WorldWideScience

Sample records for effects social networks

  1. SOCIAL NETWORK EFFECTS ON ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma CAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to obtain information about social network variables in order to predict the relational commitment of married individuals and people having dating relationships. For this purpose, social network analysis has been carried out on 134 people having dating relationship and 154 married individuals and then Relationship Stability Scale, Subjective Norm Scale and Social Network Feature Survey prepared by the researcher were used. The results indicated that the approval of the closest social network member and the level of enjoyment of each other’s social network members had the best predictive value for relationship satisfaction and the investment to the relationship. The results also demonstrated that, approval of the social network had a negative impact on the level of the quality of alternatives and it showed that social networks were seen as a barrier function to have alternative relationships. Furthermore, by dividing social network members into two groups, for the dating group, the approval of the social network was the most significant variable for commitment but in the married group, the need for social network approval was not an important criteria because of having their relatioship already confirmed legally. When social network members were categorised and examined, the closest social network members did not differ by sex, but were varied in terms of relationship types. In the flirt group, one of their friends among his/her social network and their partners’ social network was specified as the closest social network member whereas in the married group, the closest social network member among his/her social network was their mother while it was their sibling among partner’s social network.

  2. Effects of deception in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A

    2014-09-07

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies ('white' lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of social networking in the effectiveness of university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of social networking in the effectiveness of university education: exploratory ... new facts came to light, as it made people communicate in a virtual world. ... Keywords: social networks; e-Learning; online learning; Facebook; Web 2.0; ...

  4. Effect of online social networking on employee productivity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ferreira; T. du Plessis

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of social networking sites is relatively recent and the effect of online social networking (OSN) on employee productivity has not received much scholarly attention. The reason most likely lies in the social nature of social networking sites and OSN, which is assumed to have a negative effect on employee productivity and not bear organisational benefit. This reseach investigated recent Internet developments as seen in the social Web and specifically investigated the effect of OS...

  5. Effects of Social Networking on Adolescent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Muhammed; Omar, Adnan; Allison-Golding, Monique

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of social networking sites has grown tremendously especially among the teens and high school students. However, very little is known about the scale of use, the purpose, how students use these sites and, more specifically, whether these sites help or hurt their academic progress. This study investigates how high school…

  6. On the Directionality Test of Peer Effects in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    One interesting idea in social network analysis is the directionality test that utilizes the directions of social ties to help identify peer effects. The null hypothesis of the test is that if contextual factors are the only force that affects peer outcomes, the estimated peer effects should not differ, if the directions of social ties are…

  7. Cost effective campaigning in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy

    2016-05-01

    Campaigners are increasingly using online social networking platforms for promoting products, ideas and information. A popular method of promoting a product or even an idea is incentivizing individuals to evangelize the idea vigorously by providing them with referral rewards in the form of discounts, cash backs, or social recognition. Due to budget constraints on scarce resources such as money and manpower, it may not be possible to provide incentives for the entire population, and hence incentives need to be allocated judiciously to appropriate individuals for ensuring the highest possible outreach size. We aim to do the same by formulating and solving an optimization problem using percolation theory. In particular, we compute the set of individuals that are provided incentives for minimizing the expected cost while ensuring a given outreach size. We also solve the problem of computing the set of individuals to be incentivized for maximizing the outreach size for given cost budget. The optimization problem turns out to be non trivial; it involves quantities that need to be computed by numerically solving a fixed point equation. Our primary contribution is, that for a fairly general cost structure, we show that the optimization problems can be solved by solving a simple linear program. We believe that our approach of using percolation theory to formulate an optimization problem is the first of its kind.

  8. Power to Detect Intervention Effects on Ensembles of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tracy M.; Junker, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The hierarchical network model (HNM) is a framework introduced by Sweet, Thomas, and Junker for modeling interventions and other covariate effects on ensembles of social networks, such as what would be found in randomized controlled trials in education research. In this article, we develop calculations for the power to detect an intervention…

  9. Social Capital, Network Effects and Savings in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    social networks in rural Vietnam can play a role in increasing formal savings where knowledge gaps exist. Networks are defined as active membership of women’s unions and the quality of networks is measured by the level of formal savings observed among group members. We find that membership of high...... quality networks leads to higher levels of saving in formal financial institutions and to higher levels of saving for productive investments as compared with other precautionary or lifecycle motives. Our results suggest that transmitting financial information through formal networks could be effective...... in increasing formal savings at grassroots level. We also conclude that ensuring information disseminated by networks is both accurate and desirable as well as important given that behavioural effects are also found in low-quality networks....

  10. Social entrepreneurship and social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dufays, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation, we argue that the sociology of social networks may provide interesting insights with regard to the emergence of social entrepreneurship both at micro and macro levels. There have already been several calls for research on social networks in the context of social entrepreneurship (Certo & Miller 2008; Gedajlovic, et al. 2013; Haugh 2007; Mair & Marti 2006; Short, et al. 2009). These calls often address the differences in structure and effects of social networks in a socia...

  11. Dissemination Patterns and Associated Network Effects of Sentiments in Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    . The dissemination patterns analyzed in this study consist of network motifs based on triples of actors and the ties among them. These motifs are associated with common social network effects to derive meaningful insights about dissemination activities. The data basis includes several thousand social networks...... with textual messages classified according to embedded positive and negative sentiments. Based on this data, sub-networks are extracted and analyzed with a dynamic network motif analysis to determine dissemination patterns and associated network effects. Results indicate that the emergence of digital social...... networks exhibits a strong tendency towards reciprocity, followed by the dominance of hierarchy as an intermediate step leading to social clustering with hubs and transitivity effects for both positive and negative sentiments to the same extend. Sentiments embedded in exchanged textual messages do only...

  12. The effect of social networks and social support on common mental disorders following specific life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Eaton, W W; Bradshaw, C P

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the association between life events and common mental disorders while accounting for social networks and social supports. Participants included 1920 adults in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Cohort who were interviewed in 1993-1996, of whom 1071 were re-interviewed in 2004-2005. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Social support from friends, spouse or relatives was associated with significantly reduced odds of panic disorder and psychological distress, after experiencing specific life events. Social networks or social support had no significant stress-buffering effect. Social networks and social support had almost no direct or buffering effect on major depressive disorder, and no effect on generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol abuse or dependence disorder. The significant association between social support and psychological distress, rather than diagnosable mental disorders, highlights the importance of social support, especially when the severity of a mental health related problem is low.

  13. The Effect of Social Network Diagrams on a Virtual Network of Practice: A Korean Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the presentation of social network diagrams on virtual team members' interaction behavior via e-mail. E-mail transaction data from 22 software developers in a Korean IT company was analyzed and depicted as diagrams by social network analysis (SNA), and presented to the members as an intervention. Results…

  14. Effect of online social networking on employee productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferreira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of social networking sites is relatively recent and the effect of online social networking (OSN on employee productivity has not received much scholarly attention. The reason most likely lies in the social nature of social networking sites and OSN, which is assumed to have a negative effect on employee productivity and not bear organisational benefit. This reseach investigated recent Internet developments as seen in the social Web and specifically investigated the effect of OSN on employee productivity and what some of the consequences would be if employees were allowed unrestricted access to these networks. The findings concerning the nature of employees' OSN activities, employees' attitude or perceptions with regard to OSN in the workplace and how OSN can contribute or affect the productivity of employees are discussed in this article. Some of the basic misconceptions regarding OSN are highlighted and it is concluded that this technology can be used to increase collaboration between individuals who share a common interest or goal. Increased collaboration will stimulate knowledge sharing between individuals, with the possible effect of increased productivity. However, the risks associated with OSN should be noted, such as loss of privacy, bandwidth and storage consumption, exposure to malware and lower employee productivity.

  15. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  16. Sensitivity analysis for contagion effects in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of social network data have suggested that obesity, smoking, happiness and loneliness all travel through social networks. Individuals exert “contagion effects” on one another through social ties and association. These analyses have come under critique because of the possibility that homophily from unmeasured factors may explain these statistical associations and because similar findings can be obtained when the same methodology is applied to height, acne and head-aches, for which the conclusion of contagion effects seems somewhat less plausible. We use sensitivity analysis techniques to assess the extent to which supposed contagion effects for obesity, smoking, happiness and loneliness might be explained away by homophily or confounding and the extent to which the critique using analysis of data on height, acne and head-aches is relevant. Sensitivity analyses suggest that contagion effects for obesity and smoking cessation are reasonably robust to possible latent homophily or environmental confounding; those for happiness and loneliness are somewhat less so. Supposed effects for height, acne and head-aches are all easily explained away by latent homophily and confounding. The methodology that has been employed in past studies for contagion effects in social networks, when used in conjunction with sensitivity analysis, may prove useful in establishing social influence for various behaviors and states. The sensitivity analysis approach can be used to address the critique of latent homophily as a possible explanation of associations interpreted as contagion effects. PMID:25580037

  17. Social Network Sites Effectiveness from EFL Students' Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnujaidi, Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between EFL students' experience, attitudes, perceptions, and expectations toward the effectiveness of Social Network Sites (SNS), namely, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Flickr, Classmates, Academica, MySpace, English baby, and Google+, in English language learning. A survey of 103 participants from…

  18. Labor Mobility, Social Network Effects, and Innovative Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, H.C.; Rønde, Thomas

    . This relationship is stronger if workers join from innovative firms. We also find evidence for positive feedback from workers who leave for an innovative firm, presumably because the worker who left stays in contact with their former colleagues. This implies that the positive feedback (“social network effects...

  19. Leverage Between the Buffering Effect and the Bystander Effect in Social Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Ping; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2015-08-01

    This study examined encouraged and inhibited social feedback behaviors based on the theories of the buffering effect and the bystander effect. A system program was used to collect personal data and social feedback from a Facebook data set to test the research model. The results revealed that the buffering effect induced a positive relationship between social network size and feedback gained from friends when people's social network size was under a certain cognitive constraint. For people with a social network size that exceeds this cognitive constraint, the bystander effect may occur, in which having more friends may inhibit social feedback. In this study, two social psychological theories were applied to explain social feedback behavior on Facebook, and it was determined that social network size and social feedback exhibited no consistent linear relationship.

  20. Peer Effects, Social Networks, and Intergroup Competition in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Shu, Pian

    novel evidence on the interplay between social networks (urban resident group and rural migrant group) and peer effects. Specifically, we find that a worker puts in more effort when she is working with more able outgroup teammates but not when working with more able ingroup teammates, pointing...... to intergroup competition as a powerful source of the peer effects. Such peer effects across the social network, combined with the presence of incentive to outperform teammates at this firm, are largely consistent with recent experimental evidence on the important role that group identities play in facilitating......Using weekly data for defect rates (proportion of defective output) for all weavers in a Chinese textile firm during a 12 months (April 2003 - March 2004) period, we provide some of the first rigorous evidence on the presence and nature of peer effects in the manufacturing workplace. First...

  1. Investigating the effects of virtual social networks on entrepreneurial marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambeiz Talebi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of virtual social networks on entrepreneurial marketing. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale based on a model originally developed by Morris et al. (2002 [Morris, M. H., Schindehutte, M., & LaForge, R. W. (2002. Entrepreneurial marketing: a construct for integrating emerging entrepreneurship and marketing perspectives. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(4, 1-19.]. The study considers the effects of three components of virtual social network (VSN; namely structural VSN, interaction VSN and functional VSN on entrepreneurial marketing. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined positive and meaningful effects of all three VSN components on entrepreneurial marketing.

  2. Selection in the social network: effects of chronic diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Flap, H.D.; Foets, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    Background: this article deals with the consequences of disease for someone's personal social network. It is hypothesized that the duration of a socially severe disease will affect the social network in such a way that the proportions of women, kin, long-standing relationships and people living

  3. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explore the interactions between disease spreading and population response in terms of information diffusion and individuals' alertness. We model the system by mapping multiplex networks into two-layer networks and incorporating individuals' risk awareness, on the assumption that their response to the disease spreading depends on the size of the community they belong to. By comparing the final incidence of diseases in multiplex networks, we find that there is considerable mitigation of diseases spreading for full phase of spreading speed when individuals' protection responses are introduced. Interestingly, the degree of community overlap between the two layers is found to be critical factor that affects the final incidence. We also analyze the consequences of the epidemic incidence in communities with different sizes and the impacts of community overlap between two layers. Specifically, as the diseases information makes individuals alert and take measures to prevent the diseases, the effective protection is more striking in small community. These phenomena can be explained by the multiplexity of the networked system and the competition between two spreading processes.

  4. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Li, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explore the interactions between disease spreading and population response in terms of information diffusion and individuals' alertness. We model the system by mapping multiplex networks into two-layer networks and incorporating individuals' risk awareness, on the assumption that their response to the disease spreading depends on the size of the community they belong to. By comparing the final incidence of diseases in multiplex networks, we find that there is considerable mitigation of diseases spreading for full phase of spreading speed when individuals' protection responses are introduced. Interestingly, the degree of community overlap between the two layers is found to be critical factor that affects the final incidence. We also analyze the consequences of the epidemic incidence in communities with different sizes and the impacts of community overlap between two layers. Specifically, as the diseases information makes individuals alert and take measures to prevent the diseases, the effective protection is more striking in small community. These phenomena can be explained by the multiplexity of the networked system and the competition between two spreading processes.

  5. The Effects of Social Network Centrality on Group Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    .... To determine the relationship between social network centrality and work group satisfaction, a longitudinal field study was conducted on 440 active duty enlisted military members in a leadership...

  6. Social networks as mediators of the effect of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; Humphreys, Keith

    2002-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the relationship between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and reduced substance use is partially explained (or 'mediated') by changes in social networks. This is a naturalistic longitudinal study of the course of alcohol problems. Study sites were the 10 largest public and private alcohol treatment programs in a northern California county. Three hundred and seventy-seven men and 277 women were recruited upon seeking treatment at study sites. At baseline and 1-year follow-up, we assessed alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms, consumption, social support for abstinence, pro-drinking social influences and AA involvement. In the structural equation model, AA involvement was a significant predictor of lower alcohol consumption and fewer related problems. The size of this effect decreased by 36% when network size and support for drinking were included as mediators. In logistic regression models predicting abstinence at follow-up, AA remained highly significant after including social network variables but was again reduced in magnitude. Thirty-day abstinence was predicted by AA involvement (OR=2.9), not having pro-drinking influences in one's network (OR=0.7) and having support for reducing consumption from people met in AA (versus no support; OR=3.4). In contrast, having support from non-AA members was not a significant predictor of abstinence. For alcohol-related outcomes other than abstinence, significant relationships were found for both AA-based and non-AA-based support. The type of social support specifically given by AA members, such as 24-hour availability, role modeling and experientially based advice for staying sober, may help to explain AA's mechanism of action. Results highlight the value of focusing on outcomes reflective of AA's goals (such as abstinence) when studying how AA works.

  7. Effects of Social Networking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khansarian-Dehkordi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to scrutinize social networking effects on Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition. Eighty Iranian EFL learners at the intermediate level participated in a pretest-posttest study after taking the placement test. They were then divided into an experimental group whose participants were supposed to equip their mobile phones or tablet PCs with a social networking application, that is, Line and form an online group to take part in eighteen virtual instructional sessions. Participants of the control group, however, underwent classroom learning during which target words were presented through routine classroom activities. Results of the independent-samples t-test in the posttest indicated that participants of the experimental group outperformed those of the control group. Results have important implications for both pedagogy and theory, especially socio-cultural theories of second language development.

  8. Mediation Effects of Internet Addiction on Shame and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ugur; Kaya, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    A survey of 488 college students was conducted in Turkey to investigate the relationship between social network usage, shame and Internet addiction. It was hypothesized that a relationship between shame and social network usage was mediated by Internet addiction. First of all, according to simple regression analysis, it was found that shame…

  9. The Role of Social Networking in the Effectiveness of University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... on a series of previous studies and scientific research related to the subject of the ... techniques, especially the introduction of the second- generation of Web ... impact of social networking tools on learning and teaching in general, to .... networks by some students and misbehaving with personal social ...

  10. Labor Mobility, Social Network Effects, and Innovative Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas; Kaiser, Ulrich

    . This relationship is stronger if workers join from innovative firms. We also find evidence for positive feedback from workers who leave for an innovative firm, presumably because the worker who left stays in contact with their former colleagues. This implies that the positive feedback (“social network effects......”) that has been found by other studies not only exists but even outweighs the disruption and loss of knowledge occurring to the previous employer from the worker leaving. Summing up the effects of joining and leaving workers, we find ample evidence for mobility to be associated with an increase in total...

  11. Social networks : Effects on Identification, Performance and Satisfaction Effects on identification, performance and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stormbroek-Burgers, van R.G.B.M.; Montfort, van K.; Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey)

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to research on the impact of social networks on organizational outcomes in the context of the increasing number of professionals in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to get insight into the characteristics of professionals’ social networks and to examine the effect of

  12. The Effect of Teachers' Social Networks on Teaching Practices and Class Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong Min

    2011-01-01

    Central to this dissertation was an examination of the role teachers' social networks play in schools as living organizations through three studies. The first study investigated the impact of teachers' social networks on teaching practices. Recent evidence suggests that teachers' social networks have a significant effect on teachers' norms,…

  13. Effects Of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) On Hyper Media Computer Mediated Environments (HCMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon C. Cho

    2011-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are known as tools to interact and build relationships between users/customers in Hyper Media Computer Mediated Environments (HCMEs). This study explored how social networking sites play a significant role in communication between users. While numerous researchers examined the effectiveness of social networking websites, few studies investigated which factors affected customers attitudes and behavior toward social networking sites. In this paper, the authors inv...

  14. Social networks and trade of services: modelling interregional flows with spatial and network autocorrelation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Tamara; Llano, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Recent literature on border effect has fostered research on informal barriers to trade and the role played by network dependencies. In relation to social networks, it has been shown that intensity of trade in goods is positively correlated with migration flows between pairs of countries/regions. In this article, we investigate whether such a relation also holds for interregional trade of services. We also consider whether interregional trade flows in services linked with tourism exhibit spatial and/or social network dependence. Conventional empirical gravity models assume the magnitude of bilateral flows between regions is independent of flows to/from regions located nearby in space, or flows to/from regions related through social/cultural/ethic network connections. With this aim, we provide estimates from a set of gravity models showing evidence of statistically significant spatial and network (demographic) dependence in the bilateral flows of the trade of services considered. The analysis has been applied to the Spanish intra- and interregional monetary flows of services from the accommodation, restaurants and travel agencies for the period 2000-2009, using alternative datasets for the migration stocks and definitions of network effects.

  15. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  16. The effects of online social networks on tacit knowledge transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Miao; Zhang, Sheng-Tai; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Due to the popular use of online social networks in today's world, how to propagate employees' tacit knowledge via online social networks has attracted managers' attention, which is critical to enhance the competitiveness of firms. In this paper, we propose a tacit knowledge transmission model on networks with even mixing based on the propagation property of tacit knowledge and the application of online social networks. We consider two routes of transmission, which are contact through online social networks and face-to-face physical contact, and derive the threshold that governs whether or not a kind of tacit knowledge can be shared in an organization with few initial employees who have acquired it. The impact of the degree distribution of the users' contact network on the transmission is investigated analytically. Some numerical simulations are presented to support the theoretical results. We perform the sensitivity analysis of the threshold in terms of the propagation parameters and confirm that online social networks contribute significantly to enhancing the transmission of tacit knowledge among employees.

  17. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ting; Li, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explo...

  18. Effective seeding strategy in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Shi, Huibin; Wang, Jianwei; Huang, Yun

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores effective seeding strategies in prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on online social networks, i.e. the optimal strategy to obtain global cooperation with minimum cost. Three distinct seeding strategies are compared by performing computer simulations on real online social network datasets. Our finding suggests that degree centrality seeding outperforms other strategies regardless of the initial payoff setting or network size. Celebrities of online social networks play key roles in preserving cooperation.

  19. Social network effects in contraceptive behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Dwyer, Debra S

    2011-10-01

    To quantify empirically the role of peer social networks in contraceptive behavior among adolescents. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, the authors use a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects, and peer selection to reduce the potential impact of biases from the estimates of peer influence. The peer group measures are drawn not only from the nominations of close friends but also from classmates. Contraception use among the peer groups was constructed using the peers' own reports of their contraceptive behavior. Controlling for parental characteristics and other demographic variables, the authors find that a 10% increase in the proportion of classmates who use contraception increases the likelihood of individual contraception use by approximately 5%. They also find evidence that the influence of close friends diminishes after accounting for unobserved environmental confounders. The findings of this study support the findings in the literature that peer effects are important determinants of contraception use even after controlling for potential biases in the data. Effective policy aimed at increasing contraception use among adolescents should consider these peer effects.

  20. Social network effects in alcohol consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Dwyer, Debra S

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in explaining drinking behavior among adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer selection to purge the potential biases from the estimates of peer influence. Our peer group measures are drawn not only from the nomination of close friends, but also from classmates. Drinking behavior among the peer groups was constructed using the peers' own report of their alcohol consumption. Controlling for parent level characteristics, and other demographic parameters, we find that a 10% increase in the proportion of classmates who drink will increase the likelihood of drinking participation and frequency by approximately four percentage points. We also find evidence to show that the influence of close friends, while still significant, diminishes in magnitude after accounting for unobserved environmental confounders. Our findings support the literature that peer effects are important determinants of drinking behavior even after controlling for potential biases. Effective policy aimed at reducing alcohol consumption among adolescents would consider these significant peer effects. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE EFFECT OF ADVERTISING ON SOCIAL NETWORKS ON THE MARKETING OF SPORTS SERVICES - CASE STUDY: SOCIAL TELEGRAM USERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Nematzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Today, the number of social networks in which communications are made is increasing rapidly, and most teenagers and adults, as part of everyday life, use the benefits of knowing others and introducing themselves to others from social networks such as Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, YouTube, Weblogs and Wikiquote. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of advertising on social networks on the marketing of sports services. Methodologically, this descriptive study was of correlatio...

  2. Individual Search and Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goyal; Stephanie Rosenkranz; Utz Weitzel; Vincent Buskens

    2014-01-01

    The explosion in online social networks motivates an enquiry into their structure and their welfare effects. A central feature of these networks is information sharing: online social networks lower the cost of getting information from others. These lower costs affect the attractiveness of individual search vis-a-vis a reliance on social networks. The paper reports the findings of an experiment on these effects. Our experiment shows that online networks can have large effects. Information acqu...

  3. Social Networks and Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Hogset, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes social network effects on Kenyan smallholders' decision to adopt improved natural resource management techniques. These effects are decomposed into effects from social influence and learning through networks (strong ties), group effects, weak ties effects, informal finance, and conflicts arising from technological externalities, controlling for non-network effects.

  4. The Effect of Social Interaction on Learning Engagement in a Social Networking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios…

  5. Effects of residential move on interaction frequency with social network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharmeen, F.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Sze, N.N.; Szeto, W.Y.; Wong, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Size and composition of social networks have recently been identified in the transportation literature as important triggers of travel demand in general and travel generation in particular. With the field of activity-based modeling of travel demand moving from static to dynamic models, this implies

  6. Discussion Tool Effects on Collaborative Learning and Social Network Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Astrid; Suthers, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the social network structure of booking officers at the Honolulu Police Department and how the introduction of an online discussion tool affected knowledge about operation of a booking module. Baseline data provided evidence for collaboration among officers in the same district using e-mail, telephone and face-to-face media…

  7. Exploring the Peer Interaction Effects on Learning Achievement in a Social Learning Platform Based on Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Ming-Puu; Chang, Chia-Hu; Chang, Pu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of social learning have been recognized by existing research. To explore knowledge distribution in social learning and its effects on learning achievement, we developed a social learning platform and explored students' behaviors of peer interactions by the proposed algorithms based on social network analysis. An empirical study was…

  8. The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Matthew A; Walsh, Michael; Wattier, Kristina; Knigge, Ryan; Miller, Lindsey; Stevermer, Michalene; Fogas, Bruce S

    2016-12-30

    This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...... in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks...

  10. Effects of temporal correlations in social multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2017-08-17

    Multi-layered networks represent a major advance in the description of natural complex systems, and their study has shed light on new physical phenomena. Despite its importance, however, the role of the temporal dimension in their structure and function has not been investigated in much detail so far. Here we study the temporal correlations between layers exhibited by real social multiplex networks. At a basic level, the presence of such correlations implies a certain degree of predictability in the contact pattern, as we quantify by an extension of the entropy and mutual information analyses proposed for the single-layer case. At a different level, we demonstrate that temporal correlations are a signature of a 'multitasking' behavior of network agents, characterized by a higher level of switching between different social activities than expected in a uncorrelated pattern. Moreover, temporal correlations significantly affect the dynamics of coupled epidemic processes unfolding on the network. Our work opens the way for the systematic study of temporal multiplex networks and we anticipate it will be of interest to researchers in a broad array of fields.

  11. The Effects of Social Network Centrality on Group Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Herzberg , Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959), however, there exists a lack of consensus of social 2 network theory and how it affects satisfaction. Most...Technology. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory . Organizational Behavior and Human...coefficients as data in counseling research. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(5), 630. Herzberg , F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to

  12. Social Networks in Later Life: Weighing Positive and Negative Effects on Health and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Karen S

    2015-02-01

    Social networks provide a mix of positive and negative experiences. Network members can provide help in times of need and day-to-day companionship, but they can also behave in ways that are inconsiderate, hurtful, or intrusive. Researchers must grapple with these dualities in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how social network ties affect health and well-being. This article provides an overview of research that has examined the health-related effects of positive and negative aspects of social network involvement. If focuses on later life, a time when risks for declining health and for the loss or disruption of social relationships increase.

  13. Binge Drinking Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Peer Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Jang, Jisun; Swenson, Theadora; Bhindarwala, Asma Moiz

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates an association between social network characteristics and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood, utilizing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,966) and employing social network and longitudinal analysis. Lower integration and socialization with alcohol-using peers had immediate risks of binge drinking during adolescence; however, over time, the effects of socialization with alcohol-using peers had the most dramatic reduction. The most p...

  14. The effects of types of social networks, perceived social support, and loneliness on the health of older people: accounting for the social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Alpass, Fiona; Towers, Andy; Stevenson, Brendan

    2011-09-01

    To use an ecological model of ageing (Berkman, Glass, Brissette, & Seeman, 2000) which includes upstream social context factors and downstream social support factors to examine the effects of social networks on health. Postal survey responses from a representative population sample of New Zealanders aged 55 to 70 years (N = 6,662). Correlations and multiple regression analyses provided support for a model in which social context contributes to social network type, which affects perceived social support and loneliness, and consequent mental and physical health. Ethnicity was related to social networks and health but this was largely accounted for by other contextual variables measuring socioeconomic status. Gender and age were also significant variables in the model. Social network type is a useful way to assess social integration within this model of cascading effects. More detailed information could be gained through the development of our network assessment instruments for older people.

  15. Visual social network analysis: effective approach to model complex human social, behaviour & culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahram, Tareq Z; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    The advent and adoption of internet-based social networking has significantly altered our daily lives. The educational community has taken notice of the positive aspects of social networking such as creation of blogs and to support groups of system designers going through the same challenges and difficulties. This paper introduces a social networking framework for collaborative education, design and modeling of the next generation of smarter products and services. Human behaviour modeling in social networking application aims to ensure that human considerations for learners and designers have a prominent place in the integrated design and development of sustainable, smarter products throughout the total system lifecycle. Social networks blend self-directed learning and prescribed, existing information. The self-directed element creates interest within a learner and the ability to access existing information facilitates its transfer, and eventual retention of knowledge acquired.

  16. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  17. Social acceleration and the network effect: a defence of social 'science fiction' and network determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Robert

    2010-06-01

    This essay is a response to Judy Wajcman's essay 'Life in the fast lane? Towards a sociology of technology and time' (2008: 59-77). In that article Wajcman argued that recent developments in the sociology of temporal change had been marked by a tendency in social theory towards a form of 'science fiction'--a sociological theorizing, she maintains, that bears no real relation to actual, empirically provable developments in the field and should therefore be viewed as not contributing to 'a richer analysis of the relationship between technology and time' (2008: 61). This reply argues that as Wajcman suggests in her essay, there is indeed an 'urgent need for increased dialogue to connect social theory with detailed empirical studies' (2008: 59) but that the most fruitful way to proceed would not be through a constraining of 'science fiction' social theorizing but, rather, through its expansion--and more, that 'science fiction' should take the lead in the process. This essay suggests that the connection between social theory and empirical studies would be strengthened by a wider understanding of the function of knowledge and research in the context of what is termed 'true originality' and 'routine originality'. The former is the domain of social theory and the latter resides within traditional sociological disciplines. It is argued that both need each other to advance our understanding of society, especially in the context of the fast-changing processes of technological development. The example of 'technological determinism' is discussed as illustrative of how 'routine originality' can harden into dogma without the application of 'true originality' to continually question (sometimes through ideas that may appear to border on 'science fiction') comfortable assumptions that may have become 'routine' and shorn of their initial 'originality'.

  18. Effect of direct reciprocity and network structure on continuing prosperity of social networking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Kengo; Toriumi, Fujio; Sugawara, Toshihauru

    2017-01-01

    Social networking services (SNSs) are widely used as communicative tools for a variety of purposes. SNSs rely on the users' individual activities associated with some cost and effort, and thus it is not known why users voluntarily continue to participate in SNSs. Because the structures of SNSs are similar to that of the public goods (PG) game, some studies have focused on why voluntary activities emerge as an optimal strategy by modifying the PG game. However, their models do not include direct reciprocity between users, even though reciprocity is a key mechanism that evolves and sustains cooperation in human society. We developed an abstract SNS model called the reciprocity rewards and meta-rewards games that include direct reciprocity by extending the existing models. Then, we investigated how direct reciprocity in an SNS facilitates cooperation that corresponds to participation in SNS by posting articles and comments and how the structure of the networks of users exerts an influence on the strategies of users using the reciprocity rewards game. We run reciprocity rewards games on various complex networks and an instance network of Facebook and found that two types of stable cooperation emerged. First, reciprocity slightly improves the rate of cooperation in complete graphs but the improvement is insignificant because of the instability of cooperation. However, this instability can be avoided by making two assumptions: high degree of fun, i.e. articles are read with high probability, and different attitudes to reciprocal and non-reciprocal agents. We then propose the concept of half free riders to explain what strategy sustains cooperation-dominant situations. Second, we indicate that a certain WS network structure affects users' optimal strategy and facilitates stable cooperation without any extra assumptions. We give a detailed analysis of the different characteristics of the two types of cooperation-dominant situations and the effect of the memory of

  19. Information asymmetry, social networking site word of mouth, and mobility effects on social commerce in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Jeong; Lee, Bong Gyou; Kim, Ki Youn

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the issues that affect customers' behavioral character and purchasing behavior. The study proposes a research hypothesis with independent variables that include social presence, trust, and information asymmetry, and the dependent variable purchase decision making, to explain differentiated customer decision making processes in social commerce (S-commerce). To prove the hypothesis, positive verification was performed by focusing on mediating effects through a customer uncertainty variable and moderating effects through mobility and social networking site word of mouth (SNS WOM) variables. The number of studies on customer trends has rapidly increased together with the market size of S-commerce. However, few studies have examined the negative variables that make customers hesitant to make decisions in S-commerce. This study investigates the causes of customer uncertainty and focuses on deducing the control variables that offset this negative relationship. The study finds that in customers' S-commerce purchasing actions, the SNS WOM and mobility variables show control effects between information asymmetry and uncertainty and between trust and uncertainty. Additionally, this research defines the variables related to customer uncertainty that are hidden in S-commerce, and statistically verifies their relationship. The research results can be used in Internet marketing practices to establish marketing mix strategies for customer demand or as research data to predict customer behavior. The results are scientifically meaningful as a precedent for research on customers in S-commerce.

  20. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  1. Enterprise Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Trier, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise Social Networks (ESNs), d. h. Informationssysteme, die die Vernetzung von Mitarbeitern in Unternehmen fördern sollen, sind in verschiedenen Varianten und unter verschiedenen Bezeichnungen (etwa Enterprise Social Media, Corporate Social Software, Social Business oder Enterprise 2...

  2. Tracking Effects of Problematic Social Networking on Adolescent Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Sleep Disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.

  3. Legal Effects of Link Sharing in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Gil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing among individuals has changed deeply with the advent of social networks in the environment of Web 2.0. Every user has the possibility of publishing what he or she deems of interest for their audience, regardless of the origin or authorship of the piece of knowledge. It is generally accepted that as the user is sharing a link to a document or video, for example, without getting paid for it, there is no point in worrying about the rights of the original author. It seems that the concepts of authorship and originality is about to disappear as promised the structuralists fifty years ago. Nevertheless the legal system has not changed, nor have the economic interests concerned. This paper explores the last developments of the legal system concerning these issues.

  4. The Social Network Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunus, Peter

    Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

  5. Offline Social Relationships and Online Cancer Communication: Effects of Social and Family Support on Online Social Network Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Kang; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates how social support and family relationship perceptions influence breast cancer patients' online communication networks in a computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group. To examine social interactions in the CMSS group, we identified two types of online social networks: open and targeted communication networks. The open communication network reflects group communication behaviors (i.e., one-to-many or "broadcast" communication) in which the intended audience is not specified; in contrast, the targeted communication network reflects interpersonal discourses (i.e., one-to-one or directed communication) in which the audience for the message is specified. The communication networks were constructed by tracking CMSS group usage data of 237 breast cancer patients who participated in one of two National Cancer Institute-funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of a diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence at the time of recruitment. Findings reveal that breast cancer patients who perceived less availability of offline social support had a larger social network size in the open communication network. In contrast, those who perceived less family cohesion had a larger targeted communication network in the CMSS group, meaning they were inclined to use the CMSS group for developing interpersonal relationships.

  6. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  7. Social comparison 2.0: examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Nina; Krämer, Nicole C

    2011-05-01

    Through their features--such as profile photographs or the personal vita--online profiles on social-networking sites offer a perfect basis for social comparison processes. By looking at the profile photograph, the user gains an impression of a person's physical attractiveness, and the user's vita shows which career path the person is pursuing. Against the background of Festinger's Social Comparison Theory, the focus of this research is on the effects of online profiles on their recipients. Therefore, qualitative interviews (N = 12) and two online experiments were conducted in which virtual online profiles of either physically attractive or unattractive persons (N = 93) and profiles of users with either high or low occupational attainment (N = 103) were presented to the participants. Although qualitative interviews did not initially give reason to expect online profiles to constitute a basis for comparison processes, results of the experiments proved otherwise. The first study indicates that recipients have a more negative body image after looking at beautiful users than persons who were shown the less attractive profile pictures. Male participants of the second study, who were confronted with profiles of successful males, showed a higher perceived discrepancy between their current career status and an ideal vita than male participants who looked at profiles of less successful persons.

  8. Conformity-based cooperation in online social networks: The effect of heterogeneous social influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the conformity model by introducing heterogeneous social influence into the analysis. We associate the influence of a player in the network with its degree centrality assuming that players of higher degree exhibit more social influence on its neighbors. The results show that the equilibrium level of cooperators can be dramatically enhanced if the conformity-driven players are preferentially influenced by neighbors of higher degree. We attribute this finding to two elementary mechanisms in the evolutionary process: (1) degree-based social influence facilitates the formation of strategic clusters around hubs; and (2) payoff-heterogeneity between cooperative clusters and defective clusters contributes to the promotion of cooperation. This research reveals the important role of heterogeneous social influence on the emergence of cooperation in social networks.

  9. Effects of social networks on physical health among people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Rothbard, Aileen

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of social network characteristics on physical health among people with serious mental illness using social transactions that are reciprocal, and the combination of objective and subjective health measures. The sample consisted of a probability sample of 231 adults with serious mental illness who resided in permanent supportive housing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Path analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between social network characteristics and two aspects of medical comorbidity, objective health and subjective health. Bivariate statistics showed that individuals with medical comorbidity were more likely to have contact with their network members and had a higher level of reciprocal positive tangible support when compared to those who did not have medical comorbidity. The results of the path analyses revealed that none of the social network characteristics were associated with better physical health. The lack of a significant relationship between social networks and better physical health is contrary to prior research findings. However, this is the first study to include both types of social transactions simultaneously as predictors of better physical health for individuals with serious mental illness. A longitudinal study would provide more insight into the temporal relationship of social networks and physical health conditions of people with serious mental illness. Furthermore, the transactional nature of social relationships, particularly for those with mental health issues, requires greater exploration.

  10. The effects of familiarity and similarity on compliance in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Nass, C.; Markopoulos, P.

    2014-01-01

    Advertisers on social network sites often use recommendations by others in a user's networks to endorse products. While these familiar others are hypothesised to be more effective in influencing users than unfamiliar others, there is a catch: familiarity does not necessarily ensure similarity to the

  11. Peer Influence on Academic Performance: A Social Network Analysis of Social-Emotional Intervention Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D; Miller, Cindy F; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Kochel, Karen P; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance. The results of longitudinal SNA suggested that the RBI was associated with friend selection and peer influence within the classroom peer network. Friendship choices were significantly more diverse (i.e., less evidence of social segregation as a function of ethnicity and academic ability) in intervention compared to control classrooms, and peer influence on improved writing and math performance was observed in RBI but not control classrooms. The current findings provide initial evidence that SEL interventions may change social processes in a classroom peer network and may break down barriers of social segregation and improve academic performance.

  12. Professional social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options.

  13. The Effects of Social Networking Sites on Students' Studying and Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Social media is important to communicate with people, share/ask information, and follow/evaluate/interpret the events, etc. for everyone at the present time. The positive and negative effects of social networking sites on students' studying and habits were examined in this research. The study was conducted on 220 students in vocational school of…

  14. Effects of social network on production output of maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social is as a veritable factor for getting access to resources. Thus, the effect of social network on productivity of maize farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria was investigated. Primary data were collected from one hundred and fifty maize farmers using a multistage random sampling procedure. Data were analysed using ...

  15. Next Generation Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    different online networks for communities of people who share interests or individuals who presents themselves through user produced content is what makes up the social networking of today. The purpose of this paper is to discuss perceived user requirements to the next generation social networks. The paper...

  16. Effect of the social influence on topological properties of user-object bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hu, Zhaolong; Guo, Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Social influence plays an important role in analyzing online users' collective behaviors [Salganik et al., Science 311, 854 (2006)]. However, the effect of the social influence from the viewpoint of theoretical model is missing. In this paper, by taking into account the social influence and users' preferences, we develop a theoretical model to analyze the topological properties of user-object bipartite networks, including the degree distribution, average nearest neighbor degree and the bipartite clustering coefficient, as well as topological properties of the original user-object networks and their unipartite projections. According to the users' preferences and the global ranking effect, we analyze the theoretical results for two benchmark data sets, Amazon and Bookcrossing, which are approximately consistent with the empirical results. This work suggests that this model is feasible to analyze topological properties of bipartite networks in terms of the social influence and the users' preferences.

  17. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being.

  18. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  19. Upstream and downstream correlates of older people's engagement in social networks: what are their effects on health over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Noone, Jack; Alpass, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effects of social network engagement and social support on the health of older people moving into retirement, using a model which includes social context variables. A prospective survey of a New Zealand population sample aged 54-70 at baseline (N = 2,282) was used to assess the effects on mental and physical health across time. A structural equation model assessed pathways from the social context variables through network engagement to social support and then to mental and physical health 2 years later. The proposed model of effects on mental health was supported when gender, economic living standards, and ethnicity were included along with the direct effects of these variables on social support. These findings confirm the importance of taking social context variables into account when considering social support networks. Social engagement appears to be an important aspect of social network functioning which could be investigated further.

  20. WebScore: An Effective Page Scoring Approach for Uncertain Web Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Qiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively score pages with uncertainty in web social networks, we first proposed a new concept called transition probability matrix and formally defined the uncertainty in web social networks. Second, we proposed a hybrid page scoring algorithm, called WebScore, based on the PageRank algorithm and three centrality measures including degree, betweenness, and closeness. Particularly,WebScore takes into a full consideration of the uncertainty of web social networks by computing the transition probability from one page to another. The basic idea ofWebScore is to: (1 integrate uncertainty into PageRank in order to accurately rank pages, and (2 apply the centrality measures to calculate the importance of pages in web social networks. In order to verify the performance of WebScore, we developed a web social network analysis system which can partition web pages into distinct groups and score them in an effective fashion. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on real data and the results show that WebScore is effective at scoring uncertain pages with less time deficiency than PageRank and centrality measures based page scoring algorithms.

  1. Effects of Social Support Network Size on Mortality Risk: Considerations by Diabetes Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Ford, M Allison

    2018-05-01

    Previous work demonstrates that social support is inversely associated with mortality risk. Less research, however, has examined the effects of the size of the social support network on mortality risk among those with and without diabetes, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed through 2011. This study included 1,412 older adults (≥60 years of age) with diabetes and 5,872 older adults without diabetes. The size of the social support network was assessed via self-report and reported as the number of participants' close friends. Among those without diabetes, various levels of social support network size were inversely associated with mortality risk. However, among those with diabetes, only those with a high social support network size (i.e., at least six close friends) had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. That is, compared to those with zero close friends, those with diabetes who had six or more close friends had a 49% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.94). To mitigate mortality risk, a greater social support network size may be needed for those with diabetes.

  2. Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Bravo, Miguel-Ángel; Puga-González, Dolores; Martín-Baranera, Monserrat

    2012-01-01

    The loss of autonomy at advanced ages is not only associated with ageing, but also with the characteristics of the physical and social environment. Recent investigations have shown that social networks, social engagement and participation act like predictors of disability among the elderly. The aim of this study is to determine whether social networks are related to the development and progression of disability in the early years of old age. The source of data is the first wave of the survey "Processes of Vulnerability among Spanish Elderly", carried out in 2005 to a sample of 1244 individuals. The population object of study is the cohort aged 70-74 years in metropolitan areas (Madrid and Barcelona) and not institutionalized. Disability is measured by the development of basic activities of daily life (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily life (IADL). The structural aspects of the social relationships are measured through the diversity of social networks and participation. We used the social network index (SNI). For each point over the SNI, the risk of developing any type of disability decreased by 49% (HR=0.51, 95%CI=0.31-0.82). The SNI was a decisive factor in all forecasting models constructed with some hazard ratios (HR) that ranged from 0.29 (95%CI=0.14-0.59) in the first model to 0.43 (95%CI 0.20-0.90) in the full model. The results of the present study showed a strong association between an active social life, emotional support provided by friends and confidents and disability. These findings suggest a protective effect of social networks on disability. Also, these results indicate that some family and emotional ties have a significant effect on both the prevalence and the incidence of disability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of social networks on innovation diffusion and marketing dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, Sebastiano Alessio

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to incorporate part of the flourishing literature on network structures in a marketing context. Most of the results we have obtained and presented generate several implications. First of all we hope that the reader, after going through these chapters is convinced that

  4. Short-term effects of social encouragement on exercise behavior: insights from China's Wanbu network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuan; Guo, Xitong; Wu, Tianshi; Lv, Lucheng; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to explore the short-term effects of social encouragement on exercise behavior in China. A longitudinal observational study. We collected longitudinal data on exercise and social interactions through public access to the Wanbu network, a large Chinese social network designed to encourage people to walk more. Our data set consisted of 5010 subjects who participated in the network between March 14, 2014, and September 4, 2015, and had at least one social interaction recorded. The data were analyzed using linear regression models relating the number of steps (NS) walked per day to the number of comments (NC), number of thumbs-up (NT), and number of posts (NP) received on the previous day, while adjusting for day of week, quarter of year, and a fixed or random subject effect, with or without a lag term (NS on the previous day) to account for serial correlation. We found that all three social interactions have positive effects on the next day's exercise level. The estimated effect sizes can be ordered as NT > NC > NP for each of the four models considered. The results also indicate that the participants walked less in the first quarter than in the other three quarters and more on weekdays than on weekends, with Monday being the most active day of a week. Social encouragement has positive short-term effects on exercise behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various...

  6. Independent and Interactive Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Network Characteristics on Problem Drinking after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Kaskutas, Lee A; Polcin, Doug L; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    Socioecological approaches to public health problems like addiction emphasize the importance of person-environment interactions. Neighborhood and social network characteristics may influence the likelihood of relapse among individuals in recovery, but these factors have been understudied, particularly with respect to conceptualizing social network characteristics as moderators of neighborhood disadvantage. Drawing from a larger prospective study of individuals recruited from outpatient treatment (N=451) and interviewed 1, 3, 5, and 7 years later, the aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of neighborhood and social network characteristics on continued problem drinking after treatment. Models using generalized estimating equations controlling for demographic and other risk factors found the number of heavy drinkers in one's network increases risk of relapse, with the effects being significantly stronger among those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods than among those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. No independent effects were found for neighborhood disadvantage or for the number of network members supporting reduced drinking. Future research is needed to examine potential protective factors in neighborhoods which may offset socioeconomic disadvantage as well as to investigate the functions that network members serve in helping to improve long-term treatment outcomes.

  7. Social Networks and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe.

  8. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling the effect of social networks on adoption of multifunctional agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Steven M; Jordan, Nicholas R; Nelson, Kristen C; Brummel, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Rotational grazing (RG) has attracted much attention as a cornerstone of multifunctional agriculture (MFA) in animal systems, potentially capable of producing a range of goods and services of value to diverse stakeholders in agricultural landscapes and rural communities, as well as broader societal benefits. Despite these benefits, global adoption of MFA has been uneven, with some places seeing active participation, while others have seen limited growth. Recent conceptual models of MFA emphasize the potential for bottom-up processes and linkages among social and environmental systems to promote multifunctionality. Social networks are critical to these explanations but how and why these networks matter is unclear. We investigated fifty-three farms in three states in the United States (New York, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania) and developed a stylized model of social networks and systemic change in the dairy farming system. We found that social networks are important to RG adoption but their impact is contingent on social and spatial factors. Effects of networks on farmer decision making differ according to whether they comprise weak-tie relationships, which bridge across disparate people and organizations, or strong-tie relationships, which are shared by groups in which members are well known to one another. RG adoption is also dependent on features of the social landscape including the number of dairy households, the probability of neighboring farmers sharing strong ties, and the role of space in how networks are formed. The model replicates features of real-world adoption of RG practices in the Eastern US and illustrates pathways toward greater multifunctionality in the dairy landscape. Such models are likely to be of heuristic value in network-focused strategies for agricultural development.

  10. The Simultaneous Effects of Spatial and Social Networks on Cholera Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Giebultowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses social network and spatial analytical methods simultaneously to understand cholera transmission in rural Bangladesh. Both have been used separately to incorporate context into health studies, but using them together is a new and recent approach. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database consisting of approximately 200,000 people and a database of all laboratory-confirmed cholera cases from 1983 to 2003. A complete kinship-based network linking households is created, and distance matrices are also constructed to model spatial relationships. A spatial error-social effects model tested for cholera clustering in socially linked households while accounting for spatial factors. Results show that there was social clustering in five out of twenty-one years while accounting for both known and unknown environmental variables. This suggests that environmental cholera transmission is significant and social networks also influence transmission, but not as consistently. Simultaneous spatial and social network analysis may improve understanding of disease transmission.

  11. The Effects of Procedural Knowledge Transparency on Adoption in Corporate Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjoern J. M.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated how a certain type of organizational knowledge sharing, procedural knowledge transparency, affected innovation adoption rates of members of a corporate social network within a large Scandinavian organization, in its two years of activity. It also explored the mediation of these effects by different types of…

  12. Critical Social Network Analysis in Community Colleges: Peer Effects and Credit Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Canché, Manuel S.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the importance of conducting critical social network analysis (CSNA) in higher education. To illustrate the benefits of CSNA, the authors use existing institutional data to examine peer effects in community colleges. The chapter ends with a discussion of the implications of using a CSNA approach to measure inequities in…

  13. "click like if you like it" : The effect of directional posts on social network sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Manuela; Sicilia, Maria; Verlegh, Peeter W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - Social network sites (SNSs) are an important part of consumers' everyday lives, and have been recognized as a useful marketing channel. However, little is known about how brands should communicate in order to be more effective and maximize the diffusion of electronic word of mouth (eWOM)

  14. Social Networking and Pedagogical Variations: An Integrated Approach for Effective Interpersonal and Group Communications Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Ephraim

    2012-01-01

    Electronic communication and social networking are effective and useful tools in the process of teaching and learning and have increasingly improved the quality of students' learning outcomes in higher education in recent years. The system encourages and supports students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities and…

  15. On the development of online cities and neighborhoods: an exploration of cumulative and segmentive network effects in social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, I.; Huizinga, A; Bouman, W.; Tuunainen, V.K.; Rossi, M.; Nandhakumar, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a research in progress set to study network effects in social media. The focus is on outlining the theoretical framework in which this study is embedded. The concepts of cumulative network effects and segmentive network effects are introduced to explain the processes by which

  16. Computational Social Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanien, Aboul-Ella

    2010-01-01

    Presents insight into the social behaviour of animals (including the study of animal tracks and learning by members of the same species). This book provides web-based evidence of social interaction, perceptual learning, information granulation and the behaviour of humans and affinities between web-based social networks

  17. Social traits, social networks and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D N; McAdam, A G

    2017-12-01

    effects) provides the potential to understand how entire networks of social interactions in populations influence phenotypes and predict how these traits may evolve. By theoretical integration of social network analysis and quantitative genetics, we hope to identify areas of compatibility and incompatibility and to direct research efforts towards the most promising areas. Continuing this synthesis could provide important insights into the evolution of traits expressed in a social context and the evolutionary consequences of complex and nuanced social phenotypes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. The interaction of social networks and child obesity prevention program effects: the pathways trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Sung; Valente, Thomas W; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Huh, Jimi; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih-Ping; Ann Pentz, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Social network analysis was used to examine whether peer influence from one's social networks moderates obesity prevention program effects on obesity-related behaviors: healthful and unhealthful. Participants included 557 children residing in Southern California. The survey assessed health-promoting behaviors (i.e., physical activity at school, physical activity outside of school, and fruit and vegetable intake), as well as unhealthful behaviors (high-calorie, low-nutrient intake and sedentary activity), and peer exposure calculated from social network nominations as indicators of peer influence. Multilevel models were conducted separately on outcomes predicted by program participation, peer exposure, and program participation by peer exposure. Results indicated that peer exposure was positively associated with one's own healthful and unhealthful behaviors. Program participation effects were moderated by peer influence, but only when unhealthful peer influence was present. Results suggest that peer influence can diminish or amplify prevention programs Future interventions should consider peer-led components to promote healthful influence of peers on healthful and unhealthful behaviors, and programs should be mindful that their effects are moderated by social networks. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Networks in social policy problems

    CERN Document Server

    Scotti, marco

    2012-01-01

    Network science is the key to managing social communities, designing the structure of efficient organizations and planning for sustainable development. This book applies network science to contemporary social policy problems. In the first part, tools of diffusion and team design are deployed to challenges in adoption of ideas and the management of creativity. Ideas, unlike information, are generated and adopted in networks of personal ties. Chapters in the second part tackle problems of power and malfeasance in political and business organizations, where mechanisms in accessing and controlling informal networks often outweigh formal processes. The third part uses ideas from biology and physics to understand global economic and financial crises, ecological depletion and challenges to energy security. Ideal for researchers and policy makers involved in social network analysis, business strategy and economic policy, it deals with issues ranging from what makes public advisories effective to how networks influenc...

  20. Simulating the effects of social networks on a population's hurricane evacuation participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Michael J.; Horner, Mark W.; Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-04-01

    Scientists have noted that recent shifts in the earth's climate have resulted in more extreme weather events, like stronger hurricanes. Such powerful storms disrupt societal function and result in a tremendous number of casualties, as demonstrated by recent hurricane experience in the US Planning for and facilitating evacuations of populations forecast to be impacted by hurricanes is perhaps the most effective strategy for reducing risk. A potentially important yet relatively unexplored facet of people's evacuation decision-making involves the interpersonal communication processes that affect whether at-risk residents decide to evacuate. While previous research has suggested that word-of-mouth effects are limited, data supporting these assertions were collected prior to the widespread adoption of digital social media technologies. This paper argues that the influence of social network effects on evacuation decisions should be revisited given the potential of new social media for impacting and augmenting information dispersion through real-time interpersonal communication. Using geographic data within an agent-based model of hurricane evacuation in Bay County, Florida, we examine how various types of social networks influence participation in evacuation. It is found that strategies for encouraging evacuation should consider the social networks influencing individuals during extreme events, as it can be used to increase the number of evacuating residents.

  1. Instrumental variables estimates of peer effects in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Weihua

    2015-03-01

    Estimating peer effects with observational data is very difficult because of contextual confounding, peer selection, simultaneity bias, and measurement error, etc. In this paper, I show that instrumental variables (IVs) can help to address these problems in order to provide causal estimates of peer effects. Based on data collected from over 4000 students in six middle schools in China, I use the IV methods to estimate peer effects on smoking. My design-based IV approach differs from previous ones in that it helps to construct potentially strong IVs and to directly test possible violation of exogeneity of the IVs. I show that measurement error in smoking can lead to both under- and imprecise estimations of peer effects. Based on a refined measure of smoking, I find consistent evidence for peer effects on smoking. If a student's best friend smoked within the past 30 days, the student was about one fifth (as indicated by the OLS estimate) or 40 percentage points (as indicated by the IV estimate) more likely to smoke in the same time period. The findings are robust to a variety of robustness checks. I also show that sharing cigarettes may be a mechanism for peer effects on smoking. A 10% increase in the number of cigarettes smoked by a student's best friend is associated with about 4% increase in the number of cigarettes smoked by the student in the same time period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective Social Relationship Measurement and Cluster Based Routing in Mobile Opportunistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Zhao, Nan; Li, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    In mobile opportunistic networks, the social relationship among nodes has an important impact on data transmission efficiency. Motivated by the strong share ability of “circles of friends” in communication networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Wechat and so on, we take a real-life example to show that social relationships among nodes consist of explicit and implicit parts. The explicit part comes from direct contact among nodes, and the implicit part can be measured through the “circles of friends”. We present the definitions of explicit and implicit social relationships between two nodes, adaptive weights of explicit and implicit parts are given according to the contact feature of nodes, and the distributed mechanism is designed to construct the “circles of friends” of nodes, which is used for the calculation of the implicit part of social relationship between nodes. Based on effective measurement of social relationships, we propose a social-based clustering and routing scheme, in which each node selects the nodes with close social relationships to form a local cluster, and the self-control method is used to keep all cluster members always having close relationships with each other. A cluster-based message forwarding mechanism is designed for opportunistic routing, in which each node only forwards the copy of the message to nodes with the destination node as a member of the local cluster. Simulation results show that the proposed social-based clustering and routing outperforms the other classic routing algorithms. PMID:28498309

  3. Effective Social Relationship Measurement and Cluster Based Routing in Mobile Opportunistic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Zhao, Nan; Li, Wenjia

    2017-05-12

    In mobile opportunistic networks, the social relationship among nodes has an important impact on data transmission efficiency. Motivated by the strong share ability of "circles of friends" in communication networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Wechat and so on, we take a real-life example to show that social relationships among nodes consist of explicit and implicit parts. The explicit part comes from direct contact among nodes, and the implicit part can be measured through the "circles of friends". We present the definitions of explicit and implicit social relationships between two nodes, adaptive weights of explicit and implicit parts are given according to the contact feature of nodes, and the distributed mechanism is designed to construct the "circles of friends" of nodes, which is used for the calculation of the implicit part of social relationship between nodes. Based on effective measurement of social relationships, we propose a social-based clustering and routing scheme, in which each node selects the nodes with close social relationships to form a local cluster, and the self-control method is used to keep all cluster members always having close relationships with each other. A cluster-based message forwarding mechanism is designed for opportunistic routing, in which each node only forwards the copy of the message to nodes with the destination node as a member of the local cluster. Simulation results show that the proposed social-based clustering and routing outperforms the other classic routing algorithms.

  4. PERSON IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Борисович Шалимов

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our scientific purpose is creation of practical model of person’s representation in social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Classmates. As user of social networks, person is made conditional not only upon its own identity, but also upon the information about himself, which he is ready to share with his friends in contact list. Goal-setting and practical activities for their achievement mean that you should apply force, it can completely eliminates systemic factors, the system of power relations, which overwhelms human being in social networks.Methodology: The reconstruction of the model of human in the popularity of social networksResults: There is descripton of practical model of person's representation in social networks, it includes the management of own identity and the audience (the list of contacts. When person manages own identity, he answers the question, «Whom I can dare to be?». Person perceives himself in social networks' being, he understands himself and his place in the world, he identifies.Managing the way in social media means that you answer the question «What I want to tell?». Person in social media looks at events in the field of culture, economy, politics, social relations through the prism of his own attitudes, he forms and formulates his own agenda and he is going to tell about himself through them.Practical implications: Everyday people’s life, practical activities, including marketing in social networks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-51

  5. Are health behavior change interventions that use online social networks effective? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Carol A; Lewis, Lucy K; Ferrar, Katia; Marshall, Simon; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-02-14

    The dramatic growth of Web 2.0 technologies and online social networks offers immense potential for the delivery of health behavior change campaigns. However, it is currently unclear how online social networks may best be harnessed to achieve health behavior change. The intent of the study was to systematically review the current level of evidence regarding the effectiveness of online social network health behavior interventions. Eight databases (Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science and Communication & Mass Media Complete) were searched from 2000 to present using a comprehensive search strategy. Study eligibility criteria were based on the PICOS format, where "population" included child or adult populations, including healthy and disease populations; "intervention" involved behavior change interventions targeting key modifiable health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) delivered either wholly or in part using online social networks; "comparator" was either a control group or within subject in the case of pre-post study designs; "outcomes" included health behavior change and closely related variables (such as theorized mediators of health behavior change, eg, self-efficacy); and "study design" included experimental studies reported in full-length peer-reviewed sources. Reports of intervention effectiveness were summarized and effect sizes (Cohen's d and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated wherever possible. Attrition (percentage of people who completed the study), engagement (actual usage), and fidelity (actual usage/intended usage) with the social networking component of the interventions were scrutinized. A total of 2040 studies were identified from the database searches following removal of duplicates, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 113,988 participants (ranging from n=10 to n=107,907). Interventions included

  6. The Possibilities of Network Sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Michele

    Technologically networked social forms are broad, extensive and in demand. The rapid development and growth of web 2.0, or the social web, is evidence of the need and indeed hunger for social connectivity: people are searching for many and varied ways of enacting being-together. However, the ways in which we think of, research and write about network(ed) sociality are relatively recent and arguably restricted, warranting further critique and development. This article attempts to do several things: it raises questions about the types of sociality enacted in contemporary techno-society; critically explores the notion of the networked individual and the focus on the individual evident in much of the technology and sociality literature and asks questions about the place of the social in these discussions. It argues for a more well-balanced and multilevelled approach to questions of sociality in networked societies. The article starts from the position that possibilities enabled/afforded by the technologies we have in place have an effect upon the ways in which we understand being in the world together and our possible actions and futures. These possibilities are more than simply supplementary; in many ways they are transformative. The ways in which we grapple with these questions reveals as much about our understandings of sociality as it does about the technologies themselves.

  7. Social Networks and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Videras

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses empirical research on social networks and the environment; it summarizes findings from representative studies and the conceptual frameworks social scientists use to examine the role of social networks. The article presents basic concepts in social network analysis, summarizes common challenges of empirical research on social networks, and outlines areas for future research. Finally, the article discusses the normative and positive meanings of social networks.

  8. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Vandeleest

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also

  9. Representing Degree Distributions, Clustering, and Homophily in Social Networks With Latent Cluster Random Effects Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivitsky, Pavel N; Handcock, Mark S; Raftery, Adrian E; Hoff, Peter D

    2009-07-01

    Social network data often involve transitivity, homophily on observed attributes, clustering, and heterogeneity of actor degrees. We propose a latent cluster random effects model to represent all of these features, and we describe a Bayesian estimation method for it. The model is applicable to both binary and non-binary network data. We illustrate the model using two real datasets. We also apply it to two simulated network datasets with the same, highly skewed, degree distribution, but very different network behavior: one unstructured and the other with transitivity and clustering. Models based on degree distributions, such as scale-free, preferential attachment and power-law models, cannot distinguish between these very different situations, but our model does.

  10. [Social networks and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastardot, F; Vollenweider, P; Marques-Vidal, P

    2015-11-04

    Social networks (social media or #SoMe) have entered medical practice within the last few years. These new media--like Twitter or Skype--enrich interactions among physicians (telemedicine), among physicians and patients (virtual consultations) and change the way of teaching medicine. They also entail new ethical, deontological and legal issues: the extension of the consultation area beyond the medical office and the access of information by third parties were recently debated. We develop here a review of some social networks with their characteristics, applications for medicine and limitations, and we offer some recommendations of good practice.

  11. Effects of Social Support About Physical Activity on Social Networking Sites: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Yang, Jingzhen; Janz, Kathleen F; Snetselaar, Linda G; Eckler, Petya

    2015-01-01

    Despite the physical and mental health benefits of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), only about half of college students participate in the recommended amount of LTPA. While college students are avid users of social network sites (SNSs), whether SNSs would be an effective channel for promoting LTPA through peer social support is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support from students' contacts on SNSs on their intention to participate in LTPA, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants were recruited through a mass e-mail sent to undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university in fall 2011. In total, 439 surveys were analyzed. Descriptive analyses and analysis for mediating effects were conducted. Social support about LTPA from contacts on SNSs has indirect effect on intention through affective attitude, instrumental attitude, and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The results indicate that social support about LTPA from contacts on SNSs might not be effective to change students' intention unless attitudes and PBC are changed. Future interventions aiming to promote students' intention to participate in LTPA by increasing support from contacts on SNSs should increase affective attitude, instrumental attitude, and PBC at the same time.

  12. Online social support networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish

    2015-04-01

    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.

  13. Goal specific social capital and job satisfaction Effects of different types of networks on instrumental and social aspects of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flap, Henk; Völker, Beate

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the question “To what extent can job satisfaction be explained as the revenue of social capital?” By conceiving someone’s social network as social capital we specify conditions under which social ties do lead to job satisfaction. We inquire into the idea of goal specificity of

  14. Social exchange: Relations and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network research. The paper provides an accessible entry into the literature on social exchange.

  15. Privacy in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Λεονάρδος, Γεώργιος; Leonardos, Giorgos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the aspects of privacy over the use of social networks web sites. More specific, we will show the types of social networks, their privacy mechanisms that are different in each social network site, their privacy options that are offered to users. We will report some serious privacy violations incidents of the most popular social networks sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn. Also, we will report some important surveys about social networks and pr...

  16. Measurement of repeat effects in Chicago’s criminal social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kump

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The “near-repeat” effect is a well-known criminological phenomenon in which the occurrence of a crime incident gives rise to a temporary elevation of crime risk within close physical proximity to an initial incident. Adopting a social network perspective, we instead define a near repeat in terms of geodesic distance within a criminal social network, rather than spatial distance. Specifically, we report a statistical analysis of repeat effects in arrest data for Chicago during the years 2003–2012. We divide the arrest data into two sets (violent crimes and other crimes and, for each set, we compare the distributions of time intervals between repeat incidents to theoretical distributions in which repeat incidents occur only by chance. We first consider the case of the same arrestee participating in repeat incidents (“exact repeats” and then extend the analysis to evaluate repeat risks of those arrestees near one another in the social network. We observe repeat effects that diminish as a function of geodesic distance and time interval, and we estimate typical time scales for repeat crimes in Chicago.

  17. Social networks and employment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar K. Nandi

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the influence of social networks on employment. Using data from India, we estimate the effect of caste based social networks on employment. We use a methodology that allows us to control for several omitted variable biases that often confound network effect. Our results indicate that caste based social networks are important determinant of employment in India. The implication of our findings is that a policy of positive discrimination in labour market for disadvantaged caste is...

  18. Philosophy of social networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova T. V.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to the study of social networks impact on an individual, which are an important part of a modern society. Through reflections the reasons of the popularity of the phenomenon of virtual communication in the 21st century are determined: what drives a person when he / she registers on the sites for communication, premises for his / her actions and consequences. The latter is viewed from both a social and a personal point of view. After analyzing the charts of social networks popularity, the authors come to the conclusion that there is an increase in the population of the virtual communication supporters. It allows to assert that the problem of the termination of live communication is relevant to this day. Dualism of social networks influence on the consciousness of an individual is stated: together with negative consequences positive aspects are considered. By analyzing social media researches, as well as by the means of a survey, the dominant reason for the world wide web entering is identified. After that, it is clearly shown what a typical site for communication is; as a result, the pros and cons of such time spending are specified. The conclusion states the predominance of the Internet dependence over the other types of dependencies, also forecasts are made for the future of both social networks and the people caught in their web.

  19. The Effect of Mobile Social Networking as a Supplementary Strategy on EFL Learners’ Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Talakoub

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of mobile learning and social networking sites has encouraged second language instructors to integrate these technologies into learners’ curriculum. In this study, the learners were supposed to practice in an online jigsaw writing as an extra-curricular activity. They used their imagination and creativity to depict their thoughts using their previous knowledge. The current research had both a qualitative and quantitative phases. From the quantitative perspective, the effectiveness of mobile social networking on EFL learners’ writing ability was examined statistically. In doing so, 60 EFL learners were divided into the experimental and control groups. The learners of the experimental group were also assigned into three virtual groups in which they could help each other to write a piece of writing on pre-determined topics during twelve sessions. Running the t-test indicated that the students in the experimental group could significantly outperform their counterparts in the post-test. Therefore, it could be claimed that mobile social networking as a supplementary strategy had positive effects on EFL learners’ writing ability. In the qualitative phase of the study, a semi-structured interview was conducted in order to explore learners’ attitudes and beliefs about the experiment they had. The responses to the semi-structured interview also revealed that the learners had positive attitudes towards this online supplementary technology-supported writing. The pedagogical implications of the study were discussed and further suggestions were put forward.

  20. Goal specific social capital and job satisfaction Effects of different types of networks on instrumental and social aspects of work

    OpenAIRE

    Flap, Henk; Völker, Beate

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the question “To what extent can job satisfaction be explained as the revenue of social capital?” By conceiving someone’s social network as social capital we specify conditions under which social ties do lead to job satisfaction. We inquire into the idea of goal specificity of social capital, which implies that a network with a given structure and content will have different impacts on various aspects of job satisfaction. If the content of the ties and the structure of th...

  1. An Effective Recommender Algorithm for Cold-Start Problem in Academic Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vala Ali Rohani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of information in recent years has become a serious challenge for web users. Recommender systems (RSs have been often utilized to alleviate this issue. RSs prune large information spaces to recommend the most relevant items to users by considering their preferences. Nonetheless, in situations where users or items have few opinions, the recommendations cannot be made properly. This notable shortcoming in practical RSs is called cold-start problem. In the present study, we propose a novel approach to address this problem by incorporating social networking features. Coined as enhanced content-based algorithm using social networking (ECSN, the proposed algorithm considers the submitted ratings of faculty mates and friends besides user’s own preferences. The effectiveness of ECSN algorithm was evaluated by implementing it in MyExpert, a newly designed academic social network (ASN for academics in Malaysia. Real feedbacks from live interactions of MyExpert users with the recommended items are recorded for 12 consecutive weeks in which four different algorithms, namely, random, collaborative, content-based, and ECSN were applied every three weeks. The empirical results show significant performance of ECSN in mitigating the cold-start problem besides improving the prediction accuracy of recommendations when compared with other studied recommender algorithms.

  2. Social exchange : Relations and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network

  3. Communication in Animal Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Lysanne; Naguib, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Animal social networks and animal communication networks are key disciplines for understanding animal social behavior, yet these disciplines remain poorly integrated. In this review, we show how communication and social networks are inherently linked, with social signals reflecting and affecting

  4. The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes. PMID:28323851

  5. Social network and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Daniele; La Paglia, Filippo; Valsavoia, Rosaria

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, the rapid development of innovative Internet-based communication technologies created a new field of academic study among scholars. Particularly, the attention of researchers is focusing on new ways to form relationship-thought social web. Social Network sites constitute a new form of web communities, where people meet and share interests and activities. Due to exponential growth of these sites, an increasing number of scholars are beginning to study the emergent phenomena in order to identify any psychopathological risk related to use of social web, such as addiction. This article examines the recent literature about this issue.

  6. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use a detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ a fixed effects estimation to identify the effect of iddir membership on factor...... market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive credit...

  7. Social networks and bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Liccardi, Gennaro; D'Amato, Maria; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    To focus on both positive and negative aspects of the interaction between asthmatic patients and the social networks, and to highlight the need of a psychological approach in some individuals to integrate pharmacological treatment is the purpose of review. There is evidence that in some asthmatic patients, the excessive use of social networks can induce depression and stress triggering bronchial obstruction, whereas in others their rational use can induce beneficial effects in terms of asthma management. The increasing asthma prevalence in developed countries seen at the end of last century has raised concern for the considerable burden of this disease on society as well as individuals. Bronchial asthma is a disease in which psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing the severity of bronchial obstruction. Internet and, in particular, social media are increasingly a part of daily life of both young and adult people, thus allowing virtual relationships with peers sharing similar interests and goals. Although social network users often disclose more about themselves online than they do in person, there might be a risk for adolescents and for sensitive individuals, who can be negatively influenced by an incorrect use. However, although some studies show an increased risk of depression, other observations suggest beneficial effects of social networks by enhancing communication, social connection and self-esteem.

  8. PSN: Portfolio Social Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Jordi Magrina; Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a web-based information system which is a portfolio social network (PSN) that provides solutions to the recruiters and job seekers. The proposed system enables users to create portfolio so that he/she can add his specializations with piece of code if any specifically...

  9. Foraging Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, G.; Huis in ’t Veld, M.A.A.; Hendricksen, J.; Vries, A. de; Broek, E.L. van den

    2014-01-01

    A concise and practical introduction is given on Online Social Networks (OSN) and their application in law enforcement, including a brief survey of related work. Subsequently, a tool is introduced that can be used to search OSN in order to generate user profiles. Both its architecture and processing

  10. Change Detection in Social Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloh, Ian; Webb, Matthew; Graham, John; Carley, Kathleen; Horn, Daniel B

    2008-01-01

    .... This project proposes a new method for detecting change in social networks over time, by applying a cumulative sum statistical process control statistic to normally distributed network measures...

  11. Online Social Network Interactions:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jung Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-cultural comparison of social networking structure on McDonald’s Facebook fan sites between Taiwan and the USA was conducted utilizing the individualism/collectivism dimension proposed by Hofstede. Four network indicators are used to describe the network structure of McDonald’s Facebook fan sites: size, density, clique and centralization. Individuals who post on both Facebook sites for the year of 2012 were considered as network participants for the purpose of the study. Due to the huge amount of data, only one thread of postings was sampled from each month of the year of 2012. The final data consists of 1002 postings written by 896 individuals and 5962 postings written by 5532 individuals from Taiwan and the USA respectively. The results indicated that the USA McDonald’s Facebook fan network has more fans, while Taiwan’s McDonald’s Facebook fan network is more densely connected. Cliques did form among the overall multiplex and within the individual uniplex networks in two countries, yet no significant differences were found between them. All the fan networks in both countries are relatively centralized, mostly on the site operators.

  12. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  13. BRAND COMMUNICATION ON SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia-Elena PLATON

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The communication represents a basic element for the marketing activity that helps companies to achieve their objectives. Building long-term relationships between brands and consumers is one of the most important objectives pursued by marketers. This involves brand communication and creating multiple connections with consumers, even in the online environment. From this point of view, social networks proved to be an effective way of linking brands and consumers online. This paper aims to present some aspects involved by the usage of social networks in brand communication by analyzing several examples of online marketing campaigns implemented on Facebook on the occasion of Valentine's Day by six different brands.

  14. EFFECTS OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE FIRST YEAR BSED STUDENTS OF NAVAL STATE UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Rotilles Vicera, Ed. D*

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of social networking sites on the academic performance of the students as related to the socio-demographic characteristics, social networking site usage and social network addiction. As to the socio-demographic characteristics, the respondents' age ranged from 15-17 years old or 70% of the total number of respondents. A big proportion of 70% were females. Most of the respondents were single with 98%. Their family income ranged from P5,000-9,999 with 4...

  15. The Effect of Social Networks on the Scientific Research Relations, Prospectiveness, Creativity and satisfaction of Scientific Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ebrahimpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high cultured efficiency of the social networks effective in purposeful directing the life of the users’ lifestyle by emergence and significant development of the social networks. Major changes have taken place in informatics process. The social networks can play role in the production and development of the science and the science as a managed educational program be used in the educational centers. This research investigates the effects of the social networks on the educational relationship among the students and universities. This cross sectional study was performed on 1000 students at 7 medical universities of Iran in 2015. The data collection tool was questionnaire comprised three sections with approved validity. The durability of the α-cronbach coefficient for second part of the questionnaire was 80% and of the third section on the questions with the Likert Criteria was 75%. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistic method of ANOVA, Tukey and X2 using SPSS-19. In this study 940 subjects were under study, of them 85% had the daily use of social networks. Telegram had the highest usage among the users, 52% preferred the image in exchange of view. We found that 85% believed that social networks have effective role on the social relationships. Also 69% of the study subjects believe that the effects of the networks in learning insignificant materials are high. Referring to the obtained data of the present study, it is proposed that the universities use the social networks officially and managed. Establish groups with definite context and help in improvement of the scientific relation level, to be effective in the prospectiveness, creation and consent of the individuals from their scientific situation, in direct procedure.

  16. Two Sides of the Same Coin? - The Effects of Hierarchy Inside and Outside Enterprise Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias; Richter, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    With more companies using Enterprise Social Networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of discussions in science and practice. Conversely, the question if formal hierarchies affect interaction inside ESN...... and outside (i.e., personal interaction or interaction via traditional media) in the same way has not yet been addressed. The aim of our research is to analyse those hierarchical effects. By contrasting a rich dataset comprising two years of communication and collaboration inside an ESN with data from...

  17. Effects of Social Network Exposure on Nutritional Learning: Development of an Online Educational Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Noa; Beskin, Daniel; Brezis, Mayer; Reis, Ben Y

    2015-10-05

    Social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook have the potential to enhance online public health interventions, in part, as they provide social exposure and reinforcement. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether social exposure provided by SNSs enhances the effects of online public health interventions. As a sample intervention, we developed Food Hero, an online platform for nutritional education in which players feed a virtual character according to their own nutritional needs and complete a set of virtual sport challenges. The platform was developed in 2 versions: a "private version" in which a user can see only his or her own score, and a "social version" in which a user can see other players' scores, including preexisting Facebook friends. We assessed changes in participants' nutritional knowledge using 4 quiz scores and 3 menu-assembly scores. Monitoring feeding and exercising attempts assessed engagement with the platform. The 2 versions of the platform were randomly assigned between a study group (30 members receiving the social version) and a control group (33 members, private version). The study group's performance on the quizzes gradually increased over time, relative to that of the control group, becoming significantly higher by the fourth quiz (P=.02). Furthermore, the study group's menu-assembly scores improved over time compared to the first score, whereas the control group's performance deteriorated. Study group members spent an average of 3:40 minutes assembling each menu compared to 2:50 minutes in the control group, and performed an average of 1.58 daily sport challenges, compared to 1.21 in the control group (P=.03). This work focused on isolating the SNSs' social effects in order to help guide future online interventions. Our results indicate that the social exposure provided by SNSs is associated with increased engagement and learning in an online nutritional educational platform.

  18. Understanding the Selection Bias : Social Network Processes and the Effect of Prejudice on the Avoidance of Outgroup Friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, Tobias H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/335996701

    2015-01-01

    Research has found that prejudiced people avoid friendships with members of ethnic outgroups. Results of this study suggest that this effect is mediated by a social network process. Longitudinal network analysis of a three-wave panel study of 12- to 13-year-olds (N = 453) found that more prejudiced

  19. Are Social Networking Sites Making Health Behavior Change Interventions More Effective? A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua

    2017-03-01

    The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

  20. Transition and Social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, N.

    2011-01-01

    School leavers with learning disabilities often face difficulties in making a smooth transition from school to college, employment or more broadly, to adult life. The transition phase is traumatic for the young person with learning disabilities and their families as it often results in the loss of friendships, relationships and social networks. The aim of this chapter is to explore the issues of transition from adolescence to adulthood for young people with learning disabilities and its effe...

  1. Modeling the effects of social impact on epidemic spreading in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shunjiang; Weng, Wenguo; Zhang, Hui

    2011-11-01

    We investigate by mean-field analysis and extensive simulations the effects of social impact on epidemic spreading in various typical networks with two types of nodes: active nodes and passive nodes, of which the behavior patterns are modeled according to the social impact theory. In this study, nodes are not only the media to spread the virus, but also disseminate their opinions on the virus-whether there is a need for certain self-protection measures to be taken to reduce the risk of being infected. Our results indicate that the interaction between epidemic spreading and opinion dynamics can have significant influences on the spreading of infectious diseases and related applications, such as the implementation of prevention and control measures against the infectious diseases.

  2. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou?Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii?Fen; Holmes, Emily A.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N?=?42, ages 13?17; Study 2: N?=?81, ages 13?16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school?based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid? and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social...

  3. Alliance group formation: enabling and constraining effects of embeddedness and social capital in strategic technology alliance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The role of embeddedness and social capital in the process of alliance group formation in strategic technology alliance networks is examined. In particular, the social mechanisms that enable and enforce alliance group formation is studies. It is argued that the enabling effect of embeddedness during

  4. Enhancing the effects of social network site marketing campaigns: if you want consumers to like you, ask them about themselves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Antheunis, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the consequences of consumers’ self-disclosing of identification information in interactive advertising campaigns on social network sites (SNSs), for brand, product and campaign responses. Building on social response and brand relationship theory, these effects are predicted and

  5. Multiple effect of social influence on cooperation in interdependent network games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Li, Wen-Jing; Wang, Zhen

    2015-10-01

    The social influence exists widely in the human society, where individual decision-making process (from congressional election to electronic commerce) may be affected by the attitude and behavior of others belonging to different social networks. Here, we couple the snowdrift (SD) game and the prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game on two interdependent networks, where strategies in both games are associated by social influence to mimick the majority rule. More accurately, individuals’ strategies updating refers to social learning (based on payoff difference) and above-mentioned social influence (related with environment of interdependent group), which is controlled by social influence strength s. Setting s = 0 decouples the networks and returns the traditional network game; while its increase involves the interactions between networks. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we find that such a mechanism brings multiple influence to the evolution of cooperation. Small s leads to unequal cooperation level in both games, because social learning is still the main updating rule for most players. Though intermediate and large s guarantees the synchronized evolution of strategy pairs, cooperation finally dies out and reaches a completely dominance in both cases. Interestingly, these observations are attributed to the expansion of cooperation clusters. Our work may provide a new understanding to the emergence of cooperation in intercorrelated social systems.

  6. Coupling effect of nodes popularity and similarity on social network persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaogang; Jin, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxuan; Min, Yong

    2017-02-21

    Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes' popularity, similarity or uniform random. We show that when nodes possess high spontaneous activities, a popularity-first growth mode obtains highly persistent networks; otherwise, with low spontaneous activities, a similarity-first mode does better. Moreover, a compound growth mode, with the consecutive joining of similar nodes in a short period and mixing a few high popularity nodes, obtains the highest persistence. Therefore, nodes similarity is essential for persistent social networks, while properly coupling popularity with similarity further optimizes the persistence. This demonstrates the evolution of nodes activity not only depends on network topology, but also their connective typology.

  7. Attention to negative emotion is related to longitudinal social network change: The moderating effect of interdependent self-construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Lang, Frieder R

    2015-08-01

    Many previous studies have investigated older adults' attentional preference toward different emotions. Interdependent self-construal is identified to be an important moderator of this phenomenon. However, despite the important social functions of emotions, the social consequence of older adults' emotional preferences in attention have not yet been examined. The current study tested how older adults' attentional preferences assessed in the laboratory influenced changes in their real-life social network, and how interdependent self-construal moderated this effect. A total of 45 older adults aged 60-84 years participated in an eye-tracking session that measured their attentional preference to emotional faces versus neutral faces. After that, participants completed the Self-Construal Scale. Participants' social network was then assessed by the Social Convoy Questionnaire twice over a 2-year period. Interdependent self-construal significantly moderated the effect of attention to angry and sad faces on older adults' real-life social network changes. For older adults with a higher level of interdependent self-construal, more attention toward negative emotions was related to longitudinal decreases in the number of their emotionally close social partners. The present study shows the important role of attentional preferences in older adults' social network maintenance. It identified a real-life macro level social outcome of a micro level laboratory phenomenon, which can be an important direction for future research. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Inferring social status and rich club effects in enterprise communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy.

  9. PRIVACY PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    OKUR, M. Cudi

    2011-01-01

    Protecting privacy has become a major concern for most social network users because of increased difficulties of controlling the online data. This article presents an assessment of the common privacy related risks of social networking sites. Open and hidden privacy risks of active and passive online profiles are examined and increasing share of social networking in these phenomena is discussed. Inadequacy of available legal and institutional protection is demonstrated and the effectiveness of...

  10. Effect of users' opinion evolution on information diffusion in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hengmin; Kong, Yuehan; Wei, Jing; Ma, Jing

    2018-02-01

    The process of topic propagation always interweaves information diffusion and opinion evolution, but most previous works studied the models of information diffusion and opinion evolution separately, and seldom focused on their interaction of each other. To shed light on the effect of users' opinion evolution on information diffusion in online social networks, we proposed a model which incorporates opinion evolution into the process of topic propagation. Several real topics propagating on Sina Microblog were collected to analyze individuals' propagation intentions, and different propagation intentions were considered in the model. The topic propagation was simulated to explore the impact of different opinion distributions and intervention with opposite opinion on information diffusion. Results show that the topic with one-sided opinions can spread faster and more widely, and intervention with opposite opinion is an effective measure to guide the topic propagation. The earlier to intervene, the more effectively the topic propagation would be guided.

  11. Social Networking Sites in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Suková, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with social networking sites and their use in education. Thesis is divided into two general parts. The first part deals with theory of learning; Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives and new educational theory based on learning in networks -- Connectivism. After that thesis focuses on the definition of social networking sites, introduction of some of the best known social networking sites and examples of their use in foreign and domestic educational practice. The sec...

  12. Conceptualizing of Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    J. S. Sodhi; Shilpi Sharma

    2012-01-01

    People often move to their friends, families and colleagues when they feel urge and having doubts or queries to solve. Participation in social networking site has dramatically increased in recent years. Many social networking sites boost with million of members using their network on regular basis to communicate, share , create and collaborate with others. In this paper we explore the phenomenon of using social networking site to trace a link of the search from the community of users for bett...

  13. Social networks, social satisfaction and place attachment in the neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs - Perrée, M.; van den Berg, P.E.W.; Arentze, T.A.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Feeling socially integrated and being satisfied with one’s social life are important indicators for happiness and well-being of individuals and for the strength of local communities. The effect of the living environment on social networks and the importance of local social contacts in the

  14. Signed Networks in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovec, Jure; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the c...

  15. Cohesive subgroup formation : enabling and constraining effects of social capital in strategic technology alliance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will examine the role of embeddedness and social capital in the process of cohesive subgroup formation in strategic technology alliance networks. More in particular, we will investigate the social mechanisms that enable and enforce cohesive subgroup formation. We will argue that the

  16. Memory effects induce structure in social networks with activity-driven agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medus, A D; Dorso, C O

    2014-01-01

    Activity-driven modelling has recently been proposed as an alternative growth mechanism for time varying networks,displaying power-law degree distribution in time-aggregated representation. This approach assumes memoryless agents developing random connections with total disregard of their previous contacts. Thus, such an assumption leads to time-aggregated random networks that do not reproduce the positive degree-degree correlation and high clustering coefficient widely observed in real social networks. In this paper, we aim to study the incidence of the agents' long-term memory on the emergence of new social ties. To this end, we propose a dynamical network model assuming heterogeneous activity for agents, together with a triadic-closure step as main connectivity mechanism. We show that this simple mechanism provides some of the fundamental topological features expected for real social networks in their time-aggregated picture. We derive analytical results and perform extensive numerical simulations in regimes with and without population growth. Finally, we present an illustrative comparison with two case studies, one comprising face-to-face encounters in a closed gathering, while the other one corresponding to social friendship ties from an online social network. (paper)

  17. Social Network Gaming Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gathwright

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to determine how long the social network game Scratch-Offs, created by game development company Spice Rack Media, will remain financially viable. The game Scratch-Offs is a freeware game (users pay nothing for the actual software and is funded through micro transactions (users must pay small amounts of money to play actual games. This implies a relationship between total games played and revenue earned. Using data provided by Spice Rack, we were able to develop an exponential equation that accurately depicts usage trends over time. This equation was used to determine the date Scratch-Offs will no longer be profitable.

  18. Elgg 18 Social Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Cash

    2012-01-01

    This book provides more than just a step-by-step guide to installing and using Elgg. It includes practical advice gained through experience on what it takes to deploy and maintain an Elgg-based site. If you are a software developer or are familiar with PHP, it provides both a tutorial-based introduction and a quick reference guide so that you can quickly extend and customize Elgg. If you want to create a social networking site using Elgg and do not have a background in software development, this book provides all the information and advice that you need written just for you. If you are a devel

  19. Privacy in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis lecture provides a survey of work on privacy in online social networks (OSNs). This work encompasses concerns of users as well as service providers and third parties. Our goal is to approach such concerns from a computer-science perspective, and building upon existing work on privacy, security, statistical modeling and databases to provide an overview of the technical and algorithmic issues related to privacy in OSNs. We start our survey by introducing a simple OSN data model and describe common statistical-inference techniques that can be used to infer potentially sensitive inf

  20. Differential Effects of Social Networks on Mammography Use by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Younsook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether social networks have differential effects on mammography use depending on poverty status. Data were analyzed on US women (40+), employing logistic regression and simple slope analyses for a post hoc probing of moderating effects. Among women not in poverty, living with a spouse/partner and attending church, regardless of frequency, were positively associated with mammography use; family size was negatively associated. Among women living in poverty, mammography showed a positive association only with weekly church attendance. Mammography was negatively associated with health-related social interactions occurring through the Internet. Post hoc probing showed significant moderating effects of poverty on the relationship between online health-related interactions and mammography use. To make the Internet a meaningful health empowerment tool for women in poverty, future research should identify how health-related interactions that occur online affect women in poverty's psychological and behavioral reactions that will contribute to our understanding of why they are discouraged from having mammograms. The mechanisms behind the differential effects of church attendance and poverty status on mammography also need further clarification.

  1. Underage Children and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Shalynn; Cooke, Bethany; McVey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum age requirements for joining popular social networking services such as Facebook, many students misrepresent their real ages and join as active participants in the networks. This descriptive study examines the use of social networking services (SNSs) by children under the age of 13. The researchers surveyed a sample of 199…

  2. Online networks destroy social trust

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Studies in the social capital literature have documented two stylised facts: first, a decline in measures of social participation has occurred in many OECD countries. Second, and more recently, the success of social networking sites (SNSs) has resulted in a steep rise in online social participation. Our study adds to this body of research by conducting the first empirical assessment of how online networking affects two economically relevant aspects of social capital, i.e. trust and sociabilit...

  3. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chakradhar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.

  4. Dimensionality and effects of information motivation on users’ online social network advertising acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMRAN ANWAR MIR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media has produced substantial changes in the communication landscape. Online social network sites (SNS grew as a common platform for online social interaction. SNS firms generate revenue from the advertising appearing on SNS. Their survival depends on users’ approval of such social network advertising (SNA. Marketing literature indicates that users accept advertising if it is consistent with their motivations for using social media. Information seeking is the most recognized SNS motivation. Yet, research on evaluating the influence of SNS information motivation on users’ approval of SNA is scarce. Based on SNS uses and gratifications theory, this study proposes a multidimensional model that shows the influence of SNS information motivation on users’ approval of SNA.

  5. Organ trade using social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Alrogy; Dunia Jawdat; Muhannad Alsemari; Abdulrahman Alharbi; Abdullah Alasaad; Ali H Hajeer

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to Febru...

  6. Statistical Models for Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Tom A. B.; Cook, KS; Massey, DS

    2011-01-01

    Statistical models for social networks as dependent variables must represent the typical network dependencies between tie variables such as reciprocity, homophily, transitivity, etc. This review first treats models for single (cross-sectionally observed) networks and then for network dynamics. For

  7. Effect of Heterogeneous Interest Similarity on the Spread of Information in Mobile Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Narisa; Sui, Guoqin; Yang, Fan

    2018-06-01

    Mobile social networks (MSNs) are important platforms for spreading news. The fact that individuals usually forward information aligned with their own interests inevitably changes the dynamics of information spread. Thereby, first we present a theoretical model based on the discrete Markov chain and mean field theory to evaluate the effect of interest similarity on the information spread in MSNs. Meanwhile, individuals' interests are heterogeneous and vary with time. These two features result in interest shift behavior, and both features are considered in our model. A leveraging simulation demonstrates the accuracy of our model. Moreover, the basic reproduction number R0 is determined. Further extensive numerical analyses based on the model indicate that interest similarity has a critical impact on information spread at the early spreading stage. Specifically, the information always spreads more quickly and widely if the interest similarity between an individual and the information is higher. Finally, five actual data sets from Sina Weibo illustrate the validity of the model.

  8. Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The original publication is available from www.springerlink.com. Sloep, P. (2009). Social Interaction in Learning Networks. In R. Koper (Ed.), Learning Network Services for Professional Development (pp 13-15). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

  9. On sampling social networking services

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Baiyang

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at summarizing the existing methods for sampling social networking services and proposing a faster confidence interval for related sampling methods. It also includes comparisons of common network sampling techniques.

  10. The Effect of Loneliness on Social Networking Sites Use and Its Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaeiy, Samira; Taghavi, Mohammad Reza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-08-01

    The current research was conducted to examine the effect of "Loneliness", on time spent in Social Networking Sites (S.N.S), main reasons for S.N.S use, and its related behaviors. 156 students of Shiraz University voluntarily participated in this research. Loneliness was assessed usingthe UCLA Loneliness scale. 25% of highest scoring students reported that they were lonely whereas 25% of the lowest scoring students were considered to be non-lonely. The positive and negative reasons of using S.N.S were assessed based on Reasons for Internet Use Scale, and internet behaviors were assessed based on Scale of Internet Behaviors. There was no difference in time spent in S.N.S as well as the positive and negative reasons of using S.N.S (contrary to literature), but internet behaviors showed a significant difference between "lonely" and "non-lonely" individuals. "Lonely" and "non-lonely" individuals showed a significant difference in "social aspect" of S.N.S behaviors. There was also a significant difference between "Lonely" and "non-Lonely" individuals in "Negative impact" of S.N.S behaviors. Yet, there seemed to be no difference in "competency and convenience aspect" of S.N.S behaviors. This study suggested that there is no difference between lonely and non-lonely individuals in reasons for using S.N.S and time spent in S.N.S. This finding stands contrary to previous research findings and general literature on the subject In other words, what drives people to S.N.S at the first place shows no significant difference between lonely and non-lonely individuals while after attending S.N.S, social behavior of lonely individuals shows a significant difference which is consistently enhanced online. Lonely people also significantly develop internet-related problems in their daily functioning, including interference with real life socializing.

  11. Online social networking for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Heller, Matthew T; Nowitzki, Kristina M; Sherry, Steven J; Tillack, Allison A

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking services have changed the way we interact as a society and offer many opportunities to improve the way we practice radiology and medicine in general. This article begins with an introduction to social networking. Next, the latest advances in online social networking are reviewed, and areas where radiologists and clinicians may benefit from these new tools are discussed. This article concludes with several steps that the interested reader can take to become more involved in online social networking. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying the Effective Factors in Making Trust in Online Social Networks on the perspective of Iranian experts Using Fuzzy ELECTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Haghighi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available this paper attempts to rank the effective factors in making trust in social networks to provide the possibility of attracting and increasing users’ trust on these social networks for providers and designers of online social networks. Identifying the effective factors in making trust in social networks is a multi-criteria decision making problem and most of effective factors are ambiguous and uncertain, thereby this article uses Fuzzy ELECTRE to rank them. By implementing Fuzzy ELECTRE on gathered data, respectively «usability factor», «supporting up to date technology factor», «integrity» and «the rate of ethics factor» are on the top of effective factors in making trust in users. In general, «web features» and «technology features» have a higher degree of importance than «security features», «individual-social features» and «cultural features». Ranking of Fuzzy ELECTRE comparison ranking of Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy ELECTRE method becomes validate because Spearman correlation coefficients is 0/867. Result of sensitivity analysis on changing weight of criteria shows that Fuzzy ELECTRE isn’t affected by ambiguity and uncertainty in inputs.

  13. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  14. Maintenance of cultural diversity: social roles, social networks, and cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino suggests that patterns that give rise to group-level cultural traits can also increase individual-level cultural diversity. I distinguish social roles and related social network structures and discuss ways in which each might maintain diversity. I suggest that cognitive analogs of "cohesion," a property of networks that helps maintenance of diversity, might mediate the effects of social roles on diversity.

  15. Actor and partner effects of perceived HIV stigma on social network components among people living with HIV/AIDS and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chun; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between HIV stigma and social network components at the dyadic level. The objective of this study was to examine the actor and partner effects of perceived HIV stigma by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and their caregivers on social network variables at the dyadic level. An egocentric social network study was conducted among 147 dyads consisting of one PLWHA and one caregiver (294 participants) in Nanning, China. The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to analyze the relationships between perceived HIV stigma and social network components (network relations, network structures, and network functions) at the dyadic level. We found in this dyadic analysis that: (1) social network components were similar between PLWHAs and their caregivers; (2) HIV stigma perceived by PLWHAs influenced their own social network components, whereas this influence did not exist between caregivers' perceived HIV stigma and their own social network components; (3) a few significant partner effects were observed between HIV stigma and social network components among both PLWHAs and caregivers. The interrelationships between HIV stigma and social network components were complex at the dyadic level. Future interventions programs targeting HIV stigma should focus on the interpersonal relationship at the dyadic level, beyond the intrapersonal factors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Spreading in online social networks: the role of social reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Muhua; Lü, Linyuan; Zhao, Ming

    2013-07-01

    Some epidemic spreading models are usually applied to analyze the propagation of opinions or news. However, the dynamics of epidemic spreading and information or behavior spreading are essentially different in many aspects. Centola's experiments [Science 329, 1194 (2010)] on behavior spreading in online social networks showed that the spreading is faster and broader in regular networks than in random networks. This result contradicts with the former understanding that random networks are preferable for spreading than regular networks. To describe the spreading in online social networks, a unknown-known-approved-exhausted four-status model was proposed, which emphasizes the effect of social reinforcement and assumes that the redundant signals can improve the probability of approval (i.e., the spreading rate). Performing the model on regular and random networks, it is found that our model can well explain the results of Centola's experiments on behavior spreading and some former studies on information spreading in different parameter space. The effects of average degree and network size on behavior spreading process are further analyzed. The results again show the importance of social reinforcement and are accordant with Centola's anticipation that increasing the network size or decreasing the average degree will enlarge the difference of the density of final approved nodes between regular and random networks. Our work complements the former studies on spreading dynamics, especially the spreading in online social networks where the information usually requires individuals' confirmations before being transmitted to others.

  17. Quantum social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adán; López-Tarrida, Antonio J; Danielsen, Lars Eirik; Portillo, José R

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a physical approach to social networks (SNs) in which each actor is characterized by a yes–no test on a physical system. This allows us to consider SNs beyond those originated by interactions based on pre-existing properties, as in a classical SN (CSN). As an example of SNs beyond CSNs, we introduce quantum SNs (QSNs) in which actor i is characterized by a test of whether or not the system is in a quantum state |ψ i 〉. We show that QSNs outperform CSNs for a certain task and some graphs. We identify the simplest of these graphs and show that graphs in which QSNs outperform CSNs are increasingly frequent as the number of vertices increases. We also discuss more general SNs and identify the simplest graphs in which QSNs cannot be outperformed. (paper)

  18. Churn in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnstedt, Marcel; Hennessy, Tara; Chan, Jeffrey; Basuchowdhuri, Partha; Hayes, Conor; Strufe, Thorsten

    In the past, churn has been identified as an issue across most industry sectors. In its most general sense it refers to the rate of loss of customers from a company's customer base. There is a simple reason for the attention churn attracts: churning customers mean a loss of revenue. Emerging from business spaces like telecommunications (telcom) and broadcast providers, where churn is a major issue, it is also regarded as a crucial problem in many other businesses, such as online games creators, but also online social networks and discussion sites. Companies aim at identifying the risk of churn in its early stages, as it is usually much cheaper to retain a customer than to try to win him or her back. If this risk can be accurately predicted, marketing departments can target customers efficiently with tailored incentives to prevent them from leaving.

  19. Early childhood behavioral inhibition, adult psychopathology and the buffering effects of adolescent social networks: a twenty-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether the temperament of behavioral inhibition is a significant marker for psychopathology in early adulthood and whether such risk is buffered by peer social networks. Participants (N = 165) were from a prospective study spanning the first two decades of life. Temperament was characterized during infancy and early childhood. Extent of involvement in peer social networks was measured during adolescence, and psychopathology was assessed in early adulthood. Latent Class Analyses generated comprehensive variables at each of three study time-points. Regressions assessed (a) the direct effect of early behavioral inhibition on adult psychopathology (b) the moderating effect of adolescent involvement in social peer networks on the link between temperamental risk and adult psychopathology. Stable behavioral inhibition in early childhood was negatively associated with adult mental health (R(2 ) = .07, p = .005, β = -.26), specifically increasing risk for adult anxiety disorders (R(2) = .04, p = .037, β = .19). These temperament-pathology relations were significantly moderated by adolescent peer group social involvement and network size (Total R(2) = .13, p = .027, β = -.22). Temperament predicted heightened risk for adult anxiety when adolescent social involvement was low (p = .002, β = .43), but not when adolescent social involvement was high. Stable behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood is a risk factor for adult anxiety disorders and interacts with adolescent social involvement to moderate risk. This is the first study to demonstrate the critical role of adolescent involvement in socially active networks in moderating long-lasting temperamental risk over the course of two decades, thus informing prevention/intervention approaches. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Testing knowledge sharing effectiveness: trust, motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and social network embedded model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Sabbir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this inquiry is to investigate the relationships among the antecedents of knowledge sharing effectiveness under the position of non-academic staff of higher learning institutions through an empirical test of a conceptual model consisting of trust, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and online social network. This study used the respondents from the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions in Malaysia (n = 200, utilizing a self-administered survey questionnaire. The structural equation modeling approach was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The outcomes indicate that all the antecedents play a substantial function in knowledge sharing effectiveness. In addition, perceived risk plays a mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing effectiveness. On the other hand, this research also proved the communication skill also plays a mediating role between leadership style and knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study contributes to pioneering empirical findings on knowledge sharing literature under the scope of the non-academic staff perspective.

  1. Social Network Sites, Individual Social Capital and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Arampatzi (Efstratia); M.J. Burger (Martijn); N.A. Novik (Natallia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCan online social contacts replace the importance of real-life social connections in our pursuit of happiness? With the growing use of social network sites (SNSs), attention has been increasingly drawn to this topic. Our study empirically examines the effect of SNS use on happiness for

  2. Sex-specific effects of social networks on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jiwon; Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease among older adults, and is associated with medical complications and mortality. This study aimed to examine the effects of social network characteristics on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older adults. The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) interviewed 814 ≥ 60-year-old residents and their spouses from a rural township between December 2011 and March 2012 (response rate: 95%). We evaluated the data from 595 participants. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of network characteristics on hypertension. We observed strong sex-specific network effects on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. Among older women, network density was associated with hypertension awareness [odds ratio (OR): 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-5.37] and control (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.94-3.13). Among older men, large networks were associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58-0.96). Compared to older women, older men with coarse networks exhibited better hypertension awareness (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14-0.95) and control (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). Network size interacted with density for hypertension control (P = 0.051), with controlled hypertension being associated with large and course networks. A large network was associated with a lower risk for hypertension, and a coarse network was associated with hypertension awareness and control among older men. Older women with dense networks were most likely to exhibit hypertension awareness and control.

  3. The role of social network sites in romantic relationships: Effects on jealousy and relationship happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.; Beukeboom, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship

  4. The Effectiveness of Social Media Network Telegram in Teaching English Language Pronunciation to Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xodabande, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the expansion of digital technologies, multimedia, and social networks, dramatically transformed our lives. Education in general and the area of foreign language teaching and learning have also benefited hugely from those developments and advances. As a result, the face of language learning is changing and new technologies provide…

  5. The effect of social network sites on adolescents’ appearance investment and desire for cosmetic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, D.; Peter, J.; Nikken, P.; de Graaf, H.

    2013-01-01

    Although adolescents frequently use social network sites (SNS), little is known about whether the highly visual and self-presentation-centered character of such sites affects body-related outcomes. The first aim of the current study was to investigate the causal direction of the relationship between

  6. Gender differences in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaromi Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines gender differences in different types of social networks. One of the main concepts relevant for studying gender differences is homophily, which refers to the tendency of people to interact more with similar individuals. In this paper homophily is analysed within the structural perspective which explains that the structures of our networks depend primarily on opportunities for social interactions, i.e. the composition and dynamics of the social context in which these interactions are embedded. Homophily is evident among males and females as early as in childhood, only to be even more prominent in school and adult years. Sex segregation is probably the most evident in the organisational context, where it has detrimental effects on women's careers, as women are generally underrepresented in positions of power and authority. Research in the last two decades pointed to the facts: 1 that men and women have very different types of organisational networks, 2 that successful men and women adopt different strategies to reach similar career objectives and acquire similar resources, and 3 that organisations also need to be actively involved in solving these gender-related issues.

  7. Effects of social environment and personality on communication in male Siamese fighting fish in an artificial network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Peake, Tom M.

    2010-01-01

    of the individuals surrounding it within a network. We investigated the effects of a change of local social environment on two behavioural types, ‘persistent' versus ‘sporadic' signaller, in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Males visually interacted for 1 day in a communication network of seven fish in tanks...... the time spent in the inner front part of their tank, from which they could observe but not interact with the neighbours. Social instability (i.e. number of changed neighbours) raised the signalling levels of individuals independently of their behavioural types. We discuss the relationship between...... information gathering in a communication network and network composition in terms of behavioural types of its members....

  8. A Social Networks in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Poulova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    At present social networks are becoming important in all areas of human activities. They are simply part and parcel of everyday life. They are mostly used for advertising, but they have already found their way into education. The future potential of social networks is high as it can be seen from their statistics on a daily, monthly or yearly…

  9. Social Networking Goes to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Just a few years ago, social networking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…

  10. Risk aversion and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovářík, J.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper first investigates empirically the relationship between risk aversion and social network structure in a large group of undergraduate students. We find that risk aversion is strongly correlated to local network clustering, that is, the probability that one has a social tie to friends of

  11. Privacy in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, Michael; Jeckmans, Arjan; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Abraham, A.

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become part of daily life for millions of users. Users building explicit networks that represent their social relationships and often share a wealth of personal information to their own benefit. The potential privacy risks of such behavior are often underestimated

  12. Investigating the differential effects of social networking site addiction and Internet gaming disorder on psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Previous studies focused on examining the interrelationships between social networking site (SNS) addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in isolation. Moreover, little is known about the potential simultaneous differential effects of SNS addiction and IGD on psychological health. This study investigated the interplay between these two technological addictions and ascertained how they can uniquely and distinctively contribute to increasing psychiatric distress when accounting for potential effects stemming from sociodemographic and technology-related variables. Methods A sample of 509 adolescents (53.5% males) aged 10-18 years (mean = 13.02, SD = 1.64) were recruited. Results It was found that key demographic variables can play a distinct role in explaining SNS addiction and IGD. Furthermore, it was found that SNS addiction and IGD can augment the symptoms of each other, and simultaneously contribute to deterioration of overall psychological health in a similar fashion, further highlighting potentially common etiological and clinical course between these two phenomena. Finally, the detrimental effects of IGD on psychological health were found to be slightly more pronounced than those produced by SNS addiction, a finding that warrants additional scientific scrutiny. Discussion and conclusion The implications of these results are further discussed in light of the existing evidence and debates regarding the status of technological addictions as primary and secondary disorders.

  13. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using a static, s...

  14. Modeling individual and collective opinion in online social networks: drivers of choice behavior and effects of marketing interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.E.; Langley, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate factors influencing choice behavior in online social networks. We use twitter data from a Dutch television talent show. In study one, we implement a nested conditional logit model with latent classes. We find heterogeneous effects. For two latent classes, cognitive factors most

  15. Information filtering on coupled social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks.

  16. Risk aversion and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovarik, J.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Agents involved in the formation of a social or economic network typically face uncertainty about the benefits of creating a link. However, the interplay of such uncertainty and risk attitudes has been neglected in the network formation literature. We propose a dynamic network formation model that

  17. Risk aversion and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovářík, J.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agents involved in the formation of a social or economic network typically face uncertainty about the benefits of creating a link. However, the interplay of such uncertainty and risk attitudes has been neglected in the network formation literature. We propose a dynamic network formation model that

  18. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Marton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical social networks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in social networks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical social networks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical social networks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that social networks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical social networks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.

  19. Effects of Electronic Trust on Purchase Intentions in Online Social Review Networks: The Case of Tripadvisor.com

    OpenAIRE

    Öztüren, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to examine the effects of trust beliefs on purchase intentions of trip planners within the context of online social review network by analyzing dimensions of e-trust and effects on purchase intentions. With the intention to test these effects a survey was executed and the data collected from 320 participants. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to analyze the hypotheses related to the factors affecting the overall electronic trust level and purchas...

  20. Social networks, personal values, and creativity: evidence for curvilinear and interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Shin, Shung Jae; Brass, Daniel J; Choi, Jaepil; Zhang, Zhi-Xue

    2009-11-01

    Taking an interactional perspective on creativity, the authors examined the influence of social networks and conformity value on employees' creativity. They theorized and found a curvilinear relationship between number of weak ties and creativity such that employees exhibited greater creativity when their number of weak ties was at intermediate levels rather than at lower or higher levels. In addition, employees' conformity value moderated the curvilinear relationship between number of weak ties and creativity such that employees exhibited greater creativity at intermediate levels of number of weak ties when conformity was low than when it was high. A proper match between personal values and network ties is critical for understanding creativity.

  1. Effects of Network Structure, Competition and Memory Time on Social Spreading Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, James P.; O'Sullivan, Kevin P.; Baños, Raquel A.; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-04-01

    Online social media has greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what fundamental mechanisms drive dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior that is analytically tractable and that can reproduce several characteristics of empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, such as (time-dependent) heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity. The presented framework constitutes a null model for social spreading phenomena that, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  2. Effects of Network Structure, Competition and Memory Time on Social Spreading Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Gleeson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Online social media has greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what fundamental mechanisms drive dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior that is analytically tractable and that can reproduce several characteristics of empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, such as (time-dependent heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity. The presented framework constitutes a null model for social spreading phenomena that, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  3. The Social Origins of Networks and Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, Damon

    2015-03-01

    Recent research on social contagion has demonstrated significant effects of network topology on the dynamics of diffusion. However, network topologies are not given a priori. Rather, they are patterns of relations that emerge from individual and structural features of society, such as population composition, group heterogeneity, homophily, and social consolidation. Following Blau and Schwartz, the author develops a model of social network formation that explores how social and structural constraints on tie formation generate emergent social topologies and then explores the effectiveness of these social networks for the dynamics of social diffusion. Results show that, at one extreme, high levels of consolidation can create highly balkanized communities with poor integration of shared norms and practices. As suggested by Blau and Schwartz, reducing consolidation creates more crosscutting circles and significantly improves the dynamics of social diffusion across the population. However, the author finds that further reducing consolidation creates highly intersecting social networks that fail to support the widespread diffusion of norms and practices, indicating that successful social diffusion can depend on moderate to high levels of structural consolidation.

  4. Anti-Social Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Allen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With research highlighting the growing incidence of public opposition to the building of mosques and the innovative use of social networking, especially Facebook, to disseminate and garner support for such opposition, a pilot study sought to investigate this in relation to the proposed Dudley “super mosque.” Focusing on the Facebook group Stop Dudley Super Mosque and Islamic Village, members were engaged online to explore why they opposed the mosque. Some of the emergent themes included planning and location, inclusion and public investment as well as those relating to notions of identity, heritage, otherness, and Islamification. Overt racist and Islamophobic reasons were also identified. The sense of political disconnect of members is also considered. Concluding with a contextualization of the findings within the existing body of scholarly output, in particular the building of mosques and Islamophobia, having recognized how spaces such as Facebook have potential to function as sites for research and method also, an extended methodological consideration is also included.

  5. Evidence of the paradoxical effect of social network support: A study among Filipino domestic workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Norman B; Mordeno, Imelu G; Latkin, Carl A; Hall, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    Labor migrants are at an increased risk for poor mental health. Post-migration stressors contribute significantly to this risk. Social network supports are vitally important to protect health but little is known about the role of social network supports among labor migrants. The current study evaluated the role of migration stressors on poor mental health among Filipino female domestic workers (FDW) and whether family and friend social network support (SNS) modified this relationship. Data were collected from 261 FDWs in Macau, China from May to September 2013. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to test for direct and moderating effects of social networks on psychological distress. Post-migration stress was associated with increased anxiety, depression, somatization, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SNS from family was not associated with the four psychological symptoms nor did it modify the association between stress and these symptoms. SNS from friends was positively associated with these symptoms, and significantly moderated the relationship between stress and these symptoms. Counterintuitive to the known buffering effects of SNS, greater SNS was associated with greater psychological symptoms among FDWs exposed to post-migration stressors. The present findings suggest that reliance on SNS to cope with post-migration stressors may worsen psychological distress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Staying Safe on Social Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Security Tip (ST06-003) Staying Safe on Social Networking Sites Original release date: January 26, 2011 | Last revised: ... so you should take certain precautions. What are social networking sites? Social networking sites, sometimes referred to as "friend- ...

  7. RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Valois Batista Jr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued and diversified growth of social networks has changed the way in which users interact with them. With these changes, what once was limited to social contact is now used for exchanging ideas and opinions, creating the need for new features. Users have so much information at their fingertips that they are unable to process it by themselves; hence, the need to develop new tools. Recommender systems were developed to address this need and many techniques were used for different approaches to the problem. To make relevant recommendations, these systems use large sets of data, not taking the social network of the user into consideration. Developing a recommender system that takes into account the social network of the user is another way of tackling the problem. The purpose of this project is to use the theory of six degrees of separation (Watts 2003 amongst users of a social network to enhance existing recommender systems.

  8. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica GHEORGHIȚĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face to face, by imposing superficial communications experiences, grammatical and spelling erosion of the language. Therefore, the study aims to capture the spread of social networks, their use and impact on interpersonal communication. More specifically, they look for the answer to the question: what is the nature of interpersonal communication that is found on social networking sites: personal, emotional, private or shared, informal, and public?

  9. The role of social network sites in romantic relationships: Effects on jealousy and relationship happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Utz, S.; Beukeboom, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship satisfaction, trait jealousy, SNS use and need for popularity predicted these emotional consequences of SNS use and tested the moderating role of self-esteem. For low self-esteem individuals, need for pop...

  10. Exploring the predicted effect of social networking site use on perceived social capital and psychological well-being of Chinese international students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being.

  11. Semantic mining of social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The first kinds of questions we try to answer are: What are the fundamental factors that form the different categories of social ties? How have reciprocal relationships been developed fro parasocial relationships? How do connected users further form groups? Another theme addressed in this book is the study of social influence. Social influence occurs when one's opinions, emotions, or behaviors are affected by others, intentionally or unintentionally. Considerable research has been conducted to verify the existence of social influence in various networks.

  12. Volunteerism: Social Network Dynamics and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Webster, Noah J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives . We examine how changes in social networks influence volunteerism through bridging (diversity) and bonding (spending time) mechanisms. We further investigate whether social network change substitutes or amplifies the effects of education on volunteerism. Methods . Data (n = 543) are drawn from a two-wave survey of Social Relations and Health over the Life Course (SRHLC). Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions were conducted to test competing hypotheses about how changes in social network characteristics alone and in conjunction with education level predict likelihood and frequency of volunteering. Results . Changes in social networks were associated with volunteerism: as the proportion of family members decreased and the average number of network members living within a one-hour drive increased over time, participants reported higher odds of volunteering. The substitution hypothesis was supported: social networks that exhibited more geographic proximity and greater contact frequency over-time compensated for lower levels of education to predict volunteering more hours. Discussion . The dynamic role of social networks and the ways in which they may work through bridging and bonding to influence both likelihood and frequency of volunteering are discussed. The potential benefits of volunteerism in light of longer life expectancies and smaller families are also considered. PMID:25512570

  13. Modeling Epidemics Spreading on Social Contact Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Social contact networks and the way people interact with each other are the key factors that impact on epidemics spreading. However, it is challenging to model the behavior of epidemics based on social contact networks due to their high dynamics. Traditional models such as susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model ignore the crowding or protection effect and thus has some unrealistic assumption. In this paper, we consider the crowding or protection effect and develop a novel model called improved SIR model. Then, we use both deterministic and stochastic models to characterize the dynamics of epidemics on social contact networks. The results from both simulations and real data set conclude that the epidemics are more likely to outbreak on social contact networks with higher average degree. We also present some potential immunization strategies, such as random set immunization, dominating set immunization, and high degree set immunization to further prove the conclusion.

  14. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-03-06

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Reducing racial disparities in obesity: simulating the effects of improved education and social network influence on diet behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Galea, Sandro; Riddle, Matt; Kaplan, George A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding how to mitigate the present black-white obesity disparity in the United States is a complex issue, stemming from a multitude of intertwined causes. An appropriate but underused approach to guiding policy approaches to this problem is to account for this complexity using simulation modeling. We explored the efficacy of a policy that improved the quality of neighborhood schools in reducing racial disparities in obesity-related behavior and the dependence of this effect on social network influence and norms. We used an empirically grounded agent-based model to generate simulation experiments. We used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design that represented the presence or absence of improved neighborhood school quality, the presence or absence of social influence, and the type of social norm (healthy or unhealthy). Analyses focused on time trends in sociodemographic variables and diet quality. First, the quality of schools and social network influence had independent and interactive effects on diet behavior. Second, the black-white disparity in diet behavior was considerably reduced under some conditions, but never completely eliminated. Third, the degree to which the disparity in diet behavior was reduced was a function of the type of social norm that was in place; the reduction was the smallest when the type of social norm was healthy. Improving school quality can reduce, but not eliminate racial disparities in obesity-related behavior, and the degree to which this is true depends partly on social network effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The Effects of Mobile Social Networking Service-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Insomnia in Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Suk Sun

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) based on the mobile social networking service (SNS) on dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, depression, and quality of life among rotating-shift nurses in a hospital in Korea. A nonequivalent control group pre-post test design was used. The participants included 55 nurses with rotating three-shift work (25 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group). For the experimental group, CBT-I using mobile SNS was provided once a week for 60 minutes over six weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ²-test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-whitney U test with the SPSS 21.0 program. In the homogeneity test of the general characteristics and study variables, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Nurses in the experimental group had significantly lower scores on dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes regarding sleep and sleepiness than nurses in the control group. Nurses in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on sleep quality and quality of life than nurses in the control group. These findings indicate that using the mobile SNS-based CBT-I is feasible and has significant and positive treatment-related effects on rotating-shift nurses' irrational thoughts and beliefs in association with sleep, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life. These contribute to expanding our knowledge of rotating-shift nurses' sleep issues and their preferences for intervention. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  17. [Social networks in drinking behaviors among Japanese: support network, drinking network, and intervening network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Chika; Shimizu, Shinji

    2005-10-01

    The national representative sample was analyzed to examine the relationship between respondents' drinking practice and the social network which was constructed of three different types of network: support network, drinking network, and intervening network. Non-parametric statistical analysis was conducted with chi square method and ANOVA analysis, due to the risk of small samples in some basic tabulation cells. The main results are as follows: (1) In the support network of workplace associates, moderate drinkers enjoyed much more sociable support care than both nondrinkers and hard drinkers, which might suggest a similar effect as the French paradox. Meanwhile in the familial and kinship network, the more intervening care support was provided, the harder respondents' drinking practice. (2) The drinking network among Japanese people for both sexes is likely to be convergent upon certain types of network categories and not decentralized in various categories. This might reflect of the drinking culture of Japan, which permits people to drink everyday as a practice, especially male drinkers. Subsequently, solitary drinking is not optional for female drinkers. (3) Intervening network analysis showed that the harder the respondents' drinking practices, the more frequently their drinking behaviors were checked in almost all the categories of network. A rather complicated gender double-standard was found in the network of hard drinkers with their friends, particularly for female drinkers. Medical professionals played a similar intervening role for men as family and kinship networks but to a less degree than friends for females. The social network is considerably associated with respondents' drinking, providing both sociability for moderate drinkers and intervention for hard drinkers, depending on network categories. To minimize the risk of hard drinking and advance self-healthy drinking there should be more research development on drinking practice and the social network.

  18. Returns to Social Network Capital among Traders

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fafchamps; Bart Minten

    2000-01-01

    Using data on agricultural traders in Madagascar, this paper shows that social network capital has a large effect on firm productivity. Better connected traders have significantly larger sales and value added than less connected traders after controlling for physical and human inputs as well as for entrepreneur characteristics. The analysis indicates that three dimensions of social network capital should be distinguished: relationships with other traders, which among other things help firms e...

  19. The Social Life of Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Vatrapu, Ravi; Medina, Richard

    2009-01-01

    dialogues wished to send other participants. We show a strong integration of the Web 2.0 and new media technologies of social networking, online video, and blogs. Outside of video content, users tended to direct others to groups and applications within the Facebook community, but this homophilous behavior......This paper examines the linkage patterns of people who posted links on the Facebook “walls” of Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and John McCain over two years prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election. Linkage patterns indicate the destinations to which participants in these social networking...

  20. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of three immunization strategies in controlling disease outbreaks in realistic social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Xu

    Full Text Available The high incidence of emerging infectious diseases has highlighted the importance of effective immunization strategies, especially the stochastic algorithms based on local available network information. Present stochastic strategies are mainly evaluated based on classical network models, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks, and thus are insufficient. Three frequently referred stochastic immunization strategies-acquaintance immunization, community-bridge immunization, and ring vaccination-were analyzed in this work. The optimal immunization ratios for acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization strategies were investigated, and the effectiveness of these three strategies in controlling the spreading of epidemics were analyzed based on realistic social contact networks. The results show all the strategies have decreased the coverage of the epidemics compared to baseline scenario (no control measures. However the effectiveness of acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization are very limited, with acquaintance immunization slightly outperforming community-bridge immunization. Ring vaccination significantly outperforms acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization, and the sensitivity analysis shows it could be applied to controlling the epidemics with a wide infectivity spectrum. The effectiveness of several classical stochastic immunization strategies was evaluated based on realistic contact networks for the first time in this study. These results could have important significance for epidemic control research and practice.

  1. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of three immunization strategies in controlling disease outbreaks in realistic social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijing; Zu, Zhenghu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Wendou; Xu, Qing; Liu, Jinjie

    2014-01-01

    The high incidence of emerging infectious diseases has highlighted the importance of effective immunization strategies, especially the stochastic algorithms based on local available network information. Present stochastic strategies are mainly evaluated based on classical network models, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks, and thus are insufficient. Three frequently referred stochastic immunization strategies-acquaintance immunization, community-bridge immunization, and ring vaccination-were analyzed in this work. The optimal immunization ratios for acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization strategies were investigated, and the effectiveness of these three strategies in controlling the spreading of epidemics were analyzed based on realistic social contact networks. The results show all the strategies have decreased the coverage of the epidemics compared to baseline scenario (no control measures). However the effectiveness of acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization are very limited, with acquaintance immunization slightly outperforming community-bridge immunization. Ring vaccination significantly outperforms acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization, and the sensitivity analysis shows it could be applied to controlling the epidemics with a wide infectivity spectrum. The effectiveness of several classical stochastic immunization strategies was evaluated based on realistic contact networks for the first time in this study. These results could have important significance for epidemic control research and practice.

  2. Online Identities and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  3. Dynamic social networks based on movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Henry; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fosdick, Bailey K.; Johnson, Devin S.; London, Joshua M.; Durban, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling techniques provide a means for quantifying social structure in populations of individuals. Data used to define social connectivity are often expensive to collect and based on case-specific, ad hoc criteria. Moreover, in applications involving animal social networks, collection of these data is often opportunistic and can be invasive. Frequently, the social network of interest for a given population is closely related to the way individuals move. Thus, telemetry data, which are minimally invasive and relatively inexpensive to collect, present an alternative source of information. We develop a framework for using telemetry data to infer social relationships among animals. To achieve this, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model with an underlying dynamic social network controlling movement of individuals via two mechanisms: an attractive effect and an aligning effect. We demonstrate the model and its ability to accurately identify complex social behavior in simulation, and apply our model to telemetry data arising from killer whales. Using auxiliary information about the study population, we investigate model validity and find the inferred dynamic social network is consistent with killer whale ecology and expert knowledge.

  4. Minor positive effects of health-promoting senior meetings for older community-dwelling persons on loneliness, social network, and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Gustafsson,1,2 Helene Berglund,1,3 Joel Faronbi,1,4 Emmelie Barenfeld,1,2,5 Isabelle Ottenvall Hammar1,2 1Frail Elderly Research Support Group (FRESH, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, 2Gothenburg University Centre for Ageing and Health (AgeCap, 3Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; 4Department of Nursing Science, College of Health Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 5Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-year effect of the health-promoting intervention “senior meetings” for older community-dwelling persons regarding loneliness, social network, and social support.Methods: Secondary analysis of data was carried out from two randomized controlled studies: Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone and Promoting Aging Migrants’ Capabilities. Data from 416 participants who attended the senior meetings and the control group at baseline and the 1-year follow-up in the respective studies were included. Data were aggregated and analyzed with chi-square test and odds ratio (OR to determine the intervention effect.Results: The senior meetings had a positive effect on social support regarding someone to turn to when in need of advice and backing (OR 1.72, p=0.01. No positive intervention effect could be identified for loneliness, social network, or other aspects of social support.Conclusion: Health-promoting senior meetings for older community-dwelling persons have a minor positive effect on social support. The senior meetings might benefit from a revision to reinforce content focused on loneliness, social network, and social support. However, the modest effect could also depend on the lack of accessible social resources to meet participants’ identified needs, a possible hindrance for a

  5. Measurement of Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjoka, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of online social networks (OSN) has risen to unprecedented levels, with the most popular ones having hundreds of millions of users. This success has generated interest within the networking community and has given rise to a number of measurement and characterization studies, which provide a first step towards their…

  6. Social networks and research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ductor, L.; Fafchamps, M.; Goyal, S.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We study how knowledge about the social network of an individual researcher - as embodied in his coauthor relations - helps us in developing a more accurate prediction of his future productivity. We find that incorporating information about coauthor networks leads to a modest improvement in the

  7. Effects of Pre-Purchase Search Motivation on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising: A Case of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran A Mir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years, social media have profoundly changed the ways of social and business communication. Particularly, social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and number of users globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, businesses of various types use SNSs for commercial communication. Banner advertising is one of the common methods of commercial communication on SNSs. Advertising is a key source of revenue for many SNSs firms such as Facebook. In fact, the existence of many SNSs owners and advertisers is contingent upon the success of social network advertising (SNA. Users demand free SNS services which makes SNA crucial for SNSs firms. SNA can be effective only if it is aligned with user motivations. Marketing literature identifies pre-purchase search as a primary consumer motivation for using media. The current study aims to identify the effects of pre-purchase search motivation (PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. It also assesses the association between the attitudes toward SNA and users’ banner ad-clicking behavior on SNSs. Data was gathered from 200 university students in Islamabad using offline survey. Results show positive effects of PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. They also show positive association between user attitudes toward SNA and their SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. The firms which promote their products through SNSs to the young South Asian consumers may benefit from the findings of the current study.

  8. The Effect of Facebook Social Network on Cultural Identity of Youth in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Alipour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available By expanding the access to the Internet and the Internet social networks and increasing use which the youth represents of different types of issues and the content of these modern media, the cultural identity has transformed into one of the main concerns related to social coherence and national unity. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship between the presence and interaction in Facebook social network and the youth's cultural identity. The main question of this study is what influence using Facebook has on cultural identity of users? Is Facebook as one of the tools of globalization attenuator of cultural identity? The present study is in the form of a survey one and is conducted using the method ofvolunteer and available sampling and employing the internet researcher-made questionnaire by focusing Giddens' Cultivation and Strucration theories. The population of the present study includes young users of Facebook in Isfahan in 2012 and the sample is equal 424 participants. The results of the present study indicate that there is a significant and reverse correlation between the length of membership, users' amount of se and participation and activities in Facebook and their cultural identities and also there is a significant and positive correlation between considering Facebook contents as real and users' cultural identities. It means that the more the length of membership is, the more the users' amount of use and participation and activity in Facebook and the weaker users' cultural identities.

  9. Social networking mining, visualization, and security

    CERN Document Server

    Dehuri, Satchidananda; Wang, Gi-Nam

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of social media and on-line communities in networked world a large gamut of data has been collected and stored in databases. The rate at which such data is stored is growing at a phenomenal rate and pushing the classical methods of data analysis to their limits. This book presents an integrated framework of recent empirical and theoretical research on social network analysis based on a wide range of techniques from various disciplines like data mining, social sciences, mathematics, statistics, physics, network science, machine learning with visualization techniques, and security. The book illustrates the potential of multi-disciplinary techniques in various real life problems and intends to motivate researchers in social network analysis to design more effective tools by integrating swarm intelligence and data mining.  

  10. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...... transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land...

  11. The Effect of Social Network "Snapchat" on the Emergence of Some Negative Social Values (Social Hatred) Based on the Perspectives of Qassim Female Students: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, lawaheth M. T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at detecting the effect of social media "Snapchat" on the emergence of some negative social values (social hatred ) based on the perspectives of female students enrolling at Qassim University, College of Science and Arts at ArRass, the academic year 2015/2016. The researcher has utilized the Descriptive Method…

  12. Social networks, social support and psychiatric symptoms: social determinants and associations within a multicultural community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.

  13. Use of social networking for dental hygiene program recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rachel S

    2011-01-01

    Social networking has become a popular and effective means of communication used by students in the millennial generation. Academic admissions officers are beginning to utilize social networking methods for recruitment of students. However, the dental hygiene literature has reported little information about the use of social networking for recruitment strategies. This paper describes one institutions' process of creating and implementing a social network site for prospective and current students.

  14. Brain networks of social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Lindner, Michael; Mussweiler, Thomas; Ihssen, Niklas; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-27

    Social comparison, that is, the process of comparing oneself to other people, is a ubiquitous social cognitive mechanism; however, so far its neural correlates have remained unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that social comparisons are supported by partly dissociated networks, depending on whether the dimension under comparison concerns a physical or a psychological attribute. We measured brain activity with functional MRI, whereas participants were comparing their own height or intelligence to that of individuals they personally know. Height comparisons were associated with higher activity in a frontoparietal network involved in spatial and numerical cognition. Conversely, intelligence comparisons recruited a network of midline areas that have been previously implicated in the attribution of mental states to oneself and others (Theory of mind). These findings suggest that social comparisons rely on diverse domain-specific mechanisms rather than on one unitary process.

  15. Unscrewing social media networks, twice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Social media are often claimed to be an important new force in politics. One way to investigate such a claim is to follow an early call made in actor-network theory (ANT) to “unscrew” those entities that are assumed to be important and show how they are made up of heterogeneous networks of many...... different actors (Callon and Latour 1981). In this article I take steps towards unscrewing seven Facebook pages that were used to mobilize citizens for and against road pricing in Copenhagen in 2011-2012. But I encounter the difficulty that social media are already explicitly understood in Internet Studies...... that it can be combined with liberal notions of a singular public sphere (Somers 1995b; 1995a). In order to unscrew social media as a political force, I suggest that we need to work through both the assembling of social media networks and attend to corresponding reconstructions of liberal political narratives...

  16. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…

  17. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  18. Relationship between Social Networks Adoption and Social Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Semseddin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to set forth the relationship between the individuals' states to adopt social networks and social intelligence and analyze both concepts according to various variables. Research data were collected from 1145 social network users in the online media by using the Adoption of Social Network Scale and Social Intelligence…

  19. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  20. Effects of time-dependent diffusion behaviors on the rumor spreading in social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Laijun; Wang, Jiajia; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    When considering roles of realistic external forces (e.g. authorities) and internal forces (e.g. the forgetting nature of human), diffusion behaviors like spreading, stifling and forgetting behaviors are time-dependent. They were incorporated in an SIR-like rumor spreading model to investigate the effects to rumor spreading dynamics. Mean-field equations were derived, and the steady state analysis was conducted. Simulations were carried out on different complex networks. We demonstrated that the combination of the three variable diffusion behaviors provides a faster and larger spreading expansion capacity. Network structure matters considerably in rumor spreading dynamics. - Highlights: • We incorporate time-dependent diffusion behaviors into a SIR-like rumor spreading model. • The combination of the three variable diffusion behaviors provides a faster and larger spreading expansion capacity. • Network structure matters considerably in rumor spreading dynamics.

  1. Effects of time-dependent diffusion behaviors on the rumor spreading in social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xiaoyan [School of Management, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhao, Laijun, E-mail: ljzhao70@sjtu.edu.cn [Sino–US Global Logistics Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200052 (China); Wang, Jiajia [Sino–US Global Logistics Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200052 (China); Wang, Xiaoli [School of Management, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Qin [College of Transport & Communications, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306 (China)

    2016-05-27

    When considering roles of realistic external forces (e.g. authorities) and internal forces (e.g. the forgetting nature of human), diffusion behaviors like spreading, stifling and forgetting behaviors are time-dependent. They were incorporated in an SIR-like rumor spreading model to investigate the effects to rumor spreading dynamics. Mean-field equations were derived, and the steady state analysis was conducted. Simulations were carried out on different complex networks. We demonstrated that the combination of the three variable diffusion behaviors provides a faster and larger spreading expansion capacity. Network structure matters considerably in rumor spreading dynamics. - Highlights: • We incorporate time-dependent diffusion behaviors into a SIR-like rumor spreading model. • The combination of the three variable diffusion behaviors provides a faster and larger spreading expansion capacity. • Network structure matters considerably in rumor spreading dynamics.

  2. Social networks and environmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michele L; Lynham, John; Kalberg, Kolter; Leung, PingSun

    2016-06-07

    Social networks can profoundly affect human behavior, which is the primary force driving environmental change. However, empirical evidence linking microlevel social interactions to large-scale environmental outcomes has remained scarce. Here, we leverage comprehensive data on information-sharing networks among large-scale commercial tuna fishers to examine how social networks relate to shark bycatch, a global environmental issue. We demonstrate that the tendency for fishers to primarily share information within their ethnic group creates segregated networks that are strongly correlated with shark bycatch. However, some fishers share information across ethnic lines, and examinations of their bycatch rates show that network contacts are more strongly related to fishing behaviors than ethnicity. Our findings indicate that social networks are tied to actions that can directly impact marine ecosystems, and that biases toward within-group ties may impede the diffusion of sustainable behaviors. Importantly, our analysis suggests that enhanced communication channels across segregated fisher groups could have prevented the incidental catch of over 46,000 sharks between 2008 and 2012 in a single commercial fishery.

  3. Use of social network sites and instant messaging does not lead to increased offline social network size, or to emotionally closer relationships with offline network members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, Thomas V; Roberts, Sam G B; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2011-04-01

    The effect of Internet use on social relationships is still a matter of intense debate. This study examined the relationships between use of social media (instant messaging and social network sites), network size, and emotional closeness in a sample of 117 individuals aged 18 to 63 years old. Time spent using social media was associated with a larger number of online social network "friends." However, time spent using social media was not associated with larger offline networks, or feeling emotionally closer to offline network members. Further, those that used social media, as compared to non-users of social media, did not have larger offline networks, and were not emotionally closer to offline network members. These results highlight the importance of considering potential time and cognitive constraints on offline social networks when examining the impact of social media use on social relationships.

  4. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  5. Navigating Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, DeAnna; Bartlett, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors note that when it comes to balancing free speech and schools' responsibilities, the online world is largely uncharted waters. Questions remain about the rights of both students and teachers in the world of social media. Although the lower courts have ruled that students' freedom of speech rights offer them some protection for…

  6. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical...

  7. Effects of Communication Competence and Social Network Centralities on Learner Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Il-Hyun; Kang, Stephanie; Yoon, Meehyun

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative learning has become a dominant learning apparatus for higher level learning objectives. Much of the psychological and social mechanisms operating under this complex group activity, however, is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of college students' communication competence and degree…

  8. EXPLORING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS SOCIAL NETWORKING FOR ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Jerman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between communication, with the emphasis on public relations, and social network perspectives. What, then, does social networking for business mean in communication, particularly in public relations? This paper argues that business social networking play an important role in improving organizations communications. The goal of our paper is to identify the basic characteristics of social networks and its role for public relations for the effective implementation of social networking initiatives and tools in the workplace. Business social networking tools such as Facebook and LinkedIn are being used by organizations to reach the corporate objectives and to create a positive company image. Specific social networks, such the personalised networks of influence, are perceived to be one of the main strategic resources for organizations.

  9. Online social networking: a primer for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Prasanth M; Seagull, F Jacob; Nagy, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Online social networking is an immature, but rapidly evolving industry of web-based technologies that allow individuals to develop online relationships. News stories populate the headlines about various websites which can facilitate patient and doctor interaction. There remain questions about protecting patient confidentiality and defining etiquette in order to preserve the doctor/patient relationship and protect physicians. How much social networking-based communication or other forms of E-communication is effective? What are the potential benefits and pitfalls of this form of communication? Physicians are exploring how social networking might provide a forum for interacting with their patients, and advance collaborative patient care. Several organizations and institutions have set forth policies to address these questions and more. Though still in its infancy, this form of media has the power to revolutionize the way physicians interact with their patients and fellow health care workers. In the end, physicians must ask what value is added by engaging patients or other health care providers in a social networking format. Social networks may flourish in health care as a means of distributing information to patients or serve mainly as support groups among patients. Physicians must tread a narrow path to bring value to interactions in these networks while limiting their exposure to unwanted liability.

  10. Social networks user: current research

    OpenAIRE

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1) social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality); 2) personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem). The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connect...

  11. Social networks user: current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1 social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality; 2 personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem. The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connected with socio-demographic and personality characteristics

  12. Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-06-11

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation.

  14. Effects of Social Networks on the Quality of Life in an Elder and Middle-Aged Deaf Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerich, Joachim; Fellinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This article endeavors to investigate the role of social networks in contributing to the quality of life of an elder and middle-aged Deaf population. In particular, it poses the question of whether a certain network composition (deaf and hearing network persons) provides positive resources to improve quality of life and attempts to identify…

  15. Social networks: communication and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual social networks have brought about the possibility for open and plural debate, where all those with the necessary literacy skills and means are able to participate in the creation and dissemination of information. By pressing political agents and determining the “agenda” of a lot of the media, users demonstrate that we stand at an ideal platform for creating both real social movements and more or less fleeting events, as manifestos or virtual campaigns. Nonetheless, in order to understand the role of virtual social networks in today’s world, we need to answer some prior questions. Are we facing a new communication model, whereby the product of “disinterested” interactivity creates an aura of confidence in disseminated information, often quite higher that that seen in the “old media”? Will that interactivity be a chance to fight-off citizens’ growing detachment with regard to the “res publica”? Will we find in citizen-made journalism, transmitted through virtual social networks, the consecration of a true fourth power? On the other hand, can we call the distinct collective movements we have seen emerging true “social movements”?The present article aims to examine this and other issues that come to the fore in the intricate social world of cyberspace.

  16. Undermining and Strengthening Social Networks through Network Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Jonathan; Yoder, Jordan; Evans, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Social networks have well documented effects at the individual and aggregate level. Consequently it is often useful to understand how an attempt to influence a network will change its structure and consequently achieve other goals. We develop a framework for network modification that allows for arbitrary objective functions, types of modification (e.g. edge weight addition, edge weight removal, node removal, and covariate value change), and recovery mechanisms (i.e. how a network responds to interventions). The framework outlined in this paper helps both to situate the existing work on network interventions but also opens up many new possibilities for intervening in networks. In particular use two case studies to highlight the potential impact of empirically calibrating the objective function and network recovery mechanisms as well as showing how interventions beyond node removal can be optimised. First, we simulate an optimal removal of nodes from the Noordin terrorist network in order to reduce the expected number of attacks (based on empirically predicting the terrorist collaboration network from multiple types of network ties). Second, we simulate optimally strengthening ties within entrepreneurial ecosystems in six developing countries. In both cases we estimate ERGM models to simulate how a network will endogenously evolve after intervention.

  17. Internet use, social networks, loneliness, and quality of life among adults aged 50 and older: mediating and moderating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia; Vitman-Schorr, Adi

    2018-02-01

    The increase in longevity of people on one hand, and on the other hand the fact that the social networks in later life become increasingly narrower, highlights the importance of Internet use to enhance quality of life (QoL). However, whether Internet use increases or decreases social networks, loneliness, and quality of life is not clear-cut. To explore the direct and/or indirect effects of Internet use on QoL, and to examine whether ethnicity and time the elderly spent with family moderate the mediation effect of Internet use on quality of life throughout loneliness. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out in 2016 by structured interviews with a convenience sample of 502 respondents aged 50 and older, living in northern Israel. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing mediation a model. Use of the Internet was found to be positively associated with QoL. However, this relationship was mediated by loneliness, and moderated by the time the elderly spent with family members. In addition, respondents' ethnicity significantly moderated the mediation effect between Internet use and loneliness. Internet use can enhance QoL of older adults directly or indirectly by reducing loneliness. However, these effects are conditional on other variables. The indirect effect moderated by ethnicity, and the direct effect moderated by the time the elderly spend with their families. Researchers and practitioners should be aware of these interactions which can impact loneliness and quality of life of older persons differently.

  18. The interplay of friendship networks and social networking sites: longitudinal analysis of selection and influence effects on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends' risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors.

  19. Privacy and Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Dianne M.; Duven, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    College students are relying on the Internet to make connections with other people every day. As the Internet has developed and grown, so have the capabilities for interaction. Social networking sites, a group of Web sites that provide people with the opportunity to create an online profile and to share that profile with others, are a part of…

  20. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  1. Self-efficacy and social networks after treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression: disentangling person and time-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Matthew J; Trim, Ryan S; Tate, Susan R; Roesch, Scott C; Myers, Mark G; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-12-01

    Proximal personal and environmental factors typically predict outcomes of treatment for alcohol or drug dependence (AODD), but longitudinal treatment studies have rarely examined these factors in adults with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In adults with AODD and major depression, the aims of this study were to: (a) disaggregate person-and time-level components of network substance use and self-efficacy, (b) examine their prospective effects on posttreatment alcohol/drug use, and (c) examine whether residential environment moderated relations between these proximal factors and substance use outcomes. Veterans (N = 201) enrolled in a trial of group psychotherapy for AODD and independent MDD completed assessments every 3 months during 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. Outcome variables were percent days drinking (PDD) and using drugs (PDDRG). Proximal variables included abstinence self-efficacy and social network drinking and drug use. Self-efficacy and network substance use at the person-level prospectively predicted PDD (ps effects of social networks predicted future PDD (ps social network effects (ps network and posttreatment drinking and drug use. Both individual differences and time-specific fluctuations in proximal targets of psychosocial interventions are related to posttreatment substance use in adults with co-occurring AODD and MDD. More structured environmental settings appear to alleviate risk associated with social network substance use, and may be especially advised for those who have greater difficulty altering social networks during outpatient treatment.

  2. Spreading gossip in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Pedro G.; da Silva, Luciano R.; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2007-09-01

    We study a simple model of information propagation in social networks, where two quantities are introduced: the spread factor, which measures the average maximal reachability of the neighbors of a given node that interchange information among each other, and the spreading time needed for the information to reach such a fraction of nodes. When the information refers to a particular node at which both quantities are measured, the model can be taken as a model for gossip propagation. In this context, we apply the model to real empirical networks of social acquaintances and compare the underlying spreading dynamics with different types of scale-free and small-world networks. We find that the number of friendship connections strongly influences the probability of being gossiped. Finally, we discuss how the spread factor is able to be applied to other situations.

  3. Spreading gossip in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Pedro G; da Silva, Luciano R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-09-01

    We study a simple model of information propagation in social networks, where two quantities are introduced: the spread factor, which measures the average maximal reachability of the neighbors of a given node that interchange information among each other, and the spreading time needed for the information to reach such a fraction of nodes. When the information refers to a particular node at which both quantities are measured, the model can be taken as a model for gossip propagation. In this context, we apply the model to real empirical networks of social acquaintances and compare the underlying spreading dynamics with different types of scale-free and small-world networks. We find that the number of friendship connections strongly influences the probability of being gossiped. Finally, we discuss how the spread factor is able to be applied to other situations.

  4. VIRTUAL SOCIAL NETWORKS AND THEIR UTILIZATION FOR PROMOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Stefko; Peter Dorcak; Frantisek Pollak

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with current knowledge of social media with the focus on social networks. Social media offer great opportunities for businesses. However, in order to use these new business channels in the most effective way, businesses need relevant information. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the state of utilization of social networks by businesses as well as home and foreign customers. The aim is also to point out on the importance of networking as a tool for acquiring an...

  5. The research of development dynamics of electronic social networks for the effective advertisement of online shops in the segment of Ukrainian network business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Grabar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research results of development dynamics of the Ukrainian segment of different social networks in the global network. The general methods of creation and development of online shop are described. The methods of creation and development of marketing communications for online shops and their influence on the development of electronic business in Ukraine are presented. The article gives the detailed analysis of statistical data on age & gender related distribution of the Ukrainian segment of the biggest world social networks. The author also introduces new instruments for marketing communications worked out by every social network. The basic principles of advertisement campaign realization for online shops with the use of target audience of certain groups in social networks are generalized.

  6. Social structure of Facebook networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traud, Amanda L.; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the social structure of Facebook “friendship” networks at one hundred American colleges and universities at a single point in time, and we examine the roles of user attributes-gender, class year, major, high school, and residence-at these institutions. We investigate the influence of common attributes at the dyad level in terms of assortativity coefficients and regression models. We then examine larger-scale groupings by detecting communities algorithmically and comparing them to network partitions based on user characteristics. We thereby examine the relative importance of different characteristics at different institutions, finding for example that common high school is more important to the social organization of large institutions and that the importance of common major varies significantly between institutions. Our calculations illustrate how microscopic and macroscopic perspectives give complementary insights on the social organization at universities and suggest future studies to investigate such phenomena further.

  7. Competing opinion diffusion on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    Opinion competition is a common phenomenon in real life, such as with opinions on controversial issues or political candidates; however, modelling this competition remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we propose a model of competing opinion diffusion on social networks taking into account degree-dependent fitness or persuasiveness. We study the combined influence of social networks, individual fitnesses and attributes, as well as mass media on people's opinions, and find that both social networks and mass media act as amplifiers in opinion diffusion, the amplifying effect of which can be quantitatively characterized. We analytically obtain the probability that each opinion will ultimately pervade the whole society when there are no committed people in networks, and the final proportion of each opinion at the steady state when there are committed people in networks. The results of numerical simulations show good agreement with those obtained through an analytical approach. This study provides insight into the collective influence of individual attributes, local social networks and global media on opinion diffusion, and contributes to a comprehensive understanding of competing diffusion behaviours in the real world.

  8. Community Core Evolution in Mobile Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Community detection in social networks attracts a lot of attention in the recent years. Existing methods always depict the relationship of two nodes using the temporary connection. However, these temporary connections cannot be fully recognized as the real relationships when the history connections among nodes are considered. For example, a casual visit in Facebook cannot be seen as an establishment of friendship. Hence, our question is the following: how to cluster the real friends in mobile social networks? In this paper, we study the problem of detecting the stable community core in mobile social networks. The cumulative stable contact is proposed to depict the relationship among nodes. The whole process is divided into timestamps. Nodes and their connections can be added or removed at each timestamp, and historical contacts are considered when detecting the community core. Also, community cores can be tracked through the incremental computing, which can help to recognize the evolving of community structure. Empirical studies on real-world social networks demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect stable community cores in mobile social networks.

  9. Community core evolution in mobile social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Xiao, Weidong; Tang, Daquan; Tang, Jiuyang; Wang, Zhenwen

    2013-01-01

    Community detection in social networks attracts a lot of attention in the recent years. Existing methods always depict the relationship of two nodes using the temporary connection. However, these temporary connections cannot be fully recognized as the real relationships when the history connections among nodes are considered. For example, a casual visit in Facebook cannot be seen as an establishment of friendship. Hence, our question is the following: how to cluster the real friends in mobile social networks? In this paper, we study the problem of detecting the stable community core in mobile social networks. The cumulative stable contact is proposed to depict the relationship among nodes. The whole process is divided into timestamps. Nodes and their connections can be added or removed at each timestamp, and historical contacts are considered when detecting the community core. Also, community cores can be tracked through the incremental computing, which can help to recognize the evolving of community structure. Empirical studies on real-world social networks demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect stable community cores in mobile social networks.

  10. SocialBrowsing: Integrating Social Networks and Web Browsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golbeck, Jennifer; Wasser, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    .... The extension is paired with services provided by social networking websites, analyzes the page's contents, and adds tooltips and highlighting to indicate when there is relevant social information...

  11. Social Network Change Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloh, Ian A; Carley, Kathleen M

    2008-01-01

    ... between group members. The ability to systematically, statistically, effectively and efficiently detect these changes has the potential to enable the anticipation of change, provide early warning of change, and enable...

  12. The Influence of Social Networking Sites on High School Students' Social and Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, June

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of social network sites on youth social and academic development. First, I provide a critical analysis of the extant research literature surrounding social network sites and youth. I merge scholarly thought in the areas of Internet studies, digital divides, social capital theory, psychological well-being,…

  13. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  14. Social inheritance can explain the structure of animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Akçay, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The social network structure of animal populations has major implications for survival, reproductive success, sexual selection and pathogen transmission of individuals. But as of yet, no general theory of social network structure exists that can explain the diversity of social networks observed in nature, and serve as a null model for detecting species and population-specific factors. Here we propose a simple and generally applicable model of social network structure. We consider the emergence of network structure as a result of social inheritance, in which newborns are likely to bond with maternal contacts, and via forming bonds randomly. We compare model output with data from several species, showing that it can generate networks with properties such as those observed in real social systems. Our model demonstrates that important observed properties of social networks, including heritability of network position or assortative associations, can be understood as consequences of social inheritance. PMID:27352101

  15. [Effects of companion animals on owner's subjective well-being and social networks in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Megumi

    2006-04-01

    A multi-method approach was used to examine whether and how companion animals (CA) affect subjective well-being and social networks of Japanese people. In Study 1, a mail survey with a probability sample of 1250 Japanese adults over 40 years old showed that (1) female owners' attachment to CA negatively correlated with subjective well-being, and (2) although younger (under 65) CA owners had more close friends than non-owners, this tendency was reversed for those over 65. In Study 2, in-depth interviews with 27 adults showed that (1) female CA owners reported lower subjective well-being than non-owners, (2) although CA owners were generally successful in interacting with strangers through CA-related behaviors such as dog-walking, those relationships were unlikely to become close, and (3) in contrast to the owners' tendency to portray themselves in positive ways, most non-owners described CA owners negatively, such as being lonely or bad-mannered. Based on the present findings, which sharply contradict those of previous studies in the western societies, future issues are discussed.

  16. Interests diffusion in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  17. Food: Transformation in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria N. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modem network and digitalized society is full of social changes in various accustomed spheres of our lives including transformation in food practices. The author gives an example of the easiest way how to book food virtually and get it home this day according to tastes of a customer. Moreover the article represents new forms of specific societies existed in the Internet called food-blogs. This, on the author's mind, changes the traditional mechanism of people's choice. Food-blogs are analyzed through the prism of multifunctionalism and dynamics of food and trust. When the process of food preparing and eating attains new communicative functions. Moreover the author notes some social reasons why one user choses this or that food-blog. For instance, the popularity of blogger and network users trust, mostly «blinded». Beside the point, the conception of «trust» used in the text is based on science works of contemporary sociologist P. Sztompka. Both socialized and communicative functions of food are described through theories of R. Bart and G. Simmel. It is underlined in the text that food transforms and gains new qualities notin traditional ways we used to think but in social and cultural construction in virtual space and through network communication.

  18. Social Networking: It's Not What You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the current uses of the social networking sites available on the internet. It list some of the skills that are now considered obsolete and reviews the major social networking sites.

  19. Complexities of social networks: A Physicist's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Parongama

    2006-01-01

    The review is a survey of the present status of research in social networks highlighting the topics of small world property, degree distributions, community structure, assortativity, modelling, dynamics and searching in social networks.

  20. Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social networks (SNs) are social frameworks that form good entry points for business and socio-economic developments. Social networks are important for small-scale, resource-poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, who overly rely on informal sources of information. SNs provide opportunities for establishing effective ...

  1. Leveraging social networks for toxicovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Michael; Genes, Nicholas; McKenzie, Andrew; Manini, Alex F

    2013-06-01

    The landscape of drug abuse is shifting. Traditional means of characterizing these changes, such as national surveys or voluntary reporting by frontline clinicians, can miss changes in usage the emergence of novel drugs. Delays in detecting novel drug usage patterns make it difficult to evaluate public policy aimed at altering drug abuse. Increasingly, newer methods to inform frontline providers to recognize symptoms associated with novel drugs or methods of administration are needed. The growth of social networks may address this need. The objective of this manuscript is to introduce tools for using data from social networks to characterize drug abuse. We outline a structured approach to analyze social media in order to capture emerging trends in drug abuse by applying powerful methods from artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling. First, we describe how to obtain data from social networks such as Twitter using publicly available automated programmatic interfaces. Then, we discuss how to use artificial intelligence techniques to extract content useful for purposes of toxicovigilance. This filtered content can be employed to generate real-time maps of drug usage across geographical regions. Beyond describing the real-time epidemiology of drug abuse, techniques from computational linguistics can uncover ways that drug discussions differ from other online conversations. Next, graph theory can elucidate the structure of networks discussing drug abuse, helping us learn what online interactions promote drug abuse and whether these interactions differ among drugs. Finally, agent-based modeling relates online interactions to psychological archetypes, providing a link between epidemiology and behavior. An analysis of social media discussions about drug abuse patterns with computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling permits the real-time monitoring and characterization of trends of drugs of abuse. These

  2. The Role of Social Network Technologies in Online Health Promotion: A Narrative Review of Theoretical and Empirical Factors Influencing Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Social network technologies have become part of health education and wider health promotion—either by design or happenstance. Social support, peer pressure, and information sharing in online communities may affect health behaviors. If there are positive and sustained effects, then social network technologies could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of many public health campaigns. Social media alone, however, may be insufficient to promote health. Furthermore, there may be unintended and potentially harmful consequences of inaccurate or misleading health information. Given these uncertainties, there is a need to understand and synthesize the evidence base for the use of online social networking as part of health promoting interventions to inform future research and practice. Objective Our aim was to review the research on the integration of expert-led health promotion interventions with online social networking in order to determine the extent to which the complementary benefits of each are understood and used. We asked, in particular, (1) How is effectiveness being measured and what are the specific problems in effecting health behavior change?, and (2) To what extent is the designated role of social networking grounded in theory? Methods The narrative synthesis approach to literature review was used to analyze the existing evidence. We searched the indexed scientific literature using keywords associated with health promotion and social networking. The papers included were only those making substantial study of both social networking and health promotion—either reporting the results of the intervention or detailing evidence-based plans. General papers about social networking and health were not included. Results The search identified 162 potentially relevant documents after review of titles and abstracts. Of these, 42 satisfied the inclusion criteria after full-text review. Six studies described randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating

  3. The Role of Social Network Technologies in Online Health Promotion: A Narrative Review of Theoretical and Empirical Factors Influencing Intervention Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatsoukas, Panos; Kennedy, Catriona M; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John

    2015-06-11

    Social network technologies have become part of health education and wider health promotion—either by design or happenstance. Social support, peer pressure, and information sharing in online communities may affect health behaviors. If there are positive and sustained effects, then social network technologies could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of many public health campaigns. Social media alone, however, may be insufficient to promote health. Furthermore, there may be unintended and potentially harmful consequences of inaccurate or misleading health information. Given these uncertainties, there is a need to understand and synthesize the evidence base for the use of online social networking as part of health promoting interventions to inform future research and practice. Our aim was to review the research on the integration of expert-led health promotion interventions with online social networking in order to determine the extent to which the complementary benefits of each are understood and used. We asked, in particular, (1) How is effectiveness being measured and what are the specific problems in effecting health behavior change?, and (2) To what extent is the designated role of social networking grounded in theory? The narrative synthesis approach to literature review was used to analyze the existing evidence. We searched the indexed scientific literature using keywords associated with health promotion and social networking. The papers included were only those making substantial study of both social networking and health promotion—either reporting the results of the intervention or detailing evidence-based plans. General papers about social networking and health were not included. The search identified 162 potentially relevant documents after review of titles and abstracts. Of these, 42 satisfied the inclusion criteria after full-text review. Six studies described randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of online social

  4. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  5. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  6. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  7. Social Network Analysis and informal trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    networks can be applied to better understand informal trade in developing countries, with a particular focus on Africa. The paper starts by discussing some of the fundamental concepts developed by social network analysis. Through a number of case studies, we show how social network analysis can...... illuminate the relevant causes of social patterns, the impact of social ties on economic performance, the diffusion of resources and information, and the exercise of power. The paper then examines some of the methodological challenges of social network analysis and how it can be combined with other...... approaches. The paper finally highlights some of the applications of social network analysis and their implications for trade policies....

  8. Brand marketing model on social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jezukevičiūtė, Jolita; Davidavičienė, Vida

    2014-01-01

    Paper analyzes the brand and its marketing solutions on social networks. This analysis led to the creation of improved brand marketing model on social networks, which will contribute to the rapid and cheap organization brand recognition, increase competitive advantage and enhance consumer loyalty. Therefore, the brand and a variety of social networks are becoming a hot research area for brand marketing model on social networks. The world‘s most successful brand marketing models exploratory an...

  9. Social networking services: technologies and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Puzyrnyy, Oleksandr

    2011-01-01

    Puzyrnyy, Oleksandr. 2011. Social networking services: technologies and applications. Bachelor's Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 52. The aim of this thesis is to describe the concept of social networking, its technological base, business opportunities and future perspectives. The study discovers how social networks are made and which different purposes they might have. In addition, social networking is viewed as a part of business strategy o...

  10. Social inertia and diversity in collaboration networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasco, J. J.

    2007-04-01

    Random graphs are useful tools to study social interactions. In particular, the use of weighted random graphs allows to handle a high level of information concerning which agents interact and in which degree the interactions take place. Taking advantage of this representation, we recently defined a magnitude, the Social Inertia, that measures the eagerness of agents to keep ties with previous partners. To study this magnitude, we used collaboration networks that are specially appropriate to obtain valid statitical results due to the large size of publically available databases. In this work, I study the Social Inertia in two of these empirical networks, IMDB movie database and condmat. More specifically, I focus on how the Inertia relates to other properties of the graphs, and show that the Inertia provides information on how the weight of neighboring edges correlates. A social interpretation of this effect is also offered.

  11. Social Networks and Smoking: Exploring the Effects of Influence and Smoker Popularity through Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, David R.; adams, jimi; Haas, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent smoking and friendship networks are related in many ways that can amplify smoking prevalence. Understanding and developing interventions within such a complex system requires new analytic approaches. We draw upon recent advances in dynamic network modeling to develop a technique that explores the implications of various intervention strategies targeted toward micro-level processes. Our approach begins by estimating a stochastic actor-based model using data from one school in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The model provides estimates of several factors predicting friendship ties and smoking behavior. We then use estimated model parameters to simulate the co-evolution of friendship and smoking behavior under potential intervention scenarios. Namely, we manipulate the strength of peer influence on smoking and the popularity of smokers relative to nonsmokers. We measure how these manipulations affect smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Results indicate that both peer influence and smoking-based popularity affect smoking behavior, and that their joint effects are nonlinear. This study demonstrates how a simulation-based approach can be used to explore alternative scenarios that may be achievable through intervention efforts and offers new hypotheses about the association between friendship and smoking. PMID:24084397

  12. Social networks and smoking: exploring the effects of peer influence and smoker popularity through simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, David R; Adams, Jimi; Haas, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent smoking and friendship networks are related in many ways that can amplify smoking prevalence. Understanding and developing interventions within such a complex system requires new analytic approaches. We draw on recent advances in dynamic network modeling to develop a technique that explores the implications of various intervention strategies targeted toward micro-level processes. Our approach begins by estimating a stochastic actor-based model using data from one school in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The model provides estimates of several factors predicting friendship ties and smoking behavior. We then use estimated model parameters to simulate the coevolution of friendship and smoking behavior under potential intervention scenarios. Namely, we manipulate the strength of peer influence on smoking and the popularity of smokers relative to nonsmokers. We measure how these manipulations affect smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Results indicate that both peer influence and smoking-based popularity affect smoking behavior and that their joint effects are nonlinear. This study demonstrates how a simulation-based approach can be used to explore alternative scenarios that may be achievable through intervention efforts and offers new hypotheses about the association between friendship and smoking.

  13. Effects of Cultural Tightness-Looseness and Social Network Density on Expression of Positive and Negative Emotions: A Large-Scale Study of Impression Management by Facebook Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Chan, David; Qiu, Lin; Tov, William; Tong, Victor Joo Chuan

    2018-05-01

    Using data from 13,789 Facebook users across U.S. states, this study examined the main effects of societal-level cultural tightness-looseness and its interaction effects with individuals' social network density on impression management (IM) in terms of online emotional expression. Results showed that individuals from culturally tight (vs. loose) states were more likely to express positive emotions and less likely to express negative emotions. Meanwhile, for positive emotional expression, there was a tightness-looseness by social network density interaction effect. In culturally tight states, individuals with dense (vs. sparse) networks were more likely to express positive emotions, while in culturally loose states this pattern was reversed. For negative emotional expression, however, no such interaction was observed. Our findings highlight the influence of cultural norms and social network structure on emotional expressions as IM strategies.

  14. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  15. Organizational Application of Social Networking Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative research study using the Delphi method is to provide a framework for leaders to develop their own social networks. By exploring concerns in four areas, leaders may be able to better plan, implement, and manage social networking systems in organizations. The areas addressed are: (a) social networking using…

  16. Comparing the effects of education using telephone follow-up and smartphone-based social networking follow-up on self-management behaviors among patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Sharifian, Sanaz; Nasr Isfahani, Mehdi; Haghani, Hamid

    2018-03-05

    Little is known about the benefits of social networks in the management of patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of self-management (SM) education using telephone follow-up and mobile phone-based social networking on SM behaviors among patients with hypertension. This randomized clinical trial was conducted with 100 patients. They were randomly allocated to four groups: (i) control, (ii) SM training without follow-up, (iii) telephone follow-up and (iv) smartphone-based social networking follow-up. The hypertension SM behavior questionnaire was used for data collection before and six weeks after the study. Those patients who underwent SM education training (with and without follow-up) had statistically significant differences from those in the control group in terms of SM behaviors (p social networking follow-up influenced SM behaviors among patients with hypertension.

  17. The moderating role of attachment anxiety on social network site use intensity and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihua; Shi, Junqi; Liu, Yihao; Sheng, Zitong

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the moderating role of attachment anxiety on the relationship between intensity of social network site use and bridging, bonding, and maintained social capital. Data from 322 undergraduate Chinese students were collected. Hierarchical regression analyses showed positive relationships between online intensity of social network site use and the three types of social capital. Moreover, attachment anxiety moderated the effect of intensity of social network site use on social capital. Specifically, for students with lower attachment anxiety, the relationships between intensity of social network site use and bonding and bridging social capital were stronger than those with higher attachment anxiety. The result suggested that social network sites cannot improve highly anxiously attached individuals' social capital effectively; they may need more face-to-face communications.

  18. Social Networks and Students' Orthography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Azizovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied spelling and technical errors of students on social networks (facebook, twitter, e-mail. Social networks have over the last decade become the primary means of communication, which have more than ever made real the idea of "one world - one village". Their usage is in the most part based on language, i.e. on the writing itself and reading of the same as its most complex parts. New aspects of the use of writing, which exclude handwriting, are already using some new writing platform, such as keyboards, smart - touch surfaces, etc., provide new opportunities for redefining, as well as challenges for the writings. This paper aims to give a modest contribution in this direction.

  19. Organ trade using social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrogy, Waleed; Jawdat, Dunia; Alsemari, Muhannad; Alharbi, Abdulrahman; Alasaad, Abdullah; Hajeer, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30%) from donors or sellers, and 392 (70%) from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85%) adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%), and on Facebook 24 (4%). Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  20. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  1. Satisfaction with support versus size of network: differential effects of social support on psychological distress in parents of pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Felicity W K; Peterson, Amy M; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the direct and buffering effects of social support on longer-term global psychological distress among parents coping with pediatric cancer. In both sets of analyses, we examined whether these effects depended on the dimension of social support provided (i.e., satisfaction with support versus size of support network). Participants were 102 parents of pediatric cancer patients. At study entry, parents reported their trait anxiety, depression, and two dimensions of their social support network (satisfaction with support and size of support network). Parents subsequently reported their psychological distress in 3- and 9-month follow-up assessments. Parents' satisfaction with support had a direct effect on longer-term psychological distress; satisfaction was negatively associated with distress at both follow-ups. In contrast, size of support network buffered (moderated) the impact of trait anxiety and depression on later distress. Parents with smaller support networks and higher levels of trait anxiety and depression at baseline had higher levels of psychological distress at both follow-ups; for parents with larger support networks, there was no relationship. Social support can attenuate psychological distress in parents coping with pediatric cancer; however, the nature of the effect depends on the dimension of support. Whereas interventions that focus on increasing satisfaction with social support may benefit all parents, at-risk parents will likely benefit from interventions that ensure they have an adequate number of support resources. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Social Pressure and Environmental Effects on Networks: A Path to Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pereda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study how the pro-social impact due to the vigilance by other individuals is conditioned by both environmental and evolutionary effects. To this aim, we consider a known model where agents play a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game (PDG among themselves and the pay-off matrix of an individual changes according to the number of neighbors that are “vigilant”, i.e., how many neighbors watch out for her behavior. In particular, the temptation to defect decreases linearly with the number of vigilant neighbors. This model proved to support cooperation in specific conditions, and here we check its robustness with different topologies, microscopical update rules and initial conditions. By means of many numerical simulations and few theoretical considerations, we find in which situations the vigilance by the others is more effective in favoring cooperative behaviors and when its influence is weaker.

  3. Social networks and cooperation: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The social network analysis involves social and behavioral science. The decentralization of productive activities, such as the formation of "network organizations" as a result of downsizing of large corporate structures of the past, marked by outsoucing and formation of alliances, shows the importance of this theme. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the theory of cooperation and social networks over a period of 24 years. For this, was performed a bibliometric study with content analysis. The database chosen for the initial sample search was ISI Web of Science. The search topics were “social network” and “cooperation”. Were analyzed 97 articles and their references, through networks of citations. The main identified research groups dealing with issues related to trust, strategic alliances, natural cooperation, game theory, social capital, intensity of interaction, reciprocity and innovation. It was found that the publications occurred in a large number of journals, which indicates that the theme is multidisciplinary, and only five journals published at least three articles. Although the first publication has occurred in 1987, was from 2006 that the publications effectively increased. The areas most related to the theme of the research were performance, evolution, management, graphics, model and game theory.

  4. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  5. Triadic Closure in Core Networks : Disentangling the Effects of Social Distance, National Origin Similarity and Shared Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, Gerald|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835153; Van Duijn, Marijtje; Rydgren, Jens; Edling, Christofer

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the composition and structure of personal networks is affected by meeting opportunities, social distance, and national origin similarity, we aim to disentangle their association with triadic closure in the core of personal networks. We use data (collected 2009) on the core

  6. Triadic closure in core networks: Disentangling the effects of social distance, natoinal origin similarity and shared contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, Gerald; van Duijn, Maria; Rydgren, Jens; Edling, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the composition and structure of personal networks is affected by meeting opportunities, social distance, and national origin similarity, we aim to disentangle their association with triadic closure in the core of personal networks. We use data (collected 2009) on the core

  7. The Role of online Social networks in Teaching and Learning a foreign Language : Effects on Learning Process and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari, E.

    2016-01-01

    Today, online social networks are among the most important communications tools, connecting millions of people with common interests and ideas all over the world (Zaidieh, 2012). The rapid proliferation of Internet services has facilitated access to these networks not only via computers, but also

  8. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a number of organizational memberships, (b number of social networking sites (SNS, and (c grade-point average (GPA on global social responsibility (GSR; and in the indirect effects of (a and of (b through (c on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  9. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B.; Baring, Rito V.; Sta. Maria, Madelene A.

    2016-01-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students. PMID:27247700

  10. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A

    2016-02-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  11. From Offline Social Networks to Online Social Networks: Changes in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed studies of entrepreneurship based on the emergency of online social networks. Similar to offline social networks, entrepreneurs’ online social networks have their own unique characteristics. We first reviewed the offline network based research on entrepreneurship. Then we reviewed the studies of entrepreneurship in the context of online social networks including those focusing on topics of network structures and network ties. We highlighted online network communities based on the data collected from LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter. Our research implies that both researcher and entrepreneurs are facing new opportunities due to the emergence of online social networks.

  12. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  13. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrera

    Full Text Available There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  14. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  15. Brand Marketing Model on Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Jezukevičiūtė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the brand and its marketing solutions onsocial networks. This analysis led to the creation of improvedbrand marketing model on social networks, which will contributeto the rapid and cheap organization brand recognition, increasecompetitive advantage and enhance consumer loyalty. Therefore,the brand and a variety of social networks are becoming a hotresearch area for brand marketing model on social networks.The world‘s most successful brand marketing models exploratoryanalysis of a single case study revealed a brand marketingsocial networking tools that affect consumers the most. Basedon information analysis and methodological studies, develop abrand marketing model on social networks.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF MATERIALISM, SELF-CONGRUITY, INDIVIDUALISM ON ATTITUDE TOWARD AND INTENTION TO SHARE PERSONALIZED ADVERTISEMENT ON SOCIAL NETWORK SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Cengiz; Behçet Yalın Özkara

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of materialism, individualism and self-congruity on the consumers’ intention to share personalized advertisements on social network sites (SNS) and attitude toward such advertisements. For this purpose, using a snowball sampling technique, social media users were invited to participate the study and encouraged to forward the invitation to others. The obtained data from 144 social media users were used to estimate the structural equa...

  17. Handbook of social network technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a concept that has existed for a long time; however, with the explosion of the Internet, social networking has become a tool for people to connect and communicate in ways that were impossible in the past. The recent development of Web 2.0 has provided many new applications, such as Myspace, Facebook, and LinkedIn. The purpose of ""Handbook of Social Networks: Technologies and Applications"" is to provide comprehensive guidelines on the current and future trends in social network technologies and applications in the field of Web-based Social Networks. This handbook includes

  18. Reputation Effects in Social Networks Do Not Promote Cooperation: An Experimental Test of the Raub & Weesie Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, Rense; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Buskens, Vincent; Cook, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the notion that social cohesion in the form of dense social networks promotes cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemmas through reputation, very little experimental evidence for this claim exists. We address this issue by testing hypotheses from one of the few rigorous game-theoretic models on this topic, the Raub & Weesie model, in two incentivized lab experiments. In the experiments, 156 subjects played repeated two-person PDs in groups of six. In the "atomized interactions" condition, subjects were only informed about the outcomes of their own interactions, while in the "embedded" condition, subjects were informed about the outcomes of all interactions in their group, allowing for reputation effects. The design of the experiments followed the specification of the RW model as closely as possible. For those aspects of the model that had to be modified to allow practical implementation in an experiment, we present additional analyses that show that these modifications do not affect the predictions. Contrary to expectations, we do not find that cooperation is higher in the embedded condition than in the atomized interaction. Instead, our results are consistent with an interpretation of the RW model that includes random noise, or with learning models of cooperation in networks.

  19. Estimating the Effects of Students' Social Networks: Does Attending a Norm-Enforcing School Pay Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to forge tighter social relations, small school reformers advocate school designs intended to create smaller, more trusting, and more collaborative settings. These efforts to enhance students' social capital in the form of social closure are ultimately tied to improving academic outcomes. Using data derived from ELS: 2002, this study…

  20. Effects of Peer Networks on the Social Interactions of High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Karen F.; Carter, Erik W.; Gustafson, Jenny R.; Hochman, Julia M.; Harvey, Michelle N.; Mullins, Teagan S.; Fan, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Supporting social interactions and positive peer relationships is an important element of comprehensive secondary education and transition programming. For many adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), such social connections may be fairly limited apart from intentional programming. We examined the efficacy and social validity of peer…

  1. Social-aware data dissemination in opportunistic mobile social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yibo; Zhao, Honglin; Ma, Jinlong; Han, Xiaowei

    Opportunistic Mobile Social Networks (OMSNs), formed by mobile users with social relationships and characteristics, enhance spontaneous communication among users that opportunistically encounter each other. Such networks can be exploited to improve the performance of data forwarding. Discovering optimal relay nodes is one of the important issues for efficient data propagation in OMSNs. Although traditional centrality definitions to identify the nodes features in network, they cannot identify effectively the influential nodes for data dissemination in OMSNs. Existing protocols take advantage of spatial contact frequency and social characteristics to enhance transmission performance. However, existing protocols have not fully exploited the benefits of the relations and the effects between geographical information, social features and user interests. In this paper, we first evaluate these three characteristics of users and design a routing protocol called Geo-Social-Interest (GSI) protocol to select optimal relay nodes. We compare the performance of GSI using real INFOCOM06 data sets. The experiment results demonstrate that GSI overperforms the other protocols with highest data delivery ratio and low communication overhead.

  2. Networking, or What the Social Means in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Taina Bucher

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the meaning of the social in social media. It does this by revisiting boyd and Ellison’s seminal paper and definition of social network sites. The article argues that social media are not so much about articulating or making an existing network visible. Rather, being social in the context of social media simply means creating connections within the boundaries of adaptive algorithmic architectures. Every click, share, like, and post creates a connection, initiates a rela...

  3. Using Social Network Research in HRM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaše, Robert; King, Zella; Minbaeva, Dana

    2013-01-01

    ; the impact of social networking sites on perceptions of relationships; and ethical issues in organizational network analysis, we propose specific suggestions to bring social network perspectives closer to HRM researchers and practitioners and rebalance our attention to people and to their relationships.......The article features a conversation between Rob Cross and Martin Kilduff about organizational network analysis in research and practice. It demonstrates the value of using social network perspectives in HRM. Drawing on the discussion about managing personal networks; managing the networks of others...

  4. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  5. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kim

    Full Text Available Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships. Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students.A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names. Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale.The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters.Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  6. Social Networks and Smoking: Exploring the Effects of Peer Influence and Smoker Popularity through Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, David R.; adams, jimi; Haas, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent smoking and friendship networks are related in many ways that can amplify smoking prevalence. Understanding and developing interventions within such a complex system requires new analytic approaches. We draw on recent advances in dynamic network modeling to develop a technique that explores the implications of various intervention…

  7. Social contagions on correlated multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Meng; Zheng, Muhua

    2018-06-01

    The existence of interlayer degree correlations has been disclosed by abundant multiplex network analysis. However, how they impose on the dynamics of social contagions are remain largely unknown. In this paper, we propose a non-Markovian social contagion model in multiplex networks with inter-layer degree correlations to delineate the behavior spreading, and develop an edge-based compartmental (EBC) theory to describe the model. We find that multiplex networks promote the final behavior adoption size. Remarkably, it can be observed that the growth pattern of the final behavior adoption size, versus the behavioral information transmission probability, changes from discontinuous to continuous once decreasing the behavior adoption threshold in one layer. We finally unravel that the inter-layer degree correlations play a role on the final behavior adoption size but have no effects on the growth pattern, which is coincidence with our prediction by using the suggested theory.

  8. Brand Marketing Model on Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jolita Jezukevičiūtė; Vida Davidavičienė

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the brand and its marketing solutions onsocial networks. This analysis led to the creation of improvedbrand marketing model on social networks, which will contributeto the rapid and cheap organization brand recognition, increasecompetitive advantage and enhance consumer loyalty. Therefore,the brand and a variety of social networks are becoming a hotresearch area for brand marketing model on social networks.The world‘s most successful brand marketing models exploratoryanalys...

  9. The model of social crypto-network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марк Миколайович Орел

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical model of social network with the enhanced mechanism of privacy policy. It covers the problems arising in the process of implementing the mentioned type of network. There are presented the methods of solving problems arising in the process of building the social network with privacy policy. It was built a theoretical model of social networks with enhanced information protection methods based on information and communication blocks

  10. Effects of the Use of Social Network Sites on Task Performance: Toward a Sustainable Performance in a Distracting Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Min

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the use of social network sites (SNS has become increasingly prevalent, its effect on sustainable performance has received much attention. The existing literature has taken either a positive or negative view of SNS, arguing that it either decreases performance by taking time and effort away from work, or increases performance by providing social benefits for enhancing performance. In contrast, this experimental study, investigates how SNS use can disturb or enhance the performance of different types of tasks differently, thus influencing the sustainability of task performance. Based on distraction-conflict theory, this study distinguishes between simple and complex tasks, examines the role of SNS, and analyzes data including electroencephalography data captured by a brain-computer interface. The results show that task performance can be sustainable such that SNS use positively influences performance when participants are engaged in a simple task and influences performance neither positively nor negatively when participants are engaged in a complex task. The study finds the former result is attributable to the positive effect of the psychological arousal induced by SNS use and the latter result to the negative effect of the psychological arousal offsetting the positive effect of reduced stress resulting from SNS use.

  11. Consuming Social Networks: A Study on BeeTalk Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi

    Full Text Available BeeTalk is one of the most common social networks that have attracted many users during these years. As a whole, social networks are parts of everyday life nowadays and, especially among the new generation, have caused some basic alterations in the field of identity-formation, sense-making and the form and content of communication. This article is a research about BeeTalk users, their virtual interactions and experiences, and the feelings, pleasures, meanings and attitudes that they obtain through participating in the virtual world. This is a qualitative research. The sample is selected by way of theoretical sampling among the students of University of Kurdistan. Direct observation and semistructured interviews are used to gathering data, which are interpreted through grounded theory. The findings show that some contexts like “searching real interests in a non-real world” and “the representation of users’ voices in virtual space” have provided the space for participating in BeeTalk, and an intervening factor called “instant availability” has intensified this participation. Users’ participation in this social network has changed their social interaction in the real world and formed some new types of communication among them such as “representation of faked identities”, “experiencing ceremonial space” and “artificial literacy”. Moreover, this participation has some consequences like “virtual addiction” and “virtual collectivism” in users’ everyday life that effects their ways of providing meaning and identity in their social lives. It can be said that the result of user’s activity in this network is to begin a kind of simulated relation that has basic differences with relations in the real world. The experience of relation in this network lacks nobility, enrichment and animation, rather it is instant, artificial and without any potential to vitalization.

  12. Social power and opinion formation in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of social power on the evolution of opinions in model networks as well as in a number of real social networks. A continuous opinion formation model is considered and the analysis is performed through numerical simulation. Social power is given to a proportion of agents selected either randomly or based on their degrees. As artificial network structures, we consider scale-free networks constructed through preferential attachment and Watts-Strogatz networks. Numerical simulations show that scale-free networks with degree-based social power on the hub nodes have an optimal case where the largest number of the nodes reaches a consensus. However, given power to a random selection of nodes could not improve consensus properties. Introducing social power in Watts-Strogatz networks could not significantly change the consensus profile.

  13. Social network ties beyond nonredundancy: an experimental investigation of the effect of knowledge content and tie strength on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Smith, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    Social network research emphasizes the access to nonredundant knowledge content that network ties provide. I suggest that some content is more beneficial than others and that tie strength may affect creativity for reasons other than the associated structure. That is, tie strength may affect how individuals process nonredundant knowledge. I investigate 2 types of knowledge content--information (i.e., facts or data) and frames (i.e., interpretations or impressions)--and explore whether tie strength influences their effect on creativity. Drawing on creativity theory, I employ an experimental design to provide greater theoretical clarity and to isolate causality. According to the results from 2 studies, distinct frames received from contacts facilitate creativity, but the effect of distinct information is more complex. When individuals receive distinct information from strong ties, it constrains creativity compared to distinct frames. Content from weak ties appears to facilitate creativity across all scenarios. The results of mediated moderation analysis indicate the effect of framing versus information for strong ties is driven by decision-making time, as an indicator of cognitive expansion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. SOCIAL NETWORKS AS THE ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojsław Czupryński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the global Internet has changed the way the entire human population communicates. The internet has become a platform, where human societies build their lives, and traditional communication over the last few years has been replaced by social networks. Today, social networks are the subject of many debates concerning their advantages, disadvantages and the ideas of what they bring to the future. Portals are not only the way of communication, fun, an idea to spend free time, but also source of social and humanistic knowledge too. Against that, social media could be a huge risk for those who use them. The assigned job above discusses about the topic the detrimental effect what the social networks bring. A series of deviant behaviors caused by use of the portal is also presented in this report. Often they become a dysfunctional generator of actions that manifest themselves among the youth. Consequently, there was a need to take action to stop the growth of this phenomenon among young people. First of all the primary activities at this level are prevention and education in the family.

  15. Social Networks and Health Knowledge in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    such as education and access to social networks explain part of the gap, a substantial part of the health knowledge gap is left unexplained. All groups have greater health knowledge in urban than in rural areas, but the gap is even wider in urban than in rural areas. Additionally, high caste women benefit more...... in terms of health knowledge from having health networks than women from other groups; except if the health person is of the same caste/religion, in which case low caste and Muslim women sometimes benefit by as much as double that of high caste women, or even more. It may therefore not be enough to give...... individuals access to high quality networks if caste and religion-related gaps in health knowledge are to be reduced; such networks also have to be homophilous, to have the maximum effect. Improved treatment from and confidence in the medical profession is found to be part of the mechanism linking health...

  16. Virtual First Impressions Matter: The Effect of Social Networking Sites on Impression Formation in Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of social media has changed the way individuals communicate and collaborate both within and outside the organization. While social media has the potential to change how organizations interact internally, minimal research has examined the impact this media may have within a virtual team environment. This dissertation examines a…

  17. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  18. Social networks of patients with psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Claudia; Volpe, Umberto; Matanov, Aleksandra; Priebe, Stefan; Giacco, Domenico

    2015-10-12

    Social networks are important for mental health outcomes as they can mobilise resources and help individuals to cope with social stressors. Individuals with psychosis may have specific difficulties in establishing and maintaining social relationships which impacts on their well-being and quality of life. There has been a growing interest in developing social network interventions for patients with psychotic disorders. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the size of social networks of patients with psychotic disorders, as well as their friendship networks. A systematic electronic search was carried out in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases using a combination of search terms relating to 'social network', 'friendship' and 'psychotic disorder'. The search identified 23 relevant papers. Out of them, 20 reported patient social network size. Four papers reported the mean number of friends in addition to whole network size, while three further papers focused exclusively on the number of friends. Findings varied substantially across the studies, with a weighted mean size of 11.7 individuals for whole social networks and 3.4 individuals for friendship networks. On average, 43.1 % of the whole social network was composed of family members, while friends accounted for 26.5 %. Studies assessing whole social network size and friendship networks of people with psychosis are difficult to compare as different concepts and methods of assessment were applied. The extent of the overlap between different social roles assessed in the networks was not always clear. Greater conceptual and methodological clarity is needed in order to help the development of effective strategies to increase social resources of patients with psychosis.

  19. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Social buffering and contact transmission: network connections have beneficial and detrimental effects on Shigella infection risk among captive rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Balasubramaniam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In social animals, group living may impact the risk of infectious disease acquisition in two ways. On the one hand, social connectedness puts individuals at greater risk or susceptibility for acquiring enteric pathogens via contact-mediated transmission. Yet conversely, in strongly bonded societies like humans and some nonhuman primates, having close connections and strong social ties of support can also socially buffer individuals against susceptibility or transmissibility of infectious agents. Using social network analyses, we assessed the potentially competing roles of contact-mediated transmission and social buffering on the risk of infection from an enteric bacterial pathogen (Shigella flexneri among captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Our results indicate that, within two macaque groups, individuals possessing more direct and especially indirect connections in their grooming and huddling social networks were less susceptible to infection. These results are in sharp contrast to several previous studies that indicate that increased (direct contact-mediated transmission facilitates infectious disease transmission, including our own findings in a third macaque group in which individuals central in their huddling network and/or which initiated more fights were more likely to be infected. In summary, our findings reveal that an individual’s social connections may increase or decrease its chances of acquiring infectious agents. They extend the applicability of the social buffering hypothesis, beyond just stress and immune-function-related health benefits, to the additional health outcome of infectious disease resistance. Finally, we speculate that the circumstances under which social buffering versus contact-mediated transmission may occur could depend on multiple factors, such as living condition, pathogen-specific transmission routes, and/or an overall social context such as a group’s social stability.

  1. Connecting Mobile Users Through Mobile Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Alkhateeb

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social networks become popular with the emerging of web-based social networking services. Recently, several mobile services are developed to connect users to their favourite social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, etc. However, these services depends upon the existing web-based social networks. In this paper, we present a mobile service for joining groups across communities. The originality of the work is that the framework of the service allows creating and joining social networks that are self-contained for mobile company servers. The service consists of several sub-services such as users invitation, group finding and others. Users, regardless of their disability, can use the service and its sub-services without the need to create their own accounts on social web sites and thus their own groups. We also propose a privacy control policy for mobile social networks.

  2. A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian; van der Leij, Marco

    We develop a social network model of occupational segregation between different social groups, generated by the existence of positive inbreeding bias among individuals from the same group. If network referrals are important for job search, then expected homophily in the contact network structure...

  3. Egocentric Social Network Analysis of Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. PMID:23072641

  4. Egocentric social network analysis of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; Clifton, Allan D; Mackillop, James; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-03-01

    To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family and co-workers is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first, to our knowledge, to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Egocentric social network analysis was used to characterize formally the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks than did non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked and drank than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Online Social Networks - Opportunities for Empowering Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Davoodi, Somayeh; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Online social network technologies have become important to health and apply in most health care areas. Particularly in cancer care, because it is a disease which involves many social aspects, online social networks can be very useful. Use of online social networks provides a suitable platform for cancer patients and families to present and share information about their medical conditions, address their educational needs, support decision making, and help to coping with their disease and improve their own outcomes. Like any other new technologies, online social networks, along with many benefits, have some negative effects such as violation of privacy and publication of incorrect information. However, if these effects are managed properly, they can empower patients to manage cancer through changing behavioral patterns and enhancing the quality of cancer patients lives This paper explains some application of online social networks in the cancer patient care process. It also covers advantages and disadvantages of related technologies.

  6. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  7. Social networks and human development / Redes sociales y desarrollo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gallego Trijueque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is a brief introduction to the concept of social networks and their importance in society. Social networks have been responsible over the centuries to preserve community values, in addition to being facilitators of social interaction in human development processes, through communication and relationships between individuals.

  8. Social Media and Social Networking Applications for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Michelle Mei Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to better understand the experiences of the youth and the educators with the tapping of social media like YouTube videos and the social networking application of Facebook for teaching and learning. This paper is interested in appropriating the benefits of leveraging of social media and networking applications like YouTube and…

  9. The Effects of Profile Pictures and Friends' Comments on Social Network Site Users' Body Image and Adherence to the Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to explore the effects of exposure to Facebook body ideal profile pictures and norm conforming comments on users' body image. In addition, the social identity and self-categorization theoretical frameworks were used to explore users' endorsement of a body ideal norm. A mock Facebook page was used to conduct a pretest posttest 2 × 2 between-group web-based experiment that featured body ideal profile pictures (body ideal vs. no body) and body ideal comments (conforming vs. nonconforming). Five hundred and one participants completed the experiment and passed all manipulation checks. Participants viewed pictures and comments on the status page and were able to leave their own comment before exiting. Results demonstrated no significant main effects. However, predispositional body satisfaction significantly moderated the relationship between body ideal pictures and body satisfaction. Most comments supported the body ideal norm. However, in support of self-categorization theory, participants exposed to nonconforming comments made nonconforming comments themselves significantly more than those exposed to conforming comments. The findings demonstrated the importance of continued body image research in social network sites, as well as the potential for self-categorization theory to guide such research.

  10. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-08-01

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Spatially Distributed Social Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Frasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bare-bones stochastic model that takes into account both the geographical distribution of people within a country and their complex network of connections. The model, which is designed to give rise to a scale-free network of social connections and to visually resemble the geographical spread seen in satellite pictures of the Earth at night, gives rise to a power-law distribution for the ranking of cities by population size (but for the largest cities and reflects the notion that highly connected individuals tend to live in highly populated areas. It also yields some interesting insights regarding Gibrat’s law for the rates of city growth (by population size, in partial support of the findings in a recent analysis of real data [Rozenfeld et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 18702 (2008.]. The model produces a nontrivial relation between city population and city population density and a superlinear relationship between social connectivity and city population, both of which seem quite in line with real data.

  12. Spatially Distributed Social Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasco, Gerald F.; Sun, Jie; Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a bare-bones stochastic model that takes into account both the geographical distribution of people within a country and their complex network of connections. The model, which is designed to give rise to a scale-free network of social connections and to visually resemble the geographical spread seen in satellite pictures of the Earth at night, gives rise to a power-law distribution for the ranking of cities by population size (but for the largest cities) and reflects the notion that highly connected individuals tend to live in highly populated areas. It also yields some interesting insights regarding Gibrat's law for the rates of city growth (by population size), in partial support of the findings in a recent analysis of real data [Rozenfeld et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 18702 (2008).]. The model produces a nontrivial relation between city population and city population density and a superlinear relationship between social connectivity and city population, both of which seem quite in line with real data.

  13. Characteristics of the Social Support Networks of Maltreated Youth: Exploring the Effects of Maltreatment Experience and Foster Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; James, Adam; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the social support networks of maltreated youth or how youth in foster care may compare with those who remain with their parent(s). Social network characteristics and perceived social support were examined between (1) maltreated and comparison youth, (2) maltreated youth who remained with their biological parent, those with a foster parent, or a those with a kin caregiver, and (3) youth in stable placements and those who have changed placements. Data came from a sample of 454 adolescents (241 boys, 9-13 years old at enrollment) who took part in a longitudinal study of child maltreatment. Participants completed three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Results showed that on average, maltreated adolescents named significantly fewer people in their network than comparison adolescents. At Time 2, comparison adolescents reported more same-aged friends. In the maltreatment group, youth with a foster parent reported significantly more older friends than maltreated youth with a kin caregiver. Fewer maltreated youth named a biological parent on the social support questionnaire at all three time points. More youth in kinship care described their caregiver as supportive than those in foster care. These findings indicate that despite heterogeneous placement histories, social support networks among maltreated youth were very similar.

  14. Use of Social Network Sites and Instant Messaging Does Not Lead to Increased Offline Social Network Size, or to Emotionally Closer Relationships with Offline Network Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    The effect of Internet use on social relationships is still a matter of intense debate. This study examined the relationships between use of social media (instant messaging and social network sites), network size, and emotional closeness in a sample of 117 individuals aged 18 to 63 years old. Time

  15. Academics and Social Networking Sites: Benefits, Problems and Tensions in Professional Engagement with Online Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a large-scale dataset published by Nature Publishing Group detailing the results of a survey about academics use of online social networking services. An ope...

  16. IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DISCLOSURE ON GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bo; Dan Shen; Jin Jun Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss effectiveness of social responsibility disclosure in promoting global production network. Through a critical review on the theoretical development from supply chain to global production network, the global supply chain management of Apple Inc., as a case, is investigated, with focus on corporate and NGOs’ social disclosure on the environmental and labor rights' issues of its suppliers in China. The paper concludes that effectiveness of corporate social disclosure on...

  17. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Social networks in cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Fadia T; Yan, Xia; Farshid, Maryam; Barakat, Samer; Jung, Miah; Low, Sara; Fedder, Donald

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Social networks have a positive association with obesity, smoking cessation and weight loss. This article summarizes studies evaluating the impact of social networks on the management of cardiovascular disease. The 35 studies included in the article describe the impact of social networks on a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, depression and mortality. In addition, having a large-sized social network is also associated with better outcomes and improved health. The role of pharmacists is beginning to play an important role in the patient-centered medical home, which needs to be incorporated into social networks. The patient-centered medical home can serve as an adaptive source for social network evolvement.

  19. Message framing in social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  20. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs.

  1. Social Networking Sites: A premise on enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    MANINDERPAL SINGH SAINI; GYEWON MOON

    2013-01-01

    This article address five constructs that are paramount toward continued evolution of social networking sites (SNS`s) they include, - stabilisation, visual, language, security and flexibility. These constructs add to our proposed framework. Firmly grounded research on social networking sites and literature, we propose that user feedback, is the critical component that stimulates the development and growth of social networking sites online. We offer a framework that can aid new and current soc...

  2. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party) through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistribut...

  3. The Strategic Paradox of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    United States claimed to have met online.9 And in 2010, Facebook claimed over 500 million users, which would make the social networking service the...service culture, or occupational specialty. One drawback with social networks concerns the protection of individual privacy. Facebook , for...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE STRATEGIC PARADOX OF SOCIAL NETWORKS BY COLONEL ROBERT COTE United States Marine Corps

  4. The Effects of Day-to-Day Interaction via Social Network Sites on Interpersonal Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, David J

    2012-01-01

    The current research identifies the impact of sharing day-to-day information insocial network sites (SNS) on the relationships we hold within and outside of them. Stemming from the literature on self-disclosure, uncertainty reduction, personal relationships, privacy and computer-mediated communication (CMC), a concurrent triangulation research strategy is adopted to identify the patterns of relationship development and interaction in SNS. Using a mixed methods approach, five studies were cond...

  5. Social network analysis community detection and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Missaoui, Rokia

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in social network analysis with a high focus on community detection and evolution. The eleven chapters cover the identification of cohesive groups, core components and key players either in static or dynamic networks of different kinds and levels of heterogeneity. Other important topics in social network analysis such as influential detection and maximization, information propagation, user behavior analysis, as well as network modeling and visualization are also presented. Many studies are validated through real social networks such as Twitter. This edit

  6. Privacy Breach Analysis in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Frank

    This chapter addresses various aspects of analyzing privacy breaches in social networks. We first review literature that defines three types of privacy breaches in social networks: interactive, active, and passive. We then survey the various network anonymization schemes that have been constructed to address these privacy breaches. After exploring these breaches and anonymization schemes, we evaluate a measure for determining the level of anonymity inherent in a network graph based on its topological structure. Finally, we close by emphasizing the difficulty of anonymizing social network data while maintaining usability for research purposes and offering areas for future work.

  7. Data mining for social network data

    CERN Document Server

    Memon, Nasrullah; Hicks, David L; Chen, Hsinchun

    2010-01-01

    Driven by counter-terrorism efforts, marketing analysis and an explosion in online social networking in recent years, data mining has moved to the forefront of information science. This proposed Special Issue on ""Data Mining for Social Network Data"" will present a broad range of recent studies in social networking analysis. It will focus on emerging trends and needs in discovery and analysis of communities, solitary and social activities, and activities in open fora, and commercial sites as well. It will also look at network modeling, infrastructure construction, dynamic growth and evolution

  8. Information and influence propagation in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Lakshmanan, Laks V S

    2013-01-01

    Research on social networks has exploded over the last decade. To a large extent, this has been fueled by the spectacular growth of social media and online social networking sites, which continue growing at a very fast pace, as well as by the increasing availability of very large social network datasets for purposes of research. A rich body of this research has been devoted to the analysis of the propagation of information, influence, innovations, infections, practices and customs through networks. Can we build models to explain the way these propagations occur? How can we validate our models

  9. Social relations: network, support and relational strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...

  10. Effects of Knowledge Sharing and Social Presence on the Intention to Continuously Use Social Networking Sites: The Case of Twitter in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong-Won; Lee, Kun Chang

    Recent surge of social networking websites in the world supports a widely accepted assumption that people aspires to be recognized online by sharing information with others, perceive enjoyment and keeps to use their social networking site continuously. Different from traditional social networking sites (SNSs) like Cyworld and Facebook, Twitter is famous for its short message and ease of sharing knowledge with others in a prompt manner. Therefore, Twitter is preferred most by many people who seem innovative generically. In this sense, Twitter accumulates its fame as the most influential SNS media among users. However, there is no study to investigate why people holds continuous intention to use the Twitter from the perspective of knowledge-sharing and social presence. To resolve this research issue, this paper adopts six constructs such as personal innovativeness, knowledge-sharing intention, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, social presence, and intention to continuously use. Empirical results with 105 valid questionnaires revealed that the proposed research model is statistically significant, and people's intention to use the Twitter continuously is influenced by social presence, perceived enjoyment, and perceived ease of use.

  11. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  12. Latent Space Approaches to Social Network Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Peter D; Raftery, Adrian E; Handcock, Mark S

    2001-01-01

    .... In studies of social networks, recent emphasis has been placed on random graph models where the nodes usually represent individual social actors and the edges represent the presence of a specified...

  13. The effect of social network site use on appearance investment and desire for cosmetic surgery among adolescent boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, D.A.; Peter, J.; Nikken, P.; de Graaf, H.

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents frequently use social network sites, little is known about whether the highly visual and self-presentation-centered character of such sites affects body-related outcomes such as investment in appearance and appearance-changing strategies. Due to gender differences in appearance

  14. It is all about being popular: The effects of need for popularity on social network site use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.; Tanis, M.A.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on predictors of social network site (SNS) use has mainly focused on the Big Five, narcissism, and self-esteem. Results have been inconsistent, and variance explained was rather low. Need for popularity (NfP) might be a better predictor of SNS use, because SNSs are ideal venues for

  15. Opinion evolution in different social acquaintance networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Zhan; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Guohua; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Social acquaintance networks influenced by social culture and social policy have a great impact on public opinion evolution in daily life. Based on the differences between socio-culture and social policy, three different social acquaintance networks (kinship-priority acquaintance network, independence-priority acquaintance network, and hybrid acquaintance network) incorporating heredity proportion p h and variation proportion p v are proposed in this paper. Numerical experiments are conducted to investigate network topology and different phenomena during opinion evolution, using the Deffuant model. We found that in kinship-priority acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese traditional acquaintance networks, opinions always achieve fragmentation, resulting in the formation of multiple large clusters and many small clusters due to the fact that individuals believe more in their relatives and live in a relatively closed environment. In independence-priority acquaintance networks, similar to Western acquaintance networks, the results are similar to those in the kinship-priority acquaintance network. In hybrid acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese modern acquaintance networks, only a few clusters are formed indicating that in modern China, opinions are more likely to reach consensus on a large scale. These results are similar to the opinion evolution phenomena in modern society, proving the rationality and applicability of network models combined with social culture and policy. We also found a threshold curve p v +2p h =2.05 in the results for the final opinion clusters and evolution time. Above the threshold curve, opinions could easily reach consensus. Based on the above experimental results, a culture-policy-driven mechanism for the opinion dynamic is worth promoting in this paper, that is, opinion dynamics can be driven by different social cultures and policies through the influence of heredity and variation in interpersonal relationship networks. This

  16. Opinion evolution in different social acquaintance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Zhan; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Guohua; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Social acquaintance networks influenced by social culture and social policy have a great impact on public opinion evolution in daily life. Based on the differences between socio-culture and social policy, three different social acquaintance networks (kinship-priority acquaintance network, independence-priority acquaintance network, and hybrid acquaintance network) incorporating heredity proportion ph and variation proportion pv are proposed in this paper. Numerical experiments are conducted to investigate network topology and different phenomena during opinion evolution, using the Deffuant model. We found that in kinship-priority acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese traditional acquaintance networks, opinions always achieve fragmentation, resulting in the formation of multiple large clusters and many small clusters due to the fact that individuals believe more in their relatives and live in a relatively closed environment. In independence-priority acquaintance networks, similar to Western acquaintance networks, the results are similar to those in the kinship-priority acquaintance network. In hybrid acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese modern acquaintance networks, only a few clusters are formed indicating that in modern China, opinions are more likely to reach consensus on a large scale. These results are similar to the opinion evolution phenomena in modern society, proving the rationality and applicability of network models combined with social culture and policy. We also found a threshold curve pv+2 ph=2.05 in the results for the final opinion clusters and evolution time. Above the threshold curve, opinions could easily reach consensus. Based on the above experimental results, a culture-policy-driven mechanism for the opinion dynamic is worth promoting in this paper, that is, opinion dynamics can be driven by different social cultures and policies through the influence of heredity and variation in interpersonal relationship networks. This

  17. Social networking and privacy attitudes among

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen A. Carruth; Harvey J. Ginsburg

    2014-01-01

    Daily use of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook has become routine for millions of Internet users. Facebook is currently still the most popular social media site. Social networking has been rapidly adopted by societies around the world. In particular, social media like Facebook provide sites where users can personalize a profile with their information, pictures, and videos that can be shared with other users. This information can be used in ways that may violate users’ privacy ...

  18. Mobile Social Network in a Cultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    , and mobile phone rumours, this study observes that mobile social networks are a way that Chinese people cultivate, maintain and strengthen their guanxi networks. Embedding the reliability of guanxi, the message spreading via mobile communication always enjoys high credibility, while mutual obligation...... of mobile social network in China therefore emanate not only from Information and Communication Technologies, but also from the socio-cultural source - guanxi - deeply rooted in Chinese society.......the chapter “Mobile Social Network in a Cultural Context” examines the guanxi-embedded mobile social network in China. By focusing on three concrete case studies with 56 in-depth interviews, including New Year text message greetings, mobile social networks for job allocations among migrant workers...

  19. Mobile social networking an innovative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Daqing

    2014-01-01

    The use of contextually aware, pervasive, distributed computing, and sensor networks to bridge the gap between the physical and online worlds is the basis of mobile social networking. This book shows how applications can be built to provide mobile social networking, the research issues that need to be solved to enable this vision, and how mobile social networking can be used to provide computational intelligence that will improve daily life. With contributions from the fields of sociology, computer science, human-computer interaction and design, this book demonstrates how mobile social networks can be inferred from users' physical interactions both with the environment and with others, as well as how users behave around them and how their behavior differs on mobile vs. traditional online social networks.

  20. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S; Shaw, Leah B; Schwartz, Ira B

    2013-01-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime). (paper)

  1. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-06-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).

  2. Social network in patient safety: Social media visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Santillán García

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet social network (social media is a powerful communication tool, and its use is expanding significantly. This paper seeks to know the current state of visibility in online social networks of active citizen talking about patient safety. This is an observational cross-sectional study whose target population is the websites Facebook, Twitter and Tuenti in Spain. By three consecutive cuts social profiles were found using the searching terms “seguridad+paciente” and “safety+patient”. There were found 5 profiles on Facebook that met the search criteria, 6 on Twitter and none were found on Tuenti. It is concluded that although there is evidence of the rise of social networking, citizen network involved in patient safety appears not to be significantly represented within the social networks examined.

  3. Social network and lifestyle in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed associations between 2,987 adults' social networks and lifestyles in terms of leisure activity, smoking, and the intake of vegetables. Compared with socially integrated men, those with few social contacts or little social support were more often inactive during leisure time and did not e...... health related behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)...

  4. Link prediction in multiplex online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Orouskhani, Yasin; Asgari, Milad; Alipourfard, Nazanin; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%.

  5. Social network analysis and supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with social network analysis and how it could be integrated within supply chain management from a decision-making point of view. Even though the benefits of using social analysis have are widely accepted at both academic and industry/services context, there is still a lack of solid frameworks that allow decision-makers to connect the usage and obtained results of social network analysis – mainly both information and knowledge flows and derived results- with supply chain management objectives and goals. This paper gives an overview of social network analysis, the main social network analysis metrics, supply chain performance and, finally, it identifies how future frameworks could close the gap and link the results of social network analysis with the supply chain management decision-making processes.

  6. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships...... and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection......, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals...

  7. Commercial Online Social Network Data and Statin Side-Effect Surveillance: A Pilot Observational Study of Aggregate Mentions on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D

    2017-12-01

    Surveillance of the safety of prescribed drugs after marketing approval has been secured remains fraught with complications. Formal ascertainment by providers and reporting to adverse-event registries, formal surveys by manufacturers, and mining of electronic medical records are all well-known approaches with varying degrees of difficulty, cost, and success. Novel approaches may be a useful adjunct, especially approaches that mine or sample internet-based methods such as online social networks. A novel commercial software-as-a-service data-mining product supplied by Sysomos from Datasift/Facebook was used to mine all mentions on Facebook of statins and stain-related side effects in the US in the 1-month period 9 January 2017 through 8 February 2017. A total of 4.3% of all 25,700 mentions of statins also mentioned typical stain-related side effects. Multiple methodological weaknesses stymie interpretation of this percentage, which is however not inconsistent with estimates that 5-20% of patients taking statins will experience typical side effects at some time. Future work on pharmacovigilance may be informed by this novel commercial tool, but the inability to mine the full text of a posting poses serious challenges to content categorization.

  8. Effect of socio-economic status, family smoking and mental health through social network on the substance use potential in adolescents: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, H; Jorjoran Shushtari, Z; Mahboubi, S; Rafiey, H; Salimi, Y

    2018-04-01

    Understanding pathways that influence substance use potential (SUP) can help with effective substance use prevention interventions among adolescents. The aim of the present study is to contribute to a better understanding of the SUP of adolescents by examining the mediating role of social network quality in the SUP of Iranian adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Structural equation modeling was conducted to assess the hypothesized model that social network quality would mediate the association of family socio-economic status, a mental health disorder, and family smoking with addiction potential. The model shows a good fit to the data. Social network quality mediated the effect of family smoking on the SUP for boys. A mental health disorder had a positive significant direct effect on addiction potential for both girls and boys. Social network quality mediates the effect of family smoking on boys' addiction potential in the context of Iran. Educational programs based on local societal ways and cultural norms are recommended to change tobacco smoking behavior among family members. In addition, to prevent subsequent substance use among adolescents, more effort is needed to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of the Islamic Education in Dealing with Psychological Effects of Social Media Networks among Students at Mu'tah University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marayeah, Abdullah Sulaiman; Albtoosh, Zeyad Abdalateef; Al-Nawasrah, Maha Ayed

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the role of the Islamic Education in dealing with the psychological effects of social media networks among students at Mu'tah University in Jordan. In order to obtain the required data, a questionnaire consists of 31 questions was used in this study. The questionnaire can be divided into three sections. The sample of…

  10. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  11. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Richters

    Full Text Available Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers.

  12. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  13. Kinship, family and social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable overlap between Le Play's mid-eighteenth-century household model map and the regional TFR map of central-southern Europe in the 1980s. The author examines the overall structure of relationships involved in Le Play's typology and observes that both the stem-family and the unstable family area in the Southern Europe are marked by a small, close-knit network of strong ties, with kinship predominance. Vice versa, the social support hinges upon a network of kin in the stem-family area, upon an alliance among different kindred units in the unstable Mediterranean area. All this leads to formulating a hypothesis of a tri-partite model for Western European relationship models. How can we explain the relationship between family predominance as anthropological embedding and family collapse as demographic reaction? The author reconsiders this question in the light of Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory and Elder's 'principle of accentuation': different, regionally rooted, family and kinship patterns "react" in contact with an appropriate reagent, such as the macro-process of modernisation, generating different patterns of today's demographic behaviour.

  14. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  15. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility in Online Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian; Brem, Alexander; Wölfl, S.

    2014-01-01

    Considering growing public awareness of social, ethical and ecological responsibility, companies have constantly been increasing their efforts in CSR communications. Social Media as tools of brand communication receive increasing attention and it is expected that the marketing sector...

  17. Influencing Busy People in a Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kaushik; Sundaram, Hari

    2016-01-01

    We identify influential early adopters in a social network, where individuals are resource constrained, to maximize the spread of multiple, costly behaviors. A solution to this problem is especially important for viral marketing. The problem of maximizing influence in a social network is challenging since it is computationally intractable. We make three contributions. First, we propose a new model of collective behavior that incorporates individual intent, knowledge of neighbors actions and resource constraints. Second, we show that the multiple behavior influence maximization is NP-hard. Furthermore, we show that the problem is submodular, implying the existence of a greedy solution that approximates the optimal solution to within a constant. However, since the greedy algorithm is expensive for large networks, we propose efficient heuristics to identify the influential individuals, including heuristics to assign behaviors to the different early adopters. We test our approach on synthetic and real-world topologies with excellent results. We evaluate the effectiveness under three metrics: unique number of participants, total number of active behaviors and network resource utilization. Our heuristics produce 15-51% increase in expected resource utilization over the naïve approach.

  18. Influencing Busy People in a Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kaushik; Sundaram, Hari

    2016-01-01

    We identify influential early adopters in a social network, where individuals are resource constrained, to maximize the spread of multiple, costly behaviors. A solution to this problem is especially important for viral marketing. The problem of maximizing influence in a social network is challenging since it is computationally intractable. We make three contributions. First, we propose a new model of collective behavior that incorporates individual intent, knowledge of neighbors actions and resource constraints. Second, we show that the multiple behavior influence maximization is NP-hard. Furthermore, we show that the problem is submodular, implying the existence of a greedy solution that approximates the optimal solution to within a constant. However, since the greedy algorithm is expensive for large networks, we propose efficient heuristics to identify the influential individuals, including heuristics to assign behaviors to the different early adopters. We test our approach on synthetic and real-world topologies with excellent results. We evaluate the effectiveness under three metrics: unique number of participants, total number of active behaviors and network resource utilization. Our heuristics produce 15-51% increase in expected resource utilization over the naïve approach. PMID:27711127

  19. Mining Trust Relationships from Online Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Tong Yu

    2012-01-01

    With the growing popularity of online social network,trust plays a more and more important role in connecting people to each other.We rely on our personal trust to accept recommendations,to make purchase decisions and to select transaction partners in the online community.Therefore,how to obtain trust relationships through mining online social networks becomes an important research topic.There are several shortcomings of existing trust mining methods.First,trust is category-dependent.However,most of the methods overlook the category attribute of trust relationships,which leads to low accuracy in trust calculation.Second,since the data in online social networks cannot be understood and processed by machines directly,traditional mining methods require much human effort and are not easily applied to other applications.To solve the above problems,we propose a semantic-based trust reasoning mechanism to mine trust relationships from online social networks automatically.We emphasize the category attribute of pairwise relationships and utilize Semantic Web technologies to build a domain ontology for data communication and knowledge sharing.We exploit role-based and behavior-based reasoning functions to infer implicit trust relationships and category-specific trust relationships.We make use of path expressions to extend reasoning rules so that the mining process can be done directly without much human effort.We perform experiments on real-life data extracted from Epinions.The experimental results verify the effectiveness and wide application use of our proposed method.

  20. Multiple peer effects in the diffusion of innovations on social networks: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Hang; Wang, Puqing; Bobashev, Georgiy

    2018-01-01

    Peer effects in innovation adoption decisions have been extensively studied. However, the underlying mechanisms of peer effects are generally not explicitly accounted for. Gaps in this knowledge could lead to misestimation of peer effects and inefficient interventions. This study examined the role of two mechanisms—sharing experiences (namely, experience effect) and externalities—in the adoption of an agricultural innovation. By referring to the diffusion process of a new crop in Chinese vill...

  1. Social Software: Participants' Experience Using Social Networking for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, Cecil W.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking tools used in learning provides instructional design with tools for transformative change in education. This study focused on defining the meanings and essences of social networking through the lived common experiences of 7 college students. The problem of the study was a lack of learner voice in understanding the value of social…

  2. Going Social: The Impact of Social Networking in Promoting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neelesh Kumar; Verma, Ashish; Verma, Rama Shankar; Tiwari, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.

  3. Mining of the social network extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Hardi, M.; Syah, R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of Web as social media is steadily gaining ground in the study of social actor behaviour. However, information in Web can be interpreted in accordance with the ability of the method such as superficial methods for extracting social networks. Each method however has features and drawbacks: it cannot reveal the behaviour of social actors, but it has the hidden information about them. Therefore, this paper aims to reveal such information in the social networks mining. Social behaviour could be expressed through a set of words extracted from the list of snippets.

  4. Sentiment Polarization and Balance among Users in Online Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Communication within online social network applications enables users to express and share sentiments electronically. Existing studies examined the existence or distribution of sentiments in online communication at a general level or in small-observed groups. Our paper extends this research...... by analyzing sentiment exchange within social networks from an ego-network perspective. We draw from research on social influence and social attachment to develop theories of node polarization, balance effects and sentiment mirroring within communication dyads. Our empirical analysis covers a multitude...... of social networks in which the sentiment valence of all messages was determined. Subsequently we studied ego-networks of focal actors (ego) and their immediate contacts. Results support our theories and indicate that actors develop polarized sentiments towards individual peers but keep sentiment in balance...

  5. Inferring personal economic status from social network location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-05-01

    It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.

  6. Academics and Social Networking Sites: Benefits, Problems and Tensions in Professional Engagement with Online Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a…

  7. Social Networking Sites and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Billy

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a study of seven learners who logged their experiences on the language leaning social networking site Livemocha over a period of three months. The features of the site are described and the likelihood of their future success is considered. The learners were introduced to the Social Networking Site (SNS) and asked to learn a…

  8. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  9. Social Networking and Academic Performance: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleck, Tenzin; Lajoie, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of social networking sites by students and the potential impacts of such use on academic performance are of both theoretical and practical importance. Hence, this paper addresses the question: how does the use of social networking sites influence academic performance? The present review synthesizes the empirical findings of the…

  10. Collective Learning in Games through Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosterman, S.; Gierasimczuk, N.; Armentano, M.G.; Monteserin, A.; Tang, J.; Yannibelli, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that combining social networks communication and games can positively influence the learning behavior of players. We propose a computational model that combines features of social network learning (communication) and game-based learning (strategy reinforcement). The focus is on

  11. The Social Dynamics of Innovation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Roel; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Irawati, Dessy; Boekema, Frans

    2014-01-01

    The social dynamics of innovation networks captures the important role of trust, social capital, institutions and norms and values in the creation of knowledge in innovation networks. In doing so, this book connects to a long-standing debate on the socio-spatial context of innovation in economic

  12. Social Networks and Corporate Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gennadievna Kondratova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is defined in the article social networks as a tool in the hands of cyber-criminals to compromise the organization’s data. The author focuses on a list of threats to information security caused by social networks usage, which should be considered in the set up of information security management system of the company.

  13. Social Networks: Gated Communities or Free Cantons?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks and other cloud-based services have concentrated the control of the web in the hands of a few corporations. Our personal data has been commodified, often without our knowledge or consent. Is there a way to retain all the benefits of social networking without giving up control of our data?

  14. Designing for Privacy in Ubiquitous Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Figueiras, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Improving human communication during face–to–face meetings is nowadays possible by transferring online social networking benefits to the physical world. This is enabled by the ubiquitous social networking services that became available by means of wirelessly interconnected smart devices...

  15. Entrepreneurial Idea Identification through Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…

  16. Social networking for well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.; Prins, S.C.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present some of the work that is being done in the WeCare project (in the AAL programme). The project’s goal is to introduce social networking services in the lives of older people, in order to improve their well-being. Participation in social networks, both online and ‘in real

  17. Social network sites: Indispensable or optional social tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Much research has enumerated potential benefits of online social network sites. Given the pervasiveness of these sites and the numbers of people that use them daily, both re-search and media tend to make the assumption that social network sites have become indispensible to their users. Based...... on the analysis of qualitative data from users of social network sites in Russia and Kazakhstan, this paper consid-ers under what conditions social network sites can become indispensable to their users and when these technologies remain on the periphery of life despite fulfilling useful func-tions. For some...... respondents, these sites had become indis-pensable tools as they were integrated into everyday rou-tines of communicating with emotionally important and proximal contacts and were often used for coordination of offline activities. For others social network sites remained spaces where they occasionally visited...

  18. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  19. Applications of social media and social network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kazienko, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    This collection of contributed chapters demonstrates a wide range of applications within two overlapping research domains: social media analysis and social network analysis. Various methodologies were utilized in the twelve individual chapters including static, dynamic and real-time approaches to graph, textual and multimedia data analysis. The topics apply to reputation computation, emotion detection, topic evolution, rumor propagation, evaluation of textual opinions, friend ranking, analysis of public transportation networks, diffusion in dynamic networks, analysis of contributors to commun

  20. Mining social networks and security informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Özyer, Tansel; Rokne, Jon; Khoury, Suheil

    2013-01-01

    Crime, terrorism and security are in the forefront of current societal concerns. This edited volume presents research based on social network techniques showing how data from crime and terror networks can be analyzed and how information can be extracted. The topics covered include crime data mining and visualization; organized crime detection; crime network visualization; computational criminology; aspects of terror network analyses and threat prediction including cyberterrorism and the related area of dark web; privacy issues in social networks; security informatics; graph algorithms for soci

  1. COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT CRISIS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Mª Enrique Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    It is often in the social networks where you detect the first signs of a potential crisis situation. Today, many companies decide to be present in social networks to communicate, listen and respond to their audiences openly with immediacy. A simple complaint is visible and propagates through the network in seconds, being capable of generating a negative impact on the corporate image of the organization. The same can happen to the contrary, ie, to praise the performance of a company, which may...

  2. Corporate Social Networking: Risks and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Straumsheim, Jan Henrik Schou

    2011-01-01

    Social networks have seen an explosive growth over the last few years, with the most popular online services totaling over half a billion users. These networks have started permeating several aspects of our daily lives: for example by changing the ways we communicate with our friends and family, share media and organize events. Popular social networking websites like Facebook and Twitter now account for over half of the content shared on the web. Norwegian businesses are taking note, and are ...

  3. Cooperative networks overcoming defectors by social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    We address the cooperation problem in structured populations by considering the prisoner’s dilemma game as a metaphor of the social interactions between individuals with imitation capacity. We present a new strategy update rule called democratic weighted update where the individual’s behavior is socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. In particular, the capacity of an individual to socially influence other ones is proportional to its accumulated payoff. When in a neighborhood there are cooperators and defectors, the focal player is contradictorily influenced by them and, therefore, the effective social influence is given by the difference of the accumulated payoff of each strategy in its neighborhood. First, by considering the growing process of the network and neglecting mutations, we show the evolution of highly cooperative systems. Then, we broadly show that the social influence allows to overcome the emergence of defectors into highly cooperative systems. In this way, we conclude that in a structured system formed by a growing process, the cooperation evolves if the individuals have an imitation capacity socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. Therefore, here we present a theoretical solution of the cooperation problem among genetically unrelated individuals.

  4. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  5. Consumer engagement in social networks brand community

    OpenAIRE

    Rybakovas, Paulius

    2016-01-01

    Consumers increasingly integrate social media into their day-to-day lives. For companies consumer engagement in a brand community on social network is becoming increasingly important for developing relations with consumers. Consumer engagement in a brand community on social network creates a dynamic relationship between the community members and the brand which contributes to an increase in consumer loyalty to the brand. The literature is abundant of studies, which examines the consumer engag...

  6. Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    predecessor, Gale and Kariv (2003) who generalize the payoff equalization result of Bala and Goyal (1998) in connected social networks (discussed below...requires more notation. Using Bayes’ Rule and the assumption of equal priors on the state θ, we have that the social belief given by observing... Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation by Ilan Lobel B.Sc., Pontif́ıcia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (2004

  7. Natural Environments and Childhood Experiences Promoting Physical Activity, Examining the Mediational Effects of Feelings about Nature and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-04-21

    The importance of natural environments (NEs) for physical activity (PA) has been studied extensively. However, there is scant evidence to explain the motivational processes underlying the NE-PA relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the NE-PA relation using an ecological framework, focusing on perception of NEs, childhood experiences and possible intra- and inter-individual mediators. Data were retrieved from a cross-sectional survey among 2168 adults from all over Norway. In addition, the coverage of NEs by municipalities was retrieved from national registers. Logistic regression showed that, unlike the self-reported proximity to NEs, higher ratings of perceived supportiveness of NEs for PA predicted participation in NE-based PA for at least 60 min/week or 150 min/week, before and after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Reporting frequent experiences in nature during childhood was also an important predictor of higher levels of NE-based PA. Furthermore, a mediational analysis showed that the effect of both predictors was mediated by "feelings about nature" and "social networks". These findings indicate that to encourage the use of local NE for PA, not only should environmental perceptions be taken into account, positive feelings towards nature alongside opportunities to share activity in nature with others should also be promoted.

  8. How women organize social networks different from men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szell, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Superpositions of social networks, such as communication, friendship, or trade networks, are called multiplex networks, forming the structural backbone of human societies. Novel datasets now allow quantification and exploration of multiplex networks. Here we study gender-specific differences of a multiplex network from a complete behavioral dataset of an online-game society of about 300,000 players. On the individual level females perform better economically and are less risk-taking than males. Males reciprocate friendship requests from females faster than vice versa and hesitate to reciprocate hostile actions of females. On the network level females have more communication partners, who are less connected than partners of males. We find a strong homophily effect for females and higher clustering coefficients of females in trade and attack networks. Cooperative links between males are under-represented, reflecting competition for resources among males. These results confirm quantitatively that females and males manage their social networks in substantially different ways.

  9. Using Social Network Metrics to Assess the Effectiveness of Broad Based Admission Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Shane; Macfadyen, Leah; Lockyer, Lori; Mazzochi-Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    Notions of what it is to be knowledgeable and skilled in one's profession have evolved in recent decades. For instance, medical practitioners are expected to think critically and creatively, communicate effectively, and to be a professional and community leader. While these attributes have always been well regarded, it is only relatively recently…

  10. Social Network Theory in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Peter A.

    Collaborative groups are important both in the learning environment of engineering education and, in the real world, the business of engineering design. Selecting appropriate individuals to form an effective group and monitoring a group's progress are important aspects of successful task performance. This exploratory study looked at using the concepts of cognitive social structures, structural balance, and centrality from social network analysis as well as the measures of emotional intelligence. The concepts were used to analyze potential team members to examine if an individual's ability to perceive emotion in others and the self and to use, understand, and manage those emotions are a factor in a group's performance. The students from a capstone design course in computer engineering were used as volunteer subjects. They were formed into groups and assigned a design exercise to determine whether and which of the above-mentioned tools would be effective in both selecting teams and predicting the quality of the resultant design. The results were inconclusive with the exception of an individual's ability to accurately perceive emotions. The instruments that were successful were the Self-Monitoring scale and the accuracy scores derived from cognitive social structures and Level IV of network levels of analysis.

  11. One Health in social networks and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaru, S R; Brownstein, J S

    2014-08-01

    In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media's strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting,the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message.

  12. Modeling online social signed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Gu, Ke; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2018-04-01

    People's online rating behavior can be modeled by user-object bipartite networks directly. However, few works have been devoted to reveal the hidden relations between users, especially from the perspective of signed networks. We analyze the signed monopartite networks projected by the signed user-object bipartite networks, finding that the networks are highly clustered with obvious community structure. Interestingly, the positive clustering coefficient is remarkably higher than the negative clustering coefficient. Then, a Signed Growing Network model (SGN) based on local preferential attachment is proposed to generate a user's signed network that has community structure and high positive clustering coefficient. Other structural properties of the modeled networks are also found to be similar to the empirical networks.

  13. Web Mining and Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Guandong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Lin

    This book examines the techniques and applications involved in the Web Mining, Web Personalization and Recommendation and Web Community Analysis domains, including a detailed presentation of the principles, developed algorithms, and systems of the research in these areas. The applications of web ...... sense of individuals or communities. The volume will benefit both academic and industry communities interested in the techniques and applications of web search, web data management, web mining and web knowledge discovery, as well as web community and social network analysis.......This book examines the techniques and applications involved in the Web Mining, Web Personalization and Recommendation and Web Community Analysis domains, including a detailed presentation of the principles, developed algorithms, and systems of the research in these areas. The applications of web...... mining, and the issue of how to incorporate web mining into web personalization and recommendation systems are also reviewed. Additionally, the volume explores web community mining and analysis to find the structural, organizational and temporal developments of web communities and reveal the societal...

  14. Brand communities embedded in social networks ?

    OpenAIRE

    Zaglia, Melanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social ...

  15. Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2013-06-01

    We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.

  16. Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Wright, Jaime D.; Caan, Bette J.; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. Methods This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006-2011 and provided data on social networks (presence of spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible, emotional/informational, affection, positive social interaction), and quality of life (QOL), measured by the FACT-B, approximately two months post-diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower vs. higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. Results In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR=2.08, 95%CI:1.65-2.63), social WB (OR=3.46, 95%CI:2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR=1.67, 95%CI:1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR=1.48, 95%CI:1.18-1.87), compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was “positive social interaction”. However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Conclusions Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404

  17. SOCIAL NETWORKS AS DISPOSITIVES OF NEOLIBERAL GOVERNMENTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lemes de Castro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article of theoretical reflection investigates the social networks that emerge in the context of Web 2.0, such as Facebook, as dispositives of neoliberal governmentality in the sense proposed by Foucault. From the standpoint of government of self, the design of social networks establishes a competition for attention that tends to favor the neoliberal culture of performance. In terms of social organization, the way in which users intertwine their connections is paralleled by the neoliberal paradigm of spontaneous market order. Furthermore, the use of personal information on these users, encompassing all their activities within the networks, in order to set up databases to attract advertisers reflects the neoliberal tendency of colonization of the different realms of existence by economic forces. However, the tensions that accompany neoliberal governmentality in social networks reveal its limitations, opening the possibility for these networks to also act as instruments of resistance to neoliberalism.

  18. Social networks a framework of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides the audience with an updated, in-depth and highly coherent material on the conceptually appealing and practically sound information technology of Computational Intelligence applied to the analysis, synthesis and evaluation of social networks. The volume involves studies devoted to key issues of social networks including community structure detection in networks, online social networks, knowledge growth and evaluation, and diversity of collaboration mechanisms.  The book engages a wealth of methods of Computational Intelligence along with well-known techniques of linear programming, Formal Concept Analysis, machine learning, and agent modeling.  Human-centricity is of paramount relevance and this facet manifests in many ways including personalized semantics, trust metric, and personal knowledge management; just to highlight a few of these aspects. The contributors to this volume report on various essential applications including cyber attacks detection, building enterprise social network...

  19. Contributions of Social Networking for Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Maria Cartoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of virtual social networks as a mechanism complementary to formal channels of technology transfer represented by ICT and by private centers of R & D in industry. The strengthening of Web 2.0 has provided the expansion of collaborative tools, in particular the social networks, with a strong influence on the spread of knowledge and innovation. To evaluate the potential of virtual networks, a survey had been conducted to identify and describe the characteristics of some of the major social networks used in Brazil (LinkedIn, Orkut and Twitter. Even this phenomenon is not mature, the study identified the potential and benefits of social networks as informal structures that help in generation of knowledge and innovation diffusion, as a field to be explored and developed.

  20. Social network analysis of study environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Student working environment influences student learning and achievement level. In this respect social aspects of students’ formal and non-formal learning play special role in learning environment. The main research problem of this paper is to find out if students' academic performance influences their position in different students' social networks. Further, there is a need to identify other predictors of this position. In the process of problem solving we use the Social Network Analysis (SNA that is based on the data we collected from the students at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb. There are two data samples: in the basic sample N=27 and in the extended sample N=52. We collected data on social-demographic position, academic performance, learning and motivation styles, student status (full-time/part-time, attitudes towards individual and teamwork as well as informal cooperation. Afterwards five different networks (exchange of learning materials, teamwork, informal communication, basic and aggregated social network were constructed. These networks were analyzed with different metrics and the most important were betweenness, closeness and degree centrality. The main result is, firstly, that the position in a social network cannot be forecast only by academic success and, secondly, that part-time students tend to form separate groups that are poorly connected with full-time students. In general, position of a student in social networks in study environment can influence student learning as well as her/his future employability and therefore it is worthwhile to be investigated.

  1. COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  2. Social networks: Good and evil of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mučibabić Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication via social networks (Facebook, Twitter undoubtedly changed the way of communication between people. With just a few clicks on the Internet, you have the opportunity to learn almost everything about one person, from his profession, interests, to see his photos from the personal albums. This type of social networking has become more popular in 2003. when web pages as MySpace and Friendster were created. Today we have Facebook and Twitter, as a social network leaders. Social networks definitely have a lot of positive effects, easy and free contact with family or friends living in other countries, meeting new people, and lately have become very useful in a business way, especially in the free marketing that provides. In addition, social networks are improving technology skills of users, and are increasingly used for educational purposes. As for the negative sides, their number is also not negligible - the reduction of social interaction in real life and creating a false sense of socialization, social isolation, loss of time, identity theft, cyber crime, health problems, both mentally and physically. The development of mobile phone technology (smartphone, through which it is easy to go online and use social networks, make health risk becomes even greater.

  3. Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Levé, Marine; Claidière, Nicolas; van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew; MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Pelé, Marie; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L; Borgeaud, Christèle; Brosnan, Sarah F; Crofoot, Margaret C; Fedigan, Linda M; Fichtel, Claudia; Hopper, Lydia M; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Petit, Odile; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Thierry, Bernard; Tiddi, Barbara; Sueur, Cédric

    2014-12-23

    Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities.

  4. Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Levé, Marine; Claidière, Nicolas; van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew; MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Pelé, Marie; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L.; Borgeaud, Christèle; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Fichtel, Claudia; Hopper, Lydia M.; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Petit, Odile; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Thierry, Bernard; Tiddi, Barbara; Sueur, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities. PMID:25534964

  5. Urbanism, Neighborhood Context, and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Erin York; Behler, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    Theories of urbanism suggest that the urban context erodes individuals' strong social ties with friends and family. Recent research has narrowed focus to the neighborhood context, emphasizing how localized structural disadvantage affects community-level cohesion and social capital. In this paper, we argue that neighborhood context also shapes social ties with friends and family- particularly for community-dwelling seniors. We hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage, residential instability, and disorder restrict residents' abilities to cultivate close relationships with neighbors and non-neighbor friends and family. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), we find that older adults who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods have smaller social networks. Neighborhood disadvantage is also associated with less close network ties and less frequent interaction - but only among men. Furthermore, residents of disordered neighborhoods have smaller networks and weaker ties. We urge scholars to pay greater attention to how neighborhood context contributes to disparities in network-based access to resources.

  6. Benford's Law Applies to Online Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Benford's Law states that, in naturally occurring systems, the frequency of numbers' first digits is not evenly distributed. Numbers beginning with a 1 occur roughly 30% of the time, and are six times more common than numbers beginning with a 9. We show that Benford's Law applies to social and behavioral features of users in online social networks. Using social data from five major social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Pinterest, and LiveJournal), we show that the distribution of first significant digits of friend and follower counts for users in these systems follow Benford's Law. The same is true for the number of posts users make. We extend this to egocentric networks, showing that friend counts among the people in an individual's social network also follows the expected distribution. We discuss how this can be used to detect suspicious or fraudulent activity online and to validate datasets.

  7. Benford's Law Applies to Online Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    Full Text Available Benford's Law states that, in naturally occurring systems, the frequency of numbers' first digits is not evenly distributed. Numbers beginning with a 1 occur roughly 30% of the time, and are six times more common than numbers beginning with a 9. We show that Benford's Law applies to social and behavioral features of users in online social networks. Using social data from five major social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Pinterest, and LiveJournal, we show that the distribution of first significant digits of friend and follower counts for users in these systems follow Benford's Law. The same is true for the number of posts users make. We extend this to egocentric networks, showing that friend counts among the people in an individual's social network also follows the expected distribution. We discuss how this can be used to detect suspicious or fraudulent activity online and to validate datasets.

  8. Friend suggestion in social network based on user log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviya, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    Simple friend recommendation algorithms such as similarity, popularity and social aspects is the basic requirement to be explored to methodically form high-performance social friend recommendation. Suggestion of friends is followed. No tags of character were followed. In the proposed system, we use an algorithm for network correlation-based social friend recommendation (NC-based SFR).It includes user activities like where one lives and works. A new friend recommendation method, based on network correlation, by considering the effect of different social roles. To model the correlation between different networks, we develop a method that aligns these networks through important feature selection. We consider by preserving the network structure for a more better recommendations so that it significantly improves the accuracy for better friend-recommendation.

  9. An information spreading model based on online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; He, Juanjuan; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2018-01-01

    Online social platforms are very popular in recent years. In addition to spreading information, users could review or collect information on online social platforms. According to the information spreading rules of online social network, a new information spreading model, namely IRCSS model, is proposed in this paper. It includes sharing mechanism, reviewing mechanism, collecting mechanism and stifling mechanism. Mean-field equations are derived to describe the dynamics of the IRCSS model. Moreover, the steady states of reviewers, collectors and stiflers and the effects of parameters on the peak values of reviewers, collectors and sharers are analyzed. Finally, numerical simulations are performed on different networks. Results show that collecting mechanism and reviewing mechanism, as well as the connectivity of the network, make information travel wider and faster, and compared to WS network and ER network, the speed of reviewing, sharing and collecting information is fastest on BA network.

  10. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio

    2016-11-29

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.

  11. Effects of primary care team social networks on quality of care and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Gilchrist, Valerie J; Fleming, Michael F; Zakletskaia, Larissa I; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Beasley, John W

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Primary care teams can be best suited to improve quality of care and lower costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. This study evaluates the associations between primary care team communication, interaction, and coordination (ie, social networks); quality of care; and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. Using a sociometric survey, 155 health professionals from 31 teams at 6 primary care clinics identified with whom they interact daily about patient care. Social network analysis calculated variables of density and centralization representing team interaction structures. Three-level hierarchical modeling evaluated the link between team network density, centralization, and number of patients with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease for controlled blood pressure and cholesterol, counts of urgent care visits, emergency department visits, hospital days, and medical care costs in the previous 12 months. Teams with dense interactions among all team members were associated with fewer hospital days (rate ratio [RR] = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.77) and lower medical care costs (-$556; 95% CI, -$781 to -$331) for patients with cardiovascular disease. Conversely, teams with interactions revolving around a few central individuals were associated with increased hospital days (RR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.94) and greater costs ($506; 95% CI, $202-$810). Team-shared vision about goals and expectations mediated the relationship between social network structures and patient quality of care outcomes. Primary care teams that are more interconnected and less centralized and that have a shared team vision are better positioned to deliver high-quality cardiovascular disease care at a lower cost. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  12. Trust and compactness in social network groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Rosaci, Domenico; Sarné, Giuseppe M L

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind group formation and evolution in social networks is considered an instrumental milestone to better describe how individuals gather and form communities, how they enjoy and share the platform contents, how they are driven by their preferences/tastes, and how their behaviors are influenced by peers. In this context, the notion of compactness of a social group is particularly relevant. While the literature usually refers to compactness as a measure to merely determine how much members of a group are similar among each other, we argue that the mutual trustworthiness between the members should be considered as an important factor in defining such a term. In fact, trust has profound effects on the dynamics of group formation and their evolution: individuals are more likely to join with and stay in a group if they can trust other group members. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of group compactness that takes into account both the similarity and the trustworthiness among users, and we present an algorithm to optimize such a measure. We provide empirical results, obtained from the real social networks EPINIONS and CIAO, that compare our notion of compactness versus the traditional notion of user similarity, clearly proving the advantages of our approach.

  13. Evolution of Cooperation in Adaptive Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbroeck, Sven Van; Santos, Francisco C.; Traulsen, Arne; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    Humans are organized in societies, a phenomenon that would never have been possible without the evolution of cooperative behavior. Several mechanisms that foster this evolution have been unraveled over the years, with population structure as a prominent promoter of cooperation. Modern networks of exchange and cooperation are, however, becoming increasingly volatile, and less and less based on long-term stable structure. Here, we address how this change of paradigm aspects the evolution of cooperation. We discuss analytical and numerical models in which individuals can break social ties and create new ones. Interactions are modeled as two-player dilemmas of cooperation. Once a link between two individuals has formed, the productivity of this link is evaluated. Links can be broken off at different rates. This individual capacity of forming new links or severing inconvenient ones can effectively change the nature of the game. We address random formation of new links and local linking rules as well as different individual capacities to maintain social interactions. We conclude by discussing how adaptive social networks can become an important step towards more realistic models of cultural dynamics.

  14. Reach, engagement, and effectiveness: a systematic review of evaluation methodologies used in health promotion via social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Wright, Cassandra J C; Carrotte, Elise R; Pedrana, Alisa E

    2016-02-01

    Issue addressed Social networking sites (SNS) are increasingly popular platforms for health promotion. Advancements in SNS health promotion require quality evidence; however, interventions are often not formally evaluated. This study aims to describe evaluation practices used in SNS health promotion. Methods A systematic review was undertaken of Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Communication and Mass Media Complete, and Cochrane Library databases. Articles published between 2006 and 2013 describing any health promotion intervention delivered using SNS were included. Results Forty-seven studies were included. There were two main evaluation approaches: closed designs (n=23), which used traditional research designs and formal recruitment procedures; and open designs (n=19), which evaluated the intervention in a real-world setting, allowing unknown SNS users to interact with the content without enrolling in research. Closed designs were unable to assess reach and engagement beyond their research sample. Open designs often relied on weaker study designs with no use of objective outcome measures and yielded low response rates. Conclusions Barriers to evaluation included low participation rates, high attrition, unknown representativeness and lack of comparison groups. Acceptability was typically assessed among those engaged with the intervention, with limited population data available to accurately assess intervention reach. Few studies were able to assess uptake of the intervention in a real-life setting while simultaneously assessing effectiveness of interventions with research rigour. So what? Through use of quasi-experimental or well designed before-after evaluations, in combination with detailed engagement metrics, it is possible to balance assessment of effectiveness and reach to evaluate SNS health promotion.

  15. Regional Use of Social Networking Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    4 2.1.7 Tumblr 4 2.1.8 Instagram 4 2.2 Local Social Networking Services 5 3 Regional Preferences for Social Networking Tools 6 4 African Region...YouTube 280 million Twitter 255 million LinkedIn n/a Pinterest n/a Tumblr 300 million Instagram 200 million The active-user base numbers...so this percentage may decline in the future. 2.1.8 Instagram Instagram , acquired by Facebook in 2012, is a mobile social networking service that

  16. The genre tutorial and social networks terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sales Santiago

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the terminology in the Internet social networks tutorials. A tutorial is a specialized text, full of terms, aiming to teach an individual or group of individuals who need some guidelines to operationalize a computerized tool, such as a social network. It is necessary to identify linguistic and terminological characteristics from the specialized lexical units in this digital genre. Social networks terminology is described and exemplified here. The results show that it is possible to refer to two specific terminologies in tutorials which help to determine the terminological profile of the thematic area, specifically from the point of view of denomination.

  17. How can social network analysis contribute to social behavior research in applied ethology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makagon, Maja M; McCowan, Brenda; Mench, Joy A

    2012-05-01

    Social network analysis is increasingly used by behavioral ecologists and primatologists to describe the patterns and quality of interactions among individuals. We provide an overview of this methodology, with examples illustrating how it can be used to study social behavior in applied contexts. Like most kinds of social interaction analyses, social network analysis provides information about direct relationships (e.g. dominant-subordinate relationships). However, it also generates a more global model of social organization that determines how individual patterns of social interaction relate to individual and group characteristics. A particular strength of this approach is that it provides standardized mathematical methods for calculating metrics of sociality across levels of social organization, from the population and group levels to the individual level. At the group level these metrics can be used to track changes in social network structures over time, evaluate the effect of the environment on social network structure, or compare social structures across groups, populations or species. At the individual level, the metrics allow quantification of the heterogeneity of social experience within groups and identification of individuals who may play especially important roles in maintaining social stability or information flow throughout the network.

  18. Emergence of communities and diversity in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Cao, Shinan; Shen, Zhesi; Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Wen-Xu; Cressman, Ross; Stanley, H Eugene

    2017-03-14

    Communities are common in complex networks and play a significant role in the functioning of social, biological, economic, and technological systems. Despite widespread interest in detecting community structures in complex networks and exploring the effect of communities on collective dynamics, a deep understanding of the emergence and prevalence of communities in social networks is still lacking. Addressing this fundamental problem is of paramount importance in understanding, predicting, and controlling a variety of collective behaviors in society. An elusive question is how communities with common internal properties arise in social networks with great individual diversity. Here, we answer this question using the ultimatum game, which has been a paradigm for characterizing altruism and fairness. We experimentally show that stable local communities with different internal agreements emerge spontaneously and induce social diversity into networks, which is in sharp contrast to populations with random interactions. Diverse communities and social norms come from the interaction between responders with inherent heterogeneous demands and rational proposers via local connections, where the former eventually become the community leaders. This result indicates that networks are significant in the emergence and stabilization of communities and social diversity. Our experimental results also provide valuable information about strategies for developing network models and theories of evolutionary games and social dynamics.

  19. Factors which motivate the use of social networks by students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sanmamed, Mercedes; Muñoz Carril, Pablo C; Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor, Isabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks. The positive relationship between versatility in the use of social networks and educational uses was also significant. The characteristics of social networks are analysed according to their versatility and how this aspect makes them attractive to students. The positive effects of social networks are discussed in terms of educational uses and their contribution to school learning. There is also a warning about the risks associated with misuse of social networks, and finally, the characteristics and conditions for the development of good educational practice through social networks are identified.

  20. Social Networks and Social Revolution. Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Androniciuc Andra

    2017-01-01

    No other means of communication have had such a rapid development as the Internet, a mediumthat is undoubtedly changing the rules of the political game. In this article, we take a look at theuse of social networks during social and political movements, with particular focus on the 2014,2015 and 2017 Romanian protests. We conclude that social networks alone do not instigaterevolutions, but they are valuable tools for citizens to organize free protests, recruit and trainparticipants, which can lead to further collective action and social change.

  1. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ...) to increase competitive advantage, innovation, and mission effectiveness. Network-based effectiveness occurs due to the influence of various factors such as people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  2. Social networking policies in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Blake; Culley, Joan M; Hein, Laura C; Williams, Amber; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2014-03-01

    Social networking use has increased exponentially in the past few years. A literature review related to social networking and nursing revealed a research gap between nursing practice and education. Although there was information available on the appropriate use of social networking sites, there was limited research on the use of social networking policies within nursing education. The purpose of this study was to identify current use of social media by faculty and students and a need for policies within nursing education at one institution. A survey was developed and administered to nursing students (n = 273) and nursing faculty (n = 33). Inferential statistics included χ², Fisher exact test, t test, and General Linear Model. Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency of social media scales. The χ² result indicates that there were associations with the group and several social media items. t Test results indicate significant differences between student and faculty for average of policies are good (P = .0127), policies and discipline (P = .0315), and policy at the study school (P = .0013). General Linear Model analyses revealed significant differences for "friend" a patient with a bond, unprofessional posts, policy, and nursing with class level. Results showed that students and faculty supported the development of a social networking policy.

  3. Social networks and getting a home : Do contacts matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röper, A.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    Under what conditions does one find a newhome via one’s social network? Does theway in which a house is acquired affect how satisfied one is with the house? We formulate hypotheses on the characteristics of personal networks, the context of the move and their effect on those who attain a house

  4. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.

  5. Social networking: a matter of character?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieth, Marius N.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last couple of years, online social networks such as Facebook have tremendously grown in popularity, especially among students. The technological advancements proceed faster than the understanding of the psychological factors behind this development. While motivations and gratifications

  6. Association of childhood abuse with homeless women's social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J

    2012-01-01

    . The effects of childhood physical abuse should be more actively investigated in clinical settings, especially those frequented by homeless women, particularly with respect to the formation of social networks in social contexts that may expose these women to greater risks. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Social networks and their role in preventing dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Jagan A.; Verghese, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the role of social networks as a protective factor in the development of dementia over the last decade has increased with a number of longitudinal studies being published on the possible association of different lifestyles with dementia. This review examines and provides a summary of the published longitudinal studies exploring the effect of social network on dementia, with particular focus on their relevance to the Indian society. Potential cognitive and biological mechanisms med...

  8. Social Support and Social Networks in COPD: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness.

  9. Using Social Network Analysis to Examine the Effect of Care Management Structure on Chronic Disease Management Communication Within Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Ruland, Sandra; Diaz, Stephanie; Morrato, Elaine H; Jones, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Care management and care managers are becoming increasingly prevalent in primary care medical practice as a means of improving population health and reducing unnecessary care. Care managers are often involved in chronic disease management and associated transitional care. In this study, we examined the communication regarding chronic disease care within 24 primary care practices in Michigan and Colorado. We sought to answer the following questions: Do care managers play a key role in chronic disease management in the practice? Does the prominence of the care manager's connectivity within the practice's communication network vary by the type of care management structure implemented? Individual written surveys were given to all practice members in the participating practices. Survey questions assessed demographics as well as practice culture, quality improvement, care management activities, and communication regarding chronic disease care. Using social network analysis and other statistical methods, we analyzed the communication dynamics related to chronic disease care for each practice. The structure of chronic disease communication varies greatly from practice to practice. Care managers who were embedded in the practice or co-located were more likely to be in the core of the communication network than were off-site care managers. These care managers also had higher in-degree centrality, indicating that they acted as a hub for communication with team members in many other roles. Social network analysis provided a useful means of examining chronic disease communication in practice, and highlighted the central role of care managers in this communication when their role structure supported such communication. Structuring care managers as embedded team members within the practice has important implications for their role in chronic disease communication within primary care.

  10. HIV/AIDS, social capital, and online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drushel, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The prospects for online social networks as sites of information-gathering and affiliation for persons with AIDS and others concerned about HIV/AIDS not only represent the latest development in a trend toward circumventing traditional media and official information sources, but also may offer hope for a revitalization of HIV/AIDS discourse in the public sphere. This article provides an overview of three decades of information-seeking on the pandemic and its social and personal implications, as well as case studies of three examples of social networking surrounding HIV/AIDS. It finds preliminary evidence of the formation of strong and weak ties as described in Social Network Theory and suggests that the online accumulation of social capital by opinion leaders could facilitate dissemination of messages on HIV/AIDS awareness and testing.

  11. Online Social Networking: A Primer for Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, Prasanth M.; Seagull, F. Jacob; Nagy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Online social networking is an immature, but rapidly evolving industry of web-based technologies that allow individuals to develop online relationships. News stories populate the headlines about various websites which can facilitate patient and doctor interaction. There remain questions about protecting patient confidentiality and defining etiquette in order to preserve the doctor/patient relationship and protect physicians. How much social networking-based communication or other forms of E-c...

  12. The social brain network and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vivek

    2014-04-01

    Available research data in Autism suggests the role of a network of brain areas, often known as the 'social brain'. Recent studies highlight the role of genetic mutations as underlying patho-mechanism in Autism. This mini review, discusses the basic concepts behind social brain networks, theory of mind and genetic factors associated with Autism. It critically evaluates and explores the relationship between the behavioral outcomes and genetic factors providing a conceptual framework for understanding of autism.

  13. Crawling Facebook for Social Network Analysis Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Salvatore A.; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo; Provetti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We describe our work in the collection and analysis of massive data describing the connections between participants to online social networks. Alternative approaches to social network data collection are defined and evaluated in practice, against the popular Facebook Web site. Thanks to our ad-hoc, privacy-compliant crawlers, two large samples, comprising millions of connections, have been collected; the data is anonymous and organized as an undirected graph. We describe a set of tools that w...

  14. Conversation Analysis on Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Belkaroui , Rami; Faiz , Rim; Elkhlifi , Aymen

    2014-01-01

    International audience; With the explosion of Web 2.0, people are becoming more communicative through expansion of services and multi-platform applications such as microblogs, forums and social networks which establishes social and collabora-tive backgrounds. These services can be seen as very large information repository containing millions of text messages usually organized into complex networks involving users interacting with each other at specific times. Several works focused only to ret...

  15. DEPENDENCE ON SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjith; Santosh; Amita Rao; Ramgopal; Ashvij

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are “web-based services” that allow individuals to: (1) Construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) Articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) View and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.” Social networking sites like Facebook, WhatsApp, Snapchat, Twitter, etc. are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles,...

  16. Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Poryadin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system

  17. The Commercial Utilization of Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Adlaf, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The presented bachelor's thesis deals with advertisement. It answers the question of what advertisement is, why firms use advertisement and what its benefits are. It concentrates especially on Internet advertisement presented through social networks. These social networks have come to occupy a significant position on the Internet during the last five years and offer new possibilities in terms of creating advertising campaigns (Hypertargeting). The thesis presents the division and comparison o...

  18. Jana: Confidential Communications on Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    consuming phone resources and privacy leakage ?” We address this challenge via an extensive user study. Next, we ask “How can we detect background apps...not support secret group communications. Furthermore, access to such social networks via mobile platforms raises a series of concerns like leakage of...not support secret group communications. Furthermore, access to such social networks via mobile platforms raises a series of concerns like leakage of

  19. Marketing Impact on Diffusion in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Naumov, Pavel; Tao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a way to add marketing into the standard threshold model of social networks. Within this framework, the paper studies logical properties of the influence relation between sets of agents in social networks. Two different forms of this relation are considered: one for promotional marketing and the other for preventive marketing. In each case a sound and complete logical system describing properties of the influence relation is proposed. Both systems could be viewed as extensi...

  20. Multilayer Brokerage in Geo-Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hristova, Desislava; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    This is a metadata record relating to an article that cannot be shared due to publisher copyright. Open network structures and brokerage positions have long been seen as playing a crucial role in sustaining social capital and competitive advantage. The degree to which individuals intermediate between otherwise disconnected others can differ across online and offline social networks. For example, users may broker online between two others who then exchange offline the i...

  1. It is all about being popular: The effects of need for popularity on social network site use

    OpenAIRE

    Utz, S.; Tanis, M.A.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on predictors of social network site (SNS) use has mainly focused on the Big Five, narcissism, and self-esteem. Results have been inconsistent, and variance explained was rather low. Need for popularity (NfP) might be a better predictor of SNS use, because SNSs are ideal venues for people with a high NfP. Study 1 tested NfP, self-esteem, need to belong, entitlement, and vanity as predictors for a range of SNS behaviors; Study 2 replaced entitlement and vanity with narcissism an...

  2. Multimedia Information Networks in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangliang; Qi, Guojun; Tsai, Shen-Fu; Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Pozo, Andrey Del; Huang, Thomas S.; Zhang, Xuemei; Lim, Suk Hwan

    The popularity of personal digital cameras and online photo/video sharing community has lead to an explosion of multimedia information. Unlike traditional multimedia data, many new multimedia datasets are organized in a structural way, incorporating rich information such as semantic ontology, social interaction, community media, geographical maps, in addition to the multimedia contents by themselves. Studies of such structured multimedia data have resulted in a new research area, which is referred to as Multimedia Information Networks. Multimedia information networks are closely related to social networks, but especially focus on understanding the topics and semantics of the multimedia files in the context of network structure. This chapter reviews different categories of recent systems related to multimedia information networks, summarizes the popular inference methods used in recent works, and discusses the applications related to multimedia information networks. We also discuss a wide range of topics including public datasets, related industrial systems, and potential future research directions in this field.

  3. Brand communities embedded in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglia, Melanie E

    2013-02-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers' interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes.

  4. Social networks, big data and transport planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Lidon Mars Aicart, M. del; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.; Serna Nocedal, A.

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of people who are related or tied to each individual affects her activitytravel behavior. That influence is especially associated to social and recreational activities, which are increasingly important. Collecting high quality data from those social networks is very difficult, because respondents are asked about their general social life, which is most demanding to remember that specific facts. On the other hand, currently there are different potential sources of transport data, which is characterized by the huge amount of information available, the velocity with it is obtained and the variety of format in which is presented. This sort of information is commonly known as Big Data. In this paper we identify potential sources of social network related big data that can be used in Transport Planning. Then, a review of current applications in Transport Planning is presented. Finally, some future prospects of using social network related big data are highlighted. (Author)

  5. Content Propagation in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenn, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and techniques to analyze content propagation within online social networks (OSNs) using a graph theoretical approach. Important factors and different techniques to analyze and describe content propagation, starting from the smallest entity in a network, representing a

  6. Segmentation of users of social networking websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Constantinides, Efthymios

    2012-01-01

    The typology of networked consumers in The Netherlands presented in this study, was based on an online survey and obtained using latent segmentation analysis. This approach is based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their sociodemographic variables, social networking

  7. Settings in Social Networks : a Measurement Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweinberger, Michael; Snijders, Tom A.B.

    2003-01-01

    A class of statistical models is proposed that aims to recover latent settings structures in social networks. Settings may be regarded as clusters of vertices. The measurement model is based on two assumptions. (1) The observed network is generated by hierarchically nested latent transitive

  8. Temporal fidelity in dynamic social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Pentland, Alex ‘Sandy’

    2015-01-01

    of the network dynamics can be used to inform the process of measuring social networks. The details of measurement are of particular importance when considering dynamic processes where minute-to-minute details are important, because collection of physical proximity interactions with high temporal resolution...

  9. The Nature Terrorism Reports on Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okolie-Osemene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As new tools of communication, an in-depth study of social networking in the era of global terrorism is attempted in this article. This emerging tradition of information sharing is driven by social media technology which has greatly revolutionalised communication in all sectors. The article explored the information sharing relevance of new technologies in the age of terrorism and counterterrorism. It focused on how social networks are increasingly utilised by different groups. In terms of methodology, the study extracted and utilised positive, negative and neutral posts, updates, tweets and reports on social networks through different individual and organisational media accounts and blogs, and analysed the data qualitatively. Findings show that despite being used by extremist groups in promoting their political agenda, social networks are also useful in promoting positive perceptions that society has about Muslims in the era of terrorism, emphasising that Muslims are not terrorists. Through the instrumentality of social media, users are able to map the trends of terrorism and responses from stakeholders in government and security sector in curbing the menace. Given their capacity to reach a wider audience, breaking cultural and religious barriers, social networks serve as early warning signs and make it possible for people to share new ideas on possible ways of curbing the proliferation of terrorist organisations.

  10. SOCIAL NETWORKS BETWEEN ICTS AND MORAL DECADENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of social networks in organizations is that they are a very important means of formation, training, update, information and communication, but also represent a symptom of cultural decay, because with them have been provided and processes of disinformation uncontrolled distribution of malicious information, which is assaulted by people. The abuse as to upload information indiscriminately leads to pathological, anti-social and cynical time’s behaviors. As many users of social networks does not assume a code of ethics according to social needs, then its limits of performance in terms of dignity and self-respect will not operate, constitute a serious social threat, against which the appropriate response has not been generated.  To participate in social networks, people end up exposing itself to that your privacy was hurt with impunity and thereby will limit or annul the opportunity to defend their dignity, turning them into a set of highly vulnerable entities. But as there is social by joining the network pressure, the question is it worth being in these networks? If you want to stay informed and share information, raises the dilemma of to where it can and should go.

  11. Measuring Social Capital in Virtual Social Networks; Introducing Workable Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdollahian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will attempt to offer a set of indicators that together construct a model which will help to measure social capital among users of social networks. The world is now experiencing some new changes that are affecting conceptual equations in social sciences, two of which are of our concern here: 1- the concept of social capital that has opened its way into epistemological basis of social sciences, and; 2- the world has welcomed the birth and development of social networks in our daily life, affecting many aspects of social actions. There is Facebook from among a handful of social networks that has reached the threshold of international networking capacity with roughly one billion users. We will use Robert Putnam's theory of social capital alongside Frank's methodological innovation regarding measuring tools of social capital in order to create a marriage between these two as well as to address a yet more problematizing issue, i.e., how to measure social capital of the Facebook users. Accordingly the paper will focus on Facebook as the field of research and will introduce triangulation approach that we used in order to come up with the set of indicators. Participatory observation and online survey were used as constructing elements of triangulation approach so to generate the necessary data for the above purpose. At first, we used participatory observation through which 14 targeted samples were selected and whatever they had in their profile in Facebook were collected and analyzed. This analysis helped us to construct our questionnaire which was launched through Google docs. In the end, some 218 respondent returned their completed questionnaires. The final stage of analysis consisted of finding out how we can use the results to offer a new tool for measuring social capital of Facebook users. The research findings indicated that there are 10 indicators which should be put together if social capital is to be properly measured.

  12. Time Allocation in Social Networks: Correlation Between Social Structure and Human Communication Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Moro, Esteban

    Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.

  13. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission. PMID:27493780

  14. Social Network Types and Acute Stroke Preparedness Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Boden-Albala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Presence of informal social networks has been associated with favorable health and behaviors, but whether different types of social networks impact on different health outcomes remains largely unknown. We examined the associations of different social network types (marital dyad, household, friendship, and informal community networks with acute stroke preparedness behavior. We hypothesized that marital dyad best matched the required tasks and is the most effective network type for this behavior. Methods: We collected in-person interview and medical record data for 1,077 adults diagnosed with stroke and transient ischemic attack. We used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of each social network with arrival at the emergency department (ED within 3 h of stroke symptoms. Results: Adjusting for age, race-ethnicity, education, gender, transportation type to ED and vascular diagnosis, being married or living with a partner was significantly associated with early arrival at the ED (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–3.1, but no significant univariate or multivariate associations were observed for household, friendship, and community networks. Conclusions: The marital/partnership dyad is the most influential type of social network for stroke preparedness behavior.

  15. Social networks and their influence over the social consciousness forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ananeva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the analysis of social network influence on social consciousness forming. The examples of connection between international politic courses and events and blogosrheres’ virtual activity are given. Due to the analysis made, authors point at negative consequences following the information wars’ dissemination.

  16. Data Storage for Social Networks A Socially Aware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Duc A

    2012-01-01

    Evidenced by the success of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, online social networks (OSNs) have become ubiquitous, offering novel ways for people to access information and communicate with each other. As the increasing popularity of social networking is undeniable, scalability is an important issue for any OSN that wants to serve a large number of users. Storing user data for the entire network on a single server can quickly lead to a bottleneck, and, consequently, more servers are needed to expand storage capacity and lower data request traffic per server. Adding more servers is just one step

  17. Synchronization on effective networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Zhao Ming; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.

  18. Synchronization on effective networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tao [Web Sciences Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao Ming [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-04-15

    The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.

  19. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments.

  20. Social media networking: Facebook and Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrew; Jackson, Rem; Baum, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The new wave of marketing and practice promotion will include social media networking. This article will discuss Facebook and Twitter. After reading this article you, will have an understanding of these two important aspects of social media and how you might use Facebook and Twitter in your practice to enhance your communication with your existing patients and attract new patients.