group A and two patients (7.14% in group B had recurrence within one year after treatment. There was no significant difference in recurrence rate between the two groups (χ2=0.283, P>0.05. The incidence of pain in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (χ2=5.258, P<0.05. Conclusion With the same efficacy as sodium morrhuate in the treatment of hepatic cyst, lauromacrogol can be routinely used as a sclerosing agent due to its mild side effects.

  20. COMPARISON OF SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF LEVOSULPIRIDE AND ITOPRIDE IN TREATMENT OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Ibrahim Hassan; Syed Mohd Akbar Hassan

    2017-01-01

    .... Levosulpiride and itopride are two such medications, which are used for treating GERD. The aim of the study is to assess the safety and efficacy of levosulpiride and itopride in the management of GERD and to study the side effects and treatment outcome...

  1. Efficacy comparison of duloxetine and SSRIs at doses approved in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada E

    2015-01-01

    0.45 [−0.83, −0.07], P=0.020.Conclusion: Within the dose range approved in Japan for patients with major depressive disorder, duloxetine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors demonstrated comparable overall efficacy, with a possible advantage for duloxetine in improving loss of energy and interest. To the best of our knowledge, this analysis is unique not only in evaluating dosages specific to Japan, but also in using individual patient data and the same endpoint across studies to allow for strictly direct head-to-head data comparisons as opposed to pooling direct and indirect comparisons.Keywords: duloxetine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Japan, approved dosage, meta-analysis, major depressive disorder

  2. Comparison of efficacy of an arginine-calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste to a calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste in controlling supragingival calculus formation and gingivitis: a 6-month clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Lee, Sean; Stephens, Joni; Mateo, Luis R; Zhang, Yun Po; DeVizio, William

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether the long-term use (6 months) of an arginine-calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste would affect calculus formation and/or gingivitis when compared to a calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste. This was a double-blind clinical study. Eligible adult subjects (120) entered a 2-month pre-test phase of the study. After receiving an evaluation of oral tissue and a dental prophylaxis, the subjects were provided with a regular fluoride toothpaste, a soft-bristled adult toothbrush with instructions to brush their teeth for 1-minute twice daily (morning and evening) for 2 months. The subjects were then examined for baseline calculus using the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index (VMI) and gingivitis using the Löe-Silness Gingival Index (GI), along with an oral tissue examination. Qualifying subjects were randomized to two treatment groups: (1) Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, 1450 ppm MFP and calcium carbonate (Test group), or (2) Colgate Cavity Protection toothpaste containing 1450 ppm MFP and calcium carbonate (Control group). Subjects were stratified by the VMI score and gender. After a dental prophylaxis (VMI=0), the subjects entered a 6-month test phase. Each received the assigned toothpaste and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use with instructions of brushing teeth for 1 minute twice daily (morning and evening). The examinations of VMI, Löe-Silness GI and oral tissues were conducted after 3 and 6 months. Prior to each study visit, subjects refrained from brushing their teeth as well as eating and drinking for 4 hours. 99 subjects complied with the study protocol and completed the 6-month test phase. No within-treatment comparison was performed for the VMI because it was brought down to zero after the prophylaxis at the baseline of the test phase. For the Löe-Silness GI, subjects of the Test group exhibited a significant difference from baseline at the 3- and 6-month examinations. The 3-month Löe-Silness GI of the Control

  3. Comparison of efficacy of the phosphate binders nicotinic acid and sevelamer hydrochloride in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhlagha Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia is a significant risk factor for the development of ectopic calcification and coronary artery diseases in patients on hemodialysis (HD, and must be controlled with the use of phosphate binders. Studies comparing the effects of sevelamer and nicotinic acid, both similar non-calcium and non-aluminum phosphate binders, are not available. In this study, 40 patients on HD with a serum phosphorus level of more than 6 mg/dL were enrolled. After a two week washout period without phosphate binders, the patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 20 and were started on nicotinic acid or sevelamer for a period of four weeks. The dose of nicotinic acid used was 500 mg and that of sevelamer was 1600 mg daily. Blood samples were drawn for the measurement of the total calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (Chol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, uric acid and parathyroid hormone (PTH. Patients receiving sevelamer showed a significant reduction in serum P level (2.2 ± 0.69 mg/dL; P <0.0001 in comparison with the nicotinic acid group (1.7 ± 1.06 mg/dL; P = 0.004. Reduction in the Ca-P product was significantly different in the two groups; in the sevelamer group, it was 21 ± 7; (P <0.0001 while in the nicotinic acid group, it was 16 ± 11 (P = 0.007. Also, patients on sevelamer showed greater reduction in the mean TG level (38.9 ± 92 mg/dL; P = 0.005. No significant changes were observed in the mean serum Ca, total Chol, HDL, LDL, ALP and iPTH levels in the two study groups. Our short-term study suggests that although nicotinic acid reduced hyperphosphatemia, sevelamer showed higher efficacy in controlling hyperphosphatemia as well as the Ca-P product.

  4. A 3-day randomised clinical study investigating the efficacy of two toothpastes, designed to occlude dentine tubules, for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, N; Newcombe, R G; Hughes, N; Mason, S; Maggio, B; Sufi, F; Claydon, N

    2013-01-01

    A product comparison study to compare the short term clinical efficacy of a strontium acetate/silica toothpaste with an arginine/calcium carbonate paste for pain reduction in dentine hypersensitivity...

  5. Studies on the efficacy of Spigelia anthelmia extract as anthelminthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the efficacy of Spigelia anthelmia extract as anthelminthic in growing goats. ... Round worm and liver fluke are the prevalent helminthes in the study area and the different doses of AESAL significantly (P<0.05) reduced the mean egg count (epg) of helminthes. The study revealed that AESAL is an effective ...

  6. Building Pre-Service Teaching Efficacy: A Comparison of Instructional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rona; Zach, Sima

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cooperative Learning (CL) is an inclusive name for various models of teaching/learning methods, all of which emphasize the fundamental of meaningful collaboration among learners during their learning activities. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the CL teaching model contributed to the teaching efficacy and…

  7. Competitive Comparison in Music: Influences upon Self-Efficacy Beliefs by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Legutki, Allen R.

    2016-01-01

    This study profiles gender differences in instrumental performance self-efficacy perceptions of high school students (N = 87) over the course of a three-day orchestra festival in which students competed against one another for rank-based seating and then rehearsed and performed as a group. Reported self-beliefs rose significantly for the sample…

  8. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Pleyer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, >30% bone marrow (BM blasts and white blood cell (WBC count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010. As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012 and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine (“AML-001” cohort; n = 214 with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria (“AAR (001-like” cohort; n = 95. The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616 for “AML-001” versus “AAR (001-like” cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309 and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6 months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95 versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO-defined AML (

  9. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Lisa; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Seymour, John F.; Schuh, Andre C.; Beach, CL; Swern, Arlene S.; Burgstaller, Sonja; Stauder, Reinhard; Girschikofsky, Michael; Sill, Heinz; Schlick, Konstantin; Thaler, Josef; Halter, Britta; Machherndl Spandl, Sigrid; Zebisch, Armin; Pichler, Angelika; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Autzinger, Eva M.; Lang, Alois; Geissler, Klaus; Voskova, Daniela; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Hojas, Sabine; Rogulj, Inga M.; Andel, Johannes; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), >30% bone marrow (BM) blasts and white blood cell (WBC) count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010). As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012) and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine (“AML-001” cohort; n = 214) with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria (“AAR (001-like)” cohort; n = 95). The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616) for “AML-001” versus “AAR (001-like)” cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309) and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6) months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95) versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined AML (“AAR (WHO

  10. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Lisa; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Seymour, John F; Schuh, Andre C; Beach, C L; Swern, Arlene S; Burgstaller, Sonja; Stauder, Reinhard; Girschikofsky, Michael; Sill, Heinz; Schlick, Konstantin; Thaler, Josef; Halter, Britta; Machherndl Spandl, Sigrid; Zebisch, Armin; Pichler, Angelika; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Autzinger, Eva M; Lang, Alois; Geissler, Klaus; Voskova, Daniela; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Hojas, Sabine; Rogulj, Inga M; Andel, Johannes; Greil, Richard

    2017-02-15

    We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), >30% bone marrow (BM) blasts and white blood cell (WBC) count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010). As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012) and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine ("AML-001" cohort; n = 214) with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria ("AAR (001-like)" cohort; n = 95). The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616) for "AML-001" versus "AAR (001-like)" cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309) and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6) months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95) versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined AML ("AAR (WHO-AML)" cohort; n

  11. Xenon-enhanced CT using subtraction CT: Basic and preliminary clinical studies for comparison of its efficacy with that of dual-energy CT and ventilation SPECT/CT to assess regional ventilation and pulmonary functional loss in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Takenaka, Daisuke; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Sugihara, Naoki; Kishida, Yuji; Seki, Shinichiro; Koyama, Hisanobu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2017-01-01

    To prospectively and directly compare the capability for assessments of regional ventilation and pulmonary functional loss in smokers of xenon-ventilation CT obtained with the dual-energy CT (DE-CT) and subtraction CT (Sub-CT) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive smokers (15 men and 8 women, mean age: 69.7±8.7years) underwent prospective unenhanced and xenon-enhanced CTs, the latter by Sub-CT and DE-CT methods, ventilation SPECT and pulmonary function tests. Sub-CT was generated from unenhanced and xenon-enhanced CT, and all co-registered SPECT/CT data were produced from SPECT and unenhanced CT data. For each method, regional ventilation was assessed by using a 11-point scoring system on a per-lobe basis. To determine the functional lung volume by each method, it was also calculated for individual sublets with a previously reported method. To determine inter-observer agreement for each method, ventilation defect assessment was evaluated by using the χ2 test with weighted kappa statistics. For evaluation of the efficacy of each method for pulmonary functional loss assessment, functional lung volume was correlated with%FEV1. Each inter-observer agreement was rated as substantial (Sub-CT: κ=0.69, pXenon-enhanced CT obtained by Sub-CT can be considered at least as efficacious as that obtained by DE-CT and SPECT/CT for assessment of ventilation abnormality and pulmonary functional loss in smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expected and perceived efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine: A comparison views of patients with cancer and oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Shin, Dong Wook; Nam, You-Seon; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Cho, Be Long; Park, Keeho; Jo, Heui-Sug; Yim, Chang-Yeol; Kam, Sin; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to identify discrepancies between the expectations of patients with cancer and oncologists regarding the efficacy of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), and to determine how patients evaluate CAM efficacy after its use. Data from the Cancer Patient Experience Study, a nationwide survey, were used. Seven subdivided efficacy domains were included in the survey. An oncologist-patient matching analysis was done to assess the concordance of CAM efficacies between oncologists and patients with cancer. In addition, the patients' expectations of CAM efficacies were compared before and after use. Out of 719 participants, 201 patients with cancer (28.0%) reported using CAMs. The patients with cancer generally tended to be more positive about CAM efficacies than the oncologists. The largest discrepancy in efficacy perception was found in the efficacy domain of survival benefit, which included complete disease remission and prolonged survival. Many patients reported that they did not experience the positive efficacy they had anticipated before use. However, a substantial proportion of patients indicated that CAMs were as effective as they had expected, even though there is little evidence supporting the CAM efficacies. There was a marked discrepancy and a lack of concordance in expectations of CAM efficacy between patients with cancer and oncologists. Better communication between the patients and oncologists regarding CAM efficacy would be needed to make the patients to have shared expectations, and to reduce unnecessary CAM use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine in adult patients with non-productive cough. Comparison with dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, E; Daffonchio, L

    1997-01-01

    The results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial involving 209 adult patients of either sex with moderate non-productive cough are reported. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of levodropropizine syrup (60 mg t.i.d. for 5 days) was evaluated in comparison with dextromethorphan syrup (15 mg t.i.d. for 5 days). Efficacy was assessed by the number of coughing spells in a 6h period, the cough frequency classes, the cough intensity and the night awakenings due to cough. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurred during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Independently from the underlying pathology and from the degree of baseline cough severity, the number of coughing spells was significantly (P levodropropizine and dextromethorphan already after the 2nd day of treatment, the effect and its time of onset being similar for both drugs. Cough intensity was significantly (P levodropropizine than with dextromethorphan. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased remarkably and significantly (P levodropropizine displaying an improvement significantly higher (P levodropropizine (3.6%) group. Overall, somnolence was reported for a low percentage of patients with both drugs, with the percentage of patients experiencing this side effect being one half in the group treated with levodropropizine (4.6%) as compared with dextromethorphan (10.4%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and point out a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dextromethorphan.

  14. Comparison of Efficacy and Complications General Versus Spinal Anesthesia in PCNL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mehrabi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Complication of general anesthesia, especially during change of position, is more than spinal anesthesia. We evaluated our experience regarding spinal anesthesia in comparison to general anesthesia in patients older than 18 years old that were candidate for PCNL. Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, from March 2008 to February 2010, 110 patients older than 18 years who were candidate for PCNL, after informing them and getting their approval, they were randomly assigned into two groups by Zelen randomization method. Then, in group 1, general anesthesia was induced by parental and inhalational drugs as standard methods and PCNl was performed in prone position under fluoroscopy guidance by standard technique. In group 2, spinal anesthesia was done by spinal needle NO 23-25 gauge and injecting 2-3 ml of Bupivacaine and 0.5 ml Fentanyl in spinal space L4 in sitting position. Then urethral catheter was inserted in lithotomic position and head of bed tilted down for 5-10 minutes with checking level of anesthesia. Then, the patients were rotated easily by the help of in prone position and PCNL were done under guide of fluoroscopy by standard technique and results with complications were recorded and analyzed by SPSS software and chi-square and T Student tests. Results: Mean stone size in group one and two were 34.2±9.8 and 31.3±7.9 millimeters respectively. Considering efficacy and successfulness of operation, clearance of system from stones or residual stones <5 millimeter was respectively 80 and 72.73 percent in groups 1 and 2 (p=.37. There were no major Intra-operative or postoperative complications such as visceral or vascular injury and unusual bleeding in our patients. Need to narcotic drugs in operative day (D0 in groups 1 and 2 were 12.4±3.1 and 7.8±2.3 milligram equivalent to morphine sulphate (p=.03. The coast of anesthetic drugs in groups 1 and 2 were 23±3.7 and 4.5± 1.3$ respectively

  15. Efficacy of anti-leishmania therapy in visceral leishmaniasis among HIV infected patients: a systematic review with indirect comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia F Cota

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic literature review with indirect comparison of studies evaluating therapeutic efficacy and toxicity associated to visceral leishmaniasis (VL therapy among HIV infected individuals.The outcomes of interest were clinical and parasitological cure, mortality, and adverse events.PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and Cochrane manual were followed. Sources were MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge databases and manual search of references from evaluated studies. We included all studies reporting outcomes after VL treatment, regardless of their design. Study quality was evaluated systematically by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software v.2.2.048 was used to perform one-group meta-analysis of study arms with the same drug to estimate global rates of success and adverse events with each drug. These estimates were used, when possible, to indirectly compare treatment options, adjusted for CD4 count. Direct comparison was pooled when available.Seventeen studies reporting five treatment regimens and outcome of 920 VL episodes occurring in HIV infected individuals were included. The main outstanding difference in outcome among the treatment regimens was observed in mortality rate: it was around 3 times higher with high-dose antimony use (18.4%, CI 95% 13.3-25%, indirectly compared to lipid formulations of amphotericin B treatment (6.1%, CI 95% 3.9-9.4%. It was observed, also by indirect comparison, higher rates of clinical improvement in study arms using amphotericin B than in study arms using pentavalent antimonial therapy (Sb(v. The parasitological cure, an outcome that presented some degree of risk of selection and verification bias, had rates that varied widely within the same treatment arm, with high heterogeneity, hampering any formal comparison among drugs. One direct comparison of amphotericin and antimoniate was

  16. Comparison of efficacy and safety of oral agents for the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarnera C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Guarnera, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, Italy Abstract: In the therapeutic scenario of disease-modifying therapies for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, the introduction of oral agents, starting in 2010 with fingolimod, has been a huge step forward in therapeutic options due to the easier administration route. Three oral drugs fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, which are clinically approved for the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in this work. Results of Phase III clinical trials and their extension studies showed that the three oral agents significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate – a superior efficacy compared to placebo. Fingolimod 0.5 mg consistently reduced clinical relapses and brain volume loss. In all Phase III studies, teriflunomide 14 mg dose showed a reduction in the risk of disability accumulation. Regarding safety profile, fingolimod had more safety issues than the other two agents. For this reason, it should be strictly monitored for risks of infections, cancers, and certain transitory effects such as irregular cardiac function, decreased lymphocyte count, and a higher level of liver enzymes. Adverse effects of teriflunomide are well characterized and can be considered manageable. The main risks marked with dimethyl fumarate were flushing and gastrointestinal events. Keywords: oral agents, comparison, efficacy, safety, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

  17. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Sonnemann; Marcus Möller; Andreas Bilstein

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily docum...

  18. Preliminary studies on the phytochemistry and efficacy of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies on the phytochemistry and efficacy of extracts of the bark of Spondias mombin l. on induced cancer in rats. Ann Biomed Sci 2002;1:100-110. Phytochemistry of Spondias mombin bark, a known anti –tumour plant used traditionally, revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolic compound ...

  19. Efficacy of Visual-Acoustic Biofeedback Intervention for Residual Rhotic Errors: A Single-Subject Randomization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study documented the efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback intervention for residual rhotic errors, relative to a comparison condition involving traditional articulatory treatment. All participants received both treatments in a single-subject experimental design featuring alternating treatments with blocked randomization of…

  20. A Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs before and after Work-Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoti, S. N.; Junqueira, K. E.; Odora, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the teaching efficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers before and after work-integrated learning (WIL) in a South African University of Technology. The comparison groups were formed based on the criterion of WIL. Pre-service teachers in their third year of the B.Ed. (FET) programme participated in the study…

  1. The Efficacy and Safety of Tetrachlorodecaoxide in Comparison with Super-oxidised Solution in Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romil Parikh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSome of the relatively newer, more efficacious, and potent topical wound dressing solutions include tetrachlorodecaoxide and super-oxidised solution. This study compares the efficacy and safety of these two drugs.MethodsThis is a block-randomised, double blind, parallel-arm, post-marketing study. One hundred fifty patients with ulcers (75 blocks uniform for sex, ulcer aetiology, diabetes mellitus, and wound area score were randomised into the two treatment arms. Patients were observed for eight weeks with weekly assessments. One hundred and twenty patients completed the study. Wound healing was objectively assessed by measurement of wound area, scoring of wound exudation and tissue type, and using the pressure ulcer scale of healing Tool (validated for multiple wound aetiologies. Subjective improvement in pain was noted using a visual analogue scale. Both groups were compared using Mann–Whitney U test on all indicators.ResultsDifference in change in wound tissue type in the two groups was significant (α=0.05 by intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analysis at the end of week two (ITT and PP, P0.05. No study-related adverse events were observed.ConclusionsBoth drugs are efficacious. Tetrachlorodecaoxide yields healthy granulation tissue earlier. Both drugs appear to be safe for application.

  2. Comparison of hand hygiene antimicrobial efficacy: Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatta, Juliana Rizzo; Pinto, Flávia Morais Gomes; Bruna, Camila Quartim de Moraes; Souza, Rafael Queiroz de; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Silva, Maria Julia Paes da

    2013-01-01

    this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hand hygiene performed with two different soap formulations: 0.3% Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus 0.5% triclosan, and to compare them with two reference hygiene procedures: the official methodology procedure (soft soap) versus the draft version of the procedure (soft soap + propan-2-ol). using the European EN 1499 method, logarithmic reduction factors were determined for the number of colony forming units of Escherichia coli K12 before and after hand hygiene of 15 volunteer subjects, and compared using the one-tailed Wilcoxon test. referring to the soft soap, there was no difference between the performance of soap with 0.3% M. alternifolia and soap containing 0.5% triclosan. The soft soap + propan-2-ol proved to be more effective than the other hand hygiene procedures. studies to verify the therapeutic efficacy of essential oil in hand hygiene can improve adherence to this practice.

  3. Clinical comparison between the bleaching efficacy of 37% peroxide carbamide gel mixed with sodium perborate with established intracoronal bleaching agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Lopes, Eduardo Biaggioni; Ciccone-Nogueira, Juliane Cristina; Silva, Regina Célia S P

    2009-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the bleaching efficacy of sodium perborate/37% carbamide peroxide paste and traditional sodium perborate/distilled water for intracoronal bleaching. Thirty patients with dark anterior teeth were divided into 2 groups (n = 15): group A: sodium perborate/distilled water; and group B: sodium perborate/37% carbamide peroxide paste. The bleaching treatment limited each patient to the maximum of 4 changes of the bleaching agent. Initial and final color shades were measured using the Vita Lumin shade guide. Data was analyzed with Wilcoxon test for initial and final comparison according to the bleaching agent, demonstrating efficacy of the bleaching treatment with both agents. Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of the efficacy of the bleaching agents, showing that there was no significant difference between them. The sodium perborate/37% carbamide peroxide association for intracoronal bleaching has proven to be as effective as sodium perborate/distilled water.

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of tenofovir and adefovir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Xia-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic viral hepatitis B remains a global public health concern. Currently, several drugs, such as tenofovir and adefovir, are recommended for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B. tenofovir is a nucleoside analog with selective activity against hepatitis b virus and has been shown to be more potent in vitro than adefovir. But the results of trials comparing tenofovir and adefovir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B were inconsistent. However, there was no systematic review on the comparison of the efficacy of tenofovir and adefovir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. To evaluate the comparison of the efficacy of tenofovir and adefovir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. We searched PUBMED, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP database, WANFANG database, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review. Finally six studies were left for analysis which involved 910 patients in total, of whom 576 were included in tenofovir groups and 334 were included in adefovir groups. At the end of 48-week treatment, tenofovir was superior to adefovir at the HBV-DNA suppression in patients[RR = 2.59; 95%CI(1.01-6.67, P = 0.05]. While there was no significant difference in the ALT normalization[RR = 1.15; 95%CI(0.96-1.37, P = 0.14], HBeAg seroconversion[RR = 1.32; 95%CI(1.00-1.75, P = 0.05] and HBsAg loss rate[RR = 1.19; 95%CI(0.74-1.91, P = 0.48]. More high-quality, well-designed, randomized controlled, multi-center trails are clearly needed to guide evolving standards of care for chronic hepatitis B.

  5. In vitro efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma on S. sanguinis biofilms in comparison of two test models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorynia, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Dental plaque critically affects the etiology of caries, periodontitis and periimplantitis. The mechanical removal of plaque can only be performed partially due to limited accessibility. Therefore, plaque still represents one of the major therapeutic challenges. Even though antiseptic mouth rinses reduce the extent of biofilm temporarily, plaque removal remains incomplete and continuous usage can even result in side effects. Here we tested argon plasma produced by kinpen09 as one option to inactivate microorganisms and to eliminate plaque. biofilms cultivated in either the European Biofilm Reactor (EUREBI or in 24 well plates were treated with argon plasma. In both test systems a homogeneous, good analyzable and stable biofilm was produced on the surface of titan plates within 72 h (>6,9 log CFU/ml. Despite the significantly more powerful biofilm production in EUREBI, the difference of 0.4 log CFU/ml between EUREBI and the 24 well plates was practically not relevant. For that reason both test models were equally qualified for the analysis of efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma. We demonstrate a significant reduction of the biofilm compared to the control in both test models. After plasma application of 180 s the biofilm produced in EUREBI or in 24 well plates was decreased by 0.6 log CFU/ml or 0.5 log CFU/ml, respectively. In comparison to recently published studies analyzing the efficacy of kinpen09, produces a hardly removable biofilm. Future investigations using reduced distances between plasma source and biofilm, various compositions of plasma and alternative plasma sources will contribute to further optimization of the efficacy against biofilms.

  6. Phase III evaluation of the insecticidal efficacy and durability of a deltamethrin-treated polypropylene long-lasting net LifeNet®, in comparison with long-lasting nets made from polyester and polyethylene: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungu, Patrick; Messenger, Louisa A; Kirby, Matthew J; Sudi, Wema; Kisinza, William; Rowland, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Universal coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) made from polyester or polyethylene fibres has been adopted as the standard of care to control malaria among at-risk populations. To obtain a WHO recommendation, LNs must undergo prospective monitoring of insecticidal efficacy against mosquito vectors over 3 years of household use. The retention of bioefficacy and physical durability of a LN is influenced by net usage practices, textile polymer material and insecticide treatment technology. Fabric durability is the critical factor which determines the interval required between LN replacement campaigns. To investigate factors known to affect LN durability and bioefficacy, we describe a three-arm WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) Phase III evaluation of a LN made uniquely from polypropylene (LifeNet®, Bayer CropScience) compared to standard LNs made from polyester and polyethylene, all treated with deltamethrin, over 3 years of use. This is a prospective three-arm household randomized, equivalence trial of LNs in Tanzania, with nets as the unit of observation. Equal numbers of houses will be randomized to receive deltamethrin-treated polypropylene, polyester or polyethylene LNs; all sleeping spaces in a given household will be provided with one type of net. Bioefficacy (insecticidal activity against mosquitoes), insecticide content of net fibres, and fabric integrity (number, location and size of holes) will be measured every 6 months, using WHO cone or tunnel bioassays, chemical analysis and calculation of hole index, respectively. A cohort of LNs will be surveyed annually to assess survivorship (median LN survival time) and cumulative loss of fabric integrity. Field durability outcomes will be compared with laboratory strength tests. This is the first trial to compare the relative durability of three LNs each made from a different textile polymer, treated with the same insecticide, in the same community side-by-side over 3 years of use. Trial

  7. Treatment of Dyslexia in a Regular Orthography: Efficacy and Efficiency (Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Between Home vs Clinic-Based Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio E. Tressoldi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of three treatments for dyslexia, one clinic-based and two home-based, were compared using a quasi-experimental design for their efficacy and efficiency in improving accuracy and fluency in reading in a large sample of Italian students. The efficacy comparison was based on gain scores in fluency and accuracy of reading texts, and lists of words and nonwords. The efficiency (cost-effectiveness comparison was based on the ratio of gain scores to the number of hours of treatment. Efficacy and efficiency measures yielded very different results. The efficacy comparison showed a clear superiority of the clinic-based treatment over home-based treatments. The efficiency comparison, on the other hand, showed the superiority of a home-based treatment. The importance of considering both efficacy and cost-effectiveness in any comparison of treatment outcomes is discussed within the framework of the dissemination of evidence-based treatments.

  8. Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Koch, M; Wigenstam, E; Koch, B; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-08-01

    RSDL-lotion, containing both absorption and degrading properties, allowed to act on skin for 30 min was superior in preventing VX from penetrating human skin. Adding water during decontamination resulted in increased penetration of neat VX, however, water in the decontaminant removal process did not influence the decontamination efficacy. From our study on commercially available decontaminants, it is recommended that future product developments should include both strong absorbents and efficient nerve agent degrading components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the effectiveness of the protaper system versus hand instrumentation in endodontic retreatment: a scanning electron microscopy study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luana Schwerz; Carlos Eduardo Fontana; Carlos Eduardoda Silveira Bueno; Roberta Aranha de Araújo Arruda; Rina Andréa Pelegrine; Flavia Casale Abe; Alexandre Sigrist De Martin

    2012-01-01

    .... Moreover, studies focusing on the comparison of the effectiveness of rotary systems versus hand instrumentation have yielded mixed results in terms of the efficacy and amount of time required by each technique. Objective...

  10. COMPARISON OF CARVEDILOL AND BISOPROLOL EFFICACY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND DIABETES TYPES 2 AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Statsenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare efficacy of carvedilol and bisoprolol in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 after myocardial infarction (MI.Material and methods. 60 patients (45-70 y.o. with CHF 2-3 functional class according to NYHA and DM type 2 after MI (3-4 week are included in the study. Patients are randomized on 2 groups. All patients received basic therapy of CHF. Besides patients of 1st group (n=30 were treated with carvedilol (Talliton, Egis 29,0±2,5 mg daily. Patients of 2nd group (n=30 were treated with bisoprolol (6,0±0,5 mg/day. Both groups were similar on age, sex, disease severity, haemodynamic parameters and basic therapy doses. Life quality, functional reserve, echocardiography, kidney function, heart rate variability (HRV, lipid and glucose metabolism were estimated initially and in 16 weeks of treatment.Results. Carvedilol and bisoprolol therapy of patients with CHF and DM after MI resulted in improvement of clinical status, kidney function and increase in HRV. Carvedilol had clinical advantages in comparison with bisoprolol in effects on myocardial remodeling, kidney function and HRV. Carvedilol favorable effects on lipid and glucose metabolism were observed.Conclusion. Carvedilol has a number of significant advantages in comparison with bisoprolol in the therapy of patients with CHF and DM after MI.

  11. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray. PMID:24976831

  12. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Sonnemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray.

  13. Standardized comparison of antiseptic efficacy of triclosan, PVP-iodine, octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide and chlorhexidine digluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koburger, T; Hübner, N-O; Braun, M; Siebert, J; Kramer, A

    2010-08-01

    This study presents a comparative investigation of the antimicrobial efficacy of the antiseptics PVP-iodine, triclosan, chlorhexidine, octenidine and polyhexanide used for pre-surgical antisepsis and antiseptic treatment of skin, wounds and mucous membranes based on internationally accepted standards. MICs and MBCs were determined in accordance with DIN 58940-7 and 58940-8 using Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Enterococcus faecalis (including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium perfringens, Haemophilus influenzae and Candida albicans. The microbicidal efficacy was determined in accordance with DIN EN 1040 and 1275 using S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. For chlorhexidine, octenidine and polyhexanide, MIC(48) and MBC(24) ranged from 16 to 32 mg/L. Maximum values for triclosan ranged from 256 to 512 mg/L, with an efficacy gap against P. aeruginosa, while the maximum values of PVP-iodine were 1024 mg/L, with a gap against S. pneumoniae. Comparing the minimal effective concentrations, octenidine was most effective. After 1 min, only octenidine and PVP-iodine fulfil the requirements for antiseptics. Tests under standardized and harmonized conditions help to choose the most efficacious agent. When a prolonged contact time is feasible, ranking of agents would be polyhexanide = octenidine > chlorhexidine > triclosan > PVP-iodine. This is consistent with the recommendations for antisepsis of acute wounds. Polyhexanide seems to be preferable for chronic wounds due to its higher tolerability. If an immediate effect is required, ranking would be octenidine = PVP-iodine> polyhexanide > chlorhexidine > triclosan.

  14. Study of Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Social Studies Teacher Candidates on Educational Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the self-efficacy perceptions of social studies teacher candidates with respect to educational internet use. This research was conducted on a sample of 174 social studies teacher candidates enrolled in Gaziantep University Nizip Faculty of Education. The "Educational Internet Self-Efficacy Scale," developed…

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of ketoprofen phonophoresis, ultrasound, and short-wave diathermy in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Aridici, Rifat; Koca, Irfan

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of three different deep heating modalities: phonophoresis (PH), short-wave diathermy (SWD), and ultrasound (US), in knee osteoarthritis. Patients who consented to participate in the study were randomly divided into the following three groups. Group 1 (n = 33) received PH, Group 2 (n = 33) received US, and Group 3 (n = 35) received SWD. These deep heating therapies were applied by the same therapist. Each therapy began with 20-min hot pack application. Each of the three physical therapy modalities was applied 5 days a week for 2 weeks (a total of 10 sessions). The patients were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest, 15-m walking time, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) both before and after the treatment. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, both the physician and the patient made an overall evaluation, by rating the treatment efficacy. The results of the study showed that VAS, 15-m walking time, and WOMAC parameters were improved with all three deep heating modalities, and all the three modalities were effective. However, there was no significant difference between the three modalities in terms of efficacy. There was also no significant difference between the three groups in terms of post-treatment general evaluation of the physician and the patient. The present study is the first to suggest that choosing one of PH/US/SWD therapy options would provide effective results and none of them are superior to the others, and we believe that these findings will be a basis for further studies.

  16. Olopatadine hydrochloride and rupatadine fumarate in seasonal allergic rhinitis: A comparative study of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Jaida, Jyothirmai; Rahman, Jalelur; Gaddam, Rajasri; Palani, Anuradha

    2011-10-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of olopatadine and rupatadine in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). A 2-week, single-centered, randomized, open, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with SAR. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 70 patients were recruited and were randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 2 weeks. At follow-up, clinical improvement was assessed in terms of change in total and differential count of leucocytes, serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) level, Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) scoring. Both the drugs significantly reduced the differential count (Prupatadine. Incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Olopatadine is a better choice in SAR in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy and safety profile.

  17. A Comparison of Swiss and Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Attitudes, Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Regarding Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Hülya Aslan; Efe, Rifat; Yücel, Sait

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pre-service science teachers' anxiety, self-efficacy and attitudes regarding educational technology were investigated. Given the increased emphasis on educational technology in the classroom, teachers' attitudes, anxiety and self-efficacy regarding educational technology are important. The study was conducted with a total of 726…

  18. A multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind comparison phase III study to determine the efficacy and safety of gadobutrol 1.0 M versus gadopentetate dimeglumine following single injection in patients referred for contrast-enhanced MRI of the body regions or extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Takahashi, Satoru; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Sugihara, Ryo; Zeng, Mengsu; Huan, Yi; Peng, Weijun; Ma, Lin; Guo, Liang; Teng, Gaojun; Yao, Weiwu; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Endo, Masahiro; Kaji, Shuichiro; Ro, Tokugen; Tae Hahn, Seong; Chul Kang, Byung; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Breuer, Josy; Aitoku, Yasuko

    2015-02-01

    To demonstrate the noninferiority of gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in Asian patients referred for contrast-enhanced imaging of the body or extremities. A multicenter, parallel-group comparison study of Asian adults referred for contrast-enhanced MRI were randomized (1:1) to either gadobutrol or gadopentetate dimeglumine. Lesions were assessed for three primary visualization variables: degree of contrast enhancement, border delineation, and internal morphology. Secondary efficacy variables included number of lesions detected, match of MRI diagnosis with final clinical diagnosis, and sensitivity and specificity for malignant lesion detection. Safety was monitored for 24 ± 4 hours after contrast agent administration. A total of 363 patients received either gadobutrol (n = 168) or gadopentetate dimeglumine (n = 178). Mean total scores for three primary visualization variables were 9.39 and 9.34 for gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine, respectively. The proportion of patients with matched MRI and final diagnosis and sensitivity for malignant lesion detection was greater for unenhanced versus combined images (gadobutrol: 72.2% vs. 81.7%; gadopentetate dimeglumine: 76.2% vs. 82.2%, respectively). Both contrast agents were well tolerated. Gadobutrol (0.1 mmol/kg BW) was well tolerated and effective in Asian patients referred for contrast-enhanced MRI of the body or extremities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. PMID:29261114

  20. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Olsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067 and teachers (n = 1251 in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  1. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-12-20

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people's lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  2. A Preliminary In Vitro Study on the Efficacy of High-Power Photodynamic Therapy (HLLT): Comparison between Pulsed Diode Lasers and Superpulsed Diode Lasers and Impact of Hydrogen Peroxide with Controlled Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluigi Caccianiga; Marco Baldoni; Carlo Angelo Ghisalberti; Alessio Paiusco

    2016-01-01

    Aim. In periodontology lasers have been suggested for the photodynamic therapy (PDT): such therapy can be defined as the inactivation of cells, microorganisms, or molecules induced by light and not by heat. The aim of this study was to evaluate results of PDT using a 980?nm diode laser (Wiser Doctor Smile, Lambda SPA, Italy) combined with hydrogen peroxide, comparing a pulsed diode laser (LI) activity to a high-frequency superpulsed diode laser (LII). Materials and Methods. Primary fibroblast...

  3. Comparison of efficacy and safety of nifedipine versus magnesium sulfate in treatment of preterm labor

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    Ali Akbar Taherian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Preterm labor with intact membrane is responsible for approximately one-third of preterm births, which account for about 70-80% of all neonatal deaths among normally formed neonates. Premature delivery is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this study we have compared the safety and efficacy of nifedipine and magnesium sulfate in treatment of preterm labor.
    METHODS: In this study, 120 pregnant women experiencing preterm labor at 26-36 weeks gestation were randomly selected to receive either oral nifedipine or intravenous magnesium sulfate. The efficacy and side effects related to nifedipine or magnesium sulfate were recorded and all data was analyzed with SPSS software, using t student, chisquire and fisher exact tests.
    RESULTS: Twenty two of 57 (38.6% patients in the nifedipine group and 31 of 63 (49.2% patients in the magnesium sulfate group were delivered before discharge. In 25 (43.8% patients in the nifedipine group and 24 (38% patients in the magnesium sulfate group, pregnancy was continued until the 34th-36th week, at which time the patients were delivered. No significant difference has been found concerning any of the following: delivery postponement, drug side effects or neonatal outcomes between nifedipine and magnesium sulfate groups (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Oral nifedipine may be a suitable alternative to magnesium sulfate, with the same efficacy and side effects.
    KEYWORDS: Nifedipine, magnesium sulfate, preterm labor.

  4. Comparison of Effect of Oral Premedication with Ibuprofen or Dexamethasone on Anesthetic Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidar, Maryam; Mortazavi, Soheil; Forghani, Maryam; Akhlaghi, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of preoperative oral administration of ibuprofen or dexamethasone on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Seventy-eight patients with irreversible pulpitis were randomly divided into 3 groups (26 per group) and given one of the following at 1 hr prior to performing local anesthesia: a placebo; 400 mg ibuprofen; or 4 mg dexamethasone. Each patient recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale before taking the medication or placebo, at 15 min after completion of IANB, and during treatment if pain occurred. The success of the anesthesia was defined as no or mild pain at any stage during the endodontic procedure. The success rate of the IANB was 38.5, 73.1, and 80.8% with the placebo, ibuprofen, and dexamethasone, respectively. Both ibuprofen and dexamethasone were significantly more effective than the placebo. No significant difference was observed, however, between the two experimental medications in terms of effectiveness. The results of the present study suggest that premedication with ibuprofen or dexamethasone increases the success rate of an IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in the mandibular molars.

  5. Comparison of the plaque-removing efficacy of toothpaste and toothpowder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khalil; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Hosein, Tasleem; Mudassir, Abdul; Mirza, Kamran Masood; Anwar, Asim

    2009-01-01

    Removing dental plaque may play a key role in maintaining oral health. Methods for oral hygiene vary from country to country and from culture to culture. Chewing sticks (miswak) and toothpowders are popular oral hygiene tools in Pakistan. To compare the plaque-removing efficacy of toothpaste and toothpowder with and without manual toothbrushes. The study was designed as an examiner-blind crossover study. The Silness and Löe plaque index was used to evaluate the plaque distribution. Thirty-six volunteer dental students were recruited for the experiment. After scoring, the subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was asked to brush with toothpaste or toothpowder according to a split mouth protocol. The second group was asked to follow the same protocol except they were asked to use their finger instead of the brush. The remaining plaque was scored again. Plaque-removing efficacy of the toothpowder was higher whether it was used with brush or with finger. There was a significant difference between paste and powder users (p = 0.009). The results of this study indicate that toothpowder is an effective means to remove plaque with a brush.

  6. Multicentre comparison Of shock efficacy using single-vs. Dual-coil lead systems and Anodal vs. cathodaL polarITY defibrillation in patients undergoing transvenous cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. The MODALITY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccillieri, Maria Stella; Gasparini, Gianni; Benacchio, Luca; Zorzi, Alessandro; Marras, Elena; Zerbo, Francesca; Tomasi, Luca; Vaccari, Diego; Pastore, Gianni; Bonanno, Carlo; Molon, Giulio; Zanotto, Gabriele; Fusco, Antonio; Carasi, Massimo; Zorzi, Andrea; Calzolari, Vittorio; Ignatiuk, Barbara; Cannas, Sergio; Vaglio, Alessandro; Al Bunni, Muhamad; Pedrini, Antonella; Olivieri, Armando; Rampazzo, Roberta; Minicuci, Nadia; Corrado, Domenico; Verlato, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    An optimal active-can lead configuration during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement is important to obtain an adequate defibrillation safety margin. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the rate of the first shock success at defibrillation testing according to the type of lead implant (single vs. dual coil) and shock polarity (cathodal and anodal) in a large series of consecutive patients who received transvenous ICDs. This was a multicenter study enrolling 469 consecutive patients. Single- versus dual-coil leads and cathodal versus anodal polarity were evaluated at defibrillation testing. In all cases, the value of the energy for the first shock was set to 20 J less than the maximum energy deliverable from the device. A total of 469 patients underwent defibrillation testing: 158 (34 %) had dual-coil and 311 (66 %) had single-coil lead systems configuration, 254 (54 %) received anodal shock and 215 (46 %) received cathodal shock. In 35 (7.4 %) patients, the shock was unsuccessful. No significant differences in the outcome of defibrillation testing using single- versus dual-coil lead were observed but the multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of shock failure using cathodal shock polarity (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.12-5.03). Both single- and dual-coil transvenous ICD lead systems were associated with high rates of successful ICD implantation, and we found no significant differences in ventricular arrhythmias interruption between the two ICD lead systems configuration. Instead, anodal defibrillation was more likely to be successful than cathodal defibrillation.

  7. A Preliminary In Vitro Study on the Efficacy of High-Power Photodynamic Therapy (HLLT): Comparison between Pulsed Diode Lasers and Superpulsed Diode Lasers and Impact of Hydrogen Peroxide with Controlled Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccianiga, Gianluigi; Baldoni, Marco; Ghisalberti, Carlo Angelo; Paiusco, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Aim. In periodontology lasers have been suggested for the photodynamic therapy (PDT): such therapy can be defined as the inactivation of cells, microorganisms, or molecules induced by light and not by heat. The aim of this study was to evaluate results of PDT using a 980 nm diode laser (Wiser Doctor Smile, Lambda SPA, Italy) combined with hydrogen peroxide, comparing a pulsed diode laser (LI) activity to a high-frequency superpulsed diode laser (LII). Materials and Methods. Primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes cell lines, isolated from human dermis, were irradiated every 48 h for 10 days using LI and LII combined with SiOxyL(+) ™ Solution (hydrogen peroxide (HP) stabilized with a glycerol phosphate complex). Two days after the last irradiation, the treated cultures were analyzed by flow cytofluorometry (FACS) and western blotting to quantify keratin 5 and keratin 8 with monoclonal antibodies reactive to cytokeratin 5 and cytokeratin 8. Antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. Results. Both experimental models show the superiority of LII against LI. In parallel, stabilized HP provided better results in the regeneration test in respect to common HP, while the biocidal activity remains comparable. Conclusion. The use of high-frequency lasers combined with stabilized hydrogen peroxide can provide optimal results for a substantial decrease of bacterial count combined with a maximal biostimulation induction of soft tissues and osteogenesis.

  8. A Preliminary In Vitro Study on the Efficacy of High-Power Photodynamic Therapy (HLLT: Comparison between Pulsed Diode Lasers and Superpulsed Diode Lasers and Impact of Hydrogen Peroxide with Controlled Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Caccianiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In periodontology lasers have been suggested for the photodynamic therapy (PDT: such therapy can be defined as the inactivation of cells, microorganisms, or molecules induced by light and not by heat. The aim of this study was to evaluate results of PDT using a 980 nm diode laser (Wiser Doctor Smile, Lambda SPA, Italy combined with hydrogen peroxide, comparing a pulsed diode laser (LI activity to a high-frequency superpulsed diode laser (LII. Materials and Methods. Primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes cell lines, isolated from human dermis, were irradiated every 48 h for 10 days using LI and LII combined with SiOxyL+™ Solution (hydrogen peroxide (HP stabilized with a glycerol phosphate complex. Two days after the last irradiation, the treated cultures were analyzed by flow cytofluorometry (FACS and western blotting to quantify keratin 5 and keratin 8 with monoclonal antibodies reactive to cytokeratin 5 and cytokeratin 8. Antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. Results. Both experimental models show the superiority of LII against LI. In parallel, stabilized HP provided better results in the regeneration test in respect to common HP, while the biocidal activity remains comparable. Conclusion. The use of high-frequency lasers combined with stabilized hydrogen peroxide can provide optimal results for a substantial decrease of bacterial count combined with a maximal biostimulation induction of soft tissues and osteogenesis.

  9. Quantitative comparison of the efficacy of various compounds in lowering intracellular cholesterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary T Wehrmann

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC is a lethal, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 cholesterol transport proteins. NPC's hallmark symptoms include an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the late endosomal and lysosomal cellular compartments, causing progressive neurodegeneration and death. Although the age of onset may vary in those affected, NPC most often manifests in juveniles, and is usually fatal before adolescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of various drugs, many of which modify the epigenetic control of NPC1/NPC2 gene expression, in lowering the otherwise harmful elevated intracellular cholesterol levels in NPC cells. Our studies utilized a previously described image analysis technique, which allowed us to make quantitative comparisons of the efficacy of these drugs in lowering cholesterol levels in a common NPC1 mutant model. Of the drugs analyzed, several that have been previously studied (vorinostat, panobinostat, and β-cyclodextrin significantly lowered the relative amount of unesterified cellular cholesterol, consistent with earlier observations. In addition, a novel potential treatment, rapamycin, likewise alleviated the NPC phenotype. We also studied combinations of effective compounds with β-cyclodextrin; the addition of β-cyclodextrin significantly enhanced the cholesterol-lowering activity of vorinostat and panobinostat, but had mixed effects with rapamycin. Collectively, these results may provide a basis for the eventual development of improved NPC therapies.

  10. Comparison of the efficacy of Smear Clear with and without a canal brush in smear layer and debris removal from instrumented root canal using WaveOne versus ProTaper: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Wael H; Kataia, Engy M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare by scanning electron microscopy the presence of smear layer and debris on root canal walls after preparation with the single-file system WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) versus the rotary ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) under 2 final irrigant regimens. Forty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10). The ProTaper and ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush (Coltène Whaledent GmbH+ Co KG, Langenau, Germany) groups were instrumented with the ProTaper system. Groups WaveOne and WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush were instrumented with the WaveOne system. The irrigant in all groups was 2 mL 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution, whereas the final irrigation after preparation in the ProTaper and WaveOne groups was 1 mL Smear Clear solution (Sybron Endo, Orange, CA) and then 5.25% NaOCl applied with a plastic syringe, and in the ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush and WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush groups, it was 1 mL Smear Clear solution and then 5.25% NaOCl (rotary CanalBrush agitation). Roots were processed for scanning electron microscopic examination for debris and smear layer scoring. Data were statistically analyzed. All groups showed more efficient smear layer and debris removal coronally than in the middle and apical regions, whereas the mean total debris score and the mean smear layer score in all groups were less in the WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush groups than the ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush and the WaveOne and ProTaper groups. Using the rotary CanalBrush in canals prepared with WaveOne produced the cleanest canal walls, and the WaveOne system gave superior results compared with the ProTaper system. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the image-derived radioactivity and blood-sample radioactivity for estimating the clinical indicators of the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isohashi, Kayako; Shimosegawa, Eku; Naka, Sadahiro; Kanai, Yasukazu; Horitsugi, Genki; Mochida, Ikuko; Matsunaga, Keiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Kato, Hiroki; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), positron emission tomography (PET) with 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) is the only method to estimate an accumulation of 10B to target tumor and surrounding normal tissue after administering 10B carrier of L-paraboronophenylalanine and to search the indication of BNCT for individual patient. Absolute concentration of 10B in tumor has been estimated by multiplying 10B concentration in blood during BNCT by tumor to blood radioactivity (T/B) ratio derived from FBPA PET. However, the method to measure blood radioactivity either by blood sampling or image data has not been standardized. We compared image-derived blood radioactivity of FBPA with blood sampling data and studied appropriate timing and location for measuring image-derived blood counts. We obtained 7 repeated whole-body PET scans in five healthy subjects. Arterialized venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, heated in a heating blanket. Time-activity curves (TACs) of image-derived blood radioactivity were obtained using volumes of interest (VOIs) over ascending aorta, aortic arch, pulmonary artery, left and right ventricles, inferior vena cava, and abdominal aorta. Image-derived blood radioactivity was compared with those measured by blood sampling data in each location. Both the TACs of blood sampling radioactivity in each subject, and the TACs of image-derived blood radioactivity showed a peak within 5 min after the tracer injection, and promptly decreased soon thereafter. Linear relationship was found between blood sampling radioactivity and image-derived blood radioactivity in all the VOIs at any timing of data sampling (p < 0.001). Image-derived radioactivity measured in the left and right ventricles 30 min after injection showed high correlation with blood radioactivity. Image-derived blood radioactivity was lower than blood sampling radioactivity data by 20 %. Reduction of blood radioactivity of FBPA in left ventricle

  12. Alflutop clinical efficacy assessment in osteoarthritis (two-years study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chodyrev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess alflutop clinical efficacy and safety during long-term course treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Methods. 51 pts with definite knee osteoarthritis of I-III stage according to Kellgren-Lawrence classification were included in an open controlled study. 20 pts received 6 intra-articular injections of alflutop 2 ml with subsequent intramuscular treatment during 3 months. Such courses were repeated 6 months apart for 2 years. 31 pts of control group received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID only. Pain on visual analog scale, Leken functional score, changes of NSAID treatment and radiological picture were used for assessment of efficacy. Clinical examination was performed before and after every treatment course and 3 months after the last course. Results. Every alflutop treatment course provided significant stepwise decrease of pain with improvement of mobility, reduction of NSAID requirement and absence of osteoarthritis radiological progression. Doctor and pts clinical efficacy and safety assessment coincided. Conclusion. Alflutop is an effective drug for knee osteoarthritis treatment. It has anti-inflammatory and probably chondroprotective activity with good safety.

  13. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

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    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.

  14. Comparison of hand hygiene antimicrobial efficacy: Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus triclosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hand hygiene performed with two different soap formulations: 0.3% Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus 0.5% triclosan, and to compare them with two reference hygiene procedures: the official methodology procedure (soft soap versus the draft version of the procedure (soft soap + propan-2-ol. METHOD: using the European EN 1499 method, logarithmic reduction factors were determined for the number of colony forming units of Escherichia coli K12 before and after hand hygiene of 15 volunteer subjects, and compared using the one-tailed Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: referring to the soft soap, there was no difference between the performance of soap with 0.3% M. alternifolia and soap containing 0.5% triclosan. The soft soap + propan-2-ol proved to be more effective than the other hand hygiene procedures. CONCLUSION: studies to verify the therapeutic efficacy of essential oil in hand hygiene can improve adherence to this practice.

  15. A comparison of the efficacy of different disinfection methods in eliminating Salmonella contamination from turkey houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Doblies, D; Carrique-Mas, J J; Sayers, A R; Davies, R H

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of different disinfection methods in eliminating Salmonella contamination from turkey houses. Fifty depopulated turkey houses which had all housed Salmonella-positive flocks were visited after cleaning and disinfection. A minimum of 45 swab samples from different surfaces were taken per house and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. The sampled surfaces included intact floor surfaces, floor cracks, walls, feeders, drinkers, anteroom, nestboxes and miscellaneous items. Houses were grouped according to the disinfectant which had been used and the efficacy of the different groups of disinfectants was compared. Sixty-eight % of houses tested positive for Salmonella after C&D. Out of 4440 samples, 207 tested positive for Salmonella, giving an overall sample prevalence of 4.7%. There was no significant difference in the level of residual contamination between breeding, rearing and finishing houses. Products containing a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) performed significantly better than products containing hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. Cleaning and disinfection was least effective in nestboxes and anterooms. Thorough cleaning and the choice of a suitable disinfectant are crucial if Salmonella contamination of turkey houses is to be eliminated. This study shows that disinfectants containing a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and QAC perform significantly better under field conditions than oxidising products and should therefore be the first choice for disinfection of turkey premises where Salmonella is present.

  16. Premarket safety and efficacy studies for ADHD medications in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T Bourgeois

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing.We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug's clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials.A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419. Eleven drugs (55% were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70% after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9, with 5 (38% drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77% after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed.Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved.

  17. Comparison of the Efficacy of Topical Triamcinolone in Orabase and Curcumin in Orabase in Oral Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mansourian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is among the most frequent complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. GVHD has several clinical manifestations in the oral cavity, including painful desquamative erythema, ulcerative mucosal lesions, and lichenoid lesions. The patients presenting with oral GVHD complain of oral sensitivity, pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The treatment of oral GVHD includes a proper systemic therapy combined with a good oral hygiene and the use of local and topical steroids. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are used for the treatment of chronic oral GVHD; however, they are associated with different complications. Evidence shows that curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The treatment of lichen planus and oral mucositis with curcumin has been successful. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of topical curcumin in Orabase and triamcinolone in Orabase in the patients affected by oral GVHD.Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients presenting with oral GVHD were randomly divided into two groups of 13 using block randomization. The control group used triamcinolone in Orabase, and the case group received curcumin in Orabase.Results: The two groups were not significantly different in terms of the alleviated severity of the lesions at the end of the treatment (P=0.052. The comparison of the pain score via the visual analog scale (VAS at the onset of the treatment and at days 14 and 28 (completion of the treatment showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05.Conclusions: Curcumin has comparable efficacy to that of triamcinolone and may be prescribed for the patients presenting with oral GVHD.

  18. Comparison of the efficacy of two anesthetic techniques of mandibular primary first molar: A randomized clinical trial

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    Davood Ghasemi Tudeshchoie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common technique to anesthetize mandibular primary teeth is inferior alveolar (I.A nerve block injection which induces a relatively sustained anesthesia and in turn may potentially traumatize soft-tissues. Therefore, the need of having an alternative technique of anesthesia with a shorter term but the same efficacy is reasonable. The aim of this study was a comparison of the efficacy of two anesthetic techniques of mandibular primary first molar. Materials and Methods: In this randomized crossover clinical trial, 40 children with ages ranged from 5 years to 8 years whose mandibular primary first molars were eligible for pulpotomy, were selected and divided randomly into two groups. The right and left mandibular first molars of group A were anesthetized with infiltration and I. A nerve block techniques in the first and second sessions respectively. The left and right mandibular first molars of group B were anesthetized with I.A nerve block and infiltration techniques in the first and second sessions respectively. The severity of pain were measured and recorded according to sound-eye-motor scale by a certain person. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank and Mann-Whitney U tests (P < 0.05. Results: The severity of pain was lower in infiltration technique versus I.A nerve block. There were no significant differences between the severities of pain on pulpal exposure of two techniques. Conclusion: It seems that infiltration technique is more favorable to anesthetize the mandibular primary first molar compared to I.A nerve block.

  19. Comparison on the efficacy of dexpanthenol in sea water and saline in postoperative endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooanant, Supranee; Chaiyasate, Saisawat; Roongrotwattanasiri, Kannika

    2008-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of dexpanthenol spray and saline irrigation in the postoperative care of sinusitis patients following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). One hundred twenty eight sinusitis patients undergoing ESS were randomly allocated to receive dexpanthenol spray (Mar plus) or saline irrigation twice a day for 4 weeks after the operation. Total nasal symptom score, crusting, infection, compliance, and patient satisfaction were evaluated at 1, 2-3, 4-6, and 12 weeks. Mucociliary clearance was assessed with the saccharin test before ESS and at the last visit. One hundred ten patients remained at the present study termination. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were employed. Total nasal symptom score, mucociliary clearance, and infection improved in both groups after the operation. The dexpanthenol group resulted in a better mucociliary clearance than saline irrigation (9.93 +/- 6.04 vs. 12.38 +/- 9.32 min, p = 0.43). Saline irrigation resulted in a greater reduction of post nasal drip than dexpanthenol at the first visit (74% vs. 87%, p = 0.04). Compliance and patient satisfaction were comparable. The efficacy of dexpanthenol was comparable to nasal saline irrigation in the postoperative care of sinusitis patients following endoscopic sinus surgery. Dexpanthenol is an alternative treatment, which may be useful in young children and complicated cases.

  20. Comparison of turbinoplasty surgery efficacy in patients with and without allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerschmidt, Rodrigo; Hamerschmidt, Rogério; Moreira, Ana Tereza Ramos; Tenório, Sérgio Bernardo; Timi, Jorge Rufno Ribas

    2016-01-01

    Turbinoplasty is a procedure that aims to reduce the size of the inferior turbinate through exuberant bone removal with high mucosal preservation. The procedure is recommended for patients with or without allergic rhinitis and those showing irreversible hypertrophy of inferior turbinates. To evaluate the efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty for obstructive and non-obstructive symptoms in patients with or without allergic rhinitis. Prospective study with 57 patients who underwent inferior turbinoplasty. They were evaluated for nasal obstruction, snoring, facial pressure, smell alterations, sneezing, nasal itching and runny nose symptoms, surgery time, and intraoperative bleeding. The last evaluation took place three months after surgery. Thirty-nine patients with allergic rhinitis and 18 without were assessed. Ninety days after surgery, 94.7% of patients showed degrees IV and V of breathing improvement; 89.5% showed moderate or complete improvement in snoring; all patients showed smell improvement (only one showed moderate improvement; all the others had full improvement); 95.5% experienced complete facial pressure improvement; and 89.7% showed moderate to complete improvement in nasal itching and runny nose symptoms, as well as in sneezing. The efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty was confirmed not only for obstructive symptoms, but also for non-obstructive symptoms in patients with and without allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of turbinoplasty surgery efficacy in patients with and without allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hamerschmidt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Turbinoplasty is a procedure that aims to reduce the size of the inferior turbinate through exuberant bone removal with high mucosal preservation. The procedure is recommended for patients with or without allergic rhinitis and those showing irreversible hypertrophy of inferior turbinates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty for obstructive and non-obstructive symptoms in patients with or without allergic rhinitis. METHODS: Prospective study with 57 patients who underwent inferior turbinoplasty. They were evaluated for nasal obstruction, snoring, facial pressure, smell alterations, sneezing, nasal itching and runny nose symptoms, surgery time, and intraoperative bleeding. The last evaluation took place three months after surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with allergic rhinitis and 18 without were assessed. Ninety days after surgery, 94.7% of patients showed degrees IV and V of breathing improvement; 89.5% showed moderate or complete improvement in snoring; all patients showed smell improvement (only one showed moderate improvement; all the others had full improvement; 95.5% experienced complete facial pressure improvement; and 89.7% showed moderate to complete improvement in nasal itching and runny nose symptoms, as well as in sneezing. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty was confirmed not only for obstructive symptoms, but also for non-obstructive symptoms in patients with and without allergic rhinitis.

  2. Comparison of efficacy of products containing azelaic acid in melasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Klaudia; Pierzchała, Ewa

    2016-09-01

    Melasma is one of the most frequently diagnosed hyperpigmentation changes on the skin of women's faces. Nearly 30% of women using oral estrogen therapy struggle with this problem. A common way of reducing melasma is the application of azelaic acid products. Comparison of efficacy of three dermocosmetic products, containing azelaic acid, in the reduction in melasma for women aged 35-55. A group of 60 women diagnosed with melasma were divided into three even, twenty-person subgroups. Each subgroup was assigned one dermocosmetic product containing azelaic acid. For 24 weeks, the patients applied the assigned product twice a day. The level of the colorant within the hyperpigmentation was marked before the treatment, after 1 month, after 3 months, and after 6 months of therapy. The pigmentation was measured using Mexameter(®) (Courage + Khazaka electronic, Germany). In addition, during each inspection, the patients' level of hydration, elasticity, and intensity of erythema was checked using Corneometer(®) , Reviscometer(®) . All dermocosmetics containing azelaic acid that were applied significantly contributed to the reduction in pigment in the pigmentary lesion. The largest decrease in the amount of pigment was observed in the first 3 months of use of the products. A combination containing 20% azelaic acid and mandelic acid, phytic acid, 4N-butyl resorcinol, and ferulic acid proved to be the most effective dermocosmetic III (Sesderma, Valencia, Spain). Dermocosmetics containing azelaic acid significantly contribute to the clearing of melasma. The effect depends on the treatment time, the acid concentration, and addition of other components. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Efficacy of anterior cervical fusion: comparison of titanium cages, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Der-Cherng; Hsieh, Wanhua Annie; Chen, Wu-Fu; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Harnod, Tomor; Chiou, Tsung-Lang; Chang, Yuh-Lin; Su, Chain-Fa; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chen, Shin-Yuan

    2008-11-01

    This retrospective study was designed to analyze and compare the efficacy and outcomes of anterior cervical fusion using titanium cages, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous tricortical bone grafts. Fifty-five patients who underwent segmental anterior discectomy with a follow-up period up to 12 months enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups: titanium cage with biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (Triosite; Zimmer, Berlin, Germany) in group A (n=27); PEEK cage with Triosite in group B (n=9); and autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft in group C (n=19). The fusion rates after 6 months were 37.21% in group A , 93.3% in group B, and 84.85% in group C. The fusion rates after 1 year in groups A, B, and C were 46.51%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The PEEK cage is a viable alternative to autogenous tricortical bone grafts in anterior cervical fusion.

  4. Comparison of Obstetric Efficacy and Safety of the Kiwi OmniCup with Conventional Vacuum Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggelkow, W; Schwarz, N; Beckmann, M W; Kehl, S; Faschingbauer, F; Schild, R L

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the safety and efficacy of the Kiwi OmniCup system with conventional vacuum delivery. Methods: A retrospective study of operative vaginal deliveries was done for 4682 births. The procedures included 217 operative vaginal deliveries (4.6 %), 79 of which were done using conventional vacuum extraction (37 %) and 138 using the Kiwi system (63 %). Results: Use of the Kiwi system was associated with a significant reduction in episiotomies (61 vs. 76 % in the control group; p Kiwi system and 99 % with conventional vacuum delivery). Cup detachment occurred significantly more often in the Kiwi group (p Kiwi system is an acceptable alternative to the conventional vacuum cup. The advantages of the Kiwi system are its significantly lower episiotomy rate and its ease and rapidity of use.

  5. Efficacy of centrifuged liquid-based cytology over conventional cytology: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Veda; Nambiar, Shwetha; Yadav, Nikhil

    2017-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of a shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that is used in the current study. To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa and histologically proven cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma after staining with Papanicolaou stain. The study sample was collected from fifty individuals with no habits and apparently normal oral mucosa (Group 1) and forty cases of histologically proven cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Group 2). One smear was taken and spread on the slide by a conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for nine parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, inflammatory blood, and microbial colonies. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There was a statistically significant result with parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation in CLBC technique, in comparison with the conventional technique. The presence of mucus, microbial colonies, and inflammatory cells were also less in CLBC technique in comparison with the conventional technique. CLBC has better efficacy over conventional method in all the parameters analyzed.

  6. In vivo comparison of cavity disinfection efficacy with APF gel, Propolis, Diode Laser, and 2% chlorhexidine in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.M. Uday Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART restorations would be enhanced if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before placing a restoration. Thus, use of disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary dentistry. Aim: To assess and compare the cavity disinfection efficacy of APF gel, Brazilian Propolis, Diode Laser, and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, single blinded, parallel grouped, active controlled trial. Eighty primary molars in 68 children with cavitated dentinal occlusal caries were randomly assigned into four groups (20 teeth each Group I: APF gel; Group II: Propolis; Group III: Diode Laser, and Group IV: 2% CHX (control. After cavity preparation using ART procedure, dentinal samples collected before and after disinfection with respective agent of the group. These samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation, for total viable count (TVC on blood agar, Streptococcus mutans on mutans-sanguis (MS agar, and Lactobacilli (LB on Rogosa agar. Results: Intragroup comparison (Wilcoxon signed rank test showed significant reductions in TVC, MS, and LB counts in all the groups. Pairwise Mann–Whitney test showed APF gel had least bacterial reductions among the agents tested. Conclusion: This study illustrated the need for cavity disinfection. Diode Laser and Brazilian Propolis are equally effective as 2% CHX in cavity disinfection.

  7. Comparison of the medical students' perceived self-efficacy and the evaluation of the observers and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of self-assessment has been questioned in studies comparing physicians' self-assessments to observed assessments; however, none of these studies used self-efficacy as a method for self-assessment.The aim of the study was to investigate how medical students' perceived self-efficacy of......-efficacy of specific communication skills corresponds to the evaluation of simulated patients and observers.......The accuracy of self-assessment has been questioned in studies comparing physicians' self-assessments to observed assessments; however, none of these studies used self-efficacy as a method for self-assessment.The aim of the study was to investigate how medical students' perceived self...

  8. The efficacy of acupuncture on menopausal symptoms (ACOM study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Around 75% of menopausal women experience hot flushes (HF) and 10-20% of all postmenopausal women find this very distressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture on moderate-to-severe menopausal symptoms in general and HF in particular. METHODS: An un......-blinded randomised trial (cross-over) with 1:1 allocation to early (intervention) versus late (control) acupuncture. The included women suffer from moderate-to-severe HF and will receive a weekly treatment during five consecutive weeks in the following predefined acupuncture points: CV-3, CV-4, LR-8, SP-6, SP-9. All...

  9. Student Success Through Leadership Self-efficacy: A Comparison of International and Domestic Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David H K Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    .... Leadership capacity and efficacy are important indicators of success in higher education and are linked to important academic, career, and life benefits, such as career and leadership aspirations...

  10. Comparison Of Efficacy Of 10% Potassium Hydroxide Solution Versus Cryotherapy In Treatment Of Molluscum Contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asfandyar; Zeb, Mahwish; Jalal-Ud-Din, Mir; Sheikh, Zafar Iqbal; Alam, Muhammad Adeel; Anwar, Syed Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Different topical therapies are being used for treating molluscum contagiosum. Potassium hydroxide in varying solution strengths with irritant reaction on the skin can help in eliminating the infection. It is cheap, easily available, can be easily applied at home, with good safety profile and cost effectiveness. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 10% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in treating molluscum contagiosum. This study was a Randomized control trial conducted in the Department of dermatology, Military hospital Rawalpindi. Study included 120 randomly selected patients with molluscum contagiosum divided equally into two groups. Group A were treated with 10% potassium hydroxide aqueous solution applied daily to the lesions twice daily for 6 weeks while Group B received weekly cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. The status of lesions was documented weekly for 6 weeks. Of the 120 patients enrolled, 67 (55.8%) were male and 53 (44.2%) were female. Mean age of patients was 20.53(±8.17) years. At base line Molluscum contagiosum lesion ranged from minimum of 2 lesions to maximum of 26 lesions with a mean of 8.95 (SD ±4.45) lesions. Of 120 patients, complete clearance was observed in 98(81.6%) of patients, 48(80%) patients had lesion clearance in Group A and 50 (83.3%) patients had lesion clearance was observed in Group B. No statistical significance was observed in the lesion clearance between the two groups (p-0.63). The efficacy of 10% potassium hydroxide solution and cryotherapy is statistically same over 6 weeks of treatment. Thus less expensive, easily available and cosmetically more acceptable potassium hydroxide solution can be used instead of cryotherapy in treating molluscum contagiosum.

  11. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad Khiati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions: The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  12. Comparison of modified Bass technique with normal toothbrushing practices for efficacy in supragingival plaque removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyato-Ferrera, M; Segura-Egea, J J; Bullón-Fernández, P

    2003-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy in supragingival plaque removal of normal toothbrushing practices and a particular toothbrushing technique, the modified Bass method. The research consisted of two identical experiments with two toothbrushing methods: the normal toothbrushing practices and the modified Bass technique. Forty-six secondary, non-dental students (10 males and 36 females) with ages ranging from 18 to 30 years were selected. Dental plaque was assessed according to the Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein Index. Subjects were requested not to brush their teeth 48 h prior to the baseline record of plaque index. Participants were instructed to brush twice daily during 3 min for the duration of the 3-week trial using their usual toothpaste. Plaque index was recorded at 2, 7 and 21 days. The modified Bass (Mod-Bass) technique was significantly (P 0.05), but did so with the modified Bass technique (P important improvement in the oral hygiene of the patients.

  13. Comparison of clinical efficacy and safety of thermotherapy versus cryotherapy in treatment of skin warts: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi Firouzabadi, Leila; Khamesipour, Ali; Ghandi, Narges; Hosseini, Hamed; Teymourpour, Amir; Firooz, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    The effect of thermotherapy in the treatment of skin warts in comparison to cryotherapy, as the standard conventional method, has remained uncertain. This study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and cryotherapy in removing skin warts. This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 52 patients aged 18 years and over with ≤ 10 skin warts. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive cryotherapy (every 2 to 3 weeks up to six sessions if required) or thermotherapy (one session). The patients in both groups were followed every 2 to 3 weeks for the first three months, and then three months after the last treatment session. The clearance rate was 79.2% in the thermotherapy group and 58.3% in the cryotherapy group with no significant difference (p = 0.212). The rate of scarring in the thermotherapy group was 20% (p = .018). A higher clearance rate was achieved in the thermotherapy group. However, this result was not statistically significant. There were some minimal post-treatment complications. Patients needed only one session of thermotherapy. Due to the risk of scarring, we suggest thermotherapy only as a suitable treatment method for palmoplantar warts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A comprehensive comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of racecadotril with other treatments of acute diarrhea in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Fischbach; Viola Andresen; Marion Eberlin; Tobias Mück; Peter Layer

    2016-01-01

    Racecadotril is a guideline-recommended treatment to alleviate symptoms of acute diarrhea. A systematic review of randomized studies was performed comparing efficacy and safety of treatment with racecadotril to that with placebo or active treatments in adults. In five double-blind studies, racecadotril and placebo had comparable tolerability but racecadotril was more effective. This was consistent across multiple efficacy parameters including duration of diarrhea, number of diarrheic stools, ...

  15. A Comprehensive Comparison of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Racecadotril with Other Treatments of Acute Diarrhea in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbach, Wolfgang; Andresen, Viola; Eberlin, Marion; Mueck, Tobias; Layer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Racecadotril is a guideline-recommended treatment to alleviate symptoms of acute diarrhea. A systematic review of randomized studies was performed comparing efficacy and safety of treatment with racecadotril to that with placebo or active treatments in adults. In five double-blind studies, racecadotril and placebo had comparable tolerability, but racecadotril was more effective. This was consistent across multiple efficacy parameters including duration of diarrhea, number of diarrheic stools,...

  16. [The comparison of efficacy of female sterilization by modified Uchida technique and silver clips in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong-yan; Zou, Yan; Li, Li; Liang, Hong; Zhang, Hong-yan; Wu, Shang-chun

    2011-02-01

    To compare efficacy of female sterilization by modified Uchida technique and silver clips and to evaluate the influence on operation procedure and clinical effect with or without surgery training of service providers. A comparative, multicenter clinical trial was performed in 18 county and township-level service centers. Totally 2198 women underwent sterilization from these 18 study center were divided into 1116 women sterilized by modified Uchida technique and 1082 women by silver clips. Those 18 centers were classified into 9 training groups which provide surgical skills of sterilization and other contents and 9 non training groups. Clinical documents of sterilization were recorded. All women were follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. There were no complications during surgery by both sterilization. The failure rate was 2.03% (22/1082) in silver clip method and the mean operative time were (12.4 ± 6.4) minutes in training group and (14.4 ± 8.1) minutes in non training group. In modified Uchida method, the failure rate was 0.18% (2/1116) and the mean operative time were (16.2 ± 4.9) minutes in training group and (19.0 ± 8.6) minutes in non training group. The mean operative time between two groups reached statistical difference (all P 0.05). There was no significant difference in acceptability and side effects of all women between two methods (P > 0.05). The training of service providers could influence acceptability of women (P < 0.05). Clinical efficacy was not influenced by those two methods. The operative time and acceptability were improved by training surgeons in silver clips method.

  17. Learning new words from storybooks: an efficacy study with at-risk kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Meier, Joanne; Walpole, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    The extant literature suggests that exposure to novel vocabulary words through repeated readings of storybooks influences children's word learning, and that adult elaboration of words in context can accelerate vocabulary growth. This study examined the influence of small-group storybook reading sessions on the acquisition of vocabulary words for at-risk kindergartners, and the impact of word elaboration on learning. An additional goal was to study differential responses to treatment for children with high versus low vocabulary skill. Using a pretest-posttest comparison group research design, 57 kindergartners were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 29) or comparison (n = 28) group. Children were also differentiated into high (n = 31) versus low (n = 26) vocabulary skill groups using scores on a standardized receptive vocabulary test. Children in the treatment group completed 20 small-group storybook reading sessions during which they were exposed to 60 novel words randomly assigned to non-elaborated and elaborated conditions. Pre- and posttest examined the quality of children's definitions for the 60 novel words. Overall, word-learning gains were modest. Children in the treatment group made significantly greater gains in elaborated words relative to children in the comparison group; no influence of storybook reading exposure was seen for non-elaborated words. Children with low vocabulary scores made the greatest gains on elaborated words. Suggestions are offered for using storybooks as a clinical tool for fostering vocabulary development. As an efficacy study, results should inform future applied research on word learning for at-risk children.

  18. Rupatadine and levocetirizine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: a comparative study of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Jaida, Jyothirmai; Raghavendra, B N; Goud, Prakash; Ahmed, Idris; Palani, Anuradha

    2011-12-01

    Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria is difficult to treat due to its persistent debilitating symptoms. New generation anti-histaminics are first line treatment for this condition. The aim of this study is to compare efficacy and safety of rupatadine and levocetirizine in chronic idiopathic urticaria. A randomized, single blinded, single-centred, parallel group outdoor based clinical study was conducted in 70 patients of CIU to compare the two drugs. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, rupatadine was prescribed to 35 patients and levocetirizine to another 35 patients for 4 weeks. At follow-up, the patients were re-evaluated and then compared using different statistical tools. Main outcome measures were DC eosinophil, Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC), serum IgE, Total Symptom Score, Aerius Quality of Life Questionnaire score, and Global efficacy score. Rupatadine significantly improved patients' clinical condition including symptom score from baseline to day 28. In rupatadine group, there was 27.9 percent decrease (P=0.027) in DC eosinophil, 35.6 percent decrease (P=0.036) in AEC, 15.3 percent decrease (P=0.024) in serum IgE, 28.2 percent decrease (P=0.02) in Total Symptom Scoring, and 27.3 percent decrease (P=0.006) in Aerius Quality of Life Questionnaire score. Global efficacy score of rupatadine was found to be significantly greater (P=0.009) than levocetirizine. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was also found to be less in rupatadine group. Rupatadine is a better choice in CIU in comparison to levocetirizine due to better efficacy and safety profile.

  19. Comparison between the efficacy of self-prepared chlorhexidine varnishes and of EC 40®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that clinical application of chlorhexidine (CHX varnish could reduce dental caries occurrence effectively.However, this form of CHX is not commercially available in Thailand. Our previous study showed that the released CHX from 20% and 40% self-prepared CHX varnishes were sufficient to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the 20% and 40% self-prepared CHX varnishes to commercial CHX varnish EC 40®. The study included CHX release, antibacterial activity against S. mutans ATCC 25175, and the cytotoxic effect of CHX on fibroblasts. The results showed that the greatest amount of CHX was released by EC 40® followed by 40% and 20% selfpreparedCHX, which were 4,111.29 g, 2,408.7 g, and 1,136.4 g, respectively. EC 40® gave the strongest antibacterial activity; however, there was no statistical significant difference. The 20% self-prepared CHX gave the highest viability of fibroblasts. This study indicates that the self-prepared CHX should be considered to be used as antimicrobial agents for the prevention of dental caries.

  20. TO ASSESS THE EFFICACY OF NIFEDIPINE IN THE TREATMENT OF PRETERM LABOUR IN COMPARISON TO ISOXSUPRINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Padmanabhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preterm labour and delivery remains a major cause of prenatal morbidity and mortality.¹ Numerous drugs and interventions have been used to prevent and inhibit the preterm labour but none have been found to be completely effective with the choice being further limited by troublesome side effects. Tocolysis, the pharmacologic inhibition of uterine contractions, is currently the principal preterm birth preventive measure. The aim of this study was to compare the tocolytic efficacy of Isoxsuprine and Nifedipine in the treatment of preterm labour. Maternal side effects and neonatal outcome were also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective randomised study. 120 antenatal cases with 28-36 weeks of gestation with painful intermittent uterine contractions were considered for the study. Subjects were randomly allotted into two groups-Group A (Isoxsuprine and Group B (Nifedipine 60 patients each. Main outcomes include prolongation of pregnancy, maternal side effects and neonatal outcome were compared. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were well matched in both study groups. Success rate with Nifedipine was found to be 96% as compared to Isoxsuprine which was 75%. Maternal side effects like hypotension (13.33% and tachycardia (6.66% were common in Isoxsuprine group, while facial flushing was seen in 16.66% patients in Nifedipine group. Neonatal outcome was similar in the both groups.

  1. The efficacy of acupuncture on menopausal symptoms (ACOM study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Around 75% of menopausal women experience hot flushes (HF) and 10-20% of all postmenopausal women find this very distressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture on moderate-to-severe menopausal symptoms in general and HF in particular. METHODS: An un...... acupuncturists will be medical doctors educated in acupuncture. The primary outcome is change in HF from baseline to week 6 measured by the HF scale from the MenoScores Questionnaire (MSQ). Secondary outcomes are change in other menopausal symptoms, in particular day and night sweats and menopausal......: In the ACOM study, we explore the potential benefits of acupuncture on moderate-to-severe meno-pausal symptoms. The cross-over design offers the possi-bility of examining the legacy effect of acupuncture. FUNDING: The Idella Foundation, the University of Copenhagen and the Research Foundation of General...

  2. New synthetic peptide with efficacy for heparin reversal and low toxicity and immunogenicity in comparison to protamine sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tong; Meng, Zhiyun; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Liu, Taoyun; Han, Peng; Han, Su; Dou, Guifang, E-mail: douguifang@vip.sina.com

    2015-11-20

    Protamine sulfate (PS), the only clinically approved antidote to unfractionated heparin (UFH), is widely used for cardiopulmonary surgery or other extracorporeal circulation situations. However, the applications of PS have accompanied various severe side-effects. In this study, we presented a novel synthesized peptide compound (RRRRR-RRRRR-RRRRR-sulfate, R15S) served as a safer UFH antidote. Comparison studies were conducted between PS and R15S on efficacy and safety, aided by heparin neutralization studies, drug toxicity studies and anaphylactic analysis. Our research demonstrated that R15S contained comparable UFH neutralization activity in vitro and in rats in vivo as to active partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and anti-FXa assays. There was no cytotoxicity for R15S at 60 μg mg{sup −1} or below and the median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of R15S in mice was 35.4 mg kg{sup −1}, both of which were similar to that of PS. Furthermore, R15S exhibited no immunogenicity while it was obvious in guinea pigs immunized with PS. The level of cross-reactivity to anti-PS antibodies of R15S was about 30%. Both of which indicated much safer properties of R15S than PS. In conclusion, we presented a promising candidate R15S for UFH reversal, which is effective in neutralizing UFH and potentially safer in use. - Highlights: • R15 sulfate has a comparable unfractionated heparin neutralization activity to PS. • R15 sulfate avoided severe anaphylactic responses which happened to PS in clinical use. • R15 sulfate could provide a stricter quality control compared to PS which may vary with different batches.

  3. Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Loneliness Between Community-Dwelling & Institutionalized Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Heidari

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: With regard to the low mean score of self-efficacy of older adults residing in nursing homes, the authorities of nursing homes should pay attention to the needs of older adults and provide general education about promoting the tradition of caring older people by their families. Furthermore, all institutions and organizations that have important goals such as healthy older adults should advance toward their goals by planning, education, and consultation with families that care about their older adults. Finally, with regard to the results about the association of self-efficacy with loneliness, self-efficacy assessment should be considered one of the effective factors in psychological dimensions of the people and a way to support the self-care of older adults because promoting self-efficacy will result in managing stress and improving the mental health. 

  4. [Efficacy of preoxygenation using tidal volume breathing: a comparison of Mapleson A, Bain's and Circle system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Suman; Gupta, Priyanka; Arya, Virender Kumar; Bhatia, Nidhi

    Efficacy of preoxygenation depends upon inspired oxygen concentration, its flow rate, breathing system configuration and patient characteristics. We hypothesized that in actual clinical scenario, where breathing circuit is not primed with 100% oxygen, patients may need more time to achieve EtO 2 ≥90%, and this duration may be different among various breathing systems. We thus studied the efficacy of preoxygenation using unprimed Mapleson A, Bain's and Circle system with tidal volume breathing at oxygen flow rates of 5L.min -1 and 10L.min -1 . Patients were randomly allocated into one of the six groups, wherein they were preoxygenated using either Mapleson A, Bain's or Circle system at O 2 flow rate of either 5L.min -1 or 10L.min -1 . The primary outcome measure of our study was the time taken to achieve EtO 2 ≥90% at 5 and 10L.min -1 flow rates. At oxygen flow rate of 5L.min -1 , time to reach EtO 2 ≥90% was significantly longer with Bain's system (3.7±0.67min) than Mapleson A and Circle system (2.9±0.6, 3.3±0.97min, respectively). However at oxygen flow rate of 10L.min -1 this time was significantly shorter and comparable among all the three breathing systems (2.33±0.38min with Mapleson, 2.59±0.50min with Bain's and 2.60±0.47min with Circle system). With spontaneous normal tidal volume breathing at oxygen flow rate of 5L.min -1 , Mapleson A can optimally preoxygenate patients within 3min while Bain's and Circle system require more time. However at O 2 flow rate of 10L.min -1 all the three breathing systems are capable of optimally preoxygenating the patients in less than 3min. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of efficacy among various topical anesthetics: An approach towards painless injections in periodontal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, P; Mishra, A; Swapna, LA; Butchibabu, K; Bagalkokar, A; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Local anesthetics (LAs) are most commonly used agents in dentistry. They are used to prevent the pain and nociception generated during dental procedures. Since pain associated at the time of injection of LA is uncomfortable, most of the dentists are on pursuit of painless administration of LA injection and use of topical anesthetics prior to the injection has proven effective in reducing anxiety and pain to the patient. The aim of this study is to compare pain responses after application of three types of topical anesthetics with control in the patients referred for periodontal full mouth flap surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 83 patients (42 males and 41 females) participated in the study with age group ranging from 30 to 50 years. The present study is to evaluate the efficacy of three topical anesthetics (Precaine gel, Benzocaine topical paste and Lignocaine spray) before infiltration in altering visual analog scale (VAS) scores of pain during LA injection. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15.0 software. Repeated analysis of variance was performed to know the effect of each variable and reveal statistical significance. Results: Results revealed that Precaine gel had least VAS score compared with other topical anesthetics. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that procaine gel is a better than other topical LA agents, as the number of studies on this subject is rare and clinical results are mixed, further studies are required with a larger sample before its routine application in our field. PMID:26955311

  6. The efficacy of acupuncture on menopausal symptoms (ACOM study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Around 75% of menopausal women experience hot flushes (HF) and 10-20% of all postmenopausal women find this very distressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture on moderate-to-severe menopausal symptoms in general and HF in particular. METHODS: An un......-blinded randomised trial (cross-over) with 1:1 allocation to early (intervention) versus late (control) acupuncture. The included women suffer from moderate-to-severe HF and will receive a weekly treatment during five consecutive weeks in the following predefined acupuncture points: CV-3, CV-4, LR-8, SP-6, SP-9. All...... acupuncturists will be medical doctors educated in acupuncture. The primary outcome is change in HF from baseline to week 6 measured by the HF scale from the MenoScores Questionnaire (MSQ). Secondary outcomes are change in other menopausal symptoms, in particular day and night sweats and menopausal...

  7. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Singaporean and Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Learning Self-Efficacy from a Multi-Dimensional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tan, Aik Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-05-01

    Due to the scarcity of cross-cultural comparative studies in exploring students' self-efficacy in science learning, this study attempted to develop a multi-dimensional science learning self-efficacy (SLSE) instrument to measure 316 Singaporean and 303 Taiwanese eighth graders' SLSE and further to examine the differences between the two student groups. Moreover, within-culture comparisons were made in terms of gender. The results showed that, first, the SLSE instrument was valid and reliable for measuring the Singaporean and Taiwanese students' SLSE. Second, through a two-way multivariate analysis of variance analysis (nationality by gender), the main result indicated that the SLSE held by the Singaporean eighth graders was significantly higher than that of their Taiwanese counterparts in all dimensions, including 'conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills', 'practical work (PW)', 'everyday application', and 'science communication'. In addition, the within-culture gender comparisons indicated that the male Singaporean students tended to possess higher SLSE than the female students did in all SLSE dimensions except for the 'PW' dimension. However, no gender differences were found in the Taiwanese sample. The findings unraveled in this study were interpreted from a socio-cultural perspective in terms of the curriculum differences, societal expectations of science education, and educational policies in Singapore and Taiwan.

  8. Comparison of Efficacy and Threat Perception Processes in Predicting Smoking among University Students Based on Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashirian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The survey of smoking as the most toxic, common and cheapest ad-diction, and its psychological and demographic variables especially among the youth who are efficient and constructive individuals of the society is of great importance. This study was performed to compare efficacy and threat perception in predicting cigarette smoking among university students based on Expended Parallel Process Model (EPPM. Material & Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out on 700 college stu-dents of Hamadan recruited with a stratified sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, smoking status and EPPM Data analysis was done with the SPSS software (version 16, using t-test, one way ANOVA, Pierson correlation and logistic regression methods. Results: The average scores of threat and efficacy perception were 39.7 and 38.6, respectively. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among participants was 27.1 percent. Also, there were significant differences between the average score of efficacy perception and age, gender, his-tory of drug abuse and dwelling of students (P<0.05. Efficacy and threat perception both predicted student cigarette smoking. Conclusions: Cognitive mediating process of threat perception was a more powerful predictor of cigarette smoking as an unsafe behavior. Therefore, increasing self efficacy and response efficacy of university students aimed at facilitating the acceptance of safe behavior could be note-worthy as a principle in education. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:58-65

  9. Comparison of Efficacy Compressive Stockings with Heparin in Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Majdi-Nasab

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study is carried out to make a comparison between two pharmacological (heparin and physical (compression stockings in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in lower limb of the patients suffered from acute stroke. Materials and Methods: In this investigation as a clinical trial, the effectiveness of the above methods on 100 patients with the stroke was compared in two groups of 50 persons. Results: Three patients in physical group and two patients in pharmacological group got deep vein thrombosis that showed no significant difference between two groups.Conclusion: In spite of no significant relationship and due to less incurrence of thrombosis in heparin group, it is more reasonable to use pharmacological methods.

  10. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment in children with hypochondroplasia: comparison with an historical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Graziella; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Le Merrer, Martine; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Baujat, Geneviève; Fresneau, Laurence; Viaud, Magali; Souberbielle, Jean Claude; Pineau, Jean Claude; Polak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature. The aims of the study are to evaluate efficacy and safety of recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) therapy in HCH children, when compared with a historical cohort of untreated HCH children. Nineteen HCH patients with an initial height standard deviation score (SDS) ≤-2 and a mean age of 9.3 ± 3.1 years were treated with a mean r-hGH dose of 0.053 mg/kg/day over 3 years. Growth charts were derived from the historical cohort (n = 40). Height gain in the treated population was +0.62 ± 0.81 SDS greater than in the general population, and +1.39 ± 0.9 SDS greater than in the historical untreated HCH cohort (mean gain of 7.4 ± 6.6 cm gain). A negative correlation between height gain and age at treatment initiation was reported (p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in response between patients with fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 mutations and those without. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. r-hGH treatment is well tolerated and effective in improving growth in HCH patients, particularly when started early. The treatment effect varies greatly and must be evaluated for each patient during treatment to determine the value of continued therapy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. [Comparison of subgingival debridement efficacy of air polishing and manual scaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cong-jiao; Yin, Yuan-zheng; Guan, Dan-ping

    2015-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of subgingival air polishing and traditional manual scaling in 3-6 mm pockets. Patients with chronic periodontitis who were in the maintenance phase were randomly assigned to receive subgingival air polishing (experimental group) and manual scaling (control group) in 4 teeth with probing depths of 3 to 6 mm. Clinical variables including plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), probing on bleeding (BOP) and gingival recession (GR) were recorded at baseline, 7 and 30 days post-treatment. "Pocket closure" [PD ≤ 4 mm and BOP⁻] was also calculated as supplementary data. The data of the 2 groups were compared using paired t test with SAS 8.2 software package. Thirty-one patients were enrolled and PI was 0.8 during the study. Both treatment procedures resulted in significant reductions of PD at day 7 (Pmanual scaling are both effective for improving clinical variables during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) in teeth with probing depths of 3 to 6 mm. But the results reveal no significant difference between the 2 modalities.

  13. A comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of articaine and lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto; Siviero, Marcelo; Costa, Carina Gisele; Buscariolo, Inês Aparecida; Armonia, Paschoal Laércio

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Forty volunteers, patients with irreversible pulpitis admitted to the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry at the University of São Paulo, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 3.6 mL of either 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. During the subsequent pulpectomy, we recorded the patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation, and the absence/presence of pain through a verbal analogue scale. All tested patients reported lip anesthesia after the application of either inferior alveolar nerve block. Regarding pulpal anesthesia success as measured with the pulp tester, the lidocaine solution had a higher success rate (70%) than the articaine solution (65%). For patients reporting none or mild pain during pulpectomy, the success rate of the articaine solution (65%) was higher than that of the lidocaine solution (45%). Yet, none of the observed differences between articaine and lidocaine were statistically significant. Apparently, therefore, both local anesthetic solutions had similar effects on the patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Neither of the solutions, however, resulted in an effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments.

  14. Comparison of hesperetin and its metabolites for cholesterol-lowering and antioxidative efficacy in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jin Hee; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2010-08-01

    This study was performed to compare the hypolipidemic and antioxidant efficacy of hesperetin and its metabolites in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. The hamsters were fed a high-fat (10% coconut oil and 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with hesperetin (0.02%) or hesperetin metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (DHPP) (0.012%) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid) (0.013%), for 12 weeks. Dietary DHPP and ferulic acid were found to have significantly decreased the levels of the plasma total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B, hepatic lipids, and cholesterol-regulating enzymes compared to the control group. In particular, ferulic acid was more potent with respect to raising HDL-C/total cholesterol ratio and paraoxonase levels while decreasing atherogenic index values. Hesperetin and its metabolites seemed to enhance antioxidant capacity by lowering the hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substrates) levels. Among the hesperetin metabolites tested, the relative potency of ferulic acid for reducing the risks of atherosclerosis in hamsters was found to be greater.

  15. The efficacy of selective calculus ablation at 400 nm: comparison to conventional calculus removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf; Romanos, Georgios; Rechmann, Peter

    A desired outcome of scaling and root planing is the complete removal of calculus and infected root tissue and preservation of healthy cementum for rapid healing of periodontal tissues. Conventional periodontal treatments for calculus removal, such as hand instrument scaling and ultrasonic scaling, often deeply scrape the surface of the underlying hard tissue and may leave behind a smear layer. Pulsed lasers emitting at violet wavelengths (specifically, 380 to 400 nm) are a potential alternative treatment since they can selectively ablate dental calculus without ablating pristine hard tissue (i.e., enamel, cementum, and dentin). In this study, light and scanning electron microscopy are used to compare and contrast the efficacy of in vitro calculus removal for several conventional periodontal treatments (hand instruments, ultrasonic scaler, and Er:YAG laser) to calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire (λ = 400 nm). After calculus removal, enamel and cementum surfaces are investigated for calculus debris and damage to the underlying hard tissue surface. Compared to the smear layer, grooves, and unintentional hard tissue removal typically found using these conventional treatments, calculus removal using the 400-nm laser is complete and selective without any removal of pristine dental hard tissue. Based on these results, selective ablation from the 400-nm laser appears to produce a root surface that would be more suitable for successful healing of periodontal tissues.

  16. The comparison of the efficacy of radiofrequency nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression in lumbar radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barıs Adakli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain is a common clinical condition causing medical, socioeconomic, and treatment difficulties. In our study, we aimed to compare early and long-term efficacy of lumbar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression (TDD in patients with lumbar radiculopathy in whom previous conventional therapy had failed. The medical records of 37 patients undergoing TDD and 36 patients undergoing lumbar RFTC nucleoplasty were retrospectively examined and assigned to the Group D and Group N, respectively. In all patients Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Functional Rating Index (FRI were recorded before treatment and after one, six and twelve months after the procedure. The North American Spine Society Satisfaction Scale (NASSSS was also recoreded twelve months after the therapeutic procedure. Statistically significant postprocedural improvement in VAS and FRI was evident in both groups. VAS scores after one, six, and twelve month were slightly higher in Group N, compared to Group D. The overall procedure-related patient satisfaction ratio was 67.5% in the Group D, compared to 75% in the Group N. Regardless of the different mechanism of action, both methods are effective therapies for lumbar radiculopathy, with TDD showing long-term lower pain scores.

  17. Comparison of the efficacies of patching and penalization therapies for the treatment of amblyopia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin Cabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Tocompare the efficacies of patching and penalization therapies for the treatment of amblyopia patients.METHODS:The records of 64 eyes of 50 patients 7 to 16y of age who had presented to our clinics with a diagnosis of amblyopia, were evaluated retrospectively. Forty eyes of 26 patients who had received patching therapy and 24 eyes of 24 patients who had received penalization therapy included in this study. The latencies and amplitudes of visual evoked potential (VEP records and best corrected visual acuities (BCVA of these two groups were compared before and six months after the treatment.RESULTS:In both patching and the penalization groups, the visual acuities increased significantly following the treatments (P<0.05. The latency measurements of the P100 wave obtained at 1.0°, 15 arc min. Patterns of both groups significantly decreased following the 6-months-treatment. However, the amplitude measurements increased (P<0.05.CONCLUSION: The patching and the penalization methods, which are the main methods used in the treatment of amblyopia, were also effective over the age of 7y, which has been accepted as the critical age for the treatment of amblyopia.

  18. Comparison of the efficacies of patching and penalization therapies for the treatment of amblyopia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabi, Cemalettin; Sayman Muslubas, Isil Bahar; Aydin Oral, Ayse Yesim; Dastan, Metin

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacies of patching and penalization therapies for the treatment of amblyopia patients. The records of 64 eyes of 50 patients 7 to 16y of age who had presented to our clinics with a diagnosis of amblyopia, were evaluated retrospectively. Forty eyes of 26 patients who had received patching therapy and 24 eyes of 24 patients who had received penalization therapy included in this study. The latencies and amplitudes of visual evoked potential (VEP) records and best corrected visual acuities (BCVA) of these two groups were compared before and six months after the treatment. In both patching and the penalization groups, the visual acuities increased significantly following the treatments (P<0.05). The latency measurements of the P100 wave obtained at 1.0°, 15 arc min. Patterns of both groups significantly decreased following the 6-months-treatment. However, the amplitude measurements increased (P<0.05). The patching and the penalization methods, which are the main methods used in the treatment of amblyopia, were also effective over the age of 7y, which has been accepted as the critical age for the treatment of amblyopia.

  19. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  20. Scanning electron microscopy comparison of the cleaning efficacy of a root canal system by Nd:YAG laser and rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Mohammad; Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi Vahid; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Shakoei, Sahar; Ebrahimpour, Delaram; Taghavi, Pedram

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the cleaning efficacy of a root canal system by Nd:YAG laser and rotary instruments. Sixty single-rooted human teeth were divided into four experimental groups (n=15). In the first group the teeth were prepared with a step-back technique using conventional K-files. In the second and third groups, tooth preparation was carried out using Nd:YAG laser and rotary NiTi instruments, respectively. Teeth in the fourth group were prepared by combined laser and rotary methods. The smear layer remaining on canal walls was then assessed by scanning electron microscopy in the coronal, middle, and apical portions. The comparison of smear layer removal efficacy between groups was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean grades of smear layer removal in rotary-laser, rotary, laser and step-back techniques were 1.34 ± 0.18, 2.2 ± 0.28, 1.91 ± 0.25, and 2.42 ± 0.19, respectively. On the whole, differences between rotary-laser and rotary groups, step-back, and the three other techniques (rotary, laser, and rotary-laser) were significant at p=0.034. Based on the findings of this study, the cleaning efficacy of rotary, laser, and rotary-laser techniques were better than the step-back technique and the combined laser and rotary technique was the most efficient method.

  1. Assessing the Teaching Efficacy Beliefs of Teacher Trainees: A Comparison of Two Institutions of Higher Learning in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoti, Sheila N.; Junqueira, Karen E.; Odora, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the teaching efficacy beliefs of third-year teacher education students from two different institutions, in three categories: student engagement, instructional strategies and classroom management. The study used a descriptive survey design. The target population for the study was all third-year students enrolled in five…

  2. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of intravenous Paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in multimodal analgesia after hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Ünal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: We aimed to evaluate analgesic efficacy, opioid-sparing, and opioid-related adverse effects of intravenous paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in combination with iv morphine after total abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status Classification I-II patients scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled to this double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled, and prospective study. Patients were divided into three groups as paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, and placebo (0.9% NaCl due to their post-operative analgesic usage. Intravenous patient controlled analgesia morphine was used as a rescue analgesic in all groups. Pain scores, hemodynamic parameters, morphine consumption, patient satisfaction, and side-effects were evaluated. Results: Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were not statistically significantly different among the groups in all evaluation times, but decrease in VAS scores was statistically significant after the evaluation at 12 th h in all groups. Total morphine consumption (morphine concentration = 0.2 mg/ml in group paracetamol (72.3 ± 38.0 ml and dexketoprofen trometamol (69.3 ± 24.1 ml was significantly lower than group placebo (129.3 ± 22.6 ml (P < 0.001. Global satisfaction scores of the patients in group placebo was significantly lower than group dexketoprofen trometamol after surgery and the increase in global satisfaction score was significant only in group placebo. Conclusion: Dexketoprofen trometamol and Paracetamol didn′t cause significant change on pain scores, but increased patients′ comfort. Although total morphine consumption was significantly decreased by both drugs, the incidence of nausea and vomiting were similar among the groups. According to results of the present study routine addition of dexketoprofen trometamol and paracetamol to patient controlled analgesia morphine after hysterectomies is not

  3. COMPARISON OF SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF LEVOSULPIRIDE AND ITOPRIDE IN TREATMENT OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ibrahim Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD is a common condition caused by reflux of the liquid acidic contents of the stomach into the oesophagus. Prokinetic medications can be used to treat or control the disease. Such medications can have mild-toserious adverse effects. Levosulpiride and itopride are two such medications, which are used for treating GERD. The aim of the study is to assess the safety and efficacy of levosulpiride and itopride in the management of GERD and to study the side effects and treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total 210 patients aged 18 to 90 years, 99 males and 111 females (male:female ratio of 1:1.1 with reflux oesophagitis were divided into three groups and an endoscopy test was done before starting treatment. The control group received rabeprazole and the two test groups received levosulpiride and itopride. Clinical adverse events were recorded at the end of week 1 and week 2. Following treatment, relief of symptoms was assessed at the end of 2 weeks. RESULTS There were total 210 patients (99 males and 111 females. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.1. GERD was more common in the 31-50 year age group. Most common symptoms were of dyspepsia, regurgitation, vomiting and heartburn. Improvement of symptoms during the treatment was seen in 53% levosulpiride and 41% itopride patients, respectively. The main adverse effects were abdominal pain and nausea. The percentage of nausea was high with itopride than levosulpiride. CONCLUSION Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common problem frequently seen in both genders and in younger people. Symptomatic relief and endoscopic recovery is early with levosulpiride than itopride. Levosulpiride gives better quality of life earlier in the treatment than itopride and has lesser side effects and better healing outcome.

  4. Comparison of the Efficacy of Nifedipine and Hydralazine in Hypertensive Crisis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Youefzadeh-Fard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous hydralazine is a commonly administered arteriolar vasodilator that is effective for hypertensive emergencies associated with pregnancy. Oral nifedipine is an alternative in management of these patients. In this study the efficacy of nifedipine and hydralazine in pregnancy was compared in a group of Iranian patients. Fifty hypertensive pregnant women were enrolled in the study. A randomized clinical trial was performed, in which patients in two groups received intravenus hydralazine or oral nifedipine to achieve target blood pressure reduction. The primary outcomes measured were the time and doses required for desired blood pressure achievement. Secondary measures included urinary output and maternal and neonatal side effects. The time required for reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was shorter for oral nifedipine group (24.0±10.0 min than intravenus Hydralazine group (34.8±18.8 min (P≤0.016. Less frequent doses were required with oral nifedipine (1.2±0.5 compared to intravenus hydralazine (2.1±1.0 (P≤0.0005. There were no episodes of hypotension after hydralazine and one after nifedipine. Nifedipine and hydralazine are safe and effective antihypertensive drugs, showing a controlled and comparable blood pressure reduction in women with hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. Both drugs reduce episodes of persistent severe hypertension. Considering pharmacokinetic properties of nifedipine such as rapid onset and long duration of action, the good oral bioavailability and less frequent side effects, it looks more preferable in hypertension emergencies of pregnancy than hydralazine.

  5. Comparison of epsilon aminocaproic acid and tranexamic Acid in thoracic aortic surgery: clinical efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Neeti; Sarupria, Anju; Kumar Choudhary, Shiv; Das, Sambhunath; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Kiran, Usha

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) versus epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery. A prospective randomized study. A tertiary care center. The study was conducted on 64 consecutive adult patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Group EACA received a bolus of 50 mg/kg of EACA after induction of anesthesia over 20 minutes followed by maintenance infusion of 25 mg/kg/h until chest closure. Group TXA received a bolus of 10 mg/kg of TXA after induction of anesthesia over 20 minutes followed by maintenance infusion of 1 mg/kg/h until chest closure. Cumulated mean blood loss, total packed red blood cells, and blood product requirement up to 24 h postoperatively were comparable between groups. A significant renal injury (EACA 40% v TXA 16%; p = 0.04) and increased tendency for renal failure (EACA 10% v TXA 0%, p = 0.11; relative risk 2.15) were observed with EACA compared to TXA. There was increased tendency of seizure with TXA (EACA v TXA: 3.3% v 10%; p>0.05, relative risk 1.53). There was significant increase in the D-dimer from preoperative to postoperative values in Group EACA. (p< 0.01). Both EACA and TXA were equally effective in reducing the perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirement in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery. While significant renal injury was observed with EACA, there was a tendency for higher incidence of seizure with TXA. Prospective placebo-controlled trials recruiting larger sample size using sensitive biomarkers are required before any recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available mouthrinses: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopavathi Kallahalli Mruthyuenjaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity ecosystem represents a dynamic pattern. An effective plaque control measure should target plaque formation before the mature plaque is formed. Various types of chemotherapeutic agents are coming up with different antimicrobial agents in them. Hence, this study has been undertaken to know whether these antimicrobial agents are effective on common microorganisms of oral cavity which directly and indirectly contributes to plaque formation Aim: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial efficacy of different mouthrinses against the oral pathogens in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of seven mouthrinses were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three oral pathogens, namely, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by well agar diffusion assay. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test. The level of significance used was P< 0.05. Results: Mouthrinse with chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate, triclosan as main ingredients showed maximum zone of inhibition (P = 0.003 against streptococcal mutans and E. coli at 1:16 dilution and mouthrinse with CHX gluconate and zinc chloride showed maximum zone of inhibition at 1:16 dilution against Candida among seven mouthrinses used in the present study. It was also observed that zone of inhibition of all the mouthrinses decreased with the increase in dilution. Conclusion: Among mouthrinses formulations, CHX combined with other active ingredients was found to be more effective.

  7. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwar Iyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970 participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7 th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  8. Efficacy of combined hormonal vaginal ring in comparison to combined hormonal pills in heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Pushpa; Dalal, Monika; Yadav, Anu; Dahiya, Krishna; Jain, Shaveta; Silan, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy, acceptability and compliance of combined hormonal vaginal ring (CVR), with combined hormonal pills (CHP) in patients with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). This prospective study was conducted in 50 women with HMB in age group of 25-40 years. Patients were divided in two groups of 25 each and followed for six treatment cycles. In each group, cycle comprised of three weeks of CVR (releases 15μg of EE and 120μg of the etonogestrel per day) or CHP (containing 30μgm of EE and 150μgm of LNG) use, followed by one ring or pill free week. After each cycle, patients were evaluated about the amount of blood loss and duration of bleeding by the pictoral blood assessment chart (PBAC), early bleeding (EWB), continued bleeding (CWB), intermenstrual bleeding, intended bleeding, compliance, and user acceptability. The collected data were analyzed using the Chi square test, t-test and ANOVA test. Reduction in PBAC score for CVR (70.73%) and CHP group (70.02%), duration of bleeding and incidence of EWB was comparable among the two groups. The incidence of intermenstrual bleeding was lower in CVR than in CHP group in cycle 3 and 4 with significant p value. The incidence of CWB was significantly lower and the incidence of intended bleeding pattern in CVR group was significantly higher in cycle 3, 4, 5 and 6, signifying better cycle control. Compliance was also higher in CVR (88%) than CHC (75.33% of all cycles). This trial suggests that both the CVR and CHP are very effective short-term treatments for HMB in reproductive age group. However, women had better cycle control and compliance with CVR. This may be an attractive option among the wide variety of medications used to treat HMB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy comparison of adjuvants in PcrV vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoka, Saeko; Naito, Yoshifumi; Katoh, Hideya; Shimizu, Masaru; Kinoshita, Mao; Akiyama, Koichi; Kainuma, Atsushi; Moriyama, Kiyoshi; Ishii, Ken J; Sawa, Teiji

    2017-02-01

    Vaccination against the type III secretion system of P. aeruginosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for reducing the incidence and improving the poor prognosis of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. In this study, the efficacies of three different adjuvants, Freund's adjuvant (FA), aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), were examined from the viewpoint of inducing PcrV-specific immunity against virulent P. aeruginosa. Mice that had been immunized intraperitoneally with recombinant PcrV formulated with one of the above adjuvants were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose of P. aeruginosa. The PcrV-FA immunized group attained a survival rate of 91%, whereas the survival rates of the PcrV-alum and PcrV-CpG groups were 73% and 64%, respectively. In terms of hypothermia recovery after bacterial instillation, PcrV-alum was the most protective, followed by PcrV-FA and PcrV-CpG. The lung edema index was lower in the PcrV-CpG vaccination group than in the other groups. PcrV-alum immunization was associated with the greatest decrease in myeloperoxidase in infected lungs, and also decreased the number of lung bacteria to a similar number as in the PcrV-FA group. There was less neutrophil recruitment in the lungs of mice vaccinated with PcrV-alum or PcrV-CpG than in those of mice vaccinated with PcrV-FA or PcrV alone. Overall, in terms of mouse survival the PcrV-CpG vaccine, which could be a relatively safe next-generation vaccine, showed a comparable effect to the PcrV-alum vaccine. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Contemporary Obturating Materials used in Primary Teeth- An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navit, Saumya; Jaiswal, Neha; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Malhotra, Seema; Sharma, Anshul; Mukesh; Jabeen, Seema; Agarwal, Gaurav

    2016-09-01

    Preservation of primary tooth with non-vital pulp has been a major problem for pediatric dentist. In such cases, the preferred treatment modality is pulpectomy. The objective of pulpectomy is complete removal of necrotic and irreversibly infected pulp of an affected tooth but, in spite of chemomechanical preparation and copious irrigation of canal, there are chances of failure of pulp therapy due to the entrapped micro organisms in the canal space owing to the tortuous and complex nature of the root canal system and change in their morphology with root resorption. Thus, for optimal success of endodontic treatment, obturating material with antimicrobial properties is advocated in deciduous teeth. The aim of the study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of different obturating materials used in pediatric dentistry. In the present study, antimicrobial efficacy of endoflas, Zinc Oxide Eugenol (ZOE), calcium hydroxide with chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide with iodoform and distilled water, metapex and saline as control were assessed and compared with each other. The antimicrobial efficacy of obturating materials was evaluated against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) by agar diffusion method. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 15.0. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post-Hoc Tests (Tukey-HSD) were performed to reveal the statistical significance. Intergroup comparison at 24 hours (Tukey's test) revealed significant difference amongst all the groups. Endoflas had significantly higher zone of inhibition as compared to all the other groups except group treated with ZOE (p-value ZOE >Calcium hydroxide + Chlorhexidine > Calcium hydroxide + Iodoform +Distilled water ~ Metapex > Saline.

  11. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Contemporary Obturating Materials used in Primary Teeth- An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Neha; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Malhotra, Seema; Sharma, Anshul; Mukesh; Jabeen, Seema; Agarwal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preservation of primary tooth with non-vital pulp has been a major problem for pediatric dentist. In such cases, the preferred treatment modality is pulpectomy. The objective of pulpectomy is complete removal of necrotic and irreversibly infected pulp of an affected tooth but, in spite of chemomechanical preparation and copious irrigation of canal, there are chances of failure of pulp therapy due to the entrapped micro organisms in the canal space owing to the tortuous and complex nature of the root canal system and change in their morphology with root resorption. Thus, for optimal success of endodontic treatment, obturating material with antimicrobial properties is advocated in deciduous teeth. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of different obturating materials used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and Methods In the present study, antimicrobial efficacy of endoflas, Zinc Oxide Eugenol (ZOE), calcium hydroxide with chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide with iodoform and distilled water, metapex and saline as control were assessed and compared with each other. The antimicrobial efficacy of obturating materials was evaluated against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) by agar diffusion method. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 15.0. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post-Hoc Tests (Tukey-HSD) were performed to reveal the statistical significance. Results Intergroup comparison at 24 hours (Tukey’s test) revealed significant difference amongst all the groups. Endoflas had significantly higher zone of inhibition as compared to all the other groups except group treated with ZOE (p-value ZOE >Calcium hydroxide + Chlorhexidine > Calcium hydroxide + Iodoform +Distilled water ~ Metapex > Saline. PMID:27790570

  12. Efficacy of a Brief Group Parent–Teen Intervention in Driver Education to Reduce Teenage Driver Injury Risk: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrajsek, Jennifer S.; Shope, Jean T.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an adapted Checkpoints Program designed to increase parental limits on novice teen independent driving under high-risk conditions. Twenty-seven class sessions with a minimum of 5 dyads each were delivered in driver education to 231 parent–teen dyads. Entire driving school classes were randomized to Checkpoints Program or comparison group sessions, both led by a trained health educator. At licensure, compared with parents in the comparison ...

  13. Comparison between latanoprost and brimonidine efficacy and safety in Indian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ravi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the short-term efficacy and safety of topical latanoprost and brimonidine in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with ocular hypertension, primary open-angle, pseudoexfoliation or pigmentary glaucoma were enrolled. Following baseline measurements, latanoprost was applied topically once daily in the evening for 12-weeks. After a washout period, brimonidine was applied twice daily in all patients for 6 weeks; 16 patients continued for 12 weeks. Patients were examined at 2, 6 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the difference in mean intra ocular pressure (IOP reduction at 6 and 12 weeks. The mean diurnal variation of IOP at baseline and at 12 weeks was also compared. Results: Twenty-six of 28 enrolled patients completed the study. One randomly selected eye of each patient was used for analysis. At 6 weeks, the mean IOP reduction was 11.2 mm Hg (± 2.9 mmHg with latanoprost and 6 mmHg (± 3.3 mmHg with brimonidine. At 12 weeks this was 10.8 mmHg (± 2.8 mmHg and 6.9 mmHg (± 3.1 mmHg respectively. At 6 weeks 85.7% (24 eyes obtained more than 25% reduction in IOP with latanoprost compared to 13 (46.4% with brimonidine. IOP reduction was maintained with both drugs throughout the study period. Two eyes did not show any response to brimonidine. Latanoprost reduced the diurnal variation of IOP from 5.10 to 2.90 mmHg; brimonidine reduced it from 4.70 to 3.90 mmHg. Conjunctival hyperaemia was present in one patient on latanoprost and three patients on brimonidine. Two patients experienced drowsiness with brimonidine. Neither drug produced side effects necessitating withdrawal from the study. Conclusion: In this short-term study, both latanoprost and brimonidine effectively reduced IOP and stabilised the diurnal curve in Indian eyes. Latanoprost was more effective than brimonidine.

  14. A retrospective evaluation of the efficacy of intravenous bumetanide and comparison of potency with furosemide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nappi JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potency of intravenous bumetanide to furosemide using a ratio of 1:40 has been suggested; however, there are little data supporting this ratio. Recent drug shortages required the use of bumetanide in a large patient population, enabling further characterization of the efficacy of IV bumetanide.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to estimate a dose-response effect of IV bumetanide on urine output (UOP in all patients that received 48 hours of therapy as well as in a subgroup of patients with heart failure (HF. This subgroup was used to compare the potency of bumetanide with furosemide. A secondary safety objective described electrolyte replacement required during therapy. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study examining the dose-response effect of IV bumetanide in patients receiving at least 48 hours of intermittent (iIV or continuous (cIV dosing, measured by UOP per mg of drug received (mL/mg. The potency of IV bumetanide was compared with furosemide in a subset of patients with HF using pre-existing data. The safety of IV bumetanide was analyzed by quantifying electrolyte replacement received during the study period.Results: The primary outcome was higher in the iIV group (n=93 at 1273 ± 844 mL/mg compared with the cIV group (n=16 at 749 ± 370 mL/mg (P=0.002. Among patients with HF who received furosemide (iIV n=30, cIV n=26 or bumetanide (iIV n=30, cIV n=3, a potency ratio of 41:1 was found for the iIV group and 34:1 for all patients with HF. There was no significant difference in electrolyte replacement between groups.Conclusion: A greater response was seen with intermittent bumetanide compared with continuous infusion bumetanide. This study supports the 40:1 dose equivalence ratio (furosemide:bumetanide in patients with HF receiving at least 48 hours of intravenous intermittent bumetanide.

  15. [Efficacy comparison of menopausal irritability between acupuncture and medication: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Suo-Tang

    2014-05-01

    To observe the differences in the clinical efficacy on menopausal irritability between acupuncture and medication. Sixty cases of menopausal irritability were randomized into an acupuncture group (31 cases) and a medication group (29 cases). In the acupuncture group, the warming needling manipulation was applied at the key acupoints such as Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3), once a day, 10 treatments made one session. Totally, 2 sessions were required. In the medication group, 2.5 mg diazepam tablets were prescribed, three times a day, for 23 days totally. The clinical efficacy, the modified Kupperman score and self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS) were compared before and after treatment in the two groups. RESULTS The total effective rate was 87. 1% (27/31) in the acupuncture group and 82.8% (24/29) in the medication group. The difference in the clinical efficacy was not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). The modified Kupperman score and SRHMS score were both reduced obviously after treatment in the two groups, indicating the significant difference (all P acupuncture group was more obvious than those in the medication group (Kupperman: 15.23 +/- 6.19 vs 18.45 +/- 5.37; SRHMS: 116.29 +/- 38.24 vs 140.34 +/- 42.15, both P acupuncture and medication are effective in the treatment of menopausal irritability, but the efficacy of warming needling manipulation is better than that of diazepam tablets.

  16. Efficacy comparison of scopolamine and diazepam against soman-induced debilitation in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Gennings, C.; Carter, W.H.; Harris, L.W.; Lennox, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    The efficacy of diazepam (DZ) and scopolamine (SCP), in combination with atropine (ATR) + oxime therapy, against soman-induced seizure/convulsive activity and associated brain damage has been demonstrated, but the efficacy of each against the incapacitating effects of soman has not been addressed. Thus, the therapeutic efficacies of SCP (5 doses; 0-0.86 mg/kg) and DZ (5 doses; 0-5 mg/kg), when each was used in conjunction with ATR (3 doses; 0.5-8 mg/kg) + 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) therapy, were compared in groups of pyridostigmine pretreated guinea pigs exposed to 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.2 LD5Os of soman. Response surface methodology was employed to describe the relationship between soman-induced incapacitation and the ATR/DZ or ATRISCP dosages. Incapacitation was measured by toxicity scores assigned by three graders to test animals at 60 min postsoman. Results show that as the dosage of SCP increased, the mean toxicity scores decreased. Also, within the indicated dose ranges used, the efficacy of SCP was not dependent on the presence of ATR. In contrast, ATR alone was found to be more effective than when combined with DZ at any dose, and indicates that DZ might be temporarily contributing to soman-induced incapacitation. These findings suggest that in guinea pigs, SCP could replace ATR or DZ, or both, as therapy against soman-induced incapacitation.

  17. Student Success through Leadership Self-Efficacy: A Comparison of International and Domestic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David H. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is scarce research that examines the leadership experiences of international students on campus. Leadership capacity and efficacy are important indicators of success in higher education and are linked to important academic, career, and life benefits, such as career and leadership aspirations, work performance, the ability to cope and…

  18. Enhancing Self-Efficacy and Performance: An Experimental Comparison of Psychological Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradley James; O'Halloran, Paul Daniel; Stukas, Arthur Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed how 6 psychological performance enhancement techniques (PETs) differentially improved self-efficacy (SE) and skill performance. We also assessed whether vicarious experiences and verbal persuasion as posited sources of SE (Bandura, 1982) were supported and, further, if the effects of the 6 PETs remained after controlling for…

  19. efficacy of sotalol suppression of beats A comparison of the and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    no first-pass effect, is excreted unchanged in the urine, has a comparatively long half-life ... SA MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 63 19 FEBRUARY 1983. A 24-hour Holter .... Myburgh DP, Goldman AP, Cartoon J, Schamroth JM. The efficacy ...

  20. Assessing the Teacher Self-Efficacy of Agriculture Instructors and Their Early Career Employment Status: A Comparison of Certification Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to assess the level of teacher self-efficacy of first-year, secondary agricultural education teachers in Oklahoma at the beginning and end of their entry-year in the profession and describe their early career retention. This study found that these first-year teachers increased their level of…

  1. [Effects of a cognitive-behavioral patient education on fibromyalgia: a controlled efficacy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M; Krohn-Grimberghe, B; Petermann, F

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral patient education program was compared with the efficacy of treatment based solely on patient education. Both forms of treatment were integrated into the inpatient rehabilitation program. For therapy of fibromyalgia a multimodal therapy has been shown to be effective. Stress management, pain management and relaxation techniques enhance the ability to cope with the disease. Various questionnaires including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the questionnaire for assessment of level of coping with pain (FESV) and the patient questionnaire IRES-24 were distributed to 3,541 fibromyalgia patients within the framework of a pre, post and 6-month follow-up study design. Multivariate variance models were used for data analysis. Both interventions showed positive effects on psychological impairment, coping with pain and state of health. Only the paired comparison showed different results. However, cognitive-behavioral patient education showed better effects on independent coping with the disease. These patients showed an improved ability to cope with pain and a better state of health at the end of the rehabilitation program. Multimodal inpatient rehabilitation programs can have a strong positive impact on the course of the disease for patients with fibromyalgia. A cognitive-behavioral treatment appears to strongly influence coping with the disease.

  2. Efficacy of glutathione mesotherapy in burns: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buz, A; Görgülü, T; Olgun, A; Kargi, E

    2016-12-01

    Thermal burns are the leading cause of trauma worldwide. Currently, no consensus on optimal treatment of deep partial-thickness (second-degree) burns has emerged, as reflected by the wide variability in available wound-care materials. The relative efficacies of products used for treatment of partial-thickness thermal burns remain unclear. Mesotherapy features intradermal administration of various agents, depending on burn location. In the present experimental study, we explored the efficacy of mesotherapy used to treat partial-thickness thermal burns in 50 male Wistar rats divided into five groups of equal number. No procedure was performed after infliction of thermal burns in control group (Group 1). Mesotherapy was applied with physiological saline in sham group (Group 2), glutathione, taurine, and L-carnitine were separately applied in Group 3, Group 4, and Group 5, respectively. Mesotherapeutic agents were injected intradermally into the reticular layer of the dermis using the point technique. The first course of mesotherapy was given within the first 2 h after infliction of thermal burns, and therapy was continued to day 10. On day 22, unhealed thermal burn areas were measured prior to sacrifice, and biopsies covering the total areas of burns were performed to allow of pathological evaluation. Group 3 (the glutathione group) showed the best extent of healing, followed by Group 4 (the taurine group) and Group 5 (the L-carnitine group). The healed thermal burn areas in these groups were significantly greater than those in the control and sham groups (P = 0.001). All of healing, acute and chronic inflammation, the amount of granulation tissue, the level of fibroblast maturation, the amount of collagen, the extent of re-epithelization and neovascularization, and ulcer depth were scored upon pathological examination of tissue cross-sections. The best outcomes were evident in the glutathione group, with statistical significance. Although wound healing in the L

  3. A comparative study on the efficacy of solifenacin succinate in patients with urinary frequency with or without urgency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Han

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with overactive bladder (OAB often have trouble perceiving urgency because of difficulties in distinguishing between urgency and desire to void. Empirical antimuscarinic treatment of patients with frequency only may be reasonable if conservative management has failed. We compared the efficacy of solifenacin in patients with frequency with or without urgency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter, 12-week, open-label, comparative, non-inferiority clinical trial assessed whether the solifenacin efficacy for frequency without urgency is non-inferior to its efficacy for frequency with urgency. All patients had micturition frequency ≥ 8 voids/day with or without urgency. Primary efficacy variable: daily frequency change at 12 weeks relative to baseline. Secondary efficacy variables: change at 12 weeks relative to baseline in Patients' Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC, OAB Symptom Score (OABSS, and Benefit, Satisfaction, Willingness to continue (BSW questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 286 enrolled patients, 240 (83.9% completed the study (without urgency n = 115; with urgency n = 125. Full dataset analysis revealed that the groups without and with urgency exhibited significant reductions in daily micturition frequency of -2.49 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard error and -2.63 ± 0.37, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% two-sided CI of the comparison of the two group means was -1.14, which is smaller than the -0.8 margin of clinical equivalence. The two groups did not differ in improvement in PPBC, OABSS, or BSW scores. Both tolerated the treatment well. CONCLUSIONS: It was not possible to verify that the solifenacin efficacy for frequency alone was non-inferior to its efficacy for OAB. Nevertheless, solifenacin tended to be effective for frequency regardless of urgency. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00979472.

  4. Indirect comparison of randomised controlled trials: comparative efficacy of dexlansoprazole vs. esomeprazole in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M S; Tan, S C; Xiong, T

    2013-07-01

    Dexlansoprazole is a new proton pump inhibitor (PPI) with a dual delayed-release system. Both dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole are an enantiomer of lansoprazole and omeprazole respectively. However, there is no head-to-head trial data or indirect comparison analyses between dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole. To compare the efficacy of dexlansoprazole with esomeprazole in healing erosive oesophagitis (EO), the maintenance of healed EO and the treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing dexlansoprazole or esomeprazole with either placebo or another PPI were systematically reviewed. Random-effect meta-analyses and adjusted indirect comparisons were conducted to compare the treatment effect of dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole using a common comparator. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The indirect comparisons revealed significant differences in symptom control of heartburn in patients with NERD at 4 weeks. Dexlansoprazole 30 mg was more effective than esomeprazole 20 mg or 40 mg (RR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.15-3.51; RR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.39-3.38). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the two drugs in EO healing and maintenance of healed EO. Comparison of symptom control in healed EO was not able to be made due to different definitions used in the RCTs. Adjusted indirect comparisons based on currently available RCT data suggested significantly better treatment effect in symptom control of heartburn in patients with NERD for dexlansoprazole against esomeprazole. No statistically significant differences were found in other EO outcomes. However, these study findings need to be interpreted with caution due to small number of studies and other limitations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of lisuride versus bromocriptine in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Erenus, M.; Kır, M.; Kutlay, L.C.; Pekin, S.

    1994-01-01

    Dopamine agonists have been succesfully used in the treatment of various clinical disorders associated with hyperprolactinemia. However all of them are associated with some side effects which differ in incidence and severity. We have compared the efficacy and side effects of lisuride with bromocriptine in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia.Twenty women with hyperprolactinemia were randomized to receive either oral lisuride or bromocriptine. Ten patients received lisuride 0.2 mg b.i.d. and ot...

  6. EFFICACY OF IPL IN TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS : COMPARISON OF SINGLE- AND BURST-PULSE MODE IN IPL

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresan M; Srinivas C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used for the treatment of facial acne. Modifications of various parameters allow flexibility in treatment, which include energy fluence, pulse duration, and pulse delay. We compared the efficacy of burst-pulse (multiple pulse) mode with single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the IPL in treatment of facial acne and to compare burst-pulse and single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Ma...

  7. Efficacy comparison of scopolamine (SCP) and diazepam (DZ) against soman-induced lethality in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L.W.; Gennings, C.; Carter, W.H.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Diazepam (DZ) and scopolamine (SCP) are known to be beneficial when each is used in combination with atropine (AT) + oxime therapy against intoxication by soman, but the efficacy of each might be expected to vary with the dosage of AT. Thus, the therapeutic efficacy of SCP (5 doses; 0 - 0.86 mg/kg) versus DZ (5 doses; 0 - 5 mg/kg), when used in conjunction with AT (3 doses; 0.5 - S mg/kg) + 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) therapy, was tested in groups of pyridostigmine pretreated guinea pigs exposed to 1.6, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.2 LD5Os of soman. Response surface methodology was employed to describe the relationship between lethality and the AT/DZ or AT/SCP dosages. Results show that within the indicated dose ranges used, the efficacy of SCP is not dependent on the presence of AT, whereas AT is needed for DZ to maintain the lowest probability of death. These findings suggest that in guinea pigs SCP could supplement AT or replace DZ as therapy against nerve agent intoxication.

  8. EFFICACY OF IBUPROFEN IN TREATMENT OF PAIN IN CHILDREN: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    R. T. Saygitov

    2010-01-01

    The article presents results of systematic review of data on prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen. Data search was performed by PubMed database and Google search. 27 publications for analysis were available. Prophylactic efficacy of ibuprofen was studied in 14 studies. Summarizing of the results showed that ibuprofen prevents pain and decreases its following intensity after different surgical or dental operations. There is no significant difference in prophylactic efficacy of si...

  9. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals’ recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. ...

  10. Comparison of two neonatal indomethacin protocols: efficacy and outcome for patent ductus arteriosus closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosito, G; Sum, K; Chorne, N

    2010-10-01

    Indomethacin, a non-selective inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, is the gold standard treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Indomethacin has been shown to permanently close the ductus and when given prophylactically, it reduces the incidence of PDA (1, 2). This study compares PDA closure and surgical ligation rates between patients using two different indomethacin administration protocols. This is a retrospective comparison analysis of 72 neonates, who received one of two indomethacin administration protocols. Our previous protocol suggested an initial dose of 0·2 mg/kg followed by two 0·1 mg/kg, with doses infused over 4 h and a 24-h dosing interval. A new potentially more useful protocol using the same mg/kg dose regimen but with doses infused over 30 min and a 12-h dosing interval, was evaluated. Each neonate was allowed three courses of treatment before surgical ligation was performed for persistent PDA. There were no statistically significant differences between the two protocol groups when comparing percentages of neonates with gestational age≤28 weeks, birth weight≤1000 g, male gender or receiving indomethacin for the indication of PDA prophylaxis vs. treatment. There was a trend towards a higher PDA closure rate and subsequently a lower PDA ligation rate in the new protocol when compared with the previous protocol. In this small population of premature neonates, there was a trend, but no significant difference, towards increasing PDA closure and lower surgical ligation rates in neonates given indomethacin with more frequent dosing and shorter infusion time. A well-powered randomized controlled trial is now needed. Copyright © 2010 The Authors. JCPT © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The Study of Teacher Efficacy in Hong Kong Sub-Degree Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hung Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sub-degree sector is rising in Hong Kong. The number of enrolled students was over 50000 in 2011. Students’ characteristics and teachers’ roles in the sub-degree sector are different from other sectors. It was important to investigate the factors related with teacher efficacy of sub-degree teachers. Method. Sixty sub-degree teachers were surveyed, and 58 of them were valid (33 males and 25 females. The questionnaire contained three teacher efficacy scales: Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES (short form, Bandura’s Instrument Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES, and Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSoES and an instrument of self-rating’s levels of concerns. Results. The teacher efficacy scales were found to be reliable in the sub-degree sector. The levels of education and educational trainings were not found to be related with any teacher efficacy scales. Level of concerns of teacher efficacy was found to be significant related with TSES’ efficacy to influence parental involvement and ToSES’s instruction strategies. Conclusion. This study found that educational trainings and levels of educations were not related with teacher efficacy and could persuade institutes not to view educational backgrounds as the most influencing factor in employment selections and design better staff developments instead of only sponsoring teachers to pursue further studies.

  12. Bronchodilator efficacy of extrafine glycopyrronium bromide: the Glyco 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dave Singh,1 Mario Scuri,2 Sara Collarini,2 Stefano Vezzoli,2 Fabrizia Mariotti,2 Annamaria Muraro,2 Daniela Acerbi2 1Medicines Evaluation, University Of Manchester, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Global Clinical Development, Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy Abstract: An extrafine formulation of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium bromide (GB is in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, in combination with beclometasone dipropionate and formoterol fumarate – a “fixed triple”. This two-part study was randomized, double blind, placebo controlled in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: Part 1: single-dose escalation, GB 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 µg versus placebo; Part 2: repeat-dose (7-day, four-period crossover, GB 12.5, 25 or 50 µg twice daily (BID versus placebo, with an open-label extension in which all patients received tiotropium 18 µg once daily. On the morning of Day 8 in all five periods, patients also received formoterol 12 µg. In study Part 1, 27 patients were recruited. All GB doses significantly increased from baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 area under the curve (AUC0–12h and peak FEV1, with a trend toward greater efficacy with higher GB dose. All adverse events were mild–moderate in severity, with a lower incidence with GB than placebo and no evidence of a dose–response relationship. In study Part 2, of 38 patients recruited, 34 completed the study. Adjusted mean differences from placebo in 12 h trough FEV1 on Day 7 (primary were 115, 142 and 136 mL for GB 12.5, 25 and 50 µg BID, respectively (all P<0.001. GB 25 and 50 µg BID were superior (P<0.05 to GB 12.5 µg BID for pre-dose morning FEV1 on Day 8. For this endpoint, GB 25 and 50 µg BID were also superior to tiotropium. Compared with Day 7, addition of formoterol significantly increased Day 8 FEV1 peak and AUC0–12h with all GB doses and placebo (all P<0.001. All

  13. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

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    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  14. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

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    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  15. A prospective comparison of the efficacy and safety of fully closed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted a within-group comparison of three modes of ventilation, ASV, Intellivent-ASV and SIMV, using a Hamilton S1 ventilator (Hamilton Medical, Switzerland). Subjects were ventilated for 2 hours on each mode, and at the end of each 2-hour period, parameters of ventilation and haemodynamics were measured.

  16. Assessing Self-Efficacy in Infant Care: A Comparison of Two Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Prasopkittikun, RN, PhD

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that correlations between SICS and two different response formats do not reach the criteria for use as alternatives to each other. However, further research is needed, with particular emphasis on the investigation of construct validity and comparisons between the two scales.

  17. Transformational and transactional leadership and exercise-related self-efficacy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the self-efficacy ofparticipants involved in a structured 10-week exercise program. Three weeksinto their exercise classes 174 females (M age = 25.36 years, SD = 8.48) provided ratings of their exercise instructor's leadership behaviors as well as their personal efficacy related to scheduling, over-coming barriers and within-class capabilities. Results revealed that for exercise initiates, contingent rewards behaviors were able to explain unique variation in scheduling self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy, but not within-class self-efficacy. For experienced exercisers, none of the leadership behaviors assessed in this study were associated with participant self-efficacy.

  18. STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA BENTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, ...

  19. STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA BENTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids.

  20. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety Between Propranolol and Steroid for Infantile Hemangioma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Han; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choi, Yunhee; Park, Young Woon; Hong, Ki Yong; Kim, Dong Young; Choe, Yun Seon; Lee, Hyunjung; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Park, Jung-Bin; Park, Kyung Duk; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Shin, Hee Young; Jeong, Jae Hoon

    2017-06-01

    There are limited data from randomized clinical trials comparing propranolol and steroid medication for treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH). To determine the efficacy and safety of propranolol compared with steroid as a first-line treatment for IH. This randomized clinical noninferiority trial tested the efficacy and safety of propranolol vs steroid treatment for IH at a single academic hospital. All participants were diagnosed with IH between June 2013 and October 2014, had normal heart function, and had not been previously treated for IH. The participants were randomly assigned to either the propranolol group or the steroid group. In the propranolol group, the patients were admitted, observed for adverse effects for 3 days after treatment initiation, and then released and treated as outpatients for 16 weeks (2 mg/kg/d). In the steroid group, the patients were seen as outpatients from the beginning and were also treated for 16 weeks (2 mg/kg/d). The primary efficacy variable was the response to treatment at 16 weeks, which was evaluated by the hemangioma volume using magnetic resonance imaging before and at 16 weeks after treatment initiation. While comparing the effect of medication between the groups, we monitored the adverse effects of both drugs. A total of 34 patients (15 boys, 19 girls; mean age, 3.3 months; range, 0.3-8.2 months) were randomized to receive either propranolol or steroid treatment (17 in each treatment group). Guardians for 2 patients in the steroid group withdrew their consent, and 1 patient in the propranolol group did not complete the efficacy test. The intention-to-treat analysis, applying multiple imputations, found the treatment response rate in the propranolol group to be 95.65%, and that of the steroid group was 91.94%. Because the difference in response rate between the groups was 3.71%, propranolol was considered noninferior. We found that there was no difference between the groups in safety outcomes. Our trial demonstrated that

  1. A Study on the Relationship between Teacher Self Efficacy and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Ahmet Cezmi; Bozgeyik, Yunus; Eser, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between teacher self efficacy and burnout. In order to collect the related data, "Maslach Burnout Inventory" and "Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale" were used. The sample of the study consisted of 163 randomly chosen teachers who worked in various primary and…

  2. A Study on the Correlation between Self Efficacy and Foreign Language Learning Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Feryal

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety in language learning is one of the less researched areas; that is why this study explores whether the anxiety level of foreign language learners is related to their self efficacy levels. For this purpose, 100 participants joined the study and the Foreign Language Learning Anxiety Scale and The Self Efficacy Scale were administered to them.…

  3. Clinical Self-Efficacy in Senior Nursing Students: A Mixed- Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal, Marzieh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Clinical education has a basic role in nursing education, and effective clinical training establishes a sense of clinical self-efficacy in senior nursing students. Self-efficacy is a key component for acting independently in the nursing profession. This study was designed to outline senior nursing students' views about clinical self-efficacy and to determine its level in nursing students. A mixed-methods approach, including a quantitative cross-sectional study and qualitative content analysis,was used in this study. Participants were senior nursing students who were in their two last semesters. During the initial quantitative stage, all students in the 7th and 8th semesters of the nursing major were invited to participate. They were asked to complete the Nursing Clinical Self-Efficacy Scale (NCSES) and, during the subsequent qualitative stage, the 14 students in the 7th and 8th semesters were asked to participate in semi-structured interviews. In the quantitative part, 58 students completed the self-efficacy questionnaire; the mean score was 219.28 ± 35.8, which showed moderate self-efficacy in students. Self-efficacy was different across skills. In the qualitative part, the 355 open codes that were extracted from the interviews were clustered to 12 categories and 3 themes. The main themes included the factors related to self-efficacy, outcomes of self-efficacy, and ways to improve self-efficacy. Students had moderate self-efficacy. Several factors such as environment, nursing colleagues, and clinical educators could influence the creation of clinical self-efficacy in nursing students.

  4. Comparison of the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs in primary dysmenorrhea: A questionnaire based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Ramya; Krishnaiah, Vasundara; Channaveera, Gokul Shetty; Mruthyunjaya, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs and to assess the adequacy of their dose in primary dysmenorrhea (PD). Materials and Methods: A survey using a self-developed, validated, objective, and structured questionnaire as a tool was conducted among subjects with PD. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test and ANOVA with post-hoc Tuckey's test. Results: Out of 641 respondents, 42% were self-medicated. The pattern of drugs used was: Dicyclomine, an unknown drug, mefenamic acid, mefenamic acid + dicyclomine, and metamizole by 35%, 29%, 26%, 9%, and 1% of respondents, respectively. Mefenamic acid + dicyclomine, the combination was the most efficacious in comparison to other drugs in moderate to severe dysmenorrhea. There was better tolerability with mefenamic acid + dicyclomine group compared to other drugs. Sub-therapeutic doses were used by 86% of self-medicating respondents. Conclusions: The prevailing self-medication practices were inappropriate in a substantial proportion of women with inadequate knowledge regarding appropriate drug choice, therapeutic doses, and their associated side effects. PMID:23716896

  5. Measuring parental and family efficacy beliefs of adolescents' parents: Cross-cultural comparisons in Italy and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marisa; Faria, Luísa; Alessandri, Guido; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Parental Self-Efficacy (PPSE) and Perceived Family Collective Efficacy (PFCE) revised scales in the Portuguese and Italian contexts. To this aim two studies were conducted: the first reported the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with Portuguese samples, whereas the second addressed the cross-cultural invariance of PPSE and PFCE (Portugal and Italy). Results of the first study showed the appropriate fit of the unifactorial model of both scales to Portuguese data. The invariance analyses performed in the second study attested to the PPSE and PFCE's configural, metric and scalar invariance in both countries. The correlations of PPSE and PFCE with communication, management of conflict and children's school achievement further attested to their construct and practical validity. Thus, PPSE and PFCE proved to be suitable to further use in research and psychological assessment fields. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Comparison of Bronchodilatory Efficacy Potential of Racemic Salbutamol and Levosalbutamol in Patients with Mild to Moderate Persistant Asthama

    OpenAIRE

    Khara, Nimit V.; Patel, Anand K.; Rami, Kiran C.; Firoj D Ghanchi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The World Health Organization has estimated that 15 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are lost annually due to asthma, representing 1% of the total global disease burden. Racemic Salbutamol and Levo Salbutamol both have potent broncho-dilatory effect and therefore, both are used in the treatment of Asthma. The study was conducted to compare bronchodilatory efficacy potential of Salbutamol with Levo-Salbutamol. Methodology: The present study was conducted among 1...

  7. Comparison of Cleaning Efficacy and Instrumentation Time in Primary Molars: Mtwo Rotary Instruments vs. Hand K-Files

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezanali, Fatemeh; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Soleimani, Ali; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Rafiee, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulpectomy is the preferred treatment for restorable primary teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or periradicular lesion. Considering the rather new application of rotary files for pulpectomy of primary teeth, the aim of this study was to compare the cleaning efficacy and instrumentation time of hand K-files and Mtwo rotary system for preparation of human primary molars. Methods and Materials: This experimental study was conducted on 100 extracted primary maxillary and ...

  8. Comparison of the efficacy of Apiguard (thymol and Apivar (amitraz in the control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mar Leza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the efficacy of Apivar (a.i. amitraz and Apiguard (a.i. thymol in controlling the mite Varroa destructor during spring 2010 and autumn 2011, in the Balearic Islands (Spain. Number of fallen mites (NFM was counted weekly and the efficacy of treatments was evaluated by using the percentage of reduction of the average daily fallen mites (%R. During spring assay, the average NFM was highly reduced in Apiguard (89.8% compared to Apivar (64.3% group, with significant differences between Apiguard and control group (untreated group in post-treatment week. In autumn assay, Apivar and Apiguard colonies had an average reduction of the NFM of 17.9% and 30.8% respectively, showing a tendency in reduction between control and Apiguard group in post-treatment week. In both assays, %R was higher in Apiguard than in Apivar, but no significant differences were found between treatments in any of the seasons. Apiguard was less efficacious during November-December, probably due to the low external temperatures that hampered an optimal volatilization of the product. The lower efficacy of Apivar is probably related to the resistance of V. destructor to this chemical miticide, which has been used during the last 30 years. Results of this study showed that in Mediterranean conditions, spring is an appropriate period for applying Apiguard to the colonies, whereas application in late autumn would decrease the efficacy of the product. Apiguard may represent an alternative product for integrated control due to the low risk of mite resistance and residues in bee products.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of Apiguard (thymol) and Apivar (amitraz) in the control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leza, M.M.; Lladó, G.; Miranda-Chueca, M.A.

    2015-07-01

    The present study compared the efficacy of Apivar (a.i. amitraz) and Apiguard (a.i. thymol) in controlling the mite Varroa destructor during spring 2010 and autumn 2011, in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Number of fallen mites (NFM) was counted weekly and the efficacy of treatments was evaluated by using the percentage of reduction of the average daily fallen mites (%R). During spring assay, the average NFM was highly reduced in Apiguard (89.8%) compared to Apivar (64.3%) group, with significant differences between Apiguard and control group (untreated group) in post-treatment week. In autumn assay, Apivar and Apiguard colonies had an average reduction of the NFM of 17.9% and 30.8% respectively, showing a tendency in reduction between control and Apiguard group in post-treatment week. In both assays, %R was higher in Apiguard than in Apivar, but no significant differences were found between treatments in any of the seasons. Apiguard was less efficacious during November-December, probably due to the low external temperatures that hampered an optimal volatilization of the product. The lower efficacy of Apivar is probably related to the resistance of V. destructor to this chemical miticide, which has been used during the last 30 years. Results of this study showed that in Mediterranean conditions, spring is an appropriate period for applying Apiguard to the colonies, whereas application in late autumn would decrease the efficacy of the product. Apiguard may represent an alternative product for integrated control due to the low risk of mite resistance and residues in bee products. (Author)

  10. Impact of diet on the efficacy of insulin lispro mix 25 and insulin lispro mix 50 as starter insulin in East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes: Subgroup analysis of the Comparison Between Low Mixed Insulin and Mid Mixed Insulin as Starter Insulin For Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (CLASSIFY Study) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Qian, Lei; Watada, Hirotaka; Li, Peng Fei; Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Imori, Makoto; Yang, Wen Ying

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes differs between Asian and Western patients in many ways, and diet is a primary contributor. The present study examined the effect of diet on the efficacy of 25% insulin lispro/75% insulin lispro protamine suspension (LM25) and 50% insulin lispro/50% insulin lispro protamine suspension (LM50) as starter insulin in Chinese and Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control with oral antidiabetic medication. This was a predefined subgroup analysis of a phase 4, open-label, 26-week, parallel-arm, randomized (computer-generated random sequence) trial (21 January 2013 to 22 August 2014). Nutritional intake was assessed from food records kept by participants before study drug administration. Outcomes assessed were changes from baseline in self-monitored blood glucose, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and glycated hemoglobin. In total, 328 participants were randomized to receive twice-daily LM25 (n = 168) or LM50 (n = 160). Median daily nutritional intake (by weight and percentage of total energy) was 230.8 g of carbohydrate (54%), 56.5 g of fat (31%) and 66 g of protein (15%). Improvements in self-monitored blood glucose were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.028) in the LM50 group than in the LM25 group, regardless of nutritional intake. When carbohydrate (by weight or percentage energy) or fat (by weight) intake exceeded median levels, LM50 was significantly more efficacious than LM25 (P ≤ 0.026) in improving 1,5-anhydroglucitol and glycated hemoglobin. Glycemic control improved in both LM25 and LM50 groups, but LM50 was significantly more efficacious under certain dietary conditions, particularly with increased carbohydrate intake. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both.Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up.Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet.Adults (30-75 years were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers, users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers, or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers. Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence.Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily.We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit.Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%. All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02, whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall.Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e

  12. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Lamberto; Flacco, Maria Elena; Fiore, Maria; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Liguori, Giorgio; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Capasso, Lorenzo; D'Amario, Claudio; Boccia, Stefania; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. Adults (30-75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e

  13. Comparison of the long-term efficacy and safety of generic Tacrobell with original tacrolimus (Prograf) in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung Yeon; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Lee, Jung Eun; Yoo, Heejin; Kim, Kyunga; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Sung Joo; Oh, Ha Young; Huh, Wooseong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a generic tacrolimus (Tacrobell [TCB]) compared to the original tacrolimus (Prograf [PGF]) in kidney transplant recipients. In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed the data from 444 patients who took TCB as a first-line immunosuppressive drug and 245 patients who took PGF. The 5-year graft survival rate was 92% for patients in the PGF group and 97% for patients in the TCB group, respectively. Cox proportional hazards for a one-sided, noninferiority model showed noninferiority (upper confidence interval [CI] limit of the hazard ratio [HR]tacrolimus as a first-line immunosuppressive drug. Producers of generics should support further study of their products after approval to assure physicians of their efficacy and safety.

  14. The effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following childbirth: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe İsbir, Gözde; İnci, Figen; Önal, Hatice; Yıldız, Pelin Dıkmen

    2016-11-01

    Fear of birth and low childbirth self-efficacy is predictive of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth. The efficacy of antenatal education classes on fear of birth and childbirth self-efficacy has been supported; however, the effectiveness of antenatal classes on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after childbirth has received relatively little research attention. This study examined the effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth. Quasi-experimental study. The study was conducted in a city located in the Middle Anatolia region of Turkey and data were collected between December 2013 and May 2015. Two groups of women were compared-an antenatal education intervention group (n=44), and a routine prenatal care control group (n=46). The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, Version A and B, Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory and Impact of Event Scale-Revised was used to assess fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and PTSD symptoms following childbirth. Compared to the control group, women who attended antenatal education had greater childbirth self-efficacy, greater perceived support and control in birth, and less fear of birth and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth (all comparisons, ppost-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after childbirth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing Self-Efficacy and Performance: An Experimental Comparison of Psychological Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradley James; O'Halloran, Paul Daniel; Stukas, Arthur Anthony

    2016-01-01

    We assessed how 6 psychological performance enhancement techniques (PETs) differentially improved self-efficacy (SE) and skill performance. We also assessed whether vicarious experiences and verbal persuasion as posited sources of SE (Bandura, 1982 ) were supported and, further, if the effects of the 6 PETs remained after controlling for achievement motivation traits and self-esteem. A within-subject design assessed each individual across 2 trials for 3 disparate PETs. A between-groups design assessed differences between PETs paired against each other for 3 similar novel tasks. Participants (N = 96) performed 2 trials of 10 attempts at each of the tasks (kick, throw, golf putt) in a counterbalanced sequence using their nondominant limb. Participants completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Self-Efficacy Scale and were randomly allocated to either the modeling or imagery, goal-setting or instructional self-statement, or knowledge-of-results or motivational feedback conditions aligned with each task. An instructional self-statement improved performance better than imagery, modeling, goal setting, and motivational and knowledge-of-results augmented feedback. Motivational auditory feedback most improved SE. Increased SE change scores were related to increased performance difference scores on all tasks after controlling for age, sex, achievement motivation, and self-esteem. Some sources of SE may be more influential than others on both SE and performance improvements. We provide partial support for the sources of SE proposed by Bandura's social-cognitive theory with verbal persuasion but not vicarious experiences improving SE.

  16. Integrative and quantitive evaluation of the efficacy of his bundle related pacing in comparison with conventional right ventricular pacing: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziqing; Chen, Ruizhen; Su, Yangang; Chen, Xueying; Qin, Shengmei; Li, Minghui; Han, Fei; Ge, Junbo

    2017-08-11

    Long-term RVP could bring adverse problems to cardiac electro-mechanics and result in inter- and intra-ventricular asynchrony, impaired labor force, and aggravation of cardiac function. HBRP including direct His bundle pacing and para-His bundle pacing was regarded as a novel physiological pacing pattern to avoid devastating cardiac function. This synthetic study was conducted to integratively and quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of His bundle related pacing (HBRP) in comparison with conventional right ventricular pacing (RVP). Published studies on comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, inter-ventricular asynchrony, and QRS duration, etc. between HBRP and RVP were collected and for meta-analysis. HBRP showed higher LVEF (WMD = 3.9%, 95% CI: 1.6% - 6.1%), lower NYHA class (WMD = -0.5, 95% CI: -0.7 - -0.3), WMD of LVESV = -0.1 ml, 95% CI: -3.0 - 2.8 ml), less inter-ventricular asynchrony (WMD = -13.2 ms, 95% CI: -16.4 - -10.0 ms), and shorter QRS duration for long-term (WMD = -36.9 ms, 95% CI: -40.0 - -33.8 ms), however, no significant difference of ventricular volume (WMDLVEDV = -2.4 ml, 95% CI: -5.0 - 0.2 ml; WMDLVESV = -0.1 ml, 95% CI: -3.0 - 2.8 ml) compared to RVP. The efficacy of HBRP was firstly verified by meta-analysis to date. Compared with RVP, HBRP markedly preserve LVEF, NYHA class, and QRS duration. However, it seemed to have less effect on ventricular volume.

  17. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of concurrent ibuprofen and paracetamol with ibuprofen or paracetamol alone in the management of moderate to severe acute postoperative dental pain in adolescents and adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-dose, two-center, modified factorial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlisch, Donald R; Aspley, Sue; Daniels, Stephen E; Bandy, Donald P

    2010-05-01

    Combination analgesics may offer improved analgesic efficacy, particularly for moderate to severe pain. This study evaluated the analgesic benefits of concurrent ibuprofen and paracetamol compared with each drug used alone in the management of acute postoperative dental pain. Healthy patients aged 16 to 40 years undergoing surgical removal of 3 to 4 impacted molars (total impaction score > or = 9) were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-dose, 2-center, modified factorial US study. Patients were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2:1:2:1:1 to ibuprofen 400 mg/paracetamol 1000 mg, ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg, paracetamol 1000 mg, or placebo when postoperative pain reached moderate to severe intensity. The primary efficacy end point was the sum of pain relief and pain intensity differences from 0 to 8 hours (SPRID8). Several secondary end points were also measured, including total pain relief (TOTPAR), sum of pain intensity differences (SPID), and SPID on the visual analog scale (SPID VAS) at various time points. Other analgesic efficacy measures included peak effect, onset and duration of effect, and patients' overall assessment of treatment. The tolerability of study medications was assessed in terms of the frequency and nature of adverse events, which were assessed with standard questions, as well as changes from baseline in vital signs. A total of 234 patients were randomly assigned to treatment and included in the intent-to- treat population. The patients were predominantly female (74.4% [174/234]) and white (76.5% [179/234]); mean (SD) age was 20.8 (3.1) years and weight was 69.1 (16.5) kg. For SPRID8, the group treated with ibuprofen 400 mg/paracetamol 1000 mg had significantly better mean scores compared with ibuprofen alone (P paracetamol alone (P ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg (P = 0.02). The group taking ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg achieved significantly better mean SPRID

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses: An in vitro study

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    Manupati Prasanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-microbial agents have been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to improve oral health. This in vitro study was carried out to determine antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses against the oral pathogens. Methods : A total of five toothpastes and five mouthrinses were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three oral pathogens namely, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890, Escherichia coli (MTCC 579 and Candida albicans (MTCC 854 by well agar diffusion assay. Statistical Analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD method(α = 0.05. Results: Toothpaste formulation A showed maximum zones of inhibition against the test organism, Escherichia coli (P<0.001 compared to all other toothpastes formulations. Against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, the zones of inhibition were less in comparison to E.coli but were significantly different at higher dilutions (1:8, 1:16 P<0.05 for toothpaste formulation A. Mouthrinses formulation H showed maximum efficacy against the test organism, Escherichia coli (P<0.001 compared to all other mouthrinse formulations. Against Streptococcus mutans, mouthrinses formulations F, G and J showed significant antimicrobial activity (P<0.05 compared to formulation H and I. Conclusion: In the present study, it has been demonstrated that triclosan containing toothpastes formulations are more effective in control of oral microflora compared to non-triclosan containing synthetic toothpastes. Among mouthrinses formulations, chlorhexidine was found to be more effective than or as effective as triclosan against the organisms tested.

  19. Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Progress of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison with Typical Students

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    Sepideh Seyed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many factors including self-efficacy and achievement motivation can affect children’s academic progress. Studies have shown that socioeconomic status can affect people’s life, education, and vocation. However, not many studies looked at the relations between the intrinsic factors and socioeconomic status, and between these 2 categories and students’ academic progress in children with learning disabilities. Thus, the present study aimed at examining self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic progress of students with learning disabilities compared with typical students and looking for any possible relation between these variables and socioeconomic status (parental education and occupation. Methods This was a cross sectional study, which included 34 students with learning disabilities and 32 typical students matched on age, gender, and school grade. The participants answered Sherer et al.’s self-efficacy scale (1982 and Herman’s achievement motivation questionnaire (2000. Students’ academic progress was evaluated based on the descriptive scores in the first semester. Findings Scores of children with learning disabilities in self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic progress were significantly lower than those of matched controls (P<0.0001. Results revealed moderate positive correlations between academic progress and different levels of self-efficacy (rs = 0.441, P<0.0001, N = 66; and between academic progress and achievement motivation (rs = 0.645, P<0.0001, N = 66. The results of the correlation analysis demonstrated weak to moderate positive correlations between academic progress and parental education (rs = 0.39, P = 0.001, academic progress and father’s occupation (rs = 0.323, P = 0.008, achievement motivation and parental education (rs = .34, p = 0.009, N = 66, and finally achievement motivation and father’s occupation (rs = 0.285, P = 0.02, N = 66. Conclusions Lower levels of self-efficacy and

  20. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy

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    Susana Llorens-Gumbau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present longitudinal study (two waves, conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators as well as personal resources (self-efficacy on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and self-efficacy over time. Four questions are addressed: (1 Are obstacles positively related to burnout and work self-efficacy over time? (2 Are facilitators positively related to engagement and self-efficacy over time? (3 Is work self-efficacy negatively related to burnout and obstacles over time? and (4 Is work self-efficacy positively related to engagement and facilitators over time? The results of a hard-copy survey carried out at two waves (8 months between the two times, which were computed on Structural Equation Modeling show that obstacles are positively related to burnout, which in turn is positively related to self-efficacy over time. Likewise, facilitators are positively related to engagement and self-efficacy, which in turn is positively related to facilitators over time. These findings suggest a positive gain cycle in which self-efficacy plays a central role.

  1. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  2. Factors Influencing Teachers' Technology Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Amy Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing teachers' levels of technology self-efficacy were examined through a qualitative multi-site, multi-subject case study research design. An initial survey was administered to all full-time, certified teachers at three school sites in order to gauge teachers' current level of technology self-efficacy. From that…

  3. Technological Self-Efficacy among School Leaders in Oman: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim Ali

    2017-01-01

    There is more need today for school leaders to be up-to-date with technology and its various uses in education. Enhancing self-efficacy in the use of technology is an expected role of educational leadership preparation programmes. This study investigated technological self-efficacy of a group of educators in leadership positions while…

  4. Organizational Structure, Collegial Trust, and College Faculty Teaching Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpogba, Desmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to explore the relationship between faculty self-efficacy, organizational structure, and collegial trust. The concepts of teacher self-efficacy, organizational structure, and collegial trust were used to investigate any possible empirical relationships existing between these variables in a private,…

  5. Developing Teaching Self-Efficacy in Research Institutions: A Study of Award-Winning Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David B.; Usher, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sources of award-wining research professors' (six women; six men) teaching self-efficacy through the framework of Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Semi-structured interviews revealed that mastery experiences and social persuasions were particularly influential sources of self-efficacy and that…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Efficacy: A Study of Turkish EFL Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoglu, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy among 90 English language pre-service teachers from a university in Turkey. Data sources included Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy's Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and Reuven Bar-On's Emotional Quotient Inventory. The findings indicated that Turkish EFL…

  7. A Survey Study of Chinese In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy about Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Zan, Fei; Liu, Jiaqiu; Liu, Chunling; Sharma, Umesh

    2012-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to a total of 323 in-service teachers (110 special education teachers and 213 general education teachers) in Shanghai regarding their self-efficacy and concerns about inclusive education. Multivariate analysis results reveal that special teachers have significantly higher self-efficacy about inclusive education than…

  8. Self Efficacy, Coping Stress dan Prestasi Akademik Mahasiswa Program Studi Psikologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmah, Dwi Nur

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran dan hubungan self efficacy, coping stress dan prestasi akademik mahasiswa semester awal Program Studi Psikologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lambung Mangkurat. Subjek penelitian berjumlah 60 orang. Tekhnik pengambilan data dengan cara purposive sampling. Alat pengumpul data yang digunakan adalah skala self efficacy dan skala coping stress. Untuk prestasi akademik data dikumpulkan dengan melihat indeks prestasi akademik (IPK) semester perta...

  9. Clinical efficacy and safety of imepitoin in comparison with phenobarbital for the control of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipold, A; Keefe, T J; Löscher, W; Rundfeldt, C; de Vries, F

    2015-04-01

    The anticonvulsant activity and safety of imepitoin, a novel antiepileptic drug licensed in the European Union, were evaluated in a multicentre field efficacy study as well as in a safety study under laboratory conditions. Efficacy of imepitoin was compared with phenobarbital in 226 client-owned dogs in a blinded parallel group design. The administration of imepitoin twice daily in incremental doses of 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg demonstrated comparable efficacy to phenobarbital in controlling seizures in dogs. The frequency of adverse events including somnolence/sedation, polydipsia and increased appetite was significantly higher in the phenobarbital group. In phenobarbital-treated dogs, significantly increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and other liver enzymes occurred, while no such effect was observed in the imepitoin group. In a safety study under laboratory conditions, healthy beagle dogs were administered 0, 30, 90 or 150 mg/kg imepitoin twice daily for 26 weeks. A complete safety evaluation including histopathology was included in the study. A no-observed-adverse-event level of 90 mg/kg twice daily was determined. These results indicate that imepitoin is a potent and safe antiepileptic drug for dogs. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Meta-analysis of 24-hour intraocular pressure studies evaluating the efficacy of glaucoma medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William C; Konstas, Anastasios G P; Nelson, Lindsay A; Kruft, Bonnie

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety data of currently available ocular hypotensive medicines derived from 24-hour studies, of similar design, in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), exfoliative glaucoma, or ocular hypertension (OH). Meta-analysis of published articles evaluating patients with POAG, exfoliative glaucoma, or OH. We included articles that were randomized, prospective, single- or double-masked, comparative studies of ocular hypotensive therapies over 24 hours. Each article selected contained an untreated baseline, >or=4-week treatment period, >/=20 patients per treatment arm, and >or=6 time points not spaced >5 hours apart and used Goldmann applanation or Tonopen tonometry (supine measurements) to measure intraocular pressure (IOP). Twenty-four-hour IOP efficacy. This analysis included 864 separate 24-hour treatment curves from 386 patients in 28 treatment arms from 11 studies. A statistical difference in the mean diurnal pressure decrease existed between monotherapy treatments for POAG/OH patients, with bimatoprost (29%) and travoprost (27%) showing the greatest 24-hour reduction (P = 0.026). Timolol 0.5% was less effective than latanoprost (24% vs. 19% reduction) but decreased the pressure at each night time point (P = 0.0003). Dorzolamide showed a 19% 24-hour pressure reduction and brimonidine 0.2% a 14% one. In exfoliative glaucoma patients, latanoprost and travoprost showed higher baseline and treatment pressures, although the pressure reductions (29% and 31%, respectively) were greater generally than observed with POAG/OH. An evening-dosed latanoprost/timolol fixed combination reduced the pressure 33%, and the dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (DTFC), 26%. However, the power to detect a difference for this specific comparison was probably low, due to the limited number of patients (n = 20) in the DTFC group. A statistical difference between evening-dosed (24%) and morning-dosed (18%) latanoprost (Pmorning (26%) travoprost (P = 0

  11. The Impact of Social Comparison Information on Motivation in Patients With Diabetes as a Function of Regulatory Focus and Self-Efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, Marike C.; Keers, Joost C.; Bouma, Jelte; Links, Thera P.; Sanderman, Robbert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: Our aim was to determine whether the impact of upward and downward social comparison information on individuals' motivation to manage their diabetes is dependent on their regulatory focus (promotion or prevention focus) and self-efficacy. Design: The hypotheses were examined in a

  12. The interplay between motivation, self-efficacy, and approaches to studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat-Sala, Mercè; Redford, Paul

    2010-06-01

    The strategies students adopt in their study are influenced by a number of social-cognitive factors and impact upon their academic performance. The present study examined the interrelationships between motivation orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic), self-efficacy (in reading academic texts and essay writing), and approaches to studying (deep, strategic, and surface). The study also examined changes in approaches to studying over time. A total of 163 first-year undergraduate students in psychology at a UK university took part in the study. Participants completed the Work Preference Inventory motivation questionnaire, self-efficacy in reading and writing questionnaires and the short version of the Revised Approaches to Study Inventory. The results showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation orientations were correlated with approaches to studying. The results also showed that students classified as high in self-efficacy (reading and writing) were more likely to adopt a deep or strategic approach to studying, while students classified as low in self-efficacy (reading and writing) were more likely to adopt a surface approach. More importantly, changes in students' approaches to studying over time were related to their self-efficacy beliefs, where students with low levels of self-efficacy decreased in their deep approach and increased their surface approach across time. Students with high levels of self-efficacy (both reading and writing) demonstrated no such change in approaches to studying. Our results demonstrate the important role of self-efficacy in understanding both motivation and learning approaches in undergraduate students. Furthermore, given that reading academic text and writing essays are essential aspects of many undergraduate degrees, our results provide some indication that focusing on self-efficacy beliefs amongst students may be beneficial to improving their approaches to study.

  13. Comparison of efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of chronic spontaneous urticaria: A randomized, double-blind, comparative, parallel group trial

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    Ganesh N Dakhale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Materials and Methods: A 6-week, single-centered, randomized, double blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 patients were recruited and were randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 6 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were mean total symptom score (MTSS calculated by adding the mean number of wheals (MNW and the mean pruritus score (MPS, number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep (SIWS. Results: Both the drugs significantly reduced the MTSS, number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep, but olopatadine was found to be superior. In olopatadine group, there was significantly higher reduction in MTSS (p = 0.01, Number of wheals (P < 0.05, Size of wheals (p < 0.05, Scale for intensity of erythema (p < 0.05 and change in eosinopils count (p = 0.015 than that of rupatadine. Incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Cost effectiveness ratio was less in olopatadine group as compared to rupatadine group throughout the treatment. Conclusions: Olopatadine is a better choice in chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness profile.

  14. Comparison of Efficacy, Safety and Cost-effectiveness of Rupatadine and Olopatadine in Patients of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Randomized, Double-blind, Comparative, Parallel Group Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhale, Ganesh N; Wankhede, Sumit S; Mahatme, Mohini S; Hiware, Sachin K; Mishra, Dharmendra B; Dudhgaonkar, Sujata S

    2016-01-01

    To compare efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of chronic spontaneous urticaria. A 6-week, single-centered, randomized, double blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 patients were recruited and were randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 6 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were mean total symptom score (MTSS) calculated by adding the mean number of wheals (MNW) and the mean pruritus score (MPS), number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep (SIWS). Both the drugs significantly reduced the MTSS, number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep, but olopatadine was found to be superior. In olopatadine group, there was significantly higher reduction in MTSS (p = 0.01), Number of wheals (P rupatadine. Incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Cost effectiveness ratio was less in olopatadine group as compared to rupatadine group throughout the treatment. Olopatadine is a better choice in chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness profile.

  15. Comparison of the cleaning efficacy of a new apical negative pressure irrigating system with conventional irrigation needles in the root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su-Jung; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Jung, Il-Young; Lee, Chan-Young; Lee, Seung-Jong; Kim, Euiseong

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of EndoVac system in comparison with that of a conventional needle irrigation method when the root canals were enlarged to various sizes. Sixty-nine single-rooted teeth were divided into 3 groups according to the root canal irrigation system (24G and 30G needle and EndoVac). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to the MAF size (#25, #40, and #60). Four-micron-thick serial sections were prepared at 1.5 and 3.5 mm from the apical level and photographs were taken for the analysis. The influence of the irrigation system and apical size was evaluated using a 1-way ANOVA test and Tukey's test (P system and conventional needle irrigation in removing debris (P irrigation efficacy was found to have a positive relationship (P irrigation methods. Although all 3 irrigation methods resulted in clean root canals because the percentage occupied by remaining debris was very low in our specimens, larger apical instrumentation seemed to improve apical root canal debridement. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the Analgesic Efficacy of Lidocaine/Prilocaine (EMLA Cream and Needle-Free Delivery of Lidocaine During Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin Gürsoy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Efficacy of eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA cream and the needle-free injection of local anesthesia for reducing pain associated with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of thyroid nodules has been previously reported. However, there has not been a direct comparison of the analgesic efficacy of these methods. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of EMLA cream and needle-free injection of lidocaine for FNAB-associated pain. Materials and Methods: A total of 138 patients having their first ultrasonography-guided thyroid nodule biopsy were randomly assigned to receive either EMLA cream (n=68 or needle-free injection of lidocaine (n=70 before FNAB of thyroid nodules. Four needle passes for biopsy of each nodule were performed. Patients rated pain associated with the procedure according to a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS, an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS, and 4-category verbal rating scale (VRS. Results: There were no significant differences between groups in age, sex, thyroid volume, nodule size, or nodule site. Significant differences between groups were noted in ratings of all three pain scales. When the effectiveness of EMLA was compared with that of needle-free injection of lidocaine, the mean VAS score was 23.4±20.5 mm versus 12.7±15.5 mm (p=0.001, and the mean NRS score was 2.8±2.1 points versus 1.6±1.7 points (p<0.001. There was also a significant difference between groups in VRS score (p=0.001. Conclusions: Needle-free injection of lidocaine provides more effective and faster analgesia than EMLA cream application during the FNAB. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 5-7

  17. Comparison of the efficacy of a custom-made pulse oximeter probe with digital electric pulp tester, cold spray, and rubber cup for assessing pulp vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Nafiseh; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Moradi, Saeed

    2012-09-01

    The ideal technique for the evaluation of pulp vitality should be noninvasive, painless, objective, reliable, and reproducible. To achieve this, the most routine tests are sensitivity tests. However, a major shortcoming with these tests is that they indirectly indicate pulp vitality by measuring a neural response. Pulse oximetry is a well-established oxygen saturation monitoring technique broadly used in medicine. However, its efficacy as the pulp vitality test should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to design and build a custom-made pulse oximeter dental probe and to evaluate its efficacy in comparison with electric pulp tester, cold spray, and a rubber cup in pulp vitality testing. Twenty-four single-canal mandibular premolars needing endodontic treatment were selected. The patients did not have systemic disease and did not consume drugs. Also, they had no clinically relevant signs of necrosis. The selected teeth were pulpally tested with 4 kinds of tests including pulse oximetry, the electric test, cold spray, and the rubber cup. After endodontic treatment of these teeth, which revealed the actual status of the pulp, the results were analyzed by the kappa test to show the efficacy of these tests. When comparing electric, cold, heat, and pulse oximeter tests with the gold standard, the kappa agreement coefficient was 18%, 18%, 14%, and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity of pulse oximetry, a rubber cup, electric test, and cold spray was 0.93, 0.60, 0.60, and 0.53, respectively. The specificity of these tests was 1.00, 0.55, 0.22, and 0.66, respectively. Pulp testing by using pulse oximetry is more reliable than the electric test, rubber cup, and cold spray. The custom-made pulse oximeter dental probe is an effective and objective method for pulp vitality assessment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Efficacy of Ibrutinib Versus Obinutuzumab + Chlorambucil in First-Line Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sanden, Suzy; Baculea, Simona; Diels, Joris; Cote, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Ibrutinib (ibr) monotherapy and the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (obi) are approved for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). No trials directly comparing their efficacy are available. Therefore a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) was performed to provide insight into their relative efficacy in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). MAIC attempts to adjust for between-trial differences in factors known or suspected to influence treatment effects, to minimize bias. A MAIC within a Bayesian framework was conducted using individual patient data from the RESONATE-2 study of ibr versus chlorambucil and published data from the CLL11 study of obi versus chlorambucil. Both studies were conducted in patients ineligible for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy. After matching, the reweighted adjusted relative efficacy measure of ibr versus chlorambucil from RESONATE-2 [hazard ratio (HR), 95% credible interval (CrI)] was compared with that of obi versus chlorambucil from CLL11 for each endpoint, using a Bayesian indirect comparison. Our results suggest that in a population with similar average baseline characteristics to CLL11, ibr would improve PFS and OS outcomes compared to obi. Before matching, the HRs for ibr versus obi were 0.48 [CrI = 0.22-1.02, p(HR <1) = 97%], 0.85 [CrI = 0.44-1.63, p(HR <1) = 69%], and 0.40 [CrI = 0.10-1.54, p(HR <1) = 91%] for PFS by investigator assessment, PFS by independent review committee, and OS, respectively. After matching on all available characteristics the HRs decreased to 0.12 [CrI = 0.02-0.97, p(HR <1) = 98%], 0.24 [CrI = 0.04-1.35, p(HR <1) = 95%], and 0.21 [CrI = <0.01-8.89, p(HR <1) = 79%], respectively. There was a large variance around the treatment effect for OS due to the low number of deaths. Our analysis suggests that ibrutinib is highly likely to provide greater PFS benefit than obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil in older or less

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks for each patient. They were given Carbonyl Iron 100 mg/day and FeS04 100gm/day . Before and after treatment all the baseline and specific investigations were one. Results were tabulated, comparison and significance were tested by unpaired student ’s’ test and their 'p' value was calculated. Results were shown graphically also. Carbonyl Iron showed improvement in hemoglobin, PCV and better than ferrous Sulphate (P <0.001. Incidence of side effects were less with Carbonyl Iron than Ferrous Sulphate, better compliance was seen with Carbonyl Iron. In conclusion, the present study s howed that Carbonyl Iron had better efficacy and safety in the management of Iron deficiency anemia in antenatal women than ferrous Sulphate

  20. The efficacy of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Henan, China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D; Yin, H; Xili, L; Song, J; Wang, Z

    1994-12-01

    A population based case-control study to evaluate Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine efficacy was carried out in Gusi County, Henan Province, China from June to September in 1991. This study showed that the JE vaccine had a strong protective effect. The estimate of the vaccine efficacy was 78% (95% CI = 16-94%). An unimmunized child was at 4.54 times greater risk of developing JE than were fully immunized children during the study period. The present study may have underestimated the vaccine efficacy due to evaluation based on routine vaccination which might have been affected by vaccination management and the local cold chain system.

  1. [Efficacy comparison of different points combination in the treatment of menopausal insomnia: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Bai; Mei, Zhi-Gang; Cai, San-Jin; Lei, Hua-Ping; Sun, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Ling; Zhou, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of different points combination in the treatment of menopausal insomnia. Ninety-six cases of menopausal insomnia were randomized into 3 groups, Xinshu (BL 15), Shenshu (BL 23), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Shenmen (HT 7), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) were chosen in the restore interaction between the heart and the kidney group (group A, 32 cases); Zhaohai (KI 6), Jiaoxin (KI 8), Shenmai (BL 62), Pucan (BL 61) were chosen in the acupuncturing qiao mai group (group B, 32 cases); auricular Shenmen (TF4) and sensitive spot at the distribution area of auricular vagus nervus were chosen in the ear acupuncture group (group C, 32 cases). Six days made one session and the treatments were finished after 4 courses. The polysomnography (PSG) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were employed before and after treatment to evaluate the alleviation of insomnia. The parameters of the sleep latency (SL), rapid wave sleep latency (RL) and sleep efficiency (SE) were significantly improved in the three groups, and the differences were statistically significant (P acupuncture has a better curative effect than the restore interaction between the heart and the kidney group and acupuncturing qiao mai group, it is worth of being promoted.

  2. Comparison of The Efficacy and Cost Effectiveness of Five Different Diagnostic Methods in Onychomycosis

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    Faruk Erkan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: We aimed to compare diagnostic value and cost efficacy of the diagnostic tests in patients with clinical findings that suggest onychomycosis as well as assess the factors that effect these diagnostic tests. Material and Method: The efficiency and cost effectiveness of 5 diagnostic methods in 61 patients. Besides the clinical picture, at least one of the tests should be positive for diagnosis of onychomycosis. Factors possible to effect test results such as demographical data, accompanying systemic diseases, tinea pedis and tinea manum, previous antifungal treatment are recorded. Results: Fifty patients out of 61 diagnosed as onychomycosis by positivity of at least one of the five methods. The success rate of diagnostic methods out of 50 patients were as followed: KOH standart microscopy 34 (68%, 24 hours KOH microscopy 40 (80%, fungal culture 24 (48%, histopathology with PAS 34 (68% and with GMS 32 (64%. When cost effectiveness is considered 24 hours KOH microscopy testing is the most efficient and the cheapest whereas histopathological tests were the most expensive. Conclusion: 24 hours KOH testing is relatively fast, efficient and cost-effective complementary method that does not depend on another clinician or a laboratory, thus could be preferred more frequently in dermatology practices.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of a subunit and a live streptomycin-dependent porcine pleuropneumonia vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumamao, J Q; Bowles, R E; van den Bosch, H; Klaasen, H L B M; Fenwick, B W; Storie, G J; Blackall, P J

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of two new-generation porcine pleuropneumonia vaccines when challenged with Australian isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae of serovars 1 and 15. The Porcilis APP vaccine and an experimental streptomycin-dependent strain of A pleuropneumoniae were evaluated in a standardised pen trial. Each vaccine/challenge group consisted of 10 pigs. With the serovar 1 challenge, the Porcilis APP vaccine and the live vaccine, compared with the control group, gave significant protection in terms of clinical signs, lung lesions, re-isolation scores and average daily gain (ADG) postchallenge. Only the Porcilis APP vaccine provided significant protection against mortality. In the serovar 15 challenged pigs, the only significant difference detected was that the Porcilis APP vaccinated pigs had a better postchallenge ADG than the controls. None of the Porcilis APP vaccinated pigs showed signs of depression postvaccination and none were euthanased after challenge with either serovar 1 or 15. The pigs vaccinated with the live vaccine showed obvious depression after each vaccination and a total of 3 pigs were euthanased after challenge (one with serovar 1 and two with serovar 15). Both of the vaccines provided significant protection against a severe challenge with serovar 1 A pleuropneumoniae. Neither vaccine was effective against a serovar 15 A pleuropneumoniae challenge. There was evidence that the Porcilis APP vaccine did provide some protection against the serovar 15 challenge because the ADG, after challenge of pigs given this vaccine, was greater than the control pigs.

  4. Comparison of nerve regenerative efficacy between decellularized nerve graft and nonwoven chitosan conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Hiroki; Terada-Nakaishi, Michiko; Wang, Wei; Itoh, Soichiro; Nozaki, Kosuke; Nagai, Akiko; Ichinose, Shizuko; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2016-05-12

    Recently decellularized nerves with various methods are reported as highly functional nerve grafts for the treatment of nerve defects. To evaluate the efficacy of decellularized allogeneic nerve, compared with oriented chitosan mesh tube, and an autologous nerve. Sciatic nerves harvested from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were decellularized in combination with Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100. A graft into the sciatic nerve in Wistar rats was performed with the decellularized SD rat sciatic nerves or oriented chitosan nonwoven nanofiber mesh tubes (15 mm in length, N=5 in each group). A portion of sciatic nerve of Wistar rat was cut, reversed and re-sutured in-situ as a control. Nerve functional and histological evaluations were performed 25 weeks postoperatively. It was revealed that functional, electrophysiological and histological recoveries in the decellularized nerve group match those in the autograft group. Recovery of sensory function and nerve maturation in the decellularized nerve group were superior to those in the chitosan mesh tube group. Nerve regeneration in the decellularized nerves could match that in the autografts and is somehow superior to artificial chitosan mesh tube. Detergents wash of SDS and Triton X-100 could obtain highly functional nerve grafts from allografts.

  5. [Comparisons of efficacy of different pulmonary surfactants for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Li; Liang, Wen-Ying; Nie, Chun-Xia

    2012-04-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy of imported pulmonary surfactant (PS) pig lung phospholipids injection (pig PS) and domestic cattle lung surface-active agent (cattle PS) for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). A total of 180 cases of grade IV NRDS receiving pig PS (n=90) or cattle PS treatment (n=90) were enrolled. The blood gas analysis and chest X-ray results and the incidence of complications after treatment, and hospitalization time and cost were compared between the two treatment groups. The efficiency rate in the pig PS group (97%) was higher than in the catle PS group (83%) (P<0.01). The cure rate in the pig PS group was also higher than in the cattle PS group (84% vs 66%; P<0.01). The incidence of pneumothorax in the pig PS group was lower than in the cattle PS group (3% vs 7%; P<0.05). The hospitalization time in the pig PS group was shorter than in the cattle PS group (21 ± 4 days vs 23 ± 4 days; P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the total hospitalization cost between the two groups. Pig PS seems to be superior to cattle PS in the treatment of grade IV NRDS.

  6. Comparison of mydriatic efficacy of spray application and drop instillation of tropicamide 1%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, A; Aydin, P

    1999-10-01

    To determine whether the mydriatic efficacy of spray application of tropicamide 1% is comparable to drop instillation of tropicamide 1%, and to compare the ocular discomfort caused by these methods. Thirty-four healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and received either a single drop of tropicamide 1% eye drops or a single puff of tropicamide 1% spray into open eyes. Pupil diameters were measured from anterior segment images taken using a Topcon Imagenet system at baseline and at the fifth, tenth and fifteenth minute after drug administration. Ocular discomfort experienced with each method was also compared. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that a statistically significant increase in pupil diameter was achieved with both application methods over time (p tropicamide 1% spray was 1.45 +/- 0.56, and for tropicamide 1% eye drops was 2.71 +/- 0.67. This difference was statistically significant (p tropicamide 1% spray is similar to that of conventional tropicamide 1% eye drops, and spray application causes less ocular discomfort.

  7. The revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy: reliability and validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Ann M; McKibbin, Christine; Zeiss, Antonette M; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1: N = 169; Study 2: N = 145) of cognitively impaired older adults were used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Patient Behaviors, and Controlling Upsetting Thoughts. The 3 subscales show strong internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Construct validity is supported by relationships between these 3 facets of perceived caregiving efficacy and depression, anxiety, anger, perceived social support, and criticism expressed in speech samples. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy has potential uses for both research and clinical purposes.

  8. Gender fairness in self-efficacy? A Rasch-based validity study of the General Academic Self-efficacy scale (GASE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Dammeyer, Jesper; Vang, Maria Louison

    2017-01-01

    Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (GASE) – were analyzed using Rasch measurement models, with data from 1018 Danish university students (psychology and technical), focusing on gender invariance and the sufficiency of the score. The short 4-item GASE scale was found to be essentially objective and construct...... valid and satisfactorily reliable, though differential item functioning was found relative to gender and academic discipline, and can be used to assess students’ general academic self-efficacy. Research on gender and self-efficacy needs to take gender into account and equate scores appropriately......Studies have reported gender differences in academic self-efficacy. However, how and if academic self-efficacy questionnaires are gender-biased has not been psychometrically investigated. The psychometric properties of a general version of The Physics Self-Efficacy Questionnaire – the General...

  9. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of bilastine 20 mg vs desloratadine 5 mg in seasonal allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachert, C; Kuna, P; Sanquer, F; Ivan, P; Dimitrov, V; Gorina, M M; van de Heyning, P; Loureiro, A

    2009-01-01

    Bilastine is a novel, nonsedating H(1)-antihistamine developed for symptomatic treatment of Allergic Rhinitis and Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of bilastine 20 mg vs placebo and desloratadine 5 mg in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicentre study evaluated the effect of 2 weeks' treatment with bilastine 20 mg, desloratadine 5 mg or matched placebo once daily, in 12-70 years old symptomatic SAR patients. All subjects assessed the severity of nasal (obstruction, rhinorrhoea, itching, and sneezing) and nonnasal (ocular itching, tearing, ocular redness, itching of ears and/or palate) symptoms on a predetermined scale to provide a total symptom score (TSS), composed of nasal and nonnasal symptom scores (NSS and NNSS, respectively). The primary efficacy measure was the area under the curve (AUC) for the TSS over the entire treatment period. Bilastine 20 mg significantly reduced the AUC of TSS to a greater degree from baseline compared to placebo (98.4 with bilastine vs 118.4 with placebo; P Bilastine 20 mg was not different from desloratadine 5 mg but significantly more effective than placebo in improving the NSS, NNSS, and rhinitis-associated discomfort scores (P bilastine (20.6%), desloratadine (19.8%), and placebo (18.8%). Bilastine 20 mg once daily was efficacious, safe and not different from desloratadine 5 mg once daily in the treatment of SAR symptoms.

  10. Comparison of efficacy between dorsal root entry zone lesioning and selective dorsal rhizotomy for spasticity of cerebral origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthinamsuwan, Bunpot; Phonwijit, Luckchai; Khampalikit, Inthira; Nitising, Akkapong; Nunta-Aree, Sarun; Suksompong, Sirilak

    2017-12-01

    Severe spasticity adversely affects patient functional status and caregiving. No previous study has compared efficacy between dorsal root entry zone lesioning (DREZL) and selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for reduction of spasticity. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of DREZL and SDR for attenuating spasticity, and to compare efficacy between these two methods. All patients who underwent DREZL, SDR, or both for treatment of intractable spasticity caused by cerebral pathology at Siriraj Hospital during 2009 to 2016 were recruited. Severity of spasticity was assessed using Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Adductor Tone Rating Scale (ATRS). Ambulatory status was also evaluated. Fifteen patients (13 males) with a mean age of 30.3 ± 17.5 years were included. Eight, six, and one patient underwent DREZL, SDR, and combined cervical DREZL and lumbosacral SDR, respectively. Eight of ten patients with preoperative bed-bound status had postoperative improvement in ambulatory status. Spasticity was significantly reduced in the DREZL group (p SDR group (p SDR was effective in both pediatric and adult spasticity patients. A significantly greater reduction in spasticity as assessed by MAS score (p SDR. DREZL is more effective for reducing spasticity, but is more destructive than SDR. DREZL should be preferred for bed-ridden patients, and SDR for ambulatory patients. Both operations are helpful for improving ambulatory status. Gait improvement was observed only in patients who underwent SDR. Adult patients with spasticity of cerebral origin benefit from SDR.

  11. THE COMPARISON OF INFLUENZA VACCINE EFFICACY ON RESPIRATORY DISEASE AMONG IRANIAN PILGRIMS IN THE 2003 AND 2004 SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Razavi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged cough occurs in a large proportion of the 2 million pilgrims who participate in the annual Hajj in Saudi Arabia. There is no unique cause for pilgrims’ respiratory involvement, but several studies suggest a high incidence of influenza as a cause of the disease. To determine influenza vaccine efficacy against respiratory disease in pilgrims, we conducted two similar cohort studies on 51100 Iranian pilgrims who had participated in the annual Hajj in the years 2003 and 2004. We calculated vaccine efficacy in these two years with the use of “1- odd’s ratio” formula and compared the results. The vaccine efficacy for prevention of influenza like illness in the year 2003 was 51% but the vaccine was not efficient in the year 2004. It was concluded that etiologic agents other than influenza virus should be considered as the cause of respiratory disease in Hajj. Bacterial infections superimposed on chronic respiratory diseases, and allergic or toxic conditions are suggested caourses for more investigation.

  12. Mindfulness-Based Program for Infertility: efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2013-10-01

    To present and determine the impact of the Mindfulness-Based Program for Infertility (MBPI). Controlled clinical trial. University research unit. Fifty-five infertile women completed the MBPI, and 37 infertile women were assigned to a control group. The MBPI includes 10 weekly sessions, in a group format, with a duration of about 2 hours each (men attend three sessions). Standardized measures of depression, state anxiety, entrapment, defeat, internal and external shame, experiential avoidance, mindfulness, self-compassion, and infertility self-efficacy were endorsed pre- and post-MBPI. The MBPI group and the control group were shown to be equivalent at baseline. By the end of the MBPI, women who attended the program revealed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms, internal and external shame, entrapment, and defeat. Inversely, they presented statistically significant improvement in mindfulness skills and self-efficacy to deal with infertility. Women in the control group did not present significant changes in any of the psychological measures, except for a decrease in self-judgment. Increasing mindfulness and acceptance skills, as well as cognitive decentering from thoughts and feelings, seem to help women to experience negative inner states in new ways, decreasing their entanglement with them and thus their psychological distress. Data suggest that the MBPI is an effective psychological intervention for women experiencing infertility. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block using articaine in irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan H; Ravikumar, H; Karale, Rupali; Preethanath, R S; Sukumaran, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) using 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine supplemented with buccal infiltration. Forty five patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were included in the study. The first group of 15 patients received 2% lidocaine with 1:200000 epinephrine, the second group 2% lidocaine with 1: 80,000 epinephrine and the third group of 15 subjects received 4% articaine with 1:100000 epinephrine. During the access cavity preparation those patients who complained of pain received an additional buccal infiltration. The percentage of subjects who got profound anesthesia and failure to achieve anesthesia were calculated and tabulated using a visual analog scale. The results revealed that 87% of subjects who received 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine got satisfactory anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve block alone. Only 2 (13%) subjects received an additional buccal infiltration and none of the patients failed to obtain complete anesthesia with articaine. In comparison only 40% of subjects got complete anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with 1:200000 and 60% with 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000. It can be concluded that 4% articaine can be used effectively for obtaining profound anesthesia for endodontic procedures in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  14. Metric characteristics of the Self-efficacy Scale: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Frlec

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-efficacy is presented in the paper, which has not been applied yet in empirical psychological research in Slovenia, and selected metric characteristics of the translated and adapted Schwarzer's generalised self-efficacy scale (LSU are analysed. The introduction focuses on self-efficacy within organisational context, the self-efficacy versus self-esteem issue and the Bandura's socio-cognitive paradigm. The psychometric analyses are based on a sample of 120 undergraduates, supplemented by comparisons with a sample of 15 employees. In addition to the LSU, a self-regulation scale was applied (another adaptation to Slovenian, a standard trait-anxiety scale and a self-confidence scale. The self-efficacy scale is analysed in detail – including the item level, while the other three instruments are only addressed on the scale level. LSU's reliability in terms of internal consistency proved to be sufficient (Cronbach α 0,77 for the students and 0,87 for the employees. Concurrent validity was verified through indicator convergence (a high positive correlation with the two related scales and a high negative correlation with the anxiety scale. Another piece of evidence in favour of construct validity of the LSU is provided by lack of significant differences between distinct groups of students on any of the scales, as well as by significant differences between the students and the employees on all the four scales.

  15. Clinical evaluation of the first oxycodone once daily prolonged release tablet in moderate to severe chronic pain: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, cross-over, non-inferiority study to investigate efficacy and safety in comparison with an established oxycodone twice daily prolonged release tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Eberhard Albert; Janecki, Marcin; Maritz, Martina Alice

    2014-11-01

    The first oxycodone once daily (OOD) has been developed and after successful pharmacokinetic characterization, therapeutic efficacy and safety were compared to an established oxycodone twice daily (OTD: Oxygesic/OxyContin, Mundipharma). A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, cross-over, non-inferiority study was conducted in patients (n = 68) with chronic malignant or non-malignant pain. The new OOD was compared to OTD at identical total daily doses (TDD: 40-120 mg/day) employing intensive, five times daily current pain (0-100 mm visual analog scale, VAS) and twice daily 12 h recalled pain assessments as well as safety parameters such as nausea and sedation (VAS) over 5 days for each treatment (after a 5 day run-in phase). There was no significant difference in analgesic potency detected between the two treatments based on 95% CI for difference in the daily mean current pain (-2.09 mm VAS) over 5 days, determined as -5.09 to 0.91 mm VAS. A difference ≤12 mm VAS indicated non-inferiority of OOD, i.e. lack of clinically relevant difference in analgesia. Intake of rescue medication had no effect on study results as evaluated by ANCOVA. The difference in adverse events (AEs) between the two treatments did not reach significance, as 19.1% and 23.5% of patients experienced treatment-related AEs while on OOD and OTD, respectively. Advantages for OOD regarding consistency of analgesia (i.e. use of rescue medication, current and recalled pain) and sedation did not reach statistical significance in this limited study population. Despite the small number of patients and short study duration, the results support the conclusion that new OOD is (at least) equivalent to established OTD regarding safety and efficacy.

  16. Science teaching self-efficacy in a primary school: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jenny; Watters, James J.

    1995-12-01

    Bandura's theory of self-efficacy predicts that teachers with high, self-efficacy should persist longer, provide a greater academic focus in child-centred classrooms and exhibit different types of feedback than teachers who have lower self-efficacy. This paper reports on the science teaching self-efficacy in a group of teachers at a state primary school. The research was conducted in two stages using firstly the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI-A) to identify cases, and secondly, a semistructured interview coupled with classroom observations. Thirty seven teaching staff were surveyed with the STEBI-A instrument. The five highest and five lowest scoring teachers on the personal science teaching self-efficacy subscale of the STEBI-A were interviewed. The analysis of interviews and observations indicated that teachers with high personal science teaching self-efficacy have had a long interest in science and a relatively strong background of formal science studies with opportunities for exploring out of school activities. Although they may have experienced negative science experiences in their own schooling other ameliorating factors existed which maintained their interest. Their instructional strategies in science lessons were more child-centred than those reported by teachers with lower personal science teaching self-efficacy. The implications of the results for the inservice training of teachers are discussed.

  17. Prospective comparison of preference and efficacy of adalimumab and infliximab for treating ulcerative colitis naive to antitumor necrosis factor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Katano, Takahito; Tanida, Satoshi; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Miyaki, Tomokatsu; Ozeki, Keiji; Suzuki, Yuka; Sugimura, Naomi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    There have been few reports on 2 tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, infliximab and adalimumab, with respect to patient preference and efficacy in ulcerative colitis (UC).We used questionnaires to evaluate the preference and reasons for drug choice between infliximab and adalimumab in UC patients naive to antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy. We also analyzed the efficacy of infliximab and adalimumab prospectively and endoscopically before treatment and at 14 and 54 weeks.Of the 25 UC patients, infliximab and adalimumab were chosen by 10 (40%) and 15 (60%), respectively. Patients who favored infliximab considered "fear of syringes" (7/10, 70%) as the most important influencing factor, whereas patients who favored adalimumab considered "ease of administration" (10/15, 66.7%) and "time required for therapy" (10/15, 66.7%) as the most important factors. There were no statistical differences in remission induction and maintenance between the infliximab and adalimumab groups with regard to response, remission, mucosal healing, steroid-free, and steroid-free remission rates at weeks 14 and 54.The efficacy of adalimumab in remission induction and maintenance was equivalent to that of infliximab in UC patients naive to antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy in this prospective study, but more patients preferred adalimumab.

  18. Efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma mekongi and Opisthorchis viverrini: a randomized, single-blinded dose-comparison trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonore Lovis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and opisthorchiasis are of public health importance in Southeast Asia. Praziquantel (PZQ is the drug of choice for morbidity control but few dose comparisons have been made. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-three schoolchildren were enrolled in an area of Lao PDR where Schistosoma mekongi and Opisthorchis viverrini coexist for a PZQ dose-comparison trial. Prevalence and intensity of infections were determined by a rigorous diagnostic effort (3 stool specimens, each examined with triplicate Kato-Katz before and 28-30 days after treatment. Ninety children with full baseline data were randomized to receive PZQ: the 40 mg/kg standard single dose (n = 45 or a 75 mg/kg total dose (50 mg/kg+25 mg/kg, 4 hours apart; n = 45. Adverse events were assessed at 3 and 24 hours posttreatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline infection prevalence of S. mekongi and O. viverrini were 87.8% and 98.9%, respectively. S. mekongi cure rates were 75.0% (95% confidence interval (CI: 56.6-88.5% and 80.8% (95% CI: 60.6-93.4% for 40 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg PZQ, respectively (P = 0.60. O. viverrini cure rates were significantly different at 71.4% (95% CI: 53.4-84.4% and 96.6% (95% CI: not defined, respectively (P = 0.009. Egg reduction rates (ERRs against O. viverrini were very high for both doses (>99%, but slightly lower for S. mekongi at 40 mg/kg (96.4% vs. 98.1% and not influenced by increasing diagnostic effort. O. viverrini cure rates would have been overestimated and no statistical difference between doses found if efficacy was based on a minimum sampling effort (single Kato-Katz before and after treatment. Adverse events were common (96%, mainly mild with no significant differences between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cure rate from the 75 mg/kg PZQ dose was more efficacious than 40 mg/kg against O. viverrini but not against S. mekongi infections, while ERRs were similar for both doses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled

  19. Adjusted indirect treatment comparisons of bioequivalence studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwaza, L

    2016-01-01

    Generic medicines are approved by regulatory authorities based on demonstration of bioequivalence with the innovator, however, current regulatory systems do not require direct comparison between all available generics of the same innovator to ensure interchangeability. As such, interchangeability

  20. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryosuke; Ito, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed.

  1. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed. PMID:27437946

  2. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Asano

    Full Text Available Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed.

  3. Combined analysis of pharmacokinetic and efficacy data of preclinical studies with statins markedly improves translation of drug efficacy to human trialss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, E. van de; Kleemann, R.; Jansen, H.T.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Offerman, E.H.; Wortelboer, H.M.; DeGroot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Correct prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) and the safety and efficacy of novel compounds based on preclinical data, is essential but often fails. In the current study, we aimed to improve the predictive value of ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) trans-genic mice regarding the cholesterol-lowering efficacy

  4. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    OpenAIRE

    Beugnet Frédéric; de Vos Christa; Liebenberg Julian; Halos Lénaïg; Larsen Diane; Fourie Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard?, Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5?mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6?months and weighing 4?18?kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collec...

  5. Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinomas: comparison with gadopentetate dimeglumine

    OpenAIRE

    Park, G; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, C. S.; Yu, H. C.; Hwang, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in the detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Both MRI techniques were performed on 43 patients with a total of 59 HCCs (size range, 0.5–2.0 cm), with a mean interval between the two MRI studies of 3 days (range, 2–7 days). Two observers reviewed both data sets in consensus. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operat...

  6. Baracle® vs Baraclude® for 48 weeks in patients with treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B: a comparison of efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim DY

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Do Young Kim,1 Ju Hyun Kim,2 Won Young Tak,3 Jong Eun Yeon,4 Joon Hyeok Lee,5 Jung Hwan Yoon,6 Youn Jae Lee,7 Byung Seok Lee,8 Byung Hoon Han,9 Han Chu Lee10 1Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, 5Department of Gastroenterology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 7Department of Gastroenterology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 8Department of Gastroenterology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, 9Department of Gastroenterology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Busan, 10Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background and objective: Entecavir (ETV is a standard of care for chronic hepatitis B (CHB. In a bioequivalence study, ETV from Dong-A ST (Baracle® was found to have a pharmacokinetic profile equivalent to ETV from Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS (Baraclude®. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antiviral activity and safety of ETV from Dong-A ST in comparison to ETV from BMS in patients with CHB. Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind, active-controlled, stratified-randomized, parallel group, comparative trial, 118 treatment-naïve patients with CHB were randomly assigned to receive either 0.5 mg of ETV from Dong-A ST or ETV from BMS once daily for 48 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was virologic improvement (a mean reduction from baseline in serum HBV DNA levels at 24 weeks. Secondary efficacy endpoints included a mean reduction in serum HBV DNA levels at 48 weeks, proportion of patients with undetectable levels of serum HBV DNA, rates of hepatitis B e

  7. Comparative Efficacy and Acceptability of Anti-TNF-Alpha Therapy in Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Mixed-Treatments Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehua Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα antagonists, namely, golimumab, adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept and certolizumab have been prescribed to alleviate and treat ankylosing spondylitis (AS. However, the lack of comparative evidence does not enable us to make constructive recommendations particularly for AS patient populations. Methods: Eligible controlled trials regarding the above 5 anti-TNFα therapies were searched electronically through PubMed, Embase and Cochrane until April 1, 2015. Odds ratios (ORs were estimated and compared for efficacy (ASAS20, ASAS40, ASAS5/6 responses and ASAS partial remission and acceptability (serious adverse effects (SAE among the anti-TNFα reagents. Results: Totally, 25 trials with 2989 participants were incorporated in this mixed treatment comparison. All the 5 TNFα blockers achieved better ASAS20, ASAS40, ASAS5/6 and ASAS-PR responses than the placebo. Furthermore, there was no significant distinction existed among inter-drug comparisons, except that unfavorable effects induced by certolizumab seemed to be less severe than those by etanercept (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.93. Apart from that, etanercept was estimated to arrive at the most favorable ASAS20 response (90.6% and SAE (83.6%, while infliximab seemed to accomplish the best ASAS40 (83.6% and ASAS-PR responses (77.3%. In addition, adalimumab was estimated to rank the highest ASAS5/6 response (75.0%. Conclusions: Etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab might be prioritized among the commonly recognized 5 anti-TNFα therapies specific for AS patients, though existing evidence did not suffice to confirm significant superiority among the above 5 anti-TNFα reagent.

  8. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, Amanda D; Patterson, Kimberley; Reed, Evette D; Wurn, Belinda F; Klingenberg, Bernhard; King, 3rd, C Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    .... This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective...

  9. Comparison of efficacy and tolerability of different brands of amlodipine in patients with mild to moderate hypertension

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    Molouk Hadjibabaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, in treating systemic hypertension is well established but the most efficacious brand of this drug is still uncertain. The cost of different brands of amlodipine is tremendously different which may affect decision-making in hypertension treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of different brands of amlodipine (Amlodipine, Amlopress, and Norvasc in the treatment of hypertension in adult patients.Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized, three-sequence crossover study. Ambulatory patients with hypertension who had the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Patients were randomized and entered into three groups to receive either brand of amlodipine in a crossover method. After every four weeks of treatment completed, the other brand of drug was prescribed. The total period of the study was 12 weeks for all three drugs including four weeks for each brand.Results: A total of 20 patients entered to the study, 15 completed the 12-week treatment schedule. The absolute reductions in seated and supine systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were similar with all three brands during the 4 weeks of treatment. Headache, malaise and weakness were the most common reported adverse effects (AE with all three drugs. Generic amlodipine had the most AE as compared with other brands. These AE were mild and did not require withdrawal of the drug. Conclusion: There is no statistical difference in lowering blood pressure by three different brands of amlodipine thus everyone which has the lowest price can be the first choice.

  10. Study on the efficacy of ELA-Max (4% liposomal lidocaine) compared with EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) using thermosensory threshold analysis in adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M B Y; Goon, A T J; Goh, C L

    2004-04-01

    ELA-Max and EMLA cream are topical anesthetics that have been shown to have similar anesthetic efficacy in previous studies. To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ELA-Max in comparison with EMLA cream using a novel method of thermosensory threshold analysis. A thermosensory analyzer was used to assess warmth- and heat-induced pain thresholds. No statistically significant difference was found in pain thresholds using either formulation. However, EMLA cream increased the heat-induced pain threshold to a greater extent than ELA-Max. Thermosensory measurement and analysis was well tolerated and no adverse events were encountered. EMLA cream may be superior to ELA-Max for heat-induced pain. This study suggests that thermosensory measurement may be another suitable tool for future topical anesthetic efficacy studies.

  11. Comparison of efficacy among various topical anesthetics: An approach towards painless injections in periodontal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Koppolu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that procaine gel is a better than other topical LA agents, as the number of studies on this subject is rare and clinical results are mixed, further studies are required with a larger sample before its routine application in our field.

  12. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-04-06

    Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models. Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.

  13. A multilevel study on the relationships between work characteristics, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and organizational citizenship behavior: the case of Taiwanese police duty-executing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Kao, Rui-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Public security, traffic management, and service for the people are the 3 major functions of policing in Taiwan. This definition encompasses not only the traditional job characteristics, but also the level of contextual characteristics and social characteristics because of police work's characteristics and its frequent interaction with the public. Thus, the present study conducted a multilevel model analysis by taking self-efficacy and collective efficacy as the mediating variables. The purpose was to investigate the influences of motivational work characteristics (knowledge-oriented) and social work characteristics (socially and contextually oriented) of work-design model on the police officers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), by using first-line police officers in Taiwan as the research objects. The study showed not only that knowledge characteristics will influence the self-efficacy of a police officer and that self-efficacy can in turn influence individual police officers' OCB, but also the contextual effect of social characteristics, contextual characteristics, and collective efficacy on self-efficacy and individuals' OCB. Additionally, there was a crosslevel moderating effect from contextual characteristics on the relationship between knowledge characteristics and self-efficacy and the relationship between self-efficacy and the individuals' OCB. The authors conclude the article with research implications.

  14. A comparison of the analgesic efficacy of transforaminal methylprednisolone alone and with low doses of clonidine in lumbo-sacral radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Tauheed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although transforaminal epidural steroid injections under fluoroscopic guidance have become a common mode of treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy due to herniated disc, the efficacy of steroid with low doses of clonidine has not been compared yet. Objectives: Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of methylprednisolone alone and with low doses of clonidine for transforaminal injection in lumbosacral radiculopathy. Study Design: A randomized, double-blind trial. Setting: This study was performed at the Pain Clinic under the Department of Anaesthesiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Methods: One hundred and eighty ASA grade I and II patients aged between 18 and 55 years were allocated into groups I, II and III to receive methylprednisolone 60 mg alone or methylprednisolone 60 mg with or without low doses of clonidine (0.5 mcg/kg or 1 mcg/kg as transforaminal epidural injection. Pain relief and patient′s satisfaction were evaluated with the global pain scale. Follow-up visits were advised at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks and then at 6 months after injection. Associated complications were recorded. Results: Maximum pain relief was observed at 2 weeks after injection in all the three groups, with no difference in complication rate among the three groups. The most common complication observed was paresthesia in the nerve distribution. Greater than 60% improvement in pain scores was seen in 40% of the patients in group I, 50% of the patients in group II and 75% of the patients in group III. Limitations: This study is limited by the lack of a placebo group. Conclusion: Adding 1 mcg/kg clonidine to 60 mg methylprednisolone in transforaminal epidural injections provided better pain relief than 60 mg methylprednisolone with 0.5 mcg/kg clonidine or 60 mg methylprednisolone alone in patients suffering from lumbosacral radiculopathy, with practically no significant side-effects.

  15. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Farha, Ph.D.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by comparing learning outcomes using a learning object with outcomes using a traditional textbook-based method of instruction. Participants were 327 undergraduate college students at a traditional public four-year coed institution, a private four-year women’s college, a private four-year engineering institution, and a public two-year community college. Through a series of independent samples t-tests and Analyses of Variance, results revealed mean scores for the learning object group that were nearly three times higher than the mean scores for the textbook-taught group. Gaming experience, age, gender, and learner preference were evaluated for their potential influence on the results; no statistically significant differences were found, implying that the learning object itself was central to the outcomes achieved. The future of learning objects is bright, and more empirical research is called for in the area of learning object effectiveness.

  16. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate and ibuprofen in gynaecological ambulatory surgeries: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Ahuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Flupirtine maleate is a centrally acting, non-opioid analgesic with unique muscle relaxant properties as compared to common analgesics. The aim of this study was to compare post-operative analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate and ibuprofen in patients undergoing gynaecological ambulatory surgeries. Methods: This prospective, randomised controlled study was conducted in 60 women of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II, 18-70 years of age and scheduled to undergo gynaecological ambulatory surgeries. The participants were randomised to receive either 100 mg oral flupirtine maleate (group flupirtine, n = 30 or 800 mg oral ibuprofen (group ibuprofen, n = 30, 1 h prior to surgery and then every 8 h for 48 h. Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS on movement was assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h following surgery. Following discharge from hospital, the patients were interviewed telephonically at 12, 24 and 48 h post-operatively. VNRS was statistically analysed using Mann-Whitney test. Results: VNRS on movement was statistically reduced at 2 h after surgery (P = 0.04 in group flupirtine as compared to group ibuprofen. The analgesic efficacy was similar in both the groups at 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery. The satisfaction scores at 24 and 48 h post-operatively were superior in group flupirtine as compared to group ibuprofen (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate was comparable with ibuprofen in patients in ambulatory gynaecological patients up to 48 h postoperatively with superior satisfaction scores.

  17. Comparisons of the Retreatment Efficacy of Calcium Silicate and Epoxy Resin-based Sealers and Residual Sealer in Dentinal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsuk; Kim, Euiseong; Lee, Seung-Jong; Shin, Su-Jung

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatment efficacy and amount of residual sealer in a single canal filled with either EndoSequence BC (Brasseler, Savannah, GA) or AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). Canal obturation with gutta-percha and sealer was performed in 28 human teeth using the continuous wave technique. Group 1 (n = 13) used AH Plus sealer, and group 2 (n = 15) used EndoSequence BC sealer. After 7 days, the root fillings were removed using Gates Glidden drills and a nickel-titanium rotary system. Retreatment time was measured in seconds. Canal cleanliness was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The remaining debris in the canal space and penetration into dentinal tubules were evaluated by confocal microscopy. Retreatment time was compared using the Student t test, and differences in sealer penetration and remaining debris between the groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P < .05). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the amount of dentin penetration, amount of debris, or retreatment time. With respect to penetration depth, the AH Plus group showed a slightly higher percentage than the BC group, with a significant difference only in the portion 6 mm from the apex (P < .05). Scanning electron microscopic images showed significant debris remaining on canal walls in both groups, whereas canal patency in retreatment was achieved in every specimen. The present study shows that EndoSequence BC sealer and AH Plus sealer have similar efficacy in dentin penetration and retreatment efficacy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing Self-Efficacy through a Massive Open Online Course on Study Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of academic performance, and an area of interest for higher education institutions. This paper reports on a massive open online course (MOOC on study skills, aimed at increasing self-efficacy. Participants (n=32 were from Mexico and Colombia, with ages ranging from 21 to 45 years. At the beginning and the end of the MOOC, learners answered a survey that included the General Self-Efficacy Scale, items on specific study skills, and space for optional comments. Findings show statistically significant increases in general self-efficacy after completing the MOOC, as well as in the perceived self-efficacy related to five out of six study skills. Comments suggest that participants are aware of and value their own improvement. For students, MOOCs can represent low-risk, formative opportunities to widen their knowledge and increase their self-efficacy. For academic institutions, well-designed MOOCs on study skills provide a means to support students.

  19. Comparative clinical study in plaque removal efficacy of a new sonic toothbrush (Float-Brush) with floating bristle action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Miki; Shizukuishi, Satoshi; Matsuo, Tadayuki; Kanesaki, Nobuo; Hanioka, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Floating action toothbrush bristles have been incorporated into a V-shaped sonic toothbrush. The base of the bristles moves down or up according to the pressure of the toothbrush being applied to a tooth surface. It was thought that this floating action with sonic vibration may generate new motion for increased plaque removal efficacy through increased contact between bristles and tooth surfaces. The objective of this investigation was to compare the plaque removal efficacy of a sonic toothbrush with floating bristle action (Float-Brush) to either a conventional V-shaped sonic toothbrush (Techno-Brush) or a manual toothbrush. A single-blind, three-treatment cross-over study was performed on 42 subjects. Each subject refrained from brushing for 24 hours, followed by assessment for dental plaque on the Ramfjord teeth employing the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index. Plaque removal efficacy was determined by the percentage of plaque score reduction in a single-use toothbrushing under supervision for two minutes. Forty participants completed this study. No significant difference in pre-brushing plaque scores was detected among the three toothbrushes. In the comparison of whole mouth mean scores, plaque removal efficacy of the Float-Brush (65.0%) was significantly higher than that of the Techno-Brush (59.1%, p = 0.0487) and the manual toothbrush (50.9%, p Brush was similar to whole mouth scores, when comparing the gumline and interproximal tooth area scores. These findings indicate the superiority of the Float-Brush for plaque removal compared to the Techno-Brush and the manual toothbrush.

  20. Self-efficacy after life skills training: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Fatemeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2013-12-01

    Nursing students' self-efficacy is a predictor for their educational progress. Students, who believe that they can be successful in their studies, are more confident. Therefore, many universities have focused on life skills training programs to improve the mental health of their students. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare self-efficacy in two groups of nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). One group of students was trained on life skill programs, and the second group was not trained on the issue. A case-control study was conducted on two groups of nursing students in TUMS in the late 2012. The case group (n = 112) had passed life skills training course, and the control group (n = 139) was not trained on the issue. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing 12 questions about demographic features, and the Sherer's general self-efficacy questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using independent sample t-test, Chi-square, odds ratio, and Fisher's exact test. In the untrained and trained groups, 23% and 8% of the students had very high self-efficacy, respectively. The overall mean scores of self-efficacy were 41.99 ± 9.31 and 38.99 ± 10.48 in the trained and untrained groups, respectively (P = 0.015), and the higher mean score indicates lower level of self-efficacy. A significant difference was also found between the self-efficacy and family income (P = 0.029). The present study showed that life skills training program did not affect self-efficacy of nursing students. Perhaps, the methods used in education were influencing and then, more effective techniques such as role-play and group discussion should be substituted in life skills training.

  1. In vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Natural Honeys in Comparison with Antibiotics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Yavarpour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several studies have been done that showed honey has been therapeutic effects on infection disease like Pseudomonas infections. Our aim of this study is evaluation of the antibacterial activity of mono floral and multi floral honeys from different origin of Iran on growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compare their activities with artificial honey and antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial effect of honey was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution method on 5 different concentration of honey. Results: The highest inhibition zone (16 ± 1/52 mm was recorded from persimmon honey in disc diffusion method. In this study، the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for manna honey and other natural honeys obtained 25% and 12.5% respectively. While P. aeruginosa was inhibited at concentration of 50% (ml/ml of artificial honey. Conclusions: This study showed that honey has a significant antibacterial effect on P. aeruginosa. There is a direct link between the concentration of honey and inhibition zone.

  2. The Efficacy of Violence Prediction: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Nine Risk Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Coid, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Actuarial risk assessment tools are used extensively to predict future violence, but previous studies comparing their predictive accuracies have produced inconsistent findings as a result of various methodological issues. We conducted meta-analyses of the effect sizes of 9 commonly used risk assessment tools and their subscales to compare their…

  3. Comparison of efficacy and safety of laser in situ keratomileusis using 2 femtosecond laser platforms in contralateral eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Mohamad; Hall, Reece C; Chan, Cordelia; Ang, Andy; Koh, Jane; Htoon, Hla Myint; Tan, Donald T H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2013-07-01

    To compare the efficacy, predictability, and refractive outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using 2 femtosecond platforms for flap creation. Multisurgeon single center. Clinical trial. Bilateral femtosecond LASIK was performed using the Wavelight Allegretto Eye-Q 400 Hz excimer laser system. The Visumax femtosecond platform (Group 1) was used to create the LASIK flap in 1 eye, while the Intralase femtosecond platform (Group 2) was used to create the LASIK flap in the contralateral eye. The preoperative, 1-month, and 3-month postoperative visual acuities, refraction, and contrast sensitivity in the 2 groups were compared. The study enrolled 45 patients. Three months after femtosecond LASIK, 79.5% of eyes in Group 1 and 82.1% in Group 2 achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 (P=.808). The mean efficacy index was 0.97 in Group 1 and 0.98 in Group 2 at 3 months (P=.735); 89.7% of eyes in Group 1 and 84.6% of eyes in Group 2 were within ± 0.50 diopter of emmetropia at 3 months (P=.498). No eye in either group lost more than 2 lines of corrected distance visual acuity. The mean safety index at 3 months was 1.11 in Group 1 and 1.10 in Group 2 (P=.570). The results of LASIK with both femtosecond lasers were similar, and both platforms produced efficacious and predictable LASIK outcomes. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection for unilateral cervical radiculopathy: Comparison of midline and paramedian approaches for efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Young; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoon, Young Cheol [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok [School of Business Administration, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis.

  5. Comparison of efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle Y; Bertone, Alicia L; Hendrickson, Dean; Hughes, Faith; Macallister, Charles; McClure, Scott; Reinemeyer, Craig; Rossier, Yves; Sifferman, Roger; Vrins, André A; White, Gary; Kunkle, Bruce; Alva, Roberto; Romano, Davida; Hanson, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 253 client-owned horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Horses were treated with firocoxib (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg [2 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 14 days. Physical examinations and lameness evaluations were performed prior to treatment and after 7 and 14 days. Clinical improvement was defined as a reduction of at least 1 lameness grade or a combined reduction of at least 3 points in scores for pain during manipulation or palpation, joint swelling, joint circumference, and range of motion. Proportion of horses clinically improved on day 14 for the firocoxib group (104/123 [84.6%]) was not significantly different from the proportion for the phenylbutazone group (103/119 [86.6%]). Proportion of horses that were improved on day 14 was significantly greater for horses treated with firocoxib than for horses treated with phenylbutazone with regard to score for pain on manipulation or palpation (P = 0.028), joint circumference score (P = 0.026), and range of motion score (P = 0.012), but not for overall lameness score or joint swelling score. No direct treatment-related adverse effects were detected during the study. Results suggested that overall clinical efficacy of a paste formulation of firocoxib in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis was comparable to efficacy of a paste formulation of phenylbutazone.

  6. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Caspofungin Versus Micafungin in Pediatric Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Natalia; Schillani, Giulia; Simeone, Roberto; Maestro, Alessandra; Zanon, Davide

    2017-05-01

    The high morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) provide the rationale for antifungal prophylaxis in immuno-compromised pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Caspofungin and micafungin are antifungal agents of interest for prophylaxis of IFIs because of their potency against Candida and minimal toxicity or interactions with other drugs. Few studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of such echinocandins as prophylaxis for IFIs in patients undergoing HSCT. This retrospective cohort study compared caspofungin and micafungin for prevention of IFIs in 93 pediatric patients undergoing HSCT for oncological or non-oncological disease. The observation began with the first dose of antifungal agent and ended 3 months after transplantation. Patients in the micafungin group had a higher overall treatment success rate of 87.2 versus 84.8% in the caspofungin group, but the difference was not significant. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence or type of proven/probable IFIs between the 2 groups. The low incidence of death did not differ statistically between the groups. Patients in the caspofungin group presented more frequently with fever, during and after neutropenia. In both groups, we observed an expected worsening of blood chemistry parameters. There were no adverse events definitely attributable to the two antifungal agents. These results demonstrate good efficacy and tolerability for caspofungin and micafungin. However, better results with respect to the incidence and resolution of fever in the micafungin group may suggest its use in preference to that of caspofungin.

  7. Clinical comparison between the bleaching efficacy of light-emitting diode and diode laser with sodium perborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Sibel; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to test the efficacy of a light-emitting diode (LED) light and a diode laser, when bleaching with sodium perborate. Thirty volunteers were selected to participate in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. The initial colour of each tooth to be bleached was quantified with a spectrophotometer. In group A, sodium perborate and distilled water were mixed and placed into the pulp chamber, and the LED light was source applied. In group B, the same mixture was used, and the 810 nm diode laser was applied. The final colour of each tooth was quantified with the same spectrophotometer. Initial and final spectrophotometer values were recorded. Mann-Whitney U-test and Wicoxon tests were used to test differences between both groups. Both devices successfully whitened the teeth. No statistical difference was found between the efficacy of the LED light and the diode laser. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  8. Comparison of UVB and UVC irradiation disinfection efficacies on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Markvart, M.; Nielsen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Disinfection routines are important in all clinical applications. The uprising problem of antibiotic resistance has driven major research efforts towards alternative disinfection approaches, involving light-based solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium that can cause...... skin, soft tissue, lungs, kidney and urinary tract infections. Moreover, it can be found on and in medical equipment causing often cross infections in hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency, of two different light-based disinfection treatments, namely UVB and UVC irradiation......, on P. aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages. In our experiments a new type of UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms, in the UVB (296nm) and UVC (266nm) region. The killing rate was studied as a function of dose for 24h grown biofilms. The dose...

  9. Comparison of efficacy among various topical anesthetics: An approach towards painless injections in periodontal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    P Koppolu; Mishra, A.; Swapna, L A; Butchibabu, K; A Bagalkokar; Kusai Baroudi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Local anesthetics (LAs) are most commonly used agents in dentistry. They are used to prevent the pain and nociception generated during dental procedures. Since pain associated at the time of injection of LA is uncomfortable, most of the dentists are on pursuit of painless administration of LA injection and use of topical anesthetics prior to the injection has proven effective in reducing anxiety and pain to the patient. The aim of this study is to compare pain responses a...

  10. Comparison the efficacy of phonophoresis and ultrasound therapy in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Saime; Doğan, Sebnem Koldaş; Evcik, Deniz; Başer, Ozgün Cakmak

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of phonophoresis, ultrasound and placebo ultrasound therapies in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). This is a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty patients (48 women, 12 men, mean age 37.9 ± 12.2 years) with MPS were included in this study. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1(n = 20) was received diclofenac phonophoresis, group 2(n = 20) was received ultrasound and group 3(n = 20) was received placebo ultrasound therapies over trigger points, 10 min a day for 15 session during 3 weeks (1 MHz-1,5 watt/cm²). Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program including isotonic, isometric and stretching. Patients were assessed by means of pain, range of motion (ROM) of neck, number of trigger points (NTP), algometric measurement and disability. Pain severity was measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and Likert scale. The neck pain disability index (NPDI) was used for assessing disability. Measurements were taken before and after treatment. After treatment, there were statistically significant improvements in pain severity, NTP, pressure pain threshold (PPT), ROM and NPDI scores both in phonophoresis and in ultrasound therapy groups (P 0.05), also there were no significant differences in all parameters between group 1 and 2 (P = 0.05). Both diclofenac phonophoresis and ultrasound therapy were effective in the treatment of patients with MPS. Phonophoresis was not found to be superior over ultrasound therapy.

  11. Open ear hearing aids in tinnitus therapy: An efficacy comparison with sound generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, Marta; Del Bo, Luca; Jastreboff, Margaret; Tognola, Gabriella; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) with sound generators or with open ear hearing aids in the rehabilitation of tinnitus for a group of subjects who, according to Jastreboff categories, can be treated with both approaches to sound therapy (borderline of Category 1 and 2). This study was a prospective data collection with a parallel-group design which entailed that each subject was randomly assigned to one of the two treatments group: half of the subjects were fitted binaurally with sound generators, and the other half with open ear hearing aids. Both groups received the same educational counselling sessions. Ninety-one subjects passed the screening criteria and were enrolled into the study. Structured interviews, with a variety of measures evaluated through the use of visual-analog scales and the tinnitus handicap inventory self-administered questionnaire, were performed before the therapy and at 3, 6, and 12 months during the therapy. Data showed a highly significant improvement in both tinnitus treatments starting from the first three months and up to one year of therapy, with a progressive and statistically significant decrease in the disability every three months. TRT was equally effective with sound generator or open ear hearing aids: they gave basically identical, statistically indistinguishable results.

  12. Comparison Efficacy of Interferential Currents and Desmopressin in Primary Enuresis Children of 5-15 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Yazdanpanah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nocturnal enuresis as a common disorder in children can create many problems. A variety of modalities has been used for its treatment but applying new and effective modalities can be of much interest. In this study efficacy of interferential currents (IFC, as a new modality, has been compared with nasal spray of desmopressin in treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis in 5-15 year old children. Materials & Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, clinical trial in which 39 patients received desmopressin (20µg/day for 3 weeks and left off gradually in six months, if it was responsive. The other 36 patients received IFC therapy (5 times/week, 20 minutes each session, up to 15 sessions. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated after completion of therapeutic sessions and recurrence rate was calculated one month later. Results: About 66.7% of patients were 5-10 and 33.3% were 11-15 years old. Of all subjects, 58.7% were male and 41.3% were female. In those patients who received IFC, complete response was observed in 25%, partial response in 36.1% and 38.9% had no response while in desmopressin group, complete response was achieved in 61.5%, and partial response in 25.6% of cases and 12.8% had no response to the treatment. The recurrence rate in IFC and desmopressin groups were 16.7 % and 23.1%, respectively. In 11-15 year old children, response rate was better than those for 5-10 years old. Male patients had the most rate of recurrence. Therapeutic side effects were not observed in any of the patients in both groups. Conclusion: Desmopressin and IFC are effective and safe modalities for treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis of children with less recurrence in females. Moreover, desmopressin had better efficacy while IFC had less recurrence rate. In addition, desmopressin showed better efficacy in females. IFC can be recommended as an effective and safe modality for treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis, with less

  13. Factors associated with findings of published trials of drug-drug comparisons: why some statins appear more efficacious than others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Bero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published pharmaceutical industry-sponsored trials are more likely than non-industry-sponsored trials to report results and conclusions that favor drug over placebo. Little is known about potential biases in drug-drug comparisons. This study examined associations between research funding source, study design characteristics aimed at reducing bias, and other factors that potentially influence results and conclusions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs of statin-drug comparisons. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study of 192 published RCTs comparing a statin drug to another statin drug or non-statin drug. Data on concealment of allocation, selection bias, blinding, sample size, disclosed funding source, financial ties of authors, results for primary outcomes, and author conclusions were extracted by two coders (weighted kappa 0.80 to 0.97. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression identified associations between independent variables and favorable results and conclusions. Of the RCTs, 50% (95/192 were funded by industry, and 37% (70/192 did not disclose any funding source. Looking at the totality of available evidence, we found that almost all studies (98%, 189/192 used only surrogate outcome measures. Moreover, study design weaknesses common to published statin-drug comparisons included inadequate blinding, lack of concealment of allocation, poor follow-up, and lack of intention-to-treat analyses. In multivariate analysis of the full sample, trials with adequate blinding were less likely to report results favoring the test drug, and sample size was associated with favorable conclusions when controlling for other factors. In multivariate analysis of industry-funded RCTs, funding from the test drug company was associated with results (odds ratio = 20.16 [95% confidence interval 4.37-92.98], p < 0.001 and conclusions (odds ratio = 34.55 [95% confidence interval 7.09-168.4], p < 0.001 that favor the test drug when

  14. Comparison of Cationic and Amphipathic Cell Penetrating Peptides for siRNA Delivery and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Robert H.; Zaro, Jennica L.; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short strands of arginine and/or lysine-rich peptides (Lipofectamine 2000 complex in Huh7.5 cells stably transfected to express GFP-LC3, whereas R6-polyplex did not demonstrate significant silencing activity. Further studies indicated that the K21-PDP/siRNA polyplex formation and conjugation of MAP to the polyplex were essential for siRNA polyplex uptake and gene silencing. MAP-polyplex was also shown to be unaffected by the presence of 10% FBS during transfection. In addition, MAP-polyplex uptake was dependent on vesicle formation and fusion due to 70 and 54% loss of uptake at 4 and 16°C, respectively, compared to incubation at 37°C. Therefore, the amphipathic CPP is a more suitable carrier moiety for delivery of siRNA polyplex. PMID:22171592

  15. Comparison of efficacy of prophylactic ketamine and dexmedetomidine on postoperative bladder catheter-related discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Akça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effects of prophylactic ketamine and dexmedetomidine on postoperative bladder catheter-related discomfort/pain in patients undergoing cystoscopy. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 75 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I-II patients between 18-75 years of age and undergoing cystoscopy between November 2011 and June 2012 at Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups to receive 1 μ/kg dexmedetomidine, 250 μ/kg intravenous ketamine, or normal saline. All patients were questioned regarding probe-related discomfort, patient satisfaction, and pain at the end of the operation 0 (t0 and 15 (t1, 60 (t2, 120 (t3, and 360 (t4 minutes postoperatively. Evaluations were performed in person at the post-anesthesia care unit, or in ambulatory surgery rooms, or by phone calls. Results: Pain incidence in the dexmedetomidine and ketamine groups (p=0.042 was significantly lower than that in the control group (p=0.044.The sedation scores recorded at t0 in the dexmedetomidine and ketamine groups (p=0.004 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p=0.017. Patient groups were similar regarding the rate of hallucinations experienced at t1, no patients experienced hallucinations at t2, t3, or t4. Significantly more patients experienced hallucinations at t0 in the ketamine group than in the dexmedetomidine group (p=0.034 and the control group (p=0.005. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine and ketamine had similar analgesic effects in preventing catheter-related pain; however, dexmedetomidine had a more acceptable side effect profile. To identify the optimal doses of dexmedetomidine and ketamine, more large-scale interventional studies are needed.

  16. Comparison between Efficacy of Ciprofioxacin -Doxycycline with Rifampin – Doxycycline Regimens inrelapse of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sarmadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is one of the endemic diseases in Iran that has a worldwide spread and is associated with chronic disabilities in humans. Combination therapy of Brucellosis leads to recovery of symptoms, shortening of the symptomatic intervals, and decrease in the rate of relapse and drug resistance. Considering the use of rifampin in the treatment of tuberculosis, and the necessity for an alternative treatment in regions endemic for both tuberculosis and brucellosis, the aim ofthis study was to compare the efficiency of the regimen of rifampin-Doxycycline with ciprofloxacin-Doxycycline in relapse of brucellosis. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 90 patients, older than 17 years old, affected with brucellosis, which were referred to the Infectious Disease Clinics at ArakUniversity of medical sciences between the years 1384-1387. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the DR groups, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline twice a day and 300 mg of rifampin Bid daily for eight weeks and the CD group, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline plus 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice a day for eight weeks. The patients were analyzed for the relief of symptoms, drug side effects, and laboratory findings during the treatment. Results:In this study, the rate of relapse in both groups were similar. The relapse was seen in 4.5% and 3.2% of the patients for the DR and CD groups, respectively (P=0.168. The drug side effects were slight in both of groups, with no significant difference, and did not lead to discontinuation of the therapy. Conclusion: According to the same rate of relapse in both CD and DR regimens in the treatment of brucellosis and considering the usage of rifampin in regions with high prevalence of tuberclusis, the CD regimen is recommended as an appropriate one.

  17. Efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of BID versus TID dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Robert B; Feltner, Douglas E; Fieve, Ronald R; Pande, Atul C

    2005-04-01

    Pregabalin is a new anxiolytic that acts as a presynaptic inhibitor of the release of excessive levels of excitatory neurotransmitters by selectively binding to the alpha2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. The current study evaluated the anxiolytic efficacy of BID versus TID dosing of pregabalin in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition generalized anxiety disorder and having baseline Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) total scores > or =20 were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with pregabalin 200 mg/d (BID; N = 78), 400 mg/d (BID; N = 89), or 450 mg/d (TID; N = 88) or placebo (N = 86). Mean improvement in HAM-A total score at last observation carried forward end point was significantly greater on pregabalin 200 (P = 0.006), 400 (P = 0.001), and 450 mg/d (P = 0.005) compared with placebo. Pairwise comparisons of BID versus TID dosing found no difference in HAM-A change score at end point. All 3 pregabalin dosage groups showed significantly greater efficacy versus placebo at end point on the HAM-A psychic and somatic anxiety factor scores. Improvement on both factors was rapid: significance versus placebo was achieved as early as the first assessment at week 1, with > or =30% reduction in HAM-A severity and equal or greater improvement for every subsequent visit in > or =38% of patients in all 3 pregabalin dosage groups (P TID dosing.

  18. Determinants of the Efficacy of Cardiac Ischemic Preconditioning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Kimberley E; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Riksen, Niels P; Sterenborg, Thomas B; Sena, Emily S; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Warlé, Michiel C

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of the heart is a protective strategy in which a brief ischemic stimulus immediately before a lethal ischemic episode potently limits infarct size. Although very promising in animal models of myocardial infarction, IPC has not yet been successfully translated to benefit for patients. To appraise all preclinical evidence on IPC for myocardial infarction and identify factors hampering translation. Using systematic review and meta-analysis, we identified 503 animal studies reporting infarct size data from 785 comparisons between IPC-treated and control animals. Overall, IPC reduced myocardial infarction by 24.6% [95%CI 23.5, 25.6]. Subgroup analysis showed that IPC efficacy was reduced in comorbid animals and non-rodents. Efficacy was highest in studies using 2-3 IPC cycles applied IPC were equally effective. Reporting of study quality indicators was low: randomization, blinding and a sample size calculation were reported in 49%, 11% and 2% of publications, respectively. Translation of IPC to the clinical setting may be hampered by the observed differences between the animals used in preclinical IPC studies and the patient population, regarding comorbidity, sex and age. Furthermore, the IPC protocols currently used in clinical trials could be optimized in terms of timing and the number of ischemic cycles applied. In order to inform future clinical trials successfully, future preclinical studies on IPC should aim to maximize both internal and external validity, since poor methodological quality may limit the value of the preclinical evidence.

  19. Comparison of the efficacy of transforaminal and interlaminar radicular block techniques for treating lumbar disk hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the interlaminar and transforaminal block techniques with regard to the state of pain and presence or absence of complications.METHOD: This was a randomized double-blind prospective study of descriptive and comparative nature, on 40 patients of both sexes who presented lumbar sciatic pain due to central-lateral or foraminal disk hernias. The patients had failed to respond to 20 physiotherapy sessions, but did not present instability, as diagnosed in dynamic radiographic examinations. The type of block to be used was determined by means of a draw: transforaminal (group 1; 20 patients or interlaminar (group 2; 20 patients.RESULTS: Forty patients were evaluated (17 males, with a mean age of 49 years. There was a significant improvement in the state of pain in all patients who underwent radicular block using both techniques, although the transforaminal technique presented better results than the interlaminar technique.CONCLUSION: Both techniques were effective for pain relief and presented low complication rates, but the transforaminal technique was more effective than the interlaminar technique.

  20. Comparison of the efficacy and technical accuracy of different rectangular collimators for intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjian; Abramovitch, Kenneth; Thames, Walter; Leon, Inga-Lill K; Colosi, Dan C; Goren, Arthur D

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the operating efficiency and technical accuracy of 3 different rectangular collimators. A full-mouth intraoral radiographic series excluding central incisor views were taken on training manikins by 2 groups of undergraduate dental and dental hygiene students. Three types of rectangular collimator were used: Type I ("free-hand"), Type II (mechanical interlocking), and Type III (magnetic collimator). Eighteen students exposed one side of the manikin with a Type I collimator and the other side with a Type II. Another 15 students exposed the manikin with Type I and Type III respectively. Type I is currently used for teaching and patient care at our institution and was considered as the control to which both Types II and III were compared. The time necessary to perform the procedure, subjective user friendliness, and the number of technique errors (placement, projection, and cone cut errors) were assessed. The Student t test or signed rank test was used to determine statistical difference (P errors. Type III collimation was also more user friendly, but generated more cone cut errors. Further optimization of these collimators is expected to improve operator/clinician performance and utility.

  1. Comparison of LCD and CRT displays based on efficacy for digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert S; Samei, Ehsan; Baker, Jay; Delong, David; Soo, Mary Scott; Walsh, Ruth; Pisano, Etta; Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Pavic, Dag

    2006-11-01

    To compare two display technologies, cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD), in terms of diagnostic accuracy for several common clinical tasks in digital mammography. Simulated masses and microcalcifications were inserted into normal digital mammograms to produce an image set of 400 images. Images were viewed on one CRT and one LCD medical-quality display device by five experienced breast-imaging radiologists who rated the images using a categorical rating paradigm. The observer data were analyzed to determine overall classification accuracy, overall lesion detection accuracy, and accuracy for four specific diagnostic tasks: detection of benign masses, malignant masses, and microcalcifications, and discrimination of benign and malignant masses. Radiologists had similar overall classification accuracy (LCD: 0.83 +/- 0.01, CRT: 0.82 +/- 0.01) and lesion detection accuracy (LCD: 0.87 +/- 0.01, CRT: 0.85 +/- 0.01) on both displays. The difference in accuracy between LCD and CRT for the detection of benign masses, malignant masses, and microcalcifications, and discrimination of benign and malignant masses was -0.019 +/- 0.009, 0.020 +/- 0.008, 0.012 +/- 0.013, and 0.0094 +/- 0.011, respectively. Overall, the two displays did not exhibit any statistically significant difference (P > .05). This study explored the suitability of two different soft-copy displays for the viewing of mammographic images. It found that LCD and CRT displays offer similar clinical utility for mammographic tasks.

  2. Comparison of Efficacy of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement in the Unresectable Esophageal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesato, Masaya; Akutsu, Yasunori; Murakami, Kentarou; Muto, Yorihiko; Kagaya, Akiko; Nakano, Akira; Aikawa, Mizuho; Tamachi, Tomohide; Arasawa, Takahiro; Amagai, Hiroyuki; Muto, Yasuhide; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to evaluate the prevention of complications of metallic stent placement in patients with unresectable advanced esophageal cancer. A total of 87 patients were treated with 4 types of metal stents in the esophagus over a period of 18 years. Stent placement was technically successful. The most common prior treatment was chemoradiotherapy. There were no significant differences in the rate of patients with no complications among the prior treatments. Approximately, 30% of patients had the most common chest pain in complications. Stent placement within one month after the completion of chemoradiotherapy should be avoided for the prevention of the chest pain. There was no significant difference in the rate of patients with no complications by lesion location. The rate of no complications was higher for the Niti-S stent than the Gianturco Z-stent or Ultraflex stent. Of note, no complications were noted for the Niti-S ultrathin stent at all. Among cases of stent-related death, the most common type of complication was respiratory disorder caused by the stent that seems to be thick and hard. Therefore, the stent with thin and flexible characteristics like the Niti-S ultrathin stent will solve the various problems of esophageal stent placement.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of HI6 and 2-PAM against soman, tabun, sarin, and VX in the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study compared the efficacy of H16 and 2-PAM against nerve agent (soman tabun sarin and VX) -induced lethality in the atropinesterase-free rabbits pretreated with vehicle (controls) or pyridostigmine. Treatment was administered at signs or 2 min after agent challenge and consisted ofoxime (l00umol/lkg) + atropine 13 mg(kg) (alone or together with diazepam). Twenty-four-h LD50 values were calculated for soman- and tabun-intoxicated animals, whereas 24-h survival was noted in animals given 10 LD50s of sarin or VX. In pyridostigmine and control rabbits intoxicated with soman and treated with oxime + atropine (alone or together with diazepam), HI6 was 35 times more effective than 2-PAM. In contrast 1116 was less effective than 2-PAM against tabun poisoning. In pyridostigmine-pretreated animals exposed to tabun, efficacy was increased more than 3-fold when compare to tabun-challenged animals treated with atropine + H16 alone. Both oximes were highly effective against satin and VX. These findings suggest that Hifi could replace 2-PAM as therapy for nerve agent poisoning because it is superior to 2-PAM against soman, and when used in pyridostigmine-pretreated animals it affords excellent protection against all four nerve agents when used in combination with atropine (alone or together with diazepam) therapy.

  4. A 6-month comparison of toothbrushing efficacy between the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods in visually impaired students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutkeeree, Apiwan; Rojlakkanawong, Norawan; Yimcharoen, Veeritta

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods of toothbrushing in visually impaired students for 6 months. Sixty visually impaired students, aged 10-12 years, were recruited to a randomized controlled clinical trial. At baseline, plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were assessed, and then subjects were randomly divided into the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass groups. Subjects received verbal and tactile toothbrushing instruction and used their assigned methods twice daily. They were recalled at 1 and 6 months for clinical measurement and reinforce of instruction. Significance of PI and GI over time was compared using the paired t-test and between brushing group at each time point using the t-test. Over the 6-month period, there were significant reduction from baseline for the mean PI and GI in both groups (P 0.05), however. Both the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods can be effectively reduced plaque index and gingival index in visually impaired students. The efficacy of both methods was not different, however. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Best methods for evaluating educational impact: a comparison of the efficacy of commonly used measures of library instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Katherine; Applegate, Rachel

    2012-10-01

    Libraries are increasingly called upon to demonstrate student learning outcomes and the tangible benefits of library educational programs. This study reviewed and compared the efficacy of traditionally used measures for assessing library instruction, examining the benefits and drawbacks of assessment measures and exploring the extent to which knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors actually paralleled demonstrated skill levels. An overview of recent literature on the evaluation of information literacy education addressed these questions: (1) What evaluation measures are commonly used for evaluating library instruction? (2) What are the pros and cons of popular evaluation measures? (3) What are the relationships between measures of skills versus measures of attitudes and behavior? Research outcomes were used to identify relationships between measures of attitudes, behaviors, and skills, which are typically gathered via attitudinal surveys, written skills tests, or graded exercises. Results provide useful information about the efficacy of instructional evaluation methods, including showing significant disparities between attitudes, skills, and information usage behaviors. This information can be used by librarians to implement the most appropriate evaluation methods for measuring important variables that accurately demonstrate students' attitudes, behaviors, or skills.

  6. Comparison of efficacy and safety of topical Ketotifen (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shoja

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compared the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate .025% (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium 4% (Opticrom eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing, and redness in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC. Methods: This double blind randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly prescribed Zaditen (group A: n=50 and Cromolyn sodium (group B: n=50 eye drops for a 4 weeks period. Itching, lacrimation, redness, and photophobia were scored on a 4-points severity scale. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the response rates based on subjects assessment of global efficacy was significantly greater in Ketotifen group (61.5% than in Cromolyn group(53%.A clear response to treatment occurred in 94.4 of Zaditen and 81.2% of Sodium Cromoglycate treated patients. The investigator,s assessment of response rates also showed that Ketotifen was superior to Cromolyn sodium (P=0.001. Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than Cromolyn for relief of signs and symptoms of VKC (P<0.05. Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total signs and symptoms score for each patients, in compare with day 0. Conclusion: Ketotifen had a faster onset of action and provided better symptom relief than Cromolyn. The rapid onset of action and symptom control, make Zaditen a valuable treatment for VKC. Keywords : VKC , allergic conjuctivitis , zaditen

  7. Comparison of efficacy of long-acting bronchodilators in emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Keisaku; Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Kanda, Shintaro; Urushihata, Kazuhisa; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Kubo, Keishi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between morphological phenotypes according to the predominance of emphysema and efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist and β(2) agonist bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Seventy-two patients with stable COPD treated with tiotropium (n = 41) or salmeterol (n = 31) were evaluated for pulmonary function, dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, six-minute walking distance, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) before and 2-3 months following treatment with tiotropium or salmeterol. They were then visually divided into an emphysema dominant phenotype (n = 25 in the tiotropium-treated group and n = 22 in the salmeterol-treated group) and an emphysema nondominant phenotype on high-resolution computed tomography, and the efficacy of the two drugs in each phenotype was retrospectively analyzed. Tiotropium significantly improved airflow limitation, oxygenation, and respiratory impedance in both the emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant phenotypes, and improved dynamic hyperinflation, exercise capacity, and SGRQ in the emphysema dominant phenotype but not in the emphysema nondominant phenotype. Salmeterol significantly improved total score for SGRQ in the emphysema phenotype, but no significant effects on other parameters were found for either of the phenotypes. These findings suggest that tiotropium is more effective than salmeterol for airflow limitation regardless of emphysema dominance, and also can improve dynamic hyperinflation in the emphysema dominant phenotype, which results in further improvement of exercise capacity and health-related quality of life.

  8. Efficacy of ipl in treatment of acne vulgaris : comparison of single- and burst-pulse mode in ipl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, M; Srinivas, C R

    2010-10-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used for the treatment of facial acne. Modifications of various parameters allow flexibility in treatment, which include energy fluence, pulse duration, and pulse delay. We compared the efficacy of burst-pulse (multiple pulse) mode with single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the IPL in treatment of facial acne and to compare burst-pulse and single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Ten patients with facial acne were subjected to monotherapy with IPL. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons acne severity index; however, right and left side of face were scored separately and a total score was also taken. IPL was administered once weekly for four sessions. Right side was subjected to IPL with burst-pulse mode, and left side was subjected to single-pulse mode. Severity score assessed after the end of treatment. Clinical photographs were also obtained for evaluation. All patients revealed a reduction in number of acne for both single- and burst-pulse mode treated sides. The mean total score was 49.4 at baseline and showed 49.19% reduction after four sessions of IPL. Burst-pulse mode treated side showed a better control than that of single-pulse mode. IPL as a monotherapy showed beneficial effect in treatment of facial acne. Burst-pulse mode was better than the single-pulse mode in clearing acne.

  9. Comparison of the Efficacy and Duration of Three Different Methods of Digital Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dehghani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Finger injuries are very common and majority of them can be treated under digital block anesthesia. Traditional digital block is one of the most commonly performed blocks performed by care providers in several medical fields. There are two other less known methods, transthecal (pulley block, in which local anesthesia is injected into the flexor tendon sheat that needs less volume of anesthesia and hasnot neurovascular complications and subcutaneous block in which local anesthesia is injected subcutaneously at the level of A1 pulley. This study aimed to compare the results of the three methods of digital block. Materials & Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed at Kashani hospital to compare the less known transthecal (pulley and subcutaneous methods with traditional digital block with regard to the length of anesthesia and need to another anesthetic method (due to insufficient anesthesia as a supplement. We divided 150 patients that were admitted to kashani hospital operating room due to finger injury, randomly, into three groups. In each group the patients were anesthetized by one of the three different methods. All blocks were performed by the same investigator. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using T test. Results: Mean length of anesthesia was 34.2 min’s in the transthecal digital block method and 34 min’s in the subcutaneous method and 33.8 min’s in the traditional digital block method. A repeat injection or local infiltration as a supplement was necessary in 5 instances (7 blocks in the traditional digital block method and 9 instances (11blocks in the subcutaneous method (p<0.05. Conclusion: Regarding fewer injections and less amount of lidocaine and no risk of damaging the neurovascular bundles and comparable length of anesthesia and no need to supplemental anesthesia, transthecal digital block is an appropriate alternative to traditional digital block and subcutaneous injection.

  10. Comparison of efficacy of neural therapy and physical therapy in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Sahin, Fusun; Atalay, Ali; Akkaya, Nuray

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of neural therapy, and physical therapy on level of pain, disability, quality of life, and psychological status in patients with chronic low back pain. Patients admitted to the physical therapy and rehabilitation outpatient clinic with the complaint of low back pain of at least 3 months duration. Group 1 (n=27), physical therapy (PT, hotpack, ultrasound, TENS 15 sessions), group 2 (n=33), neural therapy (NT, 1:1 mixture of 20 mg/mL Lidocaine HCl (Jetokain simplex®) and saline for 5 sessions. For pain, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), for disability Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), for quality-of-life Nottingham-Health-Profile (NHP), for depression, and anxiety, Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS) were used before and after the treatment. Mean age was 47.3±11.32 years, symptom time was 13.78±11.98 months. There were no differences for demographic variables between groups. Significant improvements were detected for VAS, RMDQ, NHP-Pain, NHP-Physical activity, HADS for both of two groups after treatment. In addition to these findings, significant improvements were found for NHP-Energy, NHP-Social isolation in NT group. The differences of pre- and post-treatment values of parameters were evaluated for each group. Although there were no differences for VAS, NHP-sleep, NHP-Emotional reaction, HADS between groups, RMDQ, NHP-Pain, NHP-Physical activity, NHP-Social isolation were higher in NT than PT before treatment, the improvements for these parameters were better in NT than PT. In conclusion both of NT and PT are effective on pain, function, quality of life, anxiety, and depression in patients with chronic low back pain.

  11. Comparison of defibrillation efficacy between two pads placements in a pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Yu, Tao; Quan, Weilun; Freeman, Gary; Li, Yongqin

    2012-06-01

    The placement of defibrillation pads at ideal anatomical sites is one of the major determinants of transthoracic defibrillation success. However, the optimal pads position for ventricular defibrillation is still undetermined. In the present study, we compared the effects of two different pads positions on defibrillation success rate in a pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest. Eight domestic male pigs weighing 12-15 kg were randomized to receive shocks using either the anterior-posterior (AP) or the anterior-lateral (AL) position with pediatric pads. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced and untreated for 30 s. A sequence of randomized biphasic electrical shocks ranging from 10 to 100 J was attempted. If the defibrillation failed to terminate VF, a 100 J rescuer shock was then delivered. After a recovery interval of 5 min, the sequence was repeated for a total of approximately 30 test shocks were attempted for each animal. The dose response curves were constructed and the defibrillation thresholds were compared between groups. The aggregated success rate was 65.6% for AP placement and 43.0% for AL one (p=0.0005) when shock energy was between 10 and 70 J. A significantly lower 50% defibrillation threshold was obtained for AP pads placement compared with traditional AL pads position (2.1±0.4 J/kg vs. 3.6±0.9 J/kg, p=0.041). In this pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest, the anterior-posterior placement of pediatric pads yielded a higher success rate by lowering defibrillation threshold compared to the anterior-lateral position. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand

  13. Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial

  14. A Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Efficacy Beliefs before and after Work-Integrated Learning: Part Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, K. E.; Matoti, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    The study, which is grounded in Bandura's concept of self-efficacy, assessed the teaching efficacy beliefs of student teachers before and after completing six months of work-integrated learning. This was necessitated by research which shows that self-efficacy is an important aspect which influences a teacher's ability to teach as well as the…

  15. Teaching efficacy of nurses in clinical practice education: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyeung; Shin, Sujin

    2017-07-01

    Clinical nurses play a vital role in clinical practice education; thus, it is necessary to help clinical nurses have teaching efficacy through the development and application of systematic education programs. To identify nurses' teaching efficacy for clinical education and analyze the influencing factors of teaching efficacy. The study used a cross-sectional design. We used a convenience sample of 263 nurses from two hospitals. Teaching efficacy, general characteristics, and perception of clinical practice education were collected via self-reported questionnaires. Teaching efficacy was measured using Hwang's (2006) questionnaire, while perception of clinical practice education was measured using the Clinical Nurse Teacher Survey developed by Nishioka et al. (2014). Participants completed the questionnaire directly. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVAs, and multiple regression analysis with PASW Statistics 18.0. The mean total score of teaching efficacy was 72.5 (range 21-105). The leadership for students subscale had the highest score (3.56±0.59). The factors influencing teaching efficacy were length of clinical career (β=0.26, peducators might need to develop greater confidence in their knowledge and enhance control of their teaching strategies. Nursing schools and hospitals might need to provide greater support and educational opportunities to nurse clinical practice instructors. Furthermore, constructing a system of cooperation between these colleges and educational hospitals, developing programs to enhance teaching efficacy, and identifying the clinical instructor's role are all necessary to promote clinical practice education. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Determinants of the Efficacy of Cardiac Ischemic Preconditioning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Kimberley E.; Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; Riksen, Niels P.; Sterenborg, Thomas B.; Sena, Emily S.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Warlé, Michiel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of the heart is a protective strategy in which a brief ischemic stimulus immediately before a lethal ischemic episode potently limits infarct size. Although very promising in animal models of myocardial infarction, IPC has not yet been successfully translated to benefit for patients. Objective To appraise all preclinical evidence on IPC for myocardial infarction and identify factors hampering translation. Methods and results Using systematic review and meta-analysis, we identified 503 animal studies reporting infarct size data from 785 comparisons between IPC-treated and control animals. Overall, IPC reduced myocardial infarction by 24.6% [95%CI 23.5, 25.6]. Subgroup analysis showed that IPC efficacy was reduced in comorbid animals and non-rodents. Efficacy was highest in studies using 2–3 IPC cycles applied animals used in preclinical IPC studies and the patient population, regarding comorbidity, sex and age. Furthermore, the IPC protocols currently used in clinical trials could be optimized in terms of timing and the number of ischemic cycles applied. In order to inform future clinical trials successfully, future preclinical studies on IPC should aim to maximize both internal and external validity, since poor methodological quality may limit the value of the preclinical evidence. PMID:26580958

  17. EFFICACY OF IBUPROFEN IN TREATMENT OF PAIN IN CHILDREN: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Saygitov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of systematic review of data on prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen. Data search was performed by PubMed database and Google search. 27 publications for analysis were available. Prophylactic efficacy of ibuprofen was studied in 14 studies. Summarizing of the results showed that ibuprofen prevents pain and decreases its following intensity after different surgical or dental operations. There is no significant difference in prophylactic efficacy of single dose ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen was described in 13 studies. Administration of the drug for pain stopping in children is reasonable. The analgesic effect of ibuprofen compared to placebo was shown in all studies of patients with migraine and diseases of ENT-organs. 5 studies performed in last 5 years showed efficacy of ibuprofen in trauma patients, including children with non-complicated fractures of extremities.Key words: children, pain, ibuprofen, prophylaxis, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:52-62

  18. Comparison of efficacy and toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM herbal mixture LQ and conventional chemotherapy on lung cancer metastasis and survival in mouse models.

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    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX and cyclophosphamide (CTX. LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer.

  19. Comparison of the efficacy of endoscopic tympanoplasty and microscopic tympanoplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Ding, Yi-Fang

    2017-08-01

    Microscopic tympanoplasty has been the standard surgery for repairing perforated tympanic membranes since the 1950s, but endoscopic tympanoplasty has been increasingly practiced since the late 1990s. In this study, we compared the efficacies of endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty. PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and the Clinical Trial Register. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. We included clinical studies that compared the efficacies of endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty. We assessed the risk of bias and calculated the pooled relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI). We identified four studies (involving 266 patients in total) that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled tympanic membrane closure rates and hearing results of endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty were comparable (85.1% vs. 86.4%, respectively; RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.11; I(2) = 0) (mean difference of improvements of air-bone gaps: -2.73; 95% CI: -6.73 to 1.28; I(2) = 80%). The pooled canalplasty rate of endoscopic tympanoplasty was significantly lower than that of microscopic tympanoplasty. Patients receiving endoscopic tympanoplasty had a more desirable cosmetic result than did those receiving microscopic tympanoplasty. Our up-to-date review evidences the comparable tympanic membrane closure rates and hearing results for endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty. Patients receiving endoscopic tympanoplasty have a lower canalplasty rate and more desirable cosmetic result than do those receiving microscopic tympanoplasty. Laryngoscope, 127:1890-1896, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Astronomy Teaching Self-Efficacy Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Filiz; Ozyurek, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and safe scale for determining the self-efficacy levels of science teachers in the teaching of astronomy subjects. The study used a survey approach, which is a qualitative research method. The study was conducted with a total of 106 science teachers working in the secondary schools of Ordu city…

  1. A Study on Physical Education Teachers: The Correlation between Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between self-efficacy and job satisfaction among the physical education teachers. The study was carried out in correlational survey model and the study sample was made up by 306 physical education teachers who worked in different geographical regions of Turkey. The data were assessed using SPSS…

  2. ICT Competence and Lecturers' Job Efficacy: A Study of Two Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to establish the influence of ICT competence on lecturers' job efficacy in two universities in Nigeria. The sample of the study consisted of 500 university teachers randomly sampled from a population of 1,795 teachers. The results of the study revealed that male and female lecturers did not differ significantly in their level of…

  3. Lesson study: Professional development and its impact on science teacher self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Rae

    This study focuses on an analysis of a professional development program known as lesson study via data obtained during an in-service professional development program for secondary school science teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of one group of science teachers related to their experiences in a lesson study. Another purpose for this research, aligned with the first, included a theoretical analysis of the lesson study construct to see if its design promoted positive self-efficacy beliefs of its participants. The research is framed within the context of social constructivism and self-efficacy and is qualitative in nature and utilized descriptive analysis as a means of research. Case studies were conducted detailing two of the six participants. Data sources included researcher field notes and transcriptions of all planning and debriefing sessions; individual interviews with each participant and the schools' principal; a participant questionnaire, and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument. Themes that emerged included the positive perceptions of lesson study as a collaborative and teacher-centered experience; the understanding that lesson study can instill a sense of professionalism to those who participate in the process; the sense that discussing student learning using objective observations from classroom is a powerful way to assess learning and uncover personal teacher beliefs; and the insight that the time commitment that lesson study requires can inhibit teachers and schools from sustaining it as a form of on-going professional development. Although these themes are consistent with the research on lesson study in Japan and elsewhere in the United States, they also extend the research on self-efficacy and science teacher professional development. In the end, this study supported some of the conclusions of the self-efficacy research as it relates to professional development while also adding that interpersonal

  4. A Comparison of Psychoanalytic Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety (Panic/Agoraphobia) and Personality Disorders (APD Study): Presentation of the RCT Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Cord; Huber, Dorothea; Staats, Hermann; Zimmermann, Johannes; Henkel, Miriam; Deserno, Heinrich; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Schauenburg, Henning

    2016-09-01

    Anxiety disorders, most notably panic disorders and agoraphobia, are common mental disorders, and there is a high comorbidity with personality disorders. Randomized controlled trails addressing this highly relevant group of patients are missing. The multicenter Anxiety and Personality Disorders (APD) study investigates 200 patients with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia with comorbid personality disorder in a randomized control-group comparison of psychoanalytic therapy (PT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), including 100 patients in each group. Each patient will be examined over a period of six years, regardless of the duration of the individual treatment. The main issues that are addressed in this study are the comparison of the efficacy of PT and CBT in this special patient population, the comparison of the sustainability of the effects of PT and CBT, the comparison of the long-term cost-benefit-ratios of PT and CBT as well as the investigation of prescriptive patient characteristics for individualized treatment recommendations (differential indication). The APD study compares efficacy, sustainability, and cost-benefit-ratios of CBT and PT for anxiety plus personality disorders in a randomized controlled trail. The study design meets the requirements for an efficacy study for PT, which were recently defined. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12449681.

  5. A plea for neutral comparison studies in computational sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Boulesteix

    Full Text Available In computational science literature including, e.g., bioinformatics, computational statistics or machine learning, most published articles are devoted to the development of "new methods", while comparison studies are generally appreciated by readers but surprisingly given poor consideration by many journals. This paper stresses the importance of neutral comparison studies for the objective evaluation of existing methods and the establishment of standards by drawing parallels with clinical research. The goal of the paper is twofold. Firstly, we present a survey of recent computational papers on supervised classification published in seven high-ranking computational science journals. The aim is to provide an up-to-date picture of current scientific practice with respect to the comparison of methods in both articles presenting new methods and articles focusing on the comparison study itself. Secondly, based on the results of our survey we critically discuss the necessity, impact and limitations of neutral comparison studies in computational sciences. We define three reasonable criteria a comparison study has to fulfill in order to be considered as neutral, and explicate general considerations on the individual components of a "tidy neutral comparison study". R codes for completely replicating our statistical analyses and figures are available from the companion website http://www.ibe.med.uni-muenchen.de/organisation/mitarbeiter/020_professuren/boulesteix/plea2013.

  6. Efficacy comparison of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder: pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jack M; Korotzer, Andrew; Su, Guojin

    2002-04-01

    Citalopram is a racemic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) indicated for the treatment of depression. Citalopram is a racemate and its serotonin reuptake inhibitory activity resides primarily in the single S-isomer, escitalopram, which is now being evaluated for its potential usefulness in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS from placebo-controlled studies that also included citalopram as an active control have shown that escitalopram is effective in treating depression and associated symptoms of anxiety. However, none of these studies was powered sufficiently to detect differences between active treatment groups. The goal of the present analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of escitalopram compared with citalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Data were pooled from three similarly designed, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) and citalopram (20-40 mg/day). Patients were male or female, greater than or equal to 18 years of age, who met criteria for a major depressive episode with a Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score greater than or equal to 22 at baseline. Efficacy measures included change from baseline in MADRS score and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Improvement in associated symptoms of anxiety was measured using the change from baseline in the MADRS inner tension item. Both escitalopram and citalopram significantly improved depression and anxiety symptoms compared with placebo, and there were significantly more MADRS responders (defined as >/=50% improvement in MADRS scores at end point) in the escitalopram and citalopram treatment groups. Escitalopram treatment was associated with statistically significant improvements in all efficacy measures relative to placebo after 1 week of treatment, whereas citalopram treatment statistically separated from placebo at the end of week 4 (CGI-I and MADRS inner tension

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy by Gender, Ethnicity, Year, and Transfer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2009-04-01

    This is a cross-sectional study of 519 undergraduate engineering majors' self-efficacy beliefs at a large, research extensive, Midwestern university. Engineering self-efficacy is an individual's belief in his or her ability to successfully negotiate the academic hurdles of the engineering program. Engineering self-efficacy was obtained from four variables: self-efficacy 1, self-efficacy 2, engineering career outcome expectations, and coping self-efficacy. The four variables were analyzed using a repeated analysis of variance among levels of gender, ethnicity, years students had been enrolled in their engineering program, and transfer status. No significant differences in mean engineering self-efficacy scores were found by gender, ethnicity, and transfer status. However, significant interactions between gender and the subscales, ethnicity and the subscales, and transfer status and the subscales were found. Significant differences in mean engineering self-efficacy scores were found among years students had been enrolled in the program.

  8. [An experimental study of the efficacy of enterosorbents in salmonellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L G; Grigor'ev, A V; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Koval'chuk, V K; Alekseenko, E P

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of enterosorbents (polymethylsiloxane used as enterosgel and activated charcoal) has been studied in experiments on white rats infected with low virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain N 79. As shown in this study, the use of sorbents normalizes the morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium of the small intestine and decreases the degree of Salmonella colonization of the parietal layer in the lumen of the small intestine, causing the destruction of some adsorbed bacteria.

  9. Comparison of efficacy of sodium hypochlorite with sodium perborate in removal of stains from heat-cured clear acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Joseph Robin; Sholapurkar, Amar A; Raghu, Aparna; Shenoy, Revathi P; Mallya, H Madhukar; Pai, Keerthilatha M; D'Souza, Mariette

    2011-01-01

    Acrylic resin bases of removable dentures attract stains and odor-producing organic and inorganic deposits. The use of chemical denture cleanser soaks is the most popular method of denture cleansing. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of two different denture cleansers--sodium perborate (Clinsodent) and sodium hypochlorite (VI-Clean)--in removing tea, coffee, turmeric and tobacco (paan) stains from heat-cured clear acrylic resins. Distilled water was used as a control. Both Clinsodent and VI-Clean were found to be the least effective in removing coffee stains and best for removing turmeric stain. It is necessary that the dental professional be aware of these results to ensure that denture wearers know how to select the appropriate denture cleanser.

  10. The efficacy of the 'mind map' study technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Paul; Hussain, Fearzana; Hennessy, Enid

    2002-05-01

    To examine the effectiveness of using the 'mind map' study technique to improve factual recall from written information. To obtain baseline data, subjects completed a short test based on a 600-word passage of text prior to being randomly allocated to form two groups: 'self-selected study technique' and 'mind map'. After a 30-minute interval the self-selected study technique group were exposed to the same passage of text previously seen and told to apply existing study techniques. Subjects in the mind map group were trained in the mind map technique and told to apply it to the passage of text. Recall was measured after an interfering task and a week later. Measures of motivation were taken. Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London. 50 second- and third-year medical students. Recall of factual material improved for both the mind map and self-selected study technique groups at immediate test compared with baseline. However this improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group. At 1 week, the factual knowledge in the mind map group was greater by 10% (adjusting for baseline) (95% CI -1% to 22%). However motivation for the technique used was lower in the mind map group; if motivation could have been made equal in the groups, the improvement with mind mapping would have been 15% (95% CI 3% to 27%). Mind maps provide an effective study technique when applied to written material. However before mind maps are generally adopted as a study technique, consideration has to be given towards ways of improving motivation amongst users.

  11. Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light Therapy in the Treatment of Facial Acne Vulgaris: Comparison of Two Different Fluences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Monika V; Deshmukh, Ashish Ramchandra; Khedkar, Maruti Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the skin affecting adolescents and young adults causing psychological distress. The combination of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects of topical and systemic anti acne medications and desire for high tech approaches have all led to new enthusiasm for light based acne treatment. Intense pulse light (IPL) therapy has three modes of action in acne vulgaris i.e., photochemical, photo thermal and photo immunological. (1) to study efficacy of IPL therapy in facial acne vulgaris. (2) To compare two fluences - one normal and other subnormal on right and left side of face respectively. (Including settings and design and statistical analysis used). Total 45 patients in age group 16 to 28 years with inflammatory facial acne vulgaris were included in prospective study. Baseline data for each patient was recorded. All patients were given 4 sittings of IPL at 2 weeks interval and were followed for 2 months every 2 weeks. Fluence used was 35J/cm(2) on right and 20J/cm(2) on left side. Percentage reduction in lesion count was calculated at each sitting and follow up and graded as mild (0-25%), moderate (26-50%), good (51-75%) and excellent (76-100%). Side effects were noted. The results were analysed using Mann-Whitney Test. On right side, excellent results were achieved in 10(22%), good in 22(49%) and moderate in 13(29%) patients. On left side excellent were results achieved in 7(15%), good in 19(42%) and moderate in 16(43%) patients. There was no statically significant difference noted in efficacy of two fluences used in treatment of facial acne vulgaris. IPL is a effective and safe option for inflammatory acne vulgaris with minimal reversible side effects. Subnormal fluence is as effective as normal fluence in Indian skin.

  12. Efficacy of intense pulsed light therapy in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris: Comparison of two different fluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika V Patidar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the skin affecting adolescents and young adults causing psychological distress. The combination of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects of topical and systemic anti acne medications and desire for high tech approaches have all led to new enthusiasm for light based acne treatment. Intense pulse light (IPL therapy has three modes of action in acne vulgaris i.e., photochemical, photo thermal and photo immunological. Aims: (1 to study efficacy of IPL therapy in facial acne vulgaris. (2 To compare two fluences - one normal and other subnormal on right and left side of face respectively. Methods: (Including settings and design and statistical analysis used. Total 45 patients in age group 16 to 28 years with inflammatory facial acne vulgaris were included in prospective study. Baseline data for each patient was recorded. All patients were given 4 sittings of IPL at 2 weeks interval and were followed for 2 months every 2 weeks. Fluence used was 35J/cm2 on right and 20J/cm2 on left side. Percentage reduction in lesion count was calculated at each sitting and follow up and graded as mild (0-25%, moderate (26-50%, good (51-75% and excellent (76-100%. Side effects were noted. The results were analysed using Mann-Whitney Test. Results: On right side, excellent results were achieved in 10(22%, good in 22(49% and moderate in 13(29% patients. On left side excellent were results achieved in 7(15%, good in 19(42% and moderate in 16(43% patients. There was no statically significant difference noted in efficacy of two fluences used in treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Conclusions: IPL is a effective and safe option for inflammatory acne vulgaris with minimal reversible side effects. Subnormal fluence is as effective as normal fluence in Indian skin.

  13. Comparison of Cleaning Efficacy and Instrumentation Time in Primary Molars: Mtwo Rotary Instruments vs. Hand K-Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanali, Fatemeh; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Soleimani, Ali; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Rafiee, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Pulpectomy is the preferred treatment for restorable primary teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or periradicular lesion. Considering the rather new application of rotary files for pulpectomy of primary teeth, the aim of this study was to compare the cleaning efficacy and instrumentation time of hand K-files and Mtwo rotary system for preparation of human primary molars. This experimental study was conducted on 100 extracted primary maxillary and mandibular intact molars with no resorption. Access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the root canal on a vibrator using an insulin syringe. Canals were then divided into 5 groups (n=20): in group I, canals were instrumented using K-files up to #25 for mesial and buccal canals and #30 for palatal and distal canals. In group II, canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary files (15/0.05, 20/0.06 and 25/0.06 for mesial and buccal canals and 15/0.05, 20/0.06, 25/0.06 and finally 30/0.05 for distal and palatal canals). In group III, root canals were only irrigated with saline. Groups IV and V were the positive and negative control groups, respectively. The time required for cleaning and preparation of the canals for each of the specimens in groups I, II and III was recorded. The mean score of cleanliness of Mtwo was not significantly different from K-file group (P>0.05). However the mean instrumentation time in Mtwo group was significantly shorter (P<0.001). Although there were no differences regarding the cleaning efficacy of either system, Mtwo rotary files were far more time efficient.

  14. Comparison of Cleaning Efficacy and Instrumentation Time in Primary Molars: Mtwo Rotary Instruments vs. Hand K-Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanali, Fatemeh; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Soleimani, Ali; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Rafiee, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulpectomy is the preferred treatment for restorable primary teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or periradicular lesion. Considering the rather new application of rotary files for pulpectomy of primary teeth, the aim of this study was to compare the cleaning efficacy and instrumentation time of hand K-files and Mtwo rotary system for preparation of human primary molars. Methods and Materials: This experimental study was conducted on 100 extracted primary maxillary and mandibular intact molars with no resorption. Access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the root canal on a vibrator using an insulin syringe. Canals were then divided into 5 groups (n=20): in group I, canals were instrumented using K-files up to #25 for mesial and buccal canals and #30 for palatal and distal canals. In group II, canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary files (15/0.05, 20/0.06 and 25/0.06 for mesial and buccal canals and 15/0.05, 20/0.06, 25/0.06 and finally 30/0.05 for distal and palatal canals). In group III, root canals were only irrigated with saline. Groups IV and V were the positive and negative control groups, respectively. The time required for cleaning and preparation of the canals for each of the specimens in groups I, II and III was recorded. Results: The mean score of cleanliness of Mtwo was not significantly different from K-file group (P>0.05). However the mean instrumentation time in Mtwo group was significantly shorter (P<0.001). Conclusion: Although there were no differences regarding the cleaning efficacy of either system, Mtwo rotary files were far more time efficient. PMID:26523138

  15. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  16. Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study incorporated the use of 2% sodium alginate matrixes for decoloration. Among the algal species tested, the highest colour removal was noticed in Isochrysis galbana (55%) followed by freshwater Chlorella sp. (43%). The present method is easy to use, cost effective and devoid of technical problems.

  17. School Bullying and Collective Efficacy: A Study of Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Tonya Nichelle

    2014-01-01

    Recently, widely publicized incidents of school violence have prompted questions about the abilities of school leaders to educate students in safe and socially productive environments. In many cases, incidents of school violence are linked directly to bullying episodes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationship between…

  18. Preliminary studies on the efficacy of aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Aloe vera were administered to experimentally infected mice with the Nigeria strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The thirty-two (32) mice involved in the study were split into eight (8) groups of 4 mice each and treated intraperitoneally with the aqueous and ethanolic Aloe vera extracts of 40, 80, 20 mg/Kg body ...

  19. Comparison of the efficacy of Brucella abortus strain RB51 and Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 live vaccines against experimental infection with Brucella melitensis in pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Idrissi, A H; Benkirane, A; el Maadoudi, M; Bouslikhane, M; Berrada, J; Zerouali, A

    2001-12-01

    To test the efficacy of rough Brucella strain vaccines in sheep, a vaccine recently developed in cattle (Brucella abortus strain RB51) was assessed in comparison with the conventional Rev. 1 vaccine. Forty-five ewes from twelve to fourteen months of age, from brucellosis-free flocks, were allotted to three groups of fifteen ewes each. Group one was vaccinated by the conjunctival route with 1.73 x 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) of Rev. 1 vaccine. Group two was vaccinated subcutaneously with 11 x 10(9) CFU of RB51 vaccine and group three was considered as a control. All sheep were challenged at two to three months of gestation with 5 x 10(7) CFU of virulent B. melitensis H38. Vaccination with RB51 vaccine did not result in the production of any antibodies against the O-side chain of lipopolysaccharide, as measured by conventional serological tests (Rose Bengal plate test and complement fixation test). Protection of sheep against abortion and excretion of virulent Brucella strain in vaginal fluid, aborted foetuses and/or non viable lambs at parturition and abortion was significantly lower than that afforded by Rev. 1 vaccine. The difference compared to the control group was not significant. Data from this study suggest that the RB51 vaccine used for cattle vaccination does not provide effective protection of sheep against abortion induced by B. melitensis.

  20. Brainspotting – the efficacy of a new therapy approach for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in comparison to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hildebrand

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims at determining the efficacy of the new therapy approach Brainspotting (BSP in comparison to the established Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR approach for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Method: The sample consisted of 76 adult seeking professional help after they have been affected by a traumatic event. Clients were either treated with three 60-minute sessions of EMDR (n=23 or BSP (n=53 according to a standard protocol. Primary outcomes assessed were self-reports of the severity of PTSD symptoms. Secondary outcomes included self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Assessments were conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment and 6 month after the treatment. Results: Participants in both conditions showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d from baseline to posttreatment concerning PTSD related symptoms were between 1.19 - 1.76 for clients treated with EMDR and 0.74 - 1.04 for clients treated with BSP. Conclusion: Our results indicate that Brainspotting seems to be an effective alternative therapeutic approach for clients who experienced a traumatic event and/or with PTSD.

  1. Community education for stroke awareness: An efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E B; Berman, M; Thomas, J J; Klassen, A C

    1999-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a slide/audio community education program aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs, and action needed when stroke warning signs occur. The program targets audiences at higher risk for stroke, especially individuals who are black or >50 years of age. Subjects were 657 adults living in the community or in senior independent-living settings. The study examined the effectiveness of the program when presented alone and when accompanied by discussion (facilitation) led by a trained individual. Knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs was assessed using parallel pretests and posttests developed and validated specifically for the study. ANCOVA indicated that neither pretesting nor facilitation had a significant effect on posttest measures of knowledge. Paired t tests of groups receiving both the pretest and posttest demonstrated significant increase in knowledge (mean increase, 10.87%; Peducational level. No significant differences could be ascribed to facilitation. The data indicate that the slide/audio program is effective in increasing knowledge of stroke risk factors, warning signs, and necessary action in subjects of varying ages, races, and education. Pretesting and facilitation did not significantly affect the short-term acquisition of information. The slide/audio program appears to offer a short, easily used educational experience for diverse communities, whether as a stand-alone program or with facilitated discussion.

  2. Efficacy of Iralfaris shampoo in the treatment of scalp psoriasis: a videodermoscopy evaluation prospective study in 70 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Pranteda, G; Iorio, A; Mari, E; Milani, M

    2012-12-01

    This work has the aim to test the sensibility of VSCAPSI method in the evaluation of effectiveness of a medicated shampoo for the treatment of scalp psoriasis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease histologically characterized by proliferation and loss of differentiation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis with vasodilatation and increased permeability, and inflammation. Scalp involvement is a common clinical feature of psoriasis, that is present in the 25% of patients who suffer of it. Videodermoscopy (VD) permits a magnified view of the surface components of the epidermis and papillary dermis, which are not visible to the naked eye, together with the ability to capture digitally the viewed images and to store them for later use. Moreover videodermoscopy is a non-invasive technique, used to analyze cutaneous peripheral microcirculation. Therefore VD could be an useful tool in evaluating the efficacy of treatments for scalp psoriasis. The clinical benefit of currently available medicated shampoos for the treatment of scalp psoriasis is restricted, due to their limited efficacy, low cosmetic appeal and safety and tolerability problems. Therefore effective and safe products are needed especially for the long term management of scalp psoriasis. A specific shampoo designed for the scalp hygiene in psoriatic patients has been recently developed. This shampoo contains urea, glycolic acid, salicylic acid, icthyol pale and laureth 9 (polidocanol). Aim of the study was to evaluate in a 12-week prospective monocenter, open-study the efficacy and tolerability of an emollient, keratolytic shampoo (Iralfaris shampoo ISDIN, Barcelona; Ir-S) applied three times a week in patients with scalp psoriasis. The efficacy of the shampoo has been valuated with VSCAPSI. Seventy subjects with mild to moderate/severe scalp psoriasis were enrolled in the trial, after their informed consent. Efficacy was assessed using a specific and validated videodermoscopy scalp psoriasis severity

  3. Open, multicenter study to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of Echinaforce Forte tablets in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ronald; Büechi, Samuel; Suter, Andy

    2006-01-01

    This open, multicenter study investigated the tolerability and efficacy of a new tablet formulation of Echinacea purpurea extract (Echinaforce Forte; A. Vogel, Bioforce AG, Roggwil, Switzerland) in 80 subjects actively involved in sports. Most investigators (97.5%) rated the treatment as having "very good" or "good" tolerability. About 75% of patients and investigators rated its efficacy during a common cold as "very good" or "good," and 71% of subjects were free of cold episodes. This study is the first to suggest that Echinaforce is effective in the prophylaxis, as well as the treatment, of the common cold in persons who actively participate in sports.

  4. Flowing together: a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study was conducted with 250 participants working in 52 small groups. Longitudinal results from Structural Equation Modeling with data aggregated at the group level showed, as expected, that collective efficacy beliefs predict collective flow over time, both being related reciprocally. Findings and their theoretical and practical implications in the light of Social Cognitive Theory are discussed.

  5. A Comparison of the Efficacy and Tolerability of the Treatments for Sciatica: A Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Rong; Jin, Xiao-Ju; Shen, Hua-Chun; Wang, Huan; Zhou, Xun; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhu, Na-Na

    2017-12-01

    There remains a lack of a systematic summary of the efficacy and safety of various medicines for sciatica, and discrepancies among these exist. The aim of this study is to comprehensively assess the efficacy of and tolerance to several medical options for the treatment of sciatica. We performed a network meta-analysis and illustrated the results by the mean difference or odds ratio. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was used for indicating the preferable treatments. All data analyses and graphs were achieved via R 3.3.2 and Stata 13.0. The subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) was superior to the epidural steroid + anesthetic in reducing lumbar pain in both acute + chronic sciatica patients and acute sciatica patients. The epidural steroid demonstrated a better ability regarding the Oswestry disability score (ODI) compared to the subcutaneous anti-TNF-α. In addition, for total pain relief, the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was inferior to the epidural steroid + anesthetic. The epidural anesthetic and epidural steroid + anesthetic both demonstrated superiority over the epidural steroid and intramuscular steroid. The intravenous anti-TNF-α ranked first in leg pain relief, while the subcutaneous anti-TNF-α ranked first in lumbar pain relief, and the epidural steroid ranked first in the ODI on the basis of SUCRA. In addition, their safety outcome (withdrawal) rankings were all medium to high. Intravenous and subcutaneous anti-TNF-α were identified as the optimal treatments for both acute + chronic sciatica patients and acute sciatica patients. In addition, the epidural steroid was also recommended as a good intervention due to its superiority in reducing ODI.

  6. Safety and efficacy comparison of blue versus red light sources for photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate in photodamaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Melanie D; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2011-01-01

    methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) is a recently FDA-approved molecule for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of nonhyperkeratotic actinic keratoses (AK). In the U.S., aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been used in an off-label manner with photodynamic therapy for the treatment of chronic photodamage. The published use of MAL-PDT for photorejuvenation is more limited. MAL-PDT is usually conducted with a red light source, ALA-PDT with a blue light source. The purpose of this study is to compare the use of red versus blue light sources in the treatment of photodamage using MAL-PDT, measuring safety and efficacy outcomes following treatment. eighteen adult patients with moderate-to-severe photodamage of the head or upper trunk were enrolled in a prospective, single center trial of MAL-PDT for photorejuvenation. Intrapatient randomization determined split-area treatment with a blue or red light source. The majority of patients were also treated with pulsed dye laser (PDL) and/or intense pulsed light (IPL) for photoactivation. Digitial photography documented the treatment area at each visit (days 0, 2, 7 and 30). Patient and physician scoring of photodamage occurred at baseline and final visits. Side effects following MAL-PDT were evaluated. no statistically significant differences in signs of photodamage following MAL-PDT were observed between blue versus red light treated sides. The greatest improvement in photodamage measures following 1 MAL-PDT were pigmentation, AK and erythema. Side effects were mild in nature and did not differ between treatment sides, and all but mild erythema resolved by day 7. blue and red light have similar efficacy as the light source for MAL-PDT when combined with other light sources. Side effects following MAL-PDT with red versus blue light were similar and mild in severity. MAL-PDT is an effective treatment modality for chronic photodamage, in particular AK and pigmentation.

  7. Efficacy of IPL in treatment of acne vulgaris : Comparison of single- and burst-pulse mode in IPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intense pulsed light (IPL has been used for the treatment of facial acne. Modifications of various parameters allow flexibility in treatment, which include energy fluence, pulse duration, and pulse delay. We compared the efficacy of burst-pulse (multiple pulse mode with single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the IPL in treatment of facial acne and to compare burst-pulse and single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with facial acne were subjected to monotherapy with IPL. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons acne severity index; however, right and left side of face were scored separately and a total score was also taken. IPL was administered once weekly for four sessions. Right side was subjected to IPL with burst-pulse mode, and left side was subjected to single-pulse mode. Severity score assessed after the end of treatment. Clinical photographs were also obtained for evaluation. Results: All patients revealed a reduction in number of acne for both single- and burst-pulse mode treated sides. The mean total score was 49.4 at baseline and showed 49.19% reduction after four sessions of IPL. Burst-pulse mode treated side showed a better control than that of single-pulse mode. Conclusion: IPL as a monotherapy showed beneficial effect in treatment of facial acne. Burst-pulse mode was better than the single-pulse mode in clearing acne.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of long-acting bronchodilators in emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisaku Fujimoto1, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi2, Shintaro Kanda2, Kazuhisa Urushihata2, Masayuki Hanaoka2, Keishi Kubo21Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between morphological phenotypes according to the predominance of emphysema and efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist and β2 agonist bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: Seventy-two patients with stable COPD treated with tiotropium (n = 41 or salmeterol (n = 31 were evaluated for pulmonary function, dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, six-minute walking distance, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ before and 2–3 months following treatment with tiotropium or salmeterol. They were then visually divided into an emphysema dominant phenotype (n = 25 in the tiotropium-treated group and n = 22 in the salmeterol-treated group and an emphysema nondominant phenotype on high-resolution computed tomography, and the efficacy of the two drugs in each phenotype was retrospectively analyzed.Results: Tiotropium significantly improved airflow limitation, oxygenation, and respiratory impedance in both the emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant phenotypes, and improved dynamic hyperinflation, exercise capacity, and SGRQ in the emphysema dominant phenotype but not in the emphysema nondominant phenotype. Salmeterol significantly improved total score for SGRQ in the emphysema phenotype, but no significant effects on other parameters were found for either of the phenotypes.Conclusion: These findings suggest that tiotropium is more effective than salmeterol for airflow limitation regardless of emphysema dominance, and also can improve dynamic hyperinflation in the emphysema dominant phenotype, which results in further

  9. A STUDY OF EFFICACY OF TOPICAL INSULIN THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahidhar Reddy; Ashika Reddy; Rishita

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds are an economic burden to the patient as they put him out of work and consume quality working days. Local insulin therapy is an innovative method in wound care which accelerates wound healing by increasing angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To study the eff...

  10. Preliminary Study of the Efficacy of the Methanol Extract of the Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the methanol extract of the bark of Kigelia africana in reversing the deleterious effects of cottonseed oil on semen parameters and the cytoarchitecture of the testes. Adult male wistar rats averagely weighing 135g were used for the study and were divided into 3 ...

  11. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study

  12. Career Development Interventions and Academic Self-Efficacy and Motivation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Cass; Wood, Chris; Ingram, Michael; Herr, Edwin L.

    The impact of career development interventions on career and technical education (CTE) students' academic self-efficacy and motivation was explored in a pilot study that elicited responses from 293 students at 20 high schools across the United States. The study included a literature review, survey of high school seniors that examined 44…

  13. The Interplay between Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Approaches to Studying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background: The strategies students adopt in their study are influenced by a number of social-cognitive factors and impact upon their academic performance. Aims: The present study examined the interrelationships between motivation orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic), self-efficacy (in reading academic texts and essay writing), and approaches to…

  14. Self-efficacy, perceptions of context, and burnout: a multilevel study on nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Chiara; Borgogni, Laura; Vecchione, Michele; Maslach, Christina

    2014-07-24

    The role of personal and situational factors in burnout development in the hospital context is well known. The majority of studies used standardized and generic scales and focused exclusively on the individual level of analysis, underestimating the role of teamwork effects. This study adopted a contextualized and multilevel approach in order to examine the different roles of individual and unit level nurse efficacy beliefs and hospital perceptions of context in predicting job burnout. Nurses (N=1020) belonging to 118 units completed two measures specifically tailored for the nursing environment: nurse self-efficacy, perceptions of context (teamwork, supervisor, management, and workload) together with MBI-GS exhaustion and cynicism scales. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was performed in order to verify the internal validity of nurse self-efficacy and hospital perceptions of context scales. A multilevel structural equation model was tested at individual and unit levels, using nurse self-efficacy, hospital perceptions of context and age as predictors of exhaustion and cynicism. The good psychometric properties of the scales were confirmed. At individual level, nurse self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of both burnout dimensions. Exhaustion was also predicted by perception of workload and perception of management, while cynicism was also predicted by perceptions of teamwork, workload, and age. At unit level, perceptions of workload and teamwork emerged as predictors of unit exhaustion and cynicism, respectively. Based on our results, it is possible to plan distinct individual and/or unit-focused interventions in order to prevent hospital staff burnout.

  15. Efficacy study of multimedia rheumatoid arthritis patient education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unk, Julie A; Brasington, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The research goal of improving patient adherence was assessed in this randomized controlled trial of the outcomes of a 15-min multimedia educational program when compared to educational literature for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. One hundred eight RA patients from a Midwestern rheumatology outpatient clinic completed the self-reported Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) at baseline and 1 month after education. A paired samples t-test was use for data analyses to determine if there was a significant difference in the change between the groups at preintervention and 1-month postintervention. There were no significant differences in the scores between the two groups from pretest to posttest. Results from this study showed that medication adherence, illness perception, and disability were not improved by use of multimedia or the literature within 1 month. Findings from this research study showed that a short multimedia educational program is as effective as printed materials to educate patients with RA about their disease and treatment. However, neither multimedia nor literature affects medication adherence, illness perception, or disability as self-reported by patients with RA. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. The contribution of personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs to academic achievement: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Vecchione, Michele; Alessandri, Guido; Gerbino, Maria; Barbaranelli, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. The personal determinants of academic achievement and success have captured the attention of many scholars for the last decades. Among other factors, personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs have proved to be important predictors of academic achievement. AIMS. The present study examines the unique contribution and the pathways through which traits (i.e., openness and conscientiousness) and academic self-efficacy beliefs are conducive to academic achievement at the end of junior and senior high school. SAMPLE. Participants were 412 Italian students, 196 boys and 216 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years. METHODS. The hypothesized relations among the variables were tested within the framework of structural equation model. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS. Openness and academic self-efficacy at the age of 13 contributed to junior high-school grades, after controlling for socio-economic status (SES). Junior high-school grades contribute to academic self-efficacy beliefs at the age of 16, which in turn contributed to high-school grades, over and above the effects of SES and prior academic achievement. In accordance with the posited hypothesis, academic self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the contribution of traits to later academic achievement. In particular, conscientiousness at the age of 13 affected high-school grades indirectly, through its effect on academic self-efficacy beliefs at the age of 16. These findings have broad implications for interventions aimed to enhance children's academic pursuits. Whereas personality traits represent stable individual characteristics that mostly derive from individual genetic endowment, social cognitive theory provides guidelines for enhancing students' efficacy to regulate their learning activities. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  17. COMPARISON OF SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF ROSUVASTATIN (10 MG AND ATORVASTATIN (20 MG IN CASES OF DYSLIPIDAEMIA OVER SIX WEEKS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav

    2016-05-01

    significantly reduced LDL level up to 47% in his study. In the “SOLAR TRIAL” conducted by “Insull W Jr. et al (2007 1 ”, it was found that mean levels of LDL-C in patients taking RSV(10 over six weeks reached their target <100 mg/dL, which were comparable 100.43±2.93 to our study. The most frequent adverse effect in both the groups were myalgia with incidence of 3.33% in study. Group’ A’ (RSV 10 mg and 6.66% incidence in study Group ‘B’ (ATV 20 mg, all adverse events were mild and had no action taken, and resolved spontaneously. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The present studyComparison of Safety and Efficacy of Rosuvastatin (10 mg and Atorvastatin (20 mg in cases of Dyslipidaemia over six-week Treatment” was conducted amongst 60 diagnosed patients of dyslipidaemia. The result of this study shows that rosuvastatin 10 mg is more efficacious and safe in reducing the levels of TC, LDL, TC/HDL, TG and improving HDL levels as compared to Atorvastatin 20 mg.

  18. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C and two different relative humidity (RH levels (55% and 75%. The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w% of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  19. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum

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    Greif Gisela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. Material and Methods The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 108N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. Results In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection, a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves – in comparison to non-treated infected animals – reduced symptoms (fever, but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treament was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical

  20. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of toltrazuril-sulfone (ponazuril) in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzner, Sandra; Sager, Heinz; Blum, Jürg; Krebber, Ralph; Greif, Gisela; Gottstein, Bruno

    2002-10-18

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission) with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with toltrazuril-sulfone (ponazuril) in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 10(8) N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection), a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves--in comparison to non-treated infected animals--reduced symptoms (fever), but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treatment was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical intervention strategy to control bovine neosporosis with a subsequent more

  1. Clinical comparison of the plaque removal efficacy of a manual toothbrush with criss-cross bristle design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Li, Sarah; Sun, Lily

    2009-08-01

    To compare the plaque removal efficacy of two manual toothbrushes: Oral-B Exceed and Asian Colgate 36 degrees manual toothbrush. The study used an examiner-blind, two-treatment, randomized, four-period (visits) crossover design. Subjects used each brush twice during the study. At the first visit, 41 subjects who met inclusion criteria and provided informed consent received a baseline plaque examination using the Turesky Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index. Subjects then used their assigned toothbrush for 1 minute with a marketed toothpaste without access to a mirror. Brushing was monitored. A post-brushing plaque exam was then performed. Subjects were rescheduled for their next visit in approximately 3 days. At visits 2, 3 and 4 the same disclosing, brushing and plaque grading procedures were followed. Subjects used their own products at home between visits. 39 subjects presented data for all four study periods; two subjects missed one period each. Baseline plaque scores were balanced between the two groups. Adjusted mean plaque removal (baseline minus post-brushing) scores were 0.479 for the Exceed toothbrush and 0.425 for the Asian Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush (P toothbrush versus the Asian Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush. No adverse events were reported during the study.

  2. [Efficacy comparison of laparoscopic Nissen, Toupet and Dor fundoplication in the treatment of hiatal hernia complicated with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fuzeng; Zhang, Cheng; Ke, Limu; Wang, Zhi; Li, Yiliang; Li, Huiling; Du, Zhi

    2016-09-25

    To compare the efficacy and safety among laparoscopic Nissen, Toupet and Dor fundoplication in the treatment of hiatal hernia complicated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Clinical data of 276 patients of hiatal hernia complicated with GERD undergoing operation in our hospital from December 2012 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed, including 149 patients of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (Nissen group), 41 of laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (Toupet group), and 86 patients of laparoscopic Dor fundoplication (Dor group). Esophageal reflux status, esophageal manometry, GERD Q rating scale, and postoperative recovery were compare among the three groups. Reflux status was improved significantly in the three groups after operation(all P0.05). There were no significant differences in postoperative reflux time, acid reflux time ratio, reflux longest time ratio, DeMeester score among the three groups (all P>0.05). Pairwise comparison showed that Dor group was significantly better than Toupet group in reducing the number of reflux episode(14.36±10.58 vs. 29.83±19.71) and long-reflux (0.64±0.21 vs. 6.20±3.48)(both P0.05]. The GERD Q scores were significantly decreased after operation in 3 groups(Nissen group:10.94±2.20 vs.7.41±1.43, t=11.667, P=0.001; Toupet group: 10.91±2.02 vs.7.18±1.33, t=5.109, P=0.005; Dor group: 10.69±1.69 vs. 7.10±1.30, t=7.610, P=0.002). There was no significant difference in GERD Q scores among three groups (F=1.465, P=0.207). The operative time, blood loss, hospital stay and complications were not significantly different among 3 groups (all P>0.05). Follow-up period was 12-51 months (median 19 months), and no significant difference in recurrence was found [Nissen group: 2 cases (1.3%), Toupet group: 1 case (2.4%), Dor group: 1 case (1.2%), χ2=0.363, P=0.834]. It is safe and feasible for these three laparoscopic fundoplications to the treatment of hiatal hernia complicated with GERD. But laparoscopic Nissen and

  3. Comparative efficacy of eptifibatide and abciximab in primary angioplasty study

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    Rohan Jayasinghe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Rohan Jayasinghe1 Matias Yudi1 Sanjay Jayasinghe21Cardiology Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Immunisation Research, Sydney, AustraliaBackground: Primary percutaneous intervention is the safest and most effective treatment modality for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI in centers where catheterization facilities exist. Intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy during the procedures has been proven to provide added benefits. For the two agents, abciximab and eptifibatide, commonly used in this context, there is only limited comparative data available for the clinicians. Hitherto, there is no data published from the Asia–Pacific region on this topic.Method: A retrospective comprehensive analysis was carried out, comparing patients who were treated with abciximab (n = 125 and eptifibatide (n = 125 during primary angioplasty over a 3-year period. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. The other outcome measures studied include MI, stroke, blood transfusion, contrast nephropathy, significant bleeding, and vascular complications. A comparative cost analysis was carried out to ascertain the average overall differential cost.Results: In-hospital mortality, MI, stroke, blood transfusion, contrast nephropathy, significant bleeding, and vascular complication were observed at a higher rate in the patients who were treated with abciximab. However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Due to the higher cost per unit and longer hospital stay, therapy with abciximab costs more than that with eptifibatide.Conclusions: Both abciximab and eptifibatide are safe and effective adjunct therapeutic agents in the setting of primary angioplasty. However, there is a trend toward higher adverse event with the former agent that was not statistically significant. Therapy with abciximab costs more per patient.Keywords: abciximab, eptifibatide, PCI, STEMI

  4. A retrospective study of treatment efficacy of 65 children with ametroic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Huang, Lihua; Cao, Changyang; Li, Yingfang

    2012-06-01

    To investigate relationship between treatment efficacy and the severity of ametropic amblyopia, the type of anisometropia and patient age. A total of 65 children with ametropic amblyopia undergoing clinical treatment in the ophthalmology department of Shaoguan Hygienic Hospital of Women and Children between June 2005 and November 2011 were enrolled in this study. The treatment efficacy for those subjects with different severities of ametropic amblyopia, types of anisometropia and ages was recorded. The near-recovery/recovery rate, improvement rate and ineffectiveness rate were 70.8%, 16.9% and 12.3%, respectively. The recovery rates in mild-, moderate- and severe amblyopia groups were 97.1%, 61.1% and 8.3% respectively (P0.05), whereas a statistically significant difference was noted between myopic children compared with their hyperopic and myopic-anisometropia counterparts (all Ptreatment efficacy in ametropic amblyopia is associated with the severity of amblyopia, type of anisometropia and patient's age. Older patients with more severe amblyopia had poorer treatment efficacy. The efficacy in patients with hyperopic and astigmatic anisometropia was better than that for myopic anisometropia subjects.

  5. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzic, Nihad; Begagic, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlovic, Muhamed

    2014-08-27

    Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow's milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level - MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  6. Comparison of the long-term efficacy and safety of generic Tacrobell with original tacrolimus (Prograf in kidney transplant recipients

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    Son SY

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seung Yeon Son,1 Hye Ryoun Jang,1 Jung Eun Lee,1 Heejin Yoo,2 Kyunga Kim,2,3 Jae Berm Park,4 Sung Joo Kim,4 Ha Young Oh,1 Wooseong Huh1 1Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 2Statistics and Data Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, 3Department of Digital Health, SAIHST, 4Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a generic tacrolimus (Tacrobell [TCB] compared to the original tacrolimus (Prograf [PGF] in kidney transplant recipients. In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed the data from 444 patients who took TCB as a first-line immunosuppressive drug and 245 patients who took PGF. The 5-year graft survival rate was 92% for patients in the PGF group and 97% for patients in the TCB group, respectively. Cox proportional hazards for a one-sided, noninferiority model showed noninferiority (upper confidence interval [CI] limit of the hazard ratio [HR]<1.2 for TCB compared to PGF (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0–1.14. The 5-year patient survival rate was 96% for patients in the PGF group and 97% for patients in the TCB group. Cox proportional hazards for a one-sided, noninferiority model showed noninferiority (upper confidence interval limit of the HR<2.0 for TCB compared to PGF (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0–1.95. The 5-year acute rejection-free graft survival rate was not significantly different between the groups (TCB 67%, PGF 68.8%; P=0.6286. The incidence of adverse events including adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, malignancies, new-onset diabetes after transplantation, and infection events did not differ significantly between the two groups. We conclude that TCB is a comparable alternative to the original tacrolimus as a first-line immunosuppressive drug. Producers of generics should support further

  7. Efficacy of Visual-Acoustic Biofeedback Intervention for Residual Rhotic Errors: A Single-Subject Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara

    2017-05-24

    This study documented the efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback intervention for residual rhotic errors, relative to a comparison condition involving traditional articulatory treatment. All participants received both treatments in a single-subject experimental design featuring alternating treatments with blocked randomization of sessions to treatment conditions. Seven child and adolescent participants received 20 half-hour sessions of individual treatment over 10 weeks. Within each week, sessions were randomly assigned to feature traditional or biofeedback intervention. Perceptual accuracy of rhotic production was assessed in a blinded, randomized fashion. Each participant's response to the combined treatment package was evaluated by using effect sizes and visual inspection. Differences in the magnitude of response to traditional versus biofeedback intervention were measured with individual randomization tests. Four of 7 participants demonstrated a clinically meaningful response to the combined treatment package. Three of 7 participants showed a statistically significant difference between treatment conditions. In all 3 cases, the magnitude of within-session gains associated with biofeedback exceeded the gains associated with traditional treatment. These results suggest that the inclusion of visual-acoustic biofeedback can enhance the efficacy of intervention for some individuals with residual rhotic errors. Further research is needed to understand which participants represent better or poorer candidates for biofeedback treatment.

  8. Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of a commercial footbath product with copper sulfate for the control of digital dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C; Orsel, K; Mason, S; Gray, K; Barkema, H W

    2017-07-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most prevalent foot lesion affecting dairy herds worldwide. Its implications include production losses and decreased animal welfare. Footbathing is the most common herd-level prevention strategy for DD. Because many common footbath products have negative environmental and health consequences, replacement products expected to have improved safety but equal efficacy are being developed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new quaternary ammonium-based commercial footbath product (QAC) for reducing the prevalence of active DD lesions compared with an industry standard (copper sulfate; CuSO4) and typical on-farm footbath practices. A controlled intervention trial was conducted on 19 Alberta dairy farms over 12 wk, with 9 farms allocated to the QAC group (1% QAC daily, 5 d/wk), 5 to the CuSO4 group (5% CuSO4 daily, 5 d/wk), and 5 to a noninterference group (maintained typical footbath practices). A total of 22,285 observations on 3,465 lactating cows were assessed for DD lesions and leg cleanliness in the milking parlor. Five farms discontinued use of the QAC product for various reasons. Noninferiority analysis was used to assess QAC ability to decrease the proportion of cows with 1 or more active DD lesions compared with CuSO4 after 6 wk. Multilevel logistic regression models for repeated measures were used to evaluate efficacy of QAC compared with CuSO4 and noninterference farms in reducing the prevalence of active DD lesions at the foot level over 12 wk. The noninferiority analysis determined that the proportion of cows with 1 or more active DD lesion decreased 2.19 (95% CI: 1.39-3.46) times less after 6 wk of study on the QAC farms compared with CuSO4 farms, making QAC inferior to CuSO4. The multilevel logistic regression models determined that the proportion of active DD lesions increased in the QAC herds, whereas this proportion decreased in the CuSO4 and noninterference herds over 12 wk. Additionally

  10. Matching-adjusted indirect comparisons of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 vs two recombinant factor VIII for the prophylactic treatment of severe hemophilia A

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    Pocoski J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Pocoski,1 Nanxin Li,2 Rajeev Ayyagari,2 Nikki Church,1 Monika Maas Enriquez,1 Quer Xiang,2 Sneha Kelkar,3 Ella X Du,2 Eric Q Wu,2 Jipan Xie3 1Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, NJ, 2Analysis Group, Inc., Boston, MA, 3Analysis Group, Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: No head-to-head trials comparing recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII products currently exist. This was a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC study of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 with antihemophilic factor (recombinant plasma/albumin-free method (rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa for the prophylaxis of severe hemophilia A. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify trials of rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa. Comparisons were conducted using BAY 81-8973 individual patient data (IPD from LEOPOLD trials and published data from rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa trials. Differences in outcome reporting were reconciled using transformation of BAY 81-8973 IPD. Patients in pooled LEOPOLD trials were weighted to match baseline characteristics for rAHF-PFM or turoctocog alfa trials using MAICs. After matching, annualized bleed rates (ABRs were compared using weighted t-tests. Results: Two rAHF-PFM trials and one turoctocog alfa trial were identified. In these trials, rFVIIIs were dosed thrice weekly or every other day; in LEOPOLD trials, BAY 81-8973 was dosed twice- or thrice weekly. Three MAICs were conducted because the two rAHF-PFM trials calculated ABRs differently, matching for age, race, and weight (turoctocog alfa only. BAY 81-8973 had similar ABR of all bleeds vs rAHF-PFM (two trials: 4.8 vs 6.3, 1.9 vs 1.8 [square root transform] and lower ABR of spontaneous bleeds and trauma bleeds (2.6 vs 4.1, 2.1 vs 4.7; both P<0.05. BAY 81-8973 showed lower ABR of all bleeds and spontaneous bleeds vs turoctocog alfa (4.3 vs 6.5, 2.8 vs 4.3; both P<0.05 and similar ABR of trauma bleeds (1.5 vs 1.6. In subgroup analysis, twice-weekly BAY 81-8973 had similar ABRs of all

  11. Role of self-efficacy beliefs in goal commitment: a case study of the 20

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the role of self-efficacy beliefs in goal commitment among 118 Nigerian University students who represented universities that qualified from a preliminary zonal arrangement in the chess event of the 20th Nigerian University Games. Hierarchical regression analysis results revealed that, in the second ...

  12. Development of Academic Self-Efficacy in Women during College: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Savala

    2013-01-01

    Although women account for more than 50% of the college degrees awarded nationally, The College of Idaho has had a challenge retaining female students. There are any number of reasons for women's struggle to persist at the college, but one of the most basic may be a matter of self-efficacy. This mixed methods study used a combination of…

  13. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic intractable angina pectoris : A randomized, controlled efficacy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, RWM; DeJongste, MJL; Staal, MJ; van Gilst, WH; Lie, KI

    1998-01-01

    Background Spinel cord stimulation is known to be a successful treatment for chronic intractable angina pectoris. its effect may be anti-ischemic. It is uncertain if the clinical effect is partly caused by a placebo effect of surgery For implantation of a stimulator. In this study, clinical efficacy

  14. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  15. Bullying Behaviors and Self Efficacy among Nursing Students at Clinical Settings: Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Awatef Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nursing students who experienced bullying behaviors feel anger and missing their concentration, their capability to achieve a desired outcome. Also self-efficacy, often referred to as self-confidence, is essential to nursing students' ability and performance in the clinical setting. Aim: Study aimed to examine relation between bullying…

  16. L2 Motivational Self-System and Self-Efficacy: A Quantitative Survey-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandel, Javad; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored English as a foreign language (EFL) students' motivation and self-efficacy. This is accomplished by incorporating the ten subfactors of L2 motivational self-system namely; criterion measures, ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self, family influence, instrumentality promotion, instrumentality prevention, attitudes towards…

  17. Exercise Self-Efficacy and Perceived Wellness among College Students in a Basic Studies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Cara L.; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Hritz, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    University basic studies courses provide a valuable opportunity for facilitating the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that develop healthy behaviors to last a lifetime. Belief in one's ability to participate in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, is a psychological construct that has had a documented impact on physical activity. Although…

  18. Meta-Analysis of Studies Assessing the Efficacy of Projective Techniques in Discriminating Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Maxine M.

    1998-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 12 studies assessed the efficacy of projective techniques to discriminate between sexually abused and nonsexually abused children. Results indicated the techniques were able to discriminate distressed children from nondistressed subjects, but were less able to discriminate the type of distress. (Author/DB)

  19. Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Two Regimens of Single-Shot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Two Regimens of Single-Shot Spinal Block for Pain Relief in Women Presenting in Established Labour. ... difference in neonatal outcome had no clinical significance, and there were no significant differences in adverse effects, sensory levels, and motor power between the two groups.:

  20. Increasing general practitioners' confidence and self-efficacy in managing obesity: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturgiss, E.; Haesler, E.; Elmitt, N.; Weel, C. van; Douglas, K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Internationally, general practitioners (GPs) are being encouraged to take an active role in the care of their patients with obesity, but as yet there are few tools for them to implement within their clinics. This study assessed the self-efficacy and confidence of GPs before and after

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods.

  2. Dating violence and condom use self-efficacy: A study of school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present the most effective means of preventing HIV beside abstinence is the use of condoms during sexual intercourse. One of the major determinants of condom use during sexual intercourse is condom use self-efficacy. This study examines the association between adolescent dating violence and condom use ...

  3. Traditional-Aged College Juniors' Career Planning Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to explore and describe traditional-age college juniors' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) regarding Career Planning (Barker & Kellen, 1998). More specifically, the career planning confidence levels of college juniors enrolled in a required career development course at a private business…

  4. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  5. A Randomised Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Milking Cream and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-29

    Apr 29, 2013 ... with or without atopic dermatitis was relatively low (1.7%). (Stone 2000; Visscher 2009; Wakelin et al. 2001). The efficacy of milking cream for DD has to date not been evaluated; it was hypothesised that the combined effects of these ingredients would be beneficial to DD sufferers. In this study, milking.

  6. Collaborative Curriculum Design to Increase Science Teaching Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, C.H.; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether participation in a teacher design team (TDT) is an effective way to increase the science teaching self-efficacy of primary school teachers who vary in their levels of experience and interest in science. A TDT is a group of at least 2 teachers from

  7. A study under semi-field conditions on the efficacy of insecticides against Meligethes aeneus F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Caroline; Bormann, Inga; Ahlemann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    statements of the reactions of the beetles to insecticides under realistic field conditions. The method is implemented to study the efficacy of insecticides with different mode of actions. Pollen beetle populations were collected from untreated fields in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Six insecticides...

  8. A case study to determine the efficacy of ozonation in purification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of ozone in water purification processes at the Midvaal Water Company, which uses the hypertrophic Middle Vaal River for source water. It was found that pre- and intermediate ozonation had no significant effect on pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total ...

  9. A case study to determine the efficacy of ozonation in purification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of ozone in water purification processes at the Midvaal Water Company, which uses the hypertrophic Middle Vaal River for source water. It was found that pre- and intermediate ozonation had no significant effect on pH, conductivity, dissolved organic ...

  10. Influence of endodontic instrument-holder on sterilization efficacy. A pilot in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Carrizo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is crucial in dentistry and various methods have been designed to assure its efficacy. However, little information exists regarding the influence it could have the instrument-holder of endodontic files. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of three instruments-holders on sterilization efficacy of endodontic files. Methods: A pilot in-vitro study. 60 endodontic files were contaminated by biomechanical preparation of extracted molars with periapical abscess, then processed according to the standard washing method. The endodontic files were divided into 3 groups (n=20 and assigned to 3 instrument-holders: Metallic box (MB, surgical gauze (SG and synthetic sponge (SS. Then, the files were packaged and sterilized by autoclaving (134°C/45min. Microbiological culture was performed in thioglycolate solution for each endodontic file (37ºC/5days. Results: The overall sterilization efficacy was 91.7%, 80% for MB, 100% for SS, and 95% for SG, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.06 between the groups. Conclusions: The lack of differences in the efficacy of sterilization may be due to the reduced sample; therefore, a full-size study is necessary to confirm this outcomes. The results of this study discourage the use of the MB as instrument-holder until a full-size study can confirm this data.

  11. Comparison of the safety and efficacy between 3-factor and 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates for the reversal of warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroski, Julia E; Young, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Prior to the Food and Drug Administration approval of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC), only 3-factor PCC (3F-PCC) products were available in the US. There is limited data comparing the safety and efficacy of 3F-PCC versus 4F-PCC. The purpose of our study, therefore, was to compare the safety and efficacy profiles of 3F-PCC versus 4F-PCC for the emergent reversal of warfarin. A single-center, retrospective cohort analysis compared patients who received 3F-PCC or 4F-PCC for the emergent reversal of warfarin due to life-threating bleeding from January 2013 to September 2015. The primary objective of this study was the percentage of patients whose international normalized ratio (INR) reversed to ≤1.5 within 8h of PCC administration. The secondary safety objective was incidence of thromboembolic events at 7days post PCC. A total of 137 patients were included. The median baseline INR was 3.15 in the 3F-PCC group and 3.1 in the 4F-PCC group. The median post-PCC INR was 1.4 in the 3F-PCC group and 1.3 in the 4F-PCC group. INR ≤1.5 was achieved in 45/58 (78%) patients in the 3F-PCC group and 46/58 (79%) patients in the 4F-PCC group (p=0.61). The thromboembolic event rate between the two groups at 7days was similar, 4/68 (5.9%) for 3F-PCC versus 4/69 (5.8%) for 4F-PCC (p=1.0). There was no significant difference in the percentage of patients who achieved an INR ≤1.5 between the 3F-PCC and 4F-PCC groups for emergent reversal of warfarin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy and safety of fosfomycin-trometamol in the prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy. Prospective randomized comparison with ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, F; Redondo, C; Meilán, E; García-Tello, A; Ramón de Fata, F; Angulo, J C

    2014-01-01

    Prostate biopsy is the standardized diagnostic method for prostate cancer. However, although there is not a standardized protocol, there are recommendations in order to reduce the incidence of complications. The objective of the present work is to assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in the prostate biopsy by comparing two antibiotic regimes: two doses of fosfomycin-trometamol 3g (FMT) every 48 hours with 10 doses of oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg every 12 hours during 5 days. Randomized prospective study was performed with 671 patients who had undergone to walking transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Patients of group A (n=312) were treated with ciprofloxacin, and patients of group B (n=359) with FMT. Efficacy and tolerability of two prophylactic regimes were compared. Urine culture was carried out at 2 weeks after biopsy. Initially, patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria were not treated with antibiotics; urine culture was repeated after 1 month, persistent bacteriuria was treated according to antibiogram. No differences between groups were found in age (P=.78), cancer presence (P=.9) or number of biopsy cylinders (P=.93). The mean number of cores obtained was 11.3 ± 3.25 (range 6-20). Digestive intolerance was observed for 9 patients (2.9%) of group A and 10 patients (2.8%) in group B. One patient (.3%) of group A showed severe allergic reaction. In total, 167 patients (24.6%) had complications: 16 (2.4%) fever, 47 (6.9%) hemospermia, 81 (11.9%) hematuria, 7 (1%) rectal bleeding and 16 (2.4%) urinary retention. No statistically differences between groups were observed (27.6% vs. 22.6%; P=.17). However, hemospermia was more frequent in group A (9.9% vs. 4.5%; P=.006). Bacteriuria after biopsy was detected in 44 patients (6.6%), being more frequent in group B patients (4.2% vs. 8.6%; P=.02) although a higher number of second treatment cycles were not needed (53.9% vs. 29%; P=.17). The likelihood of resistance to ciprofloxacin in patients

  13. Comparison of efficacy and safety of oral agents for the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnera, Cristina; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    In the therapeutic scenario of disease-modifying therapies for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, the introduction of oral agents, starting in 2010 with fingolimod, has been a huge step forward in therapeutic options due to the easier administration route. Three oral drugs fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, which are clinically approved for the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in this work. Results of Phase III clinical trials and their extension studies showed that the three oral agents significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate – a superior efficacy compared to placebo. Fingolimod 0.5 mg consistently reduced clinical relapses and brain volume loss. In all Phase III studies, teriflunomide 14 mg dose showed a reduction in the risk of disability accumulation. Regarding safety profile, fingolimod had more safety issues than the other two agents. For this reason, it should be strictly monitored for risks of infections, cancers, and certain transitory effects such as irregular cardiac function, decreased lymphocyte count, and a higher level of liver enzymes. Adverse effects of teriflunomide are well characterized and can be considered manageable. The main risks marked with dimethyl fumarate were flushing and gastrointestinal events. PMID:28814828

  14. Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinomas: comparison with gadopentetate dimeglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G; Kim, Y K; Kim, C S; Yu, H C; Hwang, S B

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in the detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Both MRI techniques were performed on 43 patients with a total of 59 HCCs (size range, 0.5-2.0 cm), with a mean interval between the two MRI studies of 3 days (range, 2-7 days). Two observers reviewed both data sets in consensus. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method. The gadoxetic acid set showed a trend toward increased area under the ROC curve (Az value = 0.958) compared with the gadopentetate dimeglumine set (Az value = 0.927), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.362). The sensitivity of the gadoxetic acid set (n = 51, 86.4%) was significantly higher than that of the gadopentetate dimeglumine set (n = 38, 64.4%) (p = 0.0001). Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is a more sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of HCC than gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy between paroxetine and sertraline augmented with aripiprazole in patients with refractory major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Kishi, Taro; Hori, Hikaru; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Katsuki, Asuka; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Iwata, Nakao; Nakamura, Jun

    2012-12-03

    Only two-thirds of depressive patients respond to antidepressant treatment. In recent years, addition of an atypical antipsychotic drug to ongoing treatment with an antidepressant has been considered effective and well-tolerated. In the present study, we compared the efficacy between paroxetine and sertraline augmented with aripiprazole in patients with refractory major depression. Twenty-four patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder who did not at least two different classes of antidepressants were enrolled in the study. Nine were male and thirteen were female, and their ages ranged from 28 to 66 (mean±SD=39±12) years. Patients were prescribed paroxetine (n=11) or sertraline (n=13) for 4weeks. Then, those whose scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17) decreased below 50% received adjunctive therapy of aripiprazole for 4weeks. Although the use of either combination treatment decreased the HAMD17 scores compared to the respective monotherapy, there was no significant difference in HAMD17 scores between the paroxetine plus aripiprazole group and sertraline plus aripiprazole group. Aripiprazole augmentation therapy with paroxetine or sertraline was equally effective and tolerated in patients with refractory major depressive order. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi S Lakade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy children aged 8-10 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups: The control or chlorhexidine group and the study group or combination mouth rinse. Both the groups practiced rinsing with respective mouth wash for 1 min for 15 d twice a day. The plaque samples were collected and after incubation Mutans streptococcus count was estimated on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and evaluated using manufacture′s chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the findings. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the Mutans streptococci count in the plaque was seen in the control and study group from baseline level. But when both the groups were compared, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine was more.

  17. A standardised study to compare prostate cancer targeting efficacy of five radiolabelled bombesin analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Rogier P.J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Experimental Urology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mueller, Cristina; Melis, Marleen L.; Breeman, Wout A.P.; Blois, Erik de; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reneman, Suzanne; Bangma, Chris H.; Weerden, Wytske M. van [Erasmus MC, Department of Experimental Urology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for prostate cancer (PC) has dramatically increased early diagnosis. Current imaging techniques are not optimal to stage early PC adequately. A promising alternative to PC imaging is peptide-based scintigraphy using radiolabelled bombesin (BN) analogues that bind to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) being overexpressed in PC. When labelled to appropriate radionuclides BN targeting of GRPRs may also provide applications for peptide radionuclide receptor therapy (PRRT). Assessment studies under identical experimental conditions allowing a reliable comparison of the potential of such analogues are lacking. This study was performed to evaluate and directly compare five promising radiolabelled BN analogues for their targeting efficacy for PC under standardised conditions. The BN agonists [{sup 111}In]DOTA-PESIN, [{sup 111}In]AMBA, [{sup 111}In]MP2346 and [{sup 111}In]MP2653 and one antagonist [{sup 99m}Tc]Demobesin-1 were evaluated in GRPR-overexpressing human PC-3 tumour-bearing mice to determine peptide stability in vivo, biodistribution and GRPR targeting potential by animal SPECT/CT imaging and ex vivo autoradiography. HPLC analysis of blood showed intact Demobesin-1 at 5 and 15 min after injection (64.1{+-}1.6% and 41.0{+-}01%, respectively) being much less for the other compounds. AMBA, the second most stable analogue, showed 36.1{+-}2.7% and 9.8{+-}1.1% intact peptide after 5 and 15 min. PC-3 tumour uptake at 1 h was comparable for Demobesin-1, AMBA, PESIN and MP2346 (3.0{+-}0.4, 2.7{+-}0.5, 2.3{+-}0.5 and 2.1{+-}0.9%ID/g, respectively), but very low for MP2653 (0.9 {+-} 0.2%ID/g). In addition, MP2346 showed undesirably high uptake in the kidneys (7.9{+-}1.9%ID/g) being significantly less for the other analogues. AMBA, MP2346 and PESIN revealed favourable increases in tumour to blood ratios over time while changes in tumour to kidney and pancreas ratios for Demobesin-1 from 1 to 24 h after injection were

  18. Comparison of hair removal efficacy and side effect of neodymium:Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and intense pulsed light systems (18-month follow-up).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szima, Georgina Zita; Janka, Eszter Anna; Kovács, Anikó; Bortély, Blanka; Bodnár, Edina; Sawhney, Irina; Szabó, Éva; Remenyik, Éva

    2017-06-01

    Photothermal destruction of hair shaft melanin with intense pulsed light (IPL) and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has become an effective treatment of hair removal. Our aim was to compare efficacy, satisfactory levels, safety, and side effects of Nd:YAG and IPL in hair reduction. This was a prospective randomized intrapatient, right-left, assessor-blinded comparison of Nd:YAG vs IPL. There were 38 volunteers recruited. Seven sessions were performed. Hair count, efficacy, and side effects were compared before and after each treatment and 6 months after the last treatment. In respect of 12 volunteers, we have examined the reduction in hair after 18 months. Initially, there was no significant difference between the numbers of hair follicles. There was significant hair reduction after each treatment on the Nd:YAG-treated side. The hair reduction became significant after the third treatment with IPL. Comparison of the efficacy of the two devices on each visits showed no significant difference. There was statistically lower pain score on the IPL-treated side and statistically higher erythema, burning sensation, and edema on the Nd:YAG-treated side. Statistically lower side effect score was observed on the IPL-treated side. Eight months after the last treatment, there was significant hair reduction both on the Nd:YAG and on the IPL-treated side, and there was no difference between the efficacy. The patient satisfaction scores were higher with the IPL. Unwanted hair can be reduced by both systems safely and effectively; however, IPL has less side effects and higher satisfaction scores. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison of the efficacy of different types of lasers for the treatment of peri-implantitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natto, Zuhair S; Aladmawy, Majdi; Levi, Paul A; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of various types of lasers (neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Nd:YAG], carbon dioxide [CO2], diode, erbium/chromium-doped yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet [Er,Cr:YSGG], and erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:YAG]) in the treatment of peri-implantitis and their use in surgical and nonsurgical procedures. Human studies for the treatment of peri-implantitis with laser therapy, published between 2002 and January 2014, were collected utilizing the electronic databases PubMed, Ovid, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. Two reviewers conducted the study selection, data collection, and validity assessment. Eight hundred twelve studies were selected in the initial title search; 13 studies were then chosen for this review. No human studies evaluated the effect of the Nd:YAG laser on peri-implantitis. The CO2 laser is reported to be safe and able to enhance bone regeneration. The diode laser (980 nm) seems to be effective in its bactericidal effect without changing the implant surface pattern. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser was reported to obtain bone regeneration around a failing implant in one case, while the Er:YAG laser exhibits a strong bactericidal effect against periodontopathic bacteria at a low energy level. Although lasers have shown promising results in reducing clinical signs of peri-implantitis, because of the limited sample sizes and short follow-up periods, no firm conclusion can be drawn at this moment. Hence, there is a need for more well-designed, longitudinal, randomized controlled clinical trials.

  20. The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Cooper

    Full Text Available This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars. Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group. Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with

  1. The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan J; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward based

  2. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy between bupivacaine and lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Roberta Moura; Carnaval, Talita Girio; Lanfredi, Camila Bernardeli; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Rocha, Rodney Garcia; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Seventy volunteers, patients with irreversible pulpitis admitted to the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry at the University of São Paulo, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 3.6 mL of either 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. During the subsequent pulpectomy, we recorded the patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation, and the absence/presence of pain through a verbal analog scale. All patients reported lip anesthesia after the application of either inferior alveolar nerve block. By measuring pulpal anesthesia success with the pulp tester, lidocaine had a higher success rate (42.9%) than bupivacaine (20%). For patients reporting none or mild pain during pulpectomy, the success rate of bupivacaine was 80% and lidocaine was 62.9%. There were only statistically significant differences to the success of pulpal anesthesia. Neither of the solutions resulted in an effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments of mandibular molars. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the efficacies of intermittent and continuous low-dose isotretinoin regimens in the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Nermin; Mustak, Pelin Kocyiğit

    2013-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease that usually requires systemic treatment for severe forms. Isotretinoin is the most effective drug in the treatment of acne vulgaris. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacies of intermittent and continuous low-dose isotretinoin regimens in the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris. Sixty patients with moderate acne were included. They were divided into two groups to receive either intermittent or continuous low-dose isotretinoin. All patients were followed up monthly during the treatment period and for at least six months after completion of therapy. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding improvement rates at the end of treatments. However, reduction rates in mean acne scores at post-treatment controls were in favor of the continuous low-dose group. During the post-treatment follow-up period, three patients in the intermittent group relapsed, while no relapses were observed in the low-dose group. No significant side effects were observed in any groups. Both intermittent and continuous low-dose isotretinoin regimens are very well tolerated and effective as classical regimens in the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris. However, a continuous low-dose regimen seems to be slightly superior in terms of patients' compliance to the treatment and lower risk of relapse. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Comparison of efficacy and outcome satisfaction between in-office and home teeth bleaching in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jie; Tian, Fu-Cong; Wang, Zu-Hua; Yap, Adrian U; Wang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-12-27

    This in vivo study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of in-office and home teeth bleaching in Asian patients. Moreover, the correlation between tooth color change and patient's outcome satisfaction was investigated. Overall, 40 Chinese patients were randomly divided into two groups and prescribed in-office (OB) or take-home bleaching (HB). The color of the maxillary central incisor and canine were recorded at baseline, immediately after first treatment, 1 week, and 3 months after treatment by using a spectrophotometer. Bleaching sensitivity and outcome satisfaction were assessed using Likert and visual analogue scale (VAS), and the results were analyzed using independent t-test and Pearson correlation (P < 0.05). ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE* values of HB were greater than those of OB. Color changes observed in canines were generally greater than those in incisors. Moreover, HB was generally associated with less tooth sensitivity than OB. Patients were satisfied with both treatments, but VAS scores were greater for HB. Furthermore, the correlation between ΔE* and VAS was significant for canines immediately after the first treatment and 1 week after HB. In conclusion, HB was more effective in lightening teeth and reducing chromacity in Chinese patients. The correlation between tooth color change and outcome satisfaction was generally insignificant and weak.

  5. Safety, Tolerance, and Enhanced Efficacy of a Bioavailable Formulation of Curcumin With Fenugreek Dietary Fiber on Occupational Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandaran Sudheeran, Subash; Jacob, Della; Natinga Mulakal, Johannah; Gopinathan Nair, Gopakumar; Maliakel, Abhilash; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Im, Krishnakumar

    2016-06-01

    Drug delivery systems capable of delivering free (unconjugated) curcuminoids is of great therapeutic significance, since the absorption of bioactive and permeable form plays a key factor in mediating the efficacy of a substance which undergoes rapid biotransformation. Considering the recent understanding on the relatively high bioactivities and blood-brain-barrier permeability of free curcuminoids over their conjugated metabolites, the present human study investigated the safety, antioxidant efficacy, and bioavailability of CurQfen (curcumagalactomannoside [CGM]), a food-grade formulation of natural curcumin with fenugreek dietary fiber that has shown to possess improved blood-brain-barrier permeability and tissue distribution in rats. In this randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, 60 subjects experiencing occupational stress-related anxiety and fatigue were randomized to receive CGM, standard curcumin, and placebo for 30 days (500 mg twice daily). The study demonstrated the safety, tolerance, and enhanced efficacy of CGM in comparison with unformulated standard curcumin. A significant improvement in the quality of life (P comparison of the free curcuminoids bioavailability after a single-dose (500 mg once per day) and repeated-dose (500 mg twice daily for 30 days) oral administration revealed enhanced absorption and improved pharmacokinetics of CGM upon both single- (30.7-fold) and repeated-dose (39.1-fold) administrations.

  6. Prevention and Management of Infusion-Associated Reactions in the Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif(®) Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis (CARE-MS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Christina; Namey, Marie; Meyer, Cathy; Mayer, Lori; Oyuela, Pedro; Margolin, David H; Rizzo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody approved in several countries for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This report summarizes the experience with infusion-associated reactions (IARs) in two phase 3 trials of alemtuzumab in RRMS and examines skilled nursing interventions in IAR prevention and management. In the Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif(®) Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis (CARE-MS) studies, patients with RRMS (treatment naive [CARE-MS I] or with inadequate response [defined as at least one relapse] to previous therapy [CARE-MS II]) received intravenous infusions of alemtuzumab 12 mg/day on 5 consecutive days at baseline and on 3 consecutive days 12 months later. Patients were monitored for IARs during and after each infusion. An IAR was defined as any adverse event occurring during any infusion or within 24 hours after infusion. The IARs affected 90.1% of patients receiving alemtuzumab. The most common IARs were headache, rash, pyrexia, nausea, and flushing; most were mild to moderate in severity. Management of IARs consisted of infusion interruption or rate reduction, pharmacologic therapies, and continual patient education and support. Medication administration before and during alemtuzumab infusion reduced IAR severity. Forty-five of 972 alemtuzumab-treated patients (4.6%) required interruption of the first treatment course (ie, infusions did not occur on consecutive days); of these, 24 (53.3%) were still able to complete the first and second full treatment courses. Nurses played an invaluable role in the detection and management of IARs in the CARE-MS studies. Best practices for management of IARs associated with alemtuzumab include patient and caregiver education, medication to lessen IAR severity, infusion monitoring, and discharge planning.

  7. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  8. Evidence for the efficacy of NXY-059 in experimental focal cerebral ischaemia is confounded by study quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macleod, Malcolm R.; van der Worp, H. Bart; Sena, Emily S.; Howells, David W.; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Donnan, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose-The neutral results of the SAINT II trial have again highlighted difficulties translating neuroprotective efficacy from bench to bedside. Animal studies are susceptible to study quality biases, which may lead to overstatement of efficacy. We report the impact of study quality

  9. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihad Fejzic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx, Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb. In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR. Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  10. The Comparison of Efficacy of Adcortyl Ointment and Topical Tacrolimus in Treatment of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive lichen planus often have symptoms of soreness and need proper treatment. The main therapy of OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Potent topical corticosteroids have been increasingly prescribed in the treatment of erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl ointment (triamcinolone in orabase with topical tacrolimus for the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus.

    Materials and methods. Sixty Patients with histopathologically confirmed oral lichen planus were enrolled in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 to 5 according to the criteria described in a previous study. Patients were randomly given adcortyl (group A and topical tacrolimus ointment (group B and asked to apply the medication on dried lesions 4 times a day. The lesions were evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Visual analogue scale was used to assess the severity of pain before and after treatment. The severity scores were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis k-sample test.

    Results. The average score of lesions improved from 3.4 to 1.5 in patients who received adcortyl ointment and from 3.2 to 1.2 in patients who received topical tacrolimus ointment. The differences between the improvements in scores were not statistically significant in the two groups. The average pain severity in A and B groups was 8.2 and 7.8 at the beginning of treatment, and 3.5 and 3.2 at the end of treatment, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in pain severity in both groups.

    Conclusion. Topical tacrolimus is a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of oral lichen planus.

  11. Increasing general practitioners' confidence and self-efficacy in managing obesity: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgiss, Elizabeth; Haesler, Emily; Elmitt, Nicholas; van Weel, Chris; Douglas, Kirsty

    2017-01-27

    Internationally, general practitioners (GPs) are being encouraged to take an active role in the care of their patients with obesity, but as yet there are few tools for them to implement within their clinics. This study assessed the self-efficacy and confidence of GPs before and after implementing a weight management programme in their practice. Nested mixed methods study within a 6-month feasibility trial. 4 urban general practices and 1 rural general practice in Australia. All vocationally registered GPs in the local region were eligible and invited to participate; 12 GPs were recruited and 11 completed the study. The Change Programme is a structured GP-delivered weight management programme that uses the therapeutic relationship between the patient and their GP to provide holistic and person-centred care. It is an evidence-based programme founded on Australian guidelines for the management of obesity in primary care. Self-efficacy and confidence of the GPs when managing obesity was measured using a quantitative survey consisting of Likert scales in conjunction with pro forma interviews. In line with social cognitive theory, GPs who experienced performance mastery during the pilot intervention had an increase in their confidence and self-efficacy. In particular, confidence in assisting and arranging care for patients was improved as demonstrated in the survey and supported by the qualitative data. Most importantly from the qualitative data, GPs described changing their usual practice and felt more confident to discuss obesity with all of their patients. A structured management tool for obesity care in general practice can improve GP confidence and self-efficacy in managing obesity. Enhancing GP 'professional self-efficacy' is the first step to improving obesity management within general practice. ACTRN12614001192673; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Interlibrary Loan Cost Study and Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herstand, Jo Ellen

    1981-01-01

    Details how a manual, nonautomated