WorldWideScience

Sample records for effects host penetration

  1. Penetration Testing Model for Web sites Hosted in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Norzalina Nasiruddin; Raja Murzaferi Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia web sites has been very crucial in providing important and useful information and services to the clients as well as the users worldwide. Furthermore, a web site is important as it reflects the organisation image. To ensure the integrity of the content of web site, a study has been made and a penetration testing model has been implemented to test the security of several web sites hosted at Nuclear Malaysia for malicious attempts. This study will explain how the security was tested in the detailed condition and measured. The result determined the security level and the vulnerability of several web sites. This result is important for improving and hardening the security of web sites in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  2. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  3. Interaction between Orobanche crenata and its host legumes: unsuccessful haustorial penetration and necrosis of the developing parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-DE-Luque, A; Rubiales, D; Cubero, J I; Press, M C; Scholes, J; Yoneyama, K; Takeuchi, Y; Plakhine, D; Joel, D M

    2005-05-01

    Orobanche species represent major constraints to crop production in many parts of the world as they reduce yield and alter root/shoot allometry. Although much is known about the histology and effect of Orobanche spp. on susceptible hosts, less is known about the basis of host resistance to these parasites. In this work, histological aspects related to the resistance of some legumes to Orobanche crenata have been investigated in order to determine which types of resistance responses are involved in the unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata. Samples of resistance reactions against O. crenata on different genotypes of resistant legumes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. Sections were observed using a transmission light microscope and by epi-fluorescence. Lignification of endodermal and pericycle host cells seems to prevent parasite intrusion into the root vascular cylinder at early infection stages. But in other cases, established tubercles became necrotic and died. Contrary to some previous studies, it was found that darkening at the infection site in these latter cases does not correspond to death of host tissues, but to the secretion of substances that fill the apoplast in the host-parasite interface and in much of the infected host tissues. The secretions block neighbouring host vessels. This may interfere with the nutrient flux between host and parasite, and may lead to necrosis and death of the developing parasite. The unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata seedlings into legume roots cannot be attributed to cell death in the host. It seems to be associated with lignification of host endodermis and pericycle cells at the penetration site. The accumulation of secretions at the infection site, may lead to the activation of xylem occlusion, another defence mechanism, which may cause further necrosis of established tubercles.

  4. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  5. Quasi-relativistic effects in barrier-penetration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchishkin, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of a particle tunneling through the potential barrier is solved within quasi-relativistic Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the subbarrier relativistic effects give a significant addition to penetration coefficient when some relations between parameters of the barrier and mass of a tunneling particle are satisfied. For instance an account of these effects for penetration of low energy π + -mesons through Coulomb barrier of the 298 U nuclei would give the increasing of penetration coefficient to 30 percent as compared to the nonrelativistic one. Also we give the criteria under which the contribution of the ''under barrier relativism'' to penetration coefficient becomes essential. 3 refs.; 6 figs. (author)

  6. Effects of magnetic shear on current penetration in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengyun; Wang Long

    2001-01-01

    The penetrations of the parallel and perpendicular components of plasma currents are interrelated to each other due to the existence of magnetic shear in a tokamak configuration. Effects of the shear on the penetration of Fourier components of toroidal plasma current are analysed in a cylindrical column model. The current penetration is obviously strengthened by the shear for a bell-bike conductivity profile and low safety factor and low aspect ratio

  7. Cell penetrating peptides to dissect host-pathogen protein-protein interactions in Theileria -transformed leukocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak; de Laté , Perle Latré ; Kennedy, Eileen J.; Langsley, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    One powerful application of cell penetrating peptides is the delivery into cells of molecules that function as specific competitors or inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Ablating defined protein-protein interactions is a refined way

  8. Cell penetrating peptides to dissect host-pathogen protein-protein interactions in Theileria -transformed leukocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2017-09-08

    One powerful application of cell penetrating peptides is the delivery into cells of molecules that function as specific competitors or inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Ablating defined protein-protein interactions is a refined way to explore their contribution to a particular cellular phenotype in a given disease context. Cell-penetrating peptides can be synthetically constrained through various chemical modifications that stabilize a given structural fold with the potential to improve competitive binding to specific targets. Theileria-transformed leukocytes display high PKA activity, but PKAis an enzyme that plays key roles in multiple cellular processes; consequently genetic ablation of kinase activity gives rise to a myriad of confounding phenotypes. By contrast, ablation of a specific kinase-substrate interaction has the potential to give more refined information and we illustrate this here by describing how surgically ablating PKA interactions with BAD gives precise information on the type of glycolysis performed by Theileria-transformed leukocytes. In addition, we provide two other examples of how ablating specific protein-protein interactions in Theileria-infected leukocytes leads to precise phenotypes and argue that constrained penetrating peptides have great therapeutic potential to combat infectious diseases in general.

  9. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  10. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  11. Effect of skin tumor properties on laser penetration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling can be a valuable tool to determine the absorption of laser light in different skin layers. For this study, the optical properties of three different skin tumors were used in the model to evaluate the effect on penetration depth...

  12. Monopole conversion hidden by penetration effect in magnetic dipole transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Anichin, I.; Marinkov, L.

    1977-01-01

    The 191 keV 197 Au nad 340 keV 233 U transitions are investigated and the effect of penetration into the M1-component is accounted for. Theoretical internal conversion coefficients (ICC) and electron parameters to account for the penetration effect have been obtained by interpolating the data of the Hager and Zeltzer tables. The ICC values and ratios are analyzed under the assumption that the 191 keV 197 Au transition has multipolarities M1 + E2 and E 0 +M1. A common overlapping occurs when the nuclear penetration parameter lambda for magnetic dipole transition is lambda = 34.2+-2.2. For the 340 keV 233 U transition the ICC has been found to equal αk=0.69+-0.07, and the relative conversion-line intensities have been determined. It is concluded that the 191 keV 197 Au nad 340 keV 233 U transitions involve an electric monopole component concealed by the penetration effect in the M1-conversion. The matrix elements of the E0-transition have been evaluated

  13. Barrier penetration effects on thermopower in semiconductor quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, R. G.; Sankeshwar, N. S.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2014-01-01

    Finite confinement effects, due to the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the barriers of a square well potential, on the low–temperature acoustic-phonon-limited thermopower (TP) of 2DEG are investigated. The 2DEG is considered to be scattered by acoustic phonons via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric couplings. Incorporating the barrier penetration effects, the dependences of diffusion TP and phonon drag TP on barrier height are studied. An expression for phonon drag TP is obtained. Numerical calculations of temperature dependences of mobility and TP for a 10 nm InN/In x Ga 1−x N quantum well for different values of x show that the magnitude and behavior of TP are altered. A decrease in the barrier height from 500 meV by a factor of 5, enhances the mobility by 34% and reduces the TP by 58% at 20 K. Results are compared with those of infinite barrier approximation

  14. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  15. Effect of snow cover on soil frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožnovský, Jaroslav; Brzezina, Jáchym

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover occurrence affects wintering and lives of organisms because it has a significant effect on soil frost penetration. An analysis of the dependence of soil frost penetration and snow depth between November and March was performed using data from 12 automated climatological stations located in Southern Moravia, with a minimum period of measurement of 5 years since 2001, which belong to the Czech Hydrometeorological institute. The soil temperatures at 5 cm depth fluctuate much less in the presence of snow cover. In contrast, the effect of snow cover on the air temperature at 2 m height is only very small. During clear sky conditions and no snow cover, soil can warm up substantially and the soil temperature range can be even higher than the range of air temperature at 2 m height. The actual height of snow is also important - increased snow depth means lower soil temperature range. However, even just 1 cm snow depth substantially lowers the soil temperature range and it can therefore be clearly seen that snow acts as an insulator and has a major effect on soil frost penetration and soil temperature range.

  16. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  17. Late effects of radiation: host factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the influence of host factors on radiation late effects and in particular cancer. Radiation induces cellular changes that result in initiated cells with a potential to become cancers. The expression of the initiated cells as tumors is influenced, if not determined, by both tissue and systemic factors that are sex-, age-, and species-dependent

  18. Simple Amides of Oleanolic Acid as Effective Penetration Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented. PMID:26010090

  19. Simple amides of oleanolic acid as effective penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented.

  20. Improved Tumor Penetration and Single-Cell Targeting of Antibody-Drug Conjugates Increases Anticancer Efficacy and Host Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Cornelius; Menezes, Bruna; Nessler, Ian; Linderman, Jennifer; Thurber, Greg M

    2018-02-01

    Current antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) have made advances in engineering the antibody, linker, conjugation site, small-molecule payload, and drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR). However, the relationship between heterogeneous intratumoral distribution and efficacy of ADCs is poorly understood. Here, we compared trastuzumab and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) to study the impact of ADC tumor distribution on efficacy. In a mouse xenograft model insensitive to trastuzumab, coadministration of trastuzumab with a fixed dose of T-DM1 at 3:1 and 8:1 ratios dramatically improved ADC tumor penetration and resulted in twice the improvement in median survival compared with T-DM1 alone. In this setting, the effective DAR was lowered, decreasing the amount of payload delivered to each targeted cell but increasing the number of cells that received payload. This result is counterintuitive because trastuzumab acts as an antagonist in vitro and has no single-agent efficacy in vivo , yet improves the effectiveness of T-DM1 in vivo Novel dual-channel fluorescence ratios quantified single-cell ADC uptake and metabolism and confirmed that the in vivo cellular dose of T-DM1 alone exceeded the minimum required for efficacy in this model. In addition, this technique characterized cellular pharmacokinetics with heterogeneous delivery after 1 day, degradation and payload release by 2 days, and in vitro cell killing and in vivo tumor shrinkage 2 to 3 days later. This work demonstrates that the intratumoral distribution of ADC, independent of payload dose or plasma clearance, plays a major role in ADC efficacy. Significance: This study shows how lowering the drug-to-antibody ratio during treatment can improve the intratumoral distribution of a antibody-drug conjugate, with implications for improving the efficacy of this class of cancer drugs. Cancer Res; 78(3); 758-68. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Penetrator strength effect in long-rod critical ricochet angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshjou, K.; Shahravi, M.

    2008-01-01

    3D numerical simulations were performed in order to further investigate the role of penetrator strength in the interaction of long-rods and oblique targets. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated with a full 3D explicit finite element method for various impact velocities and strength of target plates and projectiles. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models and test results. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocity and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. But there are differences between analytical models and 3D numerical simulation results or test results. The causes for these discrepancies are established by numerical simulations which explore the validity of the penetrator strength parameter in the analytical model as a physical entity. As a matter of fact, in this paper we first investigate the role of penetrator dynamic strength using two-dimensional simulation which resulted in different penetrator strengths out of different impact velocities. Next, by applying these amounts for penetrator strength in Rosenberg analytical model the critical ricochet angle is calculated. Finally, a comparison between the present analytical method with the 3D simulation and test results shows that the new analytical approach leads to modified results with respect to Rosenberg ones

  2. The Effect of Bacteria Penetration on Chalk Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    number of B. licheniformis was detected on the effluent compared with P. putida. However, in the experiment with B. licheniformis mainly spores were detected in the effluent. The core permeability decreased rapidly during injection of bacteria and a starvation period of 12 days did not allow......Bacteria selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery. Bacteria can plug the water-bearing zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. It is known that the bacteria can penetrate deeply...... into reservoirs, however, a complete understanding of the penetration behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where the pore throat sizes are almost comparable with the sizes of bacteria vegetative cells. This study investigates the penetration of bacteria into chalk. Two bacteria types...

  3. Host density and competency determine the effects of host diversity on trematode parasite infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M Wojdak

    Full Text Available Variation in host species composition can dramatically alter parasite transmission in natural communities. Whether diverse host communities dilute or amplify parasite transmission is thought to depend critically on species traits, particularly on how hosts affect each other's densities, and their relative competency as hosts. Here we studied a community of potential hosts and/or decoys (i.e. non-competent hosts for two trematode parasite species, Echinostoma trivolvis and Ribeiroia ondatrae, which commonly infect wildlife across North America. We manipulated the density of a focal host (green frog tadpoles, Rana clamitans, in concert with manipulating the diversity of alternative species, to simulate communities where alternative species either (1 replace the focal host species so that the total number of individuals remains constant (substitution or (2 add to total host density (addition. For E. trivolvis, we found that total parasite transmission remained roughly equal (or perhaps decreased slightly when alternative species replaced focal host individuals, but parasite transmission was higher when alternative species were added to a community without replacing focal host individuals. Given the alternative species were roughly equal in competency, these results are consistent with current theory. Remarkably, both total tadpole and per-capita tadpole infection intensity by E. trivolvis increased with increasing intraspecific host density. For R. ondatrae, alternative species did not function as effective decoys or hosts for parasite infective stages, and the diversity and density treatments did not produce clear changes in parasite transmission, although high tank to tank variation in R. ondatrae infection could have obscured patterns.

  4. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  5. Effect of microneedle geometry and supporting substrate on microneedle array penetration into skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Jaspreet Singh; Quek, Ten Cheer; Soon, Wei Jun; Choi, Jaewoong; Zou, Shui; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-11-01

    Microneedles are being fast recognized as a useful alternative to injections in delivering drugs, vaccines, and cosmetics transdermally. Owing to skin's inherent elastic properties, microneedles require an optimal geometry for skin penetration. In vitro studies, using rat skin to characterize microneedle penetration in vivo, require substrates with suitable mechanical properties to mimic human skin's subcutaneous tissues. We tested the effect of these two parameters on microneedle penetration. Geometry in terms of center-to-center spacing of needles was investigated for its effect on skin penetration, when placed on substrates of different hardness. Both hard (clay) and soft (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) substrates underneath rat skin and full-thickness pig skin were used as animal models and human skins were used as references. It was observed that there was an increase in percentage penetration with an increase in needle spacing. Microneedle penetration with PDMS as a support under stretched rat skin correlated better with that on full-thickness human skin, while penetration observed was higher when clay was used as a substrate. We showed optimal geometries for efficient penetration together with recommendation for a substrate that could better mimic the mechanical properties of human subcutaneous tissues, when using microneedles fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol)-based materials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  7. Penetration effect in internal conversion and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listengarten, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions for the appearance of the anomalous internal conversion coefficients (ICC) are considered, when the contribution of the penetration matrix element (PME) is of the order of or larger than the main part of the conversion matrix element. The experimental magnitudes of the nuclear PME agree well with those calculated in the framework of simple nuclear models, provided the magnitude of PME is not decreased due to the model -dependent selection rules. The magnitude of the anomaly ( lanbda parameter ) is compared with the exclusion factor of γ-transition relative to the Weisskopf estimation. The better is the model of the nucleus the weaker is the dependence of the lambda magnitude on the exclusion factor. ICC coefficients might be anomalous for those γ-transitions for which the exclusion factor calculated in the framework of more rigorous model are of the order of unity. In the ''ideal'' model of nucleus completely adequate to the true nuclear structure the dependence of the lambda penetration parameter on the exclusion factor vanishes

  8. A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative with inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease and penetration of mice skin by the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Mahmoud; Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N; El Azzouny, Aida A; Maghraby, Amany; Ruppel, Andreas; Soliman, Wael M

    2009-01-01

    A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative, N-phenyl-N-[1-(piperidine-1-carbonyl)cyclohexyl] benzamide (MNRC-5), was evaluated for its inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease activity and cercarial penetration. MNRC-5 exerted an inhibitory effect on S. mansoni cercarial serine protease at serial concentrations of the specific chromogenic substrate Boc-Val-Leu-Gly-Arg-PNA for such enzyme family and the inhibitory coefficient (Ki) value was deduced. Moreover, topical treatment of mice tails with the most potent inhibitory concentration of MNRC-5 formulated in jojoba oil successfully blocked cercarial penetration as demonstrated by a significant reduction (75%; p jojoba oil base containing no MNRC-5. In addition, the IgM and IgG reactivities to crude S. mansoni cercarial, worm and egg antigens were generally lower in sera from treated infected mice than untreated infected mice. In conclusion, we report on a new serine protease inhibitor capable for blocking penetration of host skin by S. mansoni cercariae as measured by lowering worm burden and decrease in the levels of both IgM and IgG towards different bilharzial antigens upon topical treatment.

  9. [Filtering facepieces: effect of oily aerosol load on penetration through the filtering material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Carmela; Listrani, S; Di Luigi, M

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic filters are widely used in applications requiring high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. However various studies showed that the penetration through electrostatic filters increases during exposure to an aerosol flow. This study investigates the effects of prolonged exposure to an oily aerosol on the penetration through filtering facepieces available on the market. Some samples of FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3 filtering facepieces were exposed for 8 hours consecutively to a paraffin oil polydisperse aerosol. At the end of the exposure about 830 mg of paraffin oil were deposited in the facepiece. All the examined facepieces showed penetration values that increased with paraffin oil load while pressure drop values were substantially the same before and after exposure. The measured maximum penetration values did not exceed the maximum penetration values allowed by the European technical standards, except in one case. According to the literature, 830 mg of oil load in a facepiece is not feasible in workplaces over an eight- hour shift. However, the trend of the penetration versus exposure mass suggests that if the load increases, the penetration may exceed the maximum allowed values. For comparison a mechanical filter was also studied. This showed an initial pressure drop higher than FFP2 filtering facepieces characterized by comparable penetration values. During exposure the pressure drop virtually doubled while penetration did not change. The increase in penetration with no increase in pressure drop in the analyzed facepieces indicates that it is necessary to comply with the information supplied by the manufacturer that restricts their use to a single shift.

  10. Quantum shielding effects on the Gamow penetration factor for nuclear fusion reaction in quantum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-01-01

    The quantum shielding effects on the nuclear fusion reaction process are investigated in quantum plasmas. The closed expression of the classical turning point for the Gamow penetration factor in quantum plasmas is obtained by the Lambert W-function. The closed expressions of the Gamow penetration factor and the cross section for the nuclear fusion reaction in quantum plasmas are obtained as functions of the plasmon energy and the relative kinetic energy by using the effective interaction potential with the WKB analysis. It is shown that the influence of quantum screening suppresses the Sommerfeld reaction factor. It is also shown that the Gamow penetration factor increases with an increase of the plasmon energy. It is also shown that the quantum shielding effect enhances the deuterium formation by the proton-proton reaction in quantum plasmas. In addition, it is found that the energy dependences on the reaction cross section and the Gamow penetration factor are more significant in high plasmon-energy domains.

  11. The value-based medicine comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Richard H; Lass, Jonathan H; Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M

    2008-10-01

    To perform a base case, comparative effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness (cost-utility) analysis of penetrating keratoplasty for patients with severe keratoconus. Visual acuity data were obtained from a large, retrospective multicenter study in which patients with keratoconus with less than 20/40 best corrected visual acuity and/or the inability to wear contact lenses underwent penetrating keratoplasty, with an average follow-up of 2.1 years. The results were combined with other retrospective studies investigating complication rates of penetrating keratoplasty. The data were then incorporated into a cost-utility model using patient preference-based, time trade-off utilities, computer-based decision analysis, and a net present value model to account for the time value of outcomes and money. The comparative effectiveness of the intervention is expressed in quality-of-life gain and QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years), and the cost-effectiveness results are expressed in the outcome of $/QALY (dollars spent per QALY). Penetrating keratoplasty in 1 eye for patients with severe keratoconus results in a comparative effectiveness (value gain) of 16.5% improvement in quality of life every day over the 44-year life expectancy of the average patient with severe keratoconus. Discounting the total value gain of 5.36 QALYs at a 3% annual discount rate yields 3.05 QALYs gained. The incremental cost for penetrating keratoplasty, including all complications, is $5934 ($5913 discounted at 3% per year). Thus, the incremental cost-utility (discounted at 3% annually) for this intervention is $5913/3.05 QALYs = $1942/QALY. If both eyes undergo corneal transplant, the total discounted value gain is 30% and the overall cost-utility is $2003. Surgery on the second eye confers a total discounted value gain of 2.5 QALYs, yielding a quality-of-life gain of 11.6% and a discounted cost-utility of $2238/QALY. Penetrating keratoplasty for patients with severe keratoconus seems to be a

  12. Effect of neoclassical toroidal viscosity on error-field penetration thresholds in tokamak plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, A J; Hegna, C C; Callen, J D

    2007-08-10

    A model for field-error penetration is developed that includes nonresonant as well as the usual resonant field-error effects. The nonresonant components cause a neoclassical toroidal viscous torque that keeps the plasma rotating at a rate comparable to the ion diamagnetic frequency. The new theory is used to examine resonant error-field penetration threshold scaling in Ohmic tokamak plasmas. Compared to previous theoretical results, we find the plasma is less susceptible to error-field penetration and locking, by a factor that depends on the nonresonant error-field amplitude.

  13. A study of the effects of penetration framing on steel containment buckling capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.E.; Butler, T.A.

    1987-05-01

    Polycarbonate cylinders modeling steel containment structures were tested to study the effects of different framing designs around large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of containments. Two of the four models had equipment hatch penetrations and two had personnel airlock penetrations. Both types of models were tested with axial and shear loads as framing was incrementally added. Results indicate that, for the models constructed of polycarbonate, buckling is influenced minimally with added framing. Numerical results support the experimental results. Extrapolation of the results to containment constructed under field conditions with prototypic steel materials is discussed and further testing is recommended

  14. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with the ATLS for Investigation on CEDM Penetration Nozzle Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoungho; Seokcho; Park, Hyunsik; Choi, Namhyun; Park, Yusun; Kim, Jongrok; Bae, Byounguhn; Kim, Yeonsik; Choi, Kiyong; Song, Chulhwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, thermal-hydraulic integral effect test with the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) was performed for simulating a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle. The main objectives of the present test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response during a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle but also to establish an integral effect test database for the validation of the safety analysis codes. Furthermore, present experimental data were utilized to resolve the safety issue raised by the PWSCC at the CEDM penetration nozzle of the YGN-3. Thermal-hydraulic integral effect test with the ATLAS was performed for simulating a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle. Failure of two penetration nozzles of the CEDM in the APR1400 was simulated. Initial and boundary conditions were determined with respect to the reference conditions of the APR1400. However, with an aim of corresponding to the YGN-3 situation, the safety injection water was supplied via CLI mode. Compared to the cold leg break SBLOCA, the consequences of the event were milder in terms of a loop seal clearance, break flow rate, collapsed water level, and PCT. This could be mainly attributed to the small break flow rate in case of the failure in the RPV upper head. Present experimental data were utilized to resolve the safety issue raised by the PWSCC at the CEDM penetration nozzle of the YGN-3.

  15. The Effect and Mechanism of Transdermal Penetration Enhancement of Fu's Cupping Therapy: New Physical Penetration Technology for Transdermal Administration with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Fang-Fang

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, a new type of physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics is presented. Fu's cupping therapy (FCT), was established and studied using in vitro and in vivo experiments and the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology was preliminarily discussed. With 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-ylacetic acid (indomethacin, IM) as a model drug, the establishment of high, medium, and low references was completed for the chemical permeation system via in vitro transdermal tests. Furthermore, using chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) and iontophoresis as references, the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT for IM patches was evaluated using seven species of in vitro diffusion kinetics models and in vitro drug distribution; the IM quantitative analysis method in vivo was established using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to last time t (AUC 0-t , AUMC 0-t ), area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to infinity (AUC 0-∞ , AUMC 0-∞ ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and mean residence time (MRT), were used as indicators to evaluate the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT in vivo. Additionally, we used the 3 K factorial design to study the joint synergistic penetration effect on FCT and chemical penetration enhancers. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, micro- and ultrastructural changes on the surface of the stratum corneum (SC) were observed to explore the FCT penetration mechanism. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation experiments revealed that both the total cumulative percutaneous amount and in vivo percutaneous absorption amount of IM using FCT were greater than the amount using CPEs and iontophoresis. Firstly, compared with

  16. Numerical analysis on effective electric field penetration depth for interdigital impedance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chon-ung; Jong, Hakchol; Ro, Cholwu; Pak, Gilhung; Im, Songil; Li, Guofeng; Li, Jie; Song, Yunho

    2013-01-01

    Interdigital (finger-like) electrodes are widely used for electrical impedance and capacitance tomography of composite dielectric materials and complex insulating structures. Because of their advantages, they are now effectively introduced as capacitance sensors into a variety of industrial branches, agriculture, medical science, biological engineering, military branches, etc. In order to effectively apply the so-called interdigital impedance sensors in practice, of great importance is to optimize the sensor design parameters such as the electric field penetration depth, signal strength and so on. The general design principles of the interdigital capacitance sensor have been discussed for a long time by many researchers. However, there is no consensus on the definition of the effective electric field penetration depth of interdigital electrode. This paper discusses how to determine the effective electric field penetration depth of interdigital sensor on the basis of the refractive principle of electric field intensity and the FEM analyses of electric field distribution and capacitance for the sensor model.

  17. Effect of various enhancers on transdermal penetration of indomethacin and urea, and relationship between penetration parameters and enhancement factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiso, T; Iwaki, M; Paku, T

    1995-04-01

    The enhancing capacity of various chemicals, which are widely recognized as enhancers, for the transdermal penetration into full-thickness rat skin of a model lipophilic drug [indomethacin (IND)] and a hydrophilic permeant (urea) was estimated by an in vitro technique. In addition, the fluidity of the stratum corneum lipids, the partitioning of IND into skin, the lipid (ceramides) extraction from the stratum corneum by enhancers, and the IND solubility in enhancer vehicle were measured and related to the enhancing capacity. In vitro permeation experiments with hairless rat skin unequivocally revealed that the enhancers varied in abilities to enhance the fluxes of both agents. Laurocapram, isopropylmyristate (IPM), sodium oleate, and cineol increased fluxes of both agents to a great extent, but N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), N,N-diethyl-m-tolamide (DEET), and oleyl oleate were less effective acclerants. Many enhancers increased the fluidity of the lipids [with a threshold of approximately 0.6-0.8 ns at 37 degrees C in the rotational correlation time (tau c)], the skin partitioning of IND, the extraction of ceramides from the cornified cells, and the thermodynamic activity of IND in vehicle (calculated from the solubility) to varying extents. A good correlation was observed between the increase in the fluidity of stratum corneum lipids and the partitioning of IND into skin, between the increase in the fluidity and the flux or the decrease in lag time for IND, between the removal of ceramides and the skin partitioning of IND, and between the removal of ceramides and the flux of urea (p < 0.05 in all cases).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Penetration Enhancing Effect of Polysorbate 20 and 80 on the In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the penetration enhancing effect of two polysorbates - polyoxyethylene 20 (POE-20) and polyoxyethylene 80 (POE-80) - on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of ascorbic acid (AA). Methods: For the permeation experiments, Franz diffusion cell covered with aluminum foil providing an effective ...

  19. Ibrutinib Effective against Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cancer Currents blog post on results from a small clinical trial showing that ibrutinib can effectively treat graft-versus-host-disease, a common and serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplants.

  20. Analysing Blast and Fragment Penetration Effects on Composite Helicopter Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van't Hof, C; Herlaar, K; Luyten, J. M; van der Jagt, M. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The last decades the threat of helicopters has increased in military circumstances. Consequently the helicopters will be exposed to weapon effects like high blast loads and fragment impact more frequently...

  1. The effects of host-feeding on stability of discrete-time host-parasitoid population dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Brooks; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-02-01

    Discrete-time models are the traditional approach for capturing population dynamics of a host-parasitoid system. Recent work has introduced a semi-discrete framework for obtaining model update functions that connect host-parasitoid population levels from year-to-year. In particular, this framework uses differential equations to describe the host-parasitoid interaction during the time of year when they come in contact, allowing specific behaviors to be mechanistically incorporated. We use the semi-discrete approach to study the effects of host-feeding, which occurs when a parasitoid consumes a potential host larva without ovipositing. We find that host-feeding by itself cannot stabilize the system, and both populations exhibit behavior similar to the Nicholson-Bailey model. However, when combined with stabilizing mechanisms such as density-dependent host mortality, host-feeding contracts the region of parameter space that allows for a stable host-parasitoid equilibrium. In contrast, when combined with a density-dependent parasitoid attack rate, host-feeding expands the non-zero equilibrium stability region. Our results show that host-feeding causes inefficiency in the parasitoid population, which yields a higher population of hosts per generation. This suggests that host-feeding may have limited long-term impact in terms of suppressing host levels for biological control applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower-hybrid wave penetration and effects on electron population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, L.; Grelot, P.; Parlange, F.; Weisse, J.

    1981-01-01

    In a high-power-density lower-hybrid experiment (approximately 10kW.cm -2 ), a parallel index spectrum was measured and the radial position where sidebands are excited was deduced from pump and sideband wavenumber measurements. On this basis, some considerations on wave propagation are given which are compatible with some effects observed on electron population. (author)

  3. Measurements of the effect of humidity on radio-aerosol penetration through ultrafine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, C.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of humidity on radio-aerosol penetration through ultrafine capillaries. A number of tests were conducted at relative humidities of 20%, 50%, and 80%, with sampling times of 20, 40, and 60 min. The radio-aerosol consisted of polystyrene particles with a diameter of 0.1 microm. The ultrafine capillaries had a diameter of 250 microm. The data from these tests varied significantly. These results made the identification of radio-aerosol penetration trends inconclusive. The standard deviation for all penetration data ranged from 3% to 30%. The results of this study suggest that a better control of the experimental parameters was needed to obtain more accurate data from experiments associated with radio-aerosol penetration in the presence of moisture. The experimental parameters that may have contributed to the wide variance of data, include aerosol flow, radio-aerosol generation, capillary characteristics, humidity control, and radiation measurements. It was the uncertainty of these parameters that contributed to the poor data which made conclusive deductions about radio-aerosol penetration dependence on humidity difficult. The application of this study is to ultrafine leaks resulting from stress fractures in high-level nuclear waste transportation casks under accident scenarios

  4. Durable-Goods Monopolists, Network Effects and Penetration Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus C.Y. Chu; Hung-Ken Chien

    2005-01-01

    We study the pricing problem of a durable-goods monopolist. With network effects, consumption externalities among heterogeneous groups of consumers generate a discontinuous demand function. Consequently, the lessor has to offer a low price in order to reach the mass market, whereas the seller has the option to build a customer base by setting a lower initial price and raise the price later in the mass market, which explains the practice of introductory pricing. Contrary to the existing litera...

  5. Experimental Study of Bacterial Penetration into Chalk Rock: Mechanisms and Effect on Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery, as bacteria can plug the water-swept zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. However, complete understanding of the penetration...... behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where characteristic pore throat sizes are comparable with the sizes of bacterial cells. In this study, two bacterial strains, Bacillus licheniformis 421 (spore-forming) and Pseudomonas putida K12 (non-spore forming) were used to investigate...... the penetration of bacteria into chalk and its effect on permeability reduction. The core plugs were produced from Stevns Klint outcrop with low permeability (2–4 mD) and with pore sizes comparable to bacterial sizes. Both types of bacteria were able to penetrate and to be transported through the cores to some...

  6. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  7. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration of water, hydrocortisone and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    The dose- and time-related effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration was studied using 3 radiolabeled tracer compounds with different physicochemical properties: tritiated water, hydrocortisone and nickel. Human cadaver abdominal skin from caucasian women was used...

  8. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Estrogen on Penetrating Brain Arterioles and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J.; Godfrey, Julie A.; Wiegman, Marchien J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effect of estrogen replacement on the structure and function of penetrating brain arterioles (PA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Materials and Methods: Female ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were replaced with estradiol (E-2) and estriol (E-3) (OVX + E;

  9. Liposomes equipped with cell penetrating peptide BR2 enhances chemotherapeutic effects of cantharidin against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Lin, Congcong; Lu, Aiping; Lin, Ge; Chen, Huoji; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zhijun; Zhang, Hongqi

    2017-11-01

    A main hurdle for the success of tumor-specific liposomes is their inability to penetrate tumors efficiently. In this study, we incorporated a cell-penetrating peptide BR2 onto the surface of a liposome loaded with the anticancer drug cantharidin (CTD) to create a system targeting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells more efficiently and effectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay comparing the loaded liposomes' effects on hepatocellular cancer HepG2 and the control Miha cells showed that CTD-loaded liposomes had a stronger anticancer effect after BR2 modification. The cellular uptake results of HepG2 and Miha cells further confirmed the superior ability of BR2-modified liposomes to penetrate cancer cells. The colocalization study revealed that BR2-modified liposomes could enter tumor cells and subsequently release drugs. A higher efficiency of delivery by BR2 liposomes as compared to unmodified liposomes was evident by evaluation of the HepG2 tumor spheroids penetration and inhibition. The biodistribution studies and anticancer efficacy results in vivo showed the significant accumulation of BR2-modified liposomes into tumor sites and an enhanced tumor inhibition. In conclusion, BR2-modified liposomes improve the anticancer potency of drugs for HCC.

  10. Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty for Failed Penetrating Keratoplasty: Influence of the Graft-Host Junction on the Graft Survival Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Takashi; Sakisaka, Toshihiro; Toyono, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Junko; Shirakawa, Rika; Miyai, Takashi; Yamagami, Satoru; Usui, Tomohiko

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the clinical results of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) for failed penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and the influence of the graft-host junction (GHJ) on the graft survival rate. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, visual outcomes, complications, and graft survival rate for 17 eyes of 16 patients who underwent DSAEK for failed PK. The graft survival rate was compared between the eyes when divided into a bump group and a well-aligned group according to the shape of the GHJ detected on anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The most common indication for initial PK was bullous keratopathy after glaucoma surgery (35.3%). Seven eyes (41.2%) were classified into the bump group and 10 eyes (58.8%) into the well-aligned group. The mean best-ever documented visual acuity (BDVA) after DSAEK was 0.33 logMAR. Postoperatively, almost 70% of eyes achieved a BDVA that was within 0.2 logMAR of their preoperative BDVA. Graft detachment occurred in 29.4% of eyes and primary graft failure in 17.6%. All primary failures occurred in the bump group. The cumulative graft survival rate was 82.3% at 1 year, 73.2% at 2 years, and 58.6% at 3 years. Graft failure was more likely in eyes in the bump group than in those in the well-aligned group (P = 0.037, Wilcoxon test). DSAEK for failed PK had a favorable outcome in this study. However, the GHJ should be assessed carefully before performing the procedure.

  11. Multifaceted effects of host plants on entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Selcuk; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Canan; Leite, Luis G; Cakmak, Ibrahim; Olson, Dawn

    2016-03-01

    The success of parasites can be impacted by multi-trophic interactions. Tritrophic interactions have been observed in parasite-herbivore-host plant systems. Here we investigate aspects of multi-trophic interactions in a system involving an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), its insect host, and host plant. Novel issues investigated include the impact of tritrophic interactions on nematode foraging behavior, the ability of EPNs to overcome negative tritrophic effects through genetic selection, and interactions with a fourth trophic level (nematode predators). We tested infectivity of the nematode, Steinernema riobrave, to corn earworm larvae (Helicoverpa zea) in three host plants, tobacco, eggplant and tomato. Tobacco reduced nematode virulence and reproduction relative to tomato and eggplant. However, successive selection (5 passages) overcame the deficiency; selected nematodes no longer exhibited reductions in phenotypic traits. Despite the loss in virulence and reproduction nematodes, first passage S. riobrave was more attracted to frass from insects fed tobacco than insects fed on other host plants. Therefore, we hypothesized the reduced virulence and reproduction in S. riobrave infecting tobacco fed insects would be based on a self-medicating tradeoff, such as deterring predation. We tested this hypothesis by assessing predatory success of the mite Sancassania polyphyllae and the springtail Sinella curviseta on nematodes reared on tobacco-fed larvae versus those fed on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, tomato fed larvae, or eggplant fed larvae. No advantage was observed in nematodes derived from tobacco fed larvae. In conclusion, our results indicated that insect-host plant diet has an important effect on nematode foraging, infectivity and reproduction. However, negative host plant effects, might be overcome through directed selection. We propose that host plant species should be considered when designing biocontrol programs using EPNs. Copyright © 2016

  12. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprinting patterns were used to identify the ... Apart from cowpea where all the isolates were effective, there were significant ..... aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene in Sinorhizobium.

  13. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-08-01

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  14. Effect of penetration modifiers on the dermal and transdermal delivery of drugs and cosmetic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A; Wiechers, J W; Kelly, C L; Hadgraft, J; du Plessis, J

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effect of 2 penetration modifiers, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI) and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) on the skin delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC) was investigated. Ten percent DMI and DGME were separately formulated into oil-in-water emulsions containing 1.8% HQ, SA and DIOIC, respectively. Skin delivery and the flux across split-thickness human skin of the active ingredients were determined using Franz diffusion cells. An emulsion with 10% water incorporated instead of the water-soluble penetration modifiers served as a control. The study showed that neither 10% DMI nor 10% DGME significantly enhanced the skin permeation of the various lipophilic active ingredients or the uptake into the skin. It was hypothesized that the addition of the penetration modifiers to the emulsions not only enhanced the solubility of the various active ingredients in the skin but also in the formulation, resulting in a reduced thermodynamic activity and hence a weaker driving force for penetration. Therefore, the effect of DMI and DGME on the solubility of the active ingredients in the skin was counteracted by a simultaneous reduction in the thermodynamic activity in the formulation. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprinting patterns were used to identify the isolates occupying nodules. All the isolates nodulated cowpea, groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) and mungbean (Vigna radiata), but only AII-2-1, AII-3-4 and BIII-2-2 nodulated soybean (Glycine max). Apart from cowpea where all the isolates were effective, there ...

  16. Effect of surfactants on the penetration of 14C-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus in Pakistani agroclimatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil Qureshi, M.; Anwarul Haq; Uzma Maqbool

    1998-01-01

    The penetration of 14 C-glyphosate was studied in Cyperus rotundus with three nonionic surfactants. Among the three surfactants Synperonic A20 was more effective than A2 and A7 in enhancing penetration of glyphosate 24 hours after treatment both in dry and wet seasons. The addition of diesel oil to Synperonic A20 further increased penetration of glyphosate in both seasons. (author)

  17. The effect of longitudinal conductance variations on the ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R.; Spiro, R.; Fejer, B.

    Ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields of magnetospheric origin, together with the atmospheric disturbance dynamo, represent the most important parameters controlling the storm-time dynamics of the low and mid-latitude ionosphere. These prompt penetration fields result from the disruption of region-2 field-aligned shielding currents during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Penetration electric fields con- trol, to a large extent, the generation and development of equatorial spread-F plasma instabilities as well as other dynamic space weather phenomena in the ionosphere equatorward of the auroral zone. While modeling studies typically agree with average patterns of prompt penetration fields, experimental results suggest that longitudinal variations of the ionospheric con- ductivities play a non-negligible role in controlling spread-F phenomena, an effect that has not previously been modeled. We present first results of modeling prompt pene- tration electric fields using a version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) that allows for longitudinal variations in the ionospheric conductance tensor. The RCM is a first- principles numerical ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling model that solves for the electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle distributions in the ionosphere and inner/middle magnetosphere. We compare these new theoretical results with electric field observations.

  18. Screening Effect of Plasma Flow on RMP Penetration in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Lorenzo; Olofsson, Erik; Brunsell, Per; Menmuir, Sheena; Drake, James

    2011-10-01

    The penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) can be screened by plasma flow and the understanding of this phenomenon is important for ELM mitigation techniques. This work studies the screening effect in EXTRAP T2R. EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a feedback system able to suppress all error fields and to produce one or more external perturbations in a controlled fashion. The EXTRAP T2R feedback system is used to generate a RMP that interacts with the dynamics of its corresponding tearing mode (TM). The level of RMP penetration is quantified by analyzing the RMP effect on the TM amplitude and velocity. To study the screening effect, the flow is changed by applying a second perturbation that is non resonant (non-RMP). This produces the flow reduction without perturbing significantly the other parameters. By modifying the amplitude of the non-RMP, an experimental study of the flow effect on the RMP penetration is performed. Experimental results are compared with the model described in [Fitzpatrick R et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4489 (2001)].

  19. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE PLUS POINT-PENETRATION FOR CHRONIC ANKLE JOINT SPRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-zao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture plus point-penetration for chronic ankle joint sprain. Methods: 76 patients were randomly divided into treatment group (n=43) and control group (n=33).In teatment group, penetration needling from Qiuxu (丘墟 GB 40) to Zhaohai (照海 KI 6) was performed, combined with electrical stimulation for 30 min. Patients of control group were ordered to take Antinfan (50 mg,b.I.d.),supplemented with local external application of Votalin cream (b.I.d.).After 14 treatments (two courses), the therapeutic effect was assessed. Results: Following two courses of treatment, of the 43 cases and 33 cases in treatment and control groups,33 (76.7%) and 15 (45.5%) were cured, 4 (9.3%) and 7 (21.2%) had marked improvement in their symptoms, 3 (7.0%) and 2 (6.1%) had improvement, and 3 (7.0%) and 9(27.3%) failed, with the effective rates being 93.0% and 72.7% respectively. The therapeutic effect of treatment group was significantly superior to that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Penetrative needling plus EA is significantly superior to medication in relieving chronic ankle spain patient's clinical symptoms and signs.

  20. Field Test Evaluation of Effect on Cone Resistance Caused by Change in Penetration Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    in the laboratory. A change in the measured cone resistance occurs by lowering the penetration rate. This is caused by the changes in drainage conditions. Compared to the normal penetration rate of 20 mm/s, this paper illustrates that lowering the penetration rate leads to an increase in the cone resistance from 1......This paper presents how a change in cone penetration rate affects the measured cone resistance during cone penetration testing in silty soils. Regardless of soil, type the standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while drained...... penetration occurs in sand. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in drainage conditions varying from undrained to partially or fully drained conditions. Field cone penetrations tests have been conducted with different penetration rates on a test site...

  1. Insurance penetration and economic growth in Africa: Dynamic effects analysis using Bayesian TVP-VAR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Olayungbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic interactions between insurance and economic growth in eight African countries for the period of 1970–2013. Insurance demand is measured by insurance penetration which accounts for income differences across the sample countries. A Bayesian Time Varying Parameter Vector Auto regression (TVP-VAR model with stochastic volatility is used to analyze the short run and the long run among the variables of interest. Using insurance penetration as a measure of insurance to economic growth, we find positive relationship for Egypt, while short-run negative and long-run positive effects are found for Kenya, Mauritius, and South Africa. On the contrary, negative effects are found for Algeria, Nigeria, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Implementation of sound financial reforms and wide insurance coverage are proposed recommendations for insurance development in the selected African countries.

  2. Kinetic, volumetric and structural effects induced by liquid Ga penetration into ultrafine grained Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, Mehrnoosh; Peterlechner, Martin; Schafler, Erhard; Divinski, Sergiy V.; Wilde, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic, volumetric and structural effects induced by penetration of liquid Ga in ultrafine grained (UFG) Al produced by severe plastic deformation using high-pressure torsion were studied by isothermal dilatometric measurements, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Severe plastic deformation changed the distribution of impurities and their segregation was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Two-stage length changes of UFG Al were observed which are explained by counteracting effects of expansion due to grain boundary segregation of Ga and contraction due to precipitation and recrystallization. After applying Ga, the kinetics of the liquid Ga penetration in UFG Al is studied in-situ in the electron microscope by the “first appearance” method and the time scales are in agreement with those inducing the volumetric changes

  3. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of essential oil of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq. on Chinese herbal components with different lipophilicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: Mint oil at proper concentration could effectively facilitate percutaneous penetration of both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and exhibit higher efficiency for moderate hydrophilic drugs. Mechanisms of penetration enhancement by mint oil could be explained with saturation solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient and the secondary structure change of SC.

  4. Effects of Irradiation on Insect Host-Parasite Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahalkar, G. W.; Ramakrishnan, V. [Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1968-06-15

    Effects of host irradiation on the development of its parasite were investigated. Females of Bracon brevicomis readily accepted irradiated larvae of tile wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) for oviposition. However, irradiated wax moth larvae adversely influenced the viability of eggs laid on them and also the survival of the parasite grubs feeding on their bodies. The female grubs were affected more than the males. Rice moth larvae, on the other hand, exerted no significant influence on the viability of parasite eggs, but adversely affected the survival of the grubs. The progeny of parents that had been reared on irradiated larvae also exhibited some developmental changes although grown on non-irradiated host larvae, and these changes were more pronounced when G. mellonella was used as the host insect. (author)

  5. The effect of steam curing on chloride penetration in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Ekaputri Januarti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the result of our study on the effect of steam curing to chloride ion penetration in geopolymer concrete. Class F fly ash was activated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. The concrete specimens were then steam-cured at 40°C, 60°C, 80°C and room temperature at 24 hours. The treatment was followed by wet curing for 28 days, and then followed by immersion of all specimens in salt water for the durations of 30, 60, and 90 days. Cylindrical specimens were then prepared for compressive strength, chloride ion penetration, pH, and porosity tests. A 16 mm-steel bar was fixed at the center of the specimen concrete blocks (specimen size: 10cm × 10cm × 15cm. Corrosion probability was determined by conducting Half Cell Potential test. Our result showed that increasing the curing temperature to 80°C induced chloride ion penetration into the concrete’s effective pores, despite improvements in compressive strength. We also found that chloride ingress on the geopolymer concrete increases commensurately with the increase of the curing temperature. The corrosion potential measurement of geopolymer concrete was higher than OPC concrete even if corrosion was not observed in reinforcing. Based on our result, we suggest that the corrosion categorization for geopolymer concretes needs to be adjusted.

  6. Comparative analysis of the effects of CO2 fractional laser and sonophoresis on human skin penetration with 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J H; Shin, E J; Jeong, K H; Shin, M K

    2017-11-01

    Successful delivery of a photosensitizer into the skin is an important factor for effective photodynamic therapy (PDT). The effective method to increase drug penetration within short incubation time overcoming skin barrier have been investigated. This study was performed to analyze and compare the effectiveness of ablative fractional laser (FXL) pretreatment and/or sonophoresis for enhancing the penetration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) into human skin in vivo. Twenty-four identical 1 × 1 cm 2 treatment areas were mapped on the backs of ten healthy male subjects. Each area received FXL pretreatment and/or sonophoresis with different energy settings and ALA incubation times. After treatments, porphyrin fluorescence reflecting the ALA penetration were measured. Application of ablative CO 2 FXL pretreatment resulted to higher fluorescence intensities than the non-treatment group. Incubation times were positively correlated with the increments of ALA penetration. However, increasing pulse energy or combining with sonophoresis did not show additional positive effects on ALA penetration. Ablative CO 2 FXL pretreatment effectively facilitated ALA penetration in human skin in vivo. Ablative CO 2 FXL alone without sonophoresis setting pulse energy of 10 and 20 mJ with more than 60 min of ALA incubation time could be an ideal setting for ALA penetration.

  7. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  8. Antibacterial Effects of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide Isolated from Kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jianyin; Guo, Haoxian; Chen, Feilong; Zhao, Lichao; He, Liping; Ou, Yangwen; Huang, Manman; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Baoyan; Cao, Yong; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-04-27

    Kefir is a traditional fermented milk beverage used throughout the world for centuries. A cell-penetrating peptide, F3, was isolated from kefir by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, DEAE-52 ion exchange, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. F3 was determined to be a low molecular weight peptide containing one leucine and one tyrosine with two phosphate radicals. This peptide displayed antimicrobial activity across a broad spectrum of organisms including several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 μg/mL. Cellular penetration and accumulation of F3 were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The peptide was able to penetrate the cellular membrane of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Changes in cell morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that peptide F3 may be a good candidate for use as an effective biological preservative in agriculture and the food industry.

  9. Effect of fluid penetration on tensile failure during fracturing of an open-hole wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanhui; Cheng, Xiaozhao; Guo, Jianchun; Chen, Zhangxin; Tao, Liang; Liu, Xiaohua; Jiang, Qifeng; Xiang, Jianhua

    2018-06-01

    It is widely accepted that a fracture can be induced at a wellbore surface when the fluid pressure overcomes the rock tensile strength. However, few models of this phenomenon account for the fluid penetration effect. A rock is a typical permeable, porous medium, and the transmission of pressure from a wellbore to the surrounding rock temporally and spatially perturbs the effective stresses. In addition, these induced stresses influence the fracture initiation pressure. To gain a better understanding of the penetration effect on the initiation pressure of a permeable formation, a comprehensive formula is presented to study the effects of the in situ stresses, rock mechanical properties, injection rate, rock permeability, fluid viscosity, fluid compressibility and wellbore size on the magnitude of the initiation pressure during fracturing of an open-hole wellbore. In this context, the penetration effect is treated as a consequence of the interaction among these parameters by using Darcy’s law of radial flow. A fully coupled analytical procedure is developed to show how the fracturing fluid infiltrates the rock around the wellbore and considerably reduces the magnitude of the initiation pressure. Moreover, the calculation results are validated by hydraulic fracturing experiments in hydrostone. An exhaustive sensitivity study is performed, indicating that the local fluid pressure induced from a seepage effect strongly influences the fracture evolution. For permeable reservoirs, a low injection rate and a low viscosity of the injected fluid have a significant impact on the fracture initiation pressure. In this case, the Hubbert and Haimson equations to predict the fracture initiation pressure are not valid. The open-hole fracture initiation pressure increases with the fracturing fluid viscosity and fluid compressibility, while it decreases as the rock permeability, injection rate and wellbore size increase.

  10. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

  11. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro. However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo. Therefore, this study tested whether CPE treatment might affect fibroblasts when cocultured with CPE-sensitive claudin-4 fibroblast transfectants or Caco-2 cells. Under these conditions, immunofluorescence microscopy detected increased death of fibroblasts. This cytotoxic effect involved release of a toxic factor from the dying CPE-sensitive cells, since it could be reproduced using culture supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells, particularly Caco-2 cells, were found to contain high levels of membrane vesicles, often containing a CPE species. However, most cytotoxic activity remained in those supernatants even after membrane vesicle depletion, and CPE was not detected in fibroblasts treated with supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Instead, characterization studies suggest that a major cytotoxic factor present in supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells may be a 10- to 30-kDa host serine protease or require the action of that host serine protease. Induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease.

  12. Implicit and explicit host effects on excitons in pentacene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, R. J.; Fogarty, R. M.; Bogatko, S.; Zuehlsdorff, T. J.; Hine, N. D. M.; Heeney, M.; Horsfield, A. P.; Haynes, P. D.

    2018-03-01

    An ab initio study of the effects of implicit and explicit hosts on the excited state properties of pentacene and its nitrogen-based derivatives has been performed using ground state density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent DFT, and ΔSCF. We observe a significant solvatochromic redshift in the excitation energy of the lowest singlet state (S1) of pentacene from inclusion in a p-terphenyl host compared to vacuum; for an explicit host consisting of six nearest neighbour p-terphenyls, we obtain a redshift of 65 meV while a conductor-like polarisable continuum model (CPCM) yields a 78 meV redshift. Comparison is made between the excitonic properties of pentacene and four of its nitrogen-based analogs, 1,8-, 2,9-, 5,12-, and 6,13-diazapentacene with the latter found to be the most distinct due to local distortions in the ground state electronic structure. We observe that a CPCM is insufficient to fully understand the impact of the host due to the presence of a mild charge-transfer (CT) coupling between the chromophore and neighbouring p-terphenyls, a phenomenon which can only be captured using an explicit model. The strength of this CT interaction increases as the nitrogens are brought closer to the central acene ring of pentacene.

  13. The effect of hospital care on early survival after penetrating trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David E; Doolittle, Peter C; Winchell, Robert J; Betensky, Rebecca A

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of emergency medical interventions can be best evaluated using time-to-event statistical methods with time-varying covariates (TVC), but this approach is complicated by uncertainty about the actual times of death. We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of hospital intervention on mortality after penetrating trauma using a method that allowed for interval censoring of the precise times of death. Data on persons with penetrating trauma due to interpersonal assault were combined from the 2008 to 2010 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) and the 2004 to 2010 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Cox and Weibull proportional hazards models for survival time (t SURV ) were estimated, with TVC assumed to have constant effects for specified time intervals following hospital arrival. The Weibull model was repeated with t SURV interval-censored to reflect uncertainty about the precise times of death, using an imputation method to accommodate interval censoring along with TVC. All models showed that mortality was increased by older age, female sex, firearm mechanism, and injuries involving the head/neck or trunk. Uncensored models showed a paradoxical increase in mortality associated with the first hour in a hospital. The interval-censored model showed that mortality was markedly reduced after admission to a hospital, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.68 (95% CI 0.63, 0.73) during the first 30 min declining to a HR of 0.01 after 120 min. Admission to a verified level I trauma center (compared to other hospitals in the NTDB) was associated with a further reduction in mortality, with a HR of 0.93 (95% CI 0.82, 0.97). Time-to-event models with TVC and interval censoring can be used to estimate the effect of hospital care on early mortality after penetrating trauma or other acute medical conditions and could potentially be used for interhospital comparisons.

  14. Effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient modulus of subgrade soils predicted by cone penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient characteristics of subgrade soil predicted by the cone penetration test. An experimental program was conducted in which cone penetratio...

  15. Effect of shrapnel penetration on lithium-carbon monofluoride and lithium-manganese dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, W. N. C.

    National BR2/3A lithium-carbon monofluoride and Duracell DL2/3A lithium-manganese dioxide batteries were subjected to simulated shrapnel penetration using a projectile from an M16 rifle. Trials were conducted on batteries in various states of charge (0, 50, and 100 percent discharged) in both wet and dry environments. Only one fully charged Duracell Battery (under wet conditions) caught fire during the test. The effects of environmental conditions, the chemical reactions involved, and the state of charge of the batteries on the probability of the batteries igniting are discussed.

  16. In-vitro effect of estrogen-antagonist on motility and penetration ability of human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, I S; Rangari, K

    1997-08-01

    Antiestrogens affect spermatozoa through their action on Leydig and Sertoli cells. Direct effect of antiestrogens namely tamoxifen and centchroman in concentration of 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 micrograms/ml in incubation medium was determined on motility and penetration ability of human spermatozoa. Motility (%) was invariably reduced after 15, 30 and 60 min. of incubation. Addition of 17 beta-estradiol to medium with antagonist caused inhibition of motility in dose related manner. The distance travelled by spermatozoa treated with tamoxifen or centchroman in media was reduced by 30% and addition of estradiol along with antiestrogen reduced it to 50% compared to that of untreated spermatozoa.

  17. Effects of basic human values on host community acculturation orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Irene; Hichy, Zira; Guarnera, Maria; Nuovo, Santo Di

    2010-08-01

    Although literature provides evidence for the relationship between values and acculturation, the relationship between host community acculturation orientations has not yet been investigated. In this study we tested the effects of four high-order values (openness to change, self-transcendence, conservation, and self-enhancement, devised according to Schwartz's model) on host community acculturation orientations towards immigrants (devised according the interactive acculturation model) in the public domain of employment and the private domain of endogamy/exogamy. Participants were 264 Italian University students, who completed a questionnaire containing the Portrait Values Questionnaire, a measure of personal values, and the Host Community Acculturation Scale, aimed at measuring Italian acculturation strategies towards three groups of immigrants: Immigrants (the general category), Chinese (the valued immigrant group), and Albanians (the devalued immigrant group). Results showed that personal values are related to the adoption of acculturation orientations: In particular, the values that mostly impacted on acculturation orientations were self-transcendence and conservation. Values concerning self-transcendence encourage the adoption of integrationism, integrationism-transformation, and individualism and reduce the adoption of assimilationism, segregationism, and exclusionism. Values concerning conservation encourage the adoption of assimilation, segregation and exclusion orientations and reduce the adoption of both types of integrationism and individualism. Minor effects were found regarding self-enhancement and openness to change.

  18. Comparison of the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab and dexamethasone in experimental posterior penetrating eye injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Oner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effects of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and dexamethasone in an experimental rabbit model of posterior penetrating ocular injury. METHODS: Thirty white New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. A posterior penetrating ocular injury was performed at the superotemporal quadrant. They were randomly divided into three groups. The rabbits in group 1 received intravitreal dexamethasone, in group 2 they received intravitreal bevacizumab and those in group 3 received intravitreal physiological saline solution in both eyes. All eyes were examined ophthalmologically on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days following the injury and the clinical findings were scored. On the day 28, the eyes were enucleated, evaluated and scored macroscopically, histopathologically and scanning electron microscopically. RESULTS: The median clinical score on the 14th and 28th days and the median macroscopic score of the dexamethasone group was significantly better than that of control (P=0.004, 0.018. Dexamethasone group was also better than that of bevacizumab group but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Retinal detachment rate was 8.3%, 16.6% and 12.5% in the dexamethasone group, bevacizumab group and control group, respectively (P=0.476. More extensive fibrocelluler proliferations were observed in controls compared with dexamethasone and bevacizumab groups. But these differences did not reach the statistical significance (P=0.538. In scanning electron microscopy all groups showed fibreous stalk and dense collagen fibrils in vitreous. CONCLUSION: This study shows that intravitreal injection of both dexamethasone and bevacizumab may reduce the intraocular fibrous proliferation after an experimental posterior penetrating ocular injury in rabbits.

  19. Effect of tool rotational speed and penetration depth on dissimilar aluminum alloys friction stir spot welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín M. Piccini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the automotive industry is looking for the use of aluminum parts in replace of steel parts in order to reduce the vehicles weight. These parts have to be joined, for instance, by welding processes. The more common welding process in the automotive industry is the Resistance Spot Welding (RSW technique. However, RSW of aluminum alloys has many disadvantages. Regarding this situation, a variant of the Friction Stir Welding process called Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW has been developed, showing a strong impact in welding of aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials in thin sheets. Process parameters affect the characteristics of the welded joints. However, the information available on this topic is scarce, particularly for dissimilar joints and thin sheets. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the rotational speed and the tool penetration depth on the characteristics of dissimilar FSS welded joints. Defects free joints have been achieved with higher mechanical properties than the ones reported. The maximum fracture load was 5800 N. It was observed that the effective joint length of the welded spots increased with the tool penetration depth, meanwhile the fracture load increased and then decreased. Finally, welding at 1200 RPM produced welded joints with lower mechanical properties than the ones achieved at 680 and 903 RPM.

  20. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  1. Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

    2008-01-01

    greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

  2. Vehicle and enhancer effects on human skin penetration of aminophylline from cream formulations: evaluation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Wang, Chia-Chen; Kuo, Su-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The effects of four essential oils (rosemary, ylang, lilacin, and peppermint oils), and three plant oils (jojoba oil, corn germ oil, and olive oil) on the permeation of aminophylline were studied using human skin. The permeation effects of these oils were compared with those of three chemical penetration enhancers. Although all oils enhanced the permeation of aminophylline, their effects were less than that of ethanol. Jojoba oil was found to be the most active, causing about a 32% peak height decrease of N-H bending absorbances in comparison with the control, while peppermint, lilacin, rosemary, and ylang oils caused 28%, 24%, 18%, and 12% peak height decreases, respectively. Microemulsions containing 10% jojoba oil and 30% corn germ oil were found to be superior vehicles for the percutaneous absorption of aminophylline. Comparision with results obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography shows good agreement.

  3. Redox front penetration in the fractured Toki Granite, central Japan: An analogue for redox reactions and redox buffering in fractured crystalline host rocks for repositories of long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Koshi; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Akagawa, Fuminori; Nishimoto, Shoji; Metcalfe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Deep redox front developed in orogenic granitic rock have been studied. • The process was controlled by the buffering capacity of minerals. • This is an analogue of redox front penetration into HLW repositories in Japan. - Abstract: Redox buffering is one important factor to be considered when assessing the barrier function of potential host rocks for a deep geological repository for long-lived radioactive waste. If such a repository is to be sited in fractured crystalline host rock it must be demonstrated that waste will be emplaced deeper than the maximum depth to which oxidizing waters can penetrate from the earth’s surface via fractures, during the assessment timeframe (typically 1 Ma). An analogue for penetration of such oxidizing water occurs in the Cretaceous Toki Granite of central Japan. Here, a deep redox front is developed along water-conducting fractures at a depth of 210 m below the ground surface. Detailed petrographical studies and geochemical analyses were carried out on drill core specimens of this redox front. The aim was to determine the buffering processes and behavior of major and minor elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), during redox front development. The results are compared with analytical data from an oxidized zone found along shallow fractures (up to 20 m from the surface) in the same granitic rock, in order to understand differences in elemental migration according to the depth below the ground surface of redox-front formation. Geochemical analyses by XRF and ICP-MS of the oxidized zone at 210 m depth reveal clear changes in Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratios and Ca depletion across the front, while Fe concentrations vary little. In contrast, the redox front identified along shallow fractures shows strong enrichments of Fe, Mn and trace elements in the oxidized zone compared with the fresh rock matrix. The difference can be ascribed to the changing Eh and pH of groundwater as it flows downwards in the granite, due to

  4. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Martin Faleiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coefficient of import penetration of total demand for manufacturing goods. We start by developing a simple theoretical model to investigate under what conditions the impacts of an exchange rate depreciation and an increase in labor productivity would differ. We test the theoretical implications of the model by means of a GMM panel data analysis focusing on 17 manufacturing sectors in the period between 1996 and 2011. Our results suggest that both variables matter to explain the coefficient of import penetration. Nevertheless, labor productivity has the strongest negative impact on the market share of imported goods, even after controlling for sector fixed-effects.

  5. The relative effectiveness of managed care penetration and the healthcare safety net in reducing avoidable hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, Etienne E; Orban, Barbara L; Comins, Meg M; Large, John T; Asin-Oostburg, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Avoidable hospitalizations represent a key indicator for access to, and the quality of, primary care. Therefore, understanding their behavior is essential in terms of management of healthcare resources and costs. This analysis examines the affect of 2 healthcare strategies on the rate of avoidable hospitalization, managed care and the healthcare safety net. The avoidable hospitalizations definition developed by Weissman et al. (1992) was used to identify relevant inpatient episodes. A 2-stage simultaneous equations multivariate regression model with instrumental variables was used to estimate the relative influence of HMO penetration and the composition of local hospital markets on the rate of avoidable hospitalizations. Control variables in the model include healthcare supply and demand, demographic, socioeconomic, and health status characteristics. Increased market presence of public hospitals significantly reduced avoidable hospitalizations. HMO penetration did not influence the rate of avoidable hospitalizations. The results suggest that public investments in healthcare facilities and infrastructure are more effective in reducing avoidable hospitalizations. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  6. Stabilizing Effects of Bacterial Biofilms: EPS Penetration and Redistribution of Bed Stability Down the Sediment Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. D.; Zhang, C. K.; Zhou, Z.; Gong, Z.; Zhou, J. J.; Tao, J. F.; Paterson, D. M.; Feng, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Biofilms, consisting of microorganisms and their secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), serve as "ecosystem engineers" stabilizing sedimentary environments. Natural sediment bed provides an excellent substratum for biofilm growth. The porous structure and rich nutrients allow the EPS matrix to spread deeper into the bed. A series of laboratory-controlled experiments were conducted to investigate sediment colonization of Bacillus subtilis and the penetration of EPS into the sediment bed with incubation time. In addition to EPS accumulation on the bed surface, EPS also penetrated downward. However, EPS distribution developed strong vertical heterogeneity with a much higher content in the surface layer than in the bottom layer. Scanning electron microscope images of vertical layers also displayed different micromorphological properties of sediment-EPS matrix. In addition, colloidal and bound EPSs exhibited distinctive distribution patterns. After the full incubation, the biosedimentary beds were eroded to test the variation of bed stability induced by biological effects. This research provides an important reference for the prediction of sediment transport and hence deepens the understanding of the biologically mediated sediment system and broadens the scope of the burgeoning research field of "biomorphodynamics."

  7. Effect of internal short fibers, steel reinforcement, and surface layer on impact and penetration resistance of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abd_Elhakam Aliabdo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental program to investigate the impact and penetration resistance of concrete. The research work is divided into two approaches. These approaches are effect of concrete constituents and effect of surface layer. Effect of concrete aggregate type, w/c ratio, fiber type, fiber shape, fiber volume fraction, and steel reinforcement is considered in the first approach. The second approach includes using fiber reinforced concrete and glass fiber reinforced polymer as surface layers. The evaluating tests include standard impact test according to ASTM D 1557 and suggested simulated penetration test to measure the impact and penetration resistance of concrete. The test results of plain and fibrous concrete from ASTM D 1557 method indicated that steel fiber with different configurations and using basalt have a great positive effect on impact resistance of concrete. Moreover, the simulated penetration test indicates that steel fibers are more effective than propylene fibers, type of coarse aggregate has negligible effect, and steel fiber volume fraction has a more significant influence than fiber shape for reinforced concrete test panels. Finally, as expectable, surface properties of tested concrete panels have a significant effect on impact and penetration resistance.

  8. [Effect of three penetration enhancers on corneal permeability of mangiferin in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Liu, Zhidong; Shu, Lexin; Zhang, Chengui; Zhang, Boli

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the effects of labrasol, solutol HS 15 and transcutol P on the corneal permeability of mangiferin in vitro. The effects of three penetration enhancers on the corneal permeability of mangiferin were investigated in vitro by using isolated rabbit corneas. The apparent Papp enhancements were increased 1.80, 3.27, 3.41 and 4.76-folds with Lab at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 3.0% (P < 0.01), respectively. The apparent Papp increased 1.98 and 3.07-folds with Sol at 0.2% and 0.4% (P < 0.01), respectively, but reduced with 0.010%-0.03% Trans. The Papp value of mangiferin is significantly enhanced by 1.0%-3.0% Lab, 0.2% and 0.4% Sol, however the Papp value of mangiferin is reduced by 0.01%-0.03% Trans.

  9. Effect of Drainage Conditions on Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges that occur when performing Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) in silty soil due to changes in drainage conditions. In this paper, CPT results from various papers and researchers are collected and interpreted. Results from cone penetrations tests with various penetrat......This paper discusses the challenges that occur when performing Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) in silty soil due to changes in drainage conditions. In this paper, CPT results from various papers and researchers are collected and interpreted. Results from cone penetrations tests with various...

  10. Fly ash effect on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gufran Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of fly ash on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots. For hatching experiment different fly ash-extract concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% were prepared. Hatching was significantly reduced in all concentrations, maximum being at 50% concentration. The mortality (% of juveniles was observed in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7th days with different levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of fly ash-extract. All the levels were found harmful to juveniles. As the level was increased, the killing percentage of juveniles was also increased. Highest mortality was observed in 7th day with 50% level.For the penetration experiment, fly ash was mixed with soil to prepare different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Seeds of pumpkin were grown in coffee cups filled with different mixtures. At two leaf stage, seedlings were inoculated with 2000 larvae. The penetrated larvae in roots were observed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Root penetration was found inversely proportional to concentration. Significant results in the suppression of nematode penetration were noted up to 40% concentration. However, none of the juveniles was penetrated at 50% concentration.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.66-73

  11. On the utilization of ionosonde data to analyze the latitudinal penetration of ionospheric storm effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J.M.; Codrescu, M.; Hall, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Upper atmosphere science is placing increased emphasis on global coupling between the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere systems, particularly with regard to the penetration of dynamic, chemical, and electrodynamic effects from high to low latitudes during magnetically disturbed periods. An emerging potential exists for latitudinal and longitudinal chains of ionosondes to contribute uniquely to this thrust in ways complementary to the capabilities and shortcomings of other groundbased sensors and satellites. Here we illustrate a methodology whereby the fullest potential of such ionosonde data can be realized. Data from a chain of stations close to the -165 0 magnetic meridian and separated by about 5 0 in magnetic latitude are used to study the relationships between magnetic activity, hmF2, foF2, and inferred meridional winds during 17--28 April, 1979. Hourly values are fit in latitude using Legendre polynomials, and variations from quiet-time values are displayed in latitude-U.T. coordinates using a color graphics method which provides an illuminating illustration of the penetration of ionospheric disturbances in latitude and their dependence on Kp, storm time, and local time. Observed effects are interpreted in terms of plausible electric field, neutral wind, and neutral composition changes during the storm period. For instance, net depletions in foF2 occur over the entire disturbed interval down to about 25 0 --30 0 latitude, apparently due to such increased N 2 densities that the resulting enhanced plasma loss rates overcompensate and ''positive'' storm effects whereby southward winds elevate the F-layer peak to altitudes of reduced chemical loss

  12. Effect of impurity scattering on the low temperature magnetic penetration depth of a nonlocal and nonlinear d-wave superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavary, H.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic penetration depth of a quasi-two dimensional d-wave superconductor in the presence of nonlineary, nonlocality, and impurity effects is investigated by using Green's function method. It is shown that a d-wave superconductor would inevitably avoid the violation of the Nernst theorem by creating a T 2 term in its penetration depth through a competition of nonlinear, nonlocal, and impurity effects and this system may be stable at low temperatures. I also show that in the impure sample at low temperatures, T < T * ∝ γ the impurity effect determines the temperature dependence of the penetration depth, i.e., nonlocal and nonlinear effects are completely masked by impurities

  13. Effects of a dynamic confinement on the penetration resistance of ceramics against long rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaise, Frederic; Tranchet, Jean-Yves; Collombet, Francis

    2000-01-01

    Adequate confinement of a ceramic block can lead to its impenetrability against long rod penetrators. New ballistic experiments (encapsulated rod experiments) enabling a pressurization of the front face of the ceramic block (dynamic confinement) have been performed and compared to results obtained from standard unconfined configurations (DOP tests). Impenetrability of the ceramic block is obtained with the encapsulated rod configuration. A modeling approach based on a description of the fragmentation process of the ceramic is proposed. In particular, effects of the void content of the fragmented ceramic on its shear resistance are taken into account. Comparisons between Eulerian computation and the experiments show that conditions for rod dwell are linked to immobilizing fragments of ceramic in front of the projectile

  14. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Frucht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF and lethal factor (LF enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA. LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs, but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  15. Effect of penetrating ionising radiation on the mechanical properties of pericardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daar, Eman, E-mail: e.daar@surrey.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Woods, E. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, Pond Street, Hampstead, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); Keddie, J.L. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Nisbet, A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    The pericardium is an anistropic composite material made up of collagen and elastin fibres embedded in an amorphous matrix mainly composed of proteoglycan and hyaluronan. The collagen fibres are arranged in layers, with different directions of alignment in each layer, giving rise to interesting mechanical properties of pericardium, including the ability to undergo large deformation during performance of regular physiological functions. The present study aims to investigate the effect of penetrating photon ionising radiation on bovine pericardium tissue, being part of a study of the effect of cardiac doses received in breast radiotherapy and the possibility that this can give rise to cardiovascular complications. Irradiation doses in the range 5-80 Gy were used. To characterise the various mechanical properties [elastic modulus, stress relaxation, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture] a uniaxial tensile test method was applied. The preliminary results reflect the wide inter-sample variations that are expected in dealing with tissues, with only a weak indication of increase in the UTS of the pericardium tissue with increase in radiation dose. Such an effect has also been observed by others, with reduction in UTS at doses of 80 Gy.

  16. The oxygen isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, R; Shengelaya, A; Morenzoni, E; Conder, K; Savic, I M; Keller, H

    2004-01-01

    Muon spin rotation (μSR) studies of the oxygen isotope ( 16 O/ 18 O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane magnetic field penetration depth λ ab in cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are presented. First, the doping dependence of the OIE on the transition temperature T c in various HTS is briefly discussed. It is observed that different cuprate families show similar doping dependences of the OIE on T c . Then, bulk μSR, low-energy μSR, and magnetization studies of the total and site-selective OIE on λ ab are described in some detail. A substantial OIE on λ ab was observed in various cuprate families at all doping levels, suggesting that cuprate HTS are non-adiabatic superconductors. The experiments clearly demonstrate that the total OIE on T c and λ ab arise from the oxygen sites within the superconducting CuO 2 planes, demonstrating that the phonon modes involving the movement of planar oxygen are dominantly coupled to the supercarriers. Finally, it is shown that the OIE on T c and λ ab exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for different families of cuprate HTS. The observation of these unusual isotope effects implies that lattice effects play an essential role in cuprate HTS and have to be considered in any realistic model of high-temperature superconductivity

  17. The oxygen isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasanov, R [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Shengelaya, A [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Morenzoni, E [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Conder, K [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and PSI Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Savic, I M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Keller, H [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-10-13

    Muon spin rotation ({mu}SR) studies of the oxygen isotope ({sup 16}O/{sup 18}O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane magnetic field penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab} in cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are presented. First, the doping dependence of the OIE on the transition temperature T{sub c} in various HTS is briefly discussed. It is observed that different cuprate families show similar doping dependences of the OIE on T{sub c}. Then, bulk {mu}SR, low-energy {mu}SR, and magnetization studies of the total and site-selective OIE on {lambda}{sub ab} are described in some detail. A substantial OIE on {lambda}{sub ab} was observed in various cuprate families at all doping levels, suggesting that cuprate HTS are non-adiabatic superconductors. The experiments clearly demonstrate that the total OIE on T{sub c} and {lambda}{sub ab} arise from the oxygen sites within the superconducting CuO{sub 2} planes, demonstrating that the phonon modes involving the movement of planar oxygen are dominantly coupled to the supercarriers. Finally, it is shown that the OIE on T{sub c} and {lambda}{sub ab} exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for different families of cuprate HTS. The observation of these unusual isotope effects implies that lattice effects play an essential role in cuprate HTS and have to be considered in any realistic model of high-temperature superconductivity.

  18. The Effects of Aphid Traits on Parasitoid Host Use and Specialist Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Fründ, Jochen; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Athanassiou, Christos G.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Specialization is a central concept in ecology and one of the fundamental properties of parasitoids. Highly specialized parasitoids tend to be more efficient in host-use compared to generalized parasitoids, presumably owing to the trade-off between host range and host-use efficiency. However, it remains unknown how parasitoid host specificity and host-use depends on host traits related to susceptibility to parasitoid attack. To address this question, we used data from a 13-year survey of interactions among 142 aphid and 75 parasitoid species in nine European countries. We found that only aphid traits related to local resource characteristics seem to influence the trade-off between host-range and efficiency: more specialized parasitoids had an apparent advantage (higher abundance on shared hosts) on aphids with sparse colonies, ant-attendance and without concealment, and this was more evident when host relatedness was included in calculation of parasitoid specificity. More traits influenced average assemblage specialization, which was highest in aphids that are monophagous, monoecious, large, highly mobile (easily drop from a plant), without myrmecophily, habitat specialists, inhabit non-agricultural habitats and have sparse colonies. Differences in aphid wax production did not influence parasitoid host specificity and host-use. Our study is the first step in identifying host traits important for aphid parasitoid host specificity and host-use and improves our understanding of bottom-up effects of aphid traits on aphid-parasitoid food web structure. PMID:27309729

  19. Penetration effect of prostaglandin E2 gel on oral mucosa of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafinus Arifin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several researches reported that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 injection on buccal mucosa combined with orthodontic pressure can faster tooth movement but has disadvantages such as high alveolar bone and root resorption furthermore pain from injection needle. PGE2 gel was made to better replace the lacks of injectable PGE2. Purpose: This research was aimed to prove that PGE 2 gel can penetrate rat’s oral mucosa effecting the appearance of PMN cells. Methods: This research was an in vivo laboratory experiment using 36 Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 3 groups: normal group, topical PGE2 gel group after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours (4 subgroups, and topical gel without PGE2 group after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours (4 subgroups. Each group consists of 4 rats, therefore the total sample for all research groups were 36 rats. Gel with 25 µg/mL of PGE2 and gel without PGE2 were applied on oral mucosa for 2 minutes. Then, the rats were sacrificed after 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, and 8 hours application. After that, the samples were prepared for histological examination with Hematoxyllin and Eosin. The picture were taken with OptiLab View and PMN cells amount were counted with light microscope, set 400 times of magnification. Results: Penetration effect of PGE2 gel on rat’s oral mucosa result in PMN inflammation cells distribution. One-way ANOVA showed no significant difference on PMN cells count in rats’ lower jaws between groups of normal and gel without PGE2. There was significant difference between groups of PGE2 gel and gel without PGE2 (p=0,001. PGE2 gel application showed PGE2 as inflammatory media, even though administered topically. Conclusion: PGE2 gel can penetrate rat’s oral mucosa, effecting PMN cells 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after application of PGE2 gel.Latar belakang: Beberapa penelitian melaporkan bahwa injeksi (Prostaglandin E2 PGE2pada mukosa bukal yang dikombinasikan dengan tekanan ortodonti dapat mempercepat pergerakan gigi, tapi

  20. Effect of flexing and massage on in vivo human skin penetration and toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Silva, Vânia R; Liu, David C; Sanchez, Washington Y; Studier, Hauke; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Holmes, Amy; Becker, Wolfgang; Grice, Jeffrey E; Benson, Heather Ae; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the effects of flexing and massage on human skin penetration and toxicity of topically applied coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles (˜75 nm) in vivo. Noninvasive multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging was used to evaluate the penetration of nanoparticles through the skin barrier and cellular apoptosis in the viable epidermis. All nanoparticles applied to skin with flexing and massage were retained in the stratum corneum or skin furrows. No significant penetration into the viable epidermis was seen and no cellular toxicity was detected. Exposure of normal in vivo human skin to these nanoparticles under common in-use conditions of flexing or massage is not associated with significant adverse events.

  1. A comparative study on the transdermal penetration effect of gaseous and aqueous plasma reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Gan, Lu; Ma, Mingyu; Zhang, Song; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Hongxiang; Liu, Dawei; Lu, Xinpei

    2018-02-01

    To improve the depth of plasma active species in the skin, it is very important to develop skin disease treatment using plasma. In this article, an air plasma source was used to work directly with the skin of a mouse. A tortuous pathway, hair follicles, electroporation and a microneedle do not aid the transdermal delivery of gaseous plasma active species, therefore these gaseous plasma active species cannot penetrate mouse skin with a thickness of ~0.75 mm. The plasma activated water (PAW) produced by the air plasma source was used to study the transdermal penetration of the aqueous plasma activated species. This aqueous plasma activated species can penetrate the skin through hair follicles, intercellular and transcellular routes. The pH of the PAW did not affect the penetration efficiency of the aqueous plasma active species.

  2. Effect of host polymer blends to phosphorescence emission | Alias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each polymer was blended with the same ratio composition. The influences of host polymer composition to the phosphorescence emission were observed under pulsed UV excitation source of Xenon lamp. The results shows that there were changing in the phosphorescence emission and life time with difference host ...

  3. Injuries to the colon from blast effect of penetrating extra-peritoneal thoraco-abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Oswanski, Michael F; White, Patrick W

    2004-03-01

    Although rare, blast injury to the intestine can result from penetrating thoraco-abdominal extra-peritoneal gunshot (and shotgun) wounds despite the absence of injury to the diaphragm or to the peritoneum. Injuries of the spleen, small intestine and the mesentery by this mechanism have been previously reported in the world literature. This paper reports the first two cases of non-penetrating ballistic trauma to the colon.

  4. Effect of egg washing and correlation between cuticle and egg penetration by various Salmonella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Roberts, Juliet R; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Kiermeier, Andreas; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2014-07-16

    In Australia, Europe and the United States, eggs and egg products are frequently associated with Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks. Many of the egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks have been due to the products such as mayonnaise, ice-cream and cold desserts which are eaten without cooking following the addition of raw egg. The ability of four Salmonella isolates (one each of S. Singapore, S. Adelaide, S. Worthington and S. Livingstone) to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods was investigated in the current study. The results of the agar penetration experiment indicated that all the isolates used in the present study have the capacity to penetrate the eggshell. Eggshell penetration by the S. Worthington isolate was higher but not significant (p=0.06) in washed eggs compared to unwashed eggs. However, for all other isolates (S. Singapore, S. Adelaide and S. Livingstone), there was no significant difference in penetration of washed and unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis indicated that cuticle score was a significant linear predictor of Salmonella eggshell penetration. Whole egg penetration results showed that all of the Salmonella isolates used in the present study were capable of surviving on the eggshell surface after 21days of incubation (at 20°C) following a high dose of inoculation (10(5)CFU/mL). The combined data of all isolates demonstrated that, the survival rate of Salmonella on eggshells (inoculated with 10(5)CFU/mL) was significantly higher (p=0.002) at 20°C as compared to 37°C. S. Singapore, S. Worthington, and S. Livingstone were not detected in egg internal contents whereas S. Adelaide was detected in one egg's internal contents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Compared performance of penetrometers and effect of soil water content on penetration resistance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Aparecido Mome Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture techniques have a great impact on crops and soil quality, especially by the increased machinery traffic and weight. Several devices have been developed for determining soil properties in the field, aimed at managing compacted areas. Penetrometry is a widely used technique; however, there are several types of penetrometers, which have different action modes that can affect the soil resistance measurement. The objective of this study was to compare the functionality of two penetrometry methods (manual and automated mode in the field identification of compacted, highly mechanized sugarcane areas, considering the influence of soil water volumetric content (θ on soil penetration resistance (PR. Three sugarcane fields on a Rhodic Eutrudrox were chosen, under a sequence of harvest systems: one manual harvest (1ManH, one mechanized harvest (1MH and three mechanized harvests (3MH. The different degrees of mechanization were associated to cumulative compaction processes. An electronic penetrometer was used on PR measurements, so that the rod was introduced into the soil by hand (Manual and by an electromechanical motor (Auto. The θ was measured in the field with a soil moisture sensor. Results showed an effect of θ on PR measurements and that regression models must be used to correct data before comparing harvesting systems. The rod introduction modes resulted in different mean PR values, where the "Manual" overestimated PR compared to the "Auto" mode at low θ.

  6. Experimental study on the penetration effect of ceramics composite projectile on ceramic / A3 steel compound targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-qi Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the penetration of projectiles into ceramic composite armors, the nose of 30 mm standard projectile was replaced by a toughened ceramic nose, and the performance of ceramic-nose projectiles penetrating into ceramic/A3 steel composite targets has been experimentally researched. According to impact dynamics theory,, the performances of 30 mm ceramic-nose projectile and 30 mm standard projectile penetrating into the ceramic/A3 steel composite targets were analyzed and compared using DOP method, especially focusing on the effects made by different nose structures and materials. The aperture and depth of perforation of projectile into the armor plates as well as the residual mass of bullet core under the same conditions were comparatively analyzed. A numerical simulation was built and computed by ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Based on the simulated results, the penetration performance was further analyzed in terms of the residual mass of bullet core. The results show that the ceramic nose has a great effect on the protection of bullet core.

  7. Modelling the effects of penetrance and family size on rates of sporadic and familial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2011-01-01

    Many complex diseases show a diversity of inheritance patterns ranging from familial disease, manifesting with autosomal dominant inheritance, through to simplex families in which only one person is affected, manifesting as apparently sporadic disease. The role of ascertainment bias in generating apparent patterns of inheritance is often overlooked. We therefore explored the role of two key parameters that influence ascertainment, penetrance and family size, in rates of observed familiality. We develop a mathematical model of familiality of disease, with parameters for penetrance, mutation frequency and family size, and test this in a complex disease: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Monogenic, high-penetrance variants can explain patterns of inheritance in complex diseases and account for a large proportion of those with no apparent family history. With current demographic trends, rates of familiality will drop further. For example, a variant with penetrance 0.5 will cause apparently sporadic disease in 12% of families of size 10, but 80% of families of size 1. A variant with penetrance 0.9 has only an 11% chance of appearing sporadic in families of a size similar to those of Ireland in the past, compared with 57% in one-child families like many in China. These findings have implications for genetic counselling, disease classification and the design of gene-hunting studies. The distinction between familial and apparently sporadic disease should be considered artificial. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Conjugation to the cell-penetrating peptide TAT potentiates the photodynamic effect of carboxytetramethylrhodamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyamani Srinivasan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs can transport macromolecular cargos into live cells. However, the cellular delivery efficiency of these reagents is often suboptimal because CPP-cargo conjugates typically remain trapped inside endosomes. Interestingly, irradiation of fluorescently labeled CPPs with light increases the release of the peptide and its cargos into the cytosol. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear. Here we investigate the molecular basis of the photo-induced endosomolytic activity of the prototypical CPPs TAT labeled to the fluorophore 5(6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR.We report that TMR-TAT acts as a photosensitizer that can destroy membranes. TMR-TAT escapes from endosomes after exposure to moderate light doses. However, this is also accompanied by loss of plasma membrane integrity, membrane blebbing, and cell-death. In addition, the peptide causes the destruction of cells when applied extracellularly and also triggers the photohemolysis of red blood cells. These photolytic and photocytotoxic effects were inhibited by hydrophobic singlet oxygen quenchers but not by hydrophilic quenchers.Together, these results suggest that TAT can convert an innocuous fluorophore such as TMR into a potent photolytic agent. This effect involves the targeting of the fluorophore to cellular membranes and the production of singlet oxygen within the hydrophobic environment of the membranes. Our findings may be relevant for the design of reagents with photo-induced endosomolytic activity. The photocytotoxicity exhibited by TMR-TAT also suggests that CPP-chromophore conjugates could aid the development of novel Photodynamic Therapy agents.

  9. Effect of Different Skin Penetration Promoters in Halobetasol Propionate Permeation and Retention in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Carvajal-Vidal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Halobetasol propionate (HB is a potent synthetic corticosteroid used against inflammatory skin diseases, such as dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis, among others. The aim of this study is to define how the presence of different skin penetration enhancers (nonane, menthone, limonene, azone, carene, decanol, linoleic acid and cetiol affects the penetration and retention in skin of HB. To determine drug penetration through skin, 5% of each promoter was used in an ex vivo system with human skin on Franz cells. The results showed that the highest permeation occurs in the presence of menthone, followed by nonane. Permeation parameters were determined. The in vivo test was assessed, and the formulation containing HB-menthone presented better anti-inflammatory efficacy. These results are useful to generate a specific treatment according to each patient’s needs, and the inflammatory characteristics of the disease.

  10. Role of nuclear penetration effects in spin assignments. [J, transitions, internal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahota, H S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-01

    Nuclear penetrations have been found to affect the internal conversion process of the retarded magnetic dipole transitions. In all cases where the penetration coefficient has been found to be essentially different from unity the transition is 1-forbidden. This criterian has been applied to the case of 191 keV transition in /sup 197/Au where the spin of the 268 keV level could not be deduced uniquely by any of the existing methods. The result is that the 199 keV transition has a dynamic contribution to its internal conversion process with the penetration coefficient lambda = 5.5 +- 0.9. To illustrate the applicability of the criterian further two more cases namely that of the 92 keV transition in /sup 131/Cs and 182 keV transition in /sup 129/Cs are also included.

  11. Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Luijckx, Pepijn; Ruder, Ludwig F; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-12-18

    Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts.

  12. Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duneau David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration, which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts.

  13. Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts. PMID:23249484

  14. Effects of HMO market penetration on physicians' work effort and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1997-01-01

    We investigate whether geographic variations in health maintenance organization (HMO) market penetration are associated with three aspects of physicians' practices: number of hours worked per year, number of patients seen per week, and satisfaction with the current practice. Based on multivariate regression analysis of data for 4,373 patient care physicians (under age forty-five) from a national random sample surveyed in 1991, we estimate that a doubling of the average level of HMO penetration is associated with statistically significant differences of 4 percent fewer annual hours, 13.7 percent fewer patients seen per week, and a 20 percent greater likelihood of not being very satisfied with one's current practice.

  15. Effective depth-of-penetration range due to hardness variation for different lots of nominally identical target material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frueh

    2016-04-01

    A linear regression analysis of penetration vs. hardness shows that a target hardness increase within the given range of 280–330 BHN may result in a reduction of penetration depth of about 5.8 mm at constant velocity. This is equal to a change of −12% at an impact velocity of 1250 m/s. A multiple linear regression analysis included also the influence of yaw angle and impact velocity. It shows that small yaw angles and slight variations of impact velocities provide a smaller variation of the semi-infinite penetration depths than a variation of target hardness within a typical specification span of 50 BHN. For such a span a change in penetration of approximately −4.8 mm due to hardness variation is found, whereas 1° of yaw angle or −10 m/s of velocity variation gives a change of about −1.0 mm respectively −0.9 mm. For the given example, the overwhelming part of the variation is to be attributed to hardness effects – 4.8 mm out of 5.8 mm (83%. For nominally identical target material the target hardness thus influences the ballistic test results more severely than the typical scatter in impact conditions.

  16. Effect of stratum corneum heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry and follicular pathway on transdermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2017-08-28

    The impact of the complex structure of the stratum corneum on transdermal penetration is not yet fully described by existing models. A quantitative and thorough study of skin permeation is essential for chemical exposure assessment and transdermal delivery of drugs. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry, follicular diffusion, and location of the main barrier of diffusion on percutaneous permeation. In the current study, the solution of the transient diffusion through a two-dimensional-anisotropic brick-and-mortar geometry of the stratum corneum is obtained using the commercial finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics. First, analytical solutions of an equivalent multilayer geometry are used to determine whether the lipids or corneocytes constitute the main permeation barrier. Also these analytical solutions are applied for validations of the finite element solutions. Three illustrative compounds are analyzed in these sections: diethyl phthalate, caffeine and nicotine. Then, asymmetry with depth and follicular diffusion are studied using caffeine as an illustrative compound. The following findings are drawn from this study: the main permeation barrier is located in the lipid layers; the flux and lag time of diffusion through a brick-and-mortar geometry are almost identical to the values corresponding to a multilayer geometry; the flux and lag time are affected when the lipid transbilayer diffusivity or the partition coefficients vary with depth, but are not affected by depth-dependent corneocyte diffusivity; and the follicular contribution has significance for low transbilayer lipid diffusivity, especially when flux between the follicle and the surrounding stratum corneum is involved. This study demonstrates that the diffusion is primarily transcellular and the main barrier is located in the lipid layers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Simulation of climate-tick-host-landscape interactions: Effects of shifts in the seasonality of host population fluctuations on tick densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, W E; Teel, P D; Hamer, S A

    2015-12-01

    Tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central United States, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. Simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low host densities affected both the magnitude of unfed tick densities and the seasonality of tick development. When shifting the seasonal densities of all size classes of hosts (small, medium, and large) synchronously, densities of nymphs were affected more by smaller shifts away from the baseline host seasonality than were densities of larval and adult life stages. When shifting the seasonal densities of only a single size-class of hosts while holding other size classes at their baseline levels, densities of larval, nymph, and adult life stages responded differently. Shifting seasonal densities of any single host-class earlier resulted in a greater increase in adult tick density than when seasonal densities of all host classes were shifted earlier simultaneously. The mean densities of tick life stages associated with shifts in host densities resulted from system-level interactions of host availability with tick phenology. For example, shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks earlier resulted in an approximately 30% increase in the relative degree of temporal co-occurrence of actively host-seeking ticks and hosts compared to baseline, whereas shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks later resulted in an approximately 70% decrease compared to baseline. Differences among scenarios in the overall presence of active host-seeking ticks in the system were due primarily to the degree of co-occurrence of periods of high densities of unfed ticks and periods of high densities

  18. Calcium Lactate addition in Bioconcrete: Effect on Compressive strength and Water penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan J.M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents compressive strength and water penetration of bioconcrete with addition of calcium lactate. Bioconcrete has higher engineering concrete properties and durability compared to normal concrete but the natural production of calcium carbonate is limited to the calcium content in cement. Therefore, additional calcium is added as an additional calcium source to study the influence towards compressive strength and water penetration. The bacteria used in this research are Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus sp. Calcium lactate was added into concrete mix in concentrations of 0.001mol/l, 0.005mol/l and 0.01mol/l of liquid used. The concentration of bacteria added into the mix is by partial replacement of water used in casting, which are 3% for Enterococcus faecalis and 5% for Bacillus sp. Both compressive strength and water penetration test used cubes of 150mm × 150mm × 150mm. The cubes were tested after 28 days. The result of compressive strength for control is 36 MPa while partial replacement of bacteria yields 38.2 MPa for 3% Enterococcus faecalis and 37.0 MPa for 5% Bacillus sp. Calcium lactate with 0.005 mol/L has the best performance with 42.8 MPa for Enterococcus faecalis and 39.6 MPa for Bacillus sp. Whereas for water penetration, the best concentration of calcium lactate which yielded the lowest water penetration is 0.01 mol/l for both Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus sp which are 8.7 cm and 8 cm respectively. The addition of calcium lactate into bioconcrete is quite promising for improvement of concrete properties and durability.

  19. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect on intraocular cannabinoid receptors.Methods: A 2-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center, parallel-group pilot study was carried out to determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol 1 g orally administered every 6 hours in adult patients with primary or secondary open angle glaucoma as compared with topical levobunolol 0.5% twice a day. Patient well-being was closely monitored throughout the study and focused on hepatic safety in accordance with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network criteria. The in vitro diffusion kinetics of acetaminophen in a phosphate-buffered solution in rabbit and human corneas was also investigated, with the view to a topical application.Results: Eighteen adult patients were enrolled in the study, with nine in the topical levobunolol group and nine in the oral paracetamol group. In the levobunolol group, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure at day 7 was 7.5 mmHg (P < 0.008 and at day 14 was 9.1 mmHg (P < 0.005, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.6 mmHg. The corresponding figures for the paracetamol group were 8.8 mmHg (P < 0.0004 at day 7 and 6.5 mmHg (P < 0.004 at day 14, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.4 mmHg. Both study regimens were well tolerated. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in either of the treatment groups. Liver function tests, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate remained unchanged in both groups during the 2 weeks of the study. In

  20. Effect of chevron nozzle penetration on aero-acoustic characteristics of jet at M = 0.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, S. R.; Sharma, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aero-acoustic characteristics of a high-speed jet with chevron nozzles are experimentally investigated at a Mach number of 0.8. The main focus is to examine the effects of the extent of chevron penetration and its position in the mixing layer. Chevron nozzles with three different levels of penetration employed at three different longitudinal locations from the nozzle lip are tested, and the results are compared with those of a plain baseline nozzle. The chevrons are found to produce a lobed shear layer through the notched region, thereby increasing the surface area of the jet, particularly in the close vicinity of the nozzle, which increases the mixing and reduces the potential core length. This effect becomes more prominent with increasing penetration closer to the nozzle lip in the thinner mixing layer. Near field and far field noise measurements show distinctly different acoustic features due to chevrons. The chevrons are found to effectively shift the dominant noise source upstream closer to the nozzle. Present investigation proposes a simpler method for locating the dominant noise source from the peak of the centerline velocity decay rate. The overall noise levels registered along the jet edge immediately downstream of the chevrons are higher, but further downstream they are reduced in comparison with the plain baseline nozzle. Also, the chevrons beam the noise towards higher polar angles at higher frequencies. At shallow polar angles with respect to the jet axis in the far field, chevrons suppress the noise at low frequencies with increasing penetration, but for higher polar angles, while they continue to suppress the low frequency noise, at higher frequencies the trend is found to reverse. The noise measured in the near field close to the jet edge is composed of two components: acoustic and hydrodynamic. Of these two components, the chevrons are found to reduce the hydrodynamic component in comparison with the acoustic one.

  1. Effect of chevron nozzle penetration on aero-acoustic characteristics of jet at M = 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikam, S R [K. J. Somaiya college of Engineering, Mumbai (India); Sharma, S D, E-mail: srnikam12@gmail.com [I.I.T. Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2017-12-15

    Aero-acoustic characteristics of a high-speed jet with chevron nozzles are experimentally investigated at a Mach number of 0.8. The main focus is to examine the effects of the extent of chevron penetration and its position in the mixing layer. Chevron nozzles with three different levels of penetration employed at three different longitudinal locations from the nozzle lip are tested, and the results are compared with those of a plain baseline nozzle. The chevrons are found to produce a lobed shear layer through the notched region, thereby increasing the surface area of the jet, particularly in the close vicinity of the nozzle, which increases the mixing and reduces the potential core length. This effect becomes more prominent with increasing penetration closer to the nozzle lip in the thinner mixing layer. Near field and far field noise measurements show distinctly different acoustic features due to chevrons. The chevrons are found to effectively shift the dominant noise source upstream closer to the nozzle. Present investigation proposes a simpler method for locating the dominant noise source from the peak of the centerline velocity decay rate. The overall noise levels registered along the jet edge immediately downstream of the chevrons are higher, but further downstream they are reduced in comparison with the plain baseline nozzle. Also, the chevrons beam the noise towards higher polar angles at higher frequencies. At shallow polar angles with respect to the jet axis in the far field, chevrons suppress the noise at low frequencies with increasing penetration, but for higher polar angles, while they continue to suppress the low frequency noise, at higher frequencies the trend is found to reverse. The noise measured in the near field close to the jet edge is composed of two components: acoustic and hydrodynamic. Of these two components, the chevrons are found to reduce the hydrodynamic component in comparison with the acoustic one. (paper)

  2. Effect of Using Metakaolin on Chloride Ion Penetration in High Performance Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mohammed Shihab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to reduce the penetrability of high performance steel fiber reinforced concrete to chloride ions originating from external sources, by using High Reactivity Metakaolin (HRM as a highly active pozzolanic material, in order to prolong the time to initiation of the steel fibers corrosion and to minimize concrete damage that may occur due to the exposure to chloride ion penetration. According to pozzolanic activity index (P.A.I., 8% content of HRM was used as a partial replacement by weight of cement with 2% steel fibers by volume of concrete. During the exposure period of 300 days in 4.5% of NaCl solution, the total and free chloride contents (Cltotal, Clfree with the chloride profiles at the ages of 28 and 300 days were investigated. Also the rapid chloride penetrability test (RCPT, compressive and flexural strengths tests were conducted at the ages of 28, 90, 180 and 300 days. Results showed that the incorporation of 8% HRM caused a reduction in the (Clfree/Cltota ratio, the chloride penetration depth and the electrical conductivity with percentages of 21%, 40% and 43% respectively after 300 days exposure to chloride solution in comparing with the mix of 0% HRM. Results also indicated that the losses in compressive and flexural strengths after exposure of 300 days to chloride solution for the mix incorporating 8% HRM were by 5% and 5.8% respectively while they reached 9.5% and 11% respectively for the mix without HRM in relation to the correspondent test specimens cured in tap water.

  3. Effect of differential pressure on the magnitude of the destructive force in tooth penetration into rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, N.A.; Shestakov, V.N.

    1981-08-01

    Analytical relations are established describing the final stage of the breakup of rocks in the course of penetration of the tooth of a drilling bit into the rock in the presence of a pressure drop. A good convergence between the calculated and experimental data is shown. A formula is presented permitting calculation of contact pressures necessary for the volumetric breakup of rocks in the presence of a pressure drop.

  4. Analytical and experimental studies on the strain rate effects in penetration of 10wt % ballistic gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Jia, Z; Ma, X L; Fan, Y R

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates on modeling the super-elastic behavior of 10wt% ballistic gelatin at 4°C and the mechanical responses at quasi-static and high-speed penetrations. Uniaxial compression and simple shearing experiments were carried out to determine the moduli in Mooney-Rivlin model describing the elastic behavior of gelatin at low strain rates. The failure mode is determined to be elastic fracture as the tensile stretch ratio exceeds a critical value. For high compression strain rates, the available results from the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments for 10wt% gelatin were carefully examined and assessed. Linear relationship between the moduli and the strain rate is established. Based on these material parameters, an analytic solution of stress for the quasi-static and quasi-dynamic expansion of spherical cavity in gelatin is derived. As a consequence, the work needed to open unit volume of cavity, P s , which is the key parameter in studying penetration problems, is linearly increasing with the characteristic strain rate. The application of P s to our quasi-static and high-speed penetration experiments is discussed and assessed

  5. Intrabronchial Microdialysis: Effects of Probe Localization on Tissue Trauma and Drug Penetration into the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottbøll, Lisa Amanda Holm; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Barington, Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    (PELF). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intrabronchial microdialysis on the integrity of the bronchial epithelium. Microdialysis sampling in PELF in proximal (n=4) and distal bronchi (n=4) was performed after intravenous inulin and florfenicol administration in anaesthetized...... pigs. Inulin was used as a marker molecule of permeability of the epithelium, and florfenicol was used as test drug. Bronchial tissue was examined by histopathology (distal and proximal bronchi) and gene expression analysis (RT-qPCR, proximal bronchi) at the termination of the experiment (6.5hr....... Likewise, florfenicol penetration into PELF was unaffected by bronchial histopathology. However, this independency of pathology on drug penetration may not be valid for other antibiotics. We conclude that short-term microdialysis drug quantification can be performed in proximal bronchi without disruption...

  6. Field penetration induced charge redistribution effects on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes - a first-principle study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-W.; Lee, M.-H.; Clark, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of field penetration induced charge redistribution on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied by the first-principle calculations. It is found that the carbon nanotube becomes polarized under external electric field leading to a charge redistribution. The resulting band bending induced by field penetration into the nanotube tip surface can further reduce the effective workfunction of the carbon nanotubes. The magnitude of the redistributed charge ΔQ is found to be nearly linear to the applied external field strength. In addition, we found that the capped (9, 0) zigzag nanotube demonstrates better field emission properties than the capped (5, 5) armchair nanotube due to the fact that the charge redistribution of π electrons along the zigzag-like tube axis is easier than for the armchair-like tube. The density of states (DOS) of the capped region of the nanotube is found to be enhanced with a value 30% higher than that of the sidewall part for the capped (5, 5) nanotube and 40% for the capped (9, 0) nanotube under an electric field of 0.33 V/A. Such enhancements of the DOS at the carbon nanotube tip show that electrons near the Fermi level will emit more easily due to the change of the surface band structure resulting from the field penetration in a high field

  7. Soilborne fungi have host affinity and host-specific effects on seed germination and survival in a lowland tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Carolina; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Dalling, James W; Davis, Adam S; Stump, Simon M; U'Ren, Jana M; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2017-10-24

    The Janzen-Connell (JC) hypothesis provides a conceptual framework for explaining the maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. Its central tenet-that recruits experience high mortality near conspecifics and at high densities-assumes a degree of host specialization in interactions between plants and natural enemies. Studies confirming JC effects have focused primarily on spatial distributions of seedlings and saplings, leaving major knowledge gaps regarding the fate of seeds in soil and the specificity of the soilborne fungi that are their most important antagonists. Here we use a common garden experiment in a lowland tropical forest in Panama to show that communities of seed-infecting fungi are structured predominantly by plant species, with only minor influences of factors such as local soil type, forest characteristics, or time in soil (1-12 months). Inoculation experiments confirmed that fungi affected seed viability and germination in a host-specific manner and that effects on seed viability preceded seedling emergence. Seeds are critical components of reproduction for tropical trees, and the factors influencing their persistence, survival, and germination shape the populations of seedlings and saplings on which current perspectives regarding forest dynamics are based. Together these findings bring seed dynamics to light in the context of the JC hypothesis, implicating them directly in the processes that have emerged as critical for diversity maintenance in species-rich tropical forests.

  8. Effect of ultrasonic streaming on intra-dentinal disinfection and penetration of calcium hydroxide paste in endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Paola Castro ARIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The antimicrobial effect of ultrasonic agitation of calcium hydroxide (CH pastes in infected bovine dentin and their penetrability were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and microbiological culture. Material and Methods Fifty-two bovine teeth were infected with Enterococcus faecalis using a new contamination protocol; then they received CH paste and were divided into groups with or without ultrasound. Ultrasonic agitation was conducted for 1 min with a plain point insert. After 15 d, the CLSM analyzed the viable and dead bacteria with Live and Dead assay. The dentinal wall debris was collected by burs, and the colony forming units (CFU/mL were counted. The penetrability of the paste inside dentinal tubules was tested using the B-rodamine dye. Results The calcium hydroxide paste showed better results with the use of ultrasonic agitation (p<0.05. Conclusion The ultrasonic agitation of CH paste increased its antimicrobial action and was responsible for intradentinal penetration with the fulfilment of the tubules.

  9. Effects of renewables penetration on the security of Portuguese electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, João Pedro; Dias, Luís; Martins, Inês; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the importance of the electricity sector in energy security in Portugal. • We compare energy security indicators for 2004 and 2011. • Strong wind penetration has an important role on the country energy security. • Infrastructure is the weaker component in electricity sector supply chain. - Abstract: The increase of renewables in power sector, together with the increase of their electricity share in final energy consumption, is changing our perception about energy security with diverse and contradictory statements. The Portuguese security of electricity supply is analyzed in this study by comparing selected indicators for 2 years before and after the high increase of onshore wind since 2005. Our goal is to find how the security of electricity supply was impacted by the penetration of renewables, taking a supply chain approach. Our analysis highlights that the penetration of renewables has decreased the energy dependence of the power sector by more than 20% between 2004 and 2011, while risks related to the concentration of natural gas suppliers and to the still-high share of fossil fuels suffering from price volatility are discussed. We observed a significant improvement in power interconnections with Spain, as well as an increase of the de-rated generation capacity margin, allowing proper management of renewable power intermittency if necessary, thereby improving power security. Although the share of intermittent renewables almost quadrupled in total installed capacity between those years, the indicators reveal an improvement in the quality of transport and distribution when delivering electricity to end-users. Although electricity prices increased, mainly due to taxes, the lack of energy efficiency is an aspect deserving improvement to alleviate the pressure on electricity security, mainly at high peak demands

  10. Lower layers in the motor cortex are more effective targets for penetrating microelectrodes in cortical prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Hirak; Marzullo, Timothy C.; Kipke, Daryl R.

    2009-04-01

    Improving cortical prostheses requires the development of recording neural interfaces that are efficient in terms of providing maximal control information with minimal interface complexity. While the typical approaches have targeted neurons in the motor cortex with multiple penetrating shanks, an alternative approach is to determine an efficient distribution of electrode sites within the layers of the cortex with fewer penetrating shanks. The objective of this study was to compare unit activity in the upper and lower layers of the cortex with respect to movement and direction in order to inform the design of penetrating microelectrodes. Four rats were implanted bilaterally with multi-site single-shank silicon microelectrode arrays in the neck/shoulder region of the motor cortex. We simultaneously recorded unit activity across all layers of the motor cortex while the animal was engaged in a movement direction task. Localization of the electrode array within the different layers of the cortex was determined by histology. We denoted units from layers 2 and 3 and units as upper layer units, and units from layers 5 and 6 as lower layer units. Analysis of unit spiking activity demonstrated that both the upper and lower layers encode movement and direction information. Unit responses in either cortical layer of the cortex were not preferentially associated with contralateral or ipsilateral movement. Aggregate analysis (633 neurons) and best session analysis (75 neurons) indicated that units in the lower layers (layers 5, 6) are more likely to encode direction information when compared to units in the upper layers (layers 2, 3) (p< 0.05). These results suggest that electrode sites clustered in the lower layers provide access to more salient control information for cortical neuroprostheses.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal host specificity in a changing world: can legacy effects explain anomalous current associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Lotus; Nguyen, Nhu H; Kennedy, Peter G

    2018-02-07

    Despite the importance of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in forest ecosystems, knowledge about the ecological and co-evolutionary mechanisms underlying ECM host associations remains limited. Using a widely distributed group of ECM fungi known to form tight associations with trees in the family Pinaceae, we characterized host specificity among three unique Suillus-host species pairs using a combination of field root tip sampling and experimental bioassays. We demonstrate that the ECM fungus S. subaureus can successfully colonize Quercus hosts in both field and glasshouse settings, making this species unique in an otherwise Pinaceae-specific clade. Importantly, however, we found that the colonization of Quercus by S. subaureus required co-planting with a Pinaceae host. While our experimental results indicate that gymnosperms are required for the establishment of new S. subaureus colonies, Pineaceae hosts are locally absent at both our field sites. Given the historical presence of Pineaceae hosts before human alteration, it appears the current S. subaureus-Quercus associations represent carryover from past host presence. Collectively, our results suggest that patterns of ECM specificity should be viewed not only in light of current forest community composition, but also as a legacy effect of host community change over time. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author) [es

  13. Effect of oligonucleotide primers in determining viral variability within hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andrés

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the frequency of the corresponding template in the initial sample. Although bias in template-to-product ratios has been described before, its relevance in describing viral genetic variability at the intrapatient level has not been fully assessed yet. Results To investigate the role of oligonucleotide design in estimating viral variability within hosts, genetic diversity in hepatitis C virus (HCV populations from eight infected patients was characterised by two parallel PCR amplifications performed with two slightly different sets of primers, followed by cloning and sequencing (mean = 89 cloned sequences per patient. Population genetics analyses of viral populations recovered by pairs of amplifications revealed that in seven patients statistically significant differences were detected between populations sampled with different set of primers. Conclusions Genetic variability analyses demonstrates that PCR selection due to the choice of primers, differing in their degeneracy degree at some nucleotide positions, can eclipse totally or partially viral variants, hence yielding significant different estimates of viral variability within a single patient and therefore eventually producing quite different qualitative and quantitative descriptions of viral populations within each host.

  14. Effect of oligonucleotide primers in determining viral variability within hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Jiménez, Nuria; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2004-12-09

    Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the frequency of the corresponding template in the initial sample. Although bias in template-to-product ratios has been described before, its relevance in describing viral genetic variability at the intrapatient level has not been fully assessed yet. To investigate the role of oligonucleotide design in estimating viral variability within hosts, genetic diversity in hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations from eight infected patients was characterised by two parallel PCR amplifications performed with two slightly different sets of primers, followed by cloning and sequencing (mean = 89 cloned sequences per patient). Population genetics analyses of viral populations recovered by pairs of amplifications revealed that in seven patients statistically significant differences were detected between populations sampled with different set of primers. Genetic variability analyses demonstrates that PCR selection due to the choice of primers, differing in their degeneracy degree at some nucleotide positions, can eclipse totally or partially viral variants, hence yielding significant different estimates of viral variability within a single patient and therefore eventually producing quite different qualitative and quantitative descriptions of viral populations within each host.

  15. Effect of Nonsmooth Nose Surface of the Projectile on Penetration Using DEM Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonsmooth body surface of the reptile in nature plays an important role in reduction of resistance and friction when it lives in a soil environment. To consider whether it was feasible for improving the performance of penetrating projectile we investigated the influence of the convex as one of nonsmooth surfaces for the nose of projectile. A numerical simulation study of the projectile against the concrete target was developed based on the discrete element method (DEM. The results show that the convex nose surface of the projectile is beneficial for reducing the penetration resistance greatly, which is also validated by the experiments. Compared to the traditional smooth nose structure, the main reason of difference is due to the local contact normal pressure, which increases dramatically due to the abrupt change of curvature caused by the convex at the same condition. Accordingly, the broken particles of the concrete target obtain more kinetic energy and their average radial flow velocities will drastically increase simultaneously, which is in favor of decreasing the interface friction and the compaction density of concrete target around the nose of projectile.

  16. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used...... to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae...... buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per...

  17. TradeWind Deliverable 5.1: Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemström, Bettina; Uski-Joutsenvuo, Sanna; Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the main activities and results of Work Package 5 – Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids in the TradeWind project. VTT is the leader of Work Package 5 and carries the overall responsibility of this report. The work is based on power...... flow simulations with a grid and market model developed in TradeWind Work Package 3, led by Sintef Energy Research. VTT, Sintef Energy Research and Risø have carried out the simulations of the different scenarios, analysed the results and written Chapter 4 about the impact of wind power on cross...

  18. Effects of actonomycin D and ultraviolet irradiation on multiplication of brome mosaic virus in host and non-host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, K.; Furusawa, I.; Okuno, T.

    1981-01-01

    The modes of multiplication of brome mosaic virus (BMV) were compared in protoplasts isolated from host and non-host plants. BMV actively multiplied in the leaves and isolated mesophyll protoplasts of barley, a host of BMV. BMV multiplication in barley protoplasts was inhibited by addition of actinomycin D immediately after inoculation or by u.v. irradiation of the protoplasts before inoculation. In contrast, although BMV could not multiply in leaves of radish and turnip (non-hosts for BMV) it multiplied at a low level in protoplasts isolated from these two plant species. Moreover, u.v. irradiation, or the addition of actinomycin D, enhanced multiplication of BMV in radish and turnip protoplasts. These results suggest that (i) in the host cells replication of BMV is dependent on cellular metabolism of nucleic acid and protein, and (ii) in the non-host cells a substance(s) inhibitory to replication of BMV is synthesized. (author)

  19. EFFECTS OF THE PENETRATION OF WIND POWER IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton M. Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability has been the main driver for renewables in the Brazilian electricity market. This article analyzes the vulnerabilities of the dependence on hydropower in renewable energy production due to climate variation, as well as wind power penetration in Brazil, given a set of wind industry policies. Despite Brazilian renewable energy increase, the study shows the impact in energy supply in north region, due to the lack of transmission infrastructure. In Brazil, the potential trade-offs between renewables growth, and transmission infrastructure inconsistencies in terms of policy implementation are not yet well analyzed. Simulation results show the potential conflicts between energy policies aimed at increasing the wind power supply and boundaries in transmission infrastructure.

  20. Effects of the penetration of wind power in the brazilian electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton M. Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability has been the main driver for renewables in the Brazilian electricity market. This article analyzes the vulnerabilities of the dependence on hydropower in renewable energy production due to climate variation, as well as wind power penetration in Brazil, given a set of wind industry policies. Despite Brazilian renewable energy increase, the study shows the impact in energy supply in north region, due to the lack of transmission infrastructure. In Brazil, the potential trade-offs between renewables growth, and transmission infrastructure inconsistencies in terms of policy implementation are not yet well analyzed. Simulation results show the potential conflicts between energy policies aimed at increasing the wind power supply and boundaries in transmission infrastructure.

  1. Understanding the Effects of Host Evolution and Skin Bacteria Composition on Disease Vector Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-04-2016 1-Sep-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria ...S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 mosquito, skin, bacteria , primate REPORT...reviewed journals: Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria composition on disease vector choices Report Title Here

  2. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  3. The Effect of Host-Plant Phylogenetic Isolation on Species Richness, Composition and Specialization of Insect Herbivores: A Comparison between Native and Exotic Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Miguel Grandez-Rios

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of plant-insect interactions is still a key issue in terrestrial ecology. Here, we used 30 well-defined plant-herbivore assemblages to assess the effects of host plant phylogenetic isolation and origin (native vs. exotic on the species richness, composition and specialization of the insect herbivore fauna on co-occurring plant species. We also tested for differences in such effects between assemblages composed exclusively of exophagous and endophagous herbivores. We found a consistent negative effect of the phylogenetic isolation of host plants on the richness, similarity and specialization of their insect herbivore faunas. Notably, except for Jaccard dissimilarity, the effect of phylogenetic isolation on the insect herbivore faunas did not vary between native and exotic plants. Our findings show that the phylogenetic isolation of host plants is a key factor that influences the richness, composition and specialization of their local herbivore faunas, regardless of the host plant origin.

  4. Effect of water content on the glass transition temperature of mixtures of sugars, polymers, and penetrating cryoprotectants in physiological buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Andrew C; Lee, Youngjoo; Burgess, Emma M; Karlsson, Jens O M; Eroglu, Ali; Higgins, Adam Z

    2018-01-01

    Long-term storage of viable mammalian cells is important for applications ranging from in vitro fertilization to cell therapy. Cryopreservation is currently the most common approach, but storage in liquid nitrogen is relatively costly and the requirement for low temperatures during shipping is inconvenient. Desiccation is an alternative strategy with the potential to enable viable cell preservation at more convenient storage temperatures without the need for liquid nitrogen. To achieve stability during storage in the dried state it is necessary to remove enough water that the remaining matrix forms a non-crystalline glassy solid. Thus, the glass transition temperature is a key parameter for design of cell desiccation procedures. In this study, we have investigated the effects of moisture content on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of mixtures of sugars (trehalose or raffinose), polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone or Ficoll), penetrating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, or dimethyl sulfoxide), and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutes. Aqueous solutions were dried to different moisture contents by equilibration with saturated salt solutions, or by baking at 95°C. The glass transition temperatures of the dehydrated samples were then measured by differential scanning calorimetry. As expected, Tg increased with decreasing moisture content. For example, in a desiccation medium containing 0.1 M trehalose in PBS, Tg ranged from about 360 K for a completely dry sample to about 220 K at a water mass fraction of 0.4. Addition of polymers to the solutions increased Tg, while addition of penetrating cryoprotectants decreased Tg. Our results provide insight into the relationship between relative humidity, moisture content and glass transition temperature for cell desiccation solutions containing sugars, polymers and penetrating cryoprotectants.

  5. THE EFFECT OF HOST GALAXIES ON TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Goobar, Ariel; Nordin, Jakob; Im, Myungshin; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Oestman, Linda; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependences of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2σ and 3σ) that SNe Ia are ≅0.1 ± 0.04 mag brighter in passive host galaxies than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light-curve shape and color variations. This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light-curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R V = 1.0 ± 0.2, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R V = 1.8 +0.2 -0.4 . The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of >4σ) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  6. Investigation on the effects of geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth in the RPV BMI penetration nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Ra, Myoung Soo; Lee, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of various geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth of RPV BMI penetration nozzles. An FE residual stress analysis procedure was developed and validated from the viewpoint of FFS assessment. The validated FE residual stress analysis procedure and the PWSCC growth assessment procedure in the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI were applied to the BMI penetration nozzles with specified ranges of the geometric variables. The total stresses at steady state during normal operation including welding residual stresses increase with increasing inclination angle of the BMI nozzles, and with tilt angle, depth, and root width of the J-groove weld. The lifetime from the assumed initial crack to the acceptance criteria according to the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI also decreases under these conditions. The total stresses decrease and the lifetime increases with increasing nozzle thickness, but outer radius of the BMI nozzles has an insignificant effect on both of these factors.

  7. Effect of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae on the feeding rate of its host Brevicoryne brassicae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couchman, J.R.; King, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    The food uptake by Brevicoryne brassicae, as measured by accumulation of radiophosphorus, is influenced by the presence of developing larvae of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae. Though the egg and embryonic stages of the parasitoid have no effect on host feeding the presence of a first-instar larva lowers the food uptake. Feeding returns to a level similar to that of non-parasitised aphids when a second-instar parasitoid is present within a host, but drops again when the third instar is reached. Host death occurs during the fourth-larval instar. (Auth.)

  8. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  9. Effect of permeation enhancers on the penetration mechanism of transfersomal gel of ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research work was to investigate the potential of transfersome formulations for transdermal delivery of Ketoconazole (KTZ. KTZ is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that is active against a wide variety of fungi and yeasts. It is readily but incompletely absorbed after oral dosing and is highly variable. The transfersomes were formulated by lipid film hydration technique using Rotary vacuum Evaporator. The prepared transfersomes were converted into suitable gel formulation and is evaluated for their gel characteristics like pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, homogeneity, drug content, etc. Suitable essential oils acting as natural permeation enhancers were added to the transfersomal formulation of KTZ for their release studies. Studies proved that addition of suitable permeation enhancers to the transfersomal formulation improved the release and permeation of KTZ, which showed that the permeation enhancers modify the barrier to penetration present in skin without itself undergoing any change. From the various essential oils which are used as permeation enhancers, the formulation containing Eucalyptus oil showed better in vitro release and permeation as compared with other formulations containing different permeation enhancers.

  10. Combined Effect of Initial Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Penetration in Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkedrouci Lotfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC structures are gradually being degraded all over the world, largely due to corrosion of the embedded steel bars caused by an attack of chloride penetration. Initial curing would be regarded as one factor influencing chloride diffusion in concrete in combination with cover cracking that is also of great attention for reinforced structures. In this study, a non-steady state diffusion test of chloride ion involving RC beam specimens with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.5, initial curing temperatures of 5°C or 20°C and three types of crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm was performed. Chloride content at 5°C or was determined. The results show that the higher chloride content was obtained in condition of crack width large than 0.1mm with low initial curing temperature and there are no obvious differences in chloride content when the crack width was not larger than 0.1mm.

  11. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  12. Effects of Tryptophan Content and Backbone Spacing on the Uptake Efficiency of Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A.; Matson, Maria; Å mand, Helene L.; Esbjö rner, Elin K.; Nordé n, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to traverse cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo. Uptake occurs through both endocytotic and nonendocytotic pathways, but the molecular requirements for efficient internalization are not fully understood. Here we investigate how the presence of tryptophans and their position within an oligoarginine influence uptake mechanism and efficiency. Flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence imaging are used to estimate uptake efficiency, intracellular distribution and toxicity in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. Further, membrane leakage and lipid membrane affinity are investigated. The peptides contain eight arginine residues and one to four tryptophans, the tryptophans positioned either at the N-terminus, in the middle, or evenly distributed along the amino acid sequence. Our data show that the intracellular distribution varies among peptides with different tryptophan content and backbone spacing. Uptake efficiency is higher for the peptides with four tryptophans in the middle, or evenly distributed along the peptide sequence, than for the peptide with four tryptophans at the N-terminus. All peptides display low cytotoxicity except for the one with four tryptophans at the N-terminus, which was moderately toxic. This finding is consistent with their inability to induce efficient leakage of dye from lipid vesicles. All peptides have comparable affinities for lipid vesicles, showing that lipid binding is not a decisive parameter for uptake. Our results indicate that tryptophan content and backbone spacing can affect both the CPP uptake efficiency and the CPP uptake mechanism. The low cytotoxicity of these peptides and the possibilities of tuning their uptake mechanism are interesting from a therapeutic point of view. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Effects of Tryptophan Content and Backbone Spacing on the Uptake Efficiency of Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A.

    2012-07-10

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to traverse cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo. Uptake occurs through both endocytotic and nonendocytotic pathways, but the molecular requirements for efficient internalization are not fully understood. Here we investigate how the presence of tryptophans and their position within an oligoarginine influence uptake mechanism and efficiency. Flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence imaging are used to estimate uptake efficiency, intracellular distribution and toxicity in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. Further, membrane leakage and lipid membrane affinity are investigated. The peptides contain eight arginine residues and one to four tryptophans, the tryptophans positioned either at the N-terminus, in the middle, or evenly distributed along the amino acid sequence. Our data show that the intracellular distribution varies among peptides with different tryptophan content and backbone spacing. Uptake efficiency is higher for the peptides with four tryptophans in the middle, or evenly distributed along the peptide sequence, than for the peptide with four tryptophans at the N-terminus. All peptides display low cytotoxicity except for the one with four tryptophans at the N-terminus, which was moderately toxic. This finding is consistent with their inability to induce efficient leakage of dye from lipid vesicles. All peptides have comparable affinities for lipid vesicles, showing that lipid binding is not a decisive parameter for uptake. Our results indicate that tryptophan content and backbone spacing can affect both the CPP uptake efficiency and the CPP uptake mechanism. The low cytotoxicity of these peptides and the possibilities of tuning their uptake mechanism are interesting from a therapeutic point of view. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. The Effect of Early Frost Damage on the Penetration Resistance of Chloride Ion of NPP Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyung Teak; Park, Chun Jin; Kim, Si Hwan; Ryu, Gum Sung [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The specification for the nuclear power plant (NPP) structure construction specifies the conformity of the regulation ACI-306R in constructing the cold-weather concrete. According to the regulation with regard to the curing condition for cold weather concrete, the insulation curing of cold weather concrete should be appropriately performed under the environment of 5 .deg. C or more until the strength of 500 psi is developed. In addition, according to the regulations regarding the cold weather concrete in the domestic concrete specifications, the insulation curing should be performed until the strength development of 715 psi considering the safety factor indicated to the ACI regulation under the temperature of 5 .deg. C or more. According to the above-mentioned regulations, the NPP structure is required to develop the minimum strength of 715 psi or more and to maintain the important quality including strength development, early anti-freezing and duality under the cold weather condition. However, even though the early strength of 715 psi or more is secured under cold weather condition, if the structure is exposed to the continuous cold weather condition after the protection equipment including curing coat are removed, the structure's durability can go down compared to the concrete cured under the standard curing temperature condition in spring and fall, but the studies on this status still remain poor. Accordingly, this study tried to verify the adequacy of the insulation curing management standard, which is currently presented, in time of constructing the cold weather concrete, through reviewing the penetration resistance of chloride ion with considering the local characteristics of domestic NPP located at coastal areas after curing until the point of 715 psi, then exposing it to a certain cycle of freeze-thaw environment under the continuous cold weather condition

  15. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  16. Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    presents a simulation model of a variable speed wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) and fullscale back-to-back converters in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. In this paper, the impacts of wind shear and tower shadow effects on the small signal stability of power......Grid connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources due to wind speed variations, the wind shear and the tower shadow effects. The fluctuating power may be able to excite the power system oscillation at a frequency close to the natural oscillation frequency of a power system. This paper...... systems with large scale wind power penetrations are investigated during continuous operation based on the wind turbine model and the power system model....

  17. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  18. Effect of heat treatment of wood on the morphology, surface roughness and penetration of simulated and human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Nganga, S; Ylä-Soininmäki, A; Fleming, G J P; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2014-01-01

    Wood has been used as a model material for the development of novel fiber-reinforced composite bone substitute biomaterials. In previous studies heat treatment of wood was perceived to significantly increase the osteoconductivity of implanted wood material. The objective of this study was to examine some of the changing attributes of wood materials that may contribute to improved biological responses gained with heat treatment. Untreated and 140°C and 200°C heat-treated downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were used as the wood materials. Surface roughness and the effect of pre-measurement grinding were measured with contact and non-contact profilometry. Liquid interaction was assessed with a dipping test using two manufactured liquids (simulated blood) as well as human blood. SEM was used to visualize possible heat treatment-induced changes in the hierarchical structure of wood. The surface roughness was observed to significantly decrease with heat treatment. Grinding methods had more influence on the surface contour and roughness than heat treatment. The penetration of the human blood in the 200°C heat-treated exceeded that in the untreated and 140°C heat-treated materials. SEM showed no significant change due to heat treatment in the dry-state morphology of the wood. The results of the liquid penetration test support previous findings in literature concerning the effects of heat treatment on the biological response to implanted wood. Heat-treatment has only a marginal effect on the surface contour of wood. The highly specialized liquid conveyance system of wood may serve as a biomimetic model for the further development of tailored fiber-composite materials.

  19. Effects of host social hierarchy on disease persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ross S; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R

    2008-08-07

    The effects of social hierarchy on population dynamics and epidemiology are examined through a model which contains a number of fundamental features of hierarchical systems, but is simple enough to allow analytical insight. In order to allow for differences in birth rates, contact rates and movement rates among different sets of individuals the population is first divided into subgroups representing levels in the hierarchy. Movement, representing dominance challenges, is allowed between any two levels, giving a completely connected network. The model includes hierarchical effects by introducing a set of dominance parameters which affect birth rates in each social level and movement rates between social levels, dependent upon their rank. Although natural hierarchies vary greatly in form, the skewing of contact patterns, introduced here through non-uniform dominance parameters, has marked effects on the spread of disease. A simple homogeneous mixing differential equation model of a disease with SI dynamics in a population subject to simple birth and death process is presented and it is shown that the hierarchical model tends to this as certain parameter regions are approached. Outside of these parameter regions correlations within the system give rise to deviations from the simple theory. A Gaussian moment closure scheme is developed which extends the homogeneous model in order to take account of correlations arising from the hierarchical structure, and it is shown that the results are in reasonable agreement with simulations across a range of parameters. This approach helps to elucidate the origin of hierarchical effects and shows that it may be straightforward to relate the correlations in the model to measurable quantities which could be used to determine the importance of hierarchical corrections. Overall, hierarchical effects decrease the levels of disease present in a given population compared to a homogeneous unstructured model, but show higher levels of

  20. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  1. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  2. Hydrodynamic effects of nuclear active galaxy winds on host galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiano, A.V.R.

    1984-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesized existence of a powerful, thermal wind in active galactic nuclei, the hydrodynamic effects of such a wind on a model galactic interstellar medium (ISM) are investigated. The properties of several model ISMs are derived from observations of the Milky Way's ISM and those of nearby spiral and elliptical galaxies. The propagation of the wind into the low density gas component of the ISM is studied using the Kompaneets approximation of a strong explosion in an exponential atmosphere. Flattened gas distributions are shown to experience blow-out of wind gas along the symmetry axis. Next, the interaction of dense, interstellar clouds with the wind is investigated. The stability and mass loss of clouds in the wind are studied and it is proposed that clouds survive the encounter with the wind over large timescales. It is proposed that the narrow emission line regions (NELR) of active galaxies are the result of the interaction of active nuclei photons and a thermal wind on large, interstellar clouds

  3. Effectively identifying user profiles in network and host metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.; Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a collection of methods that is used to effectively identify users of computers systems based on their particular usage of the software and the network. Not only are we able to identify individual computer users by their behavioral patterns, we are also able to detect significant deviations in their typical computer usage over time, or compared to a group of their peers. For instance, most people have a small, and relatively unique selection of regularly visited websites, certain email services, daily work hours, and typical preferred applications for mandated tasks. We argue that these habitual patterns are sufficiently specific to identify fully anonymized network users. We demonstrate that with only a modest data collection capability, profiles of individual computer users can be constructed so as to uniquely identify a profiled user from among their peers. As time progresses and habits or circumstances change, the methods presented update each profile so that changes in user behavior can be reliably detected over both abrupt and gradual time frames, without losing the ability to identify the profiled user. The primary benefit of our methodology allows one to efficiently detect deviant behaviors, such as subverted user accounts, or organizational policy violations. Thanks to the relative robustness, these techniques can be used in scenarios with very diverse data collection capabilities, and data privacy requirements. In addition to behavioral change detection, the generated profiles can also be compared against pre-defined examples of known adversarial patterns.

  4. Penetration of sulfur hexafluoride into cellular polypropylene films and its effect on the electric charging and electromechanical response of ferroelectrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Xunlin; Wegener, Michael; Wirges, Werner; Zhang Xiaoqing; Hillenbrand, Joachim; Xia Zhongfu; Gerhard-Multhaupt, Reimund; Sessler, Gerhard M

    2005-01-01

    Cellular polypropylene (PP) films were treated with sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) gas in order to study the SF 6 penetration behaviour and optimize the electric charging conditions. There were differences in the penetration of SF 6 for different cellular PP materials, depending on the microscopic properties, which manifest themselves in the voided structure as well as in the mechanical stiffnesses of the cellular films. The penetration of SF 6 after long-term pressure treatment is confirmed in strongly inflated cellular PP films with a low mechanical stiffness of about 1 MPa. No SF 6 penetration occurs for slightly inflated cellular PP films with smaller void sizes and higher mechanical stiffnesses of around 5.8 MPa. The observed thickness variations, the higher charging fields during corona charging because of SF 6 penetration and the SF 6 environment, as well as the resulting electromechanical properties are discussed

  5. Effects of host cell sterol composition upon internalization of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and clustered β1 integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiHyun; Fukuto, Hana S; Brown, Deborah A; Bliska, James B; London, Erwin

    2018-01-26

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes acute gastrointestinal illness, but its mechanisms of infection are incompletely described. We examined how host cell sterol composition affected Y. pseudotuberculosis uptake. To do this, we depleted or substituted cholesterol in human MDA-MB-231 epithelial cells with various alternative sterols. Decreasing host cell cholesterol significantly reduced pathogen internalization. When host cell cholesterol was substituted with various sterols, only desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol supported internalization. This specificity was not due to sterol dependence of bacterial attachment to host cells, which was similar with all sterols studied. Because a key step in Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization is interaction of the bacterial adhesins invasin and YadA with host cell β1 integrin, we compared the sterol dependence of wildtype Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization with that of Δ inv , Δ yadA , and Δ inv Δ yadA mutant strains. YadA deletion decreased bacterial adherence to host cells, whereas invasin deletion had no effect. Nevertheless, host cell sterol substitution had a similar effect on internalization of these bacterial deletion strains as on the wildtype bacteria. The Δ inv Δ yadA double mutant adhered least to cells and so was not significantly internalized. The sterol structure dependence of Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization differed from that of endocytosis, as monitored using antibody-clustered β1 integrin and previous studies on other proteins, which had a more permissive sterol dependence. This study suggests that agents could be designed to interfere with internalization of Yersinia without disturbing endocytosis. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Population differences in host use by a seed-beetle: local adaptation, phenotypic plasticity and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, Angela R; Fox, Charles W

    2006-11-01

    For insects that develop inside discrete hosts, both host size and host quality constrain offspring growth, influencing the evolution of body size and life history traits. Using a two-generation common garden experiment, we quantified the contribution of maternal and rearing hosts to differences in growth and life history traits between populations of the seed-feeding beetle Stator limbatus that use a large-seeded host, Acacia greggii, and a small-seeded host, Pseudosamanea guachapele. Populations differed genetically for all traits when beetles were raised in a common garden. Contrary to expectations from the local adaptation hypothesis, beetles from all populations were larger, developed faster and had higher survivorship when reared on seeds of A. greggii (the larger host), irrespective of their native host. We observed two host plant-mediated maternal effects: offspring matured sooner, regardless of their rearing host, when their mothers were reared on P. guachapele (this was not caused by an effect of rearing host on egg size), and females laid larger eggs on P. guachapele. This is the first study to document plasticity by S. limbatus in response to P. guachapele, suggesting that plasticity is an ancestral trait in S. limbatus that likely plays an important role in diet expansion. Although differences between populations in growth and life history traits are likely adaptations to their host plants, host-associated maternal effects, partly mediated by maternal egg size plasticity, influence growth and life history traits and likely play an important role in the evolution of the breadth of S. limbatus' diet. More generally, phenotypic plasticity mediates the fitness consequences of using novel hosts, likely facilitating colonization of new hosts, but also buffering herbivores from selection post-colonization. Plasticity in response to novel versus normal hosts varied among our study populations such that disentangling the historical role of plasticity in

  7. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B.; Vieira, Stella M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  8. No Effect of Host Species on Phenoloxidase Activity in a Mycophagous Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Formica

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology is an interdisciplinary field that helps elucidate interactions between the environment and immune response. The host species individuals experience have profound effects on immune response in many species of insects. However, this conclusion comes from studies of herbivorous insects even though species of mycophagous insects also inhabit many different host species. The goal of this study was to determine if fungal host species as well as individual, sex, body size, and host patch predict one aspect of immune function, phenoloxidase activity (PO. We sampled a metapopulation of Bolitotherus cornutus, a mycophagous beetle in southwestern Virginia. B. cornutus live on three species of fungus that differ in nutritional quality, social environment, and density. A filter paper phenoloxidase assay was used to quantify phenoloxidase activity. Overall, PO activity was significantly repeatable among individuals (0.57 in adult B. cornutus. While there was significant variance among individuals in PO activity, there were surprisingly no significant differences in PO activity among subpopulations, beetles living on different host species, or between the sexes; there was also no effect of body size. Our results suggest that other factors such as age, genotype, disease prevalence, or natal environment may be generating variance among individuals in PO activity.

  9. Soilborne fungi have host affinity and host-specific effects on seed germination and survival in a lowland tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Janzen-Connell (JC) hypothesis provides a powerful framework for explaining the maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. Its central tenet -- that recruits experience high mortality near conspecifics and at high densities -- assumes a degree of host specialization in interactions betwe...

  10. Effect of Pore Size and Pore Connectivity on Unidirectional Capillary Penetration Kinetics in 3-D Porous Media using Direct Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, An; Palakurthi, Nikhil; Konangi, Santosh; Comer, Ken; Jog, Milind

    2017-11-01

    The physics of capillary flow is used widely in multiple fields. Lucas-Washburn equation is developed by using a single pore-sized capillary tube with continuous pore connection. Although this equation has been extended to describe the penetration kinetics into porous medium, multiple studies have indicated L-W does not accurately predict flow patterns in real porous media. In this study, the penetration kinetics including the effect of pore size and pore connectivity will be closely examined since they are expected to be the key factors effecting the penetration process. The Liquid wicking process is studied from a converging and diverging capillary tube to the complex virtual 3-D porous structures with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) using the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) method within the OpenFOAM CFD Solver. Additionally Porous Medium properties such as Permeability (k) , Tortuosity (τ) will be also analyzed.

  11. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to plant-herbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size was negatively related to leaf-miner prevalence, with larger egg and mine densities in small populations. Percentage of eggs hatching and developing into mines, and percentage of adult flies emerging from mines also differed among host populations, but were not related to population size or host cover. Feeding punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively correlated with emergence of the larvae. The inverse effects of host population size were not in line with predictions based on island biogeography and resource concentration theory. We discuss how a thorough knowledge of the immigration behaviour of this fly might help to understand the patterns found.

  12. Effect of host plant on body size of Frankliniella occidentalis and its correlation with reproductive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogel, de W.J.; Bosco, D.; Hoek, van der M.; Mollema, C.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of different host plants on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) body size was investigated. Thrips from three different populations, from the Netherlands, Italy, and USA, achieved greater body sizes when reared on cucumber than on bean. The same thrips grew

  13. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an

  14. Effect of a Fusion Peptide by Covalent Conjugation of a Mitochondrial Cell-Penetrating Peptide and a Glutathione Analog Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Pasquale Cerrato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we designed and synthesized a library of mitochondrial antioxidative cell-penetrating peptides (mtCPPs superior to the parent peptide, SS31, to protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. A library of antioxidative glutathione analogs called glutathione peptides (UPFs, exceptional in hydroxyl radical elimination compared with glutathione, were also designed and synthesized. Here, a follow-up study is described, investigating the effects of the most promising members from both libraries on reactive oxidative species scavenging ability. None of the peptides influenced cell viability at the concentrations used. Fluorescence microscopy studies showed that the fluorescein-mtCPP1-UPF25 (mtgCPP internalized into cells, and spectrofluorometric analysis determined the presence and extent of peptide into different cell compartments. mtgCPP has superior antioxidative activity compared with mtCPP1 and UPF25 against H2O2 insult, preventing ROS formation by 2- and 3-fold, respectively. Moreover, we neither observed effects on mitochondrial membrane potential nor production of ATP. These data indicate that mtgCPP is targeting mitochondria, protecting them from oxidative damage, while also being present in the cytosol. Our hypothesis is based on a synergistic effect resulting from the fused peptide. The mitochondrial peptide segment is targeting mitochondria, whereas the glutathione analog peptide segment is active in the cytosol, resulting in increased scavenging ability.

  15. Effect of Yaw Angle and Ambient Wind on Fabric Penetration of a Simulated Sleeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    took a day of trial-and-error testing. Of concern is the effect of the fabric sleeve on the flowfield. It is possible that the introduction of the...stephanie.f.zopf.civ@mail.mil CLARKSON UNIVERSITY (1) Mechanical Engineering Department 8 Clarkson Ave., Potsdam , NY 13699 sdhaniyala

  16. The effect of microbial colonization on the host proteome varies by gastrointestinal location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Joshua S; Alsentzer, Emily; Jaffe, Mia; Sprockett, Daniel; Masutani, Evan; Ikwa, Elvis; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K; Clifford, David; Huang, Bevan Emma; Sonnenburg, Justin L; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Elias, Joshua E

    2016-05-01

    Endogenous intestinal microbiota have wide-ranging and largely uncharacterized effects on host physiology. Here, we used reverse-phase liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry to define the mouse intestinal proteome in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum and proximal colon under three colonization states: germ-free (GF), monocolonized with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and conventionally raised (CR). Our analysis revealed distinct proteomic abundance profiles along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Unsupervised clustering showed that host protein abundance primarily depended on GI location rather than colonization state and specific proteins and functions that defined these locations were identified by random forest classifications. K-means clustering of protein abundance across locations revealed substantial differences in host protein production between CR mice relative to GF and monocolonized mice. Finally, comparison with fecal proteomic data sets suggested that the identities of stool proteins are not biased to any region of the GI tract, but are substantially impacted by the microbiota in the distal colon.

  17. Effects of bestatin on the host immunity in patients treated for urogenital cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozono, S.; Iwai, A.; Babaya, K.; Hiramatsu, T.; Yoshida, K.; Yamada, K.; Hirao, Y.; Aoyama, H.; Ohara, S.; Okajima, E.

    1990-01-01

    To examine effects of bestatin on the host immunity of patients with urogenital cancer, 54 patients were randomized into 2 groups: bestatin treated and controls. In each group, the patients were divided into 2 subgroups: one which received basic treatment expected to greatly affect host immunity ('invasive treatment') while the other one received other types of basic treatment ('non-invasive treatment'). Peripheral lymphocyte, OKT 4/8 ratio and purified protein derivative (PPD) skin reaction were used as immunological markers. There were significant differences in the 'invasive' treatment group between bestatin treated patients and controls concerning lymphocyte counts and PPD skin reactions and in the 'non-invasive' group concerning lymphocyte counts and OKT 4/8 ratios. These results suggest that bestatin may potentiate host immunity in patients with urogenital cancer. Further studies on larger materials are, however, needed before more definite conclusions can be drawn. (orig.)

  18. Modelling the effect of structural QSAR parameters on skin penetration using genetic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K K; Do, D Q

    2010-01-01

    In order to model relationships between chemical structures and biological effects in quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) data, an alternative technique of artificial intelligence computing—genetic programming (GP)—was investigated and compared to the traditional method—statistical. GP, with the primary advantage of generating mathematical equations, was employed to model QSAR data and to define the most important molecular descriptions in QSAR data. The models predicted by GP agreed with the statistical results, and the most predictive models of GP were significantly improved when compared to the statistical models using ANOVA. Recently, artificial intelligence techniques have been applied widely to analyse QSAR data. With the capability of generating mathematical equations, GP can be considered as an effective and efficient method for modelling QSAR data

  19. Effects of host genetics and environment on egg-associated microbiotas in brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Fumagalli, Luca; Wedekind, Claus

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies found fish egg-specific bacterial communities that changed over the course of embryogenesis, suggesting an interaction between the developing host and its microbiota. Indeed, single-strain infections demonstrated that the virulence of opportunistic bacteria is influenced by environmental factors and host immune genes. However, the interplay between a fish embryo host and its microbiota has not been studied yet at the community level. To test whether host genetics affects the assemblage of egg-associated bacteria, adult brown trout (Salmo trutta) were sampled from a natural population. Their gametes were used for full-factorial in vitro fertilizations to separate sire from dam effects. In total, 2520 embryos were singly raised under experimental conditions that differently support microbial growth. High-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to characterize bacterial communities on milt and fertilized eggs across treatments. Dam and sire identity influenced embryo mortality, time until hatching and composition of egg-associated microbiotas, but no link between bacterial communities on milt and on fertilized eggs could be found. Elevated resources increased embryo mortality and modified bacterial communities with a shift in their putative functional potential. Resource availability did not significantly affect any parental effects on embryo performance. Sire identity affected bacterial diversity that turned out to be a significant predictor of hatching time: embryos associated with high bacterial diversity hatched later. We conclude that both host genetics and the availability of resources define diversity and composition of egg-associated bacterial communities that then affect the life history of their hosts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The effect of seismic energy scavenging on host structure and harvesting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallart, Mickaël; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Linjuan; Richard, Claude; Guyomar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters have been studied extensively in recent years. Numerous techniques have been investigated to achieve optimal power output. However, the extraction of electrical energy from mechanical vibration leads to a reduction of the vibration magnitude of the harvester because of the electromechanical coupling effect, and so a model considering constant vibration magnitude input is no longer valid. Thus, an energy harvesting model excited with a constant force or acceleration magnitude has been adopted to take into account the damping effect induced by the energy harvesting process. This paper extends this model to the effect of energy harvesting on the fixed host structure (mechanical to mechanical coupling). Theoretical developments are presented as a dynamic problem of an electromechanically coupled two-degree-of-freedom (TDOF) spring–mass–damper system. Then, experimental measurements and computations based on finite element modeling (FEM) are carried out to validate theoretical predictions. It is shown that the extracted power obtained from the TDOF model would reach a maximal value by tuning the mass ratio between the host structure and the harvester and optimizing the electric load. The mechanical to mechanical coupling effect due to the harvester leads to a trade-off between the mechanical energy of the host structure and the harvested energy. When the harvester mass to host structure mass ratio is around 10 −3 , the maximal power is obtained and the host structure then has a sudden displacement reduction due to the strong mechanical to mechanical coupling. Experimental measurements have been performed for a mass ratio of around 0.02, with which the harvester effect is not negligible on the host structure behavior as the host structure displacement shows a decrease of more than 3 dB. In addition, the harvested power calculated with the TDOF model is about two times less than with a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF

  1. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Crosera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm2 while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm2. Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10−4 M (MTT assay, 3.8 × 10−5 M (AlamarBlue® assay, and 7.6 × 10−4 M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death. Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  2. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosera, Matteo; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella; Pelin, Marco; Florio, Chiara; Bellomo, Francesca; Adami, Gianpiero; Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Bovenzi, Massimo; Campanini, Marco; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-08-07

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue(®) and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm(2)) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm(2)). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10(-4) M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10(-5) M (AlamarBlue(®) assay), and 7.6 × 10(-4) M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  3. Effects of Sizes and Conformations of Fish-Scale Collagen Peptides on Facial Skin Qualities and Transdermal Penetration Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Jine Chai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish-scale collagen peptides (FSCPs were prepared using a given combination of proteases to hydrolyze tilapia (Oreochromis sp. scales. FSCPs were determined to stimulate fibroblast cells proliferation and procollagen synthesis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The transdermal penetration capabilities of the fractionationed FSCPs were evaluated using the Franz-type diffusion cell model. The heavier FSCPs, 3500 and 4500 Da, showed higher cumulative penetration capability as opposed to the lighter FSCPs, 2000 and 1300 Da. In addition, the heavier seemed to preserve favorable coiled structures comparing to the lighter that presents mainly as linear under confocal scanning laser microscopy. FSCPs, particularly the heavier, were concluded to efficiently penetrate stratum corneum to epidermis and dermis, activate fibroblasts, and accelerate collagen synthesis. The heavier outweighs the lighter in transdermal penetration likely as a result of preserving the given desired structure feature.

  4. Effect of the oxidation front penetration on in-clad hydrogen migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E.

    2018-03-01

    In LWR fuel claddings the embrittlement due to hydrogen precipitates (i.e., hydrides) is a degrading mechanism that concerns in nuclear safety, particularly in dry storage. A relevant factor is the radial distribution of the hydrogen absorbed, especially the hydride rim formed. Thus, a reliable assessment of fuel performance should account for hydrogen migration. Based on the current state of modelling of hydrogen dynamics in the cladding, a 1D radial model has been derived and coupled with the FRAPCON code. The model includes the effect of the oxidation front progression on in-clad hydrogen migration, based on experimental observations found (i.e., dissolution/diffusion/re-precipitation of the hydrogen in the matrix ahead of the oxidation front). A remarkable quantitative impact of this new contribution has been shown by analyzing the hydrogen profile across the cladding of several high burnup fuel scenarios (>60 GW d/tU); other potential contributions like thermodiffusion and diffusion in the hydride phase hardly make any difference. Comparisons against PIE measurements allow concluding that the model accuracy notably increases when the effect of the oxidation front is accounted for in the hydride rim formation. In spite of the promising results, further validation would be needed.

  5. Pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) of diltiazem hydrochloride: effect of solvents/penetration enhancers on ex vivo permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, Rabinarayan; Suresh, Podilam; Pattnaik, Subasini

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) of diltiazem hydrochloride (DZH) was developed by taking different ratios of organic phase to aqueous phase (1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) with varying concentration of soya lecithin (20, 30, and 40 % w/w) in organic phase (isopropyl myristate, IPM) and pluronic (20, 25, and 30 % w/w) in aqueous phase, respectively, and characterized for in vitro parameters and ex vivo permeation study. The results of in vitro parameters were found to be within permissible limit and all the PLOs were physically stable at refrigeration and ambient temperature. The influence of phase ratio and different concentrations of soya lecithin on DZH release from the PLOs was found to be significant (p < 0.05), whereas the influences of different concentrations of pluronic were insignificant. The effect of different solvents/penetration enhancers viz. IPM, propylene glycol (PG), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and D-limonene, in combination and alone, on the permeation of DZH across the dorsal skin of rat was studied. Among all, formulation containing IPM (PLO6) exhibited highest flux of 147.317 μg/cm(2)/h. Furthermore, histopathology section of treated skin sample illustrated that lipid bilayer disruption was the mechanism for the DZH permeation. The above results indicated that PLO6 may serve as a promising alternative delivery system for DZH in the effective treatment of hypertension.

  6. Development of a market penetration forecasting model for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles considering infrastructure and cost reduction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yong; Kim, Jong Wook; Lee, Duk Hee

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with climate change, the development and deployment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (HFCVs) is becoming more important. In this study, we developed a forecasting model for HFCVs based on the generalized Bass diffusion model and a simulation model using system dynamics. Through the developed model, we could forecast that the saturation of HFCVs in Korea can be moved up 12 years compared with the US. A sensitivity analysis on external variables such as price reduction rates of HFCVs and number of hydrogen refueling stations is also conducted. The results of this study can give insights on the effects of external variables on the market penetration of HFCVs, and the developed model can also be applied to other studies in analyzing the diffusion effects of HFCVs. - Highlights: → A forecasting model for HFCVs was developed using the generalized Bass diffusion model. → A simulation model using system dynamics was also developed. → The empirical study shows that the infrastructure is an important factor to the initial purchase. → The results of this study can promote research related to the diffusion of innovation.

  7. Effects of Sizes and Conformations of Fish-Scale Collagen Peptides on Facial Skin Qualities and Transdermal Penetration Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Huey-Jine; Li, Jing-Hua; Huang, Han-Ning; Li, Tsung-Lin; Chan, Yi-Lin; Shiau, Chyuan-Yuan; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2010-01-01

    Fish-scale collagen peptides (FSCPs) were prepared using a given combination of proteases to hydrolyze tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) scales. FSCPs were determined to stimulate fibroblast cells proliferation and procollagen synthesis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The transdermal penetration capabilities of the fractionationed FSCPs were evaluated using the Franz-type diffusion cell model. The heavier FSCPs, 3500 and 4500?Da, showed higher cumulative penetration capability as opposed to the...

  8. Effects of inserted depth of wall penetration on basal stability of foundation pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aizhao; Shen, Hao; Sun, Jinguo

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of basal heave stability is one of important design checks for excavations in soft clays. The commonly used classical calculation method based on limit equilibrium theory and the safety coefficient formula recommended by the current code, do not consider the influence of supporting structure of foundation pit depth heave stability, which results in conservative. Considering the wall stiffness and strength, the effective stress changes in different depth of soil, the frictional resistance between the retaining wall and the passive zone, the vertical shear resistance of the soil behind the wall and other factors. The modified safety factor calculation formula of foundation pit stability is presented, comparison analysis of calculation method combined with examples. The calculation results show that the safety factor of foundation pit stability is improved considering the influence of supporting structure depth, the calculation results are more reasonable.

  9. Importance Of Penetration Testing For Legacy Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Bhatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penetration testing is very important technique to find vulnerabilities in commercial networks. There are various techniques for ethical hacking via penetration testing. This report explains a white hat hacker approach of penetration testing. I have performed this test on private network where three PCs are connected through LAN via switch and without firewall. This network is not connected with Internet. All the PCs have windows operating system. The attacker host has windows server 2003 with Service Pack1 second host has windows XP with Service Pack 2 and third host has windows 2000 with service pack 4.

  10. Effects of land use on zoonotic host communities: a global correlative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Gibb, MRes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental trade-offs associated with land use—for example, between food security and biodiversity conservation—are crucial dimensions of planetary health. Land use-driven biodiversity change might predictably affect disease risk if reservoir host species are consistently more likely to persist under human disturbance (ie, if ecological communities in modified habitats generally have a higher zoonotic potential than those in unmodified habitats. Such a phenomenon has been observed in specific disease systems, but with substantial change in global land use projected for this century, assessing its global and taxonomic generality would shed light on an important hypothesised driver of environmental synergies or trade-offs between conservation and public health. Methods: We collated data on hosts of human parasites and pathogens from the published literature, and combined these with the Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity in Changing Terrestrial Systems (PREDICTS global database of local ecological communities and associated land use data. We analysed the effects of land use on host richness and abundance across 7330 sites globally, controlling for disease-related research effort and differences in survey methods. Findings: Ecological communities in anthropogenic land uses (managed and urban ecosystems contained a consistently higher richness and abundance of host species than did communities in nearby primary (undisturbed sites. However, among mammal hosts of zoonotic pathogens, we found considerable taxonomic variation in host responses to land use, with abundances of rodents and bats generally increasing and those of primates and carnivores generally declining in modified landscapes. Interpretation: Our results suggest that future change in global land use has the potential to drive overall increasing contact between people and ecological communities with increased shared pathogen potential (ie, more potential hosts

  11. Atomistic simulation of tantalum nanoindentation: Effects of indenter diameter, penetration velocity, and interatomic potentials on defect mechanisms and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruestes, C.J., E-mail: cjruestes@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univ. Nac. de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); CONICET, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); Stukowski, A. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt 64287 (Germany); Tang, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Tramontina, D.R. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univ. Nac. de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); Erhart, P. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Gothenburg 41296 (Sweden); Remington, B.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Urbassek, H.M. [Physics Department and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern 67663 (Germany); Meyers, M.A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bringa, E.M. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univ. Nac. de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); CONICET, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina)

    2014-09-08

    Nanoindentation simulations are a helpful complement to experiments. There is a dearth of nanoindentation simulations for bcc metals, partly due to the lack of computationally efficient and reliable interatomic potentials at large strains. We carry out indentation simulations for bcc tantalum using three different interatomic potentials and present the defect mechanisms responsible for the creation and expansion of the plastic deformation zone: twins are initially formed, giving rise to shear loop expansion and the formation of sequential prismatic loops. The calculated elastic constants as function of pressure as well as stacking fault energy surfaces explain the significant differences found in the defect structures generated for the three potentials investigated in this study. The simulations enable the quantification of total dislocation length and twinning fraction. The indenter velocity is varied and, as expected, the penetration depth for the first pop-in (defect emission) event shows a strain rate sensitivity m in the range of 0.037–0.055. The effect of indenter diameter on the first pop-in is discussed. A new intrinsic length-scale model is presented based on the profile of the residual indentation and geometrically necessary dislocation theory.

  12. Atomistic simulation of tantalum nanoindentation: Effects of indenter diameter, penetration velocity, and interatomic potentials on defect mechanisms and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestes, C.J.; Stukowski, A.; Tang, Y.; Tramontina, D.R.; Erhart, P.; Remington, B.A.; Urbassek, H.M.; Meyers, M.A.; Bringa, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoindentation simulations are a helpful complement to experiments. There is a dearth of nanoindentation simulations for bcc metals, partly due to the lack of computationally efficient and reliable interatomic potentials at large strains. We carry out indentation simulations for bcc tantalum using three different interatomic potentials and present the defect mechanisms responsible for the creation and expansion of the plastic deformation zone: twins are initially formed, giving rise to shear loop expansion and the formation of sequential prismatic loops. The calculated elastic constants as function of pressure as well as stacking fault energy surfaces explain the significant differences found in the defect structures generated for the three potentials investigated in this study. The simulations enable the quantification of total dislocation length and twinning fraction. The indenter velocity is varied and, as expected, the penetration depth for the first pop-in (defect emission) event shows a strain rate sensitivity m in the range of 0.037–0.055. The effect of indenter diameter on the first pop-in is discussed. A new intrinsic length-scale model is presented based on the profile of the residual indentation and geometrically necessary dislocation theory

  13. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, S. W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH{sup −}) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  14. Preirradiation of host (monkey) cells mitigates the effects of UV upon simian virus 40 DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaria, A.; Edenberg, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of preirradiation of host (monkey) cells upon the replication of UV-damaged SV40. Control cells and cells preirradiated with low fluences of UV were infected with undamaged SV40, and the immediate effects of a subsequent irradiation were determined. UV inhibited total SV40 DNA synthesis in both preirradiated and control cells, but the extent of inhibition was less in the preirradiated cells. A test fluence of 60 J/m 2 to SV40 replicating in preirradiated cells reduced synthesis only as much as a test fluence of 25 J/m 2 in control cells. The fraction of recently replicated SV40 molecules that re-entered the replication pool and subsequently completed one round of replication in the first 2 h after UV was also decreased less in the preirradiated cells. Thus preirradiation of the host cell mitigates the immediate inhibitory effects of a subsequent UV exposure upon SV40 replication. (Auth.)

  15. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of environmental variation on host-parasite interaction in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharsack, Jörn P; Franke, Frederik; Erin, Noémi I; Kuske, Andra; Büscher, Janine; Stolz, Hendrik; Samonte, Irene E; Kurtz, Joachim; Kalbe, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Recent research provides accumulating evidence that the evolutionary dynamics of host-parasite adaptations strongly depend on environmental variation. In this context, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has become an important research model since it is distributed all over the northern hemisphere and lives in very different habitat types, ranging from marine to freshwater, were it is exposed to a huge diversity of parasites. While a majority of studies start from explorations of sticklebacks in the wild, only relatively few investigations have continued under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, it has often been described that sticklebacks differ in parasite burden between habitats, but the underlying co-evolutionary trajectories are often not well understood. With the present review, we give an overview of the most striking examples of stickleback-parasite-environment interactions discovered in the wild and discuss two model parasites which have received some attention in laboratory studies: the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathacaeum, for which host fish show habitat-specific levels of resistance, and the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, which manipulates immunity and behavior of its stickleback host to its advantage. Finally, we will concentrate on an important environmental variable, namely temperature, which has prominent effects on the activity of the immune system of ectothermic hosts and on parasite growth rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in the effects of host suppression on the adoptive immunotherapy of subcutaneous and visceral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.E.; Shu, S.Y.; Chou, T.; Lafreniere, R.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A syngeneic transplantable sarcoma induced in C57BL/6 mice, MCA 105, was used in studies to examine host suppression on the adoptive immunotherapy of established intradermal and experimentally induced pulmonary and hepatic metastases. Fresh immune splenocytes were generated from mice immunized to the MCA 105 tumor by a mixture of viable tumor cells and Corynebacterium parvum. The adoptive immunotherapy of intradermal MCA 105 tumor with immune cells required prior immunosuppression of the recipient by sublethal irradiation with 500 R or T-cell depletion. The effect of whole-body sublethal irradiation appeared to eliminate a systemic host suppression mechanism, since partialbody irradiation involving the tumor-bearing area did not permit successful immunotherapy. Host irradiation was not required to achieve successful immunotherapy of experimentally induced pulmonary or hepatic metastases. In nonirradiated recipients bearing both intradermal and pulmonary tumors, host suppression did not affect the function of transferred immune cells to induce regression of pulmonary metastases. Thus, suppression of adoptive immunotherapy appears to be relevant to tumors confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue but not to tumor in visceral sites, such as the lung and liver

  18. The effects of host obscuration on searches for tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Mushotzky, Richard; Gezari, Suvi; van Velzen, Sjoert

    2018-01-01

    Tidal disruptions of stars by super-massive black holes (TDEs) offer opportunities to learn about black hole demographics and stellar dynamics. However, matching the observed TDE rate to that predicted by theory has remained a challenge, as most surveys to-date have found fewer flares than expected. Some of this discrepancy may relate to nuclear obscuration in host galaxies. This includes the effects of dust at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths, and the effects of neutral gas at x-ray wavelengths. I will discuss procedures to correct the observed TDE rate within existing and upcoming surveys to the intrinsic per-galaxy rate by accounting for host obscuration. I will also discuss how reddening might affect TDE selection criteria, and I will make predictions for the population of infrared TDE light echoes.

  19. The lack of penetration effect on fatigue crack propagation resistance of atmospheric corrosion resistant steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Geraldo de Paula; Cimini Junior, Carlos Alberto; Godefroid, Leonardo Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    The welding process introduces defects on the welded joints, as lack of fusion and penetration, porosity, between others. These defects can compromise the structures or components, relative to the crack propagation. This engagement can be studied by fatigue crack propagation tests. The efficiency of the structure, when submitted to a cyclic loading can be evaluated by these tests. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of welded joints containing defects as lack of penetration at the root or between welding passes relative to crack propagation resistance properties, and to compare these properties with the properties of the welded joints without defects. This study was accomplished from fatigue crack propagation test results, in specimens containing lack of penetration between welding passes. With the obtained results, the Paris equation coefficients and exponents that relate the crack propagation rate with the stress intensity cyclic factor for welded joints with and without defects were obtained. (author)

  20. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  1. Effect of Slave Raiding of Polyergus samurai on Nest Persistency of Its Host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yamaguchi, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The effect of slave raiding of Polyergus samurai on nest persistency of its host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica was investigated. Nest persistence rate after the raiding season was not different between raided and unraided nests. Many raided nests stopped aboveground activities for 2-3 weeks after a raiding but surviving workers maintained underground nest structure. These observations suggest that it is required to reconsider the previous interpretation that the raided nests died out from ...

  2. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Shriner

    1976-01-01

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2 ? 0.1 or pH 6.0 ? 0.2. Simulated "rain" of pH 3.2 resulted...

  3. Effect of the pretreatment of silicone penetrant on the performance of the chromium-free chemfilm coated on AZ91D magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiuan-Ho; Niu, Liyuan; Su, Yichang; Wang, Wenquan; Tong, Xian; Li, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a new pretreatment of silicone penetrant for forming the chromium-free chemfilm (chemical conversion coating) on the surface of an AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy. Through applying micro current on the pretreatment solution, an uniform mask membrane was created on the surface of a Mg alloy. By using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) analyses, the chromium-free chemfilm on a Mg alloy was examined to analyze the performance during initial, middle, and final deposition periods. As a result, the pretreatment of silicone penetrant can effectively prevent the chemfilm from cracking, improve the anticorrosion ability and nucleation rate of the chromium-free chemfilm on a Mg alloy, and make the surface crystallization transform a long strip into short axis shape. - Highlights: • An AZ91D Mg alloy was pretreated by using silicone penetrant. • Surface crystallization of the chemfilm on a silicone-pretreated Mg alloy is smooth. • The pretreatment of silicone penetrant for a Mg alloy enhanced the anticorrosion ability.

  4. Effect of the pretreatment of silicone penetrant on the performance of the chromium-free chemfilm coated on AZ91D magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shiuan-Ho, E-mail: 1802186169@qq.com [College of Electronic Information and Mechatronic Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing Road, Duanzhou District, Zhaoqing, Guangdong, 526061 (China); Niu, Liyuan [Department of Material Engineer, Zhejiang Industry & Trade Vocational Colledge, WenZhou, 325000 (China); Su, Yichang [Department of Material Engineer, Zhejiang Industry & Trade Vocational Colledge, WenZhou, 325000 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun, 130025 (China); Wang, Wenquan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun, 130025 (China); Tong, Xian [Department of Material Engineer, Zhejiang Industry & Trade Vocational Colledge, WenZhou, 325000 (China); Li, Guangyu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun, 130025 (China)

    2016-03-01

    This paper reported a new pretreatment of silicone penetrant for forming the chromium-free chemfilm (chemical conversion coating) on the surface of an AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy. Through applying micro current on the pretreatment solution, an uniform mask membrane was created on the surface of a Mg alloy. By using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) analyses, the chromium-free chemfilm on a Mg alloy was examined to analyze the performance during initial, middle, and final deposition periods. As a result, the pretreatment of silicone penetrant can effectively prevent the chemfilm from cracking, improve the anticorrosion ability and nucleation rate of the chromium-free chemfilm on a Mg alloy, and make the surface crystallization transform a long strip into short axis shape. - Highlights: • An AZ91D Mg alloy was pretreated by using silicone penetrant. • Surface crystallization of the chemfilm on a silicone-pretreated Mg alloy is smooth. • The pretreatment of silicone penetrant for a Mg alloy enhanced the anticorrosion ability.

  5. Penetration of stimuli of fish skin for Acanthostomum brauni cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski de Nuñez, M; Haas, W

    1991-02-01

    The cercaria of Acanthostomum brauni penetrates the skin of its fish host in response to a combination of two chemical signals from the fish skin surface: free fatty acids and a macro-molecular mucus component. The latter seems to be a protein, as the penetration-stimulating activity of fish skin surface mucus is eliminated by digestion with proteinase, but not by digestion with glycosidases, nor by a removal of glycosaminoglycans. These penetration-stimulating host signals differ from the glycoproteins that stimulate the attachment of A. brauni cercariae to the host and also from the macromolecular fish host signals which have been found to stimulate the attachment and penetration by Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae.

  6. Self-consistent Kinetic Simulation of RMP-driven Transport: Collisionality and Rotation Effects on RMP Penetration and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.; Jeon, Y.; Kim, J., E-mail: gypark@nfri.re.kr [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Control of the edge localized modes (ELMs) is one of the most critical issues for a more successful operation of ITER and the future tokamak fusion reactors. This paper reports ITER relevant simulation results from the XGC0 drift-kinetic code, with respect to the collisionality, plasma density, and rotation dependence of the RMP penetration and the RMP-driven transport in diverted DIII-D geometry with neutral recycling. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental results, and contribute to the physics understanding needed for more confident extrapolation of the present RMP experiments to ITER. It is found that plasma-responded stochasticity becomes weaker as the collisionality gets higher and RMP-driven transport (i.e., density pump-out) is much weaker in the high collisionality case compared with that in the low collisionality one, which is consistent with the recent experimental results on DIII-D and ASDEX-U tokamaks. As for rotation effect, low rotation is found not to affect the stochasticity much in the edge region, while high rotation significantly suppresses the RMPs in the core. The clear difference in RMP behavior between the low and high collisionality regimes can be understood by examining the perturbed current Fourier amplitude profiles within the range of resonant poloidal mode numbers (m = 8 - 15, n = 3). It can be seen that primary shielding currents are strongly concentrated around the steep pedestal region just inside the separatrix, which naturally produces very strong suppression of RMPs there, in low collisionality case. However, in high collisionality case, primary shielding currents are very weak and accumulating toward inner radii leading to the shielding of RMPs further into the plasma. Our kinetic simulation method is also applied to the modeling of RMP ELM control experiments on KSTAR tokamak and the results will be presented together. (author)

  7. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic energy penetrators must posses the best possible combination of hardness, stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness characteristics to be effective against modern armor systems. Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. Du and tungsten perform abut the same against semi-infinite targets, and DU outperforms tungsten penetrators in oblique, spaced array targets, but because of environmental and subsequent cost concerns, effort has focused on improving the performance of tungsten penetrators over the last few years. However, despite recent improvements in material properties, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms at the leading edge of the penetrator during the penetration process-DU alloys tend to shear band and sharpen as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom and blunt. As a first step to determine whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review of the fabrication, high strain-rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on material properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed

  8. Penetration of Milk-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides into Phospholipid Monolayers as Model Biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Barzyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial peptides derived from bovine milk proteins were examined with regard to penetration into insoluble monolayers formed with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol sodium salt (DPPG. Effects on surface pressure (Π and electric surface potential (ΔV were measured, Π with a platinum Wilhelmy plate and ΔV with a vibrating plate. The penetration measurements were performed under stationary diffusion conditions and upon the compression of the monolayers. The two type measurements showed greatly different effects of the peptide-lipid interactions. Results of the stationary penetration show that the peptide interactions with DPPC monolayer are weak, repulsive, and nonspecific while the interactions with DPPG monolayer are significant, attractive, and specific. These results are in accord with the fact that antimicrobial peptides disrupt bacteria membranes (negative while no significant effect on the host membranes (neutral is observed. No such discrimination was revealed from the compression isotherms. The latter indicate that squeezing the penetrant out of the monolayer upon compression does not allow for establishing the penetration equilibrium, so the monolayer remains supersaturated with the penetrant and shows an under-equilibrium orientation within the entire compression range, practically.

  9. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    interaction between the penetrator and the soil within the range of 250 and 1500 m/s with Tsiolkovsky number from 0.1 to 0.5. Obtained results show that there are optimal times when the jet thrust engine "switches on" and operates, thus providing a maximum increase in penetration depth. This time optimum is due to two competitive factors associated with the reactive projectile penetration. On the one hand, there is an additional reactive force that contributes to penetration depth increase. On the other one, due to fuel combustion, the penetrator mass decreases, thereby leading to its reduced penetration capability.It was shown that a value of Tsiolkovsky number has a significant influence on the motion of penetrator using a jet engine. With raising Z, a penetration depth increases as well. At initial velocity of 500 m/s and optimal time parameters of reactive pulse, penetration depth increases almost by 40% for Z = 0,1, 90 % for Z = 0,25, and 2.5 times for Z = 0,5. As initial velocity of the penetrator grows, effectiveness of additional reactive acceleration significantly decreases. This is due to decreased relative portion of chemical energy of rocket propellant combustion as compared to the initial kinetic energy of penetrator with its reducing velocity.A conclusion based on research results was drawn up that a penetrator module under examination equipped with the pulse jet engine is an efficient facility for the significant increase of penetration depth in low-strength soil targets. It was emphasized that the maximum increase in penetration depth was reached when a running jet engine makes the penetrator to move in the target rather than at its prestart (before coming in contact with the target.

  10. The Impact of IPv6 on Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottow, Christiaan; van Vliet, Frank; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Pras, Aiko

    In this paper we discuss the impact the use of IPv6 has on remote penetration testing of servers and web applications. Several modifications to the penetration testing process are proposed to accommodate IPv6. Among these modifications are ways of performing fragmentation attacks, host discovery and

  11. Simulated effects of host fish distribution on juvenile unionid mussel dispersal in a large river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraio, J.A.; Weber, L.J.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.; Nestler, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Larval mussels (Family Unionidae) are obligate parasites on fish, and after excystment from their host, as juveniles, they are transported with flow. We know relatively little about the mechanisms that affect dispersal and subsequent settlement of juvenile mussels in large rivers. We used a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a reach of the Upper Mississippi River with stochastic Lagrangian particle tracking to simulate juvenile dispersal. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the importance of excystment location in two-dimensional space (lateral and longitudinal) and to assess the effects of vertical location (depth in the water column) on dispersal distances and juvenile settling distributions. In our simulations, greater than 50% of juveniles mussels settled on the river bottom within 500 m of their point of excystment, regardless of the vertical location of the fish in the water column. Dispersal distances were most variable in environments with higher velocity and high gradients in velocity, such as along channel margins, near the channel bed, or where effects of river bed morphology caused large changes in hydraulics. Dispersal distance was greater and variance was greater when juvenile excystment occurred in areas where vertical velocity (w) was positive (indicating an upward velocity) than when w was negative. Juvenile dispersal distance is likely to be more variable for mussels species whose hosts inhabit areas with steeper velocity gradients (e.g. channel margins) than a host that generally inhabits low-flow environments (e.g. impounded areas).

  12. Pathogen- and Host-Directed Antileishmanial Effects Mediated by Polyhexanide (PHMB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebuma Firdessa

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. CL causes enormous suffering in many countries worldwide. There is no licensed vaccine against CL, and the chemotherapy options show limited efficacy and high toxicity. Localization of the parasites inside host cells is a barrier to most standard chemo- and immune-based interventions. Hence, novel drugs, which are safe, effective and readily accessible to third-world countries and/or drug delivery technologies for effective CL treatments are desperately needed.Here we evaluated the antileishmanial properties and delivery potential of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB; polyhexanide, a widely used antimicrobial and wound antiseptic, in the Leishmania model. PHMB showed an inherent antileishmanial activity at submicromolar concentrations. Our data revealed that PHMB kills Leishmania major (L. major via a dual mechanism involving disruption of membrane integrity and selective chromosome condensation and damage. PHMB's DNA binding and host cell entry properties were further exploited to improve the delivery and immunomodulatory activities of unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN. PHMB spontaneously bound CpG ODN, forming stable nanopolyplexes that enhanced uptake of CpG ODN, potentiated antimicrobial killing and reduced host cell toxicity of PHMB.Given its low cost and long history of safe topical use, PHMB holds promise as a drug for CL therapy and delivery vehicle for nucleic acid immunomodulators.

  13. Effect of endocytosis inhibitors on Coxiella burnetii interaction with host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tujulin, E.; Macellaro, A.; Norlander, L.; Liliehoeoek, B.

    1998-01-01

    The obligate intracellular rickettsia Coxiella burnetii has previously been reported to reach the intra-vacuolar compartment of host cells by phagocytosis. With the aim to further examine the mechanisms of C. burnetii internalisation, macrophage monolayers were treated with well characterised inhibitors of endocytosis. The treatment with two general inhibitors, colchicine and methylamine, resulted in a pronounced dose-dependent decrease of radiolabelled phase II rickettsiae retained from the intracellular fraction. A third inhibitor used, amiloride, has been reported to reduce effectively clathrin-independent pinocytic pathways. The internalisation of C. burnetii was shown to be substantially reduced also by amiloride and the effect was dependent on its concentration. The passive role of C. burnetii in the internalisation was verified by using heat-killed C. burnetii. Host cells treated with either of the three inhibitors (amiloride, colchicine and methylamine) showed a similar reduction of intracellular C. burnetii after exposure to killed as weal as live organisms. The data presented indicate that different endocytic mechanisms, pinocytosis as well as phagocytosis, may mediate the uptake of C. burnetii by a host cell. Key words: Coxiella burnetii; internalisation; endocytosis (authors)

  14. Non-Covalent Interactions and Impact of Charge Penetration Effects in Linear Oligoacene Dimers and Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    of charge penetration, which is shown to account for up to 50% of the total interaction energy in dimers extracted from the experimental single crystals; in the case of the most stable co-facial model dimers, this contribution is even larger than the total

  15. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cellulose synthase-like D2 gene (HvCslD2) mediates penetration resistance to host-adapted and nonhost isolates of the powdery mildew fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douchkov, Dimitar; Lueck, Stefanie; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Johrde, Annika; Doblin, Monika S.; Beahan, Cherie T.; Kopischke, Michaela; Fuchs, René; Lipka, Volker; Niks, Rients E.; Bulone, Vincent; Chowdhury, Jamil; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls and cellular turgor pressure shape and suspend the bodies of all vascular plants. In response to attack by fungal and oomycete pathogens, which usually breach their host's cell walls by mechanical force or by secreting lytic enzymes, plants often form local cell wall appositions

  16. Cost-effective expression and purification of antimicrobial and host defense peptides in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bommarius, B.; Jenssen, Håvard; Elliott, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial host defense peptides (HDPs) combat infection by directly killing a wide variety of microbes, and/or modulating host immunity. HDPs have great therapeutic potential against antibioticresistant bacteria, viruses and even parasites, but there are substantial roadblocks......, we describe (i) a method, using fusions to SUMO, for producing high yields of intact recombinant HDPs in bacteria without significant toxicity and (ii) a simplified 2-step purification method appropriate for industrial use. We have used this method to produce seven HDPs to date (IDR1, MX226, LL37......, CRAMP, HHC-10, E5 and E6). Using this technology, pilot-scale fermentation (10 L) was performed to produce large quantities of biologically active cationic peptides. Together, these data indicate that this new method represents a cost-effective means to enable commercial enterprises to produce HDPs...

  17. Ethical hacking and penetration testing guide

    CERN Document Server

    Baloch, Rafay

    2014-01-01

    Requiring no prior hacking experience, Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Guide supplies a complete introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test, or ethical hack, from beginning to end. You will learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern-day hacking tools, which are required to complete a penetration test. The book covers a wide range of tools, including Backtrack Linux, Google reconnaissance, MetaGooFil, dig, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Fast Track Autopwn, Netcat, and Hacker Defender rootkit. Supplying a simple and clean explanation of how to effectively utilize these tools, it details a four-step methodology for conducting an effective penetration test or hack.Providing an accessible introduction to penetration testing and hacking, the book supplies you with a fundamental understanding of offensive security. After completing the book you will be prepared to take on in-depth and advanced topics in hacking and penetration testing. The book walks you through each ...

  18. Investigations on THM effects in buffer, EDZ and argillaceous host rock. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Breustedt, M.; Li, S.; Polster, M.; Schirmer, S.

    2013-11-15

    especially valid for the most reactive rock components, which are the fine grained clay matrix and the organic components. A high amount of organic compounds is characteristic for clay formations. If the thermal maturation is advanced, an additional artificial heating over longer periods of time may have the effect that the limit where oil generation starts is exceeded. It is still to be clarified whether the heat input from the waste canisters is so high that this limit is exceeded and that oil in an amount worth extracting is generated. Depending on the pressure and temperature conditions, a mineral transformation or the formation of new minerals may occur, which would change the chemical and mineralogical conditions. Artificial heating could accelerate transformation processes and change the retardation properties of the host rock. Currently, there is no information available about the potential changes of the host rock properties due to the specific heat input of a repository in a clay formation in Germany. One important task to be performed with regard to the German safety requirements is the demonstration of the integrity of the geotechnical barriers and of the geological barrier. The only way to demonstrate the long-term integrity of the geological barrier is to carry out predictive calculations. These kinds of calculations must have a sound basis of rock-specific constitutive laws together with a well calibrated parameter set that represent the real physical host rock behaviour. To identify suitable constitutive laws and corresponding parameters, insitu experiments are being performed in the Mt. Terri and Meuse/Haute-Marne URLs in Switzerland and France. These experiments are well equipped with sensing systems that allow a comparison of measured and simulated results for rock parameter identification and corresponding model calibration.

  19. Ecomorphology and disease: cryptic effects of parasitism on host habitat use, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2011-03-01

    Parasites can cause dramatic changes in the phenotypes of their hosts, sometimes leading to a higher probability of predation and parasite transmission. Because an organism's morphology directly affects its locomotion, even subtle changes in key morphological traits may affect survival and behavior. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in natural communities, few studies have incorporated parasites into ecomorphological research. Here, we evaluated the effects of parasite-induced changes in host phenotype on the habitat use, thermal biology, and simulated predator-escape ability of Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) in natural environments. Frogs with parasite-induced limb malformations were more likely to use ground microhabitats relative to vertical refugia and selected less-angled perches closer to the ground in comparison with normal frogs. Although both groups had similar levels of infection, malformed frogs used warmer microhabitats, which resulted in higher body temperatures. Likely as a result of their morphological abnormalities, malformed frogs allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before escaping and escaped shorter distances relative to normal frogs. These data indicate that parasite-induced morphological changes can significantly alter host behavior and habitat use, highlighting the importance of incorporating the ubiquitous, albeit cryptic, role of parasites into ecomorphological research.

  20. Effects of triclosan on host response and microbial biomarkers during experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancer, Brooke A; Kott, Diana; Sugai, James V; Panagakos, Fotinos S; Braun, Thomas M; Teles, Ricardo P; Giannobile, William V; Kinney, Janet S

    2016-05-01

    This exploratory randomized, controlled clinical trial sought to evaluate anti-inflammatory and -microbial effects of triclosan during experimental gingivitis as assessed by host response biomarkers and biofilm microbial pathogens. Thirty participants were randomized to triclosan or control dentifrice groups who ceased homecare for 21 days in an experimental gingivitis (EG) protocol. Plaque and gingival indices and saliva, plaque, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were assessed/collected at days 0, 14, 21 and 35. Levels and proportions of 40 bacterial species from plaque samples were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Ten biomarkers associated with inflammation, matrix degradation, and host protection were measured from GCF and saliva and analysed using a multiplex array. Participants were stratified as "high" or "low" responders based on gingival index and GCF biomarkers and bacterial biofilm were combined to generate receiver operating characteristic curves and predict gingivitis susceptibility. No differences in mean PI and GI values were observed between groups and non-significant trends of reduction of host response biomarkers with triclosan treatment. Triclosan significantly reduced levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis during induction of gingivitis. Triclosan reduced microbial levels during gingivitis development (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01799226). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  2. Habitat amount modulates the effect of patch isolation on host-parasitoid interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie eCoudrain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 1.Habitat amount and patch isolation are important determinants of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We studied the separate and interactive effects of these two components of habitat fragmentation on host-parasitoid interactions in a replicated landscape-scale study. 2.We used trap-nesting solitary bees, wasps and their natural enemies as study system. We exposed trap nests in 30 tree patches in agricultural landscapes in northern Switzerland. Study sites were either (i adjacent to forest (adjacent, (ii distant from forest but connected through woody elements (connected or (iii distant from forest with no connecting woody elements (isolated. Independent of the three levels of isolation, the amount of woody habitat in the landscapes covered a gradient from 4 to 74%. 3.Host and parasitoid species richness increased with the amount of habitat in the landscape and was strongly reduced at isolated compared to adjacent and connected sites. Loss of host species richness was 21% at isolated compared to non-isolated sites, whereas parasitoid species richness decreased by 68%, indicating that the higher trophic level was more adversely affected by isolation. Most importantly, habitat amount and isolation had a pronounced interactive effect on parasitism: while isolation resulted in a strong decrease in parasitism in landscapes with low habitat amount, this effect was mitigated by high habitat amount. These interactive effects were consistent across the three years of the study. 4.The observed interplay between habitat amount and patch isolation may explain the often conflicting results in the habitat fragmentation literature and should be considered in future research on multitrophic communities and ecosystem functioning in fragmented landscapes.

  3. Immunoregulatory Effects Triggered by Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides: New Insights into Molecular Interactions with Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Laiño

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS, that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity in its composition, meaning that biological properties depend on the strain and. therefore, only a part of the mechanism of action has been elucidated for these molecules. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the health-promoting actions of EPS from LAB with special focus on their immunoregulatory actions. In addition, we describe our studies using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PIE cells as a model to evaluate the molecular interactions of EPS from two immunobiotic LAB strains and the host cells. Our studies showed that EPS from immunobiotic LAB have anti-inflammatory capacities in PIE cells since they are able to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines in cells challenged with the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4-agonist lipopolysaccharide. The effects of EPS were dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and negative regulators of TLR signaling. We also reported that the radioprotective 105 (RP105/MD1 complex, a member of the TLR family, is partially involved in the immunoregulatory effects of the EPS from LAB. Our work described, for the first time, that LAB and their EPS reduce inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells in a RP105/MD1-dependent manner. A continuing challenge for the future is to reveal more effector-receptor relationships in immunobiotic-host interactions that contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria on mucosal immune homeostasis. A detailed molecular understanding should lead to a more rational use of immunobiotics in general, and their EPS in particular, as efficient prevention and therapies for specific immune-related disorders in humans and animals.

  4. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  6. The Effect of Human-Immunodeficiency Virus Status on Outcomes in Penetrating Abdominal Trauma: An Interim Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Deidre; Neuhaus, Valentin; Dhar, Rohin; Edu, Sorin; Nicol, Andrew J; Navsaria, Pradeep H

    2018-01-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the outcomes of hemodynamically stable patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy for penetrating abdominal trauma differed as a result of their HIV status. This was an observational, prospective study from February 2016 to May 2017. All hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma requiring a laparotomy were included. The mechanism of injury, the HIV status, age, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI), and the revised trauma score (RTS) were entered into a binary logistic regression model. Outcome parameters were in-hospital death, morbidity, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), relaparotomy within 30 days, and length of stay longer than 30 days. A total of 209 patients, 94% male, with a mean age of 29 ± 10 years were analysed. Twenty-eight patients (13%) were HIV positive. The two groups were comparable. Ten (4.8%) laparotomies were negative. There were two (0.96%) deaths, both in the HIV negative group. The complication rate was 34% (n = 72). Twenty-nine patients (14%) were admitted to the ICU. A higher PATI, older age, and a lower RTS were significant risk factors for ICU admission. After 30 days, 12 patients (5.7%) were still in hospital. Twenty-four patients (11%) underwent a second laparotomy. The PATI score was the single independent predictor for complications, relaparotomy, and hospital stay longer than 30 days. Preliminary results reveal that HIV status does not influence outcomes in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma.

  7. Heavy-ion fusion: Channel-coupling effects, the barrier penetration model, and the threshold anomaly for heavy-ion potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.; Nagarajan, M.A.; Lilley, J.S.; Thompson, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    We study the formal structure of the influence of channel coupling on near- and sub-barrier fusion. The reduction to a one-channel description is studied, with emphasis on the channel-coupling effects being manifest primarily as an energy dependence (the ''threshold anomaly'') of the real nuclear potential. The relation to the barrier penetration model is examined critically. The results of large-scale coupled-channel calculations are used as ''data'' to illustrate the discussion. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of reproducing correctly the partial-wave (or ''spin'') distributions. The simple barrier penetration model is found to be adequate to exhibit the strong enhancements due to channel couplings when the threshold anomaly is taken into account, although there may be important corrections due to the long-ranged peripheral absorption, especially from Coulomb excitation. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  8. Effect of lactoferrin protein on red blood cells and macrophages: mechanism of parasite–host interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Namrata Anand,1 Rupinder K Kanwar,2 Mohan Lal Dubey,1 R K Vahishta,3 Rakesh Sehgal,1,* Anita K Verma,4 Jagat R Kanwar2,*1Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research, School of Medicine, Molecular and Medical Research Strategic Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 4Nanobiotech Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Lactoferrin is a natural multifunctional protein known to have antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Apart from its antimicrobial effects, lactoferrin is known to boost the immune response by enhancing antioxidants. Lactoferrin exists in various forms depending on its iron saturation. The present study was done to observe the effect of lactoferrin, isolated from bovine and buffalo colostrum, on red blood cells (RBCs and macrophages (human monocytic cell line-derived macrophages THP1 cells.Methods: Lactoferrin obtained from both species and in different iron saturation forms were used in the present study, and treatment of host cells were given with different forms of lactoferrin at different concentrations. These treated host cells were used for various studies, including morphometric analysis, viability by MTT assay, survivin gene expression, production of reactive oxygen species, phagocytic properties, invasion assay, and Toll-like receptor-4, Toll-like receptor-9, and MDR1 expression, to investigate the interaction between lactoferrin and host cells and the possible mechanism of action with regard to parasitic infections.Results: The mechanism of interaction between host cells and lactoferrin have shown various aspects of gene

  9. Comparisons of host mitochondrial, nuclear and endosymbiont bacterial genes reveal cryptic fig wasp species and the effects of Wolbachia on host mtDNA evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasp species usually display a highly specific one-to-one association. However, more and more studies have revealed that the "one-to-one" rule has been broken. Co-pollinators have been reported, but we do not yet know how they evolve. They may evolve from insect speciation induced or facilitated by Wolbachia which can manipulate host reproduction and induce reproductive isolation. In addition, Wolbachia can affect host mitochondrial DNA evolution, because of the linkage between Wolbachia and associated mitochondrial haplotypes, and thus confound host phylogeny based on mtDNA. Previous research has shown that fig wasps have the highest incidence of Wolbachia infection in all insect taxa, and Wolbachia may have great influence on fig wasp biology. Therefore, we look forward to understanding the influence of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA evolution and speciation in fig wasps. Results We surveyed 76 pollinator wasp specimens from nine Ficus microcarpa trees each growing at a different location in Hainan and Fujian Provinces, China. We found that all wasps were morphologically identified as Eupristina verticillata, but diverged into three clades with 4.22-5.28% mtDNA divergence and 2.29-20.72% nuclear gene divergence. We also found very strong concordance between E. verticillata clades and Wolbachia infection status, and the predicted effects of Wolbachia on both mtDNA diversity and evolution by decreasing mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusions Our study reveals that the pollinating wasp E. verticillata on F. microcarpa has diverged into three cryptic species, and Wolbachia may have a role in this divergence. The results also indicate that Wolbachia strains infecting E. verticillata have likely resulted in selective sweeps on host mitochondrial DNA.

  10. Effects of host species and environment on the skin microbiome of Plethodontid salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz-Wolz, Carly R.; Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fleischer, Robert C.; Lips, Karen R.

    2018-01-01

    The amphibian skin microbiome is recognized for its role in defence against pathogens, including the deadly fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Yet, we have little understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes that structure these communities, especially for salamanders and closely related species. We investigated patterns in the distribution of bacterial communities on Plethodon salamander skin across host species and environments.Quantifying salamander skin microbiome structure contributes to our understanding of how host-associated bacteria are distributed across the landscape, among host species, and their putative relationship with disease.We characterized skin microbiome structure (alpha-diversity, beta-diversity and bacterial operational taxonomic unit [OTU] abundances) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing for co-occurring Plethodon salamander species (35 Plethodon cinereus, 17 Plethodon glutinosus, 10 Plethodon cylindraceus) at three localities to differentiate the effects of host species from environmental factors on the microbiome. We sampled the microbiome of P. cinereus along an elevational gradient (n = 50, 700–1,000 m a.s.l.) at one locality to determine whether elevation predicts microbiome structure. Finally, we quantified prevalence and abundance of putatively anti-Bd bacteria to determine if Bd-inhibitory bacteria are dominant microbiome members.Co-occurring salamanders had similar microbiome structure, but among sites salamanders had dissimilar microbiome structure for beta-diversity and abundance of 28 bacterial OTUs. We found that alpha-diversity increased with elevation, beta-diversity and the abundance of 17 bacterial OTUs changed with elevation (16 OTUs decreasing, 1 OTU increasing). We detected 11 putatively anti-Bd bacterial OTUs that were present on 90% of salamanders and made up an average relative abundance of 83% (SD ± 8.5) per salamander. All salamanders tested negative for Bd.We conclude that

  11. Effect of lavage and brush preparation on cement penetration and primary stability in tibial unicompartmental total knee arthroplasty: An experimental cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Christian; Pietschmann, Matthias F; Schröder, Christian; Grupp, Thomas; Holderied, Melanie; Jansson, Volmar; Müller, Peter E

    2017-03-01

    Unicompartmental total knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a well-established treatment option for unicondylar osteoarthritis, and generally leads to better functional results than tricompartimental total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, revision rates of UKAs are reported as being higher; a major reason for this is aseptic loosening of the tibial component due to implant-cement-bone interface fatigue. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of trabecular bone preparation, prior to implantation of tibial UKAs, on morphological and biomechanical outcomes in a cadaver study. Cemented UKAs were performed in 18 human cadaver knees after the bone bed was cleaned using pulsed lavage (Group A), conventional brush (Group B) or no cleaning at all (Group C, control). Morphologic cement penetration and primary stability were measured. The area proportion under the tibial component without visible cement penetration was significantly higher in Group C (21.9%, SD 11.9) than in both Group A (7.1%, SD 5.8), and Group B (6.5%, SD 4.2) (P=0.007). The overall cement penetration depth did not differ between groups. However, in the posterior part, cement penetration depth was significantly higher in Group B (1.9mm, SD 0.3) than in both Group A (1.3mm, SD 0.3) and Group C (1.4mm, SD 0.3) (P=0.015). The mode of preparation did not show a substantial effect on primary stability tested under dynamic compression-shear test conditions (P=0.910). Bone preparation significantly enhances cement interdigitation. The application of a brush shows similar results compared with the application of pulsed lavage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  13. The Moderating Effect of Home Country Corruption on the Host Country’s Ability to Attract FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira; Helder Costa Carreira; Dan Li; Fernando Ribeiro Serra

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has identified a negative impact of corruption on countries’ ability to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) but has been scant in assessing the investors’ home country effects. We extend prior research by distinguishing the pervasiveness and arbitrariness of host country corruption and their effects on FDI inflows. We also test whether the investors’ home country corruption affects FDI decisions. Results show that host country pervasive corruption negatively drives FDI infl...

  14. Host-parasitoid dynamics and the success of biological control when parasitoids are prone to allee effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Bompard

    Full Text Available In sexual organisms, low population density can result in mating failures and subsequently yields a low population growth rate and high chance of extinction. For species that are in tight interaction, as in host-parasitoid systems, population dynamics are primarily constrained by demographic interdependences, so that mating failures may have much more intricate consequences. Our main objective is to study the demographic consequences of parasitoid mating failures at low density and its consequences on the success of biological control. For this, we developed a deterministic host-parasitoid model with a mate-finding Allee effect, allowing to tackle interactions between the Allee effect and key determinants of host-parasitoid demography such as the distribution of parasitoid attacks and host competition. Our study shows that parasitoid mating failures at low density result in an extinction threshold and increase the domain of parasitoid deterministic extinction. When proned to mate finding difficulties, parasitoids with cyclic dynamics or low searching efficiency go extinct; parasitoids with high searching efficiency may either persist or go extinct, depending on host intraspecific competition. We show that parasitoids suitable as biocontrol agents for their ability to reduce host populations are particularly likely to suffer from mate-finding Allee effects. This study highlights novel perspectives for understanding of the dynamics observed in natural host-parasitoid systems and improving the success of parasitoid introductions.

  15. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  16. The effect of exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation on the penetration of monochromatic and polychromatic UV-B radiation in leaves of Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Y.-P.; Bornman, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Using quartz optical fibres, penetration of both monochromatic (310 nm) and polychromatic UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation in leaves of Brassica napus L. (cv. Ceres) was measured. Plants were grown under either visible light (750 μmol m −2 s −1 photosynthetically active radiation) or with the addition of 8. 9 KJ m −2 day −1 biologically effective UV-B (UV-B BE ) radiation. Results showed that of the 310 nm radiation that penetreated the leaf, 90% was within the intial one third of the leaf with high attenuation in the leaf epidermis, especially in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic UV-B radiation, relative to incident radiation, showed a relatively uniform spectral distribution within the leaf, except for collimated radiation. Over 30% of the UV-screening pigments in the leaf, including flavonoids, were found in the adaxial epidermal layer, making this layer less transparent to UV-B radiation than the abaxial epidermis, which contained less than 12% of the UV-screening pigments. UV-screening pigments increased by 20% in UV-treated leaves relative to control leaves. Densely arranged epicuticular wax on the adaxial leaf surface of UV-treated plants may have further decreased penetration of UV-B radiation by reflectance. An increased leaf thickness, and decreases in leaf area and leaf dry weight were also found for UV-treated plants. (author)

  17. A preliminary assessment of the effects of heat flux distribution and penetration on the creep rupture of a reactor vessel lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.; Simpson, R.; Witt, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Lower Head Failure (LHF) Experiment Program is to experimentally investigate and characterize the failure of the reactor vessel lower head due to thermal and pressure loads under severe accident conditions. The experiment is performed using 1/5-scale models of a typical PWR pressure vessel. Experiments are performed for various internal pressure and imposed heat flux distributions with and without instrumentation guide tube penetrations. The experimental program is complemented by a modest modeling program based on the application of vessel creep rupture codes developed in the TMI Vessel Investigation Project. The first three experiments under the LHF program investigated the creep rupture of simulated reactor pressure vessels without penetrations. The heat flux distributions for the three experiments are uniform (LHF-1), center-peaked (LHF-2), and side-peaked (LHF-3), respectively. For all the experiments, appreciable vessel deformation was observed to initiate at vessel wall temperatures above 900K and the vessel typically failed at approximately 1000K. The size of failure was always observed to be smaller than the heated region. For experiments with non-uniform heat flux distributions, failure typically occurs in the region of peak temperature. A brief discussion of the effect of penetration is also presented

  18. Effects of parasitism on host reproductive investment in a rodent-flea system: host litter size matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Der Mescht, Luther Van; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-02-01

    Parents may alter offspring phenotype depending on the type of environment they encounter. Parasitism is a common stressor; therefore, maternal reproductive investment could change in response to parasitic infection. However, few experiments have investigated the relationship between parasitism and maternal investment, whereas earlier field studies provided contradictory evidence. We investigated number, sex ratio, and growth of offspring in two rodent species, solitary altricial Meriones crassus and social precocial Acomys cahirinus, exposed to parasitism by fleas Xenopsylla ramesis and Parapulex chephrenis. No effect of treatment on litter size or sex ratio of a litter was found in either rodent species. Flea parasitism was found to affect pre-weaning body mass gain in M. crassus, but not in A. cahirinus pups. Furthermore, it appeared that female M. crassus invested resources into their offspring differently in dependence of litter size. In small litters (1-3 offspring), pups from infested females gained more body mass before weaning than pups from uninfested mothers. However, this trend was reversed in females with large litters indicating that parasitized females have a finite amount of resources with which to provision their young. Thus, M. crassus mothers parasitized by fleas seemed to receive some sort of external cues (e.g., stress caused by infestation) that prompted them to alter offspring provisioning, depending on species-specific possibilities and constraints. Therefore, parasites could be a mediator of environmentally induced maternal effects and offspring provisioning may have adaptive value against parasitism.

  19. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  20. Subtle effect of Xenos vesparum (Xenidae, Strepsiptera) on the reproductive apparatus of its male host: Parasite or parasitoid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beani, L; Marchini, D; Cappa, F; Petrocelli, I; Gottardo, M; Manfredini, F; Giusti, F; Dallai, R

    2017-08-01

    Parasitic castration is an adaptive strategy where parasites usurp the hosts' reproductive physiology to complete their life cycle. The alterations in the host traits vary in their magnitude, from subtle changes in the host morpho-physiology and behaviour to the production of complex aberrant phenotypes, which often depend on the host gender. The strepsipteran macroparasite Xenos vesparum induces dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in its female host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula, while its effect on the male phenotype is largely unknown. In this study we investigated how a single X. vesparum parasite influences the functional morphology of P. dominula male reproductive apparatus. We performed morphometry and ultrastructure characterization of corpora allata, testes, seminal vesicles and accessory glands in parasitized and unparasitized males, and also in young and old males to control for the effect of age on the natural deterioration of these organs. Our results show that age significantly affects the development of male reproductive apparatus. A low parasite load - one parasite per host is the common prevalence in the field - has only a marginal impact on the reproductive morphology of P. dominula males, affecting quantitatively but not qualitatively the protein content of male accessory glands. Thus, in male P. dominula wasps, X. vesparum appears to behave as a true "parasite", in clear opposition to the role of "parasitoid" that it takes in female hosts where castration causes the reproductive death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  2. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  3. Non-Covalent Interactions and Impact of Charge Penetration Effects in Linear Oligoacene Dimers and Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-05-18

    Non-covalent interactions determine in large part the thermodynamic aspects of molecular packing in organic crystals. Using a combination of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) and classical multipole electrostatics, we describe the interaction potential energy surfaces for dimers of the oligoacene family, from benzene to hexacene. An analysis of these surfaces and a thorough assessment of dimers extracted from the reported crystal structures underline that high-order interactions (i.e., three-body non-additive interactions) must be considered in order to rationalize the details of the crystal structures. A comparison of the SAPT electrostatic energy with the multipole interaction energy demonstrates the importance of the contribution of charge penetration, which is shown to account for up to 50% of the total interaction energy in dimers extracted from the experimental single crystals; in the case of the most stable co-facial model dimers, this contribution is even larger than the total interaction energy. Our results highlight the importance of taking account of charge penetration in studies of the larger oligoacenes.

  4. Evaluating the effect of Locking on Multitenancy Isolation for Components of Cloud-hosted Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laud Charles Ochei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multitenancy isolation is a way of ensuring that the performance, stored data volume and access privileges required by one tenant and/or component does not affect other tenants and/or components. One of the conditions that can influence the varying degrees of isolation is when locking is enabled for a process or component that is being shared. Although the concept of locking has been extensively studied in database management, there is little or no research on how locking affects multitenancy isolation and its implications for optimizing the deployment of components of a cloud-hosted service in response to workload changes. This paper applies COMITRE (Component-based approach to Multitenancy Isolation through Request Re-routing to evaluate the impact of enabling locking for a shared process or component of a cloud-hosted application. Results show that locking has a significant effect on the performance and resource consumption of tenants especially for operations that interact directly with the local file system of the platform used on the cloud infrastructure. We also present recommendations for achieving the required degree of multitenancy isolation when locking is enabled for three software processes: continuous integration, version control, and bug tracking.

  5. Effects of Host-rock Fracturing on Elastic-deformation Source Models of Volcano Deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holohan, Eoghan P; Sudhaus, Henriette; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Walsh, John J

    2017-09-08

    Volcanoes commonly inflate or deflate during episodes of unrest or eruption. Continuum mechanics models that assume linear elastic deformation of the Earth's crust are routinely used to invert the observed ground motions. The source(s) of deformation in such models are generally interpreted in terms of magma bodies or pathways, and thus form a basis for hazard assessment and mitigation. Using discontinuum mechanics models, we show how host-rock fracturing (i.e. non-elastic deformation) during drainage of a magma body can progressively change the shape and depth of an elastic-deformation source. We argue that this effect explains the marked spatio-temporal changes in source model attributes inferred for the March-April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Reunion. We find that pronounced deflation-related host-rock fracturing can: (1) yield inclined source model geometries for a horizontal magma body; (2) cause significant upward migration of an elastic-deformation source, leading to underestimation of the true magma body depth and potentially to a misinterpretation of ascending magma; and (3) at least partly explain underestimation by elastic-deformation sources of changes in sub-surface magma volume.

  6. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  7. Dynamics and Biocontrol: The Indirect Effects of a Predator Population on a Host-Vector Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of the interactions among a host population, an insect-vector population, which transmits virus from hosts to hosts, and a vector predator population is proposed based on virus-host, host-vector, and prey (vector-enemy theories. The model is investigated to explore the indirect effect of natural enemies on host-virus dynamics by reducing the vector densities, which shows the basic reproduction numbers R01 (without predators and R02 (with predators that provide threshold conditions on determining the uniform persistence and extinction of the disease in a host population. When the model is absent from predator, the disease is persistent if R01>1; in such a case, by introducing predators of a vector, then the insect-transmitted disease will be controlled if R02<1. From the point of biological control, these results show that an additional predator population of the vector may suppress the spread of vector-borne diseases. In addition, there exist limit cycles with persistence of the disease or without disease in presence of predators. Finally, numerical simulations are conducted to support analytical results.

  8. Developing an Efficient and Cost Effective Ground-Penetrating Radar Field Methodology for Subsurface Exploration and Mapping of Cultural Resources on Public Lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conyers, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    .... A new, emerging technology is the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR). However, in using this device due to the number of variables that can impact energy penetration and resolution, researchers are often not guaranteed a successful survey...

  9. The effect of different zooxanthellae on the growth of experimentally reinfected hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, R A; Chee, G S

    1979-06-01

    1. A method is given enabling the differential effects of different strains of zooxanthellae on host growth to be assessed. This technique uses the increase in the number of tentacles as the measure of growth. 2. Aposymbiotic polyps of the anemone Aiptasia pulchella reinfected with strains of Symbiodinium microadriaticum isolated from the anemone Aiptasia pulchella and the scyphozoan Cassiopea xamachana grow as well as normal Aiptasia polyps. 3. Aposymbiotic Aiptasia polyps reinfected with zooxanthellae from the gastropod Melibe pilosa and the clam Tridacna maxima grew no better than polyps lacking zooxanthellae. 4. These results lead to the conclusion that strains of zooxanthellae differ in their ability to enhance growth of Aiptasia polyps under the experimental conditions and that these differences may have important ecological consequences.

  10. The effect of Bulgarian propolis against Trypanosoma cruzi and during its interaction with host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Pires Dantas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has shown activity against pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases in humans and animals. The ethanol (Et-Blg and acetone (Ket-Blg extracts from a Bulgarian propolis, with known chemical compositions, presented similar activity against tissue culture-derived amastigotes. The treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected skeletal muscle cells with Et-Blg led to a decrease of infection and of the intracellular proliferation of amastigotes, while damage to the host cell was observed only at concentration 12.5 times higher than those affecting the parasite. Ultrastructural analysis of the effect of both extracts in epimastigotes revealed that the main targets were the mitochondrion and reservosomes. Et-Blg also affected the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in trypomastigotes, offering a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents.

  11. Combined effect of CVR and penetration of DG in the voltage profile and losses of lowvoltage secondary distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Abdullah

    Demarcations between traditional distribution power systems and distributed generation (DG) architectures are increasingly evolving as higher DG penetration is introduced in the system. The concerns in existing electric power systems (EPSs) to accommodate less restrictive interconnection policies while maintaining reliability and performance of power delivery have been the major challenge for DG growth. In this dissertation, the work is aimed to study power quality, energy saving and losses in a low voltage distributed network under various DG penetration cases. Simulation platform suite that includes electric power system, distributed generation and ZIP load models is implemented to determine the impact of DGs on power system steady state performance and the voltage profile of the customers/loads in the network under the voltage reduction events. The investigation designed to test the DG impact on power system starting with one type of DG, then moves on multiple DG types distributed in a random case and realistic/balanced case. The functionality of the proposed DG interconnection is designed to meet the basic requirements imposed by the various interconnection standards, most notably IEEE 1547, public service commission, and local utility regulation. It is found that implementation of DGs on the low voltage secondary network would improve customer's voltage profile, system losses and significantly provide energy savings and economics for utilities. In a network populated with DGs, utility would have a uniform voltage profile at the customers end as the voltage profile becomes more concentrated around targeted voltage level. The study further reinforced the concept that the behavior of DG in distributed network would improve voltage regulation as certain percentage reduction on utility side would ensure uniform percentage reduction seen by all customers and reduce number of voltage violations.

  12. Anti-Leishmania activity of new ruthenium(II) complexes: Effect on parasite-host interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mônica S; Gonçalves, Yasmim G; Nunes, Débora C O; Napolitano, Danielle R; Maia, Pedro I S; Rodrigues, Renata S; Rodrigues, Veridiana M; Von Poelhsitz, Gustavo; Yoneyama, Kelly A G

    2017-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The many complications presented by the current treatment - including high toxicity, high cost and parasite resistance - make the development of new therapeutic agents indispensable. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-Leishmania potential of new ruthenium(II) complexes, cis‑[Ru II (η 2 -O 2 CR)(dppm) 2 ]PF 6 , with dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and R=4-butylbenzoate (bbato) 1, 4-(methylthio)benzoate (mtbato) 2 and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (hmxbato) 3, in promastigote cytotoxicity and their effect on parasite-host interaction. The cytotoxicity of complexes was analyzed by MTT assay against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes and the murine macrophage (RAW 264.7). The effect of complexes on parasite-host interaction was evaluated by in vitro infectivity assay performed in the presence of two different concentrations of each complex: the promastigote IC 50 value and the concentration nontoxic to 90% of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Complexes 1-3 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against all Leishmania species assayed. The IC 50 values ranged from 7.52-12.59μM (complex 1); 0.70-3.28μM (complex 2) and 0.52-1.75μM (complex 3). All complexes significantly inhibited the infectivity index at both tested concentrations. The infectivity inhibitions ranged from 37 to 85%. Interestingly, the infectivity inhibitions due to complex action did not differ significantly at either of the tested concentrations, except for the complex 1 against Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. The infectivity inhibitions resulted from reductions in both percentage of infected macrophages and number of parasites per macrophage. Taken together the results suggest remarkable leishmanicidal activity in vitro by these new ruthenium(II) complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of copper nanoparticle exposure on host defense in a murine pulmonary infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassian Vicki H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs and environmental bacteria can occur simultaneously. NPs induce inflammatory responses and oxidative stress but may also have immune-suppressive effects, impairing macrophage function and altering epithelial barrier functions. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential pulmonary effects of inhalation and instillation exposure to copper (Cu NPs using a model of lung inflammation and host defense. Methods We used Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p. in a murine lung infection model to determine if pulmonary bacterial clearance is enhanced or impaired by Cu NP exposure. Two different exposure modes were tested: sub-acute inhalation (4 hr/day, 5 d/week for 2 weeks, 3.5 mg/m3 and intratracheal instillation (24 hr post-exposure, 3, 35, and 100 μg/mouse. Pulmonary responses were evaluated by lung histopathology plus measurement of differential cell counts, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Results Cu NP exposure induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of total cells and neutrophils to the lungs as well as increased total protein and LDH activity in BAL fluid. Both inhalation and instillation exposure to Cu NPs significantly decreased the pulmonary clearance of K.p.-exposed mice measured 24 hr after bacterial infection following Cu NP exposure versus sham-exposed mice also challenged with K.p (1.4 × 105 bacteria/mouse. Conclusions Cu NP exposure impaired host defense against bacterial lung infections and induced a dose-dependent decrease in bacterial clearance in which even our lowest dose demonstrated significantly lower clearance than observed in sham-exposed mice. Thus, exposure to Cu NPs may increase the risk of pulmonary infection.

  14. Therapeutic effects of hydrogen on chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liren; Liu, Xiaopeng; Shen, Jianliang; Zhao, Defeng; Yin, Wenjie

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is rising recent years, which has been the leading cause of non-transplantation mortality post allogenetic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of cGVHD. Recent studies showed that molecular hydrogen has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-fibrosis effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that molecular hydrogen may have therapeutic effects on cGVHD. To determine whether hydrogen could protect mice from cGVHD in an MHC-incompatible murine bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model, survival rates of mice were calculated, and skin lesions were also evaluated after BMT. This article demonstrated that administration of hydrogen-rich saline increased survival rate of cGVHD mice. Administration of hydrogen-rich saline after transplantation also reduced skin lesions of cGVHD mice. Previously, we reported the therapeutic effects of hydrogen on acute GVHD. However, there was no report on the therapeutic effects of hydrogen on cGVHD mice. It is suggested that hydrogen has a potential as an effective and safe therapeutic agent on cGVHD. This study will provide new ideas on the treatment of cGVHD and has important theoretical values. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Effect of age, photoperiod and host availability on the parasitism behavior of Oomyzus sokolowskii Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Torres, Christian S.A.; Barros, Reginaldo; Torres, Jorge B.

    2009-01-01

    The high reproduction rate, potential to cause damage, wide geographic distribution and resistance to insecticides of Plutella xylostella (L.) makes difficult its efficient control. However, larvae and pupae of this pest are naturally parasitized by Oomyzus Sokolowskii (Kurdjumov), providing opportunities to improve the natural parasitism. This study investigated the effects of the age of adult parasitoids, host availability and time of exposure on O. sokolowskii parasitism behavior. The number of larvae encounters by parasitoid females and the parasitism rate increased with parasitoid age up to 96 h. The parasitization was higher when wasps received a constant number of hosts daily in comparison with a random number (13.3 versus 8.9 larvae parasitized). Female parasitization activity was maintained up to the age of 20 days in both treatments and exhibited similar longevity (constant host = 33.5 d; and random host = 34.7 d). The progeny produced per female and the number of parasitoids emerged per host significantly decreased as wasps aged. There was no significant effect of the light regime (12 h darkness or 12 h light exposure) on the parasitization, although parasitoid was more active after 3 h of light exposure. Therefore, further studies on field application of O. sokolowskii should consider the release of 48 h - to 72 h - old parasitoids at dawn as a way to increase the success of host parasitization. (author)

  16. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  17. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  18. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-10-22

    Host-parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host-parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host-parasite systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  20. Safety considerations of laser related penetration in LCTR central power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botts, T.E.; Chan, C.K.; Ullman, A.Z.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are briefly described: (1) requirements for optical penetration performance, (2) failure sequences in LCTR optical penetrations, (3) thermal stress in optical penetrations, and (4) nonlinear optical effects

  1. The herbaceous landlord: integrating the effects of symbiont consortia within a single host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roo Vandegrift

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants are typically infected by a consortium of internal fungal associates, including endophytes in their leaves, as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and dark septate endophytes (DSE in their roots. It is logical that these organisms will interact with each other and the abiotic environment in addition to their host, but there has been little work to date examining the interactions of multiple symbionts within single plant hosts, or how the relationships among symbionts and their host change across environmental conditions. We examined the grass Agrostis capillaris in the context of a climate manipulation experiment in prairies in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Each plant was tested for presence of foliar endophytes in the genus Epichloë, and we measured percent root length colonized (PRLC by AMF and DSE. We hypothesized that the symbionts in our system would be in competition for host resources, that the outcome of that competition could be driven by the benefit to the host, and that the host plants would be able to allocate carbon to the symbionts in such a way as to maximize fitness benefit within a particular environmental context. We found a correlation between DSE and AMF PRLC across climatic conditions; we also found a fitness cost to increasing DSE colonization, which was negated by presence of Epichloë endophytes. These results suggest that selective pressure on the host is likely to favor host/symbiont relationships that structure the community of symbionts in the most beneficial way possible for the host, not necessarily favoring the individual symbiont that is most beneficial to the host in isolation. These results highlight the need for a more integrative, systems approach to the study of host/symbiont consortia.

  2. Effects of intra- and interpatch host density on egg parasitism by three species of Trichogramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R

    2010-01-01

    Host-foraging responses to different intra- and interpatch densities were used to assess three Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Trichogramma deion Pinto and Oatman, T. ostriniae Pang and Chen, and T. pretiosum Riley - as potential biological control agents for the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Single naïve females were allowed 6 h to forage in Plexiglas arenas with four different spatial arrangements of host eggs, nine single-egg patches), nine four-egg patches, 36 single-egg patches, and 36 four-egg patches. No significant differences were found among species in the number of patches parasitized. As expected, all three species parasitized the most eggs in the 36 four-egg patch treatment and the least in the nine single-egg patch treatment. T. deion parasitized significantly more eggs than T. pretiosum on the nine four-egg patches. T. ostriniae parasitized significantly more patches when intrapatch density was greater, regardless of interpatch density. In contrast, T. deion only parasitized more patches at the greater intrapatch density when the interpatch density was low. Patch density had no effect on T. pretiosum. The spatial pattern of parasitism was more aggregated for T. deion and T. ostriniae in the 36 four-egg patches treatment compared to the 36 single-egg patches treatment. Therefore, intrapatch density was more important than interpatch density for T. ostriniae, and potentially for T. deion, but not for T. pretiosum. T. deion may be the best candidate for augmentative biological control because it parasitized either slightly or significantly more eggs than the other two species in all four treatments. Furthermore, the pattern of parasitism by T. deion in the 36 four-egg patches treatment was the most aggregated among the three species, suggesting a more thorough searching pattern. In contrast, T. pretiosum had the least aggregated pattern of parasitism and therefore may have used a more

  3. Efectos de tratamientos de labranza sobre la resistencia a la penetración de un Andisol Effects of tillage treatments on penetration resistance on an andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Javier

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto sobre la resistencia a la penetración de cuatro implementos de labranza (arado de cinceles, arado de discos, rastrillo californiano y arado rotatorio en un Andisol (Andic-Eutropept serie Tibaitatá. Para las medidas, se utilizó un penetrómetro registrador digital. Los resultados mostraron que los tratamientos que involucraron arado rotatorio y arado de discos y rastrillo fueron los que causaron el mayor grado de aflojamiento del suelo. Sin embargo, dichos tratamientos fueron los más susceptibles a la compactación por pase de llantas. No se pudo concluir lo planteado por la literatura de que el fondo de surco de arado es una zona de alto
    riesgo de compactación del subsuelo. La resistencia a la penetración resultó un buen indicador para evaluar efectos físicos sobre el suelo causarlos por implementos de labranza y él tránsito de maquinaria.The effects on Cone Penetration Resistance caused by four tillage implements (chisel plow, disk plough, disk harrow and rotatiller were assesed on an Andisol, using a digital penetrometer. The results showed the treatments using rota-tiller and those using disk plough and disk harrow caused
    the maximun soilloosening. However those treatments were the most sensitive to compaction due to the traffic of tractor
    wheels. This work did not present conclusive evidence that bottom of furrow made by disk plough is a place of high risk for subsoil cornpactlon. Cone penetration resistance looks like a good index to assess changes in physical properties of the soil caused by tillage operations and machinery traffic.

  4. Effects of Non-Susceptible Hosts on the Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the Vector Triatoma infestans: an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Diego P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested experimentally the effects of the presence of non-susceptible hosts on the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans. The experiment consisted in two treatments: with chickens, including two chickens (non-susceptible hosts and two infected guinea pigs (susceptible hosts, and without chickens, including only two infected guinea pigs. The hosts were held unrestrained in individual metal cages inside a closed tulle chamber. A total of 200 uninfected T. infestans third instar nymphs were liberated in each replica, collected on day 14, and examined for infection and blood meal sources on day 32-36. The additional presence of chickens relative to infected guinea pigs: (a significantly modified the spatial distribution of bugs; (b increased significantly the likelihoods of having a detectable blood meal on any host and molting to the next instar; (c did not affect the bugs' probability of death by predation; and (d decreased significantly the overall percentage of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi. The bugs collected from inside or close to the guinea pigs' cages showed a higher infection rate (71-88% than those collected from the chickens' cages (22-32%. Mixed blood meals on chickens and guinea pigs were detected in 12-21% of bugs. Although the presence of chickens would decrease the overall percentage of infected bugs in short term experiments, the high rate of host change of T. infestans would make this difference fade out if longer exposure times had been provided.

  5. Effects of mistletoe removal on growth, N and C reserves, and carbon and oxygen isotope composition in Scots pine hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cai-Feng; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Dobbertin, Matthias; Han, Xing-Guo; Li, Mai-He

    2016-05-01

    Most mistletoes are xylem-tapping hemiparasites, which derive their resources from the host's xylem solution. Thus, they affect the host's water relations and resource balance. To understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the mistletoe-host relationship, we experimentally removed Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollmann from adult Pinus sylvestris L. host trees growing in a Swiss dry valley. We analyzed the effects of mistletoe removal over time on host tree growth and on concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in needles, fine roots and sapwood. In addition, we assessed the δ(13)C and δ(18)O in host tree rings. After mistletoe removal, δ(13)C did not change in newly produced tree rings compared with tree rings in control trees (still infected with mistletoe), but δ(18)O values increased. This pattern might be interpreted as a decrease in assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (gs), but in our study, it most likely points to an inadequacy of the dual isotope approach. Instead, we interpret the unchanged δ(13)C in tree rings upon mistletoe removal as a balanced increase in A and gs that resulted in a constant intrinsic water use efficiency (defined as A/gs). Needle area-based concentrations of N, soluble sugars and NSC, as well as needle length, single needle area, tree ring width and shoot growth, were significantly higher in trees from which mistletoe was removed than in control trees. This finding suggests that mistletoe removal results in increased N availability and carbon gain, which in turn leads to increased growth rates of the hosts. Hence, in areas where mistletoe is common and the population is large, mistletoe management (e.g., removal) may be needed to improve the host vigor, growth rate and productivity, especially for relatively small trees and crop trees in xeric growth conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of host species and population density on Anoplophora glabripennis flight propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Francese; David R. Lance; Baode Wang; Zhichun Xu; Alan J. Sawyer; Victor C. Mastro

    2007-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) is a pest of hardwoods in its native range of China. While the host range of this pest has been studied extensively, its mechanisms for host selection are still unknown. Our goal was to study the factors influencing movement and orientation of adult ALB...

  7. Host phenology and leaf effects on susceptibility of California bay laurel to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Johnston; Michael F. Cohen; Tamas Torok; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Nathan E. Rank

    2016-01-01

    Spread of the plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of the forest disease sudden oak death, is driven by a few competent hosts that support spore production from foliar lesions. The relationship between traits of a principal foliar host, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), and susceptibility to

  8. First report of Phoronis ovalis from Africa and its effect on mussel hosts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phoronis ovalis in Namibia leaves characteristic burrows in its hosts (0.2 mm diameter), primarily the native brown mussel Perna perna. In all, eight additional host species were identified, including one barnacle, four gastropods and three bivalves. The distribution of P. ovalis was strictly subtidal, where it reached 99% ...

  9. Stress responses in Streptococcus species and their effects on the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Park, Sang-Sang; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2015-11-01

    Streptococci cause a variety of diseases, such as dental caries, pharyngitis, meningitis, pneumonia, bacteremia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis. The natural niche of this genus of bacteria ranges from the mouth and nasopharynx to the skin, indicating that the bacteria will inevitably be subjected to environmental changes during invasion into the host, where it is exposed to the host immune system. Thus, the Streptococcus-host interaction determines whether bacteria are cleared by the host's defenses or whether they survive after invasion to cause serious diseases. If this interaction was to be deciphered, it could aid in the development of novel preventive and therapeutic agents. Streptococcus species possess many virulent factors, such as peroxidases and heat-shock proteins (HSPs), which play key roles in protecting the bacteria from hostile host environments. This review will discuss insights into the mechanism(s) by which streptococci adapt to host environments. Additionally, we will address how streptococcal infections trigger host stress responses; however, the mechanism by which bacterial components modulate host stress responses remains largely unknown.

  10. Effects of cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp. in the host-parasite model Crassostrea gasar–Perkinsus marinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos [Laboratório de Imunologia e Patologia de Invertebrados (LABIPI), Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento (LABID), Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Hégaret, Hélène [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR 6539 CNRS UBO IRD IFREMER, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280, Plouzané (France); Sassi, Roberto [Laboratório de Ambientes Recifais e Biotecnologia de Microalgas (LARBIM), Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Farias, Natanael Dantas; Santana, Lucas Nunes [Laboratório de Imunologia e Patologia de Invertebrados (LABIPI), Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2017-06-15

    cyanobacteria; while neither the WCs nor the ECPs modified phagocytosis of the biological particles, zymosan and P. marinus. Our results suggest a negative effect of cyanobacteria from the Synechocystis genus on host immune cells, in contrast to a more beneficial effect on the parasite cell, which could together disrupt the balance of the host-parasite interaction and make oysters more susceptible to P. marinus as well as opportunistic infections.

  11. Effects of cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp. in the host-parasite model Crassostrea gasar–Perkinsus marinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Sassi, Roberto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Santana, Lucas Nunes

    2017-01-01

    cyanobacteria; while neither the WCs nor the ECPs modified phagocytosis of the biological particles, zymosan and P. marinus. Our results suggest a negative effect of cyanobacteria from the Synechocystis genus on host immune cells, in contrast to a more beneficial effect on the parasite cell, which could together disrupt the balance of the host-parasite interaction and make oysters more susceptible to P. marinus as well as opportunistic infections.

  12. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    effective ways to manage and control the welding process. Making up of the control systems as well as surfacing control involve the selection of the parameters that directly influence the formation of the melting zone as well as the use of these parameters as control signals in real time regime. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The penetration zone modes formation for the fixed and moving electrodes have been worked out. The relations were calculated through statistical processing of macrosections penetration zones parameters measurement results, the macrosections being obtained by means of arc welding in shielding gases for various diameters of the electrode and various feed rate ranges (current, according to the arc time and its speed of movement

  13. Environmental and Host Effects on Skin Bacterial Community Composition in Panamanian Frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Varela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the amphibian skin microbiota has focused on identifying bacterial taxa that deter a pathogenic chytrid fungus, and on describing patterns of microbiota variation. However, it remains unclear how environmental variation affects amphibian skin bacterial communities, and whether the overall functional diversity of the amphibian skin microbiota is associated to such variation. We sampled skin microbial communities from one dendrobatoid frog species across an environmental gradient along the Panama Canal, and from three dendrobatoid frog species before and after the onset of the wet season in one site. We found frog skin microbial alpha diversity to be highest in frogs from sites with low soil pH, but no clear effect of the onset of the wet season. However, we found frog skin microbial community structure to be affected by soil pH and the onset of the wet season, which also resulted in a decrease in between-sample variation. Across the sampled frog species, bacterial functional groups changed with the onset of the wet season, with certain bacterial functional groups entirely disappearing and others differing in their relative abundances. In particular, we found the proportion of Bd-inhibitory bacteria to correlate with mean soil pH, and to increase in two of the frog species with the onset of the wet season. Taken together, our results suggest that structure and predicted function of amphibian bacterial skin communities may be influenced by environmental variables such as pH and precipitation, site effects, and host effects.

  14. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  15. Skull penetrating wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  16. Evaluation of the effect of media velocity on filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Steven L; Parsons, Michael S; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Waggoner, Charles A

    2008-11-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are widely used to control particulate matter emissions from processes that involve management or treatment of radioactive materials. Section FC of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers AG-1 Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment currently restricts media velocity to a maximum of 2.5 cm/sec in any application where this standard is invoked. There is some desire to eliminate or increase this media velocity limit. A concern is that increasing media velocity will result in higher emissions of ultrafine particles; thus, it is unlikely that higher media velocities will be allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of ultrafine particles. In this study, the performance of nuclear grade HEPA filters, with respect to filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size, was evaluated as a function of media velocity. Deep-pleat nuclear grade HEPA filters (31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm) were evaluated at media velocities ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 cm/sec using a potassium chloride aerosol challenge having a particle size distribution centered near the HEPA filter most penetrating particle size. Filters were challenged under two distinct mass loading rate regimes through the use of or exclusion of a 3 microm aerodynamic diameter cut point cyclone. Filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size measurements were made throughout the duration of filter testing. Filter efficiency measured at the onset of aerosol challenge was noted to decrease with increasing media velocity, with values ranging from 99.999 to 99.977%. The filter most penetrating particle size recorded at the onset of testing was noted to decrease slightly as media velocity was increased and was typically in the range of 110-130 nm. Although additional testing is needed, these findings indicate that filters operating at media velocities up to 4.5 cm/sec will meet or exceed current filter efficiency requirements. Additionally

  17. Differential effects of lichens versus liverworts epiphylls on host leaf traits in the tropical montane rainforest, Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Liu, Fude; Yang, Wenjie; Liu, Hong; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Zhongsheng; An, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    Epiphylls widely colonize vascular leaves in moist tropical forests. Understanding the effects of epiphylls on leaf traits of host plants is critical for understanding ecological function of epiphylls. A study was conducted in a rain forest to investigate leaf traits of the host plants Photinia prunifolia colonized with epiphyllous liverworts and foliicolous lichens as well as those of uncolonized leaves. Our results found that the colonization of lichens significantly decreased leaf water content (LWC), chlorophyll (Chl) a and a + b content, and Chl a/b of P. prunifolia but increased Chl b content, while that of liverworts did not affect them as a whole. The variations of net photosynthetic rates (P n ) among host leaves colonized with different coverage of lichens before or after removal treatment (a treatment to remove epiphylls from leaf surface) were greater than that colonized with liverworts. The full cover of lichens induced an increase of light compensation point (LCP) by 21% and a decrease of light saturation point (LSP) by 54% for their host leaves, whereas that of liverworts displayed contrary effects. Compared with the colonization of liverworts, lichens exhibited more negative effects on the leaf traits of P. prunifolia in different stages of colonization. The results suggest that the responses of host leaf traits to epiphylls are affected by the epiphyllous groups and coverage, which are also crucial factors in assessing ecofunctions of epiphylls in tropical forests.

  18. Effects of the concentration and composition of in-office bleaching gels on hydrogen peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Serrano, A P; Parreiras, S O; do Nascimento, E M S; Borges, C P F; Berger, S B; Loguercio, A D; Reis, A

    2015-01-01

    In tooth whitening, the hydrogen peroxide (HP) diffuses in the enamel and dentin, reaching the pulp. This in vitro study aimed to quantify the penetration of HP in the pulp chamber in teeth submitted to bleaching agents of different concentrations of HP without calcium (HP 20% [20CF], HP 35% [35CF]) and with calcium (HP 20% [20CC], HP 35% [35CC]). Fifty human premolars were sectioned 3 mm from the cemento-enamel junction and the pulp tissue was removed. The teeth were divided into five groups according to treatment and with a control group (n=10). An acetate buffer solution was placed in the pulp chamber of all teeth. The control group was exposed only to distilled water, while the other groups were treated with a bleaching procedure, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. After treatment, the acetate buffer solution was transferred to a glass tube in which leuco-crystal violet and peroxidase solutions were added, resulting in a blue solution. The optical density of this blue solution was determined spectrophotometrically and converted into micrograms equivalent to the HP. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). The HP concentration did not affect the HP inside the pulp chamber, but the presence of calcium significantly reduced it (p<0.0001). The amount of HP that reaches the pulp chamber depends on the bleaching protocol and the product employed, and it seems to be less affected by HP concentration.

  19. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. However, despite improvements in mechanical properties in recent years, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms- DU alloys tend to shear band as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom. As a first step to determining whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review and summary of the available information was performed. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the formulation, high strain- rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on mechanical properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed. Penetration data and models for penetration mechanisms (in particular shear banding) are also presented, as well as the applicability of these models and their salient features

  20. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  1. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  2. Nectar-living yeasts of a tropical host plant community: diversity and effects on community-wide floral nectar traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We characterize the diversity of nectar-living yeasts of a tropical host plant community at different hierarchical sampling levels, measure the associations between yeasts and nectariferous plants, and measure the effect of yeasts on nectar traits. Using a series of hierarchically nested sampling units, we extracted nectar from an assemblage of host plants that were representative of the diversity of life forms, flower shapes, and pollinator types in the tropical area of Yucatan, Mexico. Yeasts were isolated from single nectar samples; their DNA was identified, the yeast cell density was estimated, and the sugar composition and concentration of nectar were quantified using HPLC. In contrast to previous studies from temperate regions, the diversity of nectar-living yeasts in the plant community was characterized by a relatively high number of equally common species with low dominance. Analyses predict highly diverse nectar yeast communities in a relatively narrow range of tropical vegetation, suggesting that the diversity of yeasts will increase as the number of sampling units increases at the level of the species, genera, and botanical families of the hosts. Significant associations between specific yeast species and host plants were also detected; the interaction between yeasts and host plants impacted the effect of yeast cell density on nectar sugars. This study provides an overall picture of the diversity of nectar-living yeasts in tropical host plants and suggests that the key factor that affects the community-wide patterns of nectar traits is not nectar chemistry, but rather the type of yeasts interacting with host plants. PMID:28717591

  3. Nectar-living yeasts of a tropical host plant community: diversity and effects on community-wide floral nectar traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Canto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the diversity of nectar-living yeasts of a tropical host plant community at different hierarchical sampling levels, measure the associations between yeasts and nectariferous plants, and measure the effect of yeasts on nectar traits. Using a series of hierarchically nested sampling units, we extracted nectar from an assemblage of host plants that were representative of the diversity of life forms, flower shapes, and pollinator types in the tropical area of Yucatan, Mexico. Yeasts were isolated from single nectar samples; their DNA was identified, the yeast cell density was estimated, and the sugar composition and concentration of nectar were quantified using HPLC. In contrast to previous studies from temperate regions, the diversity of nectar-living yeasts in the plant community was characterized by a relatively high number of equally common species with low dominance. Analyses predict highly diverse nectar yeast communities in a relatively narrow range of tropical vegetation, suggesting that the diversity of yeasts will increase as the number of sampling units increases at the level of the species, genera, and botanical families of the hosts. Significant associations between specific yeast species and host plants were also detected; the interaction between yeasts and host plants impacted the effect of yeast cell density on nectar sugars. This study provides an overall picture of the diversity of nectar-living yeasts in tropical host plants and suggests that the key factor that affects the community-wide patterns of nectar traits is not nectar chemistry, but rather the type of yeasts interacting with host plants.

  4. Disentangling the influence of parasite genotype, host genotype and maternal environment on different stages of bacterial infection in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew D; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-08-22

    Individuals naturally vary in the severity of infectious disease when exposed to a parasite. Dissecting this variation into genetic and environmental components can reveal whether or not this variation depends on the host genotype, parasite genotype or a range of environmental conditions. Complicating this task, however, is that the symptoms of disease result from the combined effect of a series of events, from the initial encounter between a host and parasite, through to the activation of the host immune system and the exploitation of host resources. Here, we use the crustacean Daphnia magna and its parasite Pasteuria ramosa to show how disentangling genetic and environmental factors at different stages of infection improves our understanding of the processes shaping infectious disease. Using compatible host-parasite combinations, we experimentally exclude variation in the ability of a parasite to penetrate the host, from measures of parasite clearance, the reduction in host fecundity and the proliferation of the parasite. We show how parasite resistance consists of two components that vary in environmental sensitivity, how the maternal environment influences all measured aspects of the within-host infection process and how host-parasite interactions following the penetration of the parasite into the host have a distinct temporal component.

  5. A model to estimate effects of SNPs on host susceptibility and infectivity for an endemic infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemans, Floor; de Jong, Mart C M; Bijma, Piter

    2017-06-30

    Infectious diseases in farm animals affect animal health, decrease animal welfare and can affect human health. Selection and breeding of host individuals with desirable traits regarding infectious diseases can help to fight disease transmission, which is affected by two types of (genetic) traits: host susceptibility and host infectivity. Quantitative genetic studies on infectious diseases generally connect an individual's disease status to its own genotype, and therefore capture genetic effects on susceptibility only. However, they usually ignore variation in exposure to infectious herd mates, which may limit the accuracy of estimates of genetic effects on susceptibility. Moreover, genetic effects on infectivity will exist as well. Thus, to design optimal breeding strategies, it is essential that genetic effects on infectivity are quantified. Given the potential importance of genetic effects on infectivity, we set out to develop a model to estimate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on both host susceptibility and host infectivity. To evaluate the quality of the resulting SNP effect estimates, we simulated an endemic disease in 10 groups of 100 individuals, and recorded time-series data on individual disease status. We quantified bias and precision of the estimates for different sizes of SNP effects, and identified the optimum recording interval when the number of records is limited. We present a generalized linear mixed model to estimate the effect of SNPs on both host susceptibility and host infectivity. SNP effects were on average slightly underestimated, i.e. estimates were conservative. Estimates were less precise for infectivity than for susceptibility. Given our sample size, the power to estimate SNP effects for susceptibility was 100% for differences between genotypes of a factor 1.56 or more, and was higher than 60% for infectivity for differences between genotypes of a factor 4 or more. When disease status was recorded 11 times on each

  6. DIRECTLY DETERMINED LINEAR RADII AND EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURES OF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Belle, Gerard T.; Von Braun, Kaspar

    2009-01-01

    We present interferometric angular sizes for 12 stars with known planetary companions, for comparison with 28 additional main-sequence stars not known to host planets. For all objects we estimate bolometric fluxes and reddenings through spectral-energy distribution (SED) fits, and in conjunction with the angular sizes, measurements of effective temperature. The angular sizes of these stars are sufficiently small that the fundamental resolution limits of our primary instrument, the Palomar Testbed Interferometer, are investigated at the sub-milliarcsecond level and empirically established based upon known performance limits. We demonstrate that the effective temperature scale as a function of dereddened (V - K) 0 color is statistically identical for stars with and without planets. A useful byproduct of this investigation is a direct calibration of the T EFF scale for solarlike stars, as a function of both spectral type and (V - K) 0 color. Additionally, in an Appendix we provide SED fits for the 166 stars with known planets which have sufficient photometry available in the literature for such fits; this derived 'XO-Rad' database includes homogeneous estimates of bolometric flux, reddening, and angular size.

  7. Confinement Effects on Host Chain Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle J. [Department; Glynos, Emmanouil [Department; Maroulas, Serafeim-Dionysios [Department; Narayanan, Suresh [Advanced; Sakellariou, Georgios [Department; Green, Peter F. [Department; National

    2017-09-07

    Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within a polymer host to create polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) while having the effect of increasing the functionality (e.g., sensing, energy conversion) of these materials influences other properties. One challenge is to understand the effects of nanoparticles on the viscosity of nanoscale thick polymer films. A new mechanism that contributes to an enhancement of the viscosity of nanoscale thick polymer/nanoparticle films is identified. We show that while the viscosities of neat homopolymer poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) films as thin as 50 nm remained the same as the bulk, polymer/nanoparticle films containing P2VP brush-coated gold NPs, spaced 50 nm apart, exhibited unprecedented increases in viscosities of over an order of magnitude. For thicker films or more widely separated NPs, the chain dynamics and viscosities were comparable to the bulk values. These results - NP proximities and suppression of their dynamics - suggest a new mechanism by which the viscosities of polymeric liquids could be controlled for nanoscale applications.

  8. Plasmid DNA is released from nanosized acicular material surface by low molecular weight oligonucleotides: exogenous plasmid acquisition mechanism for penetration intermediates based on the Yoshida effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Ide, K

    2008-10-01

    When a colloidal solution consisting of nanosized acicular material and bacterial cells is stimulated with sliding friction at the interface between the hydrogel and interface-forming material where the frictional coefficient increases rapidly, the nanosized acicular material accompanying the bacterial cells forms a penetration intermediate. This effect is known as the Yoshida effect in honor of its discoverer. Through the Yoshida effect, a novel property in which penetration intermediates incorporate exogenous plasmid DNA has been identified. This report proposes a possible mechanism for exogenous plasmid acquisition by penetration intermediates in the Yoshida effect. Escherichia coli cells, pUC18, and chrysotile were used as recipient cells, plasmid DNA, and nanosized acicular material, respectively. Even when repeatedly washing the mixture consisting of pUC18 and chrysotile, transformation efficiency by pUC18 was stable. Accordingly, pUC18 adsorbed onto chrysotile was introduced into recipient E. coli cells. At saturation, the amount of pUC18 adsorbed onto chrysotile was 0.8-1.2 microg/mg. To investigate whether pUC18 adsorbed on chrysotile is replicated by polymerase, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out with the chrysotile. Amplification of the beta-lactamase gene coded in pUC18, which was adsorbed onto chrysotile, was strongly inhibited. This suggests that DNA adsorbed onto chrysotile is not replicated in vivo. When we searched for substances to release pUC18 adsorbed onto chrysotile, we found that a 300-bp single- or double-stranded segment of DNA releases pUC18 from chrysotile. Competitive adsorption onto chrysotile between double-stranded DNA and pUC18 was then examined through the Yoshida effect. The 310- and 603-bp double-stranded nucleotides caused 50% competitive inhibition at the same molar ratio with pUC18. Hence, the adsorbed region of pUC18 is about 300 bp in length. As the culture period for recipient cells increases, transformation

  9. Effects of host injury on susceptibility of marine reef fishes to ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William G.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Sikkel, Paul C.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of the role that parasites play in ecological communities is becoming increasingly apparent. However much about their impact on hosts and thus populations and communities remains poorly understood. A common observation in wild populations is high variation in levels of parasite infestation among hosts. While high variation could be due to chance encounter, there is increasing evidence to suggest that such patterns are due to a combination of environmental, host, and parasite factors. In order to examine the role of host condition on parasite infection, rates of Gnathia marleyi infestation were compared between experimentally injured and uninjured fish hosts. Experimental injuries were similar to the minor wounds commonly observed in nature. The presence of the injury significantly increased the probability of infestation by gnathiids. However, the level of infestation (i.e., total number of gnathiid parasites) for individual hosts, appeared to be unaffected by the treatment. The results from this study indicate that injuries obtained by fish in nature may carry the additional cost of increased parasite burden along with the costs typically associated with physical injury. These results suggest that host condition may be an important factor in determining the likelihood of infestation by a common coral reef fish ectoparasite, G. marleyi.

  10. Climate change effects on migration phenology may mismatch brood parasitic cuckoos and their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego; Lehikoinen, Esa; Sokolov, Leonid V; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Møller, Anders P

    2009-08-23

    Phenological responses to climate change vary among taxa and across trophic levels. This can lead to a mismatch between the life cycles of ecologically interrelated populations (e.g. predators and prey), with negative consequences for population dynamics of some of the interacting species. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that climate change might disrupt the association between the life cycles of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), a migratory brood parasitic bird, and its hosts. We investigated changes in timing of spring arrival of the cuckoo and its hosts throughout Europe over six decades, and found that short-distance, but not long-distance, migratory hosts have advanced their arrival more than the cuckoo. Hence, cuckoos may keep track of phenological changes of long-distance, but not short-distance migrant hosts, with potential consequences for breeding of both cuckoo and hosts. The mismatch to some of the important hosts may contribute to the decline of cuckoo populations and explain some of the observed local changes in parasitism rates of migratory hosts.

  11. Are ant feces nutrients for plants? A metabolomics approach to elucidate the nutritional effects on plants hosting weaver ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Nanna Hjort; Wollenweber, Bernd; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are tropical carnivorous ant species living in high numbers in the canopies of trees. The ants excrete copious amounts of fecal matter on leaf surfaces, and these feces may provide nutrients to host trees. This hypothesis is supported by studies of ant......-plant interactions involving other ant species that have demonstrated the transfer of nutrients from ants to plants. In this 7-months study, a GC–MS-based metabolomics approach along with an analysis of total nitrogen and carbon levels was used to study metabolic changes in ant-hosting Coffea arabica plants compared...... with control plants. The results showed elevated levels of total nitrogen, amino acids, fatty acids, caffeine, and secondary metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway in leaves from ant-hosting plants. Minor effects were observed for sugars, whereas little or no effect was observed for organic acids, despite...

  12. Effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants on herbivore assemblages on congeneric Acer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Murakami, Masashi; Hirao, Toshihide

    2014-08-01

    Historical, niche-based, and stochastic processes have been proposed as the mechanisms that drive community assembly. In plant-herbivore systems, these processes can correspond to phylogeny, leaf traits, and the distribution of host plants, respectively. Although patterns of herbivore assemblages among plant species have been repeatedly examined, the effects of these factors among co-occurring congeneric host plant species have rarely been studied. Our aim was to reveal the process of community assembly for herbivores by investigating the effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of closely related host plants of the genus Acer. We sampled leaf functional traits for 30 Acer species in Japan. Using a newly constructed phylogeny, we determined that three of the six measured leaf traits (leaf thickness, C/N ratio, and condensed tannin content) showed a phylogenetic signal. In a field study, we sampled herbivore communities on 14 Acer species within an elevation gradient and examined relationships between herbivore assemblages and host plants. We found that herbivore assemblages were significantly correlated with phylogeny, leaf traits, phylogenetic signals, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants. Our results indicate that the interaction between historical and current ecological processes shapes herbivore community assemblages.

  13. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  14. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  15. The effect of high-pressure devitrification and densification on ballistic-penetration resistance of fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avuthu, Vasudeva Reddy

    perhaps alpha-quartz) within fused silica during ballistic impact. To rationalize the findings obtained, the all-atom molecular-level computational analysis is complemented by a series of quantum-mechanics density functional theory (DFT) computations. The latter computations enable determination of the relative potential energies of the fused silica, alpha-quartz and stishovite under ambient pressure (i.e. under their natural densities) as well as under imposed (as high as 50 GPa) pressures (i.e. under higher densities) and shear strains. In addition, the transition states associated with various fused-silica devitrification processes were identified. In the second part of the present work, the molecular-level computational results obtained in the first portion of the work are used to enrich a continuum-type constitutive model (that is, the so-called Johnson-Holmquist-2, JH2, model) for fused silica. Since the aforementioned devitrification and permanent-densification processes modify the response of fused silica to the pressure as well as to the deviatoric part of the stress, changes had to be made in both the JH2 equation of state and the strength model. To assess the potential improvements with respect to the ballistic-penetration resistance of this material brought about by the fused-silica devitrification and permanent-densification processes, a series of transient non-linear dynamics finite element analyses of the transverse impact of a fused-silica test plate with a solid right-circular cylindrical steel projectile was conducted. The results obtained revealed that, provided the projectile incident velocity and, hence, the attendant pressure, is sufficiently high, fused silica can undergo impact-induced energy-consuming devitrification, which improves its ballistic-penetration resistance.

  16. Communities of Putative Ericoid Mycorrhizal Fungi Isolated from Alpine Dwarf Shrubs in Japan: Effects of Host Identity and Microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Takahiko; Nara, Kazuhide

    2017-06-24

    Dwarf shrubs of the family Ericaceae are common in arctic and alpine regions. Many of these plants are associated with ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi, which allow them to take nutrients and water from the soil under harsh environmental conditions and, thus, affect host plant survival. Despite the importance of ERM fungi to alpine plant communities, limited information is available on the effects of microhabitat and host identity on ERM fungal communities. We investigated the communities of putative ERM fungi isolated from five dwarf shrub species (Arcterica nana, Diapensia lapponica, Empetrum nigrum, Loiseleuria procumbens, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) that co-occur in an alpine region of Japan, with reference to distinct microhabitats provided by large stone pine (Pinus pumila) shrubs (i.e. bare ground, the edge of stone pine shrubs, and the inside of stone pine shrubs). We obtained 703 fungal isolates from 222 individual plants. These isolates were classified into 55 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on the sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions in ribosomal DNA. These putative ERM fungal communities were dominated by Helotiales fungi for all host species. Cistella and Trimmatostroma species, which have rarely been detected in ERM roots in previous studies, were abundant. ERM fungal communities were significantly different among microhabitats (R 2 =0.28), while the host effect explained less variance in the fungal communities after excluding the microhabitat effect (R 2 =0.17). Our results suggest that the host effect on ERM fungal communities is minor and the distributions of hosts and fungal communities may be assessed based on microhabitat conditions.

  17. [Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong and penetration mechanism of skin blood flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Jing; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yu, Ya-Ting; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hong-Ning

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong, and to investigate the possible penetration mechanism of their essential oil from the perspective of skin blood perfusion changes. Transdermal tests were performed in vitro with excised mice skin by improved Franz diffusion cells. The cumulative penetration amounts of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong were determined by HPLC to investigate the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal permeation properties of Chuanxiong. Simultaneously, the skin blood flows were determined by laser flow doppler. The results showed that the cumulative penetration amount of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong was (8.13±0.76) μg•cm⁻² in 24 h, and was (48.91±4.87), (57.80±2.86), (63.34±4.56), (54.17±4.40), (62.52±7.79) μg•cm⁻² respectively in Azone group, Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group. The enhancement ratios of each essential oil groups were 7.68, 8.26, 7.26, 8.28, which were slightly greater than 6.55 in Azone group. In addition, as compared with the conditions before treatment, there were significant differences and obvious increasing trend in blood flow of rats in Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil group, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group when were dosed at 10, 20, 30, 10 min respectively, indicating that the skin blood flows were increased under the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil to a certain extent. Thus, Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil had certain effect on promoting permeability of Chuanxiong both before and after drug combination, and may promote the elimination of drugs from epidermis to dermal capillaries through increase of

  18. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2011-01-01

    of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different...... punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively...... stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size...

  19. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    De Waele, D.; Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; Basson, Selmaré

    1990-01-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed spec...

  20. Effects of the impurity-host interactions on the nonradiative processes in ZnS:Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablero, C.

    2010-11-01

    There is a great deal of controversy about whether the behavior of an intermediate band in the gap of semiconductors is similar or not to the deep-gap levels. It can have significant consequences, for example, on the nonradiative recombination. In order to analyze the behavior of an intermediate band, we have considered the effect of the inward and outward displacements corresponding to breathing and longitudinal modes of Cr-doped ZnS and on the charge density for different processes involved in the nonradiative recombination using first-principles. This metal-doped zinc chalcogenide has a partially filled band within the host semiconductor gap. In contrast to the properties exhibited by deep-gap levels in other systems, we find small variations in the equilibrium configurations, forces, and electronic density around the Cr when the nonradiative recombination mechanisms modify the intermediate band charge. The charge density around the impurity is equilibrated in response to the perturbations in the equilibrium nuclear configuration and the charge of the intermediate band. The equilibration follows a Le Chatelier principle through the modification of the contribution from the impurity to the intermediate band and to the valence band. The intermediate band introduced by Cr in ZnS for the concentrations analyzed makes the electronic capture difficult and later multiphonon emission in the charge-transfer processes, in accordance with experimental results.

  1. The effect of gluten on the host-microbial metabolism assessed by urinary metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Gøbel, Rikke Juul

    A gluten-free diet clearly improves the life of patients with celiac disease, but the scientific evidence supporting possible health benefits of a gluten-free diet for non-celiac adults is limited. Therefore, as urine reflects the host and gut microbial metabolism, the study aimed to assess...... a gluten-rich (21.6±5.7g/day) or a gluten-poor (~1g/day) diet for 8 weeks, crossing over to the other diet after 6 weeks washout. Urine samples were standardised collected at the beginning and end of each diet intervention period and were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid...... the long-term metabolic effect of gluten on the urine metabolome of non-celiac individuals by a cross-over intervention study (gluten-poor and gluten rich, respectively) using a non-targeted metabolomics approach. Fifty-one non-celiac adult participants (30 female, 21 male) were randomized to either...

  2. Confinement Effects on Host Chain Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle J. [Department; Glynos, Emmanouil [Department; Maroulas, Serafeim-Dionysios [Department; Narayanan, Suresh [Advanced; Sakellariou, Georgios [Department; Green, Peter F. [Department; National

    2017-09-06

    Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within a polymer host to create polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) while having the effect of increasing the functionality (e.g.: sensing, energy conversion) of these materials, introduces additional complications with regard to the processing-morphology-function behavior. A primary challenge is to understand and control the viscosity of a PNC with decreasing film thickness confinement for nanoscale applications. Using a combination of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and X-ray standing wave based resonance enhanced XPCS to study the dynamics of neat poly-2-vinyl pyridine (P2VP) chains and the nanoparticle dynamics, respectively, we identified a new mechanism that dictates the viscosity of PNC films in the nanoscale regime. We show that while the viscosities of neat P2VP films as thin as 50 nm remained the same as the bulk, PNC films containing P2VP brush-coated gold NPs, spaced 50 nm apart, exhibited unprecedented increases in viscosities of over an order of magnitude. For thicker films or more widely separated NPs, the chain dynamics and viscosities were equal to the bulk values. These results -NP proximities and suppression of their dynamics -suggest a new mechanism by which the viscosities of polymeric liquids could be controlled for 2D and 3D nanoscale applications.

  3. Host defenses in experimental scrub typhus: effect of sublethal gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which have been inoculated with Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least one year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks post inoculation at normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than in the unirradiated similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks also induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for five weeks following irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation induced recrudescence. Modification of recrudescence was investigated using radioprotective drugs. The expected results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host following immunological impairment due to battlefield or clinical exposure to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia

  4. Effect of sublethal gamma radiation on host defenses in experimental scrub typhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.J.; Rees, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which were inoculated with the Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least 1 year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks postinoculation with normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than was seen in the unirradiated, similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for 5 weeks after irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation-induced recrudescence. Unirradiated, infected mice showed consistent titers of about 320 throughout the 5-week observation period, and the titer was not affected by exposure of up to 500 rads of gamma radiation. Drug dose-dependent radioprotection and modification of recrudescence was noted in infected, irradiated mice treated with the antiradiation compound S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid. The results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host after immunological impairment due to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia

  5. Effects of formulation and host nematode density on the ability of in vitro-produced pasteuria endospores to control its host Belonolaimus longicaudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, John E; Pang, Wenjing; Crow, William T; Giblin-Davis, Robin M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of nematode population density at the time of application and formulations of in vitro-produced Pasteuria spp. endospores on the final population density of Belonolaimus longicaudatus was studied in an 84-d-long pot bioassay. The experiment utilized a factorial design consisting of 30 or 300 B. longicaudatus /100 cm(3) of sandy soil and three formulations of in vitro-produced Pasteuria spp. endospores (nontreated, granular, or liquid). No differences were observed in percent endospore attachment between nematode inoculum levels during either trial. Granular and liquid formulations of in vitro-produced endospores suppressed nematode population densities by 22% and 59% in the first trial and 20% and 63% in the second, respectively compared with the nontreated control. The liquid formulation increased percent endospore attachment by 147% and 158%, respectively, compared with the granular formulation. The greatest root retention by the host plant was observed at the lower B. longicaudatus inoculation level following application of the liquid formulation. While both the granular and liquid formulations reduced B. longicaudatus population densities in the soil, the liquid spore suspension was most effective.

  6. Host-plant-mediated effects of Nadefensin on herbivore and pathogen resistance in Nicotiana attenuata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Ian T

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adage from Shakespeare, "troubles, not as single spies, but in battalions come," holds true for Nicotiana attenuata, which is commonly attacked by both pathogens (Pseudomonas spp. and herbivores (Manduca sexta in its native habitats. Defense responses targeted against the pathogens can directly or indirectly influence the responses against the herbivores. Nadefensin is an effective induced defense gene against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (PST DC3000, which is also elicited by attack from M. sexta larvae, but whether this defense protein influences M. sexta's growth and whether M. sexta-induced Nadefensin directly or indirectly influences PST DC3000 resistance are unknown. Results M. sexta larvae consumed less on WT and on Nadefensin-silenced N. attenuata plants that had previously been infected with PST DC3000 than on uninfected plants. WT plants infected with PST DC3000 showed enhanced resistance to PST DC3000 and decreased leaf consumption by M. sexta larvae, but larval mass gain was unaffected. PST DC3000-infected Nadefensin-silenced plants were less resistant to subsequent PST DC3000 challenge, and on these plants, M. sexta larvae consumed less and gained less mass. WT and Nadefensin-silenced plants previously damaged by M. sexta larvae were better able to resist subsequent PST DC3000 challenges than were undamaged plants. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Na-defensin directly mediates defense against PST DC3000 and indirectly against M. sexta in N. attenuata. In plants that were previously infected with PST DC3000, the altered leaf chemistry in PST DC3000-resistant WT plants and PST DC3000-susceptible Nadefensin-silenced plants differentially reduced M. sexta's leaf consumption and mass gain. In plants that were previously damaged by M. sexta, the combined effect of the altered host plant chemistry and a broad spectrum of anti-herbivore induced metabolomic responses was more

  7. Invasive insect effects on nitrogen cycling and host physiology are not tightly linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Lucy; Charles, Sherley; Sirulnik, Abby G; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2015-02-01

    Invasive insects may dramatically alter resource cycling and productivity in forest ecosystems. Yet, although responses of individual trees should both reflect and affect ecosystem-scale responses, relationships between physiological- and ecosystem-scale responses to invasive insects have not been extensively studied. To address this issue, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) cycling, N uptake and allocation, and needle biochemistry and physiology in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L) Carr) saplings, associated with infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand), an invasive insect causing widespread decline of eastern hemlock in the eastern USA. Compared with uninfested saplings, infested saplings had soils that exhibited faster nitrification rates, and more needle (15)N uptake, N and total protein concentrations. However, these variables did not clearly covary. Further, within infested saplings, needle N concentration did not vary with HWA density. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (Asat) declined by 42% as HWA density increased from 0 to 3 adelgids per needle, but did not vary with needle N concentration. Rather, Asat varied with stomatal conductance, which was highest at the lowest HWA density and accounted for 79% of the variation in Asat. Photosynthetic light response did not differ among HWA densities. Our results suggest that the effects of HWA infestation on soil N pools and fluxes, (15)N uptake, needle N and protein concentrations, and needle physiology may not be tightly coupled under at least some conditions. This pattern may reflect direct effects of the HWA on N uptake by host trees, as well as effects of other scale-dependent factors, such as tree hydrology, affected by HWA activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Incommensurate host-guest structures in compressed elements: Hume—Rothery effects as origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyareva, V F

    2015-01-01

    Discovery of the incommensurate structure in the element Ba under pressure 15 years ago was followed by findings of a series of similar structures in other compressed elements. Incommensurately modulated structures of the host-guest type consist of a tetragonal host structure and a guest structure. The guest structure forms chains of atoms embedded in the channels of host atoms so that the axial ratio of these subcells along the c axis is not rational. Two types of the host-guest structures have been found so far: with the host cells containing 8 atoms and 16 atoms; in these both types the guest cells contain 2 atoms. These crystal structures contain a non-integer number of atoms in their unit cell: tI11* in Bi, Sb, As, Ba, Sr, Sc and tI19* in Na, K, Rb. We consider here a close structural relationship of these host-guest structures with the binary alloy phase Au 3 Cd 5 -tI32. This phase is related to the family of the Hume-Rothery phases that is stabilized by the Fermi sphere-Brillouin zone interaction. From similar considerations for alkali and alkaline-earth elements a necessary condition for structural stability emerges in which the valence electrons band overlaps with the upper core electrons and the valence electron count increases under compression. (paper)

  9. Host Status of Five Weed Species and Their Effects on Pratylenchus zeae Infestation of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, E M; De Waele, D

    1988-10-01

    The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae.

  10. A Effect discussion of transient electromagnetic sounding technique in paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianchun; Fang Genxian; Yang Yaxin

    2003-01-01

    On the base of the application of transient electromagnetic technique of paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in Tengchong region of Yunan Province, this paper analyses the detect example. It discusses the theory foundation of TEM, fieldwork means, data processing and interpret. By contrast with routine electricity farad, the transient electromagnetic technique have the special merit and favorable space resolve gender under conditions of intricacy terrain. This means can get good effect in detecting paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposits space position. It is a good reference for other prospecting and exploration work

  11. The effect of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction among immigrants: Does host national identity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Maria; Fujishiro, Kaori; Hoppe, Annekatrin

    2017-11-01

    Overqualification is a form of person-job misfit that is common among those who reside in a foreign country. It is associated with poor work-related well-being and can inhibit full adjustment to the host society. The goal of our study is to examine the impact of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction among immigrants. Furthermore, we investigated immigrants' host national identity as a moderator of the impact of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction. We analysed longitudinal online survey data from 124 Italian and Spanish immigrants who migrated to Germany between 2000 and 2014. Regression analyses show that perceived overqualification is negatively associated with job satisfaction six months later. Furthermore, host national identity moderates the association between perceived overqualification and job satisfaction: low overqualification is beneficial for job satisfaction whereas high overqualification is a threat for job satisfaction, especially for immigrants who identify strongly with the host society. We do not find corresponding direct and moderating effects on career satisfaction. We conclude that indicators of acculturation, such as host national identity, are worth considering in order to understand the impact of person-job misfit on work-related well-being among immigrants.

  12. Estimating host genetic effects on susceptibility and infectivity to infectious diseases and their contribution to response to selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anche, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Mahlet Teka Anche. (2016). Estimating host genetic effects on susceptibility and infectivity to infectious diseases and their contribution to response to selection. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    Genetic approaches aiming to reduce the prevalence of an infection in a

  13. Myelopotentiating effect of curcumin in tumor-bearing host: Role of bone marrow resident macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anjani; Kumar, Ajay; Kant, Shiva [School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, U.P. (India); Bharti, Alok Chandra [Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Noida, UP (India); Singh, Sukh Mahendra, E-mail: sukhmahendrasingh@yahoo.com [School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-15

    The present investigation was undertaken to study if curcumin, which is recognized for its potential as an antineoplastic and immunopotentiating agent, can also influence the process of myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host. Administration of curcumin to tumor-bearing host augmented count of bone marrow cell (BMC) accompanied by an up-regulated BMC survival and a declined induction of apoptosis. Curcumin administration modulated expression of cell survival regulatory molecules: Bcl2, p53, caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) along with enhanced expression of genes of receptors for M-CSF and GM-CSF in BMC. The BMC harvested from curcumin-administered hosts showed an up-regulated colony forming ability with predominant differentiation into bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), responsive for activation to tumoricidal state. The number of F4/80 positive bone marrow resident macrophages (BMM), showing an augmented expression of M-CSF, was also augmented in the bone marrow of curcumin-administered host. In vitro reconstitution experiments indicated that only BMM of curcumin-administered hosts, but not in vitro curcumin-exposed BMM, augmented BMC survival. It suggests that curcumin-dependent modulation of BMM is of indirect nature. Such prosurvival action of curcumin is associated with altered T{sub H1}/T{sub H2} cytokine balance in serum. Augmented level of serum-borne IFN-γ was found to mediate modulation of BMM to produce enhanced amount of monokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α), which are suggested to augment the BMC survival. Taken together the present investigation indicates that curcumin can potentiate myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host, which may have implications in its therapeutic utility. Highlights: ► Curcumin augments myelopoiesis in tumor-bearing host. ► Bone marrow resident macrophages mediate curcumin-dependent augmented myelopoiesis. ► Serum borne cytokine are implicated in modulation of bone marrow resident

  14. Myelopotentiating effect of curcumin in tumor-bearing host: Role of bone marrow resident macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anjani; Kumar, Ajay; Kant, Shiva; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study if curcumin, which is recognized for its potential as an antineoplastic and immunopotentiating agent, can also influence the process of myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host. Administration of curcumin to tumor-bearing host augmented count of bone marrow cell (BMC) accompanied by an up-regulated BMC survival and a declined induction of apoptosis. Curcumin administration modulated expression of cell survival regulatory molecules: Bcl2, p53, caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) along with enhanced expression of genes of receptors for M-CSF and GM-CSF in BMC. The BMC harvested from curcumin-administered hosts showed an up-regulated colony forming ability with predominant differentiation into bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), responsive for activation to tumoricidal state. The number of F4/80 positive bone marrow resident macrophages (BMM), showing an augmented expression of M-CSF, was also augmented in the bone marrow of curcumin-administered host. In vitro reconstitution experiments indicated that only BMM of curcumin-administered hosts, but not in vitro curcumin-exposed BMM, augmented BMC survival. It suggests that curcumin-dependent modulation of BMM is of indirect nature. Such prosurvival action of curcumin is associated with altered T H1 /T H2 cytokine balance in serum. Augmented level of serum-borne IFN-γ was found to mediate modulation of BMM to produce enhanced amount of monokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α), which are suggested to augment the BMC survival. Taken together the present investigation indicates that curcumin can potentiate myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host, which may have implications in its therapeutic utility. Highlights: ► Curcumin augments myelopoiesis in tumor-bearing host. ► Bone marrow resident macrophages mediate curcumin-dependent augmented myelopoiesis. ► Serum borne cytokine are implicated in modulation of bone marrow resident

  15. Python penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  16. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  17. Effects of shortened host life span on the evolution of parasite life history and virulence in a microbial host-parasite system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koella Jacob C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological factors play an important role in the evolution of parasite exploitation strategies. A common prediction is that, as shorter host life span reduces future opportunities of transmission, parasites compensate with an evolutionary shift towards earlier transmission. They may grow more rapidly within the host, have a shorter latency time and, consequently, be more virulent. Thus, increased extrinsic (i.e., not caused by the parasite host mortality leads to the evolution of more virulent parasites. To test these predictions, we performed a serial transfer experiment, using the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. We simulated variation in host life span by killing hosts after 11 (early killing or 14 (late killing days post inoculation; after killing, parasite transmission stages were collected and used for a new infection cycle. Results After 13 cycles (≈ 300 generations, parasites from the early-killing treatment were less infectious, but had shorter latency time and higher virulence than those from the late-killing treatment. Overall, shorter latency time was associated with higher parasite loads and thus presumably with more rapid within-host replication. Conclusion The analysis of the means of the two treatments is thus consistent with theory, and suggests that evolution is constrained by trade-offs between virulence, transmission and within-host growth. In contrast, we found little evidence for such trade-offs across parasite selection lines within treatments; thus, to some extent, these traits may evolve independently. This study illustrates how environmental variation (experienced by the host can lead to the evolution of distinct parasite strategies.

  18. Market penetration speed and effects on CO2 reduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Kuniaki; Shinoda, Yukio; Seki, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Abstarct: In order to reduce CO 2 emissions in the passenger vehicle sector, mass introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is required despite their high battery costs. This paper forecasts the rate at which EV/PHEV will penetrate into the market in the future and the effects of that spread on CO 2 reduction by using a learning curve for lithium-ion batteries, distribution of daily travel distance for each vehicle, and an optimal power generation planning model for charging vehicles. Taking into consideration each driver's economical viewpoint, the speed at which the EV/PHEV share of the new passenger vehicle market grows is fairly slow. The optimum calculation in our base case shows that the share of EV/PHEV is only a quarter even in 2050. However, the initial price and progress rate of batteries have a great effect on this share. Therefore, long-term economic support from the government and significant R and D innovation are required to reduce CO 2 drastically through cutting down battery price. The results also show how much the CO 2 emission intensity of power generation affects the CO 2 reduction rate by introducing EV/PHEV. - Highlights: ► Authors minimized the total cost of vehicle and power supply sectors until 2050. ► Simulation results show the penetration speed of PHEVs/EVs is not so fast. ► To accelerate it and reduce CO 2 , subsidies and innovations are required. ► The introduction of PHEVs/EVs is still reasonable even after the nuclear accident.

  19. Transcriptome analysis reveals the host response to Schmallenberg virus in bovine cells and antagonistic effects of the NSs protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomström, Anne-Lie; Gu, Quan; Barry, Gerald; Wilkie, Gavin; Skelton, Jessica K; Baird, Margaret; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2015-04-19

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus (Bunyaviridae family) causing malformations and abortions in ruminants. Although, as for other members of this family/genus, the non-structural protein NSs has been shown to be an interferon antagonist, very little is known regarding the overall inhibitory effects and targets of orthobunyavirus NSs proteins on host gene expression during infection. Therefore, using RNA-seq this study describes changes to the transcriptome of primary bovine cells following infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) or with a mutant lacking the non-structural protein NSs (SBVdelNSs) providing a detailed comparison of the effect of NSs expression on the host cell. The sequence reads from all samples (uninfected cells, SBV and SBVdelNSs) assembled well to the bovine host reference genome (on average 87.43% of the reads). During infection with SBVdelNSs, 649 genes were differentially expressed compared to uninfected cells (78.7% upregulated) and many of these were known antiviral and IFN-stimulated genes. On the other hand, only nine genes were differentially expressed in SBV infected cells compared to uninfected control cells, demonstrating the strong inhibitory effect of NSs on cellular gene expression. However, the majority of the genes that were expressed during SBV infection are involved in restriction of viral replication and spread indicating that SBV does not completely manage to shutdown the host antiviral response. In this study we show the effects of SBV NSs on the transcriptome of infected cells as well as the cellular response to wild type SBV. Although NSs is very efficient in shutting down genes of the host innate response, a number of possible antiviral factors were identified. Thus the data from this study can serve as a base for more detailed mechanistic studies of SBV and other orthobunyaviruses.

  20. Host phylogeny determines viral persistence and replication in novel hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Longdon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts.

  1. Host Phylogeny Determines Viral Persistence and Replication in Novel Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Webster, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae) to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts. PMID:21966271

  2. Ballistic-type field penetration into metals illustrated by high- and low-frequency size-effect measurements in silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantmakher, V. F.; Lebech, Jens; Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1979-01-01

    Radio-frequency size-effect experiments were performed on silver plane-parallel plates at high, 45 GHz, and low, 3 MHz, frequencies. By investigation of size-effect structures we show the influence of frequency on the field distribution inside the metal. When the frequency increases, the splash...

  3. Genetics of Pathogen Fitness: Correlations with Virulence and Effects of Host Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plant pathology, a large body of work has focused on changes in virulence, the traits allowing infection of otherwise resistant hosts, while relatively few studies have examined changes in quantitative fitness traits, those affecting the reproductive success of the pathogen after infection has oc...

  4. Positive effects of refugee presence on host community nutritional status in Turkana County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengo, Rieti G; Oka, Rahul C; Vemuru, Varalakshmi; Golitko, Mark; Gettler, Lee T

    2018-01-01

    Refugee camps are often assumed to negatively impact local host communities through resource competition and conflict. We ask instead whether economic resources and trade networks associated with refugees have benefits for host community health and nutrition. To address this question we assess the impacts of Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya, comparing anthropometric indicators of nutritional status between Turkana communities in the region. Participants were recruited at four sites in Turkana County (N = 586): Kakuma Town, adjacent to Kakuma Refugee Camp; Lorugum, an area with sustained economic development; Lokichoggio, formerly host to international NGOs, and now underdeveloped; and Lorengo, an undeveloped, rural community. We evaluated nutritional status using summed skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI). Structured interviews provided contextual data. Age-controlled multiple regression models reveal two distinct skinfold thickness profiles for both sexes: comparatively elevated values in Kakuma and Lorugum, and significantly lower values in Lorengo and Lokichoggio. BMI did not vary significantly by location. Despite better nutritional status, a large proportion of Kakuma residents still report worries about basic needs, including hunger, health, and economic security. Kakuma Refugee Camp is associated with better host community energetic status indicators, compared to other relevant, regional sites varying in development and resources. Based on global nutritional standards, observed differences likely represent meaningful disparities in overall health. We suggest that access to cereals via refugee trade networks and employment might mediate this relationship. However, perceptions of refugees as illegitimate interlopers maintain a high psychological burden. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Great spotted cuckoo nestlings have no antipredatory effect on magpie or carrion crow host nests in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Manuel; de Neve, Liesbeth; Roldán, María; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Host defences against cuckoo parasitism and cuckoo trickeries to overcome them are a classic example of antagonistic coevolution. Recently it has been reported that this relationship may turn to be mutualistic in the case of the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and its brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), given that experimentally and naturally parasitized nests were depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests. This result was interpreted as a consequence of the antipredatory properties of a fetid cloacal secretion produced by cuckoo nestlings, which presumably deters predators from parasitized host nests. This potential defensive mechanism would therefore explain the detected higher fledgling success of parasitized nests during breeding seasons with high predation risk. Here, in a different study population, we explored the expected benefits in terms of reduced nest predation in naturally and experimentally parasitized nests of two different host species, carrion crows and magpies (Pica pica). During the incubation phase non-parasitized nests were depredated more frequently than parasitized nests. However, during the nestling phase, parasitized nests were not depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests, neither in magpie nor in carrion crow nests, and experimental translocation of great spotted cuckoo hatchlings did not reveal causal effects between parasitism state and predation rate of host nests. Therefore, our results do not fit expectations and, thus, do not support the fascinating possibility that great spotted cuckoo nestlings could have an antipredatory effect for host nestlings, at least in our study area. We also discuss different possibilities that may conciliate these with previous results, but also several alternative explanations, including the lack of generalizability of the previously documented mutualistic association.

  6. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  7. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  8. Synthesis, properties and host effects of rare-earth doped silica nanopowders for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Susan B.

    In this study, SiO2/Al2O3/Er2O 3 (SAE) nanopowders were fabricated by the CF-CVC technique with average primary particle sizes ranging from 10--30 nm. Fluorescence and lifetime measurements were made both on as-prepared powders, as well as heat treated powders, with the latter exhibiting significantly higher emission intensities. At ˜1000°C, the SAE became partially devitrified with extremely broad (FWHM ≈ 78 nm) and flat emission spectra, which is highly desirable for Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) in optical amplifiers. The unique optical properties of the powders are attributed to the formation of a metastable phase consisting of an uniform nano-scale dispersion of a metastable intermediate SiO2 (Al,Er)2O3 phase in an amorphous SiO 2 matrix. At higher heat treatments (1400°C), a dual-phase equilibrium structure was formed, consisting of a pyrochlore phase in a crystobalite matrix. The SAE nanopowders were incorporated into various optical hybrid glass hosts for active planar waveguide applications. Host selection was dependent on transparency in the wavelength region of interest (900 nm--1600 nm), index matching (n ˜ 1.5), chemical/thermal stability, and ease of processing. Furthermore, the inorganic-organic glasses were hydrophobic, resulting in a minimal level of residual OH- which can quench fluorescence emission. Four separate groups of host materials were studied: Perfluoro-alkyl Hybrid Glass (n ≈ 1.42), Alumina-Silica Hybrid Glass (n ≈ 1.49), Polyurethane-Silica Hybrid Glass (n ≈ 1.44), and Methyl/Epoxy Group Hybrid Glass (n ≈ 1.48). All hosts showed high spectral transparency, uniform dispersion of the nanopowder in the host, and minimal surface quenching of emission, and therefore represent excellent candidates for fabrication of next generation nanophotonic planar devices.

  9. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  10. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  11. Effects of juvenile host density and food availability on adult immune response, parasite resistance and virulence in a Daphnia-parasite system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine N Schoebel

    Full Text Available Host density can increase infection rates and reduce host fitness as increasing population density enhances the risk of becoming infected either through increased encounter rate or because host condition may decline. Conceivably, potential hosts could take high host density as a cue to up-regulate their defence systems. However, as host density usually covaries with food availability, it is difficult to examine the importance of host density in isolation. Thus, we performed two full-factorial experiments that varied juvenile densities of Daphnia magna (a freshwater crustacean and food availability independently. We also included a simulated high-density treatment, where juvenile experimental animals were kept in filtered media that previously maintained Daphnia at high-density. Upon reaching adulthood, we exposed the Daphnia to their sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa, and examined how the juvenile treatments influenced the likelihood and severity of infection (Experiment I and host immune investment (Experiment II. Neither juvenile density nor food treatments affected the likelihood of infection; however, well-fed hosts that were well-fed as juveniles produced more offspring prior to sterilization than their less well-fed counterparts. By contrast, parasite growth was independent of host juvenile resources or host density. Parasite-exposed hosts had a greater number of circulating haemocytes than controls (i.e., there was a cellular immune response, but the magnitude of immune response was not mediated by food availability or host density. These results suggest that density dependent effects on disease arise primarily through correlated changes in food availability: low food could limit parasitism and potentially curtail epidemics by reducing both the host's and parasite's reproduction as both depend on the same food.

  12. Host species and environmental effects on bacterial communities associated with Drosophila in the laboratory and in the natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Staubach

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila is a classic model organism to study adaptation as well as the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypes. Although associated bacterial communities might be important for many aspects of Drosophila biology, knowledge about their diversity, composition, and factors shaping them is limited. We used 454-based sequencing of a variable region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities associated with wild and laboratory Drosophila isolates. In order to specifically investigate effects of food source and host species on bacterial communities, we analyzed samples from wild Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans collected from a variety of natural substrates, as well as from adults and larvae of nine laboratory-reared Drosophila species. We find no evidence for host species effects in lab-reared flies; instead, lab of origin and stochastic effects, which could influence studies of Drosophila phenotypes, are pronounced. In contrast, the natural Drosophila-associated microbiota appears to be predominantly shaped by food substrate with an additional but smaller effect of host species identity. We identify a core member of this natural microbiota that belongs to the genus Gluconobacter and is common to all wild-caught flies in this study, but absent from the laboratory. This makes it a strong candidate for being part of what could be a natural D. melanogaster and D. simulans core microbiome. Furthermore, we were able to identify candidate pathogens in natural fly isolates.

  13. Effect of Heat Input During Disk Laser Bead-On-Plate Welding of Thermomechanically Rolled Steel on Penetration Characteristics and Porosity Formation in the Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of heat input during laser bead-on-plate welding of 5.0 mm thick plates of S700MC steel by modern Disk laser on the mechanism of steel penetration, shape and depth of penetration, and also on tendency to weld porosity formation. Based on the investigations performed in a wide range of laser welding parameters the relationship between laser power and welding speed, thus heat input, required for full penetration was determined. Additionally the relationship between the laser welding parameters and weld quality was determined.

  14. Is Black Hole Growth a Universal Process? Exploring Selection Effects in Measurements of AGN Accretion Rates and Host Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mackenzie

    2018-01-01

    At the center of essentially every massive galaxy is a monstrous black hole producing luminous radiation driven by the accretion of gas. By observing these active galactic nuclei (AGN) we may trace the growth of black holes across cosmic time. However, our knowledge of the full underlying AGN population is hindered by complex observational biases. My research aims to untangle these biases by using a novel approach to simulate the impact of selection effects on multiwavelength observations.The most statistically powerful studies of AGN to date come from optical spectroscopic surveys, with some reporting a complex relationship between AGN accretion rates and host galaxy characteristics. However, the optical waveband can be strongly influenced by selection effects and dilution from host galaxy star formation. I have shown that accounting for selection effects, the Eddington ratio distribution for optically-selected AGN is consistent with a broad power-law, as seen in the X-rays (Jones et al. 2016). This suggests that a universal Eddington ratio distribution may be enough to describe the full multiwavelength AGN population.Building on these results, I have expanded a semi-numerical galaxy formation simulation to include this straightforward prescription for AGN accretion and explicitly model selection effects. I have found that a simple model for AGN accretion can broadly reproduce the host galaxies and halos of X-ray AGN, and that different AGN selection techniques yield samples with very different host galaxy properties (Jones et al. 2017). Finally, I will discuss the capabilities of this simulation to build synthetic multiwavelength SEDs in order to explore what AGN populations would be detected with the next generation of observatories. This research is supported by a NASA Jenkins Graduate Fellowship under grant no. NNX15AU32H.

  15. Independent regulation of reovirus membrane penetration and apoptosis by the mu1 phi domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthi, Pranav; Coffey, Caroline M; Parker, John S L; Abel, Ty W; Dermody, Terence S

    2008-12-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of reovirus encephalitis. Reovirus outer-capsid protein mu1, which functions to penetrate host cell membranes during viral entry, is the primary regulator of apoptosis following reovirus infection. Ectopic expression of full-length and truncated forms of mu1 indicates that the mu1 phi domain is sufficient to elicit a cell death response. To evaluate the contribution of the mu1 phi domain to the induction of apoptosis following reovirus infection, phi mutant viruses were generated by reverse genetics and analyzed for the capacity to penetrate cell membranes and elicit apoptosis. We found that mutations in phi diminish reovirus membrane penetration efficiency by preventing conformational changes that lead to generation of key reovirus entry intermediates. Independent of effects on membrane penetration, amino acid substitutions in phi affect the apoptotic potential of reovirus, suggesting that phi initiates apoptosis subsequent to cytosolic delivery. In comparison to wild-type virus, apoptosis-defective phi mutant viruses display diminished neurovirulence following intracranial inoculation of newborn mice. These results indicate that the phi domain of mu1 plays an important regulatory role in reovirus-induced apoptosis and disease.

  16. Independent regulation of reovirus membrane penetration and apoptosis by the mu1 phi domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Danthi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of reovirus encephalitis. Reovirus outer-capsid protein mu1, which functions to penetrate host cell membranes during viral entry, is the primary regulator of apoptosis following reovirus infection. Ectopic expression of full-length and truncated forms of mu1 indicates that the mu1 phi domain is sufficient to elicit a cell death response. To evaluate the contribution of the mu1 phi domain to the induction of apoptosis following reovirus infection, phi mutant viruses were generated by reverse genetics and analyzed for the capacity to penetrate cell membranes and elicit apoptosis. We found that mutations in phi diminish reovirus membrane penetration efficiency by preventing conformational changes that lead to generation of key reovirus entry intermediates. Independent of effects on membrane penetration, amino acid substitutions in phi affect the apoptotic potential of reovirus, suggesting that phi initiates apoptosis subsequent to cytosolic delivery. In comparison to wild-type virus, apoptosis-defective phi mutant viruses display diminished neurovirulence following intracranial inoculation of newborn mice. These results indicate that the phi domain of mu1 plays an important regulatory role in reovirus-induced apoptosis and disease.

  17. Effect of Ramping Requirement and Price Cap on Energy Price in a System with High Wind Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Sebastián; Smeers, Yves; Aguado-Sanchez, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The European power market is currently retiring or mothballing large capacities of conventional plants, and at the same time incorporating a significant amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation, in particular wind. We analyse the mothballing process (and the resulting system) and study how they are affected by a price cap implemented in the energy only market, and by a possible implementation of ramping products in the system. Sebastian Martin, Yves Smeers, and Jose Aguado. Effect o...

  18. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

    1990-07-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.

  19. Modelling the effect of an alternative host population on the spread of citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'A. Vilamiu, Raphael G.; Ternes, Sonia; Laranjeira, Francisco F.; de C. Santos, Tâmara T.

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work was to model the spread of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) considering the presence of a population of alternative hosts (Murraya paniculata). We developed a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delays in the latency and incubation phases of the disease in the plants and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of HLB in Brazil. The results of numerical simulations indicate that alternative hosts should not play a crucial role on HLB dynamics considering a typical scenario for the Recôncavo Baiano region in Brazil . Also, the current policy of removing symptomatic plants every three months should not be expected to significantly hinder HLB spread.

  20. Effects of environmental and clinical interferents on the host capture efficiency of immobilized bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Daniel V; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-03-25

    Bacteriophage-functionalized surfaces are a new class of advanced functional material and have been demonstrated to be applicable for use as antimicrobial surfaces in medical applications (e.g., indwelling medical devices or wound dressings) or as biosensors for bacterial capture and detection. However, the complex composition of many real life samples (e.g., blood, natural waters, etc.) can potentially interfere with the interaction of phage and its bacterial host, leading to a decline in the efficiency of the phage-functionalized surface. In this study, the bacterial capture efficiency of two model phage-functionalized surfaces was assessed in the presence of potential environmental and biomedical interferents. The two phage-bacteria systems used in this study are PRD1 with Salmonella Typhimurium and T4 with Escherichia coli. The potential interferents tested included humic and fulvic acids, natural groundwater, colloidal latex microspheres, host extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), albumin, fibrinogen, and human serum. EPS and human serum decreased the host capture efficiency for immobilized PRD1 and T4, and also impaired the infectivity of the nonimmobilized (planktonic) phage. Interestingly, humic and fulvic acids reduced the capture efficiency of T4-functionalized surfaces, even though they did not lead to inactivation of the suspended virions. Neither humic nor fulvic acids affected the capture efficiency of PRD1. These findings demonstrate the inadequacy of traditional phage selection methods (i.e., infectivity of suspended phage toward its host in clean buffer) for designing advanced functional materials and further highlight the importance of taking into account the environmental conditions in which the immobilized phage is expected to function.

  1. Migration effects of Olympic siting: A pooled time series cross-sectional analysis of host regions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn D. Thilmany; Travis J. Lybbert

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable opposition to the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in the Salt Lake City metro area. This opposition stems primarily from fears of increased population growth due to the international attention. Proponents maintain that the Games will enhance the quality and quantity of jobs in the local economy, mitigating any undesirable impacts. This paper analyzes the experiences of past North American Olympic host regions, rather than the single case of Salt Lake City, to dete...

  2. Host Phenology and Leaf Effects on Susceptibility of California Bay Laurel to Phytophthora ramorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Steven F; Cohen, Michael F; Torok, Tamas; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Rank, Nathan E

    2016-01-01

    Spread of the plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of the forest disease sudden oak death, is driven by a few competent hosts that support spore production from foliar lesions. The relationship between traits of a principal foliar host, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), and susceptibility to P. ramorum infection were investigated with multiple P. ramorum isolates and leaves collected from multiple trees in leaf-droplet assays. We examined whether susceptibility varies with season, leaf age, or inoculum position. Bay laurel susceptibility was highest during spring and summer and lowest in winter. Older leaves (>1 year) were more susceptible than younger ones (8 to 11 months). Susceptibility was greater at leaf tips and edges than the middle of the leaf. Leaf surfaces wiped with 70% ethanol were more susceptible to P. ramorum infection than untreated leaf surfaces. Our results indicate that seasonal changes in susceptibility of U. californica significantly influence P. ramorum infection levels. Thus, in addition to environmental variables such as temperature and moisture, variability in host plant susceptibility contributes to disease establishment of P. ramorum.

  3. Effect of Energy Storage in Increasing the Penetration of RES in the Remote Island of Agios Efstratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Ioannis; Braun, Philipp; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Most of the inhabited Greek islands are not connected to the central electricity grid and their energy needs are satisfied by diesel power stations. The operation of such stations has negative economic and environmental effects related to the high transportation cost of fuels, increasing oil prices...... and emissions. The replacement of fossil fuelled stations with hybrid ones that combine renewable energy technologies with energy storage systems will provide a promising clean energy generation alternative and contribute to the limitation of the aforementioned drawbacks. The current paper deals...

  4. Effect of L-arginine on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and immune modulation of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vikky; Chauhan, Rubika; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Das, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. The life-cycle of Plasmodium species involves several stages both in mosquito and the vertebrate host. In the erythrocytic stage, Plasmodium resides inside the red blood cells (RBCs), where it meets most of its nutritional requirement by degrad- ing host's haemoglobin. L-arginine is required for growth and division of cells. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the effect of supplementation of different concentrations of L-arginine and L-citrulline on the growth of parasite, and effect of the culture supernatant on the host's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To examine the effect of supplementation of L-arginine and L-citrulline, Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) was cultured in RPMI 1640, L-arginine deficient RPMI 1640, and in different concentrations of L-arginine, and L-citrulline supplemented in arginine deficient RPMI 1640 medium. To have a holistic view of in vivo cell activation, the PBMCs isolated from healthy human host were cultured in the supernatant collected from P. falciparum culture. Growth of the parasite was greatly enhanced in L-arginine supplemented media and was found to be concentration dependent. However, parasite growth was compromised in L-citrulline supplemented and L-arginine deficient media. The supernatant collected from L-arginine supplemented parasite media (sArg) showed increased FOXP3 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression as compared to the supernatant collected from L-citrulline supple- mented parasite media (sCit). The in vitro culture results showed, decreased parasite growth, and decreased expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) (a coinhibitory molecule) and IL-10 in the L-citrulline supplemented media as compared to L-arginine supplemented media. Hence, it was concluded that L-citrulline supplementation would be a better alternative than L-arginine to inhibit the parasite growth.

  5. Large-Scale Land Acquisition and Its Effects on the Water Balance in Investor and Host Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breu, Thomas; Bader, Christoph; Messerli, Peter; Heinimann, Andreas; Rist, Stephan; Eckert, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as 'water grabbing'. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources--such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia--invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk.

  6. Large-Scale Land Acquisition and Its Effects on the Water Balance in Investor and Host Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Breu

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as 'water grabbing'. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources--such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia--invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk.

  7. Interspecific competition counteracts negative effects of dispersal on adaptation of an arthropod herbivore to a new host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, A; Bisschop, K; Etienne, R S; Bonte, D

    2017-11-01

    Dispersal and competition have both been suggested to drive variation in adaptability to a new environment, either positively or negatively. A simultaneous experimental test of both mechanisms is however lacking. Here, we experimentally investigate how population dynamics and local adaptation to a new host plant in a model species, the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), are affected by dispersal from a stock population (no-adapted) and competition with an already adapted spider mite species (Tetranychus evansi). For the population dynamics, we find that competition generally reduces population size and increases the risk of population extinction. However, these negative effects are counteracted by dispersal. For local adaptation, the roles of competition and dispersal are reversed. Without competition, dispersal exerts a negative effect on adaptation (measured as fecundity) to a novel host and females receiving the highest number of immigrants performed similarly to the stock population females. By contrast, with competition, adding more immigrants did not result in a lower fecundity. Females from populations with competition receiving the highest number of immigrants had a significantly higher fecundity than females from populations without competition (same dispersal treatment) and than the stock population females. We suggest that by exerting a stronger selection on the adapting populations, competition can counteract the migration load effect of dispersal. Interestingly, adaptation to the new host does not significantly reduce performance on the ancestral host, regardless of dispersal rate or competition. Our results highlight that assessments of how species can adapt to changing conditions need to jointly consider connectivity and the community context. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons ltd on Behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  9. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  10. Contrasting effects of land use intensity and exotic host plants on the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones.

  11. The Effect of Novolac and Graphite Polycrystal on the Acetone Penetration and Thermal Resistance of Nanocomposites Based on Nitrile Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Mahboudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments of high diffusive environments in coincidence with emerging fluids with strong ability to destroy polymeric systems have resulted in rapid deformation and destruction of polymeric parts when in contact with such aggressive environments. Therefore, nowadays, there is a great need to develop highly resistant materials towards aggressive chemicals and harsh conditions. In this paper the effect of graphite polycrystal powders and novolac type phenolic resin has been experimentally studied towards acetone diffusion and thermal stability of polyacrylonitrile butadiene rubber/novolac/graphite polycrystal nanocomposites. The results obtained from dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and swelling in acetone showed that after 32 h samples reached to 94.2% of final swelling state. By using Avrami equation and swelling experimental data, the functionality of Ln(m/m0 to novolac and graphite polycrystal weight fraction and test duration time were evaluated. This theoretical equation evaluated and predicted the amount of Ln(m/m0 with 5.92% error after 32 h. Increases in graphite polycrystal content were followed by decreases in diffusion of acetone and modulus, before glass transition temperature, and increased thermal stability and thermal resistance of the nanocomposites. Increases in novolac content by 35 wt%, decreased glass transition temperature, thermal stability and thermal resistance of the nanocomposites. In nanocomposite, containing 45 wt% of novolac, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA data and scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed phase separation of thermoset and elastomer in the nanocomposite blend.

  12. Assessing the potential effects of fungicides on nontarget gut fungi (trichomycetes) and their associated larval black fly hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma R.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Gray, Elmer; Bond, Laura; Steele, Lance; Kandel, Prasanna; Chamberlin, Alison; Gause, Justin; Reynolds, Nicole; Robertson, Ian; Novak, Stephen; Feris, Kevin; White, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungicides are moderately hydrophobic and have been detected in water and sediment, particularly in agricultural watersheds, but typically are not included in routine water quality monitoring efforts. This is despite their widespread use and frequent application to combat fungal pathogens. Although the efficacy of these compounds on fungal pathogens is well documented, little is known about their effects on nontarget fungi. This pilot study, a field survey in southwestern Idaho from April to December 2010 on four streams with varying pesticide inputs (two agricultural and two reference sites), was conducted to assess nontarget impact of fungicides on gut fungi, or trichomycetes. Tissues of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), hosts of gut fungi, were analyzed for pesticide accumulation. Fungicides were detected in hosts from streams within agricultural watersheds but were not detected in hosts from reference streams. Gut fungi from agricultural sites exhibited decreased percent infestation, density and sporulation within the gut, and black fly tissues had elevated pesticide concentrations. Differences observed between the sites demonstrate a potential effect on this symbiotic system. Future research is needed to parse out the details of the complex biotic and abiotic relationships; however, these preliminary results indicate that impacts to nontarget organisms could have far-reaching consequences within aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Disease spread across multiple scales in a spatial hierarchy: effect of host spatial structure and of inoculum quantity and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosme, Marie; Lucas, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    Spatial patterns of both the host and the disease influence disease spread and crop losses. Therefore, the manipulation of these patterns might help improve control strategies. Considering disease spread across multiple scales in a spatial hierarchy allows one to capture important features of epidemics developing in space without using explicitly spatialized variables. Thus, if the system under study is composed of roots, plants, and planting hills, the effect of host spatial pattern can be studied by varying the number of plants per planting hill. A simulation model based on hierarchy theory was used to simulate the effects of large versus small planting hills, low versus high level of initial infections, and aggregated versus uniform distribution of initial infections. The results showed that aggregating the initially infected plants always resulted in slower epidemics than spreading out the initial infections uniformly. Simulation results also showed that, in most cases, disease epidemics were slower in the case of large host aggregates (100 plants/hill) than with smaller aggregates (25 plants/hill), except when the initially infected plants were both numerous and spread out uniformly. The optimal strategy for disease control depends on several factors, including initial conditions. More importantly, the model offers a framework to account for the interplay between the spatial characteristics of the system, rates of infection, and aggregation of the disease.

  14. Small and medium-sized enterprises’ exporting: Home and host country motivators effect on first and successive export venture decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Stouraitis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the internationalization (particularly exporting of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs taking a sample of United Kingdom (UK SMEs for the use in economic policy, academia and management. It focuses on the critical first and less risky step towards internationalization and separates the motivators into home country and host country. The paper investigates 44 specific, high impact, pre-selected exporting motivators from the literature and tests their effect on the firm’s initial export decision and latest (or sequential export decision. Results show that the first exporting choice affects later exporting choices and both are mostly affected by home country-specific, internal, motivators as opposed to host country-specific reactive motivators. In addition regionalization shows an association as European Union membership of the UK showed a relationship to subsequent entry mode choice. The paper’s results are of use to policy-makers and management.

  15. Effect of silver ions on the energy transfer from host defects to Tb ions in sol–gel silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbass, Abd Ellateef [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology (Sudan); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Kroon, R.E., E-mail: KroonRE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2015-04-15

    Plasmonic metal structures have been suggested to enhance the luminescence from rare-earth (RE) ions, but this enhancement is not yet well understood or applied to phosphor materials. Although some reports using Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in glass have attributed enhancement of RE emission to the strong electric fields associated with Ag NPs, it has also been proposed that the enhancement is instead due to energy transfer from Ag ions to RE ions. Our work using sol–gel silica shows a third possibility, namely that enhancement of the RE (e.g. Tb) emission is due to energy transfer from defects of the host material to the Tb ions, where the addition of Ag influences the silica host defects. The oxidation state of Ag as a function of annealing temperature was investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while optical properties were investigated using a Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer or by exciting samples with a 325 nm He–Cd laser. The results showed that Ag ions have a significant effect on the silica host defects, which resulted in enhancement of the green Tb emission at 544 nm for non-resonant excitation using a wavelength of 325 nm. - Highlights: • Conversion of Ag ions to metallic nanoparticles after annealing of sol–gel silica. • Addition of Ag resulted in enhanced green luminescence from Tb ions in silica. • Enhancement is attributed to the effect of added Ag on the host defects of silica.

  16. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  17. Dual Therapeutic Effects of C-10068, a Dextromethorphan Derivative, Against Post-Traumatic Nonconvulsive Seizures and Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Deborah A.; Graham, Philip B.; Bridson, Gary W.; Uttamsingh, Vinita; Chen, Zhiyong; Leung, Lai Yee; Tortella, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Post-traumatic seizures can exacerbate injurious outcomes of severe brain trauma, yet effective treatments are limited owing to the complexity of the pathology underlying the concomitant occurrence of both events. In this study, we tested C‐10068, a novel deuterium-containing analog of (+)-N-methyl-3-ethoxymorphinan, in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and evaluated the effects of C-10068 on PBBI-induced nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), acute neuroinflammation, and neurofunctional outcomes. NCS were detected by electroencephalographic monitoring. Neuroinflammation was evaluated by immunohistochemical markers, for example, glial fibrillary acidic protein and major histocompatibility complex class I, for activation of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. Neurofunction was tested using rotarod and Morris water maze tasks. Three infusion doses of C-10068 (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/h×72 h) were tested in the antiseizure study. Neuroinflammation and neurofunction were evaluated in animals treated with 5.0 mg/kg/h×72 h C-10068. Compared to vehicle treatment, C-10068 dose dependently reduced PBBI-induced NCS incidence (40–50%), frequency (20–70%), and duration (30–82%). The most effective antiseizure dose of C-10068 (5.0 mg/kg/h×72 h) also significantly attenuated hippocampal astrocyte activation and perilesional microglial reactivity post-PBBI. Within C-10068-treated animals, a positive correlation was observed in reduction in NCS frequency and reduction in hippocampal astrocyte activation. Further, C-10068 treatment significantly attenuated astrocyte activation in seizure-free animals. However, C-10068 failed to improve PBBI-induced motor and cognitive functions with the dosing regimen used in this study. Overall, the results indicating that C-10068 exerts both potent antiseizure and antiinflammatory effects are promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:25794265

  18. Dual Therapeutic Effects of C-10068, a Dextromethorphan Derivative, Against Post-Traumatic Nonconvulsive Seizures and Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi-Chun May; Shear, Deborah A; Graham, Philip B; Bridson, Gary W; Uttamsingh, Vinita; Chen, Zhiyong; Leung, Lai Yee; Tortella, Frank C

    2015-10-15

    Post-traumatic seizures can exacerbate injurious outcomes of severe brain trauma, yet effective treatments are limited owing to the complexity of the pathology underlying the concomitant occurrence of both events. In this study, we tested C-10068, a novel deuterium-containing analog of (+)-N-methyl-3-ethoxymorphinan, in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and evaluated the effects of C-10068 on PBBI-induced nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), acute neuroinflammation, and neurofunctional outcomes. NCS were detected by electroencephalographic monitoring. Neuroinflammation was evaluated by immunohistochemical markers, for example, glial fibrillary acidic protein and major histocompatibility complex class I, for activation of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. Neurofunction was tested using rotarod and Morris water maze tasks. Three infusion doses of C-10068 (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/h × 72 h) were tested in the antiseizure study. Neuroinflammation and neurofunction were evaluated in animals treated with 5.0 mg/kg/h × 72 h C-10068. Compared to vehicle treatment, C-10068 dose dependently reduced PBBI-induced NCS incidence (40-50%), frequency (20-70%), and duration (30-82%). The most effective antiseizure dose of C-10068 (5.0 mg/kg/h × 72 h) also significantly attenuated hippocampal astrocyte activation and perilesional microglial reactivity post-PBBI. Within C-10068-treated animals, a positive correlation was observed in reduction in NCS frequency and reduction in hippocampal astrocyte activation. Further, C-10068 treatment significantly attenuated astrocyte activation in seizure-free animals. However, C-10068 failed to improve PBBI-induced motor and cognitive functions with the dosing regimen used in this study. Overall, the results indicating that C-10068 exerts both potent antiseizure and antiinflammatory effects are promising and warrant further investigation.

  19. The effects of electron transfer on the energy loss of slow He2+, C2+, and C4+ ions penetrating a graphene fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Fei; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Cong-Zhang; Dai, Jinxia; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2014-01-01

    Electronic energy loss in the collision processes of slow ions with a graphene fragment is investigated by combining ab initio time-dependent density functional theory calculations for electrons with molecular dynamics simulations for ions in real time and real space. We study the electronic energy loss of slow He 2+ , C 2+ , and C 4+ ions penetrating the graphene fragment as a function of the ion velocity, and establish the velocity-proportional energy loss for low-charged ions down to 0.1 a.u. One mechanism clarified in the simulations for electron transfer is polarization capture, which is effective for bare ions at low velocities. The other one is resonance capture, by which the incident ion can capture electrons from the graphene fragment to its electron affinity levels, which have the same, or nearly the same, energy as those of the electron donor levels. The results demonstrate that the nonlinear behavior of energy loss of C 4+ is attributed to the large number of electrons captured by this multi-charged ion during the collision. (paper)

  20. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  1. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  2. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  3. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  4. Effects of Genetic Variation on the E. coli Host-Circuit Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cardinale

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Predictable operation of engineered biological circuitry requires the knowledge of host factors that compete or interfere with designed function. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of the interaction between constitutive expression from a test circuit and cell-growth properties in a subset of genetic variants of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Differences in generic cellular parameters such as ribosome availability and growth rate are the main determinants (89% of strain-specific differences of circuit performance in laboratory-adapted strains but are responsible for only 35% of expression variation across 88 mutants of E. coli BW25113. In the latter strains, we identify specific cell functions, such as nitrogen metabolism, that directly modulate circuit behavior. Finally, we expose aspects of carbon metabolism that act in a strain- and sequence-specific manner. This method of dissecting interactions between host factors and heterologous circuits enables the discovery of mechanisms of interference necessary for the development of design principles for predictable cellular engineering.

  5. Revisiting The First Galaxies: The effects of Population III stars on their host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratov, Alexander L. [U. Michigan, Dept. Astron.; Gnedin, Oleg Y. [U. Michigan, Dept. Astron.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Zemp, Marcel [Beijing, KITPC

    2013-07-12

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H2 formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 108 years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 × 106 M re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.

  6. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Origin, History, Distribution, Taxonomy, Morphology, Hosts, and Pathogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Desquesnes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of “surra,” is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies. It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras and biological vectors (vampire bats. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death, which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect.

  7. Effects of selfsuperparasitism and host age on fitness-correlated traits in the solitary endoparasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Baoping; Meng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The domed fitness functions are suggested to describe developmental patterns of progeny parasitoids in relation to host age at oviposition in solitary koinobint parasitoids that are engaged in single parasitism, but few studies have investigated the applicability of the functions as related to superparasitism. The present study was designed to compare fitness functions between single parasitism and superparasitism by examining developmental patterns of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymneoptera: Braconidae) progeny in relation to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), either singly parasitized or self-superparasitized as second–fifth instar larvae. Selfsuperparasitism caused deleterious effects on the fitness-related traits of parasitoid progeny, as demonstrated by a prolonged egg-to-adult emergence time, a smaller body size, and shorter longevity of the emerging adults, and decreased survival to adult emergence. While the domed fitness function was detected for development time, survival, adult body size, and longevity in relation to host larvae that were singly parasitized, the function was observed only for progeny survival in relation to host larvae that were self-superparasitized. This study suggests that developmental fitness functions with selfsuperparasitism can deviate from those with single parasitism in solitary koinobiont parasitoids. PMID:25201512

  8. Effects of self-superparasitism and host age on fitness-correlated traits in the solitary endoparasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Baoping; Meng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The domed fitness functions are suggested to describe developmental patterns of progeny parasitoids in relation to host age at oviposition in solitary koinobint parasitoids that are engaged in single parasitism, but few studies have investigated the applicability of the functions as related to superparasitism. The present study was designed to compare fitness functions between single parasitism and superparasitism by examining developmental patterns of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymneoptera: Braconidae) progeny in relation to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), either singly parasitized or self-superparasitized as second-fifth instar larvae. Self-superparasitism caused deleterious effects on the fitness-related traits of parasitoid progeny, as demonstrated by a prolonged egg-to-adult emergence time, a smaller body size, and shorter longevity of the emerging adults, and decreased survival to adult emergence. While the domed fitness function was detected for development time, survival, adult body size, and longevity in relation to host larvae that were singly parasitized, the function was observed only for progeny survival in relation to host larvae that were self-superparasitized. This study suggests that developmental fitness functions with self-superparasitism can deviate from those with single parasitism in solitary koinobiont parasitoids.

  9. The penetrating depth analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard Chang’e-3 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shu-Guo; Su, Yan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Ding, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai

    2017-04-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) has successfully been used to acquire a large amount of scientific data during its in-situ detection. The analysis of penetrating depth can help to determine whether the target is within the effective detection range and contribute to distinguishing useful echoes from noise. First, this study introduces two traditional methods, both based on a radar transmission equation, to calculate the penetrating depth. The only difference between the two methods is that the first method adopts system calibration parameters given in the calibration report and the second one uses high-voltage-off radar data. However, some prior knowledge and assumptions are needed in the radar equation and the accuracy of assumptions will directly influence the final results. Therefore, a new method termed the Correlation Coefficient Method (CCM) is provided in this study, which is only based on radar data without any a priori assumptions. The CCM can obtain the penetrating depth according to the different correlation between reflected echoes and noise. To be exact, there is a strong correlation in the useful reflected echoes and a random correlation in the noise between adjacent data traces. In addition, this method can acquire a variable penetrating depth along the profile of the rover, but only one single depth value can be obtained from traditional methods. Through a simulation, the CCM has been verified as an effective method to obtain penetration depth. The comparisons and analysis of the calculation results of these three methods are also implemented in this study. Finally, results show that the ultimate penetrating depth of Channel 1 and the estimated penetrating depth of Channel 2 range from 136.9 m to 165.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=6.6) and from 13.0 m to 17.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=2.3), respectively.

  10. Particle penetration and radiation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sigmund, Peter

    This book, which has evolved from the author’s lectures at the University of Copenhagen and the University of Southern Denmark, draws on his experience as an active researcher in the interaction of charged particles with matter over more than forty years. The emphasis is on the theoretical description of fundamental phenomena, and much attention has been given to classic topics such as: Rutherford scattering; the theory of particle stopping as developed by Bohr, Bethe, Bloch and Lindhard; the statistical description of energy loss as developed by Bohr, Bothe, Williams and Landau; and numerous more recent developments. An attempt has been made to provide at least one complete derivation of a theoretical description for all central aspects. The presentation is intended to respect the ideas of the original authors, but much effort has been invested in establishing a unified and appealing notation consistent with present-day standards. It is intended that this volume will satisfy a long-standing need for a text...

  11. Microbial mitigation-exacerbation continuum: a novel framework for microbiome effects on hosts in the face of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron S; Thapa-Magar, Khum B; Afkhami, Michelle E

    2018-03-01

    A key challenge to understanding microbiomes and their role in ecological processes is contextualizing their effects on host organisms, particularly when faced with environmental stress. One influential theory, the Stress Gradient Hypothesis, might predict that the frequency of positive interactions increases with stressful conditions such that microbial taxa would mitigate harmful effects on host performance. Yet, equally plausible is that microbial taxa could exacerbate these effects. Here, we introduce the Mitigation-Exacerbation Continuum as a novel framework to conceptualize microbial mediation of stress. We (1) use this continuum to quantify microbial mediation of stress for six plant species and (2) test the association between these continuum values and natural species' abundance. We factorially manipulated a common stress (allelopathy) and the presence of soil microbes to quantify microbial effects in benign and stressed environments for two critical early life-history metrics, seed germination and seedling biomass. Although we found evidence of both mitigation and exacerbation among the six species, exacerbation was more common. Across species, the degree of microbial-mediated effects on germination explained >80% of the variation of natural field abundances. Our results suggest a critical role of soil microbes in mediating plant stress responses, and a potential microbial mechanism underlying species abundance. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.

  13. Why stay in a bad relationship? The effect of local host phenology on a generalist butterfly feeding on a low-ranked host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audusseau, Hélène; de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria; Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören

    2016-06-29

    In plant-feeding insects, the evolutionary retention of polyphagy remains puzzling. A better understanding of the relationship between these organisms and changes in the metabolome of their host plants is likely to suggest functional links between them, and may provide insights into how polyphagy is maintained. We investigated the phenological change of Cynoglossum officinale, and how a generalist butterfly species, Vanessa cardui, responded to this change. We used untargeted metabolite profiling to map plant seasonal changes in both primary and secondary metabolites. We compared these data to differences in larval performance on vegetative plants early and late in the season. We also performed two oviposition preference experiments to test females' ability to choose between plant developmental stages (vegetative and reproductive) early and late in the season. We found clear seasonal changes in plant primary and secondary metabolites that correlated with larval performance. The seasonal change in plant metabolome reflected changes in both nutrition and toxicity and resulted in zero survival in the late period. However, large differences among families in larval ability to feed on C. officinale suggest that there is genetic variation for performance on this host. Moreover, females accepted all plants for oviposition, and were not able to discriminate between plant developmental stages, in spite of the observed overall differences in metabolite profile potentially associated with differences in suitability as larval food. In V. cardui, migratory behavior, and thus larval feeding times, are not synchronized with plant phenology at the reproductive site. This lack of synchronization, coupled with the observed lack of discriminatory oviposition, obviously has potential fitness costs. However, this "opportunistic" behavior may as well function as a source of potential host plant evolution, promoting for example the acceptance of new plants.

  14. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the mapping of near surface tree roots is demonstrated. GPR enables tree roots to be mapped in a non-destructive and cost-effective manner and is therefore a useful prospecting...

  15. Penetration of electronic beams in ionizing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiarena, M.L.; Zanete, D.H.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the penetration of an electron beam in an ionizable medium by means of a generalized kinetic equation. This equation is related to elastic collisions, processes of creation and destruction of particles. By integrating numerically the transport equation, it can be evaluated the relative effects of all the processes involved in the evolution of the system. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  16. STYLET PENETRATION BEHAVIOURS OF FOUR Cicadulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Feeding from phloem cells, overall probing and probe mean (the average time per probe) were higher ... Key Words: Cicadulina spp., electrical penetration graph, MSV, Zea mays .... wire and alligator clip clamped to the stem of the .... á All measures are in minutes except for frequency of probing; - Main effect not significant.

  17. Effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivatives on penetration of /sup 169/Yb and /sup 144/Ce into the rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrukiewicz, Z; Burakowski, T; Derecki, J

    1976-01-01

    Penetration of radioactive ytterbium-169 and cerium-144 into fetuses was determined at the end of pregnancy and penetration into suckling rats was studied during feeding with the milk of exposed mothers when EDTA or DTPA derivatives were being administered. Injection of ytterbium-169 as a complex with EDTA or DTPA or injection of Na/sub 2/Ca EDTA or Na/sub 3/Ca DTPA 1h after administration of cerium-144 to mothers reduced penetration of both radionuclides into offsprings in relation to the animals receiving no complex compounds. It was observed that the action of DTPA was stronger than that of EDTA. Passage of ytterbium with milk and across the placenta was greater than the passage of cerium.

  18. Effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivatives on penetration of ytterbium-169 and cerium-144 into the rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrukiewicz, Z; Burakowski, T; Derecki, J [Wojskowy Inst. Higieny i Epidemiologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    Penetration of radioactive ytterbum-169 and cerium-144 into fetuses was determined at the end of pregnancy and penetration into the organism of suckling rats was studied during feeding with the milk of exposed mothers when EDTA or DTPA derivatives were being administered. Injection of ytterbum-169 as a complex with EDTA or DTPA or injection of Na/sub 2/Ca EDTA or Na/sub 3/Ca DTPA 1h after administration of cerium-144 to mothers reduced penetration of both radionuclides into offsprings in relation to the animals receiving no complex compounds. It was observed that the action of DTPA was stronger than that of EDTA. Passage of ytterbium with milk and across the placenta was greater than the passage of cerium.

  19. Effect of antiviral treatment and host susceptibility on positive selection in hepatitis C virus (HCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Sentandreu, Vicente; Castro, José A; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Bracho, Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ortega, Enrique; Del Olmo, Juan; Carnicer, Fernando; González-Candelas, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2008-02-01

    We have conducted a large sequence study of the E1-E2 and NS5A regions of the HCV, subtypes 1a and b, both in patients previously treated with interferon, and untreated patients, who later responded, or not, to a combination therapy based on interferon plus ribavirin. We have examined the role played by the number of positively selected sites on disease progression and its relationship with several variables such as patients' age, sex and their risk of acquiring the disease. We have detected three groups of patients that respond or not to combination therapy: responders of intermediate age, older non-responders and young non-responders, they possess an increasing average number of positively selected sites in the E1-E2 region, respectively. We conclude that the host's genetic factors play an important role in whether the disease is contained or becomes chronic.

  20. Conceptualizing knowledge transfer between expatriates and host country nationals: The mediating effect of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimunah Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose a conceptual model of knowledge transfer by relating two specific personal factors of expatriate and host country national (HCN dyads as antecedents of knowledge transfer, and mediated by social capital factors. An intensive literature review method was employed to identify and analyse relevant literatures. The paper used a dyadic bi-directional approach in theorizing knowledge transfer by integrating the social capital theory, and the anxiety and uncertainty management theory. The paper considers two personal factors (cultural intelligence and knowledge-seeking behaviour and two social capital variables (trust and shared vision as mediators of knowledge transfer. Upon model validation, the paper could offer practical interventions for human resource practitioners and managers to assist multinational corporations towards managing knowledge transfer involving expatriates and HCNs.

  1. Separate effects of irradiation and of graft-versus-host reaction on rat mucosal mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, A.G.; Munro, G.H.; Huntley, J.F.; Miller, H.R.P.; Ferguson, A.

    1989-01-01

    T cell mediated immune responses in the gut can produce enteropathy and malabsorption. The authors investigated the relevance of mucosal mast cells (MMC) to the mechanisms of this enteropathy by using graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) in the rat as a model of mucosal delayed type hypersensitivity. x-irradiation, with or without GvHR, led to the virtual disappearance of jejunal MMC, undetectable jejunal rat mast cell protease (RMCPII) and very low levels of RMCPII in serum (all p<0.01 when compared with unirradiated controls). These experiments show that there is a modest expansion in jejunal MMC in unirradiated rats with semiallogeneic GvHR, whereas irradiation, alone or associated with GvHR, profoundly depletes MMC for at least two weeks. The enteropathy of GvHR can evolve in the virtual absence of MMC. (author)

  2. Probing the effect of polymer molecular weight on penetration into the wood cell wall using polyethylenimine (PEI) as a model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorvel, Brian; Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar; Chen, Ida; Bowling, Andrew; Williams, Kerry; King, Steve

    2018-05-01

    Decking is one of the largest applications for the treated wood market. The most challenging property to obtain for treated wood is dimensional stability, which can be achieved, in part, by cell wall bulking, cell wall polymer crosslinking and removal of hygroscopic components in the cell wall. A commonly accepted key requirement is for the actives to infuse through the cell wall, which has a microporosity of ∼5-13 nm. Equally as challenging is being able to measure and quantify the cell wall penetration. Branched polyethylenimine (PEI) was studied as a model polymer for penetration due to its water solubility, polarity, variable molecular weight ranges, and ability to form a chelation complex with preservative metals to treat lumbers. Two different molecular weight polyethylenimines (PEI), one with a weight average molecular weight (Mw) equal to 800 Da and the other 750 000 Da, were investigated for penetration by microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Analytical methods were developed to both create smooth interfaces and for relative quantitation and visualisation of PEI penetration into the wood. The results showed both PEI with Mw of 800 Da and PEI with Mw of 750 000 Da coated the lumens in high density. However, only the PEI with Mw of 800 appeared to penetrate the cell walls in sufficient levels. Literature has shown the hydrodynamic radii of PEI 750 000 is near 29 nm, whereas a smaller PEI at 25 K showed 4.5 nm. Most importantly the results, based on methods developed, show how molecular weight and tertiary structure of the polymer can affect its penetration, with the microporosity of the wood being the main barrier. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Development Of The Nuclear Optical Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.; Koike, K.; Imada, Y.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed the nuclear optical penetration to be incorporated in the wall penetration of the shell to introduce a data transmission system using optical fibers into a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. Radiation-induced coloration in optical glass seriously affects transmission characteristics of optical fibers, whereas it has been revealed that the pure-silica core optical fiber without any dopant in the core has wide applicability in radiation fields thanks to its very low radiation-induced attenuation. The wall penetration of the shell should have airtightness and resistivity to heat, vibration, and pressure, let alone radiation, excellent enough to be invariable in data transmission efficiency even when subjected to severe environmental tests. The sealing modules of this newly developed nuclear optical penetration are hermetically sealed. The gap between the optical fiber rod (100 pm in core diameter and 5 mm in rod diameter) and stainless steel tube is sealed with lamingted glass layer. As the result of He gas leakage test, high airtightness of less than 10 cc/sec was achieved. No thermal deformation of the core was caused by sealing with laminated glass layer, nor was observed transmission loss. Then the sealiing modules were subjected to the irradiation test using 60 Co gamma ray exposure of 2 x 10 rads. Though silica glass layer supporting the fiber rod and sealing glass portion turned blackish purple, transparency of the fiber was not affected. Only less than 0.5 dB of connecting loss was observed at the connecting point with the optical fiber cable. The sealing modules were also found to have resistivity to vibration and pressure as excellent as that of existing nuclear electric penetrations. We expect the nuclear optical fiber penetration will be much effective in improving reliability of data transmission systems using optical fibers in radiation fields.

  4. Host-mediated antitumor effect of DMG, a degraded D-manno-D-glucan from Microellobosporia grisea culture fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H; Hashimoto, S; Nagao, S; Kita, Y; Khono, M; Ogawa, H; Abe, S; Mizuno, D

    1984-03-01

    DMG, a new polysaccharide with a well-characterized structure, isolated from the culture filtrate of an actinomycetes and then degraded by acid treatment, was tested for antitumor activity on allogeneic and syngeneic tumors in mice. In the allogeneic Ehrlich solid tumor system, DMG showed antitumor activity over a wide dose range, its optimal dose being 10-100 mg/kg. The optimal time of DMG administration was 1-2 weeks after tumor inoculation, but DMG was also effective when given before tumor inoculation. DMG was effective when given ip, sc, it (intratumorally) or iv. DMG also had antitumor effects on syngeneic tumors. It rapidly inhibited the growth of MM46 mammary carcinoma, MH134 hepatoma, and Meth A fibrosarcoma, and also inhibited spontaneous pulmonary metastases of B16-BL6 melanoma. However, it had no direct cytocidal action on tumor cells in vitro. Its antitumor activity was much less in athymic nude mice and in mice immunosuppressed by whole-body X-irradiation than in normal hosts.Thus, DMG was shown to exert antitumor activity via host-mediated mechanisms. Its antitumor activity is discussed in comparison with those of other antitumor polysaccharides.

  5. Effect of host irradiation on bio-infectivity and proliferation capacity of Steinernema glaseri as entomopathogenic nematodes on a serious tropical pest, Spodoptera litura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, R K; Barik, T K [Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2007-07-15

    Bioefficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Steinernema glaseri on irradiated lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) was studied to understand the impact of host irradiation on behaviour of EPNs in order to establish these nematodes as potential biocontrol agents by using nuclear techniques. Initially, radiation impact was ascertained on growth and reproductive behaviour of host, S. litura when treated in different stages, viz. 5th instar larva (L5), 6th instar larva (L6) and pre-pupa, to select the range of gamma sterilizing doses for these insect stages. ED{sub 50} and ED{sub 90} gamma doses resulting into 50% and 90% check, respectively, in pupa formation, adult emergence and egg viability of host with respect to control, were determined. Then, based on these results, the efficacy of the selected doses, (40-70Gy), was evaluated on the metamorphosis, degree of malformation and reproductive behaviour of S. litura before studying the EPNs' bio-infectivity on irradiated host. 70 Gy was determined as an overall sterilizing dose for L5, L6 and pre-pupa stages. The data indicated that radiosusceptibility decreased with age. Host irradiation of L5 and L6 stages did not influence significantly the parasitization by infective juveniles (IJs) of EPNs. Irradiation decrease the pre-pupal parasitization by EPNs, but in case pre-pupa escaped as being target for parasitization, impact of host irradiation was not apparent on the parasitization of the ensuing pupal stage, although total parasitization by EPNs in pre-pupal and pupal stages (subsequent to pre-pupal irradiation and pre-pupal exposure to IJs) was decreased due to radiation. The impact of host irradiation with 40 Gy was not significant on the bio-infective behaviour of EPNs except harvest of IJs from host stage-pupa. Host irradiation dose of 70 Gy reduced the IJs harvest per mg host weight by 9-11.7% on L5 and by 9-19.8% on L6 in comparison to control. The effect of host radiation on harvest of IJs was

  6. Effect of host irradiation on bio-infectivity and proliferation capacity of Steinernema glaseri as entomopathogenic nematodes on a serious tropical pest, Spodoptera litura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Barik, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    Bioefficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Steinernema glaseri on irradiated lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) was studied to understand the impact of host irradiation on behaviour of EPNs in order to establish these nematodes as potential biocontrol agents by using nuclear techniques. Initially, radiation impact was ascertained on growth and reproductive behaviour of host, S. litura when treated in different stages, viz. 5th instar larva (L5), 6th instar larva (L6) and pre-pupa, to select the range of gamma sterilizing doses for these insect stages. ED 50 and ED 90 gamma doses resulting into 50% and 90% check, respectively, in pupa formation, adult emergence and egg viability of host with respect to control, were determined. Then, based on these results, the efficacy of the selected doses, (40-70Gy), was evaluated on the metamorphosis, degree of malformation and reproductive behaviour of S. litura before studying the EPNs' bio-infectivity on irradiated host. 70 Gy was determined as an overall sterilizing dose for L5, L6 and pre-pupa stages. The data indicated that radiosusceptibility decreased with age. Host irradiation of L5 and L6 stages did not influence significantly the parasitization by infective juveniles (IJs) of EPNs. Irradiation decrease the pre-pupal parasitization by EPNs, but in case pre-pupa escaped as being target for parasitization, impact of host irradiation was not apparent on the parasitization of the ensuing pupal stage, although total parasitization by EPNs in pre-pupal and pupal stages (subsequent to pre-pupal irradiation and pre-pupal exposure to IJs) was decreased due to radiation. The impact of host irradiation with 40 Gy was not significant on the bio-infective behaviour of EPNs except harvest of IJs from host stage-pupa. Host irradiation dose of 70 Gy reduced the IJs harvest per mg host weight by 9-11.7% on L5 and by 9-19.8% on L6 in comparison to control. The effect of host radiation on harvest of IJs was more severe

  7. Effects of relative plate motion on the deep structure and penetration depth of slabs below the Izu-Bonin and Mariana island arcs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der; Seno, Tetsuzo

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of seismological studies indicate that slabs of subducted lithosphere penetrate the Earth's lower mantle below some island arcs but are deflected, or, rather, laid down, in the transition zone below others. Recent numerical simulations of mantle flow also advocate a hybrid form

  8. Effect of Maintaining Apical Patency on Irrigant Penetration into the Apical Two Millimeters of Large Root Canals : An In Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera, Jorge; Hernandez, Erick M.; Romero, Monica; Arias, Ana; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Factors such as complex root canal anatomy and the vapor lock phenomenon have been shown to limit the penetration of irrigating solutions into the apical third in both in vivo and in vitro studies involving small and wide canals. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine whether

  9. Account of residual stress effect in estimation of the period of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in joints with poor penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, A.V.; Knysh, V.V.; Labunskaya, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Dependences permitting to determine by calculation method the duration of the stage of fatigue crack propagation in joints with poor penetration and residual stresses are obtained on the basis of criteria of fracture mechanics. It gives a possibility to estimate the resource of these joints using the calculation-experimental method

  10. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  11. Effect of host age on the transplantation, growth, and radiation response of EMT6 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of EMT6 tumors in young adult and aged BALB/c KaRw mice were compared. The number of tumor cells implanted s.c. necessary to cause tumors in 50% of the injection sites was lower in aging than in young adult mice. The latent period of intradermally implanted tumors was shorter in aging mice than in young animals; however, the growth curves of established tumors were similar. The number and appearance of lung colonies after injection of cells i.v. and the pattern of spontaneous metastases were similar in young and aged animals. Radiation dose-response curves for the cells of tumors in young and aging mice were different and suggested that the proportion of hypoxic cells was higher in tumors on aging animals. These findings suggest that both immunological and nonimmunological tumor-host interactions differ in young and aged animals and that such factors may influence the natural history of the tumor and the response of the tumor to treatment

  12. Evidence Report: Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Oubre, Cherie; Wallace, Sarah; Mehta, Satish; Pierson, Duane

    2016-01-01

    While preventive measures limit the presence of many medically significant microorganisms during spaceflight missions, microbial infection of crewmembers cannot be completely prevented. Spaceflight experiments over the past 50 years have demonstrated a unique microbial response to spaceflight culture, although the mechanisms behind those responses and their operational relevance were unclear. In 2007, the operational importance of these microbial responses was emphasized as the results of an experiment aboard STS-115 demonstrated that the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) increased in virulence in a murine model of infection. The experiment was reproduced in 2008 aboard STS-123 confirming this finding. In response to these findings, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies recommended that NASA investigate this risk and its potential impact on the health of the crew during spaceflight. NASA assigned this risk to the Human Research Program. To better understand this risk, evidence has been collected and reported from both spaceflight analog systems and actual spaceflight including Mir, Space Shuttle, and ISS missions. Although the performance of virulence studies during spaceflight are challenging and often impractical, additional information has been and continues to be collected to better understand the risk to crew health. Still, the uncertainty concerning the extent and severity of these alterations in host-microorganism interactions is very large and requires more investigation as the focus of human spaceflight shifts to longer-duration exploration class missions.

  13. Effect of Host Media on Microbial Influenced Corrosion due to Desulfotomaculum nigrificans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay K.

    2013-04-01

    This article reports about the tests carried to investigate microbial-induced corrosion on stainless steels due to sulfate-reducing bacteria sp. Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in different host media. Stainless steel 304L, 316L, and 2205 were selected for the test. Modified Baar's media (BM), sodium chloride solution, and artificial sea water (SW) were used as test solutions in anaerobic conditions. Electrochemical polarization and immersion test were performed to estimate the extent of corrosion rate and pitting on stainless steels. SEM/EDS were used to study the details inside/outside pits formed on the corroded samples. Biofilm formed on corroded coupons was analyzed for its components by UV/Visible spectroscopy. Corrosion attack on the test samples was observed maximum in case of exposure to SW followed by NaCl solution, both having sulfide and chloride whereas stainless steel exposed to BM, having sulfide, showed minimum attack. Tendency of extracellular polymeric substances to bind metal ions is observed to be responsible for governing the extent of corrosion attack.

  14. Effects of near surface soil moisture profiles during evaporation on far-field ground-penetrating radar data: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the effect of vapor flow on the drying front that develops in soils when water evaporates from the soil surface and on GPR data. The results suggest the integration of the full-wave GPR model with a coupled water, vapor, and heat flow model to accurately estimate the soil hydraulic properties. We investigated the Effects of a drying front that emerges below an evaporating soil surface on the far-field ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. First, we performed an analysis of the width of the drying front in soils with 12 different textures by using an analytical model. Then, we numerically simulated vertical soil moisture profiles that develop during evaporation for the soil textures. We performed the simulations using a Richards flow model that considers only liquid water flow and a model that considers coupled water, vapor, and heat flows. The GPR signals were then generated from the simulated soil water content profiles taking into account the frequency dependency of apparent electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity. The analytical approach indicated that the width of the drying front at the end of Stage I of the evaporation was larger in silty soils than in other soil textures and smaller in sandy soils. We also demonstrated that the analytical estimate of the width of the drying front can be considered as a proxy for the impact that a drying front could have on far-field GPR data. The numerical simulations led to the conclusion that vapor transport in soil resulted in S-shaped soil moisture profiles, which clearly influenced the GPR data. As a result, vapor flow needs to be considered when GPR data are interpreted in a coupled inversion approach. Moreover, the impact of vapor flow on the GPR data was larger for silty than for sandy soils. These Effects on the GPR data provide promising perspectives regarding the use of radars for evaporation monitoring. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI

  15. Effects of Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) host stages on some developmental parameters of the uniparental endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Braconidae, Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Hui; Li, Bao-Ping

    2008-04-01

    A single choice test was performed to examine developmental strategies in the uniparental endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis and its host, the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. The results support the dome-shaped model in which the fitness functions are 'dome-shaped' relative to size (and age) of host at parasitism. Older and, hence, larger host larvae were simply not better hosts for the developing parasitoids. Although parasitoid size (measured as cocoon weight and adult hind tibia length) was positively correlated with host instars at parasitism, parasitoids developing in larger hosts (L5 and L6) suffered much higher mortality than conspecifics developing in smaller hosts (L2-L4). Furthermore, egg-to-adult development time in M. pulchricornis was significantly longer in older host larvae (L4-L6) than in the younger. Performance of M. pulchricornis, as indicated by fitness-related traits, strongly suggests that the L3 host is the most suitable for survival, growth and development of the parasitoid, followed by both L2 and L4 hosts; whereas, L1, L5 and L6 are the least favourable hosts. The oviposition tendency of M. pulchricornis, represented by parasitism level, was not perfectly consistent with the performance of the offspring; L2-L4 hosts, although with the same parasitism level, had offspring parasitoids with differences in fitness-related performance. Larval development in Helicoverpa armigera was usually suspended, but occasionally advanced, in the final instar.

  16. Family matters: effect of host plant variation in chemical and mechanical defenses on a sequestering specialist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimarco, Romina D; Nice, Chris C; Fordyce, James A

    2012-11-01

    Insect herbivores contend with various plant traits that are presumed to function as feeding deterrents. Paradoxically, some specialist insect herbivores might benefit from some of these plant traits, for example by sequestering plant chemical defenses that herbivores then use as their own defense against natural enemies. Larvae of the butterfly species Battus philenor (L.) (Papilionidae) sequester toxic alkaloids (aristolochic acids) from their Aristolochia host plants, rendering larvae and adults unpalatable to a broad range of predators. We studied the importance of two putative defensive traits in Aristolochia erecta: leaf toughness and aristolochic acid content, and we examined the effect of intra- and interplant chemical variation on the chemical phenotype of B. philenor larvae. It has been proposed that genetic variation for sequestration ability is "invisible to natural selection" because intra- and interindividual variation in host-plant chemistry will largely eliminate a role for herbivore genetic variation in determining an herbivore's chemical phenotype. We found substantial intra- and interplant variation in leaf toughness and in the aristolochic acid chemistry in A. erecta. Based on field observations and laboratory experiments, we showed that first-instar larvae preferentially fed on less tough, younger leaves and avoided tougher, older leaves, and we found no evidence that aristolochic acid content influenced first-instar larval foraging. We found that the majority of variation in the amount of aristolochic acid sequestered by larvae was explained by larval family, not by host-plant aristolochic acid content. Heritable variation for sequestration is the predominant determinant of larval, and likely adult, chemical phenotype. This study shows that for these highly specialized herbivores that sequester chemical defenses, traits that offer mechanical resistance, such as leaf toughness, might be more important determinants of early-instar larval

  17. Anti-endotoxic and antibacterial effects of a dermal substitute coated with host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasetty, Gopinath; Kalle, Martina; Mörgelin, Matthias; Brune, Jan C; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials used during surgery and wound treatment are of increasing importance in modern medical care. In the present study we set out to evaluate the addition of thrombin-derived host defense peptides to human acellular dermis (hAD, i.e. epiflex(®)). Antimicrobial activity of the functionalized hAD was demonstrated using radial diffusion and viable count assays against Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Electron microscopy analyses showed that peptide-mediated bacterial killing led to reduced hAD degradation. Furthermore, peptide-functionalized hAD displayed endotoxin-binding activity in vitro, as evidenced by inhibition of NF-κB activation in human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells) and a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in whole blood in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The dermal substitute retained its anti-endotoxic activity after washing, compatible with results showing that the hAD bound a significant amount of peptide. Furthermore, bacteria-induced contact activation was inhibited by peptide addition to the hAD. E. coli infected hAD, alone, or after treatment with the antiseptic substance polyhexamethylenebiguanide (PHMB), yielded NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells. The activation was abrogated by peptide addition. Thus, thrombin-derived HDPs should be of interest in the further development of new biomaterials with combined antimicrobial and anti-endotoxic functions for use in surgery and wound treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentration effect of Ca2+ co-doping on Eu3+ doped YPO4 host nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaiphaba, N.; Phaomei, G.; Singh, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    YPO 4 doped Eu nanoparticles have been synthesized by ethylene glycol route at low temperature of 120 ℃. The host is co-doped with different concentration of Ca 2+ (Ca 2+ =0, 2, 3, 10 at.%). The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD results show that the samples have only single tetragonal structure. Fig. 1 shows the expanded region of (hkl = 200) peak of all the samples in the range 25 to 27 ℃ in 2θ on the same day. The (200) peak position is shifted to higher 2θ from 25.8℃ to 26.2℃ when the concentration of Ca +2 increases upto 10 at.%. The crystallite size also decreases from 32 nm to 20 nm with increase in the concentration of Ca 2+ indicating decrease in the crystallinity of the prepared samples. Photoluminescence excitation spectra results show that the phosphor can be efficiently excited by ultra violet light from 250 to 400 nm including three peaks at 230, 255, and 394 nm. Emission spectra of Ca x Eu 0.05 Y 0.95-x PO 4 (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.10) at 230 nm excitation shows that the intensity of the peak increases upto 1 atom % of Ca (x=0.01) and then decreases due to concentration quenching. These nanoparticles are found to be re-dispersible in water and ethanol and are incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol film homogeneously. This film showed bright red emission. (author)

  19. The Effect of Temperature and Host Plant Resistance on Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Ashley R; Nechols, James R; McCornack, Brian P; Margolies, David C; Sandercock, Brett K; Yan, Donglin; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans. To assess indirect (plant-mediated) effects, soybean aphids were reared under a range of temperatures (15-30 °C) on soybean seedlings from a line expressing a Rag1 gene for resistance, and life history traits were quantified and compared to those obtained for soybean aphids on a susceptible soybean line. Direct effects of temperature were obtained by comparing relative differences in the magnitude of life-history traits among temperatures on susceptible soybeans. We predicted that temperature and host plant resistance would have a combined, but asymmetrical, effect on soybean aphid fitness and population growth. Results showed that temperature and plant resistance influenced preimaginal development and survival, progeny produced, and adult longevity. There also appeared to be a complex interaction between temperature and plant resistance for survival and developmental rate. Evidence suggested that the level of plant resistance increased at higher, but not lower, temperature. Soybean aphids required about the same number of degree-days to develop on resistant and susceptible plants. Our results will be useful for making predictions of soybean aphid population growth on resistant plants under different seasonal temperatures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The effect of snow/sea ice type on the response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of snow/sea ice vary with age and by the processes they were formed, giving characteristic types of snow and sea ice. The response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is shown to depend on the snow and sea ice type and the thickness of the snow or sea ice. The response of albedo and e-folding depth of three different types of snow (cold polar snow, wind-packed snow and melting snow and three sea ice (multi-year ice, first-year ice and melting sea ice to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is calculated using a coupled atmosphere–snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow, over the optical wavelengths of 300–800 nm. The snow and sea ice types are effectively defined by a scattering cross-section, density and asymmetry parameter. The relative change in albedo and e-folding depth of each of the three snow and three sea ice types with increasing mass ratio of black carbon is considered relative to a base case of 1 ng g−1 of black carbon. The relative response of each snow and sea ice type is intercompared to examine how different types of snow and sea ice respond relative to each other. The relative change in albedo of a melting snowpack is a factor of four more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to cold polar snow over a black carbon increase from 1 to 50 ng g−1, while the relative change in albedo of a melting sea ice is a factor of two more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to multi-year ice for the same increase in mass ratio of black carbon. The response of e-folding depth is effectively not dependent on snow/sea ice type. The albedo of sea ice is more responsive to increasing mass ratios of black carbon than snow.

  1. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  2. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  3. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  4. The Gut Entomotype of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae and Their Effect on Host Nutrition Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles. Here, we confirmed RPW harbors a complex gut microbiota mainly constituted by bacteria in the families Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Entomoplasmataceae, and Streptococcaceae. RPW gut microbiota exhibited a highly stable microbial community with low variance in abundance across different life stages and host plants. Furthermore, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was markedly increased but that of Acetobacteraceae was reduced significantly after administration of antibiotics. Although no significant effects were found on the body weight gain of RPW larvae, these alterations dramatically decreased the concentration of hemolymph protein and glucose while that of hemolymph triglyceride increased. In the gut of wild-caught RPW larvae, seven bacterial species in the genera Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter were shown to have an ability to degrade cellulose. Together, RPW accommodate a stable gut microbiota which can degrade plant polysaccharides and confer their host optimal adaptation to its environment by modulating its metabolism.

  5. Effects of Piezoelectric (PZT) Sensor Bonding and the Characteristics of the Host Structure on Impedance Based Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of certain factors on the impedance signal in structural health monitoring. These factors were: the quality of the bond between the sensor and the host structure, and the characteristics of the host structure, such as geometry, mass, and material properties. This work was carried out to answer a set of questions, related to these factors, that were developed by the project team. The project team was comprised of Dr. Doug Ramers and Dr. Abdul Jalloh of the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, Mr. Arnaldo Colon- Perez, a student intern from the University of Puerto Rico of Turabo, and Mr. John Lassiter and Mr. Bob Engberg of the Structural and Dynamics Test Group at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This study was based on a review of the literature on structural health monitoring to investigate the factors referred to above because there was not enough time to plan and conduct the appropriate tests at MSFC during the tenure of the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program project members. The surveyed literature documents works on structural health monitoring that were based on laboratory tests that were conducted using bolted trusses and other civil engineering type structures for the most part. These are not the typical types of structures used in designing and building NASA s space vehicles and systems. It was therefore recommended that tests be conducted using NASA type structures, such as pressure vessels, to validate the observations made in this report.

  6. Through-Space Paramagnetic NMR Effects in Host-Guest Complexes: Potential Ruthenium(III) Metallodrugs with Macrocyclic Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Jan; Novák, Martin; Munzarová, Petra; Novotný, Jan; Marek, Radek

    2018-04-05

    The potential of paramagnetic ruthenium(III) compounds for use as anticancer metallodrugs has been investigated extensively during the past several decades. However, the means by which these ruthenium compounds are transported and distributed in living bodies remain relatively unexplored. In this work, we prepared several novel ruthenium(III) compounds with the general structure Na + [ trans-Ru III Cl 4 (DMSO)(L)] - (DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide), where L stands for pyridine or imidazole linked with adamantane, a hydrophobic chemophore. The supramolecular interactions of these compounds with macrocyclic carriers of the cyclodextrin (CD) and cucurbit[ n]uril (CB) families were investigated by NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and relativistic DFT methods. The long-range hyperfine NMR effects of the paramagnetic guest on the host macrocycle are related to the distance between them and their relative orientation in the host-guest complex. The CD and CB macrocyclic carriers being studied in this account can be attached to a vector that attracts the drug-carrier system to a specific biological target and our investigation thus introduces a new possibility in the field of targeted delivery of anticancer metallodrugs based on ruthenium(III) compounds.

  7. Host-specific effects of soil microbial filtrates prevail over those of arbuscular mycorrhizae in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizano, Camila; Mangan, Scott A; Graham, James H; Kitajima, Kaoru

    2017-09-01

    Plant-soil interactions have been shown to determine plant community composition in a wide range of environments. However, how plants distinctly interact with beneficial and detrimental organisms across mosaic landscapes containing fragmented habitats is still poorly understood. We experimentally tested feedback responses between plants and soil microbial communities from adjacent habitats across a disturbance gradient within a human-modified tropical montane landscape. In a greenhouse experiment, two components of soil microbial communities were amplified; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and a filtrate excluding AMF spores from the soils of pastures (high disturbance), coffee plantations (intermediate disturbance), and forest fragments (low disturbance), using potted seedlings of 11 plant species common in these habitats (pasture grass, coffee, and nine native species). We then examined their effects on growth of these same 11 host species with reciprocal habitat inoculation. Most plant species received a similar benefit from AMF, but differed in their response to the filtrates from the three habitats. Soil filtrate from pastures had a net negative effect on plant growth, while filtrates from coffee plantations and forests had a net positive effect on plant growth. Pasture grass, coffee, and five pioneer tree species performed better with the filtrate from "away" (where these species rarely occur) compared to "home" (where these species typically occur) habitat soils, while four shade-tolerant tree species grew similarly with filtrates from different habitats. These results suggest that pastures accumulate species-specific soil enemies, while coffee plantations and forests accumulate beneficial soil microbes that benefit pioneer native plants and coffee, respectively. Thus, compared to AMF, soil filtrates exerted stronger habitat and host-specific effects on plants, being more important mediators of plant-soil feedbacks across contrasting habitats. © 2017 by

  8. Effect of Projectile Rotation Rate on Lateral Effect of PELE Penetrating Reinforced Concrete Target%弹丸转速对PELE侵彻钢筋混凝土靶横向效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 徐立志; 程春; 郑绍君; 杜忠华; 蒋洪章

    2017-01-01

    为了研究弹丸转速对横向效应增强型侵彻体(PELE)侵彻钢筋混凝土靶横向效应的影响,运用ANSYS/LS-DYNA软件在着靶速度600、700和800m/s条件下,对具有不同转速的PELE侵彻钢筋混凝土靶进行数值模拟,并通过试验方法对不同着靶条件下的仿真模型进行验证.结果表明,开孔尺寸的数值模拟结果与实验结果之间的误差小于5%,仿真模型能够准确模拟PELE侵彻钢筋混凝土靶的过程;随着转速的不断提高,损失更多的转速动能转化为钢筋混凝土靶开孔破坏所需的能量,使钢筋混凝土靶的开孔尺寸增大;在同一着靶速度下,转速从10000r/min提高至25000r/min,开孔尺寸提高了约(8±2)%.因此,在同一着靶速度下,增加弹丸转速有利于提高PELE对钢筋混凝土靶的开孔尺寸.%To study the effect of projectile rotation rate on the lateral effect of penetrator with enhanced lateral effects (PELE)penetrating reinforced concrete target, the numerical simulation of PELE penetrating reinforced concrete target with different rotation rates was performed under the condition of three impact target velocities of 600,700 and 800m/s,and the simulation model under the conditions of different impact target was verified by testing method.The results show that the error of opening size between the simulation results and the experimental ones is less than 5%, showing that the simulation model can accurately simulate the process of PELE penetrating reinforced concrete target.With increasing the rotation rate, more rotation rate kinetic energy lost translates into the energy that used to break the reinforced concrete target and make the opening size of reinforced concrete target increase.Under the same impact target velocity, opening size is improved by (8±2)% when the rotation rate increases from 10000r/min to 25000r/min.Therefore, increasing projectile rotation rate is beneficial to improve the opening size of the PELE penetrating

  9. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of flask vibration time on casting integrity, Surface Penetration and Coating Inclusion in lost foam casting of Al-Si Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, Majid; Idris, M. H.; Ourdjini, A.; Muthu, Kali

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the result of an experimental investigation conducted on medium aluminum silicon alloy casting- LM6, using no-vacuum assisted lost foam casting process. The study is directed for establishing the relationship between the flask vibrations times developed for molded sample on the casting integrity, surface penetration and coating inclusion defects of the casting. Four different flask vibration times namely 180, 120, 90 and 60 sec. were investigated. The casting integrity was investigated in terms of fulfilling in all portions and edges. The surface penetration was measured using optical microscope whilst image analyzer was used to quantify the percentage of coating inclusion in the casting. The results show that vibration time has significant influence on the fulfilling as well as the internal integrity of the lost foam casting. It was found that the lower vibration time produced comparatively sound casing.

  11. Redox flow batteries with serpentine flow fields: Distributions of electrolyte flow reactant penetration into the porous carbon electrodes and effects on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2018-04-01

    Redox flow batteries with flow field designs have been demonstrated to boost their capacities to deliver high current density and power density in medium and large-scale energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms involved with improved current density in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs have been not fully understood. Here we report a three-dimensional model of a serpentine flow field over a porous carbon electrode to examine the distributions of pressure driven electrolyte flow penetrations into the porous carbon electrodes. We also estimate the maximum current densities associated with stoichiometric availability of electrolyte reactant flow penetrations through the porous carbon electrodes. The results predict reasonably well observed experimental data without using any adjustable parameters. This fundamental work on electrolyte flow distributions of limiting reactant availability will contribute to a better understanding of limits on electrochemical performance in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs and should be helpful to optimizing flow batteries.

  12. [Protective effect of polysaccharides extracts from corn silk against cyclophosphamide induced host damages in mice bearing H22 tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-chuang; Du, Gang-jun; Song, Xiao-yong; Zhang, Yong-zhou; Liu, Yu-xin

    2014-10-01

    To study the protective effect of polysaccharides from corn silk (PCS) against cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced host damages in mice bearing H22 tumors. The ascitic and solid tumor bearing mice model were established to investigate the anti-tumor effects of different dose of PCS (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg). The effects of PCS alone and with combination of CTX on tumor weight, survival time, thymus and spleen index, white blood cell, nucleated cell of marrow, serum ALT and AST level were tested. The high-dose PCS (300 mg/kg) had significant inhibitory effects on tumor. After combination with CTX, the tumor inhibitory ratio was enhanced to 68.71%, the survival time of tumor-burdened ascites tumor mice was significantly prolonged to 72.07% compared with CTX group. The Q value of combination group was 0.997. Thymus and spleen index, white blood cell, nucleated cell of marrow decreased by CTX were ameliorated significantly. The level of ALT and AST increased by CTX were reduced by combination with PCS. PCS has a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of implanted H22 tumors in mice and has a synergetic effect and an attenuated toxic effect in combination with CTX.

  13. Strategic and institutional effects on foreign IPO performance : Examining the impact of country of origin, corporate governance, and host country effects

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Curt B.; Bell, R. Greg; Filatotchev, Igor

    2012-01-01

    By integrating signaling research with an institutional perspective we examine how country of origin, corporate governance, and host market effects impact foreign IPO performance. Using a sample of 202 foreign IPOs listed in the U.S. or U.K in 2002-2007 results indicate both the legal environment surrounding these organizations in their countries of origin and board independence impact the success of foreign firms at IPO. However, the institutional environment of the chosen IPO...

  14. Standard practice for liquid penetrant examination for general industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for penetrant examination of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant inspection is strongly rec...

  15. The roles of geography and founder effects in promoting host-associated differentiation in the generalist bogus yucca moth Prodoxus decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwell, C T; Fox, K A; Althoff, D M

    2014-12-01

    There is ample evidence that host shifts in plant-feeding insects have been instrumental in generating the enormous diversity of insects. Changes in host use can cause host-associated differentiation (HAD) among populations that may lead to reproductive isolation and eventual speciation. The importance of geography in facilitating this process remains controversial. We examined the geographic context of HAD in the wide-ranging generalist yucca moth Prodoxus decipiens. Previous work demonstrated HAD among sympatric moth populations feeding on two different Yucca species occurring on the barrier islands of North Carolina, USA. We assessed the genetic structure of P. decipiens across its entire geographic and host range to determine whether HAD is widespread in this generalist herbivore. Population genetic analyses of microsatellite and mtDNA sequence data across the entire range showed genetic structuring with respect to host use and geography. In particular, genetic differentiation was relatively strong between mainland populations and those on the barrier islands of North Carolina. Finer scale analyses, however, among sympatric populations using different host plant species only showed significant clustering based on host use for populations on the barrier islands. Mainland populations did not form population clusters based on host plant use. Reduced genetic diversity in the barrier island populations, especially on the derived host, suggests that founder effects may have been instrumental in facilitating HAD. In general, results suggest that the interplay of local adaptation, geography and demography can determine the tempo of HAD. We argue that future studies should include comprehensive surveys across a wide range of environmental and geographic conditions to elucidate the contribution of various processes to HAD. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Skin Penetration Enhancement by Natural Oils for Dihydroquercetin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-09-12

    Natural oils are commonly used in topical pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, stabilizers or solubility enhancers. They are presented as safe and inert components, mainly used for formulation purposes. It is confirmed that natural oils can affect the skin penetration of various substances. Fatty acids are mainly responsible for this effect. Current understanding lacks reliable scientific data on penetration of natural oils into the skin and their skin penetration enhancement potential. In the current study, fatty acid content analysis was used to determine the principal fatty acids in soybean, olive, avocado, sea-buckthorn pulp, raspberry seed and coconut oils. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry bioimaging was used to determine the distribution of these fatty acids in human skin ex vivo after application of the oils. Skin penetration enhancement ratios were determined for a perspective antioxidant compound dihydroquercetin. The results demonstrated skin penetration of fatty acids from all oils tested. Only soybean and olive oils significantly increased the skin distribution of dihydroquercetin and can be used as skin penetration enhancers. However, no correlation can be determined between the fatty acids' composition and skin penetration enhancement using currently available methodological approaches. This indicates that potential chemical penetration enhancement should be evaluated during formulation of topically applied products containing natural oils.

  17. Beneficial effects on host energy metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins produced by commensal and probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Chain, Florian; Martín, Rebeca; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Courau, Stéphanie; Langella, Philippe

    2017-05-08

    The aim of this review is to summarize the effect in host energy metabolism of the production of B group vitamins and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by commensal, food-grade and probiotic bacteria, which are also actors of the mammalian nutrition. The mechanisms of how these microbial end products, produced by these bacterial strains, act on energy metabolism will be discussed. We will show that these vitamins and SCFA producing bacteria could be used as tools to recover energy intakes by either optimizing ATP production from foods or by the fermentation of certain fibers in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Original data are also presented in this work where SCFA (acetate, butyrate and propionate) and B group vitamins (riboflavin, folate and thiamine) production was determined for selected probiotic bacteria.

  18. A protective effect of the laminated layer on Echinococcus granulosus survival dependent on upregulation of host arginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Manel; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2015-09-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in host defense against Echinococcus granulosus larvae was previously reported. However, NO production by NOS2 (inducible NO synthase) is counteracted by the expression of Arginase. In the present study, our aim is to evaluate the involvement of the laminated layer (external layer of parasitic cyst) in Arginase induction and the protoscoleces (living and infective part of the cyst) survival. Our in vitro results indicate that this cystic compound increases the Arginase activity in macrophages. Moreover, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) with specificity for mannan and the TGF-β are implicated in this effect as shown after adding Mannan and Anti-TGFβ. Interestingly, the laminated layer increases protoscoleces survival in macrophages-parasite co-cultures. Our results indicate that the laminated layer protects E. granulosus against the NOS2 protective response through Arginase pathway, a hallmark of M2 macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations on the larval incubation of Anodontites trapesialis (Unionoida, Mycetopodidae: Synergetic effect of the environmental factors and host availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CT. Callil

    Full Text Available The unionid Anodontites trapesilais (Lamarck, 1819 like most freshwater mussels is a parasite of fish. So it is trivial to assume that the availability of hosts is an important factor for the maintenance of unionoid populations. What seems obvious is not always so easy to demonstrate. This study proposes to investigate the effects of abiotic and biotic variables related to the incubation of larvae in A. trapesialis. For this, we estimate different biological indexes and try to capture the dimensionality of the fish, along with the temporal variation of environmental variables. From the application of a CCA, it was demonstrated that there was a synchronicity among the factors and variables proposed here, and we infer that the flood pulse acts as a synergistic factor in this process.

  20. Eddy current testing with high penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [de

  1. Effects on the development of Dipylidium caninum and on the host reaction to this parasite in the adult flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R E

    1987-01-01

    Temperature was found to be a major factor affecting the development of Dipylidium caninum and the presence of a host reaction of adult Ctenocephalides felis felis to D. caninum. Adult fleas reared at 30-32 degrees C contained fully developed metacestodes when they emerged from their cocoons. However at lower temperatures, D. caninum could not complete development until the flea hosts had spent some time on their mammalian hosts. It was the surface temperature of the mammals (31-36 degrees C) and not the fleas' blood meals which resulted in the metacestodes completing their development. This development of D. caninum was therefore independent of the flea development. At 20 degrees C, a larger and more prolonged host reaction was mounted than at higher temperatures. The larval flea diet had a small effect on the subsequent cestode development and the adult fleas' reaction to it.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF X-RAY FEEDBACK FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON HOST GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambrick, D. Clay; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have typically employed feedback that is purely local, i.e., an injection of energy to the immediate neighborhood of the black hole (BH). We perform GADGET-2 simulations of massive elliptical galaxies with an additional feedback component: an observationally calibrated X-ray radiation field which emanates from the BH and heats gas out to large radii from the galaxy center. We find that including the heating and radiation pressure associated with this X-ray flux in our simulations enhances the effects which are commonly reported from AGN feedback. This new feedback model is twice as effective as traditional feedback at suppressing star formation, produces three times less star formation in the last 6 Gyr, and modestly lowers the final BH mass (30%). It is also significantly more effective than an X-ray background in reducing the number of satellite galaxies.

  3. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  4. Conducting network penetration and espionage in a global environment

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    When it's all said and done, penetration testing remains the most effective way to identify security vulnerabilities in computer networks. Conducting Network Penetration and Espionage in a Global Environment provides detailed guidance on how to perform effective penetration testing of computer networks-using free, open source, and commercially available tools, including Backtrack, Metasploit, Wireshark, Nmap, Netcat, and Nessus. It also considers exploits and other programs using Python, PERL, BASH, PHP, Ruby, and Windows PowerShell.The book taps into Bruce Middleton's decades of experience wi

  5. Inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation and farnesylation protects against graft-versus-host disease via effects on CD4 effector T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Anne-Kathrin; Maas, Kristina; Dürr, Christoph; Leonhardt, Franziska; Prinz, Gabriele; Marks, Reinhard; Gerlach, Ulrike; Hofmann, Maike; Fisch, Paul; Finke, Jürgen; Pircher, Hanspeter; Zeiser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in immunosuppressive regimens, acute graft-versus-host disease remains a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Pathogenic donor T cells are dependent on correct attachment of small GTPases to the cell membrane, mediated by farnesyl- or geranylgeranyl residues, which, therefore, constitute potential targets for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. A mouse model was used to study the impact of a farnesyl-transferase inhibitor and a geranylgeranyl-transferase inhibitor on acute graft-versus-host disease, anti-cytomegalovirus T-cell responses and graft-versus-leukemia activity. Treatment of mice undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with farnesyl-transferase inhibitor and geranylgeranyl-transferase inhibitor reduced the histological severity of graft-versus-host disease and prolonged survival significantly. Mechanistically, farnesyl-transferase inhibitor and geranylgeranyl-transferase inhibitor treatment resulted in reduced alloantigen-driven expansion of CD4 T cells. In vivo treatment led to increased thymic cellularity and polyclonality of the T-cell receptor repertoire by reducing thymic graft-versus-host disease. These effects were absent when squalene production was blocked. The farnesyl-transferase inhibitor and geranylgeranyl-transferase inhibitor did not compromise CD8 function against leukemia cells or reconstitution of T cells that were subsequently responsible for anti-murine cytomegalovirus responses. In summary, we observed an immunomodulatory effect of inhibitors of farnesyl-transferase and geranylgeranyl-transferase on graft-versus-host disease, with enhanced functional immune reconstitution. In the light of the modest toxicity of farnesyl-transferase inhibitors such as tipifarnib in patients and the potent reduction of graft-versus-host disease in mice, farnesyl-transferase and geranylgeranyl-transferase inhibitors could help to reduce graft-versus-host disease significantly without

  6. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  7. Controlled Release Kinetics in Hydroxy Double Salts: Effect of Host Anion Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Majoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanodimensional layered metal hydroxides such as layered double hydroxides (LDHs and hydroxy double salts (HDSs can undergo anion exchange reactions releasing intercalated anions. Because of this, these metal hydroxides have found applications in controlled release delivery of bioactive species such as drugs and pesticides. In this work, isomers of hydroxycinnamate were used as model compounds to systematically explore the effects of anion structure on the rate and extent of anion release in HDSs. Following intercalation and subsequent release of the isomers, it has been demonstrated that the nature and position of substituent groups on intercalated anions have profound effects on the rate and extent of release. The extent of release was correlated with the magnitude of dipole moments while the rate of reaction showed strong dependence on the extent of hydrogen bonding within the layers. The orthoisomer showed a more sustained and complete release as compared to the other isomers.

  8. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C.

  9. Long term pavement performance computed parameter : frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    As the pavement design process moves toward mechanistic-empirical techniques, knowledge of seasonal changes in pavement structural characteristics becomes critical. Specifically, frost penetration information is necessary for determining the effect o...

  10. Medicaid HMO penetration and its mix: did increased penetration affect physician participation in urban markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E Kathleen; Herring, Bradley

    2008-02-01

    To use changes in Medicaid health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration across markets over time to test for effects on the extent of Medicaid participation among physicians and to test for differences in the effects of increased use of commercial versus Medicaid-dominant plans within the market. The nationally representative Community Tracking Study's Physician Survey for three periods (1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001) on 29,866 physicians combined with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and InterStudy data. Market-level estimates of Medicaid HMO penetration are used to test for (1) any participation in Medicaid and (2) the degree to which physicians have an "open" (i.e., nonlimited) practice accepting new Medicaid patients. Models account for physician, firm, and local characteristics, Medicaid relative payment levels adjusted for geographic variation in practice costs, and market-level fixed effects. There is a positive effect of increases in commercial Medicaid HMO penetration on the odds of accepting new Medicaid patients among all physicians, and in particular, among office-based physicians. In contrast, there is no effect, positive or negative, from expanding the penetration of Medicaid-dominant HMO plans within the market. Increases in cost-adjusted Medicaid fees, relative to Medicare levels, were associated with increases in the odds of participation and of physicians having an "open" Medicaid practice. Provider characteristics that consistently lower participation among all physicians include being older, board certified, a U.S. graduate and a solo practitioner. The effects of Medicaid HMO penetration on physician participation vary by the type of plan. If states are able to attract and retain commercial plans, participation by office-based physicians is likely to increase in a way that opens existing practices to more new Medicaid patients. Other policy variables that affect participation include the presence of a federally

  11. Enhancement of extracellular expression of Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase from recombinant Bacillus subtilis: Effects of promoter and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wan; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Pullulanase plays an important role in industrial applications of starch processing. However, extracellular production of pullulanase from recombinant Bacillus subtilis is yet limited due to the issues on regulatory elements of B. subtilis expression system. In this study, the gene encoding B. naganoensis pullulanase (PUL) was expressed in B. subtilis WB800 under the promoter PHpaII in the shuttle vector pMA0911. The extracellular activity of expressed pullulanase was 3.9 U ml(-1) from the recombinant B. subtilis WB800/pMA0911-PHpaII-pul. To further enhance the yield of PUL, the promoter PHpaII in pMA0911 was replaced by a stronger constitutive promoter P43. Then the activity was increased to 8.7 U ml(-1) from the recombinant B. subtilis WB800/pMA0911-P43-pul. Effect of host on pullulanase expression was further investigated by comparison between B. subtilis WB600 and B. subtilis WB800. In addition to the available B. subtilis WB800 recombinants, the constructed plasmids pMA0911-PHpaII-pul and pMA0911-P43-pul were transformed into B. subtilis WB600, respectively. Consequently, the extracellular production of PUL was significantly enhanced by B. subtilis WB600/pMA0911-P43-pul, resulting in the extracellular pullulanase activity of 24.5 U ml(-1). Therefore, promoter and host had an impact on pullulanase expression and their optimization would be useful to improve heterologous protein expression in B. subtilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanistic and genetic overlap of barley host and non-host resistance to Blumeria graminis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo, M.; Troeger, M.; Niks, R.E.; Kogel, K.H.; Huckelhoven, R.

    2004-01-01

    Non-host resistance of barley to Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), an inappropriate forma specialis of the grass powdery mildew fungus, is associated with formation of cell wall appositions (papillae) at sites of attempted fungal penetration and a hypersensitive cell death reaction (HR) of

  13. The Effect Of Inoculation Dose Of trypanosoma Evansi On Blood Value In Animal Hosts f Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, M.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to obtain the information and its relation between a number of parasites and pathogenity in mice. The pathogenity of T. evansi was depend on the exchange of blood value of infected mice. The parasites was irradiated by gamma rays 6 O C o with the dose of and 300 Gy. The dose of inoculation were 1 x 10 5 , 5 x 10 5 and 1 x 10 6 parasites per mice. The results obtained showed that a number of parasites were inoculated caused the drop of blood value of mice. The number of parasites and irradiation were also significant effect to the blood value (P<0.01)

  14. Effect of parity on fetal and maternal microchimerism: interaction of grafts within a host?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Katherine A.; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams; Nelson, J. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Small amounts of genetically foreign cells (microchimerism, Mc) traffic between a mother and fetus during pregnancy. Commonly, these grafts durably persist. For women, multiple naturally acquired Mc grafts can accrue, as they harbor Mc from their own mothers (maternal Mc, MMc) and subsequently acquire fetal Mc (FMc) through pregnancy. The nature of interactions between these naturally acquired grafts may inform, and be informed by, observations in transplantation, including the effect of noninherited maternal HLA antigens (NIMA) and double-unit cord blood transplantation (CBT). We asked whether FMc and MMc are impacted by the addition of new grafts as evaluated by increasing parity. Mc was identified by quantitative PCR for a nonshared polymorphism unique to the Mc source. Despite increasing sources of Mc, FMc did not increase with increasing parity. MMc concentration was significantly lower with increasing parity. The odds ratio for detection of MMc for 2 or more births compared with 1 birth was .11 (95% CI 0.03-0.42, P = .001). These observations suggest that interactions occur among naturally acquired grafts and are of interest in light of recent observations of graft-graft interaction resulting in predominance of 1 unit in double-unit CBT and the correlation of MMc with the NIMA effect. PMID:20628146

  15. The impact of mobile phone penetration on African inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to complement theoretical and qualitative literature with empirical evidence on the income-redistributive effect of mobile phone penetration in 52 African countries. Design/methodology/approach – Robust Ordinary Least Squares and Two Stage Least Squares empirical strategies are employed. Findings – The findings suggest that mobile penetration is pro-poor, as it has a positive income equality effect. Social implications – 'Mobile phone'-oriented poverty reduc...

  16. Containment penetration design criteria and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational design criteria is presented which serves as a basis for the design and analysis of containment piping penetrations. The criteria includes the effect of temperature as well as mechanical loads for the full range of plant conditions. With this criteria various penetration flued head designs have been compared and optimization achieved. Sleeve wall dimensions and containment loads have been determined without reference to piping configuration. An interaction theory which allows the implementation of the criteria for the determination of design loads and minimum sleeve wall thickness. The interaction theory developed applies to elastic-perfectly plastic cylinders (pipes and sleeves) and accounts for the simultaneous load resultants of transverse shear force, bending moment, torsional moment, and axial force in addition to internal pipe pressure. Application of the theory developed to the determination of sleeve thickness and containment design loads is presented in detail. (Auth.)

  17. The effect of host developmental stage at parasitism on sex-related size differentiation in a larval endoparasitoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    1. For their larval development, parasitoids depend on the quality and quantity of resources provided by a single host. Therefore, a close relationship is predicted between the size of the host at parasitism and the size of the emerging adult wasp. This relationship is less clear for koinobiont than

  18. No measurable adverse effects of Lassa, Morogoro and Gairo arenaviruses on their rodent reservoir host in natural conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mariën, J.; Borremans, B.; Gryseels, S.; Soropogui, B.; De Bruyn, L.; Ngiala Bongo, G.; Becker-Ziaja, B.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Günther, S.; Magassouba, N.; Leirs, H.; Fichet-Calvet, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 210. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arenavirus * Lassa virus * Morogoro virus * Gairo virus * Mastomys natalensis * Rodent-borne disease * Host-pathogen interaction * Reservoir host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  19. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Marston, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  20. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  1. Containment penetration design and analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Containment penetration designs which provide complete support to process piping containing high pressure and high temperature fluids and which do not employ cooling coils, require special provisions to sustain loadings associated with normal/abnormal conditions and to limit maximum temperature transmitted to the containment concrete wall. In order to accomodate piping loads and fluid temperatures within code and regulatory limitations, the containment penetration designs require careful analysis of two critical regions: 1) the portion of the penetration sleeve which is exposed to containment ambient conditions and 2) the portion of the penetration which connects the sleeve to process piping (flued head). Analytical models using finite element representation of process piping, penetration flued head, and exposed sleeve were employed to investigate the penetration assembly design. By application of flexible multi-step analyses, different penetration configurations were evaluated to determine the effects of key design parameters. Among the parameters studied were flued head angles with the process piping, sleeve length and wall thickness. Special designs employing fins welded to the sleeve to further lower the temperature at the concrete wall interface were also investigated and fin geometry effects reported. (Auth.)

  2. Effect of host nutrition on immunity and local immune response of rabbits to Obeliscoides cuniculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinski, E.; Bezubik, B.; Wedrychowicz, H.; Szklarczyk, J.; Doligalska, M.

    1988-01-01

    In a series of experiments carried out on young and adult rabbits the effect of isocaloric low protein diets containing 4% or 8% protein compared with a diet containing 21% protein on Obeliscoides cuniculi infection was studied. The pathogenesis, resistance and local immunity were assessed after single infections with 10,000 larvae or reinfection with 5000 larvae. Live weight gain was reduced in young and adult rabbits fed the low protein diets, but the establishment of parasites was not substantially influenced by protein deprivation. However, development of worms in the histotrophic phase and parasite fecundity were impaired in association with the low protein diet. Moreover, mild anaemia as well as changes in the mucosal immune response as a result of infection were related to the level of dietary protein. (author). 30 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  3. The effect of host relaxation and dynamics on guest molecule dynamics in H2/tetrahydrofuranhydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Vanessa K; Shoko, Elvis; Kearley, Gordon J

    2011-01-01

    We use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to obtain classically the effects of H2O cage motions on the potential-energy surface (PES) of encapsulated H2 in the H2/tetrahydrofuran-hydrate system. The significant differences between the PES for the H2 in rigid and flexible cages that we find will influence calculation of the quantum dynamics of the H2. Part of these differences arises from the relaxation of the H2O cage around the classical H2, with a second part arising from the coupling of both translational and rotational motions of H2 with the H20 cage. We find that isotopic substitution of 2H for 1H of the H2O cage affects the coupling, which has implications for experiments that require the use of 2H2O, including inelastic neutron scattering that uses 2H2O cages in order to focus on the H2 guest dynamics. Overall, this work emphasizes the importance of taking into account cage dynamics in any approach used to understand the dynamics of H2 guests in porous framework materials.

  4. Socioeconomic effects of operating reactors on two host communities: a case study of Pilgrim and Millstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    This exploratory case study examines the social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. This work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing. The study concludes that construction impacts were minor due to a dispersed commuting pattern by construction workers and that the only significant construction impact that can be identified retrospectively is construction-worker traffic. The primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was the massive increase in property tax payments paid to the local communities by the utilities and the option chosen by each community to maintain the existing tax rate while using the additional revenue to significantly increase and enhance the public service delivery systems and facilities within the community. Second-order consequences of the direct, first-order economic impact were: (1) changes in community land use policies, (2) increase in salience of growth issues, and (3) alteration of both inter- and intra-community relationships. The majority of residents in both communities express favorable attitudes toward the nuclear plants, primarily because of the substantial increase in the tax base of their communities

  5. Effects of Mineral Oils on Host Selection Behavior of Diaphorina citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofit Eko Poerwanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Response of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on citrus leaves treated with horticultural and agricultural mineral oil (HMO & AMO was evaluated under laboratory condition in choice and non-choice trials. Combination of HMO and AMO at concentration of 0 up to 2% was applied to citrus leaves. Mineral oil applications significantly reduced the proportion of D. citri stayed on citrus leaves for feeding with the proposed mechanisms: 1 oils covered leaves thus hampered it for releasing volatile compounds, 2 oil film preventing the direct contact of tarsus or palpus to leaf surfaces, and 3 the volatile compounds produced by mineral oils also blended with plant volatiles in the atmosphere and reduced the probability of olfactory receptors capturing the olfactory cues for locating the feeding site. Mineral oils also increased the mortality of D. citri due to the refusion for feeding on the treated citrus leaves. The effect of AMO was more prominent than HMO.   Tanggapan Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pada daun jeruk yang diperlakukan dengan minyak mineral (HMO dan AMO dievaluasi dengan metode pilihan maupun tanpa pilihan di laboratorium. Kombinasi antara HMO dan AMO pada konsentrasi 0% sampai dengan 2% diaplikasikan pada daun jeruk. Minyak mineral secara nyata menurunkan proporsi D. citri hinggap untuk makan pada daun jeruk, yang mungkin disebabkan oleh mekanisme: 1 minyak melapisi daun sehingga tidak mampu melepaskan senyawa volatil, 2 lapisan minyak menghalangi kontak langsung antara tarsus atau palpus pada permukaan daun, dan 3 senyawa volatil dari minyak bercampur dengan volatil tanaman di udara sehingga menurunkan probabilitas reseptor olfaktori menangkap sinyal penanda lokasi inang. Minyak mineral juga meningkatkan mortalitas, akibat dari penolakan makan pada daun jeruk yang diperlakukan. Pengaruh AMO lebih besar dari pada HMO.

  6. Magnetic field penetration into superconductors with sharp edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilichev, Yuriy N.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic field and surface currents induced within a superconductor are calculated assuming the field penetrates in it near sharp corners. Rounding the corners is used to keep the field less than a critical value. Analytical formulas for a corner radius are given for a wire of the rectangular cross-section and a cylinder in the external magnetic field. A boundary integral method is used to calculate the boundary of the Meissner domain when the external field penetrates deep into the superconductor. The effect of degree of penetration on the magnetic moment of superconducting cylinders and wires is discussed

  7. Host Factors in Ebola Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Angela L

    2016-08-31

    Ebola virus (EBOV) emerged in West Africa in 2014 to devastating effect, and demonstrated that infection can cause a broad range of severe disease manifestations. As the virus itself was genetically similar to other Zaire ebolaviruses, the spectrum of pathology likely resulted from variable responses to infection in a large and genetically diverse population. This review comprehensively summarizes current knowledge of the host response to EBOV infection, including pathways hijacked by the virus to facilitate replication, host processes that contribute directly to pathogenesis, and host-pathogen interactions involved in subverting or antagonizing host antiviral immunity.

  8. [Effects of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale on host growth and components metabolism of tissue culture seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jing-Jing; Si, Jin-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting; Zhao, Li; Wu, Ling-Shang

    2016-05-01

    The paper aims to study the effects of endophytic fungi from D. officinale cultivated on living trees on growth and components metabolism of tissue culture seedlings. Morphological characteristics and agronomic characters of tissue culture seedlings infected and uninfected by endophytic fungus were observed and measured. Polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts contents were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dipmethod, respectively. Monosacchride composition of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts components were analyzed by pre-column derivatives HPLC and HPLC method, respectively. It showed that effects of turning to purple of stem nodes could be changed by endophytic fungus. Besides, the endophytic fungus could affect the contents and constitutions of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The strains tested, expect DO34, could promote growth and polysaccharides content of tissue culture seedlings. The strains tested, expect DO12, could promote the accumulation of mannose. Furthermore, DO18, DO19 and DO120 could increase alcohol-soluble extracts. On the basis, four superior strains were selected for mechanism research between endophytic fungus and their hosts and microbiology engineering. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  10. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  11. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  12. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society′s recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.

  13. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer a ...

  14. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  15. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. W.; Yoo, Y. H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction) and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete) models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  16. The tri-trophic interactions hypothesis: interactive effects of host plant quality, diet breadth and natural enemies on herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailen A Mooney

    Full Text Available Several influential hypotheses in plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions consider the interactive effects of plant quality, herbivore diet breadth, and predation on herbivore performance. Yet individually and collectively, these hypotheses fail to address the simultaneous influence of all three factors. Here we review existing hypotheses, and propose the tri-trophic interactions (TTI hypothesis to consolidate and integrate their predictions. The TTI hypothesis predicts that dietary specialist herbivores (as compared to generalists should escape predators and be competitively dominant due to faster growth rates, and that such differences should be greater on low quality (as compared to high quality host plants. To provide a preliminary test of these predictions, we conducted an empirical study comparing the effects of plant (Baccharis salicifolia quality and predators between a specialist (Uroleucon macolai and a generalist (Aphis gossypii aphid herbivore. Consistent with predictions, these three factors interactively determine herbivore performance in ways not addressed by existing hypotheses. Compared to the specialist, the generalist was less fecund, competitively inferior, and more sensitive to low plant quality. Correspondingly, predator effects were contingent upon plant quality only for the generalist. Contrary to predictions, predator effects were weaker for the generalist and on low-quality plants, likely due to density-dependent benefits provided to the generalist by mutualist ants. Because the TTI hypothesis predicts the superior performance of specialists, mutualist ants may be critical to A. gossypii persistence under competition from U. macolai. In summary, the integrative nature of the TTI hypothesis offers novel insight into the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions and the coexistence of specialist and generalist herbivores.

  17. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  18. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos H Z; Cunha, Beatriz P; Solferini, Vera N; Trigo, José R

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense.

  19. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Z Martins

    Full Text Available Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina, and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves which is reflected in the adult defense.

  20. Host-location behavior of the tea green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): olfactory and visual effects on their orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Pengsakul, T; Tukayo, M; Yu, L; Fang, W; Luo, D

    2017-09-25

    The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe, is one of the most serious pests in tea growing areas. This study investigated the roles played by olfaction and vision in host orientation behavior. The compound eye of E. vitis was found to be a photopic eye; few olfactory sensilla were found on the antennae, while abundant gustatory sensilla were recorded on the mouthparts. Three opsin genes (EV_LWop, EV_UVop, EV_Bop) were isolated and found to be mainly expressed in the compound eye compared with other parts of the body. Immunolocalization indicated that the opsins mainly located in the different regions of rhabdom. The transcription levels of EV_LWop, EV_Bop and EV_UVop were reduced by 77.3, 70.0 and 40.0%, respectively, by RNA interference induced by being fed a special RNA-rich diet for 6 days. The rate of tropism to host color was effectively impaired by 67.6 and 29.5% in the dsEV_LWop and dsEV_Bop treatment groups, but there was no significant change in the dsEV_UVop group. The determination of the cause of the tropism indicated that odors from the host over long distances were unable to attract E. vitis and were only detected when the insects were close to the host. The developed compound eye of E. vitis plays a leading role in host location, and the long-wavelength opsin significantly affects the tropism to host color; the lack of olfactory sensilla results in long-distance odors not being able to be detected until the insect is near to the host-plant. The understanding of these behavioral mechanisms, especially the importance of opsin genes is expected to be useful for pest management.

  1. Penetration of charged particles through ordered isotropic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary of some new results on fluctuation phenomena in particle penetration is presented. The results include collision statistics, positive and negative correlations and a framework for the treatment of cumulative effects in particle penetration. Incorporation of projectile and target states in the description and energy-loss straggling are discussed. Small-angle multiple scattering is considered and a comment made on ionic charge states. (B.R.H.)

  2. The sustainable development effects of investment by emerging-market multinationals: Shaping beneficial outcomes for home and host country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G. (Guus)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEmerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) play an increasingly important role as investors in developing economies. When certain conditions are met, their foreign investment can contribute to host-country progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Moreover,

  3. IL-35 mitigates murine acute graft-versus-host disease with retention of graft-versus-leukemia effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Wu, Y; Wang, Y; Cai, Y; Hu, B; Bao, G; Fang, H; Zhao, L; Ma, S; Cheng, Q; Song, Y; Liu, Y; Zhu, Z; Chang, H; Yu, X; Sun, A; Zhang, Y; Vignali, D A A; Wu, D; Liu, H

    2015-04-01

    IL-35 is a newly discovered inhibitory cytokine secreted by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and may have therapeutic potential in several inflammatory disorders. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and caused by donor T cells and inflammatory cytokines. The role of IL-35 in aGVHD is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that IL-35 overexpression suppresses CD4(+) effector T-cell activation, leading to a reduction in alloreactive T-cell responses and aGVHD severity. It also leads to the expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in the aGVHD target organs. Furthermore, IL-35 overexpression results in a selective decrease in the frequency of Th1 cells and an increase of IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells in aGVHD target tissues. Serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-22 and IL-23 decrease and IL-10 increases in response to IL-35. Most importantly, IL-35 preserves graft-versus-leukemia effect. Finally, aGVHD grade 2-4 patients have decreased serum IL-35 levels comparing with time-matched patients with aGVHD grade 0-1. Our findings indicate that IL-35 has an important role in reducing aGVHD through promoting the expansion of Tregs and repressing Th1 responses, and should be investigated as the therapeutic strategy for aGVHD.

  4. Contrasting Plasticity in Ovariole Number Induced by A Dietary Effect of the Host Plants between Cactophilic Drosophila Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Peluso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the preference-performance hypothesis, natural selection will favor females that choose oviposition sites that optimize the fitness of their offspring. Such a preference-performance relationship may entail important consequences mainly on fitness-related traits. We used the well-characterized cactus-Drosophila system to investigate the reproductive capacity in the pair of sibling species D. buzzatii and D. koepferae reared in two alternative host plants. According to our hypothesis, ovariole number (as a proxy of reproductive capacity depends on host plant selection. Our results indicate that the capacity of D. buzzatii showed to be mild, only increasing the number of ovarioles by as much as 10% when reared in its preferred host. In contrast, D. koepferae exhibited a similar reproductive capacity across host cacti, even though it showed a preference for its primary host cactus. Our study also revealed that D. buzzatii has a larger genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity than its sibling, although ovariole number did not show clear-cut differences between species. We will discuss the weak preference-performance pattern observed in these cactophilic species in the light of nutritional and toxicological differences found between the natural host plants.

  5. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  6. Deciphering the perturbation effect of urea on the supramolecular host-guest interaction of biologically active hydrophobic molecule inside the nanocavity of cyclodextrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Banibrata; Chatterjee, Aninda; Ahmed, Sayeed Ashique; Seth, Debabrata, E-mail: debabrata@iitp.ac.in

    2017-03-15

    The present work articulates the supramolecular interaction and the formation of host-guest complex between the biologically active hydrophobic coumarin derivative and cyclodextrins by using several spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic techniques. All the studies clearly revealed that in presence of cyclodextrins (CDs), coumarin forms 1:1 stoichiometric complex. From all the study, we have found that with gradual increasing the cavity diameter of the hosts, the binding efficiency of the complexes gradually increases. The small population of the non emissive twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state of coumarin molecule turns into highly emissive in presence of γ-CD owing to its greater cavity diameter. The emissive TICT band is not found in β-CD complex due to its comparative small hydrophilic exterior and less polar environment. The present finding also interpret the perturbation effect of urea on host-guest complexes. In the presence of urea, the TICT emissive band of γ-CD is completely diminished. From, {sup 1}H NMR study it was observed that –NEt{sub 2} moiety of 7-DCCAE molecule is deeply buried inside the hydrophobic cavity of the CDs and forms host-guest complexes. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurement also indicates the formation of 1:1 host-guest complexes.

  7. Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamò, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the

  8. Theory of activated penetrant diffusion in viscous fluids and colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rui; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    We heuristically formulate a microscopic, force level, self-consistent nonlinear Langevin equation theory for activated barrier hopping and non-hydrodynamic diffusion of a hard sphere penetrant in very dense hard sphere fluid matrices. Penetrant dynamics is controlled by a rich competition between force relaxation due to penetrant self-motion and collective matrix structural (alpha) relaxation. In the absence of penetrant-matrix attraction, three activated dynamical regimes are predicted as a function of penetrant-matrix size ratio which are physically distinguished by penetrant jump distance and the nature of matrix motion required to facilitate its hopping. The penetrant diffusion constant decreases the fastest with size ratio for relatively small penetrants where the matrix effectively acts as a vibrating amorphous solid. Increasing penetrant-matrix attraction strength reduces penetrant diffusivity due to physical bonding. For size ratios approaching unity, a distinct dynamical regime emerges associated with strong slaving of penetrant hopping to matrix structural relaxation. A crossover regime at intermediate penetrant-matrix size ratio connects the two limiting behaviors for hard penetrants, but essentially disappears if there are strong attractions with the matrix. Activated penetrant diffusivity decreases strongly with matrix volume fraction in a manner that intensifies as the size ratio increases. We propose and implement a quasi-universal approach for activated diffusion of a rigid atomic/molecular penetrant in a supercooled liquid based on a mapping between the hard sphere system and thermal liquids. Calculations for specific systems agree reasonably well with experiments over a wide range of temperature, covering more than 10 orders of magnitude of variation of the penetrant diffusion constant

  9. Life and death of an influential passenger: Wolbachia and the evolution of CI-modifiers by their hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Koehncke

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria widely distributed among arthropods and nematodes. In many insect species these bacteria induce a cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI between sperm of infected males and eggs of uninfected females. From an evolutionary point of view, CI is puzzling: In order to induce this modification-rescue system, Wolbachia affect sperm of infected males even though Wolbachia are only transmitted maternally. Phylogenetic studies of Wolbachia and hosts show that the bacteria rarely cospeciate with their hosts, indicating that infections are lost in host species. However, the mechanisms leading to Wolbachia loss are not well understood.Using a population genetic model, we investigate the spread of host mutants that enhance or repress Wolbachia action by affecting either bacterial transmission or the level of CI. We show that host mutants that decrease CI-levels in males (e.g. by reducing Wolbachia-density during spermatogenesis spread, even at cost to mutant males. Increase of these mutants can lead to loss of Wolbachia infections, either as a direct consequence of their increase or in a step-wise manner, and we derive analytically a threshold penetrance above which a mutation's spread leads to extinction of Wolbachia. Selection on host modifiers is sexually antagonistic in that, conversely, host mutants that enhance Wolbachia in females are favoured whereas suppressors are not.Our results indicate that Wolbachia is likely to be lost from host populations on long evolutionary time scales due to reduction of CI levels in males. This can occur either by evolution of single host modifiers with large effects or through accumulation of several modifier alleles with small effects on Wolbachia action, even at cost to mutant males and even if infected hosts do not incur fecundity costs. This possibility is consistent with recent findings and may help to explain the apparent short evolutionary persistence times of Wolbachia in many host

  10. Measurements of current penetration during PDX discharge start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Cavallo, A.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.; White, R.B.

    1984-11-01

    The current penetration phase of PDX discharges is examined. The Fast Ion Diagnostic Experiment has been used to measure the temporal evolution of the central q (r/a < 0.4), and to show the effect of magnetic perturbations on fast ions. During plasma current penetration, a series of magnetic perturbations was observed in the plasma. If the current was rising rapidly, the perturbations were accompanied by increases in β/sub theta/ + l/sub i//2 and decreases in the loop voltage, suggesting a rapid penetration of the plasma current. When the plasma current was rising slowly, a series of minor disruptions occurred. These were accompanied by decreases in β/sub theta/ + l/sub i//2 and the loop voltage, and increases in the plasma current. During this phase, current penetration may be enhanced by the change in the resistivity profile which accompanies the disruption

  11. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.

  12. MYR1-Dependent Effectors Are the Major Drivers of a Host Cell's Early Response to Toxoplasma, Including Counteracting MYR1-Independent Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Adit; Panas, Michael W; Marino, Nicole; Coffey, Michael J; Tonkin, Christopher J; Boothroyd, John C

    2018-04-03

    The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii controls its host cell from within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) by using a number of diverse effector proteins, a subset of which require the aspartyl protease 5 enzyme (ASP5) and/or the recently discovered MYR1 protein to cross the PV membrane. To examine the impact these effectors have in the context of the entirety of the host response to Toxoplasma , we used RNA-Seq to analyze the transcriptome expression profiles of human foreskin fibroblasts infected with wild-type RH (RH-WT), RHΔ myr1 , and RHΔ asp5 tachyzoites. Interestingly, the majority of the differentially regulated genes responding to Toxoplasma infection are MYR1 dependent. A subset of MYR1 responses were ASP5 independent, and MYR1 function did not require ASP5 cleavage, suggesting the export of some effectors requires only MYR1. Gene set enrichment analysis of MYR1-dependent host responses suggests an upregulation of E2F transcription factors and the cell cycle and a downregulation related to interferon signaling, among numerous others. Most surprisingly, "hidden" responses arising in RHΔ myr1 - but not RH-WT-infected host cells indicate counterbalancing actions of MYR1-dependent and -independent activities. The host genes and gene sets revealed here to be MYR1 dependent provide new insight into the parasite's ability to co-opt host cell functions. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is unique in its ability to successfully invade and replicate in a broad range of host species and cells within those hosts. The complex interplay of effector proteins exported by Toxoplasma is key to its success in co-opting the host cell to create a favorable replicative niche. Here we show that a majority of the transcriptomic effects in tachyzoite-infected cells depend on the activity of a novel translocation system involving MYR1 and that the effectors delivered by this system are part of an intricate interplay of activators and suppressors. Removal of all MYR1

  13. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  14. At Lunch with a Killer: The Effect of Weaver Ants on Host-Parasitoid Interactions on Mango.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Migani

    Full Text Available Predator-prey interactions can affect the behaviour of the species involved, with consequences for population distribution and competitive interactions. Under predation pressure, potential prey may adopt evasive strategies. These responses can be costly and could impact population growth. As some prey species may be more affected than others, predation pressure could also alter the dynamics among species within communities. In field cages and small observation cages, we studied the interactions between a generalist predator, the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, two species of fruit flies that are primary pests of mango fruits, Ceratitis cosyra and Bactrocera dorsalis, and their two exotic parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata. In all experiments, either a single individual (observation cage experiments or groups of individuals (field cage experiments of a single species were exposed to foraging in the presence or absence of weaver ants. Weaver ant presence reduced the number of eggs laid by 75 and 50 percent in B. dorsalis and C. cosyra respectively. Similarly, parasitoid reproductive success was negatively affected by ant presence, with success of parasitism reduced by around 50 percent for both F. arisanus and D. longicaudata. The negative effect of weaver ants on both flies and parasitoids was mainly due to indirect predation effects. Encounters with weaver ant workers increased the leaving tendency in flies and parasitoids, thus reduced the time spent foraging on mango fruits. Parasitoids were impacted more strongly than fruit flies. We discuss how weaver ant predation pressure may affect the population dynamics of the fruit flies, and, in turn, how the alteration of host dynamics could impact parasitoid foraging behaviour and success.

  15. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  16. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  17. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernell, Stephanie Lazarus; Casim, Faizan M.; Wilmott, Jennifer; Pearson, Lindsey; Byler, Caitlin M.; Zhang, Zidong

    2015-01-01

    By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]). The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease). Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration. PMID:28462266

  18. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Howard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]. The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease. Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration.

  19. Containment penetration design and analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Containment penetration designs which provide complete support to process piping containing high pressure and high temperature fluids and which do not employ cooling coils, require special provisions to sustain loadings associated with normal/abnormal conditions and to limit maximum temperature transmitted to the containment concrete wall. In order to accommodate piping imposed loads and fluid temperatures within code and regulatory limitations, the containment penetration designs require careful analysis of two critical regions: the portion of the penetration sleeve which is exposed to containment ambient conditions and the portion of the penetration which connects the sleeve to process piping (flued head). The length and thickness of the sleeve must be designed to provide maximum heat dissipation to the atmosphere and minimum heat conduction through the sleeve to meet concrete temperature limitations. The sleeve must have the capability to transmit the postulated piping loads to concrete embedments in the containment shell. The penetration flued head design must be strong enough to transfer high mechanical loads and be flexible enough to accommodate the thermal stresses generated by the high temperature fluid. Analytical models using finite element representations of process piping, penetration flued head, and exposed sleeve were employed to investigate the penetration assembly design. By application of flexible multi-step analyses, different penetration configurations were evaluated to determine the effects of key design parameters. Among the parameters studied were flued head profiles, flued head angles with the process piping, sleeve length and wall thickness. Special designs employing fins welded to the sleeve to lower the temperature at the concrete wall interface were investigated and fin geometry effects reported

  20. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  1. West nile virus prevalence across landscapes is mediated by local effects of agriculture on vector and host communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Dykstra, Elizabeth A; Brauner, Jo Marie; Duffy, Anne; Reed, Caitlin; Martin, Emily; Peterson, Wade; Carrière, Yves; Dutilleul, Pierre; Owen, Jeb P

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) threaten the health of humans, livestock, and wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV), the world's most widespread arbovirus, invaded the United States in 1999 and rapidly spread across the county. Although the ecology of vectors and hosts are key determinants of WNV prevalence across landscapes, the factors shaping local vector and host populations remain unclear. Here, we used spatially-explicit models to evaluate how three land-use types (orchards, vegetable/forage crops, natural) and two climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) influence the prevalence of WNV infections and vector/host distributions at landscape and local spatial scales. Across landscapes, we show that orchard habitats were associated with greater prevalence of WNV infections in reservoirs (birds) and incidental hosts (horses), while increased precipitation was associated with fewer infections. At local scales, orchard habitats increased the prevalence of WNV infections in vectors (mosquitoes) and the abundance of mosquitoes and two key reservoir species, the American robin and the house sparrow. Thus, orchard habitats benefitted WNV vectors and reservoir hosts locally, creating focal points for the transmission of WNV at landscape scales in the presence of suitable climatic conditions.

  2. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  3. Schistosoma mansoni: assessment of effects of oleic acid, cercarial age and water temperature on parasite-host attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L; Sterling, Charles R; Lutz, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Although the lifecycle of Schistosoma spp. and pathophysiology of schistosomiasis have been established, the mechanism by which cercariae find their host is not well understood. Speculatively, host infection by random and accidental host contact is not as biologically plausible as a biochemical mechanism of mammalian attraction. A few studies have indicated that biochemical cues and temperature gradients may play a role in host identification, attraction and attachment triggers. This study aimed to elucidate these mechanisms more specifically through evaluation of biochemical, age and temperature influences leading to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attraction and attachment behaviors. Oleic acid, a common unsaturated free fatty acid in the outer layer of human skin, was tested for cercariae attraction across biologically relevant concentrations. Influence of media type (beeswax, nail varnish and agar), age-dependent behavior variability and environmentally appropriate temperatures (22 and 30 °C) were also evaluated. Results indicated that oleic acid at concentrations of 0.3, 0.9 and 1.8 g/mL in beeswax significantly increased median attachment to media (median attachment of 7.50%, 4.20% and 3.71%, respectively, P0.05). Biochemical, age and environmental factors influencing cercarial host attraction and attachment behavior have been elucidated by this study. This information will inform further development of devices for environmental surveillance and potentially improve cercarial exposure prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  5. Atomistic simulation of femtosecond laser pulse interactions with a copper film: Effect of dependency of penetration depth and reflectivity on electron temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouye Foumani, A.; Niknam, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    The response of copper films to irradiation with laser pulses of fluences in the range of 100-6000 J/m2 is simulated by using a modified combination of a two-temperature model (TTM) and molecular dynamics (MD). In this model, the dependency of the pulse penetration depth and the reflectivity of the target on electron temperature are taken into account. Also, the temperature-dependent electron-phonon coupling factor, electron thermal conductivity, and electron heat capacity are used in the simulations. Based on this model, the dependence of the integral reflectivity on pulse fluence, the changes in the film thickness, and the evolution of density and electron and lattice temperatures are obtained. Moreover, snapshots that show the melting and disintegration processes are presented. The disintegration starts at a fluence of 4200 J/m2, which corresponds with an absorbed fluence of 616 J/m2. The calculated values of integral reflectivity are in good agreement with the experimental data. The inclusion of such temperature-dependent absorption models in the TTM-MD method would facilitate the comparison of experimental data with simulation results.

  6. Inferring the demographic history of an oligophagous grasshopper: Effects of climatic niche stability and host-plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerales, Víctor; Cordero, Pedro J; Ortego, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of past environmental changes on the abiotic and biotic components of the landscape and deciphering their impacts on the demographic trajectories of species is a major issue in evolutionary biogeography. In this study, we combine nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to study the phylogeographical structure and lineage-specific demographic histories of the scrub-legume grasshopper (Chorthippus binotatus binotatus), a montane taxon distributed in the Iberian Peninsula and France that exclusively feeds on certain scrub-legume species. Genetic data and paleo-distribution modelling indicate the presence of four main lineages that seem to have diverged in allopatry and long-term persisted in Iberian and French refugia since the Mid Pleistocene. Comparisons of different demographic hypotheses in an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework supported a population bottleneck in the northwestern French clade and paleo-distribution modelling indicate that the populations of this lineage have experienced more severe environmental fluctuations during the last 21 000 years than those from the Iberian Peninsula. Accordingly, we found that nuclear genetic diversity of the populations of scrub-legume grasshopper is positively associated with local stability of suitable habitats defined by both Pleistocene climate changes and historical distributional shifts of host-plant species. Overall, our study highlights the importance of integrating the potential effects of abiotic (i.e. climate and geography) and biotic components (i.e. inter-specific interactions) into the study of the evolutionary and demographic history of specialist taxa with narrow ecological requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Alamanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  8. Development of penetrant materials from used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Azhar Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of experiment to produce penetrant for nondestructive testing using used engine oil. The used engine oil was obtained from motor vehicle. It was mixed with kerosene at several mix proportion. The penetrability of these mixing were measured and compared with the penetrant available on the market. The results of measurement were explained and discussed. (author)

  9. Protective and recuperative effects of 3-bromopyruvate on immunological, hepatic and renal homeostasis in a murine host bearing ascitic lymphoma: Implication of niche dependent differential roles of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Saveg; Pandey, Shrish Kumar; Goel, Yugal; Kujur, Praveen Kumar; Maurya, Babu Nandan; Verma, Ashish; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2018-03-01

    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) possesses promising antineoplastic potential, however, its effects on immunological homeostasis vis a vis hepatic and renal functions in a tumor bearing host remain unclear. Therefore, the effect of 3-BP administration to a murine host bearing a progressively growing tumor of thymoma origin, designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL), on immunological, renal and hepatic homeostasis was investigated. Administration of 3-BP (4 mg/kg) to the tumor bearing host reversed tumor growth associated thymic atrophy and splenomegaly, accompanied by altered cell survival and repertoire of splenic, bone marrow and tumor associated macrophages (TAM). TAM displayed augmented phagocytic, tumoricidal activities and production of IL-1 and TNF-α. 3-