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Sample records for effects comparing exercise

  1. The effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in the management of chronic non-specific neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ali, Syed Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in chronic non-specific neck pain. For this randomised controlled trial total 68 patients (34 each group) with chronic non-specific neck pain were recruited from Alain Poly Clinic and Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi between May, 2012 and August, 2012. Simple randomisation method was used to assign participants into isometric exercise group and general exercise groups. The isometric exercise group performed exercises for neck muscle groups with a rubber band and general exercises group performed active range of movement exercises for all neck movements. Patients in both groups received 3 supervised treatment sessions per week for 12 weeks. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire and goniometer were used to assess pain, disability and neck range of movements at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both interventions showed statistically significant improvements in pain, function and range of movement p = 0.001f or isometric exercise group, p = 0.04 for general exercises group and p = 0.001 for range of movement. However, mean improvements in post intervention VAS score and North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire score was better in isometric exercises group as compared to general exercise group. In conclusion, both interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic non-specific neck pain however; isometric exercises are clinically more effective than general exercises.

  2. Comparable effects of exercise and analgesics for pain secondary to knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Hansen, Julie B; Klokker, Louise

    2016-01-01

    administered analgesics for pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: The Cochrane Database of systematic reviews was searched for meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies comparing exercise or analgesics with a control group (placebo or usual care) and with pain as an outcome. Individual study......AIM: Evidence of comparative effectiveness of different treatment approaches is important for clinical decision-making, yet absent for most recommended treatments of knee osteoarthritis pain. The objective of this study was to estimate the comparative effectiveness of exercise versus orally...... estimates were identified and effect sizes were calculated from group differences. We combined study-level effects on pain with a random effects meta-analysis and compared effect sizes between exercise trials and trials with analgesic interventions. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane reviews (four...

  3. Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christopher H; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kalish, Robert; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. Design Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. Setting Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. Participants 226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient’s global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. Results FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient’s global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with

  4. Comparing the effects of aerobic exercise and Foeniculum vulgare on pre-menstrual syndrome

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    Hassan Pazoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS has been identified by a number of psychological and physical symptoms which occur cyclically in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The present study has been carried out to compare the effects of regular exercise and Foeniculum vulgare extract (fennel together and separately on PMS in high school girls. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial 48 students aged 16–18 years were selected by filling the daily record of severity of problem questionnaire (DRSP-Q. The participants were divided into four equal groups: the first group received fennel, the second group had aerobic exercise, the third group received fennel along with exercise and the last group was control group without fennel and exercise. Participants filled DRSP-Q three times: the first menstrual cycle before the intervention, the first menstrual cycle after four weeks and finally the first menstrual cycle after eight weeks of intervention. Results: After 8 weeks of intervention the severity of PMS symptoms reduced significantly in experimental groups (fennel, exercise and fennel + exercise compared to control group (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, there were not any significant differences in age, body mass index, age at menarche, age at dysmenorrhea onset and duration of menstruation among the four groups. Discussions: The result of this study indicated that fennels and exercise could reduce the severity of premenstrual syndrome. In addition, fennel extract and exercise together seem to be more effective on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with using them alone.

  5. Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kalish, Robert; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2018-03-21

    To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. 226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient's global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient's global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with the same intensity and duration (24 weeks, twice weekly) had greater benefit (between group

  6. The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Adrian B; Randell, Rebecca K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2013-01-01

    There is consistent evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of caffeine for endurance based exercise. However, whether caffeine ingested through coffee has the same effects is still subject to debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the performance enhancing effects of caffeine and coffee using a time trial performance test, while also investigating the metabolic effects of caffeine and coffee. In a single-blind, crossover, randomised counter-balanced study design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes (Mean ± SD: Age 41 ± 7 y, Height 1.80 ± 0.04 m, Weight 78.9 ± 4.1 kg, VO2 max 58 ± 3 ml • kg(-1) • min(-1)) completed 30 min of steady-state (SS) cycling at approximately 55% VO2max followed by a 45 min energy based target time trial (TT). One hour prior to exercise each athlete consumed drinks consisting of caffeine (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant coffee (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant decaffeinated coffee or placebo. The set workloads produced similar relative exercise intensities during the SS for all drinks, with no observed difference in carbohydrate or fat oxidation. Performance times during the TT were significantly faster (~5.0%) for both caffeine and coffee when compared to placebo and decaf (38.35 ± 1.53, 38.27 ± 1.80, 40.23 ± 1.98, 40.31 ± 1.22 min respectively, pperformance times were similar for both caffeine and coffee. Average power for caffeine and coffee during the TT was significantly greater when compared to placebo and decaf (294 ± 21 W, 291 ± 22 W, 277 ± 14 W, 276 ± 23 W respectively, pcaffeine (5 mg/kg/BW) and coffee (5 mg/kg/BW) consumed 1 h prior to exercise can improve endurance exercise performance.

  7. Effects of preferred-exercise prescription compared to usual exercise prescription on outcomes for people with non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial [ACTRN12608000524392

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keating Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP has become a significant problem due to high healthcare utilization, rising costs of care and perceived limitations of effectiveness of many current treatments. Systematic reviews have repeatedly concluded that, on average across participants, exercise for NSCLBP appears effective in decreasing pain and improving function. Not all people with NSCLBP benefit from exercise programs and it would assist care-providers and care-seekers if factors that impact on program effectiveness and success were identified. Methods and design The study will be a randomised controlled trial comparing an exercise rehabilitation program informed by a participant preferences questionnaire compared to a program without this guideline for patients with chronic low back pain. A sample of 150 patients will be recruited in Melbourne, Australia through community-based healthcare clinics that provide supervised exercise rehabilitation programs for people with non-specific chronic low back pain. Clinicians will be randomly assigned to exercise preferences questionnaire or no questionnaire and participants will be allocated in a concealed manner. A qualitative focus group study of exercise instructor feedback about the exercise preferences instrument will be embedded in the research design. Two qualitative focus group studies will also be conducted for participants in the intervention and the control groups to obtain feedback about participants' experiences of the two types of exercise programs. The primary outcomes will be functional ability, pain, fear avoidance, exercise adherence. Discussion This trial will evaluate the effectiveness of individualised exercise prescription compared to usual exercise prescription for NSCLP and, using feedback following the trial, refine the exercise preferences questionnaire.

  8. Effectiveness of resistance exercise compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Cybelle; Moraes, Silvia Regina Arruda De; Novaes, Karyne Albino; Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; Silveira, Patrícia Verçoza De Castro; Lemos, Andrea

    Physical exercise has been used to mitigate the metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise when compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy on metabolic and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Papers were searched on the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and SCIELO, without language or date of publication limits. Clinical trials that compared resistance exercise to aerobic exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not use insulin therapy were included. The quality of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the GRADE system and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, respectively. Meta-analysis was also used, whenever possible. Two reviewers extracted the data independently. Eight eligible articles were included in this study, with a total of 336 individuals, with a mean age of 48-58 years. The protocols of aerobic and resistance exercise varied in duration from eight to 22 weeks, 30-60min/day, three to five times/week. Overall the available evidence came from a very low quality of evidence and there was an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption (mean difference: -2.86; 95% CI: -3.90 to -1.81; random effect) for the resistance exercise and no difference was found in Glycated hemoglobin, Body mass index, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Resistance exercise appears to be more effective in promoting an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption in protocols longer than 12 weeks and there is no difference in the control of glycemic and lipid levels between the two types of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of McKenzie and Brunkow exercise program on spinal mobility comparative study

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    Emela Mujić Skikić

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This study encompassed 64 participants with symptoms of low back pain, 33 in McKenzie group and 31 in Brunkow group. Patients attended exercise program daily and they were asked to do the same exercise at home--five times a day in series of 5 to 10 repetition each time, depending of stage of disease and pain intensity. All patients were assessed for the spinal motion, before and after the treatment. All parameters for spinal movements showed improvement after exercising McKenzie program for lower back pain with a significant difference of p<0.01 for all motions. Also, in Brunkow group, all of the parameters showed statistically significant improvement at the end of treatment in relation to pre-treatment values, with significant difference of p<0.01 for all motions. Statistically comparison between McKenzie and Brunkow difference in score at the end of the treatment showed statistically significant improvement in McKenzie group, for extension, right and left side flexion, while flexion score didn't show statistically significant difference. McKenzie exercises seemed to be more effective than Brunkow exercises for improvement in spinal motion. Both, McKenzie and Brunkow exercises can be used for spinal mobility improvement in patients with lower back pain, but is preferable to use McKenzie exercises first, to decrease the pain and increase spinal mobility, and then Brunkow exercises to strengthen the paravertebral muscles.

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC STRETCHING EXERCISE TO IMPROVE FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLES AMONG NON ATHLETES

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    Jibi Paul

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching exercises have been routinely used in persons with hamstring tightness and athletes to increase flexibility of muscle and to reduce joint injuries. Many studies have reported effect of static and dynamic stretching on flexibility of this muscle. Finding the best method to improve flexibility of hamstring muscle is important for athletes and individuals to reduce their injuries. Objective of the study was to find out the effect of static stretching exercise and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle and also to compare the effect of static and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: This was a comparative experimental study with seventy four female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 37 subjects in each group. Static stretching exercise and dynamic stretching exercise were given as intervention program for four weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of restricted range of movement for knee extension was measured using goniometry and documented separately for both group. Result: In experimental and control group, pre-post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility with P<0.0001, for right and left side. Comparative study between experimental and control group found that static stretching exercise have significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility for right and left side with P<0.04. Conclusion: This study concluded that static stretching exercise is more effective to improve hamstring flexibility compared to dynamic stretching exercise.

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES AND COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES WITH AUTOGENIC TRAINING ON VITAL CAPACITY OF THE MIDDLE AGED MEN

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    SURESH KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find out the comparative effect of specific yogic exercises and combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training on vital capacity of the middle aged men. The study tried to find out type of training program that had a maximum effect on the vital capacity of the subjects. The study has been conducted on sixty middle aged men, in the age group of 30 to 50 years. The subjects (N=60 were at random divided into three equalgroups two experimental Groups and one control group, and group consisting of 20 middle aged men. Two experimental Groups participated in two different training programmes i.e. Specific yogic exercises and Combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training for twenty four weeks and control group performed the routine work. The data was collected were collected in beginning ,at the end of twelve week and twenty four week of training program in term of pre, mid and post test respectively by using Wetspirometer. The training schedule was prepared systematically and carefully,keeping the individual differences of the subjects and loading principals in mind. Repeated measures of ANOVA andNewman Keul’s test were applied to find out significance of mean difference among the three tests. ANACOVA andScheffe’s Post Hoc test were applied to determine the significance of mean difference among the three groups. From the results it was found that the Practice of the combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training is significantly effective than the specific yogic exercises programme and control group in improving the vital capacityamong the middle aged men. Twelve weeks’ practice of combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training significantly improved in the vital capacity among the middle aged men than the twenty four weeks of practice

  12. Comparing the effects of music and exercise with music for older adults with insomnia.

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    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Chang, En-Ting; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effects of a soothing music intervention before bedtime and a treadmill brisk walking exercise combined with music in the evening on sleep quality of sedentary older adults with chronic insomnia. There is evidence to support the use of complementary interventions to improve sleep. They are rarely applied in Taiwanese elderly population. Using a crossover controlled trial, 38 participants aged 50 to 75 years were randomly assigned to a music intervention/brisk walking sequence or a brisk walking/music intervention sequence. Each participant completed two intervention sessions (separated by 1 week). Each intervention lasted 30 min. An actigraph extended with electroencephalography (EEG) and questionnaires were used to assess the sleep quality. Both interventions exhibited beneficial effects on subjective sleep quality in adults with insomnia. Also listening to soothing music before bedtime significantly shortened the wake time after sleep onset measured by EEG, compared with brisk walking in the evening. The interventions applied in this study could be applied as the evidence-based nursing interventions for insomnia older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing the effect of visual and non-visual music on functional factors in a progressive aerobic exercise program

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    Faezeh Alizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Aerobic exercises have a significant effect on losing weight and increasing the energy levels. This research aimed to increase the fatigue time in this type of exercises, making it more enjoyable.  Method: In this study, eight physical education female students with the same preparedness level were selected by random sampling. The subjects participated ina periodic aerobic exercise during three stages with an interval of 48 hours. The test was based on the Bruce Protocol, which measured the burnout, the maximum oxygen consumption, the perceived exercise pressure, and the heart rate in each stage.  Findings: the results revealed that there was a significant difference in the subjects’ burnout time (p = 0.039 while the impact of the visual music compared to the non-visual music in perceiving the exercise pressure was significantly different (p = 0.034. Nonetheless, while measuring the heart rate (p = 0.443, the maximum oxygen consumption (p <0.05 had no significant effect.  Conclusion: In was found in the current research that the visual music can be a stronger factor than the non-visual music in making the exercise more enjoyable and increasing the fatigue time.

  14. Comparative effects of meditation and exercise on physical and psychosocial health outcomes: a review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    No review papers have examined studies that have directly compared non-active forms of meditation with exercise to evaluate effects on physical or psychosocial outcomes, which was the purpose of this paper. Studies were included if they had a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, included a non-active form of meditation and exercise as intervention arms, and evaluated physical or psychosocial outcomes. The quality of included RCTs was rated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The total sample size across all studies was N = 325. Of the main outcomes assessed across the five studies, meditation was shown to be more effective than the exercise comparison arm when evaluating the psychosocial outcomes of anxiety, altruism, and life changes. Additionally, meditation was more effective at reducing chronic neck pain at rest and pain-related bothersomeness. Exercise, however, was more effective in improving physical health-related quality of life, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels. The interventions were found to be comparable when evaluating the outcomes of well-being, ethanol consumption, and perceived stress levels. Four of the evaluated studies were determined to have an overall 'unclear' risk of bias and one study was found to have a 'high' risk of bias. Exercise and non-active meditation may uniquely influence various health-related outcomes. A continued exploration of the effects of exercise and non-active meditation in controlled trials may yield a better understanding of their benefits.

  15. Comparing the Effects of Therapeutic Exercise and Hydrotherapy on Pain Severity and Knee Range of Motion in Patients with Hemophilia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    V Mazloum

    2013-10-01

    . Results: Both experimental groups exhibited significant reduction of pain along with improved knee flexion and extension compared with the control group (P<0.001. Pain reduction in subjects treated in water treatment was significantly higher than exercise group in drought (P0.05. Conclusion: The use of therapeutic exercise in water with regular exercise rehabilitation for patients with hemophilia can be helpful to reduce pain and improve range of motion in hemophilia patients. The effect of exercise therapy on pain reduction is more effective compared to traditional pain therapy. Key words: Hydrotherapy, Exercise Therapy, Hemophilia, Knee Range of Motion

  16. TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CRYOTHERAPY WITH EXERCISES VERSUS TAPING WITH EXERCISES IN TREATING ACUTE LATERAL ANKLE SPRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh; Ranganath; Sridhar; Rohit; Rajeev; Afrin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is a common form of sport injuries and it is a leading cause of pain and disability in common man and sportsman worldwide. Rate of this injury is 1 per 10, 000 persons in common man whereas lateral ligament injuries account for 15 to 25% of all sports injuries. Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries sustained in sports and exercise activities. It is one of the most common soft tissue injury encountered in clinical practice. Compl...

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN VERSUS CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN EXERCISES TO IMPROVE GAIT IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY

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    Trishna Saikia Baruah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP describes a non- progressive but not unchanging disorder of movement and posture due to an insult to or anomaly of the developing brain. People with spastic diplegia typically walk slowly and have difficulties in performing activities such as walking running or jumping. Children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy are relied more on cadence to increase speed. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of open and closed kinetic chain (OKC and CKC exercises in improving gait in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: 30 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy of both genders with age 4-12 years was taken. Cadence and distance covered in 1Minute Walk Test was calculated before and after the test. The intervention for group A was CKC exercises and group B was OKC exercises for 3 days a week for 6 weeks and each session lasted for 30-45 minutes was given for both the groups. Results: Paired t-test was performed to find effectiveness of CKC and OKC improving gait in spastic diplegic CP to see the difference of means of 1minute walk, t = 10.789 which is significant (p = 0.000 and for cadence, t = 3.37 which is highly significant (p = 0.00 implying that cadence and distance covered in1minute walk was more with CKC exercises. Conclusion: Based on the result it is concluded that CKC exercises are effective in improving gait than OKC exercises in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  18. Comparative effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for chronic mechanical neck pain: quasi-randomised parallel controlled study.

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    Dunleavy, K; Kava, K; Goldberg, A; Malek, M H; Talley, S A; Tutag-Lehr, V; Hildreth, J

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for individuals with chronic neck pain (CNP). Quasi-randomised parallel controlled study. Community, university and private practice settings in four locations. Fifty-six individuals with CNP scoring ≥3/10 on the numeric pain rating scale for >3 months (controls n=17, Pilates n=20, yoga n=19). Exercise participants completed 12 small-group sessions with modifications and progressions supervised by a physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were pain ratings, range of movement and postural measurements collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Follow-up was performed 6 weeks after completion of the exercise classes (Week 18). NDI decreased significantly in the Pilates {baseline: 11.1 [standard deviation (SD) 4.3] vs Week 12: 6.8 (SD 4.3); mean difference -4.3 (95% confidence interval -1.64 to -6.7); PPilates and yoga group exercise interventions with appropriate modifications and supervision were safe and equally effective for decreasing disability and pain compared with the control group for individuals with mild-to-moderate CNP. Physiotherapists may consider including these approaches in a plan of care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01999283. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing a Yoga Class with a Resistance Exercise Class: Effects on Body Satisfaction and Social Physique Anxiety in University Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Kimberley L; Drouin, Breanne; Lamarche, Larkin

    2016-11-01

    The current study compared a single yoga group exercise class and a resistance group exercise class for their effects on state body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in women. A pretest-posttest design was used. Participants (N = 46) completed both a resistance exercise class and yoga class in a counterbalanced order. Measures of body satisfaction and social physique anxiety were completed immediately before and after each class. A 2 (time) × 2 (class type) repeatedmeasures multiple analysis of variance showed a significant overall Time × Class Type interaction (F 2,44 = 5.69, P class. After both classes, there was a significant decrease in social physique anxiety, but the magnitude of the change was larger after the yoga class than after the resistance class. Both types of exercise class were associated with improvements in body image, but there were greater improvements after the yoga class. This study provided evidence of the positive effects of yoga for reducing state social physique anxiety and increasing state body satisfaction, adding to correlational evidence suggesting that yoga is particularly beneficial for improving body image-related outcomes in women.

  20. Comparative efficacy of progressive resistance exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) and Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) are two of the protocols available in managing children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The comparative effects of these modalities on selected functional indices of ambulatory type CP were the focus of this study. Methods: ...

  1. The Comparative Study of the Effect of Stabilization Exercise and Stretching-Strengthening Exercise on Balance Parameters in Forward Head Posture Patients

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    Solmaz Salehi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Balance disturbance is one of the observed impairments in patient with forward head posture (FHP. The aim of this study was comparing the effect of stabilization and stretching-strengthening exercises on the improvement of balance in these patients. Materials & Methods: Thirty three females with FHP were randomized into three groups of stabilization training, stretching-strengthening and control. The degree of FHP was measured using plumb line and the crania-vertebral angle. Balance tests performed in three different standing conditions on a force platform. The subjects were evaluated after 6 weeks training and 1 month follow-up by repeated measure ANOVA and T-test through SPSS software. Results: Balance parameters in both stretching-strengthening and control groups showed no significant changes (P>0.05 while in the stabilization group, significant decrease in displacement and velocity of center of pressure were seen under conditions of double-leg, eyes-open, foam-surface and single-leg, eyes-closed, rigid-surface (P0.05. Conclusion: In the conditions of standing that visual and proprioception information from plantar region of foot is challenged, stabilization exercises lead to more balance improvement than stretching-strengthening exercises.

  2. The effects of Internet-based exercise compared with supervised group exercise in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study.

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    Akinci, Buket; Yeldan, Ipek; Satman, Ilhan; Dirican, Ahmet; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2018-06-01

    To compare the effects of Internet-based exercise on glycaemic control, blood lipids, body composition, physical activity level, functional capacity, and quality of life with supervised group exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Single-blind, randomized controlled study. A Faculty of Health Sciences. A total of 65 patients with type 2 diabetes (47 women, 18 men). Group A ( n = 22), control group - physical activity counselling once with a brochure. Group B ( n = 22), supervised group-based exercise, three days per week for eight weeks. Group C ( n = 21), Internet-based exercise following the same programme via a website. Primary outcomes - glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and cholesterol. Secondary outcomes - waist and hip circumferences, body mass index, number of steps, six-minute walking test, and Euro-Quality of Life-5 Dimension. After treatment, glycaemic control (mean change for Group B; Group C; -0.80%, -0.91%, P = 0.003), waist circumference (-4.23 cm, 5.64 cm, P = 0.006), and quality of life (0.26, 0.15, P = 0.013) significantly improved in both training groups compared with the control group. Fasting blood glucose (-46.86 mg/dL, P = 0.009) and hip circumference (-2.7 cm, P = 0.011) were significantly decreased in Group B and total cholesterol (-16.4 mg/dL, P = 0.028), six-minute walking distance (30.5 m, P = 0.01), and number of steps (1258.05, P = 0.023) significantly improved in Group C compared with control group. Group B and Group C changed with equal magnitude. In type 2 diabetes, supervised group-based and Internet-based exercise can improve equally glycaemic control, waist circumference, and quality of life, and both are better than simply counselling.

  3. Comparing the effect of lovastatin and exercise on serum lipid profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Recently, statins, life style modification and diet have been used to treat hyperlipidaemia. Aim: The ... The results showed that exercise could reduce LDL, but lovastatin can reduce total cholesterol, TG .... Choosing drug therapy for patient with ...

  4. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF AGILITY AND PERTURBATION EXERCISES VERSUS DYNAMIC RESISTANCE EXERCISES TO IMPROVE KNEE FUNCTION IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Jeutishree Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary osteoarthritis is more commonly found in post menopausal women; Secondary osteoarthritis had an underlying cause such as trauma, obesity or inflammatory arthritis. It is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage with subsequent remodeling and hypertrophy of the bone at the joint margins. Muscle weakness is associated with increased functional limitation, disability. Muscle strengthening through resistance exercises increases physical function; decreases pain due to osteoarthritis and reduces self reported disability. Agility is the ability to change direction and maintain stability and is more often important in changing direction and speed; In order to train muscle to react quickly neuromuscular training is essential; Perturbation enhances the ability of the proprioceptor signals to the muscle and prevent injuries and enhances performance. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of agility training and dynamic resistance training in patients with primary osteoarthritis. Methods: 50 subjects were assigned in two groups 25 each group and subjects were selected by convenient sampling method. Group A with agility training and Group B with dynamic resistance training. The treatment session was performed 3 days a week for 3 weeks lasting for 45minutes. Day 0 is the starting day of the session and Day-21 last day of the session. Each subject performed all the measurement with knee function assessed by Timed up and Go test (TUG and Lower extremity function Scale (LEFS. Both outcomes were tested at starting day and at the end of 21st day. Results: All the analysis was carried out in PASW version 21.0. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. The between group analysis of agility training and dynamic strengthening for LEFS and TUG in evaluation of knee function was done using independent ‘t’ test showed statistically very significant (P=0.000. Conclusions

  5. A novel comparative effectiveness study of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; McAlindon, Timothy; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Kalish, Robert; Schmid, Anna; Scott, Tammy M; Schmid, Christopher H

    2015-01-30

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome that causes substantial physical and psychological impairment and costs the US healthcare system over $25 billion annually. Current pharmacological therapies may cause serious adverse effects, are expensive, and fail to effectively improve pain and function. Finding new and effective non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia patients is urgently needed. We are currently conducting the first comparative effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise (a recommended component of the current standard of care) in a large fibromyalgia population. This article describes the design and conduct of this trial. A single-center, 52-week, randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise is being conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. We plan to recruit 216 patients with fibromyalgia. The study population consists of adults ≥21 years of age with fibromyalgia who meet American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 diagnostic criteria. Participants are randomized to one of four Tai Chi intervention groups: 12 or 24 weeks of supervised Tai Chi held once or twice per week, or a supervised aerobic exercise control held twice per week for 24 weeks. The primary outcome is the change in Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measures of widespread pain, symptom severity, functional performance, balance, muscle strength and power, psychological functioning, sleep quality, self-efficacy, durability effects, and health-related quality of life at 12, 24, and 52 week follow-up. This study is the first comparative effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise in a large fibromyalgia population with long-term follow up. We present here a robust and well-designed trial to determine the optimal frequency and duration of a supervised Tai Chi intervention with regard to short

  6. Long-term effect of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial comparing two different physiotherapy interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.; Veenhof, C.; Schellevis, F.; Bakker, D. de; Dekker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if behavioural graded activity (BGA) results in better long-term effectiveness (5 years after inclusion) than usual exercise therapy (UC; usual care) in patients with OA of the hip or knee. Relevance: The positive effects of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis seem

  7. Comparing the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise with an acute bout of interactive mental and physical exercise on electrophysiology and executive functioning in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Julia; Hogan, Michael; Khader, Patrick; O'Hora, Denis; Kilmartin, Liam; Walsh, Jane C; Roche, Richard; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2017-10-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive and neural functioning in older adults. The current study compared the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise with a bout of interactive mental and physical exercise (i.e., "exergaming") on executive (Stroop) task performance and event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes in younger and older adults. Results revealed enhanced executive task performance in younger and older adults after exercise, with no differences in performance between exercise conditions. Stroop (RT) performance in older adults improved more than in younger adults from pre- to post-exercise. A significant increase in EEG amplitude from pre- to post-exercise was found at the Cz site from 320 to 700 ms post-stimulus for both younger and older adults, with older adults demonstrating a larger Stroop interference effect. While younger adults exhibited overall greater EEG amplitudes than older adults, they showed no differences between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., minimal interference). Compared to peers with higher BMI (body mass index), older adults with lower BMI showed a greater reduction in Stroop interference effects from pre- to post-exercise. The beneficial effects of an acute bout of physical exercise on cognitive and neural functioning in younger and older adults were confirmed, with no difference between standard exercise and exergaming. Findings suggest that BMI, sometimes used as a proxy for fitness level, may modulate benefits that older adults derive from an acute bout of exercise. Findings have implications for future research that seeks to investigate unique effects of exergaming when compared to standard physical exercise.

  8. The Joint Effects of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Lipid-Related Indices among Chinese Males-Comparing Exercise and Non-Exercise Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ye, Jun; Guo, Qiao; Sun, Yining; Zheng, Yansong; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-06-11

    Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016. A sample of 6,179 male subjects was divided into exercise and non-exercise groups. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios for abnormal lipid-related indices and correlation coefficients between smoking/drinking and lipid-related indices. In the study population, the percentage of stable smokers and stable drinkers was 46.3% (2,860/6,179) and 77.6% (4,795/6,179), respectively. An increased smoking amount was significantly associated with an elevated triglyceride (TG) level and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Heavier smokers had higher odds ratios for high TG and low HDL-C. Heavier drinkers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C and higher odds ratios for high TC and high TG but lower odds ratio for low HDL-C. The exercise group had lower TG levels and higher HDL-C levels than did the non-exercise group. Both heavier smoking and heavier drinking were associated with poorer TG levels, and the results suggest that drinking may be helpful for HDL-C. Exercise may relieve the negative effects of smoking and drinking.

  9. Gym-based exercise was more costly compared with home-based exercise with telephone support when used as maintenance programs for adults with chronic health conditions: cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jansons

    2018-01-01

    Registration: ACTRN12610001035011. [Jansons P, Robins L, O’Brien L, Haines T (2018 Gym-based exercise was more costly compared with home-based exercise with telephone support when used as maintenance programs for adults with chronic health conditions: cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 48–54

  10. Physiotherapy exercise programmes: are instructional exercise sheets effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jo; Lewis, Jeremy; Prichard, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Effective compliance with physiotherapy exercises is only possible if patients remember the exercises accurately. The purpose of this study was to assess how well elderly in-patients remembered simple physiotherapy exercises, by comparing the ability to accurately reproduce a set of exercises in a group of patients that had received a written exercise sheet, with a group that had not. The study also aimed to investigate the relationship between memory for exercises and cognition. Sixty-four in-patients in an acute hospital were taught 3 exercises. Half of the subjects were randomised to receive exercise sheets to reinforce the teaching (Group 1). The rest of the subjects did not receive this memory aid (Group 2). Two to three days later subjects were asked to demonstrate their exercises. The accurate recall of the exercises was scored using a new assessment scale with a maximum score of 24. The mean exercise score was 17.19 for group 1 (SD = 5.91) and 16.24 for Group 2 (SD = 6.01). There was no significant difference in exercise score between groups (Mann Whitney U test p = 0.44). There was a statistically significant small positive correlation between exercise score and cognition (tau = 0.263). The study showed that older adult in-patients do not remember physiotherapy exercises effectively after a single teaching session and that their memory is not significantly improved by provision of an exercise sheet.

  11. A comparative study of the effects of trunk exercise program in aquatic and land-based therapy on gait in hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program on gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients (20 males, 8 females). The subjects performed a trunk exercise program for a total of four weeks. [Results] Walking speed and cycle, stance phase and stride length of the affected side, and the symmetry index of the stance phase significantly improved after the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program may help improve gait performance ability after stroke.

  12. Comparing the effect of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercise program on the level of resistin and high reactive protein C of overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History and Objective: Obesity is one of the health risks factors, and aerobic exercise is one of the means to prevent and control obesity. The research was designed to compare methods of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercises on resistin and C-reactive protein (CRP serum level of overweight and obese women. Research Methodology: In this semi-experimental research, 36 voluntary overweight or obese women were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12 of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent exercise programs. The training included 8 weeks of exercise performed with 55%–75% of 1-repetition maximum weight lifting. The aerobic exercise was performed at 55%–75% of maximum oxygen consumption and concurrent training included both programs for 3 days/week. The resistin and CRP serum level of the participant was measured 48 h before the start and again 48 h after the termination of the exercise protocol. The statistical analysis was performed on data using SPSS 22.0 (Chicago, USA. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was employed to test the hypothesis at significance level set to 0.05. Results: The result indicated that exercise program significantly decreased CRP level of blood serum (P 0.05. Discussion: Aerobic exercise regardless of types has a beneficiary effect on CPR, but resistin level needs different types of exercise to change in overweight and obese women. Conclusion: Some aerobic exercises are beneficiary for overweight and obese women health.

  13. Comparing the Effect of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises in Patients Suffering From Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Firoozkoohi Moghadam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most prevalent problems in physically active people. The syndrome is a multifactorial disorder with different therapeutic approaches. Conservative treatment of the syndrome has been a crucial matter in different studies. Quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise is a recommended approach which is performed in forms of open and closed kinetic chain exercises. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of these exercises on this syndrome. Methods: Totally 30 women suffering from the syndrome aged 30-40 were randomly allocated into three groups: open, and closed kinetic chain exercises, and control group, as groups A, B, and C, respectively. Groups A and B participated in 28 sessions of exercises in a period of four weeks and group C did not do any exercise in this period. Before and after the period, pain and function of the participants were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS and Kujala patellofemoral scale, respectively. Data were analyzed using independent t test, dependent t test, and univariate variance analysis, while significance of data was determined at P < 0.05. Results: The study indicated that open kinetic chain exercises (group A for 4 weeks brought significant changes in relieving the pain along with improving the function (P = 0.001. Likewise, it was revealed a significant pain relief as well as function improvement in group B (P = 0.001. Comparing two groups illustrated that benefits of open kinetic chain exercises outweigh closed ones (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Overall, both exercises were efficient in relieving pain as well as improving function, however open kinetic chain exercises were more contributory.

  14. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Holmes; Darryn S. Willoughby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Meth...

  15. Metabolic Effects of Glucose-Fructose Co-Ingestion Compared to Glucose Alone during Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bally

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU with glucose alone (GLU in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol underwent a 90 min iso-energetic continuous cycling session at 50% VO2max while ingesting combined glucose-fructose (GLUFRU or glucose alone (GLU to maintain stable glycaemia without insulin adjustment. GLUFRU and GLU were labelled with 13C-fructose and 13C-glucose, respectively. Metabolic assessments included measurements of hormones and metabolites, substrate oxidation, and stable isotopes. Exogenous carbohydrate requirements to maintain stable glycaemia were comparable between GLUFRU and GLU (p = 0.46. Fat oxidation was significantly higher (5.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 1.2 mg·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001 and carbohydrate oxidation lower (18.1 ± 0.8 vs. 24.5 ± 0.8 mg·kg−1·min−1 p < 0.001 in GLUFRU compared to GLU, with decreased muscle glycogen oxidation in GLUFRU (10.2 ± 0.9 vs. 17.5 ± 1.0 mg·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001. Lactate levels were higher (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L, p = 0.012 in GLUFRU, with comparable counter-regulatory hormones between GLUFRU and GLU (p > 0.05 for all. Glucose and insulin levels, and total glucose appearance and disappearance were comparable between interventions. Glucose-fructose co-ingestion may have a beneficial impact on fuel metabolism in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes without insulin adjustment, by increasing fat oxidation whilst sparing glycogen.

  16. Stakeholder involvement in the design of a patient-centered comparative effectiveness trial of the "On the Move" group exercise program in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Gilmore, Sandra; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Brodine, Deborah; Wert, David; Nadkarni, Neelesh K; Ricci, Edmund

    2016-09-01

    Group exercise programs for older adults often exclude the timing and coordination of movement. Stakeholder involvement in the research process is strongly encouraged and improves the relevance and adoption of findings. We describe stakeholder involvement in the design of a clinical trial of a group-based exercise program that incorporates timing and coordination of movement into the exercises. The study was a cluster randomized, single-blind intervention trial to compare the effects on function, disability and mobility of a standard group exercise program and the "On the Move" group exercise program in older adults residing in independent living facilities and senior apartment buildings, and attending community centers. Exercise classes were twice weekly for 12weeks delivered by study exercise leaders and facility activity staff personnel. The primary outcomes function, disability and mobility were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Function and disability were assessed using the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument, and mobility using the Six-Minute Walk Test and gait speed. Patient and provider stakeholders had significant input into the study aims, design, sample, intervention, outcomes and operational considerations. A community-based exercise program to improve walking can be developed to address both investigator identified missing components in current exercise to improve walking and stakeholder defined needs and interest for the activity program. Involvement of stakeholders substantially improves the relevance of research questions, increases the transparency of research activities and may accelerate the adoption of research into practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on left ventricular function using gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Yuka; Chikamori, Taishiro; Igarashi, Yuko; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Hatano, Tsuguhisa; Usui, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Manabu; Yamashina, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Although post-ischemic stunning has emerged as an important marker for severe coronary artery disease (CAD), differences in stress methods may have different effects on left ventricular (LV) volumes and function. To assess differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on the LV measurements, 99m Tc-sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) acquired more than 30 min after stress and at rest was evaluated in 38 patients undergoing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stress (ATP group) and 38 age- and sex-matched patients subjected to exercise stress (Ex group) among 268 patients with normal SPECT findings. Coronary risk factors and LV volumetric measurements at baseline were similar in the two groups. Compared with volumetric measurements at rest, end-diastolic volume (EDV) increased (72±21 ml to 74±21 ml; P=0.01), end-systolic volume increased (25±12 ml to 28±13 ml; P=0.001), and ejection fraction (EF) decreased after stress (66%±8% to 63%±9%; P<0.002) in the ATP group. In the Ex group, by contrast, no such change was observed. In addition, changes in EDV (3±6 vs. -1±5 ml; P=0.01) and the stress-to-rest ratio of EDV (1.04±0.09 vs. 0.99±0.08; P<0.02) after stress were greater in the ATP than in the Ex group. Differential effects of stress methods on LV volumes persist more than 30 min after the stress. These findings should be kept in mind when interpreting post-ischemic stunning. (author)

  18. Comparative effectiveness of videotape and handout mode of instructions for teaching exercises: skill retention in normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Garima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teaching of motor skills is fundamental to physical therapy practice. In order to optimize the benefits of these teaching and training efforts, various forms of patient education material are developed and handed out to patients. One very important fact has been overlooked. While comparative effectiveness of various modes of instruction has been studied in adults, attention has not been paid to the fact that learning capabilities of children are different from that of adults. The intent of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of video and handout mode of instructions specifically on children. Methods A total of 115 normal elementary-age children aged 10 to 12 years of age were studied. The children were randomized into two groups: A the video group, and B the handout group. The video group viewed the video for physical therapy exercises while the handout group was provided with paper handouts especially designed according to the readability of their age group. Results Statistical analysis using the student's't' test showed that subjects of both the video and handout groups exhibited equal overall performance accuracy. There was no significant difference between the groups both in acquisition and retention accuracy tests. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that if the readability and instructional principles applicable to different target age groups are strictly adhered to, then both video as well as handout modes of instructions result in similar feedback and memory recall in ten to twelve year-old children. Principles of readability related to the patient age are of utmost importance when designing the patient education material. These findings suggest that the less expensive handouts can be an effective instructional aid for teaching exercises to children with various neuromuscular, rheumatic, and orthopedics conditions and the most costly videotape techniques are not necessarily better.

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND OUT THE EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN CORE STABILIZATION VS MCKENZIE EXERCISES IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MECHANICAL LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dutta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical Low back pain is a leading cause of disability. It occurs in similar proportions in all cultures, interferes with quality of life and work performance. Both male and female populations are affected; however, there is a tendency towards a higher incidence in male patients. Mechanical low back pain is associated with pain and clinical instability in lumbar motion segments. Exercises play an important part in the rehabilitation of low back pain. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness between Core stabilization vs McKenzie exercises in the treatment of patients with mechanical low back pain. Methods: 30 patients were selected between the age groups of 20 yrs to 50 yrs and having a past history of low back pain for one month. 15 patients were allotted to each group of experiment. Group I was given Core stabilization exercises and Group II with McKenzie exercises. Interferential therapy was a common treatment for both the groups. Evaluations of the subjects were done using the Revised Oswestry Disability Index and Dynamic Endurance tests. Results: Data analysis revealed statistically significant difference between both the groups (p<0.05 and proved that Core stabilization exercises is more effective than McKenzie exercises in mechanical low back pain. Conclusion: This study shows that core stabilization exercises possess a greater potential over McKenzie exercises in treating Mechanical Low back pain patients.

  20. A STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFECT OF CLOSED AND OPEN KINETIC CHAIN EXERCISE WITH KINESIO TAPING FOR PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Nandkumar Rangole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain syndrome is dull, aching pain anterior to knee which frequently activity related may be present in one or both knees with difficulty in walking, running. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of open kinetic chain exercise with Kinesio taping versus close kinetic chain exercise with kinesio taping for improving pain and functional mobility in subjects with unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome. Methods: An Experimental study design, 30 subjects with unilateral patellofemoral pain were selected and randomized 15 subjects into each two groups. Group-A received Open Kinetic chain exercise with Kinesio taping while Group-B received Close kinetic chain exercises with kinesio taping. The duration of intervention was 2 weeks. Outcome measure such as Functional mobility was measured using a Kujala questionnaire and pain was measured using a VAS scale before and after two weeks of intervention. Results: Analysis using Independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U test found that there is statistically significant difference with p<0.000 when pre to post interventions means were compared within the groups. When post intervention means between the Group-A and Group-B were compared there is a significant statistical difference in VAS and functional mobility. Conclusion: The present study concluded that both Open kinetic chain exercise with kinesio taping and close kinetic chain exercise with kinesio taping are effective in improving functional mobility and Pain. However close kinetic chain exercises with Kinesio taping shown greater percentage of effect in improving pain and functional mobility than open kinetic chain exercise.

  1. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holmes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Method: Common methods of cryotherapy include cold water immersion (CWI, ice packs, ice massages, and gel or cooling creams. CWI is the most common method among athletes; however, a new form of cryotherapy, known as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, has recently emerged.  Since its introduction, WBC has grown in popularity among practitioners and athletes. WBC involves short exposures (generally between 2-4 minutes to very cold air (-100o C to -140o C in a controlled room and setting. Furthermore, many of the studies on WBC were observational and did not contain a control group. Conclusion: Despite its growing popularity, the alleged benefits of WBC are largely based on anecdotal evidence as randomized, clinically-controlled studies regarding its efficacy are limited.  Keywords: cryotherapy, cold water immersion, exercise, recovery, muscle damage, inflammation

  2. Comparing the effects of exercise program and low-level laser therapy with exercise program and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (bioptron light) on the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Pantelis, Manias; Stasinopoulou, Kalliopi

    2009-06-01

    The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light as supplements to an exercise program has been recommended for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). To investigate whether an exercise program supplemented with LLLT is more successful than an exercise program supplemented with polarized polychromatic non-coherent light in treating LET. Patients with unilateral LET for at least 4 wk were sequentially allocated to receive either an exercise program with LLLT or an exercise program with polarized polychromatic non-coherent light. The exercise program consisted of eccentric and static stretching exercises of wrist extensors. In the LLLT group a 904-nm Ga-As laser was used in continuous mode, and the power density was 130 mW/cm(2), and the dose was 0.585 J/point. In the group receiving polarized polychromatic non-coherent light the Bioptron 2 was used to administer the dose perpendicularly to the lateral epicondyle at three points at an operating distance of 5-10 cm for 6 min at each position. The outcome measures were pain and function and were evaluated at baseline, at the end of the treatment (week 4), and 3 mo after the end of treatment (week 16). Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment there was a decline in pain and a rise in function in both groups compared with baseline (p 0.0005 on the independent t-test). The results suggest that the combination of an exercise program with LLLT or polarized polychromatic non-coherent light is an adequate treatment for patients with LET. Further research to establish the relative and absolute effectiveness of such a treatment approach is needed.

  3. Effect of Exercise Therapy Compared with Arthroscopic Surgery on Knee Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Patients with Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a 12-wk exercise therapy program and arthroscopic partial meniscectomy on knee strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears. DESIGN: A total of 82 patients (mean age, 49 yrs; 35% women......) with a symptomatic, unilateral, magnetic resonance imaging-verified degenerative meniscus tear and no or mild radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to a supervised neuromuscular and strength exercise program or arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Outcomes assessed 3 mos after intervention initiation were...

  4. A comparative study of the effects of trunk exercise program in aquatic and land-based therapy on gait in hemiplegic stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program on gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients (20 males, 8 females). The subjects performed a trunk exercise program for a total of four weeks. [Results] Walking speed and cycle, stance phase and stride length of the affected side, and the symmetry index of the stance phase significantly improved after the aquatic and land-based t...

  5. A HEMATOBIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING AND AEROBIC EXERCISE TO CONTROL DIABETES MALLITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes has become a very common disease all over the world since last few decades and is now perceived as a global health disorder. Diabetes mellitus is identified on the basis of constant high concentration of blood glucose level and it mainly occurs due to deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. High-intensity interval training (HIIT is an improved form of interval trainings, and exercise strategies which alternate the periods of small intense anaerobic exercise by less-intense regaining periods. The study aimed to compare the hematological parameters associated with diabetes and muscle activity between healthy humans and diabetic type-1 patients when subjected to HIIT and regular aerobic exercises. Methods: A convenience sample of total 60 participants was taken it comprised of thirty healthy individuals taken from the department of Physical Therapy, University of Sargodha, Lahore campus and thirty diabetic type-1 individuals of age 15-30 years taken from Akhuwat health services clinic Township, Lahore. Participants were divided into four groups of fifteen individuals each. Group one was the diabetic HIIT (DH group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to HIIT. Group two was the diabetic aerobic (DA group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Group three was control High intensity interval training (HH that consisted of fifteen healthy individuals to be subjected to High intensity interval training exercises (HIIT. Group four (HA was the control aerobic group with fifteen healthy individuals of average lifestyles subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Results: Aerobic exercise was found to be more effective in reducing glucose level, lowering exogenous insulin and glycated hemoglobin, however HIIT proved to be more effective in lowering blood cholesterol level and decrease LDL level and increase HDL level. Conclusion: It was concluded that aerobic exercise program in comparison to high

  6. Comparative effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy versus control injections and exercise in the management of osteoarthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has supported the use of dextrose prolotherapy for patients with osteoarthritis. However, the real benefits may be affected by differences in injection protocols, comparative regimens, and evaluation scales. PubMed and Scopus were searched from the earliest record until February 2016. One single-arm study and five randomized controlled trials were included, comprising 326 participants. We estimated the effect sizes of pain reduction before and after serial dextrose injections and compared the values between dextrose prolotherapy, comparative regimens, and exercise 6 months after the initial injection. Regarding the treatment arm using dextrose prolotherapy, the effect sizes compared with baseline were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.17), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40-1.27), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.60-1.10), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.53-1.21) after the first, second, third, and fourth or more injections, respectively. The overall effect of dextrose was better than control injections (effect size, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10-0.63). Dextrose prolotherapy had a superior effect compared with local anesthesia (effect size, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07-0.70) and exercise (effect size, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.30-1.11). There was an insignificant advantage of dextrose over corticosteroids (effect size, 0.31; 95% CI, -0.18 to 0.80) which was only estimated from one study. Dextrose injections decreased pain in osteoarthritis patients but did not exhibit a positive dose-response relationship following serial injections. Dextrose prolotherapy was found to provide a better therapeutic effect than exercise, local anesthetics, and probably corticosteroids when patients were retested 6 months following the initial injection.

  7. COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EMG BIOFEEDBACK ASSISSTED CORE STABILITY EXERCISES VERSUS CORE STABILITY EXERCISES ALONE ON PAIN AND DISABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkirat Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back Pain (LBP is a health related problem than affects 80% of the population within the age limit of 15 to 45 years. The primary treatment used for patients with LBP includes muscle strengthening along with thermotherapeutic modalities. Thus the purpose of the study is to see the efficacy of EMG biofeedback assisted core stability exercises versus core stability exercises alone in patients suffering from pain and disability. Methodology: A total of 30 patients were divided through convenient sampling method into two group- A and B. Each group had 15 patients. In Group A-SWD, traction, IFT and core stability exercises were given where as in Group B EMG biofeedback assisted core stability exercises were given for 5 treatment session per week for 2 weeks and reassessment was done on 5th and 10th day post treatment. Result: The result of the study showed that there was statistically significant (p<0.05 improvement in both Group A and B in terms of pain (NPRS and disability (ODQ after 10th day of treatment. Whereas on comparison within groups the result showed that there was significant (p<0.05 improvement in Group B 10th day post treatment rather than Group A on day 10th. Conclusion: The study supports that EMG biofeedback assisted core stability exercises are helpful for treating patients with LBP to reduce their pain as well as disability.

  8. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  9. Comparing the effects of eccentric training with eccentric training and static stretching exercises in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos; Pantelis, Manias; Kalliopi, Stasinopoulou

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of eccentric training and eccentric training with static stretching exercises in the management of patellar tendinopathy. Controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology and rehabilitation centre. Forty-three patients who had patellar tendinopathy for at least three months. They were allocated to two groups by alternative allocation. Group A (n = 22) was treated with eccentric training of patellar tendon and static stretching exercises of quadriceps and hamstrings and Group B (n = 21) received eccentric training of patellar tendon. All patients received five treatments per week for four weeks. Pain and function were evaluated using the VISA-P score at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 4), and six months (week 24) after the end of treatment. At the end of treatment, there was a rise in VISA-P score in both groups compared with baseline (Peccentric training and static stretching exercises produced the largest effect (PEccentric training and static stretching exercises is superior to eccentric training alone to reduce pain and improve function in patients with patellar tendinopathy at the end of the treatment and at follow-up.

  10. Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers.

  11. The effect of instruction in analgesic use compared with neuromuscular exercise on knee-joint load in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, A; Clausen, B; Søndergaard, J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a NEuro-Muscular EXercise (NEMEX) therapy program compared with instructions in optimized analgesics and anti-inflammatory drug use (PHARMA), on measures of knee-joint load in people with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that knee joint...... loading during walking would be reduced by NEMEX and potentially increased by PHARMA. DESIGN: Single-blind, RCT comparing NEMEX therapy twice a week with PHARMA. Participants with mild-to-moderate medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated (1:1) to one of two 8-week treatments...

  12. A novel comparative effectiveness study of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chenchen; McAlindon, Timothy; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Kalish, Robert; Schmid, Anna; Scott, Tammy M; Schmid, Christopher H

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome that causes substantial physical and psychological impairment and costs the US healthcare system over $25 billion annually. Current pharmacological therapies may cause serious adverse effects, are expensive, and fail to effectively improve pain and function. Finding new and effective non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia patients is urgently needed. We are currently conducting the first comparative effectiveness rand...

  13. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2010-01-01

    in circulation, and on gene expression on these infammatory marker in skeletal muscle (SM) and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies. Material and Methods: 15 lean males and females (BMI 22.4±2 kg/m2) and 16 obese males and females (BMI 31.6±3 kg/m2) exercised for 120 minutes by ergometer bicycling at moderate intensity......Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...... (55-60% of maximal heart rate). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T0), after 60 minutes of bicycling (T=60), after 120 minutes of bicycling (T=120), whereas biopsies from AT and SM were obtained at T0 and T120. Results: Divided into weight-status, plasma levels of IL-8 and TNFα were at T=120...

  14. Effectiveness of individualized physiotherapy on pain and functioning compared to a standard exercise protocol in patients presenting with clinical signs of subacromial impingement syndrome. A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bie Rob A

    2010-06-01

    ' adherence to the protocol, use of additional treatments for the shoulder, direct and indirect costs, and sick leave due to shoulder complaints will be recorded in a shoulder log-book. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first trial comparing individualized physiotherapy based on a defined decision making process to a standardized exercise protocol. Using high-quality methodologies, this trial will add evidence to the limited body of knowledge about the effect of physiotherapy in patients with SIS. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86900354

  15. A randomised trial comparing the effect of exercise training and weight loss on microvascular function in coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Jürs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular function is associated with outcome and is reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. We compared the effect of aerobic interval training (AIT) and weight loss on coronary flow reserve (CFR) and peripheral vascular function in revascularised obese CAD...... patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy non-diabetic patients (BMI 28-40 kg × m(-2), age 45-75 years) were randomised to 12 weeks' AIT (three weekly sessions lasting 38 min with ≈ 16 min at 85-90% of VO2peak) or low energy diet (LED, 800-1000 kcal/day). Per protocol adherence was defined by training......-attendance ≥ 60% and weight loss ≥ 5%, respectively. CFR was assessed by Doppler echocardiography of the LAD. Peripheral vascular function was assessed by arterial tonometry as reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index. Most participants had impaired CFR with a mean CFR of 2.38 (SD 0.59). Twenty...

  16. Stakeholder involvement in the design of a patient-centered comparative effectiveness trial of the “On the Move” group exercise program in community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Jennifer S.; Perera, Subashan; Gilmore, Sandra; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.; Brodine, Deborah; Wert, David; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Ricci, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Background Group exercise programs for older adults often exclude the timing and coordination of movement. Stakeholder involvement in the research process is strongly encouraged and improves the relevance and adoption of findings. We describe stakeholder involvement in the design of a clinical trial of a group-based exercise program that incorporates timing and coordination of movement into the exercises. Methods The study was a cluster randomized, single-blind intervention trial to compare the effects on function, disability and mobility of a standard group exercise program and the “On the Move” group exercise program in older adults residing in independent living facilities and senior apartment buildings, and attending community centers. Exercise classes were twice weekly for 12 weeks delivered by study exercise leaders and facility activity staff personnel. Outcomes The primary outcomes function, disability and mobility were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Function and disability were assessed using the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument, and mobility using the Six-Minute Walk Test and gait speed. Stakeholders Patient and provider stakeholders had significant input into the study aims, design, sample, intervention, outcomes and operational considerations. Summary A community-based exercise program to improve walking can be developed to address both investigator identified missing components in current exercise to improve walking and stakeholder defined needs and interest for the activity program. Involvement of stakeholders substantially improves the relevance of research questions, increases the transparency of research activities and may accelerate the adoption of research into practice. PMID:27521806

  17. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  18. Effects of acute exercise on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, Milene; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark; Hangelbroek, Roland; Muller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patricht; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exercising is know to have an effect on exercising skeletal muscle, but unkown is the effect on non-exercising skeletal muscle. Gene expression changes in the non-exercising skeletal muscle would point to a signalling role of skeletal muscle

  19. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L R; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... of the operated leg, at the primary endpoint 10 weeks after surgery in THR patients with lower pre-operative function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01214954....

  20. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  1. The Effectiveness of the Comprehensive Voice Rehabilitation Program Compared With the Vocal Function Exercises Method in Behavioral Dysphonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Vanessa; Pontes, Antônio; Pontes, Paulo; Behlau, Mara; Peccin, Stella Maria

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Comprehensive Voice Rehabilitation Program (CVRP) compared with Vocal Function Exercises (VFEs) to treat functional dysphonia. This is a randomized blinded clinical trial. Eighty voice professionals presented with voice complaints for more than 6 months with a functional dysphonia diagnosis. Subjects were randomized into two voice treatment groups: CVRP and VFE. The rehabilitation program consisted of six voice treatment sessions and three assessment sessions performed before, immediately after, and 1 month after treatment. The outcome measures were self-assessment protocols (Voice-Related Quality of Life [V-RQOL] and Voice Handicap Index [VHI]), perceptual evaluation of vocal quality, and a visual examination of the larynx, both blinded. The randomization process produced comparable groups in terms of age, gender, signs, and symptoms. Both groups had positive outcome measures. The CVRP effect size was 1.09 for the V-RQOL, 1.17 for the VHI, 0.79 for vocal perceptual evaluation, and 1.01 for larynx visual examination. The VFE effect size was 0.86 for the V-RQOL, 0.62 for the VHI, 0.48 for the vocal perceptual evaluation, and 0.51 for larynx visual examination. Only 10% of the patients were lost over the study. Both treatment programs were effective. The probability of a patient improving because of the CVRP treatment was similar to that of the VFE treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nadine E; Healey, Emma L; Holden, Melanie A; Nicholls, Elaine; Whitehurst, David Gt; Jowett, Susan; Jinks, Clare; Roddy, Edward; Hay, Elaine M

    2014-07-27

    Exercise is consistently recommended for older adults with knee pain related to osteoarthritis. However, the effects from exercise are typically small and short-term, likely linked to insufficient individualisation of the exercise programme and limited attention to supporting exercise adherence over time. The BEEP randomised trial aims to improve patients' short and long-term outcomes from exercise. It will test the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two physiotherapy-led exercise interventions (Individually Tailored Exercise and Targeted Exercise Adherence) to improve the individual tailoring of, and adherence to exercise, compared with usual physiotherapy care. Based on the learning from a pilot study (ISRCTN 23294263), the BEEP trial is a multi-centre, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with embedded longitudinal qualitative interviews. 500 adults in primary care, aged 45 years and over with knee pain will be randomised to 1 of 3 treatment groups delivered by fully trained physiotherapists in up to 6 NHS services. These are: Usual Physiotherapy Care (control group consisting of up to 4 treatment sessions of advice and exercise), Individually Tailored Exercise (an individualised, supervised and progressed lower-limb exercise programme) or Targeted Exercise Adherence (supporting patients to adhere to exercise and to engage in general physical activity over the longer-term). The primary outcomes are pain and function as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis index. A comprehensive range of secondary outcomes are also included. Outcomes are measured at 3, 6 (primary outcome time-point), 9, 18 and 36 months. Data on adverse events will also be collected. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a subsample of 30 participants (10 from each treatment group) will be undertaken at two time-points (end of treatment and 12 to 18 months later) and analysed thematically. This trial will contribute to the

  3. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  4. Comparing Physical Therapy Accompanying Exercise with Only Exercise Treatments in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigating and comparing the effects of exercise and physical therapy accompanying exercise treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty three patients with mechanical type low back existing more than 3 months were included one of the exercise or the physical therapy+exercise groups according to their application sequence. Both of the groups performed lumbar flexion and extension exercises, strengthening of the lumbar and abdominal muscle exercises and iliopsoas, hamstring and quadriceps stretching exercises two times a day for 14 days. The physical therapy group was given hot pack+therapeutic ultrasound+ interferential current for 10 days additionally. Degree of the low back pain was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS, range of joint motion was evaluated with hand finger floor distance (HFFD and Modified Schober test, functional status was evaluated with Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale and quality of life was evaluated with Short form-36 (SF-36 before and a month after the treatments. Results: In both groups (exercise group: average age 59 years, 21 females, 2 males; physical therapy group: average age 60 years, 20 females, 3 males pain intensity and HFFD decreased and Modified Schober increased, functionality recovered, pain and physical functions of SF-36 improved after the treatments. SF-36-physical role difficulty also improved in the exercise group. Decrease in pain, increase in HFFD andimproving of the functional status were all significantly more in the physical therapy group. There were no difference between the groups in terms of Modified Schober measurement and changes of the quality of life. Conclusions: Exercises and exercise+physical therapy are both effective in chronic low back pain. Successful results can be taken by addition of the physical therapy in patients who do not benefit sufficiently from exercise therapy. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 73-8

  5. Effects of a standardized Panax ginseng extract on the skeletal muscle of the rat: a comparative study in animals at rest and under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effect of standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on enzymatic activities, myotypological composition, capillaries and mitochondrial content was studied in the skeletal muscle of male rats Wistar. Simultaneously to the G115 administration the rats performed exercise. The animals were divided into 4 groups. The dose of the ginseng extract G115 was 50 mg/kg. The length of the experimental period was 12 weeks. After 24 hours of inactivity the muscles of the hindlimb were extracted. With regard to the enzymatic activities of the citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CS increases with exercise, while the LDH undergoes no major variations, either due to the exercise or the treatment. Treatment with G115 increases the capillary density and the mitochondrial content of the red gastrocnemius muscle. The results suggest that prolonged treatment with G115 increases the capillary density and the oxidative capacity of the muscles with greater aerobic potential in a manner similar to the performance of physical exercise. When exercise and treatment are combined, the effects that are obtained separately are not potentiated.

  6. The effect of instruction in analgesic use compared with neuromuscular exercise on knee-joint load in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, A; Clausen, B; Søndergaard, J; Christensen, R; Andriacchi, T P; Roos, E M

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of a neuro-muscular exercise (NEMEX) therapy program compared with instructions in optimized analgesics and anti-inflammatory drug use (PHARMA), on measures of knee-joint load in people with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that knee joint loading during walking would be reduced by NEMEX and potentially increased by PHARMA. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing NEMEX therapy twice a week with PHARMA. Participants with mild-to-moderate medial tibiofemoral knee OA were randomly allocated (1:1) to one of two 8-week treatments. Primary outcome was change in knee load during walking (Knee Index, a composite score from all three planes based on 3D movement analysis) after 8 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes were frontal plane peak knee adduction moment (KAM), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) and functional performance tests. Ninety three participants (57% women, 58 ± 8 years with a body mass index [BMI] of 27 ± 4 kg/m 2 (mean ± standard deviation [SD])) were randomized to NEMEX group (n = 47) or PHARMA (n = 46); data from 44 (94%) and 41 (89%) participants respectively, were available at follow-up. 49% of the participants in NEMEX and only 7% in PHARMA demonstrated good compliance. We found no difference in the primary outcome as evaluated by the Knee Index -0.07 [-0.17; 0.04] Nm/%BW HT. Secondary outcomes largely supported this finding. We found no difference in the primary outcome; knee joint load change during walking from a NEMEX program vs information on the recommended use of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01638962 (July 3, 2012). Ethical Committee: S-20110153. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVAL EXERCISE VERSUS CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TO IMPROVE EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Swathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation and a range of pathological changes in the lung. Chronic inflammation causes structural changes and narrowing of the small airways and destruction of lung parenchyma, leads to the loss of alveolar attachments to the small airways and decreases lung elastic recoil; in turn these changes diminish the expiration and the work of breathing is increased. Scarcity of evidence on continuous and interval exercises is forcing researchers conduct studies on effectiveness of interval exercise with continuous exercise on exercise tolerance in subjects with COPD. Methods: 60 subjects were selected by lottery method. All the subjects were explained about the condition and mode of assessment and written informed consent were obtained from them and divided into 2 groups interval training group and continuous exercise training group and subjects were scheduled to attend exercise session 5 days a week for 4 weeks with exercise duration 20 min’s with cycle ergometer. Outcome measure: six minute walk test and heart rate. Results: On observing the means of post test parameters of experimental group A and experimental group B Independent t-test was done and the P- value is >0.05 .It shows a no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results had shown that both interval exercise group and continuous exercise group who received four weeks of therapy has improved significantly on pre and post test values within the groups but when compared between these groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between interval exercise group and continuous exercise group in improving exercise tolerance among COPD subjects.

  9. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  10. "EXHALE": exercise as a strategy for rehabilitation in advanced stage lung cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of 12 weeks supervised exercise intervention versus usual care for advanced stage lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Langer, SW; Rørth, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and Western Europe. Patients with lung cancer in general have reduced physical capacity, functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. Intervention studies indicate that physi......BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and Western Europe. Patients with lung cancer in general have reduced physical capacity, functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. Intervention studies indicate...... that physical training can address these issues. However, there is a lack of decisive evidence regarding the effect of physical exercise in patients with advanced lung cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a twelve weeks, twice weekly program consisting of: supervised, structured training...... in a group of advanced lung cancer patients (cardiovascular and strength training, relaxation). METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial will test the effects of the exercise intervention in 216 patients with advanced lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIb-IV and small cell lung...

  11. Exercise effects on HRV in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, D; Vogt, L; Thiel, C; Schmidt, K; Bernhörster, M; Lungwitz, A; Jäger, E; Banzer, W

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of physical exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) in cancer patients. 3 matched groups of each 15 tumour patients (60.4±8.9 years, 27 male, 18 female) were recruited: Physical exercise group 1 (acute treatment), Physical exercise group 2 (post treatment) and non-intervention group (acute treatment, no exercise). Exercise group patients received counselling for exercise and participated in a Nordic-Walking program. Short-term HRV-recordings, assessments of fatigue and quality of life (QoL) were performed prior to and 16 weeks after the exercise program initiation. MANCOVA revealed group × time differences in total power frequency domain of HRV and QoL (pHRV-parameters and prolonged survival in cancer patients, improvement in autonomic control may be an important goal of exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Comparing Exercise Prescription Methods in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Gasper Dineesha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was a qualitative study that investigated the exercise prescription method in knee osteoarthritis patients in Malaysia. It purposed to find out the most common and effective method used by physiotherapist in prescribing exercises for knee osteoarthritis patients in Malaysia. Method: This study used a self-administered survey questionnaire. The subjects recruited for this study were diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis, age range of between 50 to 80 years old.The methods of delivery were divided into three categories, which include only verbal instructions, verbal instruction together with demonstration and lastly a combination of all three methods including verbal instruction, demonstration and handouts with diagrams. Results: The results showed that 52% received their exercise prescription with verbal instruction and together with demonstration, about 43% of them received all three types of methods which included the verbal instruction, demonstration and take home handouts and 5% of them only received verbal instruction. Out of 5% who received verbal instruction alone, only 1% understood the exercises and the remaining 4% did not and 45% out of 52% who received verbal and demonstration method understood the exercises and the remaining 7% did not. 5% who received only verbal instruction did not seem to continue the exercises at home. 52% received verbal instruction together with demonstration, with about 44% of them having continued their exercises but the remaining 8% did not. 43% who received all three methods reported to continue. Conclusion: The best method of delivering exercises to knee osteoarthritis patients was proven to be the method with a combination of verbal instruction, demonstration together with a take home handout. This method showed very positive outcome and should be implemented and emphasized more in both the government and private sectors of physiotherapy departments.

  13. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-02-26

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  14. Confronting Prejudiced Comments: Effectiveness of a Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; McDonough, Tracy A.; Bodle, James H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether a role-playing exercise, similar to that developed by Plous (2000), increases students' ability to generate effective responses to prejudiced comments. We assessed social psychology students' (n = 23) ability to respond to prejudiced comments before and after the exercise, and compared their performance to that of 2 other…

  15. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Bergman, Esther M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments, the learning effects of clay modeling were compared to either live observations (Experiment I) or video observations (Experiment II) of the clay-modeling exercise. The effects of learning were measured with multiple choice questions, extended matching questions, and recognition of structures on illustrations of cross-sections. Analysis of covariance with pretest scores as the covariate was used to elaborate the results. Experiment I showed a significantly higher post-test score for the observers, whereas Experiment II showed a significantly higher post-test score for the clay modelers. This study shows that (1) students who perform clay-modeling exercises show less gain in anatomical knowledge than students who attentively observe the same exercise being carried out and (2) performing a clay-modeling exercise is better in anatomical knowledge gain compared to the study of a video of the recorded exercise. The most important learning effect seems to be the engagement in the exercise, focusing attention and stimulating time on task. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND CAFFEIC ACID PHENETHYL ESTER AFTER CHRONIC EXERCISE RAT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Alp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand whether exercise and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has an effect on obesity and weight control, we investigated the effects of CAPE, and exercise on lipid parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin in rats. 40 male rat were randomly assigned into 4 groups. It was determined that CAPE does not have any significant effect on these parameters but that lipid parameters and leptin values in exercise groups decreased considerably, while no significant change occurred in resistin levels. In order to understand whether diet has an effect on exercise, body weights of all animal groups in pre and post-exercise were compared. A significant weight gain was observed (p = 0.005 in all groups. This study concluded that exercise has a considerable effect on leptin and lipid parameters; however, exercise alone was not sufficient for weight control and could be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet.

  17. One year effectiveness of neuromuscular exercise compared with instruction in analgesic use on knee function in patients with early knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, A; Christensen, R; Clausen, B

    2018-01-01

    of California Activity Score (UCLA) and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients (57% women, 58 ± 8 years, body mass index 27 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were randomized to NEMEX (n = 47) or PHARMA group (n = 46) with data from 85% being available at 12-months follow-up. Good compliance......OBJECTIVE: To test long-term effectiveness of neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX) with instructions in optimized pharmacological treatment (PHARMA) on activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with early knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: 12-months follow-up from a randomized controlled trial. Participants...... with mild-to-moderate medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to 8 weeks NEMEX or PHARMA. The primary outcome measure was the ADL-subscale of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcome measures included the other four KOOS-subscales, the University...

  18. Developing Mathematical Fluency: Comparing Exercises and Rich Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Achieving fluency in important mathematical procedures is fundamental to students' mathematical development. The usual way to develop procedural fluency is to practise repetitive exercises, but is this the only effective way? This paper reports three quasi-experimental studies carried out in a total of 11 secondary schools involving altogether 528…

  19. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs.

  20. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10 0 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1- 14 C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14 CO 2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  1. When exercise does not pay: Counterproductive effects of impending exercise on energy intake among restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron Y; Lee, Li Ling; Cheon, Bobby K

    2018-04-01

    Evidence suggests people may overestimate the effectiveness of future positive behaviour, leading to counterproductive behaviours in the present. Applied to weight-management, we hypothesize that inaccurate expectations about impending exercise may impede weight management by promoting overconsumption prior to exercise. This study aimed to determine how expectations about impending exercise and its potential ability to expend energy may influence i) energy intake before exercise and ii) overall energy balance (energy intake minus energy expended via exercise). Using a randomised, counterbalanced design, 21 inactive, overweight males, following a baseline session, completed two experimental trials: i) ad-libitum snack meal (potato-crisps) followed by an exercise session (SE) and ii) ad-libitum snack meal only (SO). There was no main effect of condition (SE vs. SO) on ad-libitum snack intake (p = .917). However, after accounting for dietary restraint (covariate), a difference in snack intake between SE and SO was revealed (p = .050). Specifically, participants who scored higher in dietary restraint consumed more in the SE (vs. SO) session (162 ± 359 kcal more) compared with participants who scored lower in dietary restraint (89 ± 135 kcal less). Among restrained eaters, the relative (net) energy consumed after accounting for energy expended from exercise in SE was not different from the energy consumed in the SO condition, suggesting that energy expended via exercise in SE does not appear to negate extra energy consumed in this condition compared with SO. Of interest, desire to eat and prospective food consumption ratings at the start of the trial were greater (p ≤ .029) in SE compared with SO. Findings suggest that restrained-eaters are at risk of adopting compensatory eating behaviour that may impede negative energy balance typically resulting from exercise (i.e. expending insufficient energy to negate compensatory energy intake

  2. The Effects of the Disturbance of the Vestibular System on the Dynamic Balance of Idiopathic Scoliotic Subjects with and Without Exercise Therapy Compared to Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farahpour

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the neuromuscular system’s disorders in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS are not well known. The objectives of this study were to assess the dynamic balance of the AIS patients and the influence of exercise therapy on patients' dynamic balance. Eleven teenager scoliotic subjects after three months exercise therapy, nine similar patients without therapy and 13 healthy age matched subjects as control group were studied. Using dynamic stability platform, the deviation of COG of subjects in different positions, including up right standing, standing with head flexion and standing with head hyper extension were measured. The tests were repeated in both lose and stable condition of the foot platform. Results showed that the stability of the foot platform resulted in COG's deviation by 1.13 0.08 in all subjects. Dynamic balance of scoliotic patients without treatment was similar to that of the normal subjects. While, exercised patients had less COG deviation than the other groups. The change in head position increased the COG deviation by 2.5 times in control and non-exercised patients and 1.5 times in exercised patients. The dynamic balance in scoliosis was not affected. Exercise improved the dynamic balance in scoliotic subjects. Exercise therapy is recommended to improve the proprioceptives function.

  3. Physical exercise : effects in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise plays an important role in cancer prevention as well as in the prevention and treatment of cancer related fatigue during and after treatment. Some of these effects are presented in the thesis of M.J. Velthuis. In Part I effects of physical exercise on anthropometric measurements

  4. Effects of Neck-Specific Exercises Compared to Waiting List for Individuals With Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria; Tigerfors, Ann-Marie; Peterson, Gunnel

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether 3 months of neck-specific exercises (NSEs) could benefit individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) who were on a waiting list (WL) for treatment. A prospective, randomized controlled study. Primary health care. Individuals (N=41; 31 women, 10 men; mean age ± SD, 38±11.2y) with chronic (6-36mo) WAD, grades 2 and 3, were analyzed. Patients were randomly assigned to NSEs or no treatment for 3 months. Neck-specific disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI]), neck pain (visual analog scale), general pain-related disability (Pain Disability Index [PDI]), self-perceived performance ability (Self-Efficacy Scale [SES]), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5 dimensions [EQ-5D]) were measured. NSEs significantly improved the NDI, SES, and EQ-5D compared with WL (P<.01). There was significant improvement (P<.0001) over time in all outcomes for NSEs, and apart from the PDI, significant worsening (P=.002-.0002) over time for the untreated group. NSEs were more beneficial than no intervention while on a WL for individuals with chronic WAD. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pronounced effects of accute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, M.; Mensink, M.R.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Muller, M.R.; Schrauwen, P.; Kersten, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated

  6. Influence of Goal Contents on Exercise Addiction: Analysing the Mediating Effect of Passion for Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Lirola, María-Jesús; Burgueño, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000), the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise goal contents on exercise addiction, taking into account the mediating effects of passion for exercise. A total of 384 university students (284 men and 100 women; M age = 20.31, SD = 3.10) completed a questionnaire that measured exercise frequency and intensity, exercise goal contents (e.g. intrinsic: social affiliation, health management, skill development; extrinsic: image and social recognition), passion for exercise (e.g. harmonious and obsessive), and exercise addiction. After controlling the exercise frequency and intensity effects, results showed that goal contents did not directly predict exercise addiction. However, mediation analysis showed that goal contents predicted addiction through passion for exercise. These results support a motivational sequence in which extrinsic versus intrinsic goals influence exercise addiction because such goals are positively associated with obsessive passion for exercise and negatively associated with harmonious passion.

  7. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  8. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  9. The PED-t trial protocol: The effect of physical exercise -and dietary therapy compared with cognitive behavior therapy in treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Pettersen, Gunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Vrabel, KariAnne; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Svendsen, Mette; Stensrud, Trine; Bakland, Maria; Wynn, Rolf; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2017-05-12

    Sufferers from bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) underestimate the severity risk of their illness and, therefore, postpone seeking professional help for years. Moreover, less than one in five actually seek professional help and only 50% respond to current treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The impetus for the present trial is to explore a novel combination treatment approach adapted from physical exercise- and dietary therapy (PED-t). The therapeutic underpinnings of these separate treatment components are well-known, but their combination to treat BN and BED have never been previously tested. The purpose of this paper is to provide the rationale for this new treatment approach and to outline the specific methods and procedures. The PED-t trial uses a prospective randomized controlled design. It allocates women between 18 and 40 years (BMI range 17.5-35.0) to groups consisting of 5-8 members who receive either CBT or PED-t for 16 weeks. Excess participants are allocated to a waiting list control group condition. All participants are assessed at baseline, post-treatment, 6, 12 and 24 months' post-follow-up, respectively, and monitored for changes in biological, psychological and therapy process variables. The primary outcome relates to the ED symptom severity, while secondary outcomes relates to treatment effects on physical health, treatment satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, and cost-effectiveness. We aim to disseminate the results in high-impact journals, preferable open access, and at international conferences. We expect that the new treatment will perform equal to CBT in terms of behavioral and psychological symptoms, but better in terms of reducing somatic symptoms and complications. We also expect that the new treatment will improve physical fitness and thereby, quality of life. Hence, the new treatment will add to the portfolio of evidence-based therapies and thereby provide a good treatment alternative for females

  10. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  11. Plasma ghrelin levels during exercise - effects of intensity and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Johannes; Tahbaz, Rana; Lippl, Florian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schusdziarra, Volker

    2007-10-04

    Ghrelin, a recently discovered hormone of gastric origin has been shown to stimulate appetite and food intake. In man it is considered to play a role in energy homeostasis and regulation of somatropic function. As exercise affects hunger/satiety sensations and food intake, at least under some experimental conditions, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity and duration on ghrelin release and subsequent ad libitum food intake in normal weight subjects. Bicycle exercise on an ergometer for 30 min at 50 W which was below the aerob-anaerobic threshold led to an increase of ghrelin which remained unchanged during the higher intensity at 100 W. Respective hunger/satiety ratings and subsequent food intake and postprandial ghrelin suppression were identical and not different from controls. In a second group 7 subjects cycled at 50 W for 30, 60 and 120 min, respectively. Ghrelin concentrations rose significantly by 50-70 pg/ml above baseline for the respective period of exercise. While postexercise premeal ghrelin levels were not significantly different subsequent food intake after 120 min of cycling was significantly greater compared to control, 30 min and 60 min exercise, respectively. The present data suggest that low rather than high-intensity exercise stimulates ghrelin levels independent of exercise duration. Stimulation of food intake during prolonged exercise is most likely not due to changes of ghrelin.

  12. Acute psychological benefits of exercise: reconsideration of the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila

    2013-10-01

    The psychological benefits of exercise are repeatedly and consistently reported in the literature. Various forms of exercise, varying in duration and intensity, yield comparably positive changes in affect, which sheds doubt on the significance of exercise characteristics in the acute mental health benefits resulting from physical activity. Based on research evidence, it is argued that the placebo effect may play a key role in the subjective exercise experience. This report is aimed at highlighting those aspects of the extant literature that call for the reconsideration of the placebo effect in the understanding of the acute mental benefits of physical activity. This narrative review focuses on research evidence demonstrating that the duration and intensity of physical activity are not mediatory factors in the mental health benefits of acute exercise. Current research evidence pointing to the roles of expectancy and conditioning in the affective benefits of exercise calls for the reconsideration of the placebo effect. The present evaluation concludes that new research effort ought to be invested in the placebo-driven affective beneficence of exercise.

  13. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  14. The effect of resistance exercise on sleep: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Ana; Mavros, Yorgi; Heisz, Jennifer J; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-06-01

    Impaired sleep quality and quantity are associated with future morbidity and mortality. Exercise may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve sleep, however, little is known on the effect of resistance exercise. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on sleep quantity and quality. Thirteen studies were included. Chronic resistance exercise improves all aspects of sleep, with the greatest benefit for sleep quality. These benefits of isolated resistance exercise are attenuated when resistance exercise is combined with aerobic exercise and compared to aerobic exercise alone. However, the acute effects of resistance exercise on sleep remain poorly studied and inconsistent. In addition to the sleep benefits, resistance exercise training improves anxiety and depression. These results suggest that resistance exercise may be an effective intervention to improve sleep quality. Further research is needed to better understand the effects of acute resistance exercise on sleep, the physiological mechanisms underlying changes in sleep, the changes in sleep architecture with chronic resistance exercise, as well its efficacy in clinical cohorts who commonly experience sleep disturbance. Future studies should also examine time-of-day and dose-response effects to determine the optimal exercise prescription for sleep benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    and IL-10 is provoked by exercise and exerts direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF-α and by stimulating IL-1ra, thereby limiting IL-1β signalling. Moreover, muscle-derived IL-6 appears to have direct anti-inflammatory effects and serves as a mechanism to improve glucose tolerance....... In addition, indirect anti-inflammatory effects of long-term exercise are mediated via improvements in body composition. CONCLUSION: Physical activity represents a natural, strong anti-inflammatory strategy with minor side effects and should be integrated in the management of patients with cardiometabolic...

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Exercise to Health Education for Stimulant Use Disorder: Results From the CTN-0037 STimulant Reduction Intervention Using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Greer, Tracy L; Rethorst, Chad D; Carmody, Thomas; Grannemann, Bruce D; Walker, Robrina; Warden, Diane; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Stoutenberg, Mark; Oden, Neal; Silverstein, Meredith; Hodgkins, Candace; Love, Lee; Seamans, Cindy; Stotts, Angela; Causey, Trey; Szucs-Reed, Regina P; Rinaldi, Paul; Myrick, Hugh; Straus, Michele; Liu, David; Lindblad, Robert; Church, Timothy; Blair, Steven N; Nunes, Edward V

    To evaluate exercise as a treatment for stimulant use disorders. The STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study was a randomized clinical trial conducted in 9 residential addiction treatment programs across the United States from July 2010 to February 2013. Of 497 adults referred to the study, 302 met all eligibility criteria, including DSM-IV criteria for stimulant abuse and/or dependence, and were randomized to either a dosed exercise intervention (Exercise) or a health education intervention (Health Education) control, both augmenting treatment as usual and conducted thrice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary outcome of percent stimulant abstinent days during study weeks 4 to 12 was estimated using a novel algorithm adjustment incorporating self-reported Timeline Followback (TLFB) stimulant use and urine drug screen (UDS) data. Mean percent of abstinent days based on TLFB was 90.8% (SD = 16.4%) for Exercise and 91.6% (SD = 14.7%) for Health Education participants. Percent of abstinent days using the eliminate contradiction (ELCON) algorithm was 75.6% (SD = 27.4%) for Exercise and 77.3% (SD = 25.1%) for Health Education. The primary intent-to-treat analysis, using a mixed model controlling for site and the ELCON algorithm, produced no treatment effect (P = .60). In post hoc analyses controlling for treatment adherence and baseline stimulant use, Exercise participants had a 4.8% higher abstinence rate (78.7%) compared to Health Education participants (73.9%) (P = .03, number needed to treat = 7.2). The primary analysis indicated no significant difference between exercise and health education. Adjustment for intervention adherence showed modestly but significantly higher percent of abstinent days in the exercise group, suggesting that exercise may improve outcomes for stimulant users who have better adherence to an exercise dose. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01141608. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  18. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  19. Supine exercise during lower body negative pressure effectively simulates upright exercise in normal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped catheters, calf volume by strain gauge plethysmography, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during two conditions: 1) exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber during 100-mmHg LBNP (exercise-LBNP) and 2) exercise in upright posture against Earth's gravity without LBNP (exercise-1 G). Subjects exercised their ankle joints (dorsi- and plantarflexions) for 5 min during exercise-LBNP and for 5 min during exercise-1 G. Mean footward force produced during exercise-LBNP (743 +/- 37 N) was similar to that produced during exercise-1 G (701 +/- 24 N). Peak contraction pressure in the antigravity soleus muscle during exercise-LBNP (115 +/- 10 mmHg) was also similar to that during exercise-1 G (103 +/- 13 mmHg). Calf volume increased significantly by 3.3 +/- 0.5% during exercise-LBNP compared with baseline values. Calf volume did not increase significantly during exercise-1 G. Heart rate was significantly higher during exercise-LBNP (99 +/- 5 beats/min) than during exercise-1 G (81 +/- 3 beats/min). These results indicate that exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber can produce similar musculoskeletal stress in the legs and greater systemic cardiovascular stress than exercise in the upright posture against Earth's gravity.

  20. Contextual effects on the perceived health benefits of exercise: the exercise rank hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Wood, Alex M; Vlaev, Ivo; Taylor, Michael J; Brown, Gordon D A

    2012-12-01

    Many accounts of social influences on exercise participation describe how people compare their behaviors to those of others. We develop and test a novel hypothesis, the exercise rank hypothesis, of how this comparison can occur. The exercise rank hypothesis, derived from evolutionary theory and the decision by sampling model of judgment, suggests that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of exercise are influenced by how individuals believe the amount of exercise ranks in comparison with other people's amounts of exercise. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of their own current exercise amounts were as predicted by the exercise rank hypothesis. Study 2 demonstrated that the perceptions of the health benefits of an amount of exercise can be manipulated by experimentally changing the ranked position of the amount within a comparison context. The discussion focuses on how social norm-based interventions could benefit from using rank information.

  1. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities.

  2. Effect of exercise on insulin action in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Mikines, K J; Galbo, Henrik

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 1 h of dynamic one-legged exercise on insulin action in human muscle was studied in 6 healthy young men. Four hours after one-legged knee extensions, a three-step sequential euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterial and bilateral femoral vein catheterization...... was performed. Increased insulin action on glucose uptake was found in the exercised compared with the rested thigh at mean plasma insulin concentrations of 23, 40, and 410 microU/ml. Furthermore, prior contractions directed glucose uptake toward glycogen synthesis and increased insulin effects on thigh O2...... consumption and at some insulin concentrations on potassium exchange. In contrast, no change in insulin effects on limb exchange of free fatty acids, glycerol, alanine or tyrosine were found after exercise. Glycogen concentration in rested vastus lateralis muscle did not increase measurably during the clamp...

  3. Time-dependent effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Thomas, Richard; Mang, Cameron S

    2016-01-01

    We present new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory can be regulated in a time-dependent manner. When the exercise stimulus is temporally coupled with specific phases of the memory formation process, a single bout of cardiovascular exercise may...... be sufficient to improve memory. SUMMARY: The timing of exercise in relation to the information to be remembered is critical to maximize the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on memory....

  4. Effect of exercise on arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, David; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Oberholzer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    points (P = 0.196) although a linear decreasing trend was detected (P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Central AS augments during a conventional ET intervention that effectively enhances aerobic exercise capacity in young individuals. This suggests that normal, healthy elastic arteries are not amendable......BACKGROUND: Whether arterial stiffness (AS) can be improved by regular exercise in healthy individuals remains equivocal according to cross-sectional and longitudinal studies assessing arterial properties at discrete time points. The purpose of the present study was to pinpoint the time course......), in 9 previously untrained healthy normotensive adults (27 ± 4 years) with no history of cardiovascular disease. Exercise capacity was assessed by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) elicited by incremental ergometry. RESULTS: VO2max increased throughout the ET intervention (+12% from week 0 to week 8...

  5. Low back pain : a comparative study on the value of core training versus traditional strengthening exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Laura; Fenech, Pauline; Sacco, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This randomised controlled trial (RCT) employed a pre-test/post-test design to compare the effects of core training (Pilates method) and traditional back exercises on a population with low back pain (LBP). Therapeutic intervention related to the Pilates method has recently become popular, but there is little evidence to prove it works. In this study, 120 individuals with LBP were allocated to three different groups. Group A was the control group, Group B was given modifie...

  6. physiological effects of the amphetamines during exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE AMPHETAMINES DURING EXERCISE* c. H. WYNDHAM, G. G. ROGERS, A. J. S. BENADE AND N. B. STRYDOM, Human Sciences Laboratory, Chamber of. Mines of SOUTh Africa, Johannesburg. SUMMARY. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, minute ventilation and blood lactate were ...

  7. Effect of yogic exercise on superoxide dismutase levels in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapure Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reactive oxygen species are known to aggravate disease progression. To counteract their harmful effects, the body produces various antioxidant enzymes, viz , superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase etc. Literature reviews revealed that exercises help to enhance antioxidant enzyme systems; hence, yogic exercises may be useful to combat various diseases. Aims: This study aims to record the efficacy of yoga on superoxide dismutase, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Settings and Design: Forty diabetics aged 40-55 years were assigned to experimental (30 and control (10 groups. The experimental subjects underwent a Yoga program comprising of various Asanas (isometric type exercises and Pranayamas (breathing exercises along with regular anti-diabetic therapy whereas the control group received anti-diabetic therapy only. Methods and Material: Heparinized blood samples were used to determine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glycosylated Hb levels and fasting blood specimens collected in fluoride Vacutainers were used for assessing blood glucose. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed by using 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe′s posthoc test. Results: The results revealed that Yogic exercise enhanced the levels of Superoxide dismutase and reduced glycosylated Hb and glucose levels in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings conclude that Yogic exercises have enhanced the antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetics by reducing oxidative stress.

  8. Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns - Does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in STRRIDE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M.; Hawk, Victoria H.; Henes, Sarah T.; Ocampo, Christine I.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; Slentz, Cris A.; Johnson, Johanna L.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Samsa, Gregory P.; Kraus, William E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Methods Subjects were participants in the Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE I), a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or one of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fiber as compared to the 2006 AHA diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Results Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol particle number, LDL-cholesterol size, HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol size, and triglycerides (Pdiet pattern that closely adhered to AHA recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. Conclusions We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. PMID:22795291

  9. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  10. Effect of an Exercise and Weight Control Curriculum: Views of Obesity among Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laura A.; Fister, Carrie L.; Ramlo, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of effective weight management strategies is necessary to prepare exercise science students for future work with obesity. Exercise science faculty members developed a course related to exercise as a therapeutic tool and options available for weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to investigate student views of weight…

  11. A pilot exercise on comparative risk assessment in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, M.E.; Albores, A.; Sierra, A. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Concern in the Mexican government and academic institutions about human health problems derived from exposure to environmental contaminants has been increasing. This interest prompted us to perform a pilot study to identify and rank potentially problematic environmental situations. We were given access to files from the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia. We screened about 2,500 documents and selected about 200 reports for further analysis. We adapted methodologies developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1993) and ATSDR (1992) to analyze environmental data. San Luis Potosi City and Region Lagunera were the areas posing greater risks. We chose San Luis Potosi City to perform a more detailed study, since here a smelting complex is located within an urban zone. The high levels of As, Pb, and Cd in environmental media resulted in a higher body burden in exposed children than children living 7 km away. Multiple regression analysis suggested that alterations in sensorial nerve transmission were mainly related to As in urine (AsU), whereas those in motor nerves were mainly related to Pb in blood (PbB). No apparent relationships associated with CdU were found. Slower auditory nerve conduction was associated with both AsU and PbB. These findings suggest that exposed children are also at high risk of suffering other adverse health effects. This exercise illustrates the need to perform studies aimed at identifying and ranking environmental contamination problems in industrializing countries. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Effectiveness of exercise in hepatic fat mobilization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabi, Pegah; Locklear, Cameron T; Austin, Patrick; Afdhal, Sophie; Byrns, Melinda; Gerber, Lynn; Younossi, Zobair M

    2016-07-21

    To investigate the efficacy of exercise interventions on hepatic fat mobilization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Ovid-Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane database were searched for randomized trials and prospective cohort studies in adults aged ≥ 18 which investigated the effects of at least 8 wk of exercise only or combination with diet on NAFLD from 2010 to 2016. The search terms used to identify articles, in which exercise was clearly described by type, duration, intensity and frequency were: "NASH", "NAFLD", "non-alcoholic steatohepatitis", "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease", "fat", "steatosis", "diet", "exercise", "MR spectroscopy" and "liver biopsy". NAFLD diagnosis, as well as the outcome measures, was confirmed by either hydrogen-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) or biopsy. Trials that included dietary interventions along with exercise were accepted if they met all criteria. Eight studies met selection criteria (6 with exercise only, 2 with diet and exercise with a total of 433 adult participants). Training interventions ranged between 8 and 48 wk in duration with a prescribed exercise frequency of 3 to 7 d per week, at intensities between 45% and 75% of VO2 peak. The most commonly used imaging modality was H-MRS and one study utilized biopsy. The effect of intervention on fat mobilization was 30.2% in the exercise only group and 49.8% in diet and exercise group. There was no difference between aerobic and resistance exercise intervention, although only one study compared the two interventions. The beneficial effects of exercise on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) were seen even in the absence of significant weight loss. Although combining an exercise program with dietary interventions augmented the reduction in IHTG, as well as improved measures of glucose control and/or insulin sensitivity, exercise only significantly decreased hepatic lipid contents. Prescribed exercise in subjects with NAFLD reduces IHTG independent of

  13. The effect of 3 different exercise approaches on neck muscle endurance, kinesiophobia, exercise compliance, and patient satisfaction in chronic whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gunnel E; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria H; O'Leary, Shaun P; Dedering, Åsa M; Wallman, Thorne; Jönsson, Margaretha I N; Peolsson, Anneli L C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different exercise approaches on neck muscle endurance (NME), kinesiophobia, exercise compliance, and patient satisfaction in patients with chronic whiplash. This prospective randomized clinical trial included 216 individuals with chronic whiplash. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 exercise interventions: neck-specific exercise (NSE), NSE combined with a behavioral approach (NSEB), or prescribed physical activity (PPA). Measures of ventral and dorsal NME (endurance time in seconds), perceived pain after NME testing, kinesiophobia, exercise compliance, and patient satisfaction were recorded at baseline and at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Compared with individuals in the prescribed physical activity group, participants in the NSE and NSEB groups exhibited greater gains in dorsal NME (P = .003), greater reductions in pain after NME testing (P = .03), and more satisfaction with treatment (P .07). Among patients with chronic whiplash, a neck-specific exercise intervention (with or without a behavioral approach) appears to improve NME. Participants were more satisfied with intervention including neck-specific exercises than with the prescription of general exercise. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Exercise in PCOS Women Who Exercise Regularly

    OpenAIRE

    Khademi; Alleyassin; Aghahosseini; Tabatabaeefar; Amini

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women who exercise regularly. Methods All women under age 45 from an industrial company who had past history of exercising more than 6 months enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Prevalence of PCOS and comparison of BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS subgroups was done. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM consensus criteri...

  15. Older Korean adults have lower physical function despite longer exercise times compared to their Japanese counterparts: A Japan-Korea comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Songee; Okubo, Yoshiro; Osuka, Yosuke; Seino, Satoshi; Park, Joonsung; Nho, Hosung; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to compare the level of physical function (PF) and habitual exercise between older Japanese and Korean adults. A comparative study was carried out on 1069 community-dwelling older Japanese and Korean adults (mean age 73.9 ± 5.2 years). The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire regarding habitual exercise and covariates. PF age, a composite measure of PF, was derived from the 12 items, using principal component analysis. PF age and habitual exercise were compared between the Japanese and Korean adults, using analysis of covariance (ancova) and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for all covariates using propensity scores. ancova showed that PF age in older Japanese adults was significantly younger than in their Korean counterparts. Older Japanese adults exercised significantly less frequently than their Korean counterparts. Furthermore, older Japanese adults practiced significantly less walking, mountain climbing and bicycling, but more calisthenics, resistance training, ball games and dances than their Korean counterparts. We found that older Korean adults had lower PF (3.7 years older in PF age) than their Japanese counterparts. Although the overall frequency and amount of habitual exercise in older Korean adults were higher than those in their Japanese counterparts, particular types of exercise might have contributed to the higher PF levels among older Japanese adults. Thus, older Korean adults might need to engage more in habitual exercises that are specifically effective in maintaining PF. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 576-583. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. The effect on knee-joint load of instruction in analgesic use compared with neuromuscular exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Brian; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , compared with optimized analgesics and antiinflammatory drug use, on the measures of knee-joint load in people with mild to moderate medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis. METHOD/DESIGN: One hundred men and women with mild to moderate medial knee osteoarthritis will be recruited from general medical...... during walking (the Knee Index, a composite score of the first external peak total reaction moment on the knee joint from all three planes based on 3D movement analysis) after 8 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes include changes in the external peak knee-adduction moment and impulse and functional...

  17. Influence of Goal Contents on Exercise Addiction: Analysing the Mediating Effect of Passion for Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicilia Álvaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise goal contents on exercise addiction, taking into account the mediating effects of passion for exercise. A total of 384 university students (284 men and 100 women; Mage = 20.31, SD = 3.10 completed a questionnaire that measured exercise frequency and intensity, exercise goal contents (e.g. intrinsic: social affiliation, health management, skill development; extrinsic: image and social recognition, passion for exercise (e.g. harmonious and obsessive, and exercise addiction. After controlling the exercise frequency and intensity effects, results showed that goal contents did not directly predict exercise addiction. However, mediation analysis showed that goal contents predicted addiction through passion for exercise. These results support a motivational sequence in which extrinsic versus intrinsic goals influence exercise addiction because such goals are positively associated with obsessive passion for exercise and negatively associated with harmonious passion.

  18. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell ... its associated cardiovascular risk still pose some consequences for health and ... Moderate intensity aerobic exercise is an effective complementary therapy in ...

  19. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  20. Exercise-related cognitive effects on sensory-motor control in athletes and drummers compared to non-athletes and other musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, V; Berchicci, M; Perri, R L; Quinzi, F; Di Russo, F

    2017-09-30

    Both playing a musical instrument and playing sport produce brain adaptations that might affect sensory-motor functions. While the benefits of sport practice have traditionally been attributed to aerobic fitness, it is still unknown whether playing an instrument might induce similar brain adaptations, or if a specific musical instrument like drums might be associated to specific benefits because of its high energy expenditure. Since the aerobic costs of playing drums was estimated to be comparable to those of average sport activities, we hypothesized that these two groups might show both behavioral and neurocognitive similarities. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 48 young adults and divided them into four age-matched groups: 12 drummers, 12 athletes, 12 no-drummer musicians and 12 non-athletes. Participants performed a visuo-motor discriminative response task, namely the Go/No-go, and their cortical activity was recorded by means of a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG). Behavioral performance showed that athletes and drummers were faster than the other groups. Electrophysiological results showed that the pre-stimulus motor preparation (i.e. the Bereitschaftspotential or BP) and attentional control (i.e., the prefrontal negativity or pN), and specific post-stimulus components like the P3 and the pP2 (reflecting the stimulus categorization process) were enhanced in the athletes and drummers' groups. Overall, these results suggest that playing sport and drums led to similar benefits at behavioral and cognitive level as detectable in a cognitive task. Explanations of these findings, such as on the difference between drummers and other musicians, are provided in terms of long-term neural adaptation mechanisms and increased visuo-spatial abilities. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Physical Fitness Exercise, Mental Exercise and Mindfulness Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifeh Ghasempour

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion The study showed that physical exercises, mindfulness and mental training have a significant effect on the improvement of static and dynamic balance in elderly women, though the association of cognitive practices (mindfulness and mental training with motor training (physical exercises could cause a lasting impact. So, it is recommended to use physical exercises with cognitive training to improve static and dynamic balance in elderly people.

  2. Effect of exercise supplementation on dipyridamole thallium-201 image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, S.; Greenberg, I.D.; Corne, R.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effect of different types of exercise supplementation on dipyridamole thallium image quality, 78 patients were prospectively randomized to one of three protocols: dipyridamole infusion alone, dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip, and dipyridamole with low-level treadmill exercise. Heart-to-lung, heart-to-liver, and heart-to-adjacent infradiaphragmatic activity ratios were generated from anterior images acquired immediately following the test. Additionally, heart-to-total infradiaphragmatic activity was graded semiquantitatively. Results showed a significantly higher ratio of heart to subdiaphragmatic activity in the treadmill group as compared with dipyridamole alone (p less than 0.001) and dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip exercise (p less than 0.001). No significant difference was observed between patients receiving the dipyridamole infusion, and dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip exercise. The authors conclude that low-level treadmill exercise supplementation of dipyridamole infusion is an effective means of improving image quality. Supplementation with isometric handgrip does not improve image quality over dipyridamole alone

  3. Effects of different modes of exercise on appetite and appetite-regulating hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Mineta, Mayuko; Asaka, Meiko; Miyashita, Masashi; Numao, Shigeharu; Gando, Yuko; Ando, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-07-01

    The present study determined the changes in appetite and appetite-regulating gut hormones during and following bouts of both rope skipping exercise (weight-bearing) and bicycle ergometer exercise (non-weight-bearing). After a 12-h fast, 15 young men (mean ± SD, age 24.4 ± 1.7 yrs, maximal oxygen uptake 47.0 ± 6.5 mL/kg/min) participated in three 160 min trials: (1) rope skipping exercise (295 ± 40 kcal, 3 sets × 10 min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120 min); (2) bicycle ergometer exercise (288 ± 36 kcal, 3 sets × 10 min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120 min); (3) control (rested for 160 min). Ratings of perceived hunger and acylated ghrelin were suppressed and total peptide YY (PYY) were increased during and immediately after exercise in both exercise trials, but glucagon liked peptide-1 was not changed. Furthermore, suppressed hunger during rope skipping exercise was greater than that during bicycle ergometer exercise, but there were no differences in acylated ghrelin and total PYY. These results indicate that weight-bearing exercise has a greater exercise-induced appetite suppressive effect compared with non-weight-bearing exercise, and both forms of exercise lowered acylated ghrelin and increased total PYY, but the changes did not differ significantly between exercise modes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  5. Effects of chin tuck against resistance exercise versus Shaker exercise on dysphagia and psychological state after cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of stroke is high in China. The dysphagia caused by cerebral infarction (CI), seriously affects patients' life quality, and even endangers patients' lives. It is necessary to explore how to improve dysphagia caused by CI. To compare the effects of rehabilitation training on dysphagia and psychological state after CI between Shaker exercise and chin tuck against resistance (CTAR) exercise. Control study. Blind. Inpatients. A total of 90 patients with dysphagia after CI were divided into CTAR group, Shaker group and control group by random digit table (each group with 30 patients). Video fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were performed on all patients before intervention. VFSS was evaluated based on Penetration-Aspiration Scale. All patients received routine treatments including internal medicine, traditional rehabilitation training and routine nursing. The patients in control group only receive the routine treatments. Besides the routine treatments, the patients in CTAR group also received CTAR exercise, and the patients in Shaker group also received Shaker exercise. VFSS was performed again on all patients, respectively, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after exercise. SDS was performed again on all patients 6 weeks after exercise. There were no statistical differences amongst the three groups in VFSS and SDS before intervention (P>0.05). After intervention, all patients had various degrees of improvement for dysphagia in the three groups, especially between 2 and 4 weeks in CTAR and Shaker groups. The total effective rate was significantly higher in CTAR group (86.67%) and Shaker group (76.67%) than in control group (43.33%) (all Pdysphagia after CI, CTAR exercise can significantly relieve depression and has the similar effect on improving swallowing function as compared with Shaker group. This study suggests that in conscious patients CTAR exercises have greater impact on CI-related depression than Shaker exercises.

  6. Effects of concurrent and aerobic exercises on postexercise hypotension in elderly hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Rodrigo; Umpierre, Daniel; Vogel, Guilherme; Vieira, Paulo J C; Santos, Lucas P; de Mello, Renato Bandeira; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that simultaneous performance of resistance and aerobic exercises (i.e., concurrent exercise) has become a standard exercise prescription for the elderly, no information is available on its effects on post-exercise hypotension (PEH) in elderly men with hypertension. To compare the effects of different types of exercise on PEH in elderly men with hypertension. Twenty elderly men with essential hypertension participated in three crossover interventions, in random order, and on separate days: a non-exercise control session at seated rest, aerobic exercise performed for 45min, and 45min of concurrent resistance and aerobic exercise consisted of 4 sets of 8 repetitions at 70% 1RM of resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise on treadmill. After each session, blood pressure (BP) was measured continuously for 1h in the laboratory and for 24h under ambulatory conditions. During the first hour in laboratory, diastolic BP was lower after aerobic (-5mmHg) and concurrent exercise (-6mmHg) in comparison with Control. Day-time diastolic BP was significantly lower after aerobic exercise (-7mmHg) when compared to the control. No significant differences were found among the three experimental sessions for night-time and 24-hour diastolic BP, as well as day-time, night-time and 24-hour systolic BP. Concurrent exercise produced acute PEH similar to aerobic exercise but such effect did not last as long as aerobic exercise in elderly patients with essential hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Exercise in PCOS Women Who Exercise Regularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Afsaneh; Alleyassin, Ashraf; Aghahosseini, Marzieh; Tabatabaeefar, Leila; Amini, Mehrnoosh

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women who exercise regularly. All women under age 45 from an industrial company who had past history of exercising more than 6 months enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Prevalence of PCOS and comparison of BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS subgroups was done. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM consensus criteria and exclusion of related disorders. The prevalence of PCOS in was 8.8%; 95% CI: 8.5%-9.1%. In obese subjects, mean BMI differed significantly between PCOS and non-PCOS women (29.3 ±3.3 kg/m(2) vs. 27.8 ± 2 kg/m(2), P=0.03). In lean subjects, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS women (21.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2) vs. 21.2 ± 2 kg/m(2), P>0.05). Obese PCOS patients show more difficulty in losing weight by exercise than lean PCOS patients. The role of hormonal alterations and PCOS per se in the responsiveness of weight loss to exercise remains to be determined.

  8. [Effect of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, G Y; Han, T; Gao, L; Wang, L; Wang, S C; Yang, L; Zhang, J; Guan, Y Y; Yan, N N; Yu, H Y; Xiao, H J; Di, F S

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dietary control combined with different exercise modes on plasma vaspin, irisin, and metabolic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a randomized open parallel-controlled study. Methods: The patients aged 30-65 years who visited Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 and were diagnosed with NAFLD by liver ultrasound and fat content determination were screening, and 474 patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and divided into aerobic exercise group, resistance exercise group, and control group. All patients received dietary intervention. The three groups were compared in terms of biochemical parameters, fat content, NFS score, energy metabolic parameters, body composition index, and levels of vaspin and irisin at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. The t -test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the chi-square test, and an analysis of variance were used for comparison between groups. The multiple imputation method was used for missing data, and the results were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in age, sex, anthropometrical parameters, and biochemical parameters between the three groups at baseline. Compared with dietary control alone, aerobic exercise and resistance exercise helped to achieve significant reductions in waist circumference, diastolic pressure, percentage of body fat, volatile fatty acid, fasting blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, and liver fat content after 6 months of intervention ( P aerobic exercise group had a significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and significant reductions in body mass index and aspartate aminotransferase after intervention, as well as a significant

  9. Comparative study of change in physical activity on exercise performance and mental well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaman Mohan Harsoda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aerobic exercises training with different modes of physical activity on cardiovascular fitness and mental health. In this regard, 20 young healthy male participants (18 to 30 years were included in this study. They were divided into 2 groups, 10 in each, groups A and group B. Group A participated in combined limb exercise while Group B participated in walking exercise training under the supervision of a physical trainer. Resting and maximum pulse, resting and maximum systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Treadmill walking exercise fatigue time (TWEFT and general health questionnaire GHQ-12 were analyzed in both groups before and after the exercise training. Students paired t test was applied for pre and post data analysis. Results showed resting pulse, resting and maximum SBP and TWEFT decrease significantly (p<0.05 after combined limb exercise. Walking exercise alone causes decrease in resting pulse and GHQ score. In conclusion combined limb exercise is more beneficial than walking exercise alone. The cardiovascular fitness is improved after combined limb exercise while the mental well being is more pronounced after walking exercise alone. It can be suggested that combination of both forms of physical activity is the proper way to improve cardiovascular fitness and mental well being simultaneously, if practiced regularly.

  10. The effect of exercise therapy on fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A; Stenager, E; Dalgas, U

    2011-01-01

    Fatigue occurs in the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and therapeutic possibilities are few. Exercise therapy is a therapeutic option but no studies have systematically reviewed the existing literature evaluating the effect of exercise therapy on MS fatigue.......Fatigue occurs in the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and therapeutic possibilities are few. Exercise therapy is a therapeutic option but no studies have systematically reviewed the existing literature evaluating the effect of exercise therapy on MS fatigue....

  11. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  12. Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, M; Tsofliou, F; Pitsiladis, Y P; Malkova, D; Mutrie, N; Higgins, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort.

  13. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  14. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani S.H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  15. Differential effects of water-based exercise on the cognitive function in independent elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Seko, Chihiro; Hashitomi, Tatsuya; Sengoku, Yasuo; Nomura, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Physical exercise has been reported to be the most effective method to improve cognitive function and brain health, but there is as yet no research on the effect of water-based exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of water-based exercise with and without cognitive stimuli on cognitive and physical functions. The design is a single-blind randomized controlled study. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to a normal water-based exercise (Nor-WE) group or a cognitive water-based exercise (Cog-WE) group. The exercise sessions were divided into two exercise series: a 10-min series of land-based warm-up, consisting of flexibility exercises, and a 50-min series of exercises in water. The Nor-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of strength and stepping exercise, including stride over, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. The Cog-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of water-cognitive exercises, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. Cognitive function, physical function, and ADL were measured before the exercise intervention (pre-intervention) and 10 weeks after the intervention (post-intervention). Participation in the Cog-WE performed significantly better on the pegboard test and the choice stepping reaction test and showed a significantly improved attention, memory, and learning, and in the general cognitive function (measured as the total score in the 5-Cog test). Participation in the Nor-WE dramatically improved walking ability and lower limb muscle strength. Our results reveal that the benefits elderly adults may obtain from water-based exercise depend on the characteristics of each specific exercise program. These findings highlight the importance of prescription for personalized water-based exercises to elderly adults to improve cognitive function.

  16. Exercising arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in horses: Review of the literature and comparative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas de Solis, C

    2016-07-01

    Arrhythmias are common in equine athletes during and immediately after exercise. Many of these rhythm variations are not clinically relevant. In horses, a link between different exercising arrhythmias and poor performance or between exercising arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is strongly suspected but not fully understood or proven. SCD during races or competitions is rare, but has catastrophic consequences for the safety of the human partner and public perceptions of welfare during equestrian sports. This review summarises current knowledge of equine exercise arrhythmias and their implications in SCD and compares existing principles and recommendations for equine subjects with those for human athletes. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Effectiveness of core stabilization exercises and routine exercise therapy in management of pain in chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Muhammad Waseem; Karimi, Hossein; Gilani, Syed Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objective: Low back pain is a frequent problem faced by the majority of people at some point in their lifetime. Exercise therapy has been advocated an effective treatment for chronic low back pain. However, there is lack of consensus on the best exercise treatment and numerous studies are underway. Conclusive studies are lacking especially in this part of the world. Thisstudy was designed to compare the effectiveness of specific stabilization exercises with routine physical thera...

  18. Comparative study of adenosine and exercise 201Tl myocardial perfusion tomographic imaging for detection of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiong

    1997-01-01

    To compare diagnostic accuracy of adenosine and exercise 201 Tl myocardial perfusion tomographic imaging for detection of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with a normal rest ECG and no history of myocardial infarction, 81 patients with CHD and 10 normal control subjects underwent adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging, exercise nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in 117 patients with CHD and 16 normal control subjects, two groups also had coronary arteriography. Both exercise and adenosine testing parameters were analysed. It is shown: 1) The sensitivity and specificity for detection of CHD were 79% vs 80% for adenosine group and 81% vs 81% for exercise myocardial perfusion imaging group respectively. There was no significant difference in comparison with two matched groups (χ 2 = 1.13, χ 2 = 0.18, χ 2 = 0.12, P>0.05). 2) Side effects induced by adenosine accounted for 89% of patients, all symptoms were mild and disappeared quickly after the termination of the study except in 2 cases withdrawal of infusion needed because of severe angina pectoris. Adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging is a safe and sensitive method for detection of CHD. The diagnostic value of adenosine test is similar to that of exercise myocardial perfusion imaging and particularly useful in evaluating patients unable to perform exercise test or achieve adequate level of exercise

  19. Effect of Acute Exercise on Hunger in Healthy Woman

    OpenAIRE

    OLCUCU, Burcin; VATANSEVER, Serife; TIRYAKI-SONMEZ, Gul; BURKAN ONER, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different acute exercise mode on subjective hunger rating. Ten healthy woman subjects participated voluntarily in the study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before participation. Subjects undertook four, 1,5 h trials (3exercises and 1 control) in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trials subjects were performed three different exercise protocol (resistance, resistance+endurance, endurance). In the control trial, sub...

  20. Effects of ginseng extract on various haematological parameters during aerobic exercise in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effects of the Ginseng extract on various biochemical and haematological parameters in male Wistar rats subjected to a treadmill exercise protocol were studied for 12 weeks. The results showed increases in the haematological parameters, these increases being greatest for the animals treated with the extract during the third month of the study. The exercise also led to increases in these parameters, while the combination of both exercise and extract produced smaller increases. This study shows a clear physiological response due to the ginseng extract administration that reproduces many of the effects obtained after long-term exercise. The combination of exercise and treatments seems to support the theory that there is no clear synergic effect when the advantages associated with the ingestion of ginseng are compared with the performance of exercise.

  1. The effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) with general exercises versus general exercises alone in the management of chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Akhter, Saeed; Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ali, Syed Shahzad

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) along with General exercises and General exercises alone in chronic low back pain. Total 54 patients with chronic low back pain who fulfilled inclusion criteria were recruited from Physiotherapy, Department of Alain Poly Clinic Karachi and Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi. Selected patients were equally divided and randomly assigned into two groups with simple randomisation method. The Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and General exercises group received Operant model of CBT and General Exercises whereas General exercises group received General exercises only. Both groups received a home exercise program as well. Patients in both groups received 3 treatment sessions per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Clinical assessment was performed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Ronald Morris Disability Questionnaire at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both study groups showed statistically significant improvements in both outcomes measures p=0.000. However, mean improvements in post intervention VAS score and Ronald Morris score was better in CBT and exercises group as compared to General exercise group. In conclusion, both interventions are effective in treating chronic low back pain however; CBT & General exercises are clinically more effective than General exercises alone.

  2. The effect of resistance exercise on the thermic effect of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, Charlene M; Young, John C

    2003-09-01

    The thermic effect of food (TEF) is the increment in energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate associated with the cost of absorption and processing of food for storage. Previous studies have shown that TEF is enhanced by aerobic endurance exercise of sufficient duration and intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine if a similar effect occurs with a single bout of resistance exercise (weightlifting). VO2 was measured in 9 healthy volunteers (3 males and 6 females) for 2 hours after ingestion of a 2760 kJ (660 kcal) carbohydrate meal with and without prior completion of a resistance training regimen (2 sets of 10 repetitions of 10 different exercises). The meal caused an immediate and persistent thermic effect in both the control and the exercise trial. Mean oxygen consumption over baseline increased 20% in the control trial and 34% in the exercise trial. TEF calculated from VO2 and RER (total area under the response curve above baseline) was 73% greater in the exercise trial compared with the control trial (159 +/- 18 vs. 92 +/- 14 KJ/2 hrs, p carbohydrate meal is enhanced following a single bout of resistance exercise.

  3. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A.; Pedersen, Bente K.

    2016-01-01

    Background For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC...... (MMTT, 450 kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45 min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Results Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW = 1641 ± 133 mL/min; IW = 1634 ± 126 mL/min, P > 0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8......, free fatty acids and glycerol concentrations, and glycerol kinetics were increased comparably during and after IW and CW compared to CON. Conclusions Interval exercise results in greater EPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas...

  4. The effect of additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Kim, Jisu; Park, Miyoung; Chung, Nana; Lim, Kiwon

    2018-03-30

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of carbohydrate loading by additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes. Twenty male team-sports athletes (14 soccer and 6 rugby players) volunteered to participate in the study and were equally divided into the experimental group (EXP, n=10) performing additional carbohydrate supplementation for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise until blood glucose level reaches 50 mg/dL or less and the control group (CON, n=10). Then, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose level, and blood lactate level were measured in all team-sports players during submaximal exercise corresponding to 70% VO2max before and after intervention. There was no significant interaction in all parameters, but team-sports players in the EXP presented more improved VO2max (CON vs EXP = vs 5.3% vs 6.3%), VE (CON vs EXP = vs 3.8% vs 6.6%), VO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 8.5% vs 9.9%), VCO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 2.8% vs 4.0%), blood glucose level (CON vs EXP = vs -12.9% vs -7.6%), and blood lactate level (CON vs EXP = -18.2% vs -25%) compared to those in the CON. These findings showed that additional carbohydrate supplementation conducted in our study is not effective in exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise. ©2018 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition.

  5. Repeated Excessive Exercise Attenuates the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Exercise in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahl, Ronni E.; Andersen, Peter R.; Gronbaek, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: A number of studies have investigated the effect of training with a moderate exercise dose (3–6 h/weekly) on the inflammatory profile in blood, and the data are inconsistent. Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive effect of physical activity level on inflammation levels...... inflammation, but the higher plasma IL-6 concentration concurrent with a trend toward higher insulin resistance and decreased VO2peak implies that the excessive amount of exercise probably attenuated the possible potential anti-inflammatory effects of exercise....... and risk of metabolic disease. However, it is not clear whether this may be dose dependent and if very prolonged repeated exercise therefore may be beneficial for low-grade inflammation. Based on this we studied how excessive repeated prolonged exercise influenced low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue...

  6. Effect of Glycemic Index of a Pre-exercise Meal on Endurance Exercise Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdon, Catriona A.; Spronk, Inge; Cheng, Hoi Lun; O’Connor, Helen T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on

  7. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Walkíria Valeriano; de Andrade Gomes Silva, Maria Irene; Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Dantas de Oliveira, Klébya Hellen; de Lacerda, Lavoisiana Mateus; Sérgio Silva, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04), as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  8. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  9. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  10. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  11. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on visual perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Green, Hayden; Sullivan, Rachel K; Gant, Nicholas

    2017-12-02

    This study investigated the influence of five days of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on the acquisition and consolidation of visual perceptual learning using a motion direction discrimination (MDD) task. The timing of exercise relative to learning was manipulated by administering exercise either before or after perceptual training. Within a matched-subjects design, twenty-seven healthy participants (n = 9 per group) completed five consecutive days of perceptual training on a MDD task under one of three interventions: no exercise, exercise before the MDD task, or exercise after the MDD task. MDD task accuracy improved in all groups over the five-day period, but there was a trend for impaired learning when exercise was performed before visual perceptual training. MDD task accuracy (mean ± SD) increased in exercise before by 4.5 ± 6.5%; exercise after by 11.8 ± 6.4%; and no exercise by 11.3 ± 7.2%. All intervention groups displayed similar MDD threshold reductions for the trained and untrained motion axes after training. These findings suggest that moderate daily exercise does not enhance the rate of visual perceptual learning for an MDD task or the transfer of learning to an untrained motion axis. Furthermore, exercise performed immediately prior to a visual perceptual learning task may impair learning. Further research with larger groups is required in order to better understand these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of exercise on insulin binding to human muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonen, A.; Tan, M.H.; Clune, P.; Kirby, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure was developed to measure insulin binding to human skeletal muscle obtained via the percutaneous muscle biopsy technique. With this method the effects of exercise on insulin binding were investigated. Subjects (n = 9) exercised for 60 min on a bicycle ergometer at intensities ranging from 20-86% maximum O 2 consumption (VO 2 max). Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after exercise and analyzed for glucose and insulin. Muscle samples (250 mg) for the vastus lateralis were obtained 30 min before exercise, at the end of exercise, and 60 min after exercise. Two subjects rested during the experimental period. There was no linear relationship between exercise intensities and the changes in insulin binding to human muscle. At rest (n = 2) and at exercise intensities below 60% VO 2 max (n = 5) no change in insulin binding occurred (P greater than 0.05). However, when exercise occurred at greater than or equal to 69% VO 2 max (n = 4), a pronounced decrement in insulin binding (30-50%) was observed (P less than 0.05). This persisted for 60 min after exercise. These results indicate that insulin binding in human muscle is not altered by 60 min of exercise at less than or equal to 60% VO 2 max but that a marked decrement occurs when exercise is greater than or equal to 69% VO 2 max

  13. THE EFFECT OF CORE EXERCISES ON TRANSDIAPHRAGMATIC PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Strongoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal exercises, such as sit ups and leg lifts, are used to enhance strength of the core muscles. An overlooked aspect of abdominal exercises is the compression the abdomen, leading to increased diaphragmatic work. We hypothesized that core exercises would produce a variety of transdiaphragmatic pressures. We also sought to determine if some of the easy exercises would produce pressures sufficient for a training stimulus to the diaphragm. We evaluated the effect of 13 different abdominal exercises, ranging in difficulty, on transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi, an index of diaphragmatic activity. Six healthy subjects, aged 22 to 53, participated. Each subject was instrumented with two balloon-tipped catheters to obtain gastric and esophageal pressures, from which Pdi was calculated. Prior to initiating the exercises, each subject performed a maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP maneuver. Resting Pdi was also measured. The exercises were performed from least to most difficult, with five repetitions each. There was a significant difference between the exercises and the MIP Pdi, as well as between the exercises and resting Pdi (p 50% of the Pdi during the MIP maneuver, which may provide a training stimulus to the diaphragm if used as a regular exercise. The Pdi measurements also provide insight into diaphragm recruitment during different core exercises, and may aid in the design of exercises to improve diaphragm strength and endurance

  14. Acute Effect of Virtual Reality Exercise Bike Games on College Students' Physiological and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nan; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2017-07-01

    Commercially available virtual reality (VR) exercise systems are extensively used in many health domains among clinical populations. However, evidence regarding the efficacy of this technology on healthy adults' health-related outcomes is unknown. This pilot study compared physiological and psychological responses following exercise on a VR-based exercise bike (VirZoom) and traditional stationary exercise bike. Twelve healthy college students (9 females; M age  = 25.01, SD = ± 4.74; M BMI  = 22.84, SD = ± 3.68) completed two separate 20-minute exercise sessions on the VR-based exercise bike and traditional stationary exercise bike. Blood pressure (BP), ratings of perceived exertion, self-efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed as primary outcomes. Dependent t-tests indicated no significant differences in mean systolic or diastolic BP changes from pre to postexercise between the VR-based exercise and traditional stationary biking sessions (all p > 0.05). Notably, participants reported significantly higher ratings of perceived exertion (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.68) during the traditional exercise biking session compared with VR-based exercise biking session. However, participants had significantly higher self-efficacy (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.83) and enjoyment (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.89) during the VR-based exercise biking session compared with traditional stationary biking. The commercially available VR-based exercise bike (VirZoom) may be considered an effective, enjoyable, and motivating physical activity tool. Further interventions with larger and more diverse samples and examinations of more health-related outcomes are warranted to determine optimal application of VR-based exercise programming among various populations.

  15. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    Full Text Available Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF and low frequency (LnLF powers, normalized high (nHF and low frequency (nLF powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD and R-R interval (RRI]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up. The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese.Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684.

  16. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R-R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684.

  17. Immediate Effects of Smoking on Cardiorespiratory Responses During Dynamic Exercise: Arm Vs. Leg Ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Tang, Jing-Shia; Li, Ping-Chia; Chou, Pi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent two sets of arm-cranking (AC) and leg-cycling (LC) exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 h before testing) and the experimental trial (participants smoked two cigarettes immediately before testing) were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation (VE)]. The differences between the smoking and control trials were calculated using paired t-tests. For the exercise test periods, VO2, heart rate, and VE values were calculated at every 10% increment of the maximal effort time. The main effects of the time and trial, as well as their trial-by-time (4 × 10) interaction effects on the outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA with trend analysis. 5 min after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = 0.005) and the ventilatory threshold (P exercise test (all P exercise response of the smoking trial than in those of the control LC trials, whereas no discernable inter-trial difference was observed in the AC trials. Moreover, the differences in heart rate and VE response between the LC and AC exercises were significantly smaller after the participants smoked. This study verified that smoking significantly decreased performance and cardiorespiratory responses to leg

  18. The Effects of Physical Exercise and Cognitive Training on Memory and Neurotrophic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.

  19. Effectiveness of vestibular exercise in acute vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, N.D.; Abdullah, A.; Ami, M.; Rahman, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of vestibular exercises in acute vertigo. 45 patients with acute vertigo were divided into 2 groups; 23 in study group (SG) and 22 in control group (CG). All patients were given tablet betahistine 24 mg twice daily as basic medical treatment and tablet Stemetil 5mg as a rescue. Those in SG also received vestibular exercise. Assessment was done using validated questionnaires, neuro-otology tests and individual diaries. Results : Intragroup comparison of intensity of symptoms showed a significant improvement from baseline, 3-month and 6-month visit with p<0.001. While intergroup comparison showed reduction of scores in both groups and which was greater in SG at 6 months visit. An improvement of neuro-otology tests was seen in all five tests whereby the Romber test, Unterberger-Fukuda test and spontaneous nystagmus test showed earlier improvement in SG at 3-month visit than CG. The SG also recovered faster and used lesser medication. 30.4% patients in SG were asymptomatic as early as first to third week after intervention. The number of rescue medications required in each group lessened towards the end of study. By week 7, 56.3% of SG and 43.8% of CG needed no rescue medication. (author)

  20. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    . Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous...... different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion......, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental...

  1. Psychophysiological effects of audiovisual stimuli during cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Chierotti, Priscila; Altimari, Leandro R

    2018-05-01

    Immersive environments induced by audiovisual stimuli are hypothesised to facilitate the control of movements and ameliorate fatigue-related symptoms during exercise. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant audiovisual stimuli on perceptual and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercises performed on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Twenty young adults were administered three experimental conditions in a randomised and counterbalanced order: unpleasant stimulus (US; e.g. images depicting laboured breathing); pleasant stimulus (PS; e.g. images depicting pleasant emotions); and neutral stimulus (NS; e.g. neutral facial expressions). The exercise had 10 min of duration (2 min of warm-up + 6 min of exercise + 2 min of warm-down). During all conditions, the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate variability were monitored to further understanding of the moderating influence of audiovisual stimuli on perceptual and psychophysiological responses, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that PS ameliorated fatigue-related symptoms and reduced the physiological stress imposed by the exercise bout. Conversely, US increased the global activity of the autonomic nervous system and increased exertional responses to a greater degree when compared to PS. Accordingly, audiovisual stimuli appear to induce a psychophysiological response in which individuals visualise themselves within the story presented in the video. In such instances, individuals appear to copy the behaviour observed in the videos as if the situation was real. This mirroring mechanism has the potential to up-/down-regulate the cardiac work as if in fact the exercise intensities were different in each condition.

  2. [The Effects of Exercising in Childhood on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Torii, Suguru; Masujima, Atsushi

    In contemporary Japan, there is a polarizing trend in children who exercise more than 1,800 minutes a week and those who exercise less than 60 minutes a week. Quite a lot of girls in particular hate exercise,and therefore they don't get enough of it. Osteoporosis is a preventable disease from childhood. It is crucial for girls to exercise and to provide appropriate stimulation to bones before menarche, which increases bone mineral content. Exercise and sports in childhood are characterized as the ways to the lifelong prevention strategies against osteoporosis and fractures. It is hoped that all children practice appropriate exercise program based on scientific evidence to promote bone health. In this review article, the effects of exercising in childhood on bone health, and the points to be noted regarding childhood sports are described.

  3. A laboratory exercise on systematic effects in gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrik Ramebaeck

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for calculation of true coincidence summing correction factors as well as calculating the effect of deviations between sample and standard source (filling height) was developed. This laboratory exercise was held in a masters course in nuclear chemistry the first time during fall 2013. The aim of the exercise was to high-light the importance of correcting for biases due to different systematic effects in gamma spectrometric measurements. (author)

  4. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-01-01

    obtained at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived during work, leisure time and sleep to evaluate cardiac autonomic regulation. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effect of the intervention on HRV indices, with adjustment for age, gender...... and daily use of antihypertensive and/or heart medication. RESULTS: Compared with the reference group, the exercise group increased all HRV indices apart from a reduction in LF/HF ratio from baseline to follow-up both during work (psleep, the HRV indices......, but not during sleep. The health effect of this contrasting change in autonomic regulation needs further investigation....

  5. The effects of acute exercise on executive functioning, mood and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is internationally recognised that exercise is beneficial—both physically and mentally. However, only a minority of published research has explored the unique contribution of the exercise task itself. We tested the effect an ‘acute bout of moderate exercise’ had on selective attention, executive function and mood. We hypothesised that acute exercise would improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the controls. Method: 29 females and 11 males aged between 18-50 (M=26.5, SD=8.8 were administered the Stroop Colour-Interference Test, Erikson Flanker Task and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (exercise or relaxation. The experimental group (N=20 performed 20 minutes of exercise on a treadmill. The control group (N=20 relaxed for 20 minutes. Measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results: An independent samples t-test compared the differences between post-test and pre-test for the two groups. Results revealed a significant difference between the exercise group and control group on the measures of mood. The exercise group reported increased positive affect (t(38 = 3.10, p = .004, d = .99 and decreased negative affect (t(38 = -3.24, p = .003, d = 1.0 on the post-test. No significant differences between the exercise and control groups were obtained for the two tasks of cognitive performance. Conclusions: A significant difference in the PANAS ratings following exercise offers strong support to earlier research demonstrating that acute exercise improves mood. Although no significant improvement in performance was observed in the two cognitive tasks following acute exercise, it is possible that fitness levels could be the relevant factor, rather than acute exercise as a task. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that acute exercise improves cognitive performance.

  6. The effects of exercise under hypoxia on cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Ando

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15. Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions.

  7. Isometric Back Exercise Has Different Effect on Pressure Pain Thresholds in Healthy Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajsar, Hannah; Titze, Christina; Hasenbring, Monika Ilona

    2017-01-01

    .07). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot study indicate that isometric back exercise produces local and remote hypoalgesia. Remote EIH was only demonstrated in women, supporting the influence of sex in the hypoalgesic response after exercise. The effect of isometric back exercise on pain sensitivity in patients......OBJECTIVE: Isometric exercises produce an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Existing EIH paradigms use exercises at the extremities with more pronounced EIH at local compared to remote body sites, indicating local inhibition in addition to central...... inhibitory mechanisms. So far the results on EIH in patients with low back pain (LBP) are equivocal and no studies have investigated an EIH paradigm targeting the lower back in order to assess EIH in patients with LBP. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess pressure pain sensitivity at local...

  8. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  9. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  10. Effects of a Behavioral Program on Exercise Adherence and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azliyana Azizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8±4.5 years were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1 EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2 EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3 control group (CG did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2=39.884, P<0.01, and η=.399; time and group interactions (F(2,60=112.683, P<0.01, and η=.790; and between-group effect (F(2,60=12.524, P<0.01, and η=.295 for step counts. As for ESE, significant differences were also found for time effect (F(2,4=66.628, P<0.05, and η=.526; time and group interactions (F(2,60=4.562, P=0.014, and η=.132; and between-group effect (F(2,60=13.632, P<0.05, and η=.312. EBG presented with significantly higher mean changes for both step counts and ESE compared to other groups (all P<0.05. Conclusion. This study suggests that the addition of a behavioral program is superior as compared to exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons.

  11. The effect of additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Kim, Jisu; Park, Miyoung; Chung, Nana; Lim, Kiwon

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of carbohydrate loading by additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes. [Methods] Twenty male team-sports athletes (14 soccer and 6 rugby players) volunteered to participate in the study and were equally divided into the experimental group (EXP, n=10) performing additional carbohydrate supplementation for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise until blood glucose level reaches 50 mg/dL or less and the control group (CON, n=10). Then, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose level, and blood lactate level were measured in all team-sports players during submaximal exercise corresponding to 70% VO2max before and after intervention. [Results] There was no significant interaction in all parameters, but team-sports players in the EXP presented more improved VO2max (CON vs EXP = vs 5.3% vs 6.3%), VE (CON vs EXP = vs 3.8% vs 6.6%), VO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 8.5% vs 9.9%), VCO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 2.8% vs 4.0%), blood glucose level (CON vs EXP = vs -12.9% vs -7.6%), and blood lactate level (CON vs EXP = -18.2% vs -25%) compared to those in the CON. [Conclusion] These findings showed that additional carbohydrate supplementation conducted in our study is not effective in exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise. PMID:29673243

  12. Effect of music-movement synchrony on exercise oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C J; Myers, T R; Karageorghis, C I

    2012-08-01

    Past research indicates that endurance is improved when exercise movements are synchronised with a musical beat, however it is unclear whether such benefits are associated with reduced metabolic cost. We compared oxygen consumption (.VO2) and related physiological effects of exercise conducted synchronously and asynchronously with music. Three music tracks, each recorded at three different tempi (123, 130, and 137 beats.min-1), accompanied cycle ergometry at 65 pedal revolutions.min-1. Thus three randomly-assigned experimental conditions were administered: slow tempo asynchronous, synchronous, and fast tempo asynchronous. Exercise response of .VO2, HR, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), to each condition was monitored in 10 untrained male participants aged 21.7±0.8 years (mean±SD) who cycled for 12 min at 70% maximal heart rate (HR). Mean .VO2 differed among conditions (P=0.008), being lower in the synchronous (1.80±0.22 L.min-1) compared to the slow tempo asynchronous condition (1.94±0.21 L.min-1; Pmusic than when musical tempo is slightly slower than the rate of cyclical movement.

  13. Exercise combined with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ExACT) compared to a supervised exercise programme for adults with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Máire-Bríd; Smart, Keith; Segurado, Ricardo; Hearty, Conor; Gopal, Hari; Lowry, Damien; Flanagan, Dearbhail; McCracken, Lance; Doody, Catherine

    2018-03-22

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a form of cognitive behavioural therapy, which may be beneficial for people with chronic pain. The approach aims to enhance daily functioning through increased psychological flexibility. Whilst the therapeutic model behind ACT appears well suited to chronic pain, there is a need for further research to test its effectiveness in clinical practice, particularly with regards to combining ACT with physical exercise. This prospective, two-armed, parallel-group, single-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) will assess the effectiveness of a combined Exercise and ACT programme, in comparison to supervised exercise for chronic pain. One hundred and sixty patients, aged 18 years and over, who have been diagnosed with a chronic pain condition by a physician will be recruited to the trial. Participants will be individually randomised to one of two 8-week, group interventions. The combined group will take part in weekly psychology sessions based on the ACT approach, in addition to supervised exercise classes led by a physiotherapist. The control group will attend weekly supervised exercise classes but will not take part in an ACT programme. The primary outcome will be pain interference at 12-week follow-up, measured using the Brief Pain Inventory-Interference Scale. Secondary outcomes will include self-reported pain severity, self-perception of change, patient satisfaction, quality of life, depression, anxiety and healthcare utilisation. Treatment process measures will include self-efficacy, pain catastrophising, fear avoidance, pain acceptance and committed action. Physical activity will be measured using Fitbit Zip TM activity trackers. Both groups will be followed up post intervention and again after 12 weeks. Estimates of treatment effects at follow-up will be based on an intention-to-treat framework, implemented using a linear mixed-effects model. Individual and focus group qualitative interviews will be undertaken with a

  14. Effects of an Acute Exercise Bout on Serum Hepcidin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Domínguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a frequent and multifactorial disorder in the career of athletes, particularly in females. Exercise-induced disturbances in iron homeostasis produce deleterious effects on performance and adaptation to training; thus, the identification of strategies that restore or maintain iron homeostasis in athletes is required. Hepcidin is a liver-derived hormone that degrades the ferroportin transport channel, thus reducing the ability of macrophages to recycle damaged iron, and decreasing iron availability. Although it has been suggested that the circulating fraction of hepcidin increases during early post-exercise recovery (~3 h, it remains unknown how an acute exercise bout may modify the circulating expression of hepcidin. Therefore, the current review aims to determine the post-exercise expression of serum hepcidin in response to a single session of exercise. The review was carried out in the Dialnet, Elsevier, Medline, Pubmed, Scielo and SPORTDiscus databases, using hepcidin (and “exercise” or “sport” or “physical activity” as a strategy of search. A total of 19 articles were included in the review after the application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This search found that a single session of endurance exercise (intervallic or continuous at moderate or vigorous intensity (60–90% VO2peak stimulates an increase in the circulating levels of hepcidin between 0 h and 6 h after the end of the exercise bout, peaking at ~3 h post-exercise. The magnitude of the response of hepcidin to exercise seems to be dependent on the pre-exercise status of iron (ferritin and inflammation (IL-6. Moreover, oxygen disturbances and the activation of a hypoxia-induced factor during or after exercise may stimulate a reduction of hepcidin expression. Meanwhile, cranberry flavonoids supplementation promotes an anti-oxidant effect that may facilitate the post-exercise expression of hepcidin. Further studies are required to explore the effect

  15. Effects of elastic band exercises on physical ability and muscular topography of elderlyfemales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Suk Bum; Kim, Seong Wook

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of band exercise types on the physical ability and muscular topography for elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six females older than 65 years were divided into the dynamic band exercise (DBE; n=13) group and the Static band exercise (SBE; n=13) group. Each participant performed 12 weeks of elastic band exercises. Physical abilities were measured by leg extension power, sitting trunk flexion, closed eyes foot balance, and time to get up. Changes in muscle topography were evaluated with Moire measurement equipment for the chest, abdomen, and lumbar region. All results were compared before and after 12 weeks of exercise. [Results] Changes in physical ability were significantly increased in both groups. The scores for the muscular topography of the chest, abdomen, lumbar region, and all body parts was significantly improved in both groups for closed eyes foot balance. There were more improvements in the DBE group. [Conclusion] Two types of static and dynamic elastic band exercises effectively changed the physical fitness and muscle topography of elderly females. Therefore, to increase the effects of exercise, dynamic band exercises are considered useful. Because band exercises are simple, they can be used to maintain the health of elderly people.

  16. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.

  17. The effect on knee-joint load of instruction in analgesic use compared with neuromuscular exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial (the EXERPHARMA trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Brian; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, Robin; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Roos, Ewa M

    2014-11-15

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a mechanically driven disease, and it is suggested that medial tibiofemoral knee-joint load increases with pharmacologic pain relief, indicating that pharmacologic pain relief may be positively associated with disease progression. Treatment modalities that can both relieve pain and reduce knee-joint load would be preferable. The knee-joint load is influenced by functional alignment of the trunk, pelvis, and lower-limb segments with respect to the knee, as well as the ground-reaction force generated during movement. Neuromuscular exercise can influence knee load and decrease knee pain. It includes exercises to improve balance, muscle activation, functional alignment, and functional knee stability. The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the efficacy of a NEuroMuscular EXercise (NEMEX) therapy program, compared with optimized analgesics and antiinflammatory drug use, on the measures of knee-joint load in people with mild to moderate medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis. One hundred men and women with mild to moderate medial knee osteoarthritis will be recruited from general medical practices and randomly allocated (1:1) to one of two 8-week treatments, either (a) NEMEX therapy twice a week or (b) information on the recommended use of analgesics and antiinflammatory drugs (acetaminophen and oral NSAIDs) via a pamphlet and video materials. The primary outcome is change in knee load during walking (the Knee Index, a composite score of the first external peak total reaction moment on the knee joint from all three planes based on 3D movement analysis) after 8 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes include changes in the external peak knee-adduction moment and impulse and functional performance measures, in addition to changes in self-reported pain, function, health status, and quality of life. These findings will help determine whether 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise is superior to optimized use

  18. Catecholamines and obesity: effects of exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhal, Hassane; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Casazza, Gretchen A; Jabbour, Georges

    2013-07-01

    Excess body fat in obese individuals can affect the catecholamine response to various stimuli. Indeed, several studies report lower plasma catecholamine concentrations in obese subjects compared with nonobese subjects in response to submaximal or maximal exercise. This low catecholamine response reflects decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Although the relationship between the SNS and obesity is not well established, some authors have suggested that low SNS activity may contribute to the development of obesity. A decreased catecholamine response could affect α- and β-adrenoceptor sensitivity in adipose tissue, reducing lipolysis and increasing fat stores. Few studies have examined the effects of obesity on the plasma catecholamine response at rest and during exercise in adolescents. It is interesting to note that the effects of age, sex, and degree of obesity and the impact of very intense exercise on the catecholamine response have not yet been well examined. Moreover, the hormonal concentrations measured in the majority of obesity studies did not take into account plasma volume changes. This methodological factor can also undoubtedly influence plasma catecholamine results.

  19. Comparing interventions and exploring neural mechanisms of exercise in Parkinson disease: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Gammon M; Duncan, Ryan P; Huang, John L; Perlmutter, Joel S; Pickett, Kristen A

    2015-02-05

    Effective treatment of locomotor dysfunction in Parkinson disease (PD) is essential, as gait difficulty is an early and major contributor to disability. Exercise is recommended as an adjunct to traditional treatments for improving gait, balance, and quality of life. Among the exercise approaches known to improve walking, tango and treadmill training have recently emerged as two promising therapies for improving gait, disease severity and quality of life, yet these two interventions have not been directly compared to each other. Prior studies have been helpful in identifying interventions effective in improving gait function, but have done little to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying functional improvements. The primary objective of the proposed work is to compare the effects of three community-based exercise programs, tango, treadmill training and stretching, on locomotor function in individuals with PD. In addition, we aim to determine whether and how these interventions alter functional connectivity of locomotor control networks in the brain. One hundred and twenty right-handed individuals with idiopathic PD who are at least 30 years of age will be assigned in successive waves to one of three community-based exercise groups: tango dancing, treadmill training or stretching (control). Each group will receive three months of exercise training with twice weekly one-hour group classes. Each participant will be evaluated at three time points: pre-intervention (baseline), post-intervention (3 months), and follow-up (6 months). All evaluations will include assessment of gait, balance, disease severity, and quality of life. Baseline and post-intervention evaluations will also include task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting state functional connectivity MRI. All MRI and behavioral measures will be conducted with participants OFF anti-Parkinson medication, with behavioral measures also assessed ON medication. This study will provide

  20. Acute effects of cycling exercise on post-exercise blood pressure in individuals with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezerra Maria Edilma Da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studies have shown that even a single session of physical exercise lowers blood pressure after its completion. This phenomenon is called post-exercise hypotension (PEH and has been considered as a non-pharmacological treatment to control blood pressure. However, there are no studies regarding the occurrence of PEH after acute exercise in individuals with Down syndrome (DS. This study aimed to analyse the occurrence of PEH in these subjects and the possible role of exercise intensity. Methods. Ten individuals with DS, of both genders, participated in the study (age, 29 ± 7 years; body mass, 60.7 ± 9 kg; height, 1.48 ± 0.11 m; BMI, 27.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. The volunteers randomly underwent 2 sessions of exercise on a stationary bike for 20 minutes and 1 control session. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured after 15 minutes of resting, in the 20th minute of each exercise session or control, and in the 15th, 30th, and 45th minute of postexercise recovery. Results. Both moderate and intense exercise performed acutely increased SBP (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively, with no effect on DBP in individuals with DS. Neither the moderate nor the intense exercise was enough to elicit PEH. Conclusions. The results indicated that individuals with DS may not present PEH for the intensities, duration, and exercise mode as applied in the present investigation. While additional studies with different exercise strategies are needed, our findings contribute to the body of literature regarding the PEH responses in adults with DS.

  1. Rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation in patients with lumbar muscle strain. H Li, H Zhang, S Liu, Y Wang, D Gai, Q Lu, H Gan, Y Shi, W Qi. Abstract. Objective: To study the rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation therapy for patients with lumbar muscle strain. Methods: Patients with ...

  2. The Effects of Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E

    2017-09-12

    Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.

  3. The acute effect of exercise modality and nutrition manipulations on post-exercise resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio in women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Hailee L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Roelofs, Erica J; Trexler, Eric T; Hackney, Anthony C; Weaver, Mark A; Ryan, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO. Salivary samples were collected before each exercise session to determine estradiol-β-17 and before and after to quantify cortisol. Post-exercise REE and RER were analyzed via indirect calorimetry at the following: baseline, immediately post (IP), 30 minutes (30 min) post, and 60 minutes (60 min) post exercise. A mixed effects linear regression model, controlling for estradiol, was used to compare mean longitudinal changes in REE and RER. On average, HIIT produced a greater REE than AEE and HIRT (p HIIT produced lower RER compared to either AEE or HIRT after 30 min (p HIIT resulted in the largest increase in REE and largest reduction in RER.

  4. Psychological Effects of Light Exercise for Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 裕章; 峰松, 修; 冷川, 昭子; 吉川, 和利; 緒方, 道彦

    1987-01-01

    Psychological effects of light exercise were evaluated in healthy elderly, middle aged women and elderly with borderline hypertension. The exercises were walking and stretching for healthy elderly, elderly with hypertension and playing beginner's tennis for healty middle aged women. The subjects took exercise three hours a day, twice a week during three months period. Psychometric test battery was used Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventry (Y-G test). Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS), Maudsely Per...

  5. Effects of Exercise on Hemorheological Parameters of Young Nigerian Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    AWODU, Omolade Augustina; FAMODU, Ademola Adekunle

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Regular physical exercise is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that acute submaximal exercise has similar effects on rheological parameters of smokers and non-smokers was tested. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three male university undergraduates comprised of 18 smokers and 15 non-smokers were studied. All the subjects underwent submaximal exercise on cycloergometer for 30 minutes. Blood for hemorheological parameters was collected 30...

  6. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  7. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA, with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  8. Effect of elastic-band exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory responses in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Gadruni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic bands offer variable elastic resistance (ER throughout a range of motion and their incorporation with exercise movements has been used for variable strength training and rehabilitation purposes. Objective: Investigate the effect of acute bout of progressive elastic-band exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory response in Taekwondo athletes (TKD compared with untrained ones.METHODS: Fourteen (TKD, n = 7 and untrained, n = 7 men performed 3 sets of progressive resistance elastic exercise. Blood samples were taken pre-exercise and also immediately and 24h post exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, total leukocyte counts, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were analyzed.RESULTS: Only DOMS increased in untrained group, but elevation of DOMS was observed in both groups (TKD and untrained at 24h after exercise (p<0.05. CK and LDH activity increased in both groups significantly. Also TKD group only showed CK increasing 24h post exercise (p<0.05. Total circulating leukocyte counts increased immediately in post exercise experiments and decreased in 24h ones in both groups (p<0.05. Serum IL-6 immediately increased in both groups and 24h post exercises but there was no significant difference between immediate and 24h post exercise experiments in TKD group. Furthermore, CRP just increased 24h after exercise in both groups (p<0.05.CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance elastic exercise induced muscle damage and inflammation in TKD athletes, but also had smaller changes in comparison with untrained group and other forms of exercise.

  9. Taurine supplementation has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects before and after incremental exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Aslani, Elaheh; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of supplemental taurine prior to and following incremental exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). Patients with HF and left ventricle ejection fraction less than 50%, and placed in functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association classification, were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) taurine supplementation; or (2) placebo. The taurine group received oral taurine (500 mg) 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and performed exercise before and after the supplementation period. The placebo group followed the same protocol, but with a starch supplement (500 mg) rather than taurine. The incremental multilevel treadmill test was done using a modified Bruce protocol. Our results indicate that inflammatory indices [C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets] decreased in the taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation in the placebo group ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p 0.05). our results suggest that 2 weeks of oral taurine supplementation increases the taurine levels and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects prior to and following incremental exercise in HF patients.

  10. Effects of Resistance Exercise Intensity on Cytokine and Chemokine Gene Expression in Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ju Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Although the evidence is unclear, literature indicates that resistance exercise reduces inflammation in colorectal disease. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of colon tissue on cytokine and chemokine gene expression with changes in resistance exercise intensity. Material and Methods: We divided male BABL/c mice into 6 groups (each group n=10, total=60 (control group: CON, low resistance exercise group: EX_L, high resistance exercise group: EX_H, atopic dermatitis group: AD, atopic dermatitis+low resistance exercise group: AD+EX_L, atopic dermatitis+high resistance exercise group: AD+EX_H and subjected them to ladder climbing resistance exercise for 4 weeks. After 24 h of each exercise schedule, a real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20. Results: The AD group showed significantly higher mRNA expression of IL-6 and CCL20 compared with the CON, EX_L, EX_H, AD+EX_L, and AD+EX_H groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, both high and low resistance exercise effectively decreases the concentration of IL-6 and CCL20 in mice with and without AD.

  11. The effect of different training exercises on the performance outcome on the da Vinci Skills Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Schmitt, M; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Ecke, A; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Güldner, C

    2017-06-01

    Increasing usage of robotic surgery presents surgeons with the question of how to acquire the special skills required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different exercises on their performance outcomes. This prospective study was conducted on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 till August 2015. Sixty robotic novices were included and randomized to three groups of 20 participants each. Each group performed three different exercises with comparable difficulty levels. The exercises were performed three times in a row within two training sessions, with an interval of 1 week in between. On the final training day, two new exercises were added and a questionnaire was completed. Technical metrics of performance (overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master work space range, drops, missed targets, misapplied energy time, blood loss and broken vessels) were recorded by the simulator software for further analysis. Training with different exercises led to comparable results in performance metrics for the final exercises among the three groups. A significant skills gain was recorded between the first and last exercises, with improved performance in overall score, time to complete and economy of motion for all exercises in all three groups. As training with different exercises led to comparable results in robotic training, the type of exercise seems to play a minor role in the outcome. For a robotic training curriculum, it might be important to choose exercises with comparable difficulty levels. In addition, it seems to be advantageous to limit the duration of the training to maintain the concentration throughout the entire session.

  12. Effect of Submaximal Warm-up Exercise on Exercise-induced Asthma in African School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtshali, B F; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, O O

    2015-03-01

    Regular physical activity has long been regarded as an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major problems interfering with the performance of exercise. A warm-up exercise programme has been cited as a non-pharmacologic means of reducing EIA, but its effect has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of unrecognized EIA in Pretoria primary school children, determine the effect of a warm-up exercise programme on EIA and to establish the relationship between history of allergy, family history of asthma and EIA. A random sample of 640 school children was selected. The study was divided into three phases. In phase one, a descriptive cross-sectional study was done using the standardized European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire. In phase two, non-asthmatic participants that returned a completed questionnaire were included in the field study. Pre-test and post-test experimental designs were used, where peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured at baseline and within ten minutes after exercise. A total of 340 subjects completed the Free Running Asthma Screening Test (FRAST); EIA was defined as a decrease in baseline PEFR ≥ 10% after exercise and 75 children (22%) had EIA. In phase three, 29 of the 75 subjects participated in the warm-up programme which was performed in the laboratory and subjects acted as their own controls. Predefined protocols for the study were followed. Seventy-five (22%) of the 340 participants had EIA. The mean age, height and weight were 10.51 years, 139.26 cm and 33.45 kg, respectively. Exercise-induced asthma symptoms were cough (25%), chest pain (16%), wheeze (12%) and chest tightness (12%). The history of allergy was 75%, family history of allergy 40% and positive history of allergy when near animals, feathers or in dusty areas 38%. Wheezing during or after exercise, wheezing when near animals, feathers or in dusty areas

  13. Comparison of the effects of virtual reality-based balance exercises and conventional exercises on balance and fall risk in older adults living in nursing homes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyaprak, Sevgi Sevi; Yıldırım, Meriç Şenduran; Tomruk, Murat; Ertekin, Özge; Algun, Z Candan

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on effective balance training techniques including virtual reality (VR)-based balance exercises in residential settings and no studies have been designed to compare the effects of VR-based balance exercises with conventional balance exercises in older adults living in nursing homes in Turkey. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of VR-based balance exercises on balance and fall risk in comparison to conventional balance exercises in older adults living in nursing homes. A total sample of 18 subjects (65-82 years of age) with fall history who were randomly assigned to either the VR group (Group 1, n = 7) or the conventional exercise group (Group 2, n = 11) completed the exercise training. In both groups, Berg balance score (BBS), timed up & go duration, and left leg stance and tandem stance duration with eyes closed significantly improved with time (p 0.05) after training, indicating that neither the exercise method was superior. Similar improvements were found in balance and fall risk with VR-based balance training and conventional balance training in older adults living in the nursing home. Both exercise trainings can be preferable by health care professionals considering fall prevention. Appropriate patient selection is essential.

  14. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, T W; Rhodes, E C

    1999-07-01

    While creatine has been known to man since 1835, when a French scientist reported finding this constitutent of meat, its presence in athletics as a performance enhancer is relatively new. Amid claims of increased power and strength, decreased performance time and increased muscle mass, creatine is being hailed as a true ergogenic aid. Creatinine is synthesised from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine in the kidneys, liver and pancreas, and is predominantly found in skeletal muscle, where it exists in 2 forms. Approximately 40% is in the free creatine form (Crfree), while the remaining 60% is in the phosphorylated form, creatine phosphate (CP). The daily turnover rate of approximately 2 g per day is equally met via exogenous intake and endogenous synthesis. Although creatine concentration (Cr) is greater in fast twitch muscle fibres, slow twitch fibres have a greater resynthesis capability due to their increased aerobic capacity. There appears to be no significant difference between males and females in Cr, and training does not appear to effect Cr. The 4 roles in which creatine is involved during performance are temporal energy buffering, spatial energy buffering, proton buffering and glycolysis regulation. Creatine supplementation of 20 g per day for at least 3 days has resulted in significant increases in total Cr for some individuals but not others, suggesting that there are 'responders' and 'nonresponders'. These increases in total concentration among responders is greatest in individuals who have the lowest initial total Cr, such as vegetarians. Increased concentrations of both Crfree and CP are believed to aid performance by providing more short term energy, as well as increase the rate of resynthesis during rest intervals. Creatine supplementation does not appear to aid endurance and incremental type exercises, and may even be detrimental. Studies investigating the effects of creatine supplementation on short term, high intensity exercises have

  15. Exercise on prescription: a randomized study on the effect of counseling vs counseling and supervised exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, J.; Skovgaard, T.; Puggaard, L.

    2008-01-01

    (counseling) using maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) as the primary outcome. The study was conducted as a randomized trial in 2005-2006 with a high and a low-intensive group. All the patients referred to the EoP scheme by their GP in the counties of Vejle and Ribe, Denmark, were eligible for the trial....... The high-intensive EoP group received 4 months of group-based supervised training and attended five motivational counseling sessions. The low-intensive group only attended four motivational counseling sessions. Three hundred and twenty-seven patients entered the EoP scheme, and 52 (16%) volunteered......The aim of this study was to compare short- (0-4 months) and long-term (0-10 months) effects of high-intensive Exercise on Prescription (EoP) intervention (counseling and supervised exercise) implemented in primary healthcare in a number of Danish counties with a low-intensive intervention...

  16. The effect of metformin on glucose homeostasis during moderate exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merethe; Palsøe, Marie K.; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of metformin on glucose kinetics during moderate exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Before, during, and after a 45-min bout of exercise at 60% VO2max, glucose kinetics were determined by isotope tracer technique in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus....... CONCLUSIONS: Metformin has a positive effect on glucose homeostasis during exercise....... with metformin treatment (DM2+Met) or without metformin treatment (DM2) and in healthy control subjects (CON) matched for BMI and age. Glucoregulatory hormones and metabolites were measured throughout the study. RESULTS: Plasma glucose concentration was unchanged during exercise in CON but decreased in DM2...

  17. Effect of moderate exercise on peritoneal neutrophils from juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Glauber Ruda; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Sousa, Shirley Maria; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Lagranha, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that moderate exercise in adult rats enhances neutrophil function, although no studies were performed in juvenile rats. We evaluated the effects of moderate exercise on the neutrophil function in juvenile rats. Viability and neutrophils function were evaluated. Moderate exercise did not impair the viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential of neutrophils, whereas there was greater reactive oxygen species production (164%; p < 0.001) and phagocytic capacity (29%; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that moderate exercise in juvenile rats improves neutrophil function, similar to adults.

  18. Aerobic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Schmidt, Karl T; Iordanou, Jordan C; Mustroph, Martina L

    2008-11-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  19. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Mor; Gökhan İpekoğlu; Cansel Arslanoglu; Kursat Acar; Erkal Arslanoglu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lacta...

  20. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement – comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.

    2014-01-01

    was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions...

  1. Effect of exercise on the quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Li, Guichen; Zhang, Ping; Xu, Duo; Chen, Li

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic patients tend to have a poor quality of life. A sedentary lifestyle is considered to be a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes and an independent predictor of poor quality of life. Exercise is a key treatment for people living with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effect of exercise on the quality of life of people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and three Chinese databases were searched for studies published until January 2016. The review included all clinical trials that evaluated the effect of exercise on quality of life compared with that of usual care for people with type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of all the included studies, by using the Downs and Black Quality Index (QI). Thirty studies met inclusion criteria, with 2785 participants. We divided the exercise into four modes: aerobic, resistance, a combination of aerobic and resistance and yoga. Aerobic exercise showed a significant effect between groups. Resistance and combined exercise showed mixed results. Yoga also showed good intervention effects on quality of life. The effect of aerobic exercise on the quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes was safe and effective. Then, most of the studies on aerobic exercise were of good methodological quality. The effects of resistance exercise and combined exercise on the quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes were mixed, and the effect of yoga on quality of life still need more research.

  2. Effects of regular exercise on asthma control in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-08-28

    According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.

  3. Breakfast glycaemic index and exercise: combined effects on adolescents' cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the combined effects of breakfast glycaemic index (GI) and a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents' cognitive function. Participants were randomly allocated to a high or low GI breakfast group in a mixed research design, where each participant completed two experimental trials (exercise and resting). Forty-two adolescents (12.4±0.5 years old), undertook a bout of exercise (ten repeats of level one of the multi-stage fitness test; exercise trial) or continued to rest (resting trial) following consumption of either a high or low GI breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm) was completed 30 min before and 45 min following the exercise. Average heart rate during exercise was 170±15 beats·min(-1). On the complex level of the Stroop test, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast on both the exercise and resting trials, though the improvement was greatest on the exercise trial. However, response times only improved on the resting trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.012). On the 5 letter level of the Sternberg paradigm, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast (regardless of exercise) and only on the exercise trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.019). The findings of the present study suggest that the combined effects of breakfast GI and exercise in adolescents depend upon the component of cognitive function examined. A low GI breakfast and mid-morning bout of exercise were individually beneficial for response times on the Sternberg paradigm, whereas they conferred additional benefits for response times on the Stroop test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Is eccentric exercise an effective treatment for lateral epicondylitis? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, Frances L; Boocock, Mark G; Trevelyan, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    To establish the effectiveness of eccentric exercise as a treatment intervention for lateral epicondylitis. ProQuest, Medline via EBSCO, AMED, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL. A systematic review was undertaken to identify randomized and controlled clinical trials incorporating eccentric exercise as a treatment for patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. Studies were included if: they incorporated eccentric exercise, either in isolation or as part of a multimodal treatment protocol; they assessed at least one functional or disability outcome measure; and the patients had undergone diagnostic testing. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Modified Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group score sheet. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Three were deemed 'high' quality, seven were 'medium' quality, and two were 'low' quality. Eight of the studies were randomized trials investigating a total of 334 subjects. Following treatment, all groups inclusive of eccentric exercise reported decreased pain and improved function and grip strength from baseline. Seven studies reported improvements in pain, function, and/or grip strength for therapy treatments inclusive of eccentric exercise when compared with those excluding eccentric exercise. Only one low-quality study investigated the isolated effects of eccentric exercise for treating lateral epicondylitis and found no significant improvements in pain when compared with other treatments. The majority of consistent findings support the inclusion of eccentric exercise as part of a multimodal therapy programme for improved outcomes in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

  5. Effect of different types of music on exercise performance in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anuprita M; Yardi, Sujata S

    2013-01-01

    While exercising, people seem to enjoy listening to music believing that it relaxes them or helps give the necessary rhythm for exercise. But is music really beneficial? In view of different people listening to different types of music, this study was intended to assess effect of different types of music on exercise performance. 30 healthy female college students in the age group of 18 to 25 years were made to walk on the treadmill 3 times at one week interval: without music (A), with slow music (B), with fast music (C). Duration of exercise and rate of perceived exertion were recorded at the end of each session. The results showed an increase in the duration of exercise in Group B and Group C as compared to Group A and the increase was more in Group C as compared to Group B. It was observed that level of RPE was the same at the end of every exercise session. The reason for increase in exercise duration with music could be because of various factors like dissociation, arousal, motivation, etc. It can be thus suggested that exercises can be performed for longer duration with music than without music and the effect is more with fast music than with slow music. Also with music, the same level of exertion is perceived though the walking duration is considerably increased.

  6. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Consolidation and Retention of Motor Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen

    with the perspective of exploring the arguments for applying exercise systematically in the educational system. In addition, since a team sport could be more motivating to school children compared to e.g. running, we investigated the effects of both hockey and running on motor memory. Seventy-seven pre......There is substantial evidence that a single bout of exercise can improve cognitive functions and retention of certain types of declarative memory. However, it is unclear if a similar effect can be demonstrated when coupling physical activity with the acquisition and retention of a motor skill....... Hence, the overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate the relationship between acute exercise and motor memory, with special interest in investigating if exercise performed after motor skill learning could improve skill retention. Study I was designed to assess if a single bout of exercise...

  7. A Complier Average Causal Effect Analysis of the Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Thomas; Greer, Tracy L; Walker, Robrina; Rethorst, Chad D; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2018-06-01

    Exercise is a promising treatment for substance use disorders, yet an intention-to-treat analysis of a large, multi-site study found no reduction in stimulant use for exercise versus health education. Exercise adherence was sub-optimal; therefore, secondary post-hoc complier average causal effects (CACE) analysis was conducted to determine the potential effectiveness of adequately dosed exercise. The STimulant use Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise study was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12 kcal/kg/week (KKW) exercise dose versus a health education control conducted at nine residential substance use treatment settings across the U.S. that are affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Participants were sedentary but medically approved for exercise, used stimulants within 30 days prior to study entry, and received a DSM-IV stimulant abuse or dependence diagnosis within the past year. A CACE analysis adjusted to include only participants with a minimum threshold of adherence (at least 8.3 KKW) and using a negative-binomial hurdle model focused on 218 participants who were 36.2% female, mean age 39.4 years ( SD =11.1), and averaged 13.0 ( SD =9.2) stimulant use days in the 30 days before residential treatment. The outcome was days of stimulant use as assessed by the self-reported TimeLine Follow Back and urine drug screen results. The CACE-adjusted analysis found a significantly lower probability of relapse to stimulant use in the exercise group versus the health education group (41.0% vs. 55.7%, p <.01) and significantly lower days of stimulant use among those who relapsed (5.0 days vs. 9.9 days, p <.01). The CACE adjustment revealed significant, positive effects for exercise. Further research is warranted to develop strategies for exercise adherence that can ensure achievement of an exercise dose sufficient to produce a significant treatment effect.

  8. Comparing Two Exercise Programmes for the Management of Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy (Tennis Elbow/Lateral Epicondylitis—A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Stasinopoulos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of supervised exercise programme as proposed by Stasinopoulos and colleagues with home exercise programme as proposed by Pienimaki and his coworkers in the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy. Design: Controlled clinical trial. Setting: Physiotherapy and rehabilitation centre. Participants: This trial was carried out with 60 patients, who had lateral elbow tendinopathy. Intervention: Group A (n = 30 had received supervised exercise programme, once per day for 4 weeks. Group B (n = 30 was treated with home exercise programme four to six times daily for 8 weeks. Outcome measures: pain, using a visual analogue scale, function, using a visual analogue scale for elbow function and the pain-free grip strength. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 12, and 3 months (week 24 after the end of treatment. Results: Both the supervised and home exercise programme were found to be significantly effective in the reduction of pain and in the improvement of functional status. The supervised exercise programme resulted in significantly different improvement in comparison to those who received home exercise programme. Conclusion: A specific supervised exercise programme is superior to a specific home exercise programme in reducing pain and improving function in patients with LET at the end of the treatment and at the 3 month follow-up. Further research is needed to confirm our results.

  9. Effect of balance exercise on selected kinematic gait variables in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of balance exercise on some selected kinematic gait parameters in patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. Forty subjects (18 men and 22 women) participated in the study.They were divided into two groups: Group 1 (experimental) that was treated with balance exercises, ...

  10. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  11. Stress urinary incontinence: effect of pelvic muscle exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, K. L.; McKey, P. L.; Bishop, K. R.; Kloen, P.; Verheul, J. B.; Dougherty, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty women with stress urinary incontinence diagnosed by urodynamic testing participated in a 6-week pelvic muscle exercise program. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercise program, with or without an intravaginal balloon, on urinary leakage as determined by a

  12. Developing Critical Thinking Skills: Assessing the Effectiveness of Workbook Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Elise D.; Jefferson, Renee N.

    2015-01-01

    To address the challenge of developing critical thinking skills in college students, this empirical study examines the effectiveness of cognitive exercises in developing those skills. The study uses Critical Thinking: Building the Basics by Walter, Knudsvig, and Smith (2003). This workbook is specifically designed to exercise and develop critical…

  13. Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise programmes on smoking. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Abstract. Previous research on the cessation of smoking and the prevention of smoking recidivism using exercise training has mainly focused on aerobic training (AER).

  14. The Effects of Regular Exercise on the Physical Fitness Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirandi, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is investigating the effects of regular exercise on the physical fitness levels among sedentary individuals. The total of 65 sedentary male individuals between the ages of 19-45, who had never exercises regularly in their lives, participated in the present research. Of these participants, 35 wanted to be…

  15. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. ... Participants then performed two different exercises: standing calf raises and prone bridging, without and with WBV.

  16. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  17. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  18. Effects of Triphasic Exercise on Blood Rheology and Pathophysiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to study the relevance of physiology and pathophysiology in blood rheology as effects of triphasic exercise. Regular exercise which has been established as life prolonging has led to decrease in both peripheral vascular and coronary morbidity that has been associated with certain improvements in ...

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF FLOOR EXERCISES VERSES BALL EXERCISES ON SPINAL MOBILITY IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Sakhawalkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this present study was to determine the Effectiveness of Floor Exercises versus Ball Exercises on spinal mobility in Spastic Diplegic. Methods: Institutional ethical committee permission was taken before starting the study. A sample of 70 Diplegic CP children was screened, and 40 meeting the inclusion criteria were selected for study were then randomly divided into two groups one control other experimental i.e. 20 in each group by chit method. Both the groups were assessed with spinal goniometry using Tape measurements for Thoracolumbar spine and Modified Schober's Test (MMSTbefore and after the treatment. Control group were given Floor exercise on a mat, and Swiss ball was giving experimental group Ball exercises for ten repetitions with 10-second hold, treatment time was 40 min per session for 3days per week for six weeks. Same sustained stretching technique for both groups in bilateral lower extremities for ten repetitions with 30 sec hold was given for, TA, Iliopsoas, Hamstrings, Hip Adductor, Rectus femoris. Result: Significant improvement was noted in the Intra-group comparison of both the groups from baseline to post six weeks of intervention p-value 0.001*** in both groups, and the Intergroup analysis using with tape measurements for Thoracolumbar spine (p-value and MMST (p-value 0.133NS. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there is a similar effect of both Floor Exercises versus Ball Exercises on spinal mobility in Spastic Diplegic.

  20. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  1. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hötting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  2. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schickert, Nadine; Kaiser, Jochen; Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  3. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin...

  4. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  5. Protective effect of exercise and alpha tocopherol on atherosclerosis promotion in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Mudhir S.; Mahmud, Almas M. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of exercise training (Moderate and severe) and alpha tocopherol on lipid profiles and organ weights in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) and atherosclerotic lesions were induced by feeding the male rabbits the standard chow supplemented with 1% cholesterol (atherogenic diet) for 36 days. Experimental rabbits were divided into seven groups: normal (T1), HC control (T2), HC plus alpha tocopherol (0.5mg /animal/day) (T3), HC plus moderate exercise 40 minutes/day (0.5km/day) 5 days/week (T4), HC plus severe exercise 40 minutes/day (1km/day) 5 days/week (T5), HC plus alpha tocopherol plus moderate exercise (T6) and HC plus alpha tocopherol plus severe exercise (T7). After the treatment period of 36th day, blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, High-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, serum glucose, body and organ weights were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol produced significant reduction (Pgroup showed no significant change in all lipid profiles. However, the decrement in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in combination of severe exercise with alpha tocopherol. The results suggest that the combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol can be exploited for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  6. Acute effects of beta blockade and exercise on mood and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, A; Kendall, M J; Ferner, R; Eagles, C

    1996-09-01

    To measure the previously reported beta blocker induced adverse changes in mood state and anxiety measures, and to determine if prolonged aerobic exercise attenuates such mood modifications. After 4 days of drug treatment with comparable doses of propranolol (40 and 80 mg), metoprolol (50 and 100 mg), or placebo, mood (POMS) and anxiety states (STAI) were assessed in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of treadmill walking exercise at 50% maximum oxygen uptake. Compared to placebo, resting "tension", "depression", and "total mood disturbance" were significantly higher on propranolol 80 mg, but all were reduced with exercise. "Fatigue" and "confusion" were also higher on propranolol, and were unaffected by exercise. "Fatigue" was also higher than placebo after exercise on metoprolol 100 mg. "Anxiety" was unaffected by drug treatment or exercise. The evidence that beta blockers, and particularly propranolol, have adverse effects on mood was confirmed. It would be preferable to prescribe a beta blocker which does not adversely alter mood states. However, exercise significantly reduced the measures of "tension" and "depression" which were adversely increased by propranolol. Exercise prescription may therefore not only be compatible with beta blockade, but a highly desirable adjuvant therapy.

  7. Effectiveness of core stabilization exercises and routine exercise therapy in management of pain in chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Waseem; Karimi, Hossein; Gilani, Syed Amir

    2017-01-01

    Low back pain is a frequent problem faced by the majority of people at some point in their lifetime. Exercise therapy has been advocated an effective treatment for chronic low back pain. However, there is lack of consensus on the best exercise treatment and numerous studies are underway. Conclusive studies are lacking especially in this part of the world. Thisstudy was designed to compare the effectiveness of specific stabilization exercises with routine physical therapy exerciseprovided in patients with nonspecific chronic mechanical low back pain. This is single blinded randomized control trial that was conducted at the department of physical therapy Orthopedic and Spine Institute, Johar Town, Lahore in which 120 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain participated. Subjects with the age between 20 to 60 years and primary complaint of chronic low back pain were recruited after giving an informed consent. Participants were randomly assigned to two treatment groups A & B which were treated with core stabilization exercise and routine physical therapy exercise respectively. TENS and ultrasound were given as therapeutic modalities to both treatment groups. Outcomes of the treatment were recorded using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pretreatment, at 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th week post treatment. The results of this study illustrate that clinical and therapeutic effects of core stabilization exercise program over the period of six weeks are more effective in terms of reduction in pain, compared to routine physical therapy exercise for similar duration. This study found significant reduction in pain across the two groups at 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th week of treatment with p value less than 0.05. There was a mean reduction of 3.08 and 1.71 on VAS across the core stabilization group and routine physical therapy exercise group respectively. Core stabilization exercise is more effective than routine physical therapy exercise in terms of greater reduction in pain in patients with

  8. Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Murakami, Taro; Nakai, Naoya; Nagasaki, Masaru; Harris, Robert A

    2004-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that can be oxidized in skeletal muscle. It is known that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is attributed to activation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, which catalyzes the second-step reaction of the BCAA catabolic pathway and is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway. This enzyme complex is regulated by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle. The BCKDH kinase is responsible for inactivation of the complex by phosphorylation, and the activity of the kinase is inversely correlated with the activity state of the BCKDH complex, which suggests that the kinase is the primary regulator of the complex. We found recently that administration of ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) in rats caused activation of the hepatic BCKDH complex in association with a decrease in the kinase activity, which suggests that promotion of fatty acid oxidation upregulates the BCAA catabolism. Long-chain fatty acids are ligands for PPARalpha, and the fatty acid oxidation is promoted by several physiological conditions including exercise. These findings suggest that fatty acids may be one of the regulators of BCAA catabolism and that the BCAA requirement is increased by exercise. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis; this suggests the possibility that BCAAs are a useful supplement in relation to exercise and sports.

  9. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  10. Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, Ana G; Restrepo, Gustavo; Aristizabal, Dagnovar; Cubides, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)

  11. Influence of glutamine on the effect of resistance exercise on cardiac ANP in rats

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    Romeu Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various nutritional supplements (herbs, vitamins, and micronutrients improve responses and adaptations to resistance exercise. ANP is a heart hormone that contributes to fluid, electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis through its natriuretic and vasodilative actions. In the present study, the adaptation of ANP in response to resistance exercise was investigated in rats supplemented with glutamine for five weeks. The results showed that supplementation with glutamine did not influence the number of ANP granules per atrial cardiocyte in sedentary animals. In exercised-trained rats, the number and diameter of the granules was significantly higher in comparison with the control group and in exercised animals supplemented with glutamine there was significant increase in the number and diameter of ANP granules compared with controls. Altogether, these data indicated that in resistance exercise rats, glutamine significantly enhances cardiac ANP thus implicating the beneficial effects of glutamine supplementation to the ANP system.

  12. NMR metabolomics for assessment of exercise effects with mouse biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Moyec, Laurence; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Breuneval, Carole; Petot, Helene; Billat, Veronique L. [Universite Evry Val d' Essonne, UBIAE INSERM U902, Evry Cedex (France); Triba, Mohamed N. [Universite Paris 13, CSPBAT UMR 7244, Bobigny (France)

    2012-08-15

    Exercise modulates the metabolome in urine or blood as demonstrated previously for humans and animal models. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics, the present study compares the metabolic consequences of an exhaustive exercise at peak velocity (Vp) and at critical velocity (Vc) on mice. Since small-volume samples (blood and urine) were collected, dilution was necessary to acquire NMR spectra. Consequently, specific processing methods were applied before statistical analysis. According to the type of exercise (control group, Vp group and Vc group), 26 male mice were divided into three groups. Mice were sacrificed 2 h after the end of exercise, and urine and blood samples were drawn from each mouse. Proton NMR spectra were acquired with urine and deproteinized blood. The NMR data were aligned with the icoshift method and normalised using the probabilistic quotient method. Finally, data were analysed with the orthogonal projection of latent-structure analysis. The spectra obtained with deproteinized blood can neither discriminate the control mice from exercised mice nor discriminate according to the duration of the exercise. With urine samples, a significant statistical model can be estimated when comparing the control mice to both groups, Vc and Vp. The best model is obtained according to the exercise duration with all mice. Taking into account the spectral regions having the highest correlations, the discriminant metabolites are allantoin, inosine and branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, metabolomic profiles assessed with NMR are highly dependent on the exercise. These results show that urine samples are more informative than blood samples and that the duration of the exercise is a more important parameter to influence the metabolomic status than the exercise velocity. (orig.)

  13. The Impact of Exercise on Cancer Mortality, Recurrence, and Treatment-Related Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; Zopf, Eva M; Zhang, Xiaochen; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-01-01

    The combination of an increasing number of new cancer cases and improving survival rates has led to a large and rapidly growing population with unique health-care requirements. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to help address the issues faced by cancer patients. Supported by a growing body of research, major health organizations commonly identify the importance of incorporating exercise in cancer care and advise patients to be physically active. This systematic review comprehensively summarizes the available epidemiologic and randomized controlled trial evidence investigating the role of exercise in the management of cancer. Literature searches focused on determining the potential impact of exercise on 1) cancer mortality and recurrence and 2) adverse effects of cancer and its treatment. A total of 100 studies were reviewed involving thousands of individual patients whose exercise behavior was assessed following the diagnosis of any type of cancer. Compared with patients who performed no/less exercise, patients who exercised following a diagnosis of cancer were observed to have a lower relative risk of cancer mortality and recurrence and experienced fewer/less severe adverse effects. The findings of this review support the view that exercise is an important adjunct therapy in the management of cancer. Implications on cancer care policy and practice are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

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    Sang-Wook Song

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group. The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048, word list delayed recall (p = 0.038, word list recognition (p = 0.007, and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037. However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome.

  15. The Effect of Three Months Regular Aerobic Exercise on Premenstrual Syndrome

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    Zinat Ghanbari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of three-month regular aerobic exercise on the PMS symptoms. Also correlations with age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms were studied.Materials and Methods: A Quasi- Experimental study was conducted on 91 volunteer women with regular menstrual cycle and no history of gynecological, endocrinological and psychological disorders. The study was done during March 2005- March 2007, in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A Modified Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MMDQ was used in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: Non-exercised, they also didn't have any past experience of regular exercise (n= 48 and Exercised (n= 43. The exercise time duration was one hour and was carried out three times per week for three months.  Emotional, behavioral, electrolyte, autonomic, neurovegatative and skin symptoms of PMS were compared between two groups. P value was considered significant at < 0.05.Results: A significant difference was observed for electrolytic, neurovegetative and cognitive symptoms before and after the exercise. Also the severity of skin and neurovegetative symptoms were different in experimental groups with and without past history of doing regular exercise. There was no correlation between age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms.Conclusion: Three months of regular aerobic exercise effectively reduces the severity of PMS symptoms.

  16. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  17. Exercise DVD effect on musculoskeletal disorders in professional orchestral musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C; Driscoll, T; Ackermann, B

    2014-01-01

    Professional musicians report a high prevalence of performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Excessive muscle tension and fatigue have been reported as important factors contributing to PRMDs. To evaluate feasibility and effectiveness of a specific exercise programme delivered via a digital video disc (DVD) targeting PRMDs and associated risk factors. Volunteers from eight Australian symphony orchestras undertook two or more sessions per week over 12 weeks. Questionnaires were administered pre- and post-intervention with items including the frequency and severity of PRMDs, perceived exertion during different playing situations, per formance effects of the DVD and satisfaction rates. Musicians who had also participated in an equivalent face-to-face programme prior to this DVD trial compared the two interventions. One hundred and forty-four out of 576 musicians volunteered (25% uptake), and 50 participants completed a mean 2.1 (SD 0.42) sessions over the 12 week period (41% compliance). PRMD frequency and severity were significantly reduced post-intervention (P benefits of the DVD on strengthening muscles, increasing ease of movement and improving flexibility related to playing. Despite this, perceived exertion levels during private practice, rehearsal and performance remained the same (not significant). Seventy-eight per cent of participants scored their overall experience of the use of the DVD as good or excellent. Owing to its convenience and detailed exercise demonstrations, the DVD was rated as better or much better overall than the face-to-face classes by 55% of participants who had experienced both. An exercise DVD was well received and appeared to be effective, convenient and safe in managing occupational-specific musculoskeletal disorders in musicians.

  18. Effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at the onset of submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, P J; Parolin, M L; Jones, N L; Heigenhauser, G J F

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at rest and during submaximal exercise. Subjects exercised on two occasions for 15 min at 55 % of their maximal oxygen uptake while either hyperventilating (R-Alk) or breathing normally (Con). Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 1 and 15 min of exercise. At rest, no effects on muscle metabolism were observed in response to R-Alk. In the first minute of exercise, there was a delayed activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in R-Alk compared with Con, resulting in a reduced rate of pyruvate oxidation. Also, glycogenolysis was higher in R-Alk compared with Con, which was attributed to a higher availability of the monoprotonated form of inorganic phosphate (P(i)), resulting in an elevated rate of pyruvate production. The mismatch between pyruvate production and its oxidation resulted in net lactate accumulation. These effects were not seen after 15 min of exercise, with no further differences in muscle metabolism between conditions. The results from the present study suggest that respiratory alkalosis may play an important role in lactate accumulation during the transition from rest to exercise in acute hypoxic conditions, but that other factors mediate lactate accumulation during steady-state exercise.

  19. Promoting ADL independence in vulnerable, community-dwelling older adults: a pilot RCT comparing 3-Step Workout for Life versus resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chiung-ju Liu,1,2 Huiping Xu,3,4 NiCole R Keith,2,4,5 Daniel O Clark2,4,6 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Indiana University School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 3Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, 4Regenstrief Institute, Inc., 5Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University School of Physical Education and Tourism Management, 6Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Resistance exercise is effective to increase muscle strength for older adults; however, its effect on the outcome of activities of daily living is often limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 3-Step Workout for Life (which combines resistance exercise, functional exercise, and activities of daily living exercise would be more beneficial than resistance exercise alone. Methods: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Fifty-two inactive, community-dwelling older adults (mean age =73 years with muscle weakness and difficulty in activities of daily living were randomized to receive 3-Step Workout for Life or resistance exercise only. Participants in the 3-Step Workout for Life Group performed functional movements and selected activities of daily living at home in addition to resistance exercise. Participants in the Resistance Exercise Only Group performed resistance exercise only. Both groups were comparable in exercise intensity (moderate, duration (50–60 minutes each time for 10 weeks, and frequency (three times a week. Assessment of Motor and Process Skills, a standard performance test on activities of daily living, was administered at baseline, postintervention, and 6 months after intervention completion.Results: At postintervention, the 3-Step Workout for Life Group showed improvement on the outcome measure (mean change from baseline =0.29, P=0.02, but the improvement was not greater than

  20. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.

  1. The Effects of Exercise on Judoists’ Circulating Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Type, intensity and duration of exercises exert pivotal effects on athletes’ immune system and probably athletes’ susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections. In this study we examined the effects of one session of moderate-intensity exercise on male judoists’ circulating blood neutrophil counts (BNC and respiratory burst, and self-reported upper respiratory clinical infections 24 hours after the exercise and during the sport seasons. Methods: Ten male judoists after obtaining informed consent were included in the study. The athletes took part in a session of moderate-intensity exercise (60 minutes running on a treadmill at 60% of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were drawn at rest immediately after the exercise. Blood neutrophil count and percentage of Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA stimulated neutrophils in whole blood were assessed [as a marker of oxidative burst (OB quality]. Athletes were asked about any signs of upper respiratory infections 24 hours after the exercise and during sport seasons. Paired-t test was used for statistical analysis and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: BNC were in normal range at rest, and meaningfully increased immediately after the exercise (p<0.05. At rest, the OB activity was in normal range, and increased immediately after the exercise (not significant. During 24 hours after the exercise, athletes showed no signs of upper respiratory system infections. Also they mentioned no history of increased susceptibility of upper respiratory infections during sport seasons. Conclusion: Continuous judo exercises have no negative effects on BNC and OB activity. This finding is in accordance with the absence of self-reported upper respiratory infections in judoists during sport seasons. Significant increase in BNC after a session of exercise was a

  2. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.

  3. Effects of Group, Individual, and Home Exercise in Persons With Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laurie A; Wilhelm, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyi; Blehm, Ron; Nutt, John; Chen, Zunqiu; Serdar, Andrea; Horak, Fay B

    2015-10-01

    Comparative studies of exercise interventions for people with Parkinson disease (PD) rarely considered how one should deliver the intervention. The objective of this study was to compare the success of exercise when administered by (1) home exercise program, (2) individualized physical therapy, or (3) a group class. We examined if common comorbidities associated with PD impacted success of each intervention. Fifty-eight people (age = 63.9 ± 8 years) with PD participated. People were randomized into (1) home exercise program, (2) individual physical therapy, or (3) group class intervention. All arms were standardized and based on the Agility Boot Camp exercise program for PD, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the 7-item Physical Performance Test. Other measures of balance, gait, mobility, quality of life, balance confidence, depressions, apathy, self-efficacy and UPDRS-Motor, and activity of daily living scores were included. Only the individual group significantly improved in the Physical Performance Test. The individual exercise showed the most improvements in functional and balance measures, whereas the group class showed the most improvements in gait. The home exercise program improved the least across all outcomes. Several factors effected success, particularly for the home group. An unsupervised, home exercise program is the least effective way to deliver exercise to people with PD, and individual and group exercises have differing benefits. Furthermore, people with PD who also have other comorbidities did better in a program directly supervised by a physical therapist.Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A112).

  4. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Nordbrandt, Sasja; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the evidence for the use of cardiovascular exercise to improve memory and explored potential mechanisms. Data from 29 and 21 studies including acute and long-term cardiovascular interventions were retrieved. Meta-analyses revealed that acute exercise had moderate (SMD=0.26; 95% CI=0.0.......03, 0.49; p=0.03; N=22) whereas long-term had small (SMD=0.15; 95% CI=0.02, 0.27; p=0.02; N=37) effects on short-term memory. In contrast, acute exercise showed moderate to large (SMD=0.52; 95% CI=0.28, 0.75; p......We reviewed the evidence for the use of cardiovascular exercise to improve memory and explored potential mechanisms. Data from 29 and 21 studies including acute and long-term cardiovascular interventions were retrieved. Meta-analyses revealed that acute exercise had moderate (SMD=0.26; 95% CI=0...

  5. The Effects of Exercise Education Intervention on the Exercise Behaviour, Depression, and Fatigue Status of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an exercise education intervention on exercise behavior, depression and fatigue status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Design/methodology/approach: This was a pilot study using an exercise education program as an intervention for CKD patients. The authors used the…

  6. Physical exercise for late life depression: effects on cognition and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neviani, Francesca; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Mussi, Chiara; Triolo, Federico; Toni, Giulio; Simoncini, Elisabetta; Tripi, Ferdinando; Menchetti, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia; Ceresini, Graziano; Cremonini, Alessandro; Bertolotti, Marco; Neri, Giovanni; Squatrito, Salvatore; Amore, Mario; Zanetidou, Stamatula; Neri, Mirco

    2017-07-01

    Late-life depression is often associated with cognitive impairments and disability, which may persist even after adequate antidepressant drug treatment. Physical exercise is increasingly recognized as an effective antidepressant agent, and may exert positive effects on these features too. However, few studies examined this issue, especially by comparing different types of exercises. We performed secondary analyses on data from the Safety and Efficacy of Exercise for Depression in Seniors study, a trial comparing the antidepressant effectiveness of sertraline (S), sertraline plus thrice-weekly non-progressive exercise (S+NPE), and sertraline plus thrice-weekly progressive aerobic exercise (S+PAE). Exercise was conducted in small groups and monitored by heart rate meters. Patients with late-life depression without severe cognitive impairment were recruited from primary care and assessed at baseline and 24 weeks, using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA, total and subdomain scores) and Brief Disability Questionnaire. Analyses were based on Generalized Linear Models. In total, 121 patients (mean age 75, 71% females) were randomized to the study interventions. Compared with the S group, patients in the S+PAE group displayed greater improvements of MOCA total scores (p=0.006, effect size=0.37), visuospatial/executive functions (p=0.001, effect size=0.13), and disability (p=0.02, effect size=-0.31). Participants in the S+NPE group did not display significant differences with the control group. Adding aerobic, progressive exercise to antidepressant drug treatment may offer significant advantages over standard treatment for cognitive abilities and disability. These findings suggest that even among older patients exercise may constitute a valid therapeutic measure to improve patients' outcomes.

  7. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF SWISS BALL VS FLOOR EXERCISES ON CORE MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE CRICKETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sai sudha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cricket is one of the most popular game in India played by men and women of all ages. The increased physical demands on the players may be associated with an increased risk of injuries. Core muscle strength is important to prevent risk of injuries in elite cricketers. The beginners in the cricket must have enough strength of core muscles, as core is the bridge between upper and lower limbs. So, it should be strong enough to prevent low back and lower limb injuries in cricketers. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of swiss ball exercises versus floor exercises on core muscle strength in elite cricketers. The objective is to study and compare the effectiveness of swiss ball exercises and floor exercises in elite cricketers in terms of back strength. Method: The total number of students in this study were 30 eilte cricketers between 16-25 years out of which 15 subjects were included each in floor exercise(n=15 and swiss ball group(n=15. Back strength was measured before and after the intervention of 6 weeks using isokinetic analyser. Results: After the analysis, the results revealed significant improvement of back strength in both the groups(p< 0.00. The swiss ball group showed significant results when compared with floor exercise group. Conclusion: Although the study showed beneficial results in both the groups, the results reflected that swiss ball group had better improvement of core muscle strength than the floor exercise group.

  9. Training with a balance exercise assist robot is more effective than conventional training for frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kenichi; Kondo, Izumi; Hirano, Satoshi; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Osawa, Aiko; Fujinori, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of postural strategy training using a balance exercise assist robot (BEAR) as compared with conventional balance training for frail older adults. The present study was designed as a cross-over trial without a washout term. A total of 27 community-dwelling frail or prefrail elderly residents (7 men, 20 women; age range 65-85 years) were selected from a volunteer sample. Two exercises were prepared for interventions: robotic exercise moving the center of gravity by the balance exercise assist robot system; and conventional balance training combining muscle-strengthening exercise, postural strategy training and applied motion exercise. Each exercise was carried out twice a week for 6 weeks. Participants were allocated randomly to either the robotic exercise first group or the conventional balance exercise first group. preferred and maximal gait speeds, tandem gait speeds, timed up-and-go test, functional reach test, functional base of support, center of pressure, and muscle strength of the lower extremities were assessed before and after completion of each exercise program. Robotic exercise achieved significant improvements for tandem gait speed (P = 0.012), functional reach test (P = 0.002), timed up-and-go test (P = 0.023) and muscle strength of the lower extremities (P = 0.001-0.030) compared with conventional exercise. In frail or prefrail older adults, robotic exercise was more effective for improving dynamic balance and lower extremity muscle strength than conventional exercise. These findings suggest that postural strategy training with the balance exercise assist robot is effective to improve the gait instability and muscle weakness often seen in frail older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1982-1990. © 2017 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Effects of eccentric exercise on trapezius electromyography during computer work with active and passive pauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    ) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 40s over 2 days, before, immediately and 24h after eccentric exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four parts of the trapezius during computer work. FINDINGS: EMG amplitude during computer work decreased......BACKGROUND: The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of eccentric exercises on the trapezius muscle spatial electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work with active and passive pauses. METHODS: Twelve healthy male subjects performed computer work with passive (relax...... immediately after exercise (Pwork with active pauses compared with passive ones (P

  11. Effects of two exercise protocols on postural balance of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Laiana Sep?lveda de Andrade; de Carvalho, Fabiana Texeira; Freire, Lara Sep?lveda de Andrade; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Z?ngaro, Renato Amaro

    2015-01-01

    Background The aging process reduces both sensory capabilities and the capabilities of the motor systems responsible for postural control, resulting in a high number of falls among the elderly. Some therapeutic interventions can directly interrupt this process, including physical exercise. This study compares and examines the effects of two exercise protocols on the balance of elderly women. Methods Elderly women who participated in a local church project (n?=?63) were randomly divided into t...

  12. Repeated Excessive Exercise Attenuates the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Exercise in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronni E. Sahl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Purpose: A number of studies have investigated the effect of training with a moderate exercise dose (3–6 h/weekly on the inflammatory profile in blood, and the data are inconsistent. Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive effect of physical activity level on inflammation levels and risk of metabolic disease. However, it is not clear whether this may be dose dependent and if very prolonged repeated exercise therefore may be beneficial for low-grade inflammation. Based on this we studied how excessive repeated prolonged exercise influenced low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue anti-inflammatory macrophage content in six older male recreationally trained cyclists. Low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue macrophage content were investigated in six older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2peak: 48 ± 2 mL kg−1 min−1 following repeated prolonged exercise.Methods: Cycling was performed daily for 14 days covering in total 2,706 km (1,681 miles. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak was measured before and after the cycling. Duration and intensity of the exercise were determined from heart rates sampled during cycling. An adipose tissue biopsy from subcutaneous abdominal fat and a blood sample were obtained at rest in the overnight fasted state before and after the cycling. Anti-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATM were immunohistochemically stained in cross sectional sections using a CD163 binding antibody. The ATM and adipocyte sizes were analyzed blindly.Results: The cyclists exercised daily for 10 h and 31 ± 37 min and average intensity was 53 ± 1% of VO2peak. Body weight remained unchanged and VO2peak decreased by 6 ± 2% (P = 0.04. Plasma inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-18 remained unchanged, as did hsCRP, but plasma IL-6 increased significantly. CD163 macrophage content remained unchanged, as did adipocyte cell size. The HbA1c was not significantly decreased, but there was a trend (P < 0.07 toward an

  13. The effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Marshall, Paul; Hill, Bridget; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A search for RCTs was undertaken using Medical Search Terms and synonyms for "Pilates" and "low back pain" within the maximal date range of 10 databases. Databases included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Cochrane Library; Medline; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; ProQuest: Health and Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Dissertation and Theses; Scopus; Sport Discus; Web of Science. Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of evidence. To be included, relevant RCTs needed to be published in the English language. From 152 studies, 14 RCTs were included. Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological quality of RCTs using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. The author(s), year of publication, and details regarding participants, Pilates exercise, comparison treatments, and outcome measures, and findings, were then extracted. The methodological quality of RCTs ranged from "poor" to "excellent". A meta-analysis of RCTs was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of RCTs. Pilates exercise provided statistically significant improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity between 4 and 15 weeks, but not at 24 weeks. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in improvements in pain and functional ability with Pilates exercise, massage therapy, or other forms of exercise at any time period. Pilates exercise offers greater improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity in the short term. Pilates exercise offers equivalent improvements to massage therapy and other forms of exercise. Future research should explore optimal Pilates exercise designs, and whether some people with CLBP may benefit from Pilates exercise more than

  14. The effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Wells

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs.A search for RCTs was undertaken using Medical Search Terms and synonyms for "Pilates" and "low back pain" within the maximal date range of 10 databases. Databases included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Cochrane Library; Medline; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; ProQuest: Health and Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Dissertation and Theses; Scopus; Sport Discus; Web of Science.Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of evidence. To be included, relevant RCTs needed to be published in the English language. From 152 studies, 14 RCTs were included.Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological quality of RCTs using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. The author(s, year of publication, and details regarding participants, Pilates exercise, comparison treatments, and outcome measures, and findings, were then extracted.The methodological quality of RCTs ranged from "poor" to "excellent". A meta-analysis of RCTs was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of RCTs. Pilates exercise provided statistically significant improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity between 4 and 15 weeks, but not at 24 weeks. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in improvements in pain and functional ability with Pilates exercise, massage therapy, or other forms of exercise at any time period.Pilates exercise offers greater improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity in the short term. Pilates exercise offers equivalent improvements to massage therapy and other forms of exercise. Future research should explore optimal Pilates exercise designs, and whether some people with CLBP may benefit from Pilates exercise

  15. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  16. Immediate effect of exercise on achilles tendon properties: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Steven J; Barrett, Rod S; Newsham-West, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the mechanical and morphological adaptation of the Achilles tendon (AT) in response to acute exercise could have important implications for athletic performance, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and critical evaluation of the literature to determine the immediate effect of a single bout of exercise on the mechanical and morphological properties of the AT in vivo. Five electronic research databases were systematically searched for intervention-based studies reporting mechanical and morphological properties of the AT after a single bout of exercise. Searches revealed 3292 possible articles; 21 met the inclusion criteria. There is evidence that maximal isometric contractions and prolonged static stretching (>5 min) of the triceps surae complex cause an immediate decrease in AT stiffness, whereas prolonged running and hopping have minimal effect. Limited but consistent evidence exists, indicating that AT hysteresis is reduced after prolonged static stretching. Consistent evidence supports a reduction in free AT diameter (anterior-posterior) after dynamic ankle exercise, and this change appears most pronounced in the healthy tendon and after eccentric exercise. The mechanical and morphological properties of the AT in vivo are affected by acute exercise in a mode- and dose-dependent manner. Transient changes in AT stiffness, hysteresis, and diameter after unaccustomed exercise modes and doses may expose the tendon to increased risk of strain injury and impact on the mechanical function of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit.

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  18. The Effects of Exercise on Natriuretic Peptides in Individuals without Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs play an important role in the regulation of energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. A systematic review on the effects of exercise on NPs in patients with heart failure reported that aerobic and resistance training reduced NPs; however, the effects of exercise on NPs and the underlying mechanism of exercise-induced NP secretion in subjects without heart failure remain unknown. In athletes and young, healthy subjects, the NP concentration at rest is not elevated, but strenuous endurance exercise significantly increases NPs. The exercise-induced increase in NPs may be caused by transient myocardial wall stress, cardiomyocyte metabolic changes, or neuroendocrinological response, which may have cytoprotective and growth-regulating effects on the heart. On the other hand, in elderly, overweight/obese subjects, and patients with hypertension, NP concentrations also increase during exercise; however, NP secretion may be more susceptible to cardiac stress compared to young, healthy individuals. Recent studies have shown that NPs are associated with thermogenesis in fat tissue and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscles. NPs may also have a protective role for skeletal muscle in humans, although further studies are warranted to elucidate the physiological mechanism of exercise-induced NP secretion.

  19. CORE STABILIZATION PROGRAM AND CONVENTIONAL EXERCISES IN THE PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Venkata Naga Prahalada Karnati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional back care exercises are advocated to treat the pain and to strengthen the involved muscles. There will always be the possibility of the pain getting recurred due to disproportionate balance and stability in the muscles. The core stabilization is major trend in rehabilitation. It aims at improving stability during functional activities, balance, flexibility, strength training and effectively manage the pain as well. Methods: Forty patients with chronic Mechanical Low back pain were randomly assigned into control group that received conventional back exercises and SWD (n=20, experimental group received core stabilization and SWD (n=20. Both the groups received SWD, along with conventional back exercises for one-group and core stabilization for the other group 3 days a week for 6 weeks .The treatment outcome was assessed using visual analogue scale, Rolland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Lumbar range of motion by using goniometer. Results: After a 6 week training period the core stabilization group scored significantly higher than the conventional group for VAS (p=0.05 and RMDQ (p=0.05 where as ROM improved higher in conventional group (p=0.05 Conclusion: After the treatment sessions Core stabilization group registered a significant improvement when compared to conventional back care exercises in improving function and in relieving pain.

  20. A Study of Effect of Walking Pole on the Walking Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 麻樹; 下平, 佳江; 佐藤, 健

    2010-01-01

    So-called metabolic syndrome is one of the medical problems in our country, because many of people have difficulty at lack of exercises. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare suggest healthy life by exercise and moderate foods. Walking is one of the effective exercises to keep health in everyday life. Walking with poles, the exercise method of cross country skiing, is noticed as the effective exercise nowadays. Some studies show the effect of the pole walking exercise from view points of c...

  1. Anatomical Knowledge Gain through a Clay-Modeling Exercise Compared to Live and Video Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…

  2. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  3. Comparing localized and nonlocalized dynamic 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in exercising muscle at 7T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerspeer, Martin; Robinson, Simon; Nabuurs, Christine I; Scheenen, Tom; Schoisengeier, Adrian; Unger, Ewald; Kemp, Graham J; Moser, Ewald

    2012-01-01

    By improving spatial and anatomical specificity, localized spectroscopy can enhance the power and accuracy of the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and bioenergetics. Localized and nonlocalized dynamic 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a surface coil was compared during aerobic exercise and recovery of human calf muscle. For localization, a short echo time single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence with adiabatic refocusing (semi-LASER) was applied, enabling the quantification of phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, and pH value in a single muscle (medial gastrocnemius) in single shots (TR = 6 s). All measurements were performed in a 7 T whole body scanner with a nonmagnetic ergometer. From a series of equal exercise bouts we conclude that: (a) with localization, measured phosphocreatine declines in exercise to a lower value (79 ± 7% cf. 53 ± 10%, P = 0.002), (b) phosphocreatine recovery shows shorter half time (t1/2 = 34 ± 7 s cf. t1/2 = 42 ± 7 s, nonsignificant) and initial postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis rate is significantly higher (32 ± 5 mM/min cf. 17 ± 4 mM/min, P = 0.001) and (c) in contrast to nonlocalized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, no splitting of the inorganic phosphate peak is observed during exercise or recovery, just an increase in line width during exercise. This confirms the absence of contaminating signals originating from weaker-exercising muscle, while an observed inorganic phosphate line broadening most probably reflects variations across fibers in a single muscle. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22334374

  4. The Effects of the Nintendo Wii Exercise Program on Chronic Work-related Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ko, Dae-Sik

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Nintendo Wii exercise program on chronic work-related LBP compared with stability exercise. [Methods] Twenty-four workers participated in this study. All of the participants were diagnosed with chronic LBP by a physician. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group (CG), lumbar stabilization exercise group (LSE), and Nintendo Wii exercise group (NWE). Participants were treated 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Each session lasted 30 minutes. [Results] The results demonstrated that exercise programs improved significantly physical functions related to LBP. In health-related QOL, the Nintendo Wii exercise program significantly improved both the mental and physical health composites, but other groups had significant improvement only in the physical health composite. [Conclusion] The Nintendo Wii exercise program could be a biopsychosocial intervention for work-related LBP in factory workers.

  5. The effect of exercise on affective and self-efficacy responses in older and younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy and affective responses to an acute exercise bout in sedentary older and younger women to determine whether aging has an effect on affective states. Twenty-five sedentary younger (mean age = 19.9 yrs) and 25 older (mean age = 55.7 yrs) women completed an acute bout of exercise. Affective responses were measured before, during, and immediately following exercise. Self-efficacy responses were measured before and immediately following exercise. Positive engagement, revitalization, tranquility, Felt Arousal and Feeling Scale responses, and self-efficacy were all higher immediately following compared with before or during exercise for both groups of women. In addition, older women experienced higher overall positive engagement and lower physical exhaustion compared with younger women as well as higher tranquility and Feeling Scale responses immediately following exercise. This investigation found that an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise produced more positive and fewer negative affective states in both younger and older women.

  6. Effects of Metoprolol and Nebivolol on Exercise Blood Pressure in Patients with Mild Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ugur Yazici

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We planned to compare the impact of two beta blockers, metoprolol and nebivolol, on arterial blood pressure during exercise in patients with mild hypertension. Methods. A total of 60 patients (13 males, 47 females; mean age: years were enrolled in the present study. The patients were randomly selected to receive either nebivolol 5 mg/day ( or metoprolol 50 mg/day ( for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8th week, each of the patients received exercise stress test according to Bruce protocol and their blood pressures were remeasured after rest, exercise, and recovery. Results. Blood pressures were determined to be similar between metoprolol and nebivolol groups during rest, exercise, and recovery periods. Metoprolol and nebivolol achieved similar reductions in blood pressures during rest and exercise. However, five patients in nebivolol group and four patients in metoprolol group developed exaggerated BP response to exercise but the difference between metoprolol and nebivolol was not meaningful (. Conclusion. The results of the present study showed that metoprolol and nebivolol established comparable effects on the control of blood pressures during exercise in the patients with mild hypertensions.

  7. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mille-Hamard Laurence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin (EPO is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when present at physiological levels. Given that EPO receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that EPO may have a direct, protective effect on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance and highlight muscle transcriptome alterations in a murine EPO functional knock-out model (the EPO-d mouse. Methods We determined VO2max peak velocity and critical speed in exhaustive runs in 17 mice (9 EPO-d animals and 8 inbred controls, using treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. Mice were sacrificed 24h after a last exhaustive treadmill exercise at critical speed. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted for microarray gene expression analysis. Results The EPO-d mice’s hematocrit was about 50% lower than that of controls (p  1.4 and 115 were strongly down-regulated (normalized ratio  Conclusions Our results showed that the lack of functional EPO induced a decrease in the aerobic exercise capacity. This decrease was correlated with the hematocrit and reflecting poor oxygen supply to the muscles. The observed alterations in the muscle transcriptome suggest that physiological concentrations of EPO exert both direct and indirect muscle-protecting effects during exercise. However, the signaling pathway involved in these protective effects remains to be described in detail.

  8. Home exercise programmes supported by video and automated reminders compared with standard paper-based home exercise programmes in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Kellie B; Harding, Katherine E; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether patients with stroke receiving rehabilitation for upper limb deficits using smart technology (video and reminder functions) demonstrate greater adherence to prescribed home exercise programmes and better functional outcomes when compared with traditional paper-based exercise prescription. Randomized controlled trial comparing upper limb home exercise programmes supported by video and automated reminders on smart technology, with standard paper-based home exercise programmes. A community rehabilitation programme within a large metropolitan health service. Patients with stroke with upper limb deficits, referred for outpatient rehabilitation. Participants were randomly assigned to the control (paper-based home exercise programme) or intervention group (home exercise programme filmed on an electronic tablet, with an automated reminder). Both groups completed their prescribed home exercise programme for four weeks. The primary outcome was adherence using a self-reported log book. Secondary outcomes were change in upper limb function and patient satisfaction. A total of 62 participants were allocated to the intervention ( n = 30) and control groups ( n = 32). There were no differences between the groups for measures of adherence (mean difference 2%, 95% CI -12 to 17) or change in the Wolf Motor Function Test log transformed time (mean difference 0.02 seconds, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.1). There were no between-group differences in how participants found instructions ( p = 0.452), whether they remembered to do their exercises ( p = 0.485), or whether they enjoyed doing their exercises ( p = 0.864). The use of smart technology was not superior to standard paper-based home exercise programmes for patients recovering from stroke. This trial design was registered prospectively with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register, ID: ACTRN 12613000786796. http://www.anzctr.org.au/trialSearch.aspx.

  9. Effects of Angle Variations in Suspension Push-up Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulmez, Irfan

    2017-04-01

    Gulmez, I. Effects of angle variations in suspension push-up exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1017-1023, 2017-This study aimed to determine and compare the amount of loads on the TRX Suspension Trainer (TRX) straps and ground reaction forces at 4 different angles during TRX push-ups. Twenty-eight male (mean age, 24.1 ± 2.9 years; height, 179.4 ± 8.0 m; weight, 78.8 ± 9.8 kg) physical education and sports university students participated in this study. The subjects were tested at TRX angles (0, 15, 30, 45°) during the TRX push-ups. Force data were recorded by a force platform and load cells integrated into the TRX straps. The results show that as the TRX angle was reduced, the load applied to the TRX straps increased and simultaneously the load measured by the force platform decreased. This was true for both the elbow joint changing from flexion to extension and vice versa. When the TRX angle was set at 0° and subjects' elbows were at extension during TRX push-up, 50.4% of the subjects' body weight, and when the elbows were at flexion, 75.3% of the body weight was registered by the sensors on the TRX straps. The results of this study can be used in the calculation of the training load and volume (resistance training programming) during TRX push-up exercises at varying angles.

  10. Effects of the stages of change model-based education and motivational interview on exercise behavior in diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerci, Yasemin Gümüs; Kitis, Yeter

    2018-05-08

    In this study, we examined the effects of exercise education and a motivational interview program, based on the stages of change model (SCM), on stage of change, using cognitive and behavioral methods, perceived benefits and barriers and self-confidence in Turkish women with diabetes. This intervention study was carried out in 2015 on 55 women selected from a family health centers' population. An exercise guide was prepared based on the SCM for the intervention group. The intervention group was followed seven times at 1-month intervals via home visits, and exercise education and the motivational interview program were conducted to identify changes in behavior. The control group received no intervention. Data were collected from both groups using a personal description form, Exercise Stages of Change Scale, Exercise Processes of Change Scale, Exercise Decisional Balance Scale, and Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. After the exercise program, each group was re-subjected to the same scales. We used a chi-square test and independent and paired sample t-tests to analyze the data. The stages of change, using cognitive and behavioral methods, perceived benefits and self-confidence for exercise in the intervention group significantly improved compared with that in the control group (p interview program based on SCM positively affected stages of change, using cognitive and behavioral methods, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-confidence for exercise behavior in women with diabetes. We conclude that the education and motivational interview program based on SCM are effective in promoting exercise habit.

  11. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  12. Effects of Uric Acid on Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    平井, 富弘

    2001-01-01

    We studied effects of uric acid on exercise― induced oxidative stress in humans based on a hypothesis that uric acid acts as an antioxidant to prevent from exercise―induced oxidative stress. Relation between uric acid level in plasma and increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)after the cycle ergometer exercise was examined. Thiobarbituricacid reactive substance in plasma increased after the ergometer exercise. High uric acid in plasma did not result in low increase of TBARS...

  13. Effects of caffeinated chewing gum on muscle pain during submaximal isometric exercise in individuals with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Masataka; Kempka, Laura; Weatherby, Amy; Greenlee, Brennan; Mansion, Kimberly

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity is important to manage symptom of fibromyalgia (FM); however, individuals with FM typically experience augmented muscle pain during exercise. This study examined the effects of caffeinated chewing gum on exercise-induced muscle pain in individuals with FM. This study was conducted with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Twenty-three patients with FM completed a caffeine condition where they consumed a caffeinated chewing gum that contains 100mg of caffeine, and a placebo condition where they consumed a non-caffeinated chewing gum. They completed isometric handgrip exercise at 25% of their maximal strength for 3 min, and muscle pain rating (MPR) was recorded every 30s during exercise. Clinical pain severity was assessed in each condition using a pain questionnaire. The order of the two conditions was randomly determined. MPR increased during exercise, but caffeinated chewing gum did not attenuate the increase in MPR compared to placebo gum. Clinical pain severity was generally associated with the average MPR and the caffeine effects on MPR, calculated as difference in the average MPR between the two conditions. The results suggest that more symptomatic individuals with FM may experience greater exercise-induced muscle pain, but benefit more from caffeinated chewing gum to reduce exercise-induced muscle pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Exercise on ADMA Level in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengur Taşkıran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in symmetric (SDMA and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on ADMA and SDMA levels and related ratios in type 2 DM.Material and Methods: Thirty-six women with type 2 DM and 44 healthy women were recruited to the study. Fourteen and 19 subjects, respectively, attended four-weeks of moderate intensity exercise. Plasma SDMA, ADMA, and L-arginine levels were measured by the HPLC method initially, after the first exercise session, and after one month. Results: All measurements were within the normal range in both groups and did not change significantly immediately after exercise and after the first month. In the healthy group, L-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA ratios after one month were significantly higher than the initial values (p<0.022 and p=0.017, respectively. After one month of exercise, L-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA ratios increased in diabetics and decreased in healthy subjects when compared to those after the first exercise session (p=0.026 and p=0.037, respectively. Conclusion: We suggest that L-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA ratios should be used in spite of absolute values. These molecules have a substantial role in the beneficial effects of exercise in healthy subjects while their role is small in diabetics.

  15. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabi Shamsaei; Mehdi Khaksari; Sohaila Erfani; Hamid Rajabi; Nahid Aboutaleb

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral isch-emic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction th rough occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic ex-ercise signiifcantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration.

  16. The Effects of Maximal Intensity Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children

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    Samuel Roy David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High intensity physical exercise has previously been found to lead to a decline in cognitive performance of adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal intensity exercise on cognitive performance of children. Using a repeated-measures design, 20 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years completed a battery of tests measuring memory and attention. Forward and Backward Digit Span tests, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST were performed at baseline, immediately after, and one hour after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Forward and Backward Digit Span scores significantly improved post-recovery compared with baseline measurements. There was a significant decrease in RAVLT scores post-exercise, which returned to baseline values after recovery. The DSST test scores were mildly elevated from post-exercise to after recovery. Maximal intensity exercise in children and adolescents may result in both beneficial and detrimental cognitive effects, including transient impairment in verbal learning. Cognitive functions applying short term memory improve following a recovery period. Parents, educators and coaches should consider these changes in memory and attention following high-intensity exercise activities in children.

  17. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

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    Ahmet Mor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lactate levels were measured at baseline (PRE at immediately after the HIIT (POST, at the 1 minutes after HIIT (1min, at the 5 minutes after HIIT (5min, and at the 10 minutes after HIIT (10min. On the rest days, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and serum creatine kinase (CK  measurements were done to determine the muscle damage. Results: The in-group comparisons for lactate levels showed no significant difference (p>0,01. The level of lactate on the 10min was found to be significantly lower than the 5min in the core exercise group (p0,01. These results show that the lactate level reaches to the maximum level after HIIT, and the level of lactate decreases between the 5th and the 10th minutes. Discussion and conclusion: These indicate that the active recovery methods are more effective than the passive. It was found that the active recovery methods accelerate the lactate removal from the metabolism and provide effective recovery in short time during the recovery period after exercise.

  18. Gender and developmental differences in exercise beliefs among youth and prediction of their exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A W; Broda, M A; Frenn, M; Coviak, C; Pender, N J; Ronis, D L

    1995-08-01

    This study examined gender and developmental differences in exercise-related beliefs and exercise behaviors of 286 racially diverse youth and explored factors predictive of exercise. Compared to males, females reported less prior and current exercise, lower self-esteem, poorer health status, and lower exercise self-schema. Adolescents, in contrast to pre-adolescents, reported less social support for exercise and fewer exercise role models. In a path model, gender, the benefits/barriers differential, and access to exercise facilities and programs directly predicted exercise. Effects of grade, perceived health status, exercise self-efficacy, social support for exercise, and social norms for exercise on exercise behavior, were mediated through the benefits/barriers differential. Effect of race on exercise was mediated by access to exercise facilities and programs. Continued exploration of gender and developmental differences in variables influencing physical activity can yield valuable information for tailoring exercise promotion interventions to the unique needs of youth.

  19. Effects of reading health and appearance exercise magazine articles on perceptions of attractiveness and reasons for exercise.

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    Melanie Pankratow

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of reading exercise-related magazine articles (health, appearance, or control and the moderating effects of exercise self-identity on reasons for exercise and perceptions of attractiveness, among women in first year university. An additional purpose was to use a thought listing technique, the results of which were examined for evidence of internalization of the exercise-related messages. PARTICIPANTS: Female students in their first year of studies between September 2010 and April 2011 (N = 173; mean age = 19.31 years, mean body mass index = 22.01. METHODS: Participants read a health, appearance, or control article, listed thoughts, and completed questionnaires measuring reasons for exercising, physical self-perception, and exercise self-identity. RESULTS: Participants in the health condition rated exercise for health significantly higher than control condition participants. Participants with high exercise self-identity rated attractiveness as a reason for exercising significantly higher than low exercise self-identity participants in both the health and appearance conditions. Participants with higher internalization scores (i.e., accepted societal norms of appearance reported exercising for attractiveness reasons more so than participants with lower internalization scores. CONCLUSIONS: The good news is that health messages may be influential and result in wanting to exercise for health purposes. However, exercising for attractiveness was rated highly by participants with high exercise identity who read either the health or appearance articles. Health and appearance are not necessarily distinct concepts for female undergraduate students and the media may influence cited reasons for exercise.

  20. Efficacy and safety of statins and exercise combination therapy compared to statin monotherapy in patients with dyslipidaemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ya-Jun; Liao, Cai-Xiu; Liu, Qiong; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Tao; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Ya-Ting; Hu, Jia-Hui; Xu, Dan-Yan

    2017-06-01

    Background Statin treatment in association with physical exercise can substantially reduce mortality in dyslipidaemic individuals. However, the available data to compare the efficacy and safety of statins and exercise combination therapy with statin monotherapy are limited. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library from database inception until December 2016. We included randomised and non-randomised studies that compared the efficacy and safety of statins and exercise combination therapy with statin monotherapy in patients with dyslipidaemia. Standardised mean differences were calculated and pooled by means of fixed effects models. The risk of bias and heterogeneity among trials was also assessed. Seven articles were assessed in terms of the efficacy of therapy and 13 from the viewpoint of therapeutic safety. Results In terms of efficacy, statins and exercise combination decreased the incidence of diabetes mellitus, improved insulin sensitivity and inflammation, but caused no change in lipid profile compared to statins alone. In terms of safety, statins and exercise combination increased peak oxygen uptake (standardised mean difference 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 1.57) compared to statins alone. In contrast to statin-induced myopathy, chronic exercise training prior to statin treatment could counteract statin-induced adverse effects in skeletal muscle. Conclusion Statins and exercise combination therapy is more effective than statin monotherapy in terms of insulin sensitivity, inflammation and exercise capacity. The small number of studies warrants the need for more randomised controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of combination therapy.

  1. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

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    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  2. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  3. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  4. The effects of rest interval length manipulation of the first upper-body resistance exercise in sequence on acute performance of subsequent exercises in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Chiarello, Christina M; Sacco, Anthony J; Hoffman, Jay R; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ross, Ryan E; Kang, Jie

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of manipulating rest interval (RI) length of the first upper-body exercise in sequence on subsequent resistance exercise performance. Twenty-two men and women with at least 1 year of resistance training experience performed resistance exercise protocols on 3 occasions in random order. Each protocol consisted of performing 4 barbell upper-body exercises in the same sequence (bench press, incline bench press, shoulder press, and bent-over row) for 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Bench press RIs were 1, 2, or 3 minutes, whereas other exercises were performed with a standard 2-minute rest interval. The number of repetitions completed, average power, and velocity for each set of each exercise were recorded. Gender differences were observed during the bench press and incline press as women performed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more repetitions than men during all RIs. The magnitude of decline in velocity and power over 3 sets of the bench press and incline press was significantly higher in men than women. Manipulation of RI length during the bench press did not affect performance of the remaining exercises in men. However, significantly more repetitions were performed by women during the first set of the incline press using 3-minute rest interval than 1-minute rest interval. In men and women, performance of the incline press and shoulder press was compromised compared with baseline performances. Manipulation of RI length of the first exercise affected performance of only the first set of 1 subsequent exercise in women. All RIs led to comparable levels of fatigue in men, indicating that reductions in load are necessary for subsequent exercises performed in sequence that stress similar agonist muscle groups when 10 repetitions are desired.

  5. The effects of sex, metabolic syndrome and exercise on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Sharp, Teresa A; Stotz, Sarah A; Bessesen, Daniel H; Pagliassotti, Michael J; Horton, Tracy J

    2013-02-01

    Exercise has been suggested to have cardioprotective benefits due to a lowering of postprandial triglycerides (PPTG). We hypothesized that a morning exercise bout would significantly lower PPTG measured over a full day, in response to moderate fat meals (35% energy) in men more so than women, and in metabolic syndrome (MetS) relative to normal weight (NW) individuals. Participants completed two randomized study days; one control and one exercise day (60 min of morning exercise, 60% VO(2peak)). Meals were consumed at breakfast, lunch and dinner with the energy expended during exercise replaced on the active day. The areas (AUC) and incremental areas (IAUC) under the curve were calculated for total triglycerides, total cholesterol and other metabolites. Exercise did not significantly change the PPTG AUC & IAUC overall, or within, or between, each sex or group (NW and MetS). Exercise induced a 30% decrease in total cholesterol IAUC (p=0.003) in NW subjects. Overall, women had a lower IAUC for PPTG compared to men (p=0.037), with the greatest difference between MetS women and MetS men, due to a sustained drop in TG after lunch in the women. This suggests that PP, rather than fasting, lipid analyses may be particularly important when evaluating sex differences in metabolic risk. With energy replacement, moderate morning exercise did not result in a significant decrease in PPTG excursions. Exercise did elicit a significant decrease in PP cholesterol levels in NW subjects, suggesting a potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of exercise training compared to caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert H; Williams, Rick H; Yeo, Sophie E; Kortebein, Patrick M; Bodenner, Don L; Kern, Philip A; Evans, William J

    2009-11-01

    It has been difficult to distinguish the independent effects of caloric restriction versus exercise training on insulin resistance. Utilizing metabolic feeding and supervised exercise training, we examined the influence of caloric restriction vs. exercise training with and without weight loss on hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance. Thirty-four obese, older subjects were randomized to: caloric restriction with weight loss (CR), exercise training with weight loss (EWL), exercise training without weight loss (EX), or controls. Based on an equivalent caloric deficit in EWL and CR, we induced matched weight loss. Subjects in the EX group received caloric compensation. Combined with [6,6(2)H(2)]glucose, an octreotide, glucagon, multistage insulin infusion was performed to determine suppression of glucose production (SGP) and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (ISGD). Computed tomography scans were performed to assess changes in fat distribution. Body weight decreased similarly in EWL and CR, and did not change in EX and controls. The reduction in visceral fat was significantly greater in EWL (-71 +/- 15 cm(2)) compared to CR and EX. The increase in SGP was also almost 3-fold greater (27 +/- 2%) in EWL. EWL and CR promoted similar improvements in ISGD [+2.5 +/- 0.4 and 2.4 +/- 0.9 mg x kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1) x min(-1)], respectively. EWL promoted the most significant reduction in visceral fat and the greatest improvement in SGP. Equivalent increases in ISGD were noted in EWL and CR, whereas EX provided a modest improvement. Based on our results, EWL promoted the optimal intervention-based changes in body fat distribution and systemic insulin resistance.

  7. Immediate Effects of Smoking on Cardiorespiratory Responses During Dynamic Exercise: Arm Versus Leg Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Liang eChen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. Methods: This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent 2 sets of arm-cranking (AC and leg-cycling (LC exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 hours before testing and the experimental trial (participants smoked 2 cigarettes were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs, respectively, until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and the time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE]. The main effects of the time and the trial, as well as their interaction effects on outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA.Results: Five minutes after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P < .05, in addition to elevated resting heart rates (P < .001. The high-frequency, low-frequency, and the total power of the heart rate variability were also reduced (P < .05 at rest. For the exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = .005 and the ventilatory threshold (P < .05 in the LC tests, whereas there were no significant effects in the AC tests. A trend analysis revealed a significant (P < .001 trial-by-time interaction effect for heart rate, VO2, and VE during the graded exercise test. Lower VO2 and VE levels were exhibited in the exercise response of the smoking trial than in that of the control LC trials, whereas there was no discernable inter-trial difference in the AC trials. Moreover, the differences in heart rate

  8. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of moderate and heavy endurance exercise on nocturnal HRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, E; Vesterinen, V; Rusko, H; Nummela, A

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effects of endurance exercise on nocturnal autonomic modulation. Nocturnal R-R intervals were collected after a rest day, after a moderate endurance exercise and after a marathon run in ten healthy, physically active men. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed as a continuous four-hour period starting 30 min after going to bed for sleep. In relation to average nocturnal heart rate after rest day, increases to 109+/-6% and 130+/-11% of baseline were found after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Standard deviation of R-R intervals decreased to 90+/-9% and 64+/-10%, root-mean-square of differences between adjacent R-R intervals to 87+/-10% and 55+/-16%, and high frequency power to 77+/-19% and 34+/-19% of baseline after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Also nocturnal low frequency power decreased to 56+/-26% of baseline after the marathon. Changes in nocturnal heart rate and HRV suggest prolonged dose-response effects on autonomic modulation after exercises, which may give useful information on the extent of exercise-induced nocturnal autonomic modulation and disturbance to the homeostasis.

  10. The effectiveness of structured exercise in the south Asian population with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Hani; Coulter, Elaine; Ghouri, Nazim; Paul, Lorna

    2017-11-01

    The impact of exercise interventions on south Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), who have a higher T2DM incidence rate compared to other ethnic groups, is inconclusive. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of exercise interventions in south Asians with T2DM. Five electronic databases were searched up to April 2017 for controlled trials investigating the impact of exercise interventions on south Asian adults with T2DM. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Eighteen trials examining the effect of aerobic, resistance, balance or combined exercise programs met the eligibility criteria. All types of exercise were associated with improvements in glycemic control, blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, muscle strength, functional mobility, quality of life or neuropathy progression. The majority of included studies were of poor methodological quality. Few studies compared different types or dose of exercise. In conclusion, this review supports the benefits of exercise for south Asians with T2DM, although it was not possible to identify the most effective exercise prescription. Further studies of good methodological quality are required to determine the most effective dosage and type of exercise to manage T2DM in this population.

  11. Comparison of effects of a proprioceptive exercise program in water and on land the balance of chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seul Ki; Kim, Myung Chul; An, Chang Sik

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in balance ability of land exercise and underwater exercise on chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 60 patients received exercise for 40 minutes, three times a week, for 6 weeks. [Methods] Subjects from both groups performed general conventional treatment during the experimental period. In addition, all subjects engaged in extra treatment sessions. This extra treatment consisted of unstable surface exercise. The underwater exercise group used wonder boards in a pool (depth 1.1m, water temperature 33.5 °C, air temperature 27 °C) dedicated to underwater exercise, and the land exercise group used balance mats. [Result] The joint position sense, sway area, Berg Balance Scale showed significant improvements in both groups. However, the joint position sense test, sway area, and Berg Balance Scale showed there was more improvement in the underwater exercise group than in the land exercise group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that underwater exercise is more effective than land exercise at improving the joint position sense and balance of stroke patients.

  12. The Effect of Rast Exercise on Plasma Levels of Apelin and Blood Pressure in Elite Women Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaibani Sh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intense exercise increases heart susceptibility to the disorder in this physiological factor.The purpose of this study is to study the effect of sprint interval training on plasma levels of apelin, blood pressure and heart rate in elite female runner. Methods: Plasma levels of apelin, Heart rate (HR & blood pressure (BP, analyzed before, after and 24 hours after exercise. 15 elite female runner, whom were playing in Shiraz track & field league, selected for this study. They all were homogenized according to any kind of disease.Results: Rast exercise made plasma level of Apelin decrease after exercise compared with plasma level before exercise and this decrease was significant (p=0.001. Also, plasma level of apelin increased significantly 24 hrs after finishing exercise (p=0.001, but there were no significant differences before exercise (p=0.375. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased immediately after exercise and decreased significantly after 24 hrs (p=0.001. However, significant difference was not observed in diastolic pressure before and after exercise (p=0.338.Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that sprint interval training decreases plasma levels of apelin, so we can say that apelin and blood pressure must be in balance in natural position. With knowing the role of apelin, changes in this peptide during exercise can be an alarm to cardiovascular risk factor, during or after exercise in elite athletes.

  13. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  14. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  15. Metabolomics approach for analyzing the effects of exercise in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brugnara

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D are not fully proven, given that it may occasionally induce acute metabolic disturbances. Indeed, the metabolic disturbances associated with sustained exercise may lead to worsening control unless great care is taken to adjust carbohydrate intake and insulin dosage. In this work, pre- and post-exercise metabolites were analyzed using a (1H-NMR and GC-MS untargeted metabolomics approach assayed in serum. We studied ten men with T1D and eleven controls matched for age, body mass index, body fat composition, and cardiorespiratory capacity, participated in the study. The participants performed 30 minutes of exercise on a cycle-ergometer at 80% VO(2max. In response to exercise, both groups had increased concentrations of gluconeogenic precursors (alanine and lactate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (citrate, malate, fumarate and succinate. The T1D group, however, showed attenuation in the response of these metabolites to exercise. Conversely to T1D, the control group also presented increases in α-ketoglutarate, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, and lipolysis products (glycerol and oleic and linoleic acids, as well as a reduction in branched chain amino acids (valine and leucine determinations. The T1D patients presented a blunted metabolic response to acute exercise as compared to controls. This attenuated response may interfere in the healthy performance or fitness of T1D patients, something that further studies should elucidate.

  16. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin B O'Hara

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN, specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17 and healthy controls (HC, n = 15 were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN.

  17. Amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone in the treatment of chronic migraine: a randomized comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dias Santos Santiago

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To compare the preventive treatment benefits of amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone in patients with chronic migraine. Method Sixty patients, both genders, aged between 18 and 50 years, with a diagnosis of chronic migraine, were randomized in groups called amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone. The following parameters were evaluated: headache frequency, intensity and duration of headache, days of the analgesic medication use, body mass index (BMI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores. Results In the evaluated parameters, was observed decrease in headache frequency (p=0.001, moderate intensity (p=0.048, in headache duration (p=0.001, the body mass index (p=0.001, Beck Depression Inventory (p=0.001 and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (p=0.001, when groups were compared in the end of third month. Conclusion In this study, the amitriptyline was an effective treatment for chronic migraine, but its efficacy was increased when combined with aerobic exercise.

  18. Effects of exercise conditioning on thermoregulatory responses to repeated administration of chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowsey, Pamela Johnson; Metzger, Bonnie L.; Arlson, John; Gordon, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    little is known about the effects of physical activity (i.e., exercise training) on susceptibility to environmental toxicants. Chloropyrifos (CHP), an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, affects thermoregulation, causing a cute period of hypothermia followed by a delayed fever. Since exercise conditioning alters the thermo regulatory responses of rodents, this study examined whether exercise training would alter the thermo regulatory response to repeated CHP administration in the female Sprague-Dawley rat. Core temperature (T c ) and motor activity (MA) were monitored by radio telemetry in rats housed at an ambient temperature (T a ) of 22 deg. C. The rats either were provided with continuous access to running wheels (exercise group) or were housed in standard cages without wheels (sedentary group). The exercise group rats ran predominately at night with an average of 7.6 km/24 h. After 8 weeks the rats in both groups were garaged daily with corn oil or 10 mg/kg HP (dissolved in corn oil) for 4 days. CHP induced an immediate hypothermic response followed by a delayed fever throughout the next day in the sedentary group rats after the first three doses of CHP. The exercise group rats showed no hypothermia after the first dose of CHP. However, they became hypothermic after the second and third doses of CHP. The exercise group rats developed a smaller daytime fever after each dose of CHP compared to the sedentary group rats. Overall, exercise training attenuated the hypothermic and febrile effects of repeated CHP. Thus, the data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may increase the sensitivity to OP insecticides. Exercise training was also associated with a more rapid recovery of plasma cholinesterase activity

  19. Immediate effects of different types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwi S; Kim, Daeho; Park, Jihong

    2018-01-01

    Since different types of stretching exercises may alter athletic performance, we compared the effects of three types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash. Sixteen male collegiate badminton players performed one of three different stretching exercises in a counterbalanced order on different days. Static stretching had seven typical stretches, while dynamic stretching involved nine dynamic movements, and resistance dynamic stretching was performed with weighted vests and dumbbells. Before and after each stretching exercise, subjects performed 20 trials of jump smashes. Dependent measurements were the jump heights during jump smashes, velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks, and drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks. To test the effects of each stretching exercise, we performed mixed model ANOVAs and calculated between-time effect sizes (ES). Each stretching exercise improved the jump heights during jump smashes (type main effect: F(2,75)=1.19, P=0.31; static stretching: 22.1%, Pjump-smashed shuttlecocks (type main effect: F(2,75)=2.18, P=0.12; static stretching: 5.7%, P=0.61, ES=0.39; dynamic stretching: 3.4%, P=0.94, ES=0.28; resistance dynamic stretching: 6%, P=0.50, ES=0.66). However, there were no differences among the stretching exercises for any measurement. The drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks did not change (interaction: F(2,75)=0.88, P=0.42). All stretching exercises improved badminton jump smash performance, but we could not determine the best protocol. Since badminton requires high-speed movement and explosive force, we suggest performing dynamic stretching or resistance dynamic stretching.

  20. Effect of Dance Exercise on Cognitive Function in Elderly Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key points Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music. In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word

  1. Effect of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-Hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key pointsMetabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment.Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music.In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list

  2. Beneficial effects of protein hydrolysates in exercise and sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Jiang, B; Li, K; Shen, W; Tang, J L

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PH) are rich sources of proteins that supply the need of exercising muscles. PHs are enriched in di- and tripeptides and are better than free amino acids or intact proteins when muscle anabolic effect is considered. Digestion, absorption and muscle uptake of amino acids are faster and more efficient when PH is ingested in comparison to the respective intact protein. PHs not only enhance endurance in high intensity exercise regimen, but also help in faster post-exercise recovery of muscle by promoting glycogen synthesis, although the latter effect requires more convincing evidence. PHs have been shown to exhibit insulinotrophic effect as it enhances the secretion of insulin and the hormone, in turn, exerts muscle anabolic effect.

  3. COMPARISON OF THE SHAKE WEIGHT® MODALITY EXERCISES WHEN COMPARED TO TRADITIONAL DUMBBELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Glenn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals are continuously looking for faster, more efficient methods with which to develop physical fitness. This has led to the development of products and programs marketed towards increasing physical fitness in minimal time. The Shake Weight® (SW has been advertised to increase muscular strength among other factors in less time than traditional weightlifting. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG muscle activity of the SW to a traditional dumbbell (DB performing the same exercises. Twelve men (22.9 ± 1.6 years and 13 women (23.0 ± 1.9 years volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects performed the chest shake (CS, biceps shake (BS, and triceps shake (TS using the SW and DW. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC were exhibited for all muscles. EMG activity was recorded for the pectoralis major (PM, triceps brachii (TB, biceps brachii (BB, anterior deltoid (AD, trapezius (TR, and rectus abdominus (RA and compared to detect differences between modalities. EMG activity for each muscle group was reported as a percentage of each subject's individual MVIC. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the SW and DB modalities during each exercise for all muscles except the BB (p < 0.05. During the CS exercise muscle activity was significantly greater for DB in the BB muscle when compared to the SW mode (50.8 ± 28.9%; 35.8 ± 30.8%. The SW did not have any advantage over the DB for any exercise, nor for any muscle group. Further, no muscle group during any of the SW trials exhibited an MVIC over 60%, the level necessary to increase muscular strength

  4. Effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on pain in healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence and consequences of musculoskeletal pain is considerable among healthcare workers, allegedly due to high physical work demands of healthcare work. Previous investigations have shown promising results of physical exercise for relieving pain among different occupational......, physical exercise performed during working hours at the workplace may be costly for the employers in terms of time spend. Thus, it seems relevant to compare the efficacy of workplace- versus home-based training on musculoskeletal pain. This study is intended to investigate the effect of workplace...... to increase adherence and avoid contamination between interventions. Two hundred healthcare workers from 18 departments located at three different hospitals is allocated to 10 weeks of 1) workplace based physical exercise performed during working hours (using kettlebells, elastic bands and exercise balls...

  5. Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns-does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M; Hawk, Victoria H; Henes, Sarah T; Ocampo, Christine I; Orenduff, Melissa C; Slentz, Cris A; Johnson, Johanna L; Houmard, Joseph A; Samsa, Gregory P; Kraus, William E; Bales, Connie W

    2012-07-01

    The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Subjects were participants in the STRRIDE I, a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or 1 of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids, and fiber as compared with the 2006 American Heart Association diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol size, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol size, and triglycerides (P diet pattern that closely adhered to American Heart Association recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise and Your Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  8. Effects of an acute bout of exercise on memory in 6th grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, Jennifer; Labban, Jeffrey D; Piepmeier, Aaron; Davis, Matthew E; Henning, David A

    2014-08-01

    Research supports the positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance by children. However, a limited number of studies have explored the effects specifically on memory. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an acute bout of exercise on learning, short-term memory, and long-term memory in a sample of children. Children were randomly assigned to an exercise condition or to a no-treatment control condition and then performed repeated trials on an auditory verbal learning task. In the exercise condition, participants performed the PACER task, an aerobic fitness assessment, in their physical education class before performing the memory task. In the control condition, participants performed the memory task at the beginning of their physical education class. Results showed that participants in the exercise condition demonstrated significantly better learning of the word lists and significantly better recall of the words after a brief delay. There were not significant differences in recognition of the words after an approximately 24-hr delay. These results provide evidence in a school setting that an acute bout of exercise provides benefits for verbal learning and long-term memory. Future research should be designed to identify the extent to which these findings translate to academic measures.

  9. Dose-Response Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; McNeil, Jessica; O'Reilly, Rachel; Morielli, Andria R; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2017-06-01

    Exercise generally improves quality of life (QoL) and psychosocial functioning in adult populations but few randomized trials have examined dose-response effects. The purpose of the present study was to report the QoL and psychosocial outcomes from the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA). Healthy but inactive postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer were randomized to a year-long aerobic exercise intervention consisting of either 150 min/week (moderate volume group, n = 200) or 300 min/week (high volume group, n = 200). QoL was assessed at baseline and 1 year using the short form-36 health survey. Sleep quality, depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and happiness were also assessed. Participant preference for group assignment (i.e., exercise volume) was assessed at baseline and tested as a moderator. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on any QoL, sleep quality, or psychosocial outcome. Participant preference for group assignment did not moderate any QoL, sleep quality, or psychosocial responses. Marital status was a significant moderator (p for interaction = 0.01) and obesity showed a trend towards being a moderator (p for interaction = 0.08) of the dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on global sleep quality such that unmarried and obese women improved sleep quality with the higher volume of aerobic exercise. A higher volume of aerobic exercise, approximately double the minimum public health guideline, did not provide additional QoL or psychosocial benefits compared to the minimum public health guideline in inactive postmenopausal women, even for women who preferred the higher volume of exercise at baseline. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT1435005.

  10. A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuhany, Kristin L; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three exercise paradigms: (1) a single session of exercise, (2) a session of exercise following a program of regular exercise, and (3) resting BDNF levels following a program of regular exercise. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Results demonstrated a moderate effect size for increases in BDNF following a single session of exercise (Hedges' g = 0.46, p exercise intensified the effect of a session of exercise on BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.59, p = 0.02). Finally, results indicated a small effect of regular exercise on resting BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.27, p = 0.005). When analyzing results across paradigms, sex significantly moderated the effect of exercise on BDNF levels, such that studies with more women showed less BDNF change resulting from exercise. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans, but indicates that the magnitude of these effects may be lower in females relative to males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  12. Effects of exercise training on cardiovascular adrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Femminella, Grazia D; Formisano, Roberto; Petraglia, Laura; Allocca, Elena; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2013-11-28

    In heart failure (HF), exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/catecholamine (CA) production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50% of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  13. COSA II Further benchmark exercises to compare geomechanical computer codes for salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.J.S.; Knowles, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    Project COSA (COmputer COdes COmparison for SAlt) was a benchmarking exercise involving the numerical modelling of the geomechanical behaviour of heated rock salt. Its main objective was to assess the current European capability to predict the geomechanical behaviour of salt, in the context of the disposal of heat-producing radioactive waste in salt formations. Twelve organisations participated in the exercise in which their solutions to a number of benchmark problems were compared. The project was organised in two distinct phases: The first, from 1984-1986, concentrated on the verification of the computer codes. The second, from 1986-1988 progressed to validation, using three in-situ experiments at the Asse research facility in West Germany as a basis for comparison. This document reports the activities of the second phase of the project and presents the results, assessments and conclusions

  14. The Effects Combining Cryocompression Therapy following an Acute Bout of Resistance Exercise on Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. DuPont, Brek J. Meuris, Vincent H. Hardesty, Emily C. Barnhart, Landon H. Tompkins, Morricia J.P. Golden, Clayton J. Usher, Paul A. Spence, Lydia K. Caldwell, Emily M. Post, Matthew K. Beeler, William J. Kraemer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Compression and cold therapy used separately have shown to reduce negative effects of tissue damage. The combining compression and cold therapy (cryocompression as a single recovery modality has yet to be fully examined. To examine the effects of cryocompression on recovery following a bout of heavy resistance exercise, recreationally resistance trained men (n =16 were recruited, matched, and randomly assigned to either a cryocompression group (CRC or control group (CON. Testing was performed before and then immediately after exercise, 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours after a heavy resistance exercise workout (barbell back squats for 4 sets of 6 reps at 80% 1RM, 90 sec rest between sets, stiff legged deadlifts for 4 sets of 8 reps at 1.0 X body mass with 60 sec rest between sets, 4 sets of 10 eccentric Nordic hamstring curls, 45 sec rest between sets. The CRC group used the CRC system for 20-mins of cryocompression treatment immediately after exercise, 24 hours, and 48 hours after exercise. CON sat quietly for 20-mins at the same time points. Muscle damage [creatine kinase], soreness (visual analog scale, 0-100, pain (McGill Pain Q, 0-5, fatigue, sleep quality, and jump power were significantly (p < 0.05 improved for CRC compared to CON at 24 and 48 hours after exercise. Pain was also significantly lower for CRC compared to CON at 60-mins post exercise. These findings show that cryocompression can enhance recovery and performance following a heavy resistance exercise workout.

  15. The Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Antioxidant Status in the Hearts of the Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by low secretion or resistance to the insulin action. Oxidative stress, as a result of imbalance between the free radical production and antioxidant defense systems is strongly related to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of experimental diabetes and forced treadmill exercise on oxidative stress indexes in heart tissue.Materials & Methods: 40 male wistar rats (20020g were divided into four groups(n=10: control, control with exercise, diabetic, diabetic with exercise. Diabetes was induced by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p. Treadmill was performed for 1 hour, 5 days in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p and left ventricle dissociate from heart and maintenance in -80 ºC. Supernatant from homogenization were used to determine the superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX, gluthatione reductase (GR and catalase (CAT activities as enzymatic antioxidant status. Also Maolnyldealdehyde (MDA level as index of lipid peroxidation and total glutathione (T.GSH of the heart tissue were measured.Results: Diabetes significantly reduced CAT and GR activities in diabetic rats compared with control rats. SOD and GPX activities weren't changed in the hearts of the diabetic rats. MDA level, as a lipid peroxidation index, increased in non exercised diabetic rats. In response to exercise, MDA level, CAT, GR and SOD activities showed a significant increase in exercise diabetic rats compared with non exercise diabetic rats.Conclusion: Forced treadmill with moderate severity has harmful effects on cardiovascular system in diabetes because it increases MDA level of heart tissue in exercised diabetic rats.

  16. The effect of exercise therapy on knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Parisa; Farzinmehr, Azizeh; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disease among old individuals which affects ability for sitting on the chair, standing, walking and climbing stairs. Our objective was to investigate the short and long-term effects of the most simple and the least expensive exercise protocols in combination to conventional conservative therapy for knee OA. Methods: It was a single blind RCT study with a 12-months follow-up. Totally, 56 patients with knee OA were assigned into 2 random groups. The patients in exercise group received exercise for knee muscles in combination with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 10 sessions acupuncture and physiotherapy modalities. Non-exercise group received similar treatments except exercise program. The changes in patients’ pain and functional status were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), knee and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) questionnaire and functional tests (4 steps, 5 sit up, and 6 min walk test) before and after treatment (1 and 3 months after intervention), and 1 year later at the follow-up. Results: The results showed that the patients with knee OA in exercise group had significant improvement in pain, disability, walking, stair climbing, and sit up speed after treatment at first and second follow-up when compared with their initial status and when compared with non-exercise group. At third follow up (1 year later) there was significant difference between groups in VAS and in three items of KOOS questionnaire in functional status. Conclusion: Non aerobic exercises for muscles around knee can augment the effect of other therapeutic interventions like medical therapy, acupuncture, and modalities for knee OA. PMID:26034739

  17. Progressive high-load strength training compared with general low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Kim G; Christensen, Robin; Sørensen, Lilli

    2015-01-01

    of this trial is to compare the efficacy of progressive high-load exercises with traditional low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Methods/Design: The current study is a randomised, participant- and assessor-blinded, controlled multicentre trial. A total of 260 patients with rotator...... cuff tendinopathy will be recruited from three outpatient shoulder departments in Denmark, and randomised to either 12 weeks of progressive high-load strength training or to general low-load exercises. Patients will receive six individually guided exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and perform...

  18. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-06-07

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise.

  19. Effects of exercise on the desire to smoke and physiological responses to temporary smoking abstinence: a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vaughan; Gant, Nicholas; Sollers, John J; Bullen, Chris; Jiang, Yannan; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    Exercise has been shown to attenuate cigarette cravings during temporary smoking abstinence; however, the mechanisms of action are not clearly understood. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of three exercise intensities on desire to smoke and explore potential neurobiological mediators of desire to smoke. Following overnight abstinence, 40 participants (25 males, 18-59 years) completed three 15 min sessions of light-, moderate-, or vigorous-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer in a randomized crossover design. Ratings of desire to smoke were self-reported pre- and post-exercise and heart rate variability was measured throughout. Saliva and blood were analyzed for cortisol and noradrenaline in a sub-sample. Exercise influenced desire to smoke (F [2, 91] = 7.94, p exercise. There were also significant time x exercise intensity interaction effects for heart rate variability and plasma noradrenaline (F [8, 72] = 2.23, p = 0.03), with a bias in noradrenaline occurring between light and vigorous conditions (adjusted mean difference [SE] = 2850 ng/ml [592], p exercise. There was no interaction of time x exercise intensity for plasma and salivary cortisol levels. These findings support the use of vigorous exercise to reduce cigarette cravings, showing potential alterations in a noradrenergic marker.

  20. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Armstrong

    Full Text Available Increased left ventricular (LV twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT: 32-69% of [Formula: see text]O2peak were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii at 2% above IAT, and, iii at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP. LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05. However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05. Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results.

  1. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, V˙O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT): 32–69% of V˙O2peak) were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i) the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii) at 2% above IAT, and, iii) at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP). LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05). However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05). Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees) of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results. PMID:27100099

  2. Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Stavres, Jon; Fennell, Curtis; Draper, Shane; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-07-01

    An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12.5% O2), and during cycling exercise at 60% and 40% Vo2max in hypoxia. RMCPT was not significantly impaired at 30 (100.3 ± 17.2) and 60 (96.6 ± 17.3) min rest in hypoxia compared to baseline in normoxia (97.0 ± 17.0). However, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (106.7 ± 20.8) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia. Following 30 (-89.4 ± 48.3) and 60 min of exposure to hypoxia (-79.8 ± 55.9) at rest, TMD was impaired compared with baseline (-107.1 ± 46.2). TMD was significantly improved during exercise (-108.5 ± 42.7) at 40% Vo2max compared with 30 min rest in hypoxia. Also, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (104.0 ± 19.1) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia (96.6 ± 17.3). Hypoxia and an acute bout of exercise partially influence RMCPT and TMD. Furthermore, a moderate-intensity bout of exercise (60%) may be a more potent stimulant for improving cognitive function than low-intensity (40%) exercise. The present data should be considered by aeromedical personnel performing cognitive tasks in hypoxia.Seo Y, Gerhart HD, Stavres J, Fennell C, Draper S, Glickman EL. Normobaric hypoxia and submaximal exercise effects on running memory and mood state in women. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):627-632.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL KETOSIS IN MAN. ’COLD KETOSIS’ COMPARED WITH POST-EXERCISE KETOSIS AND NUTRITIONAL KETOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was designed to answer three questions: (1) Does repetition of a ketosis following a 10 mile walk cause adaptive responses; (2...Does repeated exposure to cold result in a diminished ketotic response; (3) Do women show a post-exercise ketosis like men. Protocols for the three...exercise ketosis similar to that shown by men, despite much individual variability. Prolonged moderate exercise, exposure to cold and starvation all produce similar metabolic effects. (Author)

  4. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  5. Effects of a Behavioral Program on Exercise Adherence and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Azliyana; Kuan, Chua Siew

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts) and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE) in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8 ± 4.5 years) were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2) EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3) control group (CG) did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2) = 39.884, P exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons. PMID:24489539

  6. Effects of ambient particulate matter on aerobic exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Wintertime thermal inversions in narrow mountain valleys create a ceiling effect, increasing concentration of small particulate matter (PM2.5. Despite potential health risks, many people continue to exercise outdoors in thermal inversions. This study measured the effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure associated with a typical thermal inversion on exercise performance, pulmonary function, and biological markers of inflammation. Methods: Healthy, active adults (5 males, 11 females performed two cycle ergometer time trials outdoors in a counterbalanced design: 1 low ambient PM2.5 concentrations ( .05 for PM2.5 concentration and the measured variables. Conclusion: An acute bout of vigorous exercise during an AQI of “yellow” did not diminish exercise performance in healthy adults, nor did it have a negative effect on pulmonary function or biological health markers. These variables might not be sensitive to small changes from acute, mild PM2.5 exposure. Keywords: Air pollution, Cycle ergometry, Pulmonary function, Time trial, Vigorous exercise

  7. effects of aerobic exercise in the management of erectile dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... database. The citation lists of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training and Erectile ... It has been recognized that the major cause of ED is .... Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 21, No. 3. November 2011. Table 2: Effect of exercise on erectile dysfunction (mean± SD changed score values), N= 385.

  8. Effects of an exercise programme with people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of an exercise programme with people living with HIV: research in a disadvantaged setting. Clemens Ley, Lloyd Leach, María Rato Barrio, Susan Bassett. Abstract. This study aimed to analyse the physical health effects of a community based 10-week physical activity programme with people living with HIV.

  9. Exercise effects on mood in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each symptom can contribute to ... and emotional side-effects experienced by cancer patients include stress, fear of ... the role of psychological factors in cancer survival and emphasises ... Current treatments for anxiety and depression in cancer patients ... evidence that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on.

  10. Effects of Swimming and Cycling Exercise Intervention on Vascular Function in Patients With Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkatan, Mohammed; Machin, Daniel R; Baker, Jeffrey R; Akkari, Amanda S; Park, Wonil; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Swimming exercise is an ideal and excellent form of exercise for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is no scientific evidence that regular swimming reduces vascular dysfunction and inflammation and elicits similar benefits compared with land-based exercises such as cycling in terms of reducing vascular dysfunction and inflammation in patients with OA. Forty-eight middle-aged and older patients with OA were randomly assigned to swimming or cycling training groups. Cycling training was included as a non-weight-bearing land-based comparison group. After 12 weeks of supervised exercise training, central arterial stiffness, as determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and carotid artery stiffness, through simultaneous ultrasound and applanation tonometry, decreased significantly after both swimming and cycling training. Vascular endothelial function, as determined by brachial flow-mediated dilation, increased significantly after swimming but not after cycling training. Both swimming and cycling interventions reduced interleukin-6 levels, whereas no changes were observed in other inflammatory markers. In conclusion, these results indicate that regular swimming exercise can exert similar or even superior effects on vascular function and inflammatory markers compared with land-based cycling exercise in patients with OA who often has an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Short-term Forced Exercise on Naloxone Induced Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine Addicted Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Saadipour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Opioid dependence has been causing limitation in usage of morphine and other opioid drugs in pain control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of short-term forced exercise on withdrawal syndrome in morphine addicted male rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done in the physiology research center of Ahwas Jondishapour University of Medical Sciences. Twenty four young male Wistar rats, weighing 200-300gr, were randomly divided into four groups: no addiction and no exercise, no addiction and exercise, addiction and no exercise and addiction and exercise. The exercise groups underwent treadmill forced exercise for ten days. The first five days morphine was administrated (ip twice daily with increasing dose (5، 10، 20، 40, 50 mg/kg to addicted groups. Also single dose (50mg/kg of morphine was administrated to them on the 10th day of exercise. After administration of naloxone hydrochloride the withdrawal symptoms were evaluated for 5 minutes. The findings of this study were analyzed by SPSS software and One- way ANOVA (Tukey test. Results: The findings of this study showed that the withdrawal symptoms was elevated in exercise and addicted groups in comparison with control group (p<0.05 , p<0.01. However, most of withdrawal symptoms decreased in addicted and exercise group in comparison with addicted and no exercise group (p<0.01, p<0.001. Conclusion: The exercise could increase endogenous opioid and withdrawal symptoms in animals but reduce withdrawal symptoms in addicted and exercise groups compared to addicted and no exercise group. Its mechanism might be related to down regulation and low sensitivity of opioid receptors

  12. The clinical and sonographic effects of kinesiotaping and exercise in comparison with manual therapy and exercise for patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: a preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Derya Ozer; Baltaci, Gul; Toprak, Ugur; Atay, Ahmet Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of manual therapy with exercise to kinesiotaping with exercise for patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Randomized clinical before and after trial was used. Fifty-four patients diagnosed as having subacromial impingement syndrome who were referred for outpatient treatment were included. Eligible patients (between 30 and 60 years old, with unilateral shoulder pain) were randomly allocated to 2 study groups: kinesiotaping with exercise (n = 28) or manual therapy with exercise (n = 26). In addition, patients were advised to use cold packs 5 times per day to control for pain. Visual analog scale for pain, Disability of Arm and Shoulder Questionnaire for function, and diagnostic ultrasound assessment for supraspinatus tendon thickness were used as main outcome measures. Assessments were applied at the baseline and after completing 6 weeks of related interventions. At the baseline, there was no difference between the 2 group characteristics (P > .05). There were significant differences in both groups before and after treatment in terms of pain decrease and improvement of Disability of Arm and Shoulder Questionnaire scores (P .05). The only difference between the groups was at night pain, resulting in favor of the kinesiotaping with exercise group (P kinesiotaping with exercise and manual therapy with exercise. Both treatments may have similar results in reducing pain and disability in subacromial impingement in 6 weeks. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the effects of message framing, kernel state, and exercise guideline adherence on exercise intentions and resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Out, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-11-01

    To study the effects of framed messages on exercise intention and resolve. Two (type of frame: gain or loss) × 2 (type of kernel state: desirable or undesirable outcome) post-test study. Participants were recruited online and questioned about their previous exercise behaviour and their exercise risk perception. After this, they were randomly allocated to one of four messages that were different in terms of positive or negative outcomes (type of frame) and in terms of attained or avoided outcomes (type of kernel state). After reading the message, participants indicated their intention and resolve to engage in sufficient exercise. No effects were found for intention. For resolve, there was a significant interaction between type of frame, type of kernel state, and exercise adherence. Those who did not adhere to the exercise guideline and read the loss-framed message with attained outcomes reported significantly higher resolve than all other participants. This study indicates the relevance of including attained outcomes in message framing exercise interventions as well as a focus on exercise resolve. What is already known on this subject? Message framing is commonly used to increase exercise intentions and behaviour. Meta-analyses do not provide consistent support for this theory. Very little attention has been paid to resolve and message factors on framing effects. What does this study add? Framed messages have an effect on exercise resolve, but not on intention. Loss-framed messages with attained outcomes are most persuasive for those who do not adhere to exercise guidelines. Exercise framing studies should include behavioural resolve next to intention. . © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. The effects of therapeutic hip exercise with abdominal core activation on recruitment of the hip muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mandy Ky; Chow, Ka Wai; Lai, Alfred Ys; Mak, Noble Kc; Sze, Jason Ch; Tsang, Sharon Mh

    2017-07-21

    Core stabilization has been utilized for rehabilitation and prevention of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies showed that activation of the abdominal core muscles enhanced the hip muscle activity in hip extension and abduction exercises. However, the lack of the direct measurement and quantification of the activation level of the abdominal core muscles during the execution of the hip exercises affect the level of evidence to substantiate the proposed application of core exercises to promote training and rehabilitation outcome of the hip region. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of abdominal core activation, which is monitored directly by surface electromyography (EMG), on hip muscle activation while performing different hip exercises, and to explore whether participant characteristics such as gender, physical activity level and contractile properties of muscles, which is assessed by tensiomyography (TMG), have confounding effect to the activation of hip muscles in enhanced core condition. Surface EMG of bilateral internal obliques (IO), upper gluteus maximus (UGMax), lower gluteus maximus (LGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and biceps femoris (BF) of dominant leg was recorded in 20 young healthy subjects while performing 3 hip exercises: Clam, side-lying hip abduction (HABD), and prone hip extension (PHE) in 2 conditions: natural core activation (NC) and enhanced core activation (CO). EMG signals normalized to percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) were compared between two core conditions with the threshold of the enhanced abdominal core condition defined as >20%MVIC of IO. Enhanced abdominal core activation has significantly promoted the activation level of GMed in all phases of clam exercise (P recruitment in Clam, HABD and PHE exercises, and this enhancement is correlated with higher physical activity and stiffer hip muscle. Our results suggest the potential application of abdominal core activation for

  15. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal VLDL-TG metabolism in women. Eleven healthy women (age = 23.5 ± 2.7 yr, body mass index = 21.6 ± 1.4 kg·m-2; mean ± SD) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: (i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123 ± 18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06 ± 0.39 MJ, ∼500 kcal), (ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10 ± 0.41 MJ, and (iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was approximately 30% lower after the exercise trial compared with the control trial (P restriction trial (P = 0.297 vs control). Relative to the control condition, exercise increased the plasma clearance rate of VLDL-TG by 22% (P = 0.001) and reduced hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate by approximately 17% (P = 0.042), whereas hypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P > 0.2). (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction.

  16. Running to well-being: A comparative study on the impact of exercise on the physical and mental health of law and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of p-Synephrine and Caffeine Ingestion on Substrate Oxidation during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge; Del Coso, Juan

    2018-04-27

    Caffeine and p-synephrine are substances usually included in commercially-available products for weight loss because of their purported thermogenic effects. However, scientific information is lacking about the effects of combining these substances on substrate oxidation during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the isolated and combined effects of p-synephrine and caffeine on fat oxidation rate during exercise. In a double-blind randomized experiment, 13 healthy subjects participated in 4 experimental trials after the ingestion of a capsule containing either a placebo, 3 mg·kg of caffeine, 3 mg·kg of p-synephrine, or the combination of these doses of caffeine and p-synephrine. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry during a cycle ergometer ramp test from 30 to 90% of VO2max. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine, p-synephrine, or p-synephrine+caffeine did not alter total energy expenditure or heart rate during the whole exercise test. However, the ingestion of caffeine (0.44 ± 0.15 g·min, P = 0.03), p-synephrine (0.43 ± 0.19 g·min, P < 0.01), and p-synephrine+caffeine (0.45 ± 0.15 g·min, P = 0.02) increased the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared to the placebo (0.30 ± 0.12 g·min). The exercise intensity that elicited maximal fat oxidation was similar in all trials (~46.2 ± 10.2% of VO2max). Caffeine, p-synephrine and p-synephrine+caffeine increased the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise compared to a placebo, without modifying energy expenditure or heart rate. However, the co-ingestion of p-synephrine and caffeine did not present an additive effect to further increase fat oxidation during exercise.

  18. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  19. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  20. Effect of BCAA supplement timing on exercise-induced muscle soreness and damage: a pilot placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Kojima, Ryo; Komine, Shoichi; Ishikura, Keisuke; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Honda, Akira; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2017-09-22

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation taken before or after exercise on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Fifteen young men (aged 21.5 ± 0.4 years) were given either BCAA (9.6 g·day-1) or placebo before and after exercise (and for 3 days prior to and following the exercise day) in three independent groups: the Control group (placebo before and after exercise), the PRE group (BCAA before exercise and placebo after exercise), and the POST group (placebo before exercise and BCAA after exercise). Participants performed 30 repetitions of eccentric exercise with the non-dominant arm. DOMS, upper arm circumference (CIR), elbow range of motion (ROM), serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aldolase, BCAA, and Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were measured immediately before and after the exercise and on the following 4 days. Serum BCAA and 3HMB concentrations increased significantly in the PRE group immediately after the exercise, recovering to baseline over the following days. In the days following the exercise day, DOMS, CIR, and ROM were significantly improved in the PRE group compared to the Control group, with weaker effects in the POST group. Serum activities of CK, LDH, and aldolase in the days following the exercise day were significantly suppressed in the PRE group compared to Control group. Present study confirmed that repeated BCAA supplementation before exercise had a more beneficial effect in attenuating DOMS and EIMD induced by eccentric exercise than repeated supplementation after exercise.

  1. THE EFFECT OF FUN ATHLETICS EXERCISES ON PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fun athletics exercises on the psychomotor development. The research group consisted of 9 boys and 27 girls with a total of 36 students between 11-14 ages in Kocaeli. In the study, the fun athletics exercises (featured somersault, obstacles to jump, slip under the barrier, slalom, training ladder, double jump, medicine ball handling applied for 90 minutes a day and 3 days a week over 8 weeks. The data was analyzed with Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test and significance level was determined as α=0.05. According to findings of this study significant differences were found between pre and post tests results. As a result this study showed that fun athletic exercises have a positive effect on 11-14 aged children’s psychomotor development.

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yating; Xu, Danyan

    2017-07-05

    Dyslipidemia is the risk of cardiovascular disease, and their relationship is clear. Lowering serum cholesterol can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. At present, the main treatment is taking medicine, however, drug treatment has its limitations. Exercise not only has a positive effect on individuals with dyslipidemia, but can also help improve lipids profile. This review is intending to provide information on the effects of exercise training on both tranditional lipids, for example, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and new lipids and lipoproteins such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and postprandial lipoprotein. The mechanisms of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins are also briefly described.

  3. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and during exercise. Comparative sensitivity to electrocardiography in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, I.K.; Griffith, L.S.C.; Rouleau, J.; Strauss, H.W.; Pitt, B.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using thallium-201 injected both at rest and during peak exercise was compared to simultaneously recorded 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG) for the detection of transient ischemia in 20 normal subjects and 63 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). No significant perfusion defects or ECG changes were seen on either the rest or exercise studies in any of the normal subjects. Fifty-six percent of patients with CAD developed new perfusion defects with exercise compared to 38 percent who developed ischemic ST-segment depression (P < 0.02). However, when chest pain and/or ST depression were considered indices of ischemia, the sensitivity of exercise testing and thallium-201 MPI was similar. The increased sensitivity of MPI compared to ST-segment depression on the ECG was due to patients with baseline ECG abnormalities and those who failed to achieve 85 percent of predicted maximum heart rate with exercise. Analysis of the exercise results according to the extent of coronary artery disease revealed a progressive increase in both positive ECGs and MPI with the number of vessels involved. In patients with single vessel disease the MPI was more sensitive than the ECG (P < 0.02). The combination of the rest and exercise ECG, MPI and chest pain during exercise failed to identify 11 percent of patients with CAD. Exercise thallium-201 MPI is a useful adjunct to conventional exercise testing particularly when evaluating patients with abnormal resting ECGs, those who develop ventricular conduction defects or arrhythmias during exercise, and those who fail to achieve their predicted heart rate because of fatigue or breathlessness

  4. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF REGULAR EXERCISING IN ELDERLY WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Novak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to evaluate the long-term effects of regular physical activity for elderly women (over 65 years old on their functional physical fitness. At the beginning, 32 women (69.68 ± 3.83 years were included into an exercise (experimental group and 32 women (70.75 ± 3.67 years into a control group, who were not included into active exercise. The exercise took place at the Rudolf Maister School Centre in Kamnik and lasted for five years. It was performed intensively twice a week for 60 minutes from October 2006 to June 2007 and once a week for 60 minutes from October 2007 to June 2011. The Fullerton test battery was used to measure motor skills related to strength, power, flexibility, balance, endurance, speed and coordination. The first set of measurements for the members of the exercise group was taken in October 2006, the second after 6 months of exercise in July 2007 and the third in July 2011, including 20 women from the same exercise group who were still actively participating after four years. The measurements for the control group were only performed in October 2006 and July 2011, when 17 women from the same control group had their measurements taken again. The results of the Fullerton test battery showed a significant (p < 0.05 improvement in all tests after half a year of adapted exercise; additionally, significant (p < 0.05 progress was also noted in most tests following 4.5 years of exercising. Moreover, the exercise group, in comparison with the control group, also performed significantly (p < 0.001 better in most of the tests. Exercise can have a significant impact on the improvement of the motor skills of the elderly, which may result in the independent performance of all basic hygiene tasks as well as dressing, household and domestic work, shopping and other tasks related to freedom of movement, expansion of living space and an independent and autonomous life without the assistance of others.

  5. [Effects of exercise and physical activity on vital age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kiyoji; Matsuo, Tomoaki

    2009-07-01

    Advances in medical care have enabled many middle-aged and older adults to live for long periods of time. However, considerable variability is present among those people with regards to both longevity and physical health status. Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, while exercise habituation is beneficial for the maintenance of good health and high vitality. The authors have developed the concept of so-called vital age for the assessment of health and functional status in middle-aged and older adults. The vital age is estimated using a variety of bio-medical, primarily cardiovascular risk factor parameters. Previous research has compared vital age between sedentary persons and those with obesity and chronic diseases and between sedentary persons and those with exercise habituation, and found that exercise habituation can certainly contribute to better physical vitality in previously sedentary persons as well as diseased persons.

  6. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of diet and exercise on plasma metabolilte and hormone concentrations in horses measured before and after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Blache, D.; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2017-01-01

    :00), and plasma samples were analysed for relevant metabolites and hormones. Plasma leptin concentrations increased after exercise but were not affected by diet, whereas diet and exercise had no effect on the plasma concentrations of ghrelin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Furthermore, diet influenced......Exercise influences different endocrine and metabolic parameters, and information in the literature is sparse for some of these hormones and metabolites in the exercising horse. The aim of the present experiment was to study the metabolic response to exercise when feeding diets with varying...... carbohydrate composition (fibre and starch) under experimental conditions where diet and exercise were standardised and controlled. The response was investigated in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment using four Norwegian Coldblooded trotter horses. The dietary treatments were two fibre based diets, hay only...

  8. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P < 0.05). OB presented higher apnoea-hypopnoea index than HW (P < 0.05). Physical activity (average daily metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]) by accelerometer was lower in OB (P < 0.05). After exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P < 0.05). Improved sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enoch C.Chow; Jennifer L.Etnier

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g.,music,video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise,but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity.The purpose of this study was to assess attentional focus and RPE during high-intensity exercise as a function of being exposed to music,video,both (music and video),or a no-treatment control condition.Methods:During the first session,healthy men (n =15) completed a maximal fitness test to determine the workload necessary for high-intensity exercise (operationalized as 125% ventilatory threshold) to be performed during subsequent sessions.On 4 subsequent days,they completed 20 min of high-intensity exercise in a no-treatment control condition or while listening to music,watching a video,or both.Attentional focus,RPE,heart rate,and distance covered were measured every 4 min during the exercise.Results:Music and video in combination resulted in significantly lower RPE across time (partial η2 =0.36) and the size of the effect increased over time (partial η2 =0.14).Additionally,music and video in combination resulted in a significantly more dissociative focus than the other conditions (partial η2 =0.29).Conclusion:Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation.Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  10. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise Performed in the Morning and Evening on Inflammatory Cytokine and Metabolic Hormone Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ki Kim

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of endurance exercise performed in the morning and evening on inflammatory cytokine responses in young men.Fourteen healthy male participants aged 24.3 ± 0.8 years (mean ± standard error performed endurance exercise in the morning (0900-1000 h on one day and then in the evening (1700-1800 h on another day with an interval of at least 1 week between each trial. In both the morning and evening trials, the participants walked for 60 minutes at approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected to determine hormones and inflammatory cytokines at pre-exercise, immediately post exercise, and 2 h post exercise.Plasma interleukin (IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher immediately after exercise in the evening trial than in the morning trial (P < 0.01, both. Serum free fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in the evening trial than in the morning trial at 2 h after exercise (P < 0.05. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of IL-6 immediately post-exercise and free fatty acids 2 h post-exercise in the evening (r = 0.68, P < 0.01.These findings suggest that the effect of acute endurance exercise in the evening enhances the plasma IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations compared to that in the morning. In addition, IL-6 was involved in increasing free fatty acids, suggesting that the evening is more effective for exercise-induced lipolysis compared with the morning.

  11. Balance, dizziness and proprioception in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders complaining of dizziness: A prospective randomized study comparing three exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleaven, Julia; Peterson, Gunnel; Ludvigsson, Maria Landén; Kammerlind, Ann-Sofi; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-04-01

    Dizziness and unsteadiness are common symptoms following a whiplash injury. To compare the effect of 3 exercise programs on balance, dizziness, proprioception and pain in patients with chronic whiplash complaining of dizziness. A sub-analysis of a randomized study. One hundred and forty subjects were randomized to either a physiotherapist-guided neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-guided neck-specific exercise, with a behavioural approach (NSEB) or prescription of general physical activity (PPA) group. Pre intervention, 3, 6 and 12 months post baseline they completed the University of California Los Angeles Dizziness Questionnaire (UCLA-DQ), Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for, dizziness at rest and during activity and physical measures (static and dynamic clinical balance tests and head repositioning accuracy (HRA)). There were significant time by group differences with respect to dizziness during activity and UCLA-Q favouring the physiotherapy led neck specific exercise group with a behavioural approach. Within group analysis of changes over time also revealed significant changes in most variables apart from static balance. Between and within group comparisons suggest that physiotherapist led neck exercise groups including a behavioural approach had advantages in improving measures of dizziness compared with the general physical activity group, although many still complained of dizziness and balance impairment. Future studies should consider exercises specifically designed to address balance, dizziness and cervical proprioception in those with persistent whiplash. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Diabeates Project: Perceptual, Affective and Psychophysiological Effects of Music and Music-Video in a Clinical Exercise Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jasmin C; Karageorghis, Costas I; Black, Jessica D

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music and music-video on perceptual (attentional focus, rated perceived exertion), affective (affective valence and enjoyment) and psychophysiological (blood glucose, heart rate) variables in outpatients attending a diabetes exercise clinic. Participants were 24 females (age = 66.0 ± 8.5 years) enrolled in a supervised exercise program for people with diabetes. They engaged in mixed-modality exercise sessions that included a standardized combination of flexibility, aerobic and resistance activities under conditions of music, music-video and control. Analyses revealed a main effect of condition on attentional focus and affect during aerobic exercise only. The music-video condition elicited the highest level of attentional dissociation, while affective valence was more positive in the 2 experimental conditions when compared to control. Rated perceived exertion and heart rate did not differ across conditions. Measures of exercise enjoyment indicated a main effect of condition wherein scores were higher with the music-video condition when compared to control. There was an acute glucose-lowering effect of exercise in all conditions. Results lend support to the notion that auditory and visual stimuli can enhance affective responses to exercise in a clinical setting. This may have meaningful implications for adherence, given the link between affective judgements and future behaviour in an exercise context. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of anthocyanins from aronia melanocarpa on the exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Frankiewicz-Jóźko

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the extract from fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (AM, containing the anthocyanin antioxidants on the lipid peroxidation index (TBARS and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH in rat tissues at rest and after exercising until exhaustion on a treadmill. For four consecutive days the animals were given AM through a gastric probe at 0.7 mg• kg-1 body mass (related to the content of the active substance. Control rats received 0.9% NaCl solution. Samples of the liver (L, heart (H, and white (WG and red (RG portions of the gastrocnemius muscle were collected from the animals at rest and immediately after the exercise. No effect of AM on TBARS was detected in the resting animals. The exercise, however, led to the significant elevation of the value of this index (P<0.05 in each of the tested tissues obtained from the control animals, and in the liver and heart of the AM-fed rats. The TBARS content in RG was significantly lower (P<0.05 in the latter compared to the former group of the animals. After administration of AM in rest, the GSH content tended to decrease in the examined tissues. Following the exercise, the significant reduction (P<0.05 in the GSH content was detected in all the tested tissues obtained from the control group. In contrast, no effect of the exercise on the GSH content was found in the AM-fed rats. After exercising, the higher GSH content (P<0.05 in the RG and H as well as the tendency to higher GSH content in WG and L were detected in rats given AM as compared to the control animals. The obtained results suggest that administration of AM markedly mitigates the exercise-induced reduction in the GSH content and elevation of TBARS in the tissues of the investigated animals.

  14. THE EFFECT OF AN INHALED CORTICOSTEROID (BUDESONIDE) ON EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAALKENS, JH; VANESSENZANDVLIET, EEM; GERRITSEN, J; DUIVERMAN, EJ; KERREBIJN, KF; KNOL, K

    The effect of long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroid on exercise-induced asthma (EIA) was studied in 55 children, aged 7-18 yrs (mean 12 yrs). We also compared the time course of stabilization of EIA to that of other indicators of airway responsiveness, such as peak expiratory flow (PEF)

  15. Cost-effectiveness of a graded exercise therapy program for patients with chronic shoulder complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, J.J.; Goossens, M.E.J.B.; Bruijn, C.P. de; Groot, I.J.M. de; Koke, A.J.; Pelt, R.A.; Heijden, G. van der; Dinant, G.J.; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a behavioral graded exercise therapy (GET) program compared with usual care (UC) in terms of the performance of daily activities by patients with chronic shoulder complaints in primary care. METHODS: A total of 176 patients were

  16. Effects of nordic walking and exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Christensen, Robin; Christiansen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Both Nordic walking and Exercise on Prescription have potential as elements in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These programs are recommended, but their effectiveness has not yet been established. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of these 2 interventions compared with standard...

  17. EFFECTS OF AQUA-AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS AND WEIGHT LOSS AMONG OBESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Hossein Abadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence revealed that aquatic exercises are safer than land-based exercises and it allows increased movement amplitude and energy expenditure for obese, middle-aged, or elderly people, it is important to ascertain the physiological effects of aqua aerobic exercise on health among the obese students. This study aimed to determine the effects of aqua aerobics exercise on cardiovascular fitness (VO2max and resting HR and weight loss (weight, BMI, and WHR among obese students. Methods: Fifty healthy obese college students (22.28±1.83 years with minimum BMI value of 28 kg.m-², voluntarily took part in this study. They have been divided randomly into an exercising group (n=25 and BMI=33.11±5.32kg.m-2 and control group (n=25 and BMI=33.64±3.12kg.m-2. The exercising group participated in an aqua aerobic exercise at 60-75% of maximum HR for 60 minutes, three times per week for 12 weeks. The changes (by pre and post-test in weight, WHR, resting HR and VO2max were measured for both groups via In Body Scan 370, Polar heart rate monitor and Bleep test, respectively. Results: There was a significant (p≤0.001 improved in weight loss (-8.78±3.61kg, and the changes of BMI (-3.24±1.1kg.m-2, WHR (-0.056±0.035, resting HR (-1.48±1.004 bmp, and VO2max (4.43±2.51 ml.kg-1. min-1 in the exercising group, compared to the control group. The results indicate that the aqua aerobic exercise is an effective way to enhance cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among obese students. Conclusion: Aqua aerobic exercise as a favorable exercise environment for the obese can be advised such a significant intervention strategy for weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular fitness.

  18. Effects of Virtual Reality Training (Exergaming) Compared to Alternative Exercise Training and Passive Control on Standing Balance and Functional Mobility in Healthy Community-Dwelling Seniors: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Rössler, Roland; Faude, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Balance training is considered an important means to decrease fall rates in seniors. Whether virtual reality training (VRT) might serve as an appropriate treatment strategy to improve neuromuscular fall risk parameters in comparison to alternative balance training programs (AT) is as yet unclear. To examine and classify the effects of VRT on fall-risk relevant balance performance and functional mobility compared to AT and an inactive control condition (CON) in healthy seniors. The literature search was conducted in five databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, SPORTDiscus). The following search terms were used with Boolean conjunction: (exergam* OR exer-gam* OR videogam* OR video-gam* OR video-based OR computer-based OR Wii OR Nintendo OR X-box OR Kinect OR play-station OR playstation OR virtua* realit* OR dance dance revolution) AND (sport* OR train* OR exercis* OR intervent* OR balanc* OR strength OR coordina* OR motor control OR postur* OR power OR physical* OR activit* OR health* OR fall* risk OR prevent*) AND (old* OR elder* OR senior*). Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials applying VRT as interventions focusing on improving standing balance performance (single and double leg stance with closed and open eyes, functional reach test) and functional mobility (Berg balance scale, Timed-up and go test, Tinetti test) in healthy community-dwelling seniors of at least 60 years of age were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality (PEDro scale) were independently assessed by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) served as main outcomes for the comparisons of VRT versus CON and VRT versus AT on balance performance and functional mobility indices. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random effects inverse-variance model. Eighteen trials (mean PEDro score: 6 ± 2) with 619 healthy community dwellers were included. The mean age of participants was 76 ± 5 years. Meaningful effects in favor of VRT

  19. Is exercise effective in promoting mental well-being in older age? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Hughes, Dyfrig; Linck, Pat; Russell, Ian; Woods, Bob

    2010-08-01

    Promoting the mental well-being of older people has been neglected. To examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of exercise and physical activity interventions on mental well-being in people aged 65+. Systematic review, meta-analysis, economic model. Reports published in English, identified by searching 25 databases, 11 websites and references lists of systematic reviews. Eligible studies were those with a comparison or control group or offering qualitative evidence; exercise and physical activity interventions for people aged 65 and above living at home, in the community, in supported housing or in residential care homes; including outcome measures of mental well-being, not simply measures of depression or anxiety. Low-quality studies were excluded from the data synthesis. An overall effect of exercise on mental well-being was found (standardised effect size = 0.27; CI = 0.14-0.40). The included interventions were designed for older people, targeted those who are sedentary and delivered in a community setting, primarily through a group-based approach led by trained leaders. As a minimum, the evidence would suggest two exercise sessions per week, each of 45 min duration. There is some indication that exercise can also improve the mental well-being of frail elders. Economic evidence indicated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (compared with minimal intervention) of pound 7300 and pound 12,100 per quality adjusted life year gained for community-based walking and exercise programmes, respectively. Mental well-being in later life is modifiable through exercise and physical activity. To generalise the findings, there is a need for more evidence of effectiveness from older people in the UK.

  20. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis - treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, E; Roos, Ewa M.; Ageberg, E

    2013-01-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters.......To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters....

  1. Exercise attenuates the metabolic effects of dim light at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-01-30

    Most organisms display circadian rhythms that coordinate complex physiological and behavioral processes to optimize energy acquisition, storage, and expenditure. Disruptions to the circadian system with environmental manipulations such as nighttime light exposure alter metabolic energy homeostasis. Exercise is known to strengthen circadian rhythms and to prevent weight gain. Therefore, we hypothesized providing mice a running wheel for voluntary exercise would buffer against the effects of light at night (LAN) on weight gain. Mice were maintained in either dark (LD) or dim (dLAN) nights and provided either a running wheel or a locked wheel. Mice exposed to dim, rather than dark, nights increased weight gain. Access to a functional running wheel prevented body mass gain in mice exposed to dLAN. Voluntary exercise appeared to limit weight gain independently of rescuing changes to the circadian system caused by dLAN; increases in daytime food intake induced by dLAN were not diminished by increased voluntary exercise. Furthermore, although all of the LD mice displayed a 24h rhythm in wheel running, nearly half (4 out of 9) of the dLAN mice did not display a dominant 24h rhythm in wheel running. These results indicate that voluntary exercise can prevent weight gain induced by dLAN without rescuing circadian rhythm disruptions. © 2013.

  2. Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on DDT degradation and oxidative stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kefeng; Zhu, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhan; Zheng, Shuqian; Dong, Guijun

    2017-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) reportedly causes extensively acute or chronic effects to human health. Exercise can generate positive stress. We evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on DDT degradation and oxidative stress. Main methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control (C), DDT without exercise training (D), and DDT plus exercise training (DE) groups. The rats were treated as follows: DDT exposure to D and DE groups at the first 2 weeks; aerobic exercise trea...

  3. THE EFFECT OF ADDING SPECIFIC HIP STRENGTHENING EXERCISES TO CONVENTIONAL KNEE EXERCISES IN PATIENTS WITH PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Monika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain Syndrome is an over use injury and one of the commonest problems seen in adolescents who are physically active. Till date no study has been done comparing the effect of adding specific hip strengthening exercises (gluteus medius, gluteus maximus & lateral rotators to conventional exercises in patients with Patello femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS while minimizing the effect of minimizing the activation of tensor fascia lata (TFL. Methods: 30 subjects were randomly allocated using convenience random sampling into 2 Groups Group A and Group B with 15 subjects in each group. Readings were taken for Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, Manual Muscle Testing (MMT for hip abductors, extensors and external rotators muscles quadriceps and hamstrings, and Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS on baseline and at the end of 4th week. Results: Analysis of the data collected for NPRS, AKPS and MMT of Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Hip Abductors and Hip External Rotators of 30 subjects was done by statistical analysis tests using STATA and software version 11.2. Although improvement was seen in both the groups but group B improved better compared to group A. Conclusion: Group B treatment protocol i.e. Hip specific strengthening (gluteus medius and gluteus maximus in addition to conventional treatment in patients with patello-femoral pain syndrome, was found to be effective in reducing pain, improving functional status and increasing muscle strength than Group A treatment protocol i.e. Knee strengthening and stretching.

  4. Cytokine Responses to Acute Exercise in Healthy Older Adults: The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T. Windsor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Markers of chronic inflammation increase with aging, and are associated with cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality. Increases in fitness with exercise training have been associated with lower circulating concentrations of cytokines known to have pro-inflammatory actions (such as interleukin-6 [IL-6] and higher circulating concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10 [IL-10]. However, the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on acute cytokine responses to a single bout of exercise in healthy older individuals is unknown. We compared the response of plasma cytokines IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and IL-10 to a bout of moderate-intensity continuous and higher-intensity interval exercise between older individuals with higher and lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Sixteen lower-fit (VO2peak: 22.6±2.8 mL.kg−1.min−1 and fourteen higher-fit participants (VO2peak: 37.4±5.9 mL.kg−1.min−1 completed three 24 min experimental protocols in a randomized order: (1 moderate-intensity continuous exercise (40% of peak power output [PPO]; (2 higher-intensity interval exercise (12 × 1 min intervals at 70% PPO separated by 1 min periods at 10% PPO; or (3 non-exercise control. Plasma cytokines were measured at rest, immediately after, and during 90 min of recovery following exercise or control. Plasma IL-6 concentrations at baseline were greater in the higher-fit compared to the lower-fit group (P = 0.02, with no difference in plasma IL-10 or TNF-α concentrations at baseline between groups. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in both groups increased immediately after all protocols (IL-6: P = 0.02, IL-10: P < 0.01. However, there was no difference in the IL-6 and IL-10 response between the exercise and non-exercise (control protocols. After all protocols, no changes in plasma TNF-α concentrations were observed in either the higher- or lower-fit groups. In this study, basal concentrations of circulating IL-6

  5. The Effect of Pretest Exercise on Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukiewicz, Alec; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Baseline neurocognitive assessment plays a critical role in return-to-play decision making following sport-related concussions. Prior studies have assessed the effect of a variety of modifying factors on neurocognitive baseline test scores. However, relatively little investigation has been conducted regarding the effect of pretest exercise on baseline testing. The aim of our investigation was to determine the effect of pretest exercise on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores in adolescent and young adult athletes. We hypothesized that athletes undergoing self-reported strenuous exercise within 3 hours of baseline testing would perform more poorly on neurocognitive metrics and would report a greater number of symptoms than those who had not completed such exercise. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ImPACT records of 18,245 adolescent and young adult athletes were retrospectively analyzed. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants were dichotomized into groups based on a positive (n = 664) or negative (n = 6609) self-reported history of strenuous exercise within 3 hours of the baseline test. Participants with a positive history of exercise were then randomly matched, based on age, sex, education level, concussion history, and hours of sleep prior to testing, on a 1:2 basis with individuals who had reported no pretest exercise. The baseline ImPACT composite scores of the 2 groups were then compared. Significant differences were observed for the ImPACT composite scores of verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, and impulse control as well as for the total symptom score. No significant between-group difference was detected for the visual motor composite score. Furthermore, pretest exercise was associated with a significant increase in the overall frequency of invalid test results. Our results suggest a statistically significant difference in ImPACT composite scores between

  6. Acute Effect of Various Exercise Intensities on Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Halil Ibrahim; Saygin, Ozcan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of various exercise intensities on coincidence anticipation timing at different stimulus speeds. Fifteen male students who attend to Faculty of Sport Sciences at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, have been dealing with individual or team sports and having licenses for 5 or more years with no…

  7. Effect of physical and flexibility exercise on certain hormones and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) in both sexes. Progesterone levels increased in male participants and decreased in female ... relationship between mental alertness and physical ... used to determine the mean, standard error of mean for ..... Exercise and the Stress System. Hormones ... Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal ...

  8. Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping style on susceptibility to the common cold. GA Struwig, M Papaikonomou, P Kruger. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 369-383. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  9. EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON CYCLE LENGTH IN ATRIAL-FLUTTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, MP; CRIJNS, HJGM; SZABO, BM; BROUWER, J; LIE, KI

    Objective-To examine the effect of exercise on cycle length in atrial flutter. Patients-15 patients with chronic atrial flutter. Seven patients were taking digoxin and six verapamil; two were not taking medication. Methods-All patients underwent bicycle ergometry. Flutter cycle length was measured

  10. Effects of different duration exercise programs in children with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Robert P; Wurzer, Paul; Andersen, Clark R; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2017-06-01

    Burns lead to persistent and detrimental muscle breakdown and weakness. Standard treatment at our institution includes a voluntary 12-week rehabilitative exercise program to limit and reverse the effects of increased muscle catabolism. In the present work, we investigated if different durations of exercise, 6 or 12 weeks, produce comparable improvements in muscle strength, body composition, and cardiopulmonary fitness. We prospectively enrolled and randomized patients with ≥30% total body surface area (TBSA) burned to receive 6 or 12 weeks of exercise rehabilitation. Patients were evaluated for muscle strength, oxygen consumption capacity, and lean body mass at discharge (n=42) and after exercise. After 6 weeks (n=18) or 12 weeks (n=24) of exercise training, leg muscle strength was assessed as peak torque per body weight using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Oxygen consumption capacity, measured as peak VO 2 , was studied using a standard treadmill-based test, and lean body mass was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant improvements in muscle strength, peak VO 2 , and lean body mass were seen after 6 weeks of exercise training (pburn patients. However, continuation of at- or near-home cardiopulmonary training following the 6 weeks of at-hospital rehabilitation may be useful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing the effects of message framing, kernel state, and exercise guideline adherence on exercise intentions and resolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Out, K.; Rhodes, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of framed messages on exercise intention and resolve. Design Two (type of frame: gain or loss) × 2 (type of kernel state: desirable or undesirable outcome) post-test study. Methods Participants were recruited online and questioned about their previous exercise

  12. Effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise on faecal incontinence in rectal cancer patients after stoma closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-H; Yang, H-Y; Hung, S-L; Chen, H-P; Liu, K-W; Chen, T-B; Chi, S-C

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME) on the faecal incontinence (FI) of rectal cancer patients following stoma closure. Participants were randomly distributed into an exercise group (n = 27) and non-exercise group (n = 26). An experimental design and longitudinal approach were implemented for data collection. Baseline data were collected at 1 day before discharge, and then PFME was taught before the patients were discharged from the hospital. We collected data and followed up with the patients at their pre-discharge visit and at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months after discharge. The Cleveland Clinic Faecal Incontinence (CCI) score was used to measure patient outcome. PFME proved to effectively decrease the degree of FI in stoma closure recipients. The FI score of the exercise group significantly decreased from 8.37 to 2.27 after PFME compared with that of the non-exercise group (from 8.54 to 2.58). The generalised estimation equation tests showed that both group and time were significantly different. The tests also indicated that although PFME appeared to hasten the decline of incontinence, this effect was no longer detectable at 9 months; thus, it may be an effective intervention for FI when implemented up to half a year after discharge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of Strength Training Sessions Performed with Different Exercise Orders and Intervals on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sandro; Figueiredo, Tiago; Marques, Silvio; Leite, Thalita; Cardozo, Diogo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of a strength training session performed at different exercise orders and rest intervals on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen trained men performed different upper body exercise sequences [large to small muscle mass (SEQA) and small to large muscle mass (SEQB)] in randomized order with rest intervals between sets and exercises of 40 or 90 seconds. Fifteen repetition maximum loads were tested to control the training intensity and the total volume load. The results showed, significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (SBP) for all sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes; SEQA40 and SEQB40 at 20 minutes and SEQB90 at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), significant reductions were found for three sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 and SEQA40 at 50 and 60 minutes; SEQB40 at 10, 30 and 60 minutes. For HRV, there were significant differences in frequency domain for all sequences compared to baseline. In conclusion, when performing upper body strength training sessions, it is suggested that 90 second rest intervals between sets and exercises promotes a post-exercise hypotensive response in SBP. The 40 second rest interval between sets and exercises was associated with greater cardiac stress, and might be contraindicated when working with individuals that exhibit symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Effect of core stabilization exercises versus conventional exercises on pain and functional status in patients with non-specific low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inani, Sumit B; Selkar, Sohan P

    2013-01-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) results in significant level of disability, producing significant restriction on usual activity such as an inability to work. Nearly two third of the adults are affected by non-specific low back pain at some point in their lives. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of core stabilization exercises in comparison with conventional exercises on pain, functional status in patients with non-specific LBP. Thirty patients diagnosed with non-specific LBP participated with age group between 20-50 years and divided in to 2 groups, one with core stabilization exercises and other conventional exercises, 15 subjects each. Three months study, pre and post treatment outcome measures used were VAS for pain intensity and Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index for functional status (disability). Data were analyzed using student 't' test (paired and unpaired). Whereas both groups improved significantly from the initiation of treatment, a between-group comparison revealed significantly greater (ppain and functional status for experimental group compared to control group. Core stabilization exercises were found to be more effective in reducing pain and improving functional status by decreasing disability of patients with non-specific low back pain in comparison with conventional exercises.

  15. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERPY WITH SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shridhar Thakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose is to find long term effect of Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program in the reduction of pain and improvement of functional ability for subjects with tennis elbow. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with Tennis Elbow randomized 15 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received Supervised Exercise program while Study group received Cyriax Physiotherapy with Supervised exercises program thrice in a week for 4 weeks and post intervention follow up after 2 weeks. Outcome measurements were measured for pain using Visual analogue Scale (VAS and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE for functional ability. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- intervention means of VAS and PRTEE when compared between the groups using independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. When means of post intervention and follow-up measurements were compared there is a statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in VAS and PRTEE scores between the groups. However greater percentage of improvements was obtained in study group than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant long term effect with greater percentage of improvement in pain and functional ability up to 2 weeks follow-up following 4 weeks of combined Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program than only supervised exercise program for subjects with tennis elbow.

  16. The Effectiveness of Mindful Parenting, Social Thinking and Exercise on Quality of Life in ADHD Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Dehkordian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundQuality of life (QOL, is the most important goal of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mindful parenting, social thinking and exercise on quality of life in ADHD children.Materials and MethodsAn experimental design was used. Samples consist of 60 students 8-12 years with the DSM-5 classification ADHD that were engaging in education in 2015-2016 in Abadan, Iran. 60 children according to criteria inclusion were randomly placed in 4 groups: mindful parenting (17 mothers of ADHD children, social thinking (n=15, exercise (n=13, and control group (n=15. Measure tools consist of Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS and Pediatric quality of life (pedQOL questionnaire. Interventions were: mindful parenting (9-session, social thinking (8 sessions and exercise (8-session.ResultsThe results showed significant change in QOL of experimental group compared with the control group (P

  17. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Neuroplasticity within the Motor Cortex following Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Murdoch

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, but the effect of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity following a stroke is unknown.The aim of this study was to compare corticomotoneuronal excitability and neuroplasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of low intensity lower limb cycling, or a rest control condition.We recruited chronic stroke survivors to take part in three experimental conditions in a randomised, cross-over design. Corticomotoneuronal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials in the affected first dorsal interosseus muscle. Following baseline measures, participants either cycled on a stationary bike at a low exercise intensity for 30 minutes, or remained resting in a seated position for 30 minutes. Neuroplasticity within the motor cortex was then examined using an intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS paradigm. During the third experimental condition, participants cycled for the 30 minutes but did not receive any iTBS.Twelve participants completed the study. We found no significant effect of aerobic exercise on corticomotoneuronal excitability when compared to the no exercise condition (P > 0.05 for all group and time comparisons. The use of iTBS did not induce a neuroplastic-like response in the motor cortex with or without the addition of aerobic exercise.Our results suggest that following a stroke, the brain may be less responsive to non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms that aim to induce short-term reorganisation, and aerobic exercise was unable to induce or improve this response.

  18. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Neuroplasticity within the Motor Cortex following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Kate; Buckley, Jonathan D.; McDonnell, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aerobic exercise is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, but the effect of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity following a stroke is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to compare corticomotoneuronal excitability and neuroplasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of low intensity lower limb cycling, or a rest control condition. Methods We recruited chronic stroke survivors to take part in three experimental conditions in a randomised, cross-over design. Corticomotoneuronal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials in the affected first dorsal interosseus muscle. Following baseline measures, participants either cycled on a stationary bike at a low exercise intensity for 30 minutes, or remained resting in a seated position for 30 minutes. Neuroplasticity within the motor cortex was then examined using an intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) paradigm. During the third experimental condition, participants cycled for the 30 minutes but did not receive any iTBS. Results Twelve participants completed the study. We found no significant effect of aerobic exercise on corticomotoneuronal excitability when compared to the no exercise condition (P > 0.05 for all group and time comparisons). The use of iTBS did not induce a neuroplastic-like response in the motor cortex with or without the addition of aerobic exercise. Conclusions Our results suggest that following a stroke, the brain may be less responsive to non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms that aim to induce short-term reorganisation, and aerobic exercise was unable to induce or improve this response. PMID:27018862

  19. Effectiveness of aerobic gymnastic exercise on stress, fatigue, and sleep quality during postpartum: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chiu-Ling; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2018-01-01

    Gymnastics is a preferable safe exercise for postnatal women performing regularly. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to determine whether the aerobic gymnastic exercise improves stress, fatigue, sleep quality and depression in postpartum women. Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial held from December 2014 until September 2015. Postnatal clinic of a medical center in southern Taiwan. 140 eligible postnatal women were systematically assigned, with a random start to experimental (n=70) or a control (n=70) group. Engage in aerobic gymnastic exercise at least three times (15min per section) a week for three months using compact disc in the home. Perceived Stress Scale, Postpartum Fatigue Scale, Postpartum Sleep Quality Scale, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, the aerobic gymnastic exercise group showed significant decrease in fatigue after practicing exercise 4 weeks and the positive effects extended to the 12-week posttests. Paired t-tests revealed that aerobic gymnastic exercise participants had improved significantly in perceived stress and fatigue after 4 weeks gymnastic exercise; these positive effects extended to the 12-week posttests. In addition, the changes in physical symptoms-related sleep inefficiency after 12 weeks gymnastic exercise were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group. The findings can be used to encourage postnatal women to perform moderate-intensity gymnastic exercise in their daily life to reduce their stress, fatigue and improve sleep quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise on bone mineral density in growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ertem

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise (daily for 30 min and 60 min on bone mineral density (BMD in young growing rats. Training consisted of treadmill running at 5 days per week during a period of 13 weeks. The rats in 30 min and 60 min exercise groups began to training on day 63 of life and had maintained for at least a week, with a minimal progression as a guide to the rats’ training and adaptation to the treadmill. Running time was gradually increased from 15 min to 30 and 60 min per session for two exercise groups respectively. Control rats were kept in the cages at the same environmental conditions and daily inspected to control their health. At the end of 13 weeks, bone mineral densities of the bilateral tibia of all rats were measured .with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA (QDR 4500/W, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA and results were evaluated. There were significantly increases in BMD of right and left tibia of rats in 30 min exercise group at post-exercise period (p<0.01 for both sides when compared to the control group. BMD of right and left tibia of rats were also correlated with each other (r=0.556 and p=0.003. Otherwise, there is a positive correlation between pre- and post-exercise body weights of rats (r=0.588 and p=0.002. From our results, we concluded that subjects should perform moderate running exercise for development of bone mass and its protection during the lifelong. However, intensity and duration of performing exercise are required to put in order for every ages or actual physical conditions.

  1. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks.Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350-400 g were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary and CS (cola sedentary, not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001. Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups.This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings emphasize the protective

  2. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS DURING MAXIMUM INCREMENTAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo J. Olcina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine is an habitual substance present in a wide variety of beverages and in chocolate-based foods and it is also used as adjuvant in some drugs. The antioxidant ability of caffeine has been reported in contrast with its pro- oxidant effects derived from its action mechanism such as the systemic release of catecholamines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on exercise oxidative stress, measuring plasma vitamins A, E, C and malonaldehyde (MDA as markers of non enzymatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation respectively. Twenty young males participated in a double blind (caffeine 5mg·kg- 1 body weight or placebo cycling test until exhaustion. In the exercise test, where caffeine was ingested prior to the test, exercise time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate, and oxygen uptake significantly increased, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER decreased. Vitamins A and E decreased with exercise and vitamin C and MDA increased after both the caffeine and placebo tests but, regarding these particular variables, there were no significant differences between the two test conditions. The results obtained support the conclusion that this dose of caffeine enhances the ergospirometric response to cycling and has no effect on lipid peroxidation or on the antioxidant vitamins A, E and C

  3. Comparative Treatment Outcomes of Pre and Post-exercise TENS Application on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajediran I. Bello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of TENS before exercise (TBE and TENS after exercise (TAE in the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA were compared. Methods Fifteen participants with knee OA were alternatively assigned to either TBE or TAE groups. Participants' pain, active knee flexibility, thigh girth, disability, and activity levels were assessed at baseline and at the end of eight-week study. Mixed design two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA at P < 0.05 was used to compare the two groups. Results The mean age of the participants was 58.1 ± 10.9 years. Post-intervention comparison showed that TAE had significantly lower scores (1.9 ± 0.9 than TBE (4.3 ± 1.5 on Disability Index Questionnaire (DIQ ( F -ratio = 10.5; P = 0.006, and significantly lower scores (0.8 ± 0.3 than TBE (1.4 ± 0.6 on Patient Assessment Scale (PAS ( F -ratio = 8.3; P = 0.013. However, both groups did not significantly differ on the selected impairment measures. Conclusion TAE was found to be more effective on the primary outcome measures in patients with knee OA.

  4. The effect of aerobic exercise on self-esteem and depressive and anxiety symptoms among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, M L; Katch, V L; Roth, R S; Garcia, A W; Portner, T I; Glickman, S G; Haslanger, S; Wilkins, E G

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms and self-esteem of breast cancer survivors. Experimental, crossover. Midwestern university town. Twenty-four breast cancer survivors (mean time following surgery 41.8 months; ranging from 1 to 99 months) recruited via mail and cancer support groups. The mean age of the sample was 48.9 years. Subjects were assigned randomly into exercise (EX), exercise-plus-behavior modification (EX + BM), and control groups. EX and EX + BM groups exercised aerobically four days/week at > or = 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 10 weeks. Data were collected pretest, post-test, and crossover (12 weeks following post-test). Because pretest or post-test scores showed no statistical differences between EX and EX + BM groups, data were combined to form one group. Aerobic exercise (four days/ week; 30-40 minutes/session), depression, (Beck Depression inventory), anxiety (Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory). Pre- to post-test analyses revealed that women who exercised had significantly less depression and state and trait anxiety over time compared to controls. After the crossover, the control group demonstrated comparable improvements in both depressive and state anxiety scores. Self-esteem did not change significantly. Subjects who received exercise recommendations from their physicians exercised significantly more than subjects who received no recommendation. Mild to moderate aerobic exercise may be of therapeutic value to breast cancer survivors with respect to depressive and anxiety symptoms but not to self-esteem. A physician's recommendation to exercise appears to be an important factor in a patient's exercise adherence. To Improve depressive and anxiety symptoms following breast cancer surgery, healthcare professionals should consider recommending mild to moderate exercise.

  5. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (T T0.1 ). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. T T0.1 was calculated using the equation, T T0.1 = P 0.1 /P Imax × T I /T tot (where P 0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, P Imax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and T I /T tot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume ( P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency ( P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output ( P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake ( P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, T T0.1 , and rate of perceived

  6. Effects of inducing exercise on growing mice by means of three-dimensional structure in rearing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yu; Ueno, Aki; Nunomura, Yuka; Nakagaki, Kazuhide; Takeda, Shohei; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2016-11-01

    We reared ICR mice during a growth period (3 to 10 weeks of age) and examined the effect of exercise induction, by enriching the rearing environment with obstacles such as ladders, compared to the standard environment. Environmental enrichment significantly increased the amount of exercise in both sexes (Penvironment in growing mice. In addition, we suggest that exercise has beneficial effects on physical growth, sexual maturation and anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, environmental enrichment might be more effective in male than female in group-housed mice.

  7. Effects of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health, and Cognitive and Brain Functions in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimes, Ridson Rosa; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Manochio, João; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Wegner, Mirko; Budde, Henning; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Rocha, Joana; Tavares, João Manuel R S; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Exercise promotes several health benefits, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory improvements. It is believed that the practice of exercise in individuals with psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, can cause significant changes. Schizophrenic patients have problematic lifestyle habits compared with general population; this may cause a high mortality rate, mainly caused by cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical and mental health, cognitive and brain functioning due to the practice of exercise in patients with schizophrenia. Although still little is known about the benefits of exercise on mental health, cognitive and brain functioning of schizophrenic patients, exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial intervention in the control and reduction of disease severity. Type of training, form of execution, duration and intensity need to be better studied as the effects on physical and mental health, cognition and brain activity depend exclusively of interconnected factors, such as the combination of exercise and medication. However, one should understand that exercise is not only an effective nondrug alternative, but also acts as a supporting linking up interventions to promote improvements in process performance optimization. In general, the positive effects on mental health, cognition and brain activity as a result of an exercise program are quite evident. Few studies have been published correlating effects of exercise in patients with schizophrenia, but there is increasing evidence that positive and negative symptoms can be improved. Therefore, it is important that further studies be undertaken to expand the knowledge of physical exercise on mental health in people with schizophrenia, as well as its dose-response and the most effective type of exercise.

  8. The effects of in-flight treadmill exercise on postflight orthostatic tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, Steven F.; Charles, John B.

    1992-01-01

    In-flight aerobic exercise is thought to decrease the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Two deconditioning characteristics are the decreases in aerobic capacity (maximum O2 uptake) and an increased cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress (supine to standing). Changes in both parameters were examined after Shuttle flights of 8 to 11 days in astronauts who performed no in-flight exercise, a lower than normal volume of exercise, and a near-normal volume of exercise. The exercise regimen was a traditional continuous protocol. Maximum O2 uptake was maintained in astronauts who completed a near-normal exercise volume of in-flight exercise. Cardiovascular responses to stand test were equivocal among the groups. The use of the traditional exercise regimen as a means to maintain adequate orthostatic responses produced equivocal responses. A different exercise prescription may be more effective in maintaining both exercise capacity and orthostatic tolerance.

  9. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty...... healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours...... later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral...

  10. Exercise & NSAID: Effect on muscle protein synthesis in knee osteoarthritis patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.G.; Miller, Ben F; Hansen, M

    2011-01-01

    the contralateral leg remained rested. Twenty-four hours after exercise, we determined circulating concentrations of inflammatory parameters and measured FSR of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions of vastus lateralis muscle and patellar tendon collagen protein by the direct incorporation method using...... a flooding dose of 13C/12C-proline.RESULTS:Circulating levels of prostaglandin F2α were lower in the NSAID group compared with the placebo group (P effect of exercise on FSR in muscle myofibrillar (P = 0.003) and sarcoplasmic protein (P = 0.026) but not in tendon...... collagen protein (P = 0.52). No overall significant effect of the drug was seen on either of the tissue protein fractions (P > 0.05) or on the interaction between the drug and exercise on FSR in tendon collagen (P = 0.21), muscle myofibrillar (P = 0.68), or sarcoplasmic protein, FSR (P = 0.16).CONCLUSION...

  11. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  12. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Met...

  13. Effect of different musical tempo on post-exercise recovery in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Mallikarjuna, Reddy N; Rao, Chythra

    2010-01-01

    The role of music in increasing the exercise performance is well recognised. There is very little information about effect of music on time taken for post exercise recovery. We examined the effect of music and different musical tempo on post exercise recovery time, following treadmill work. 30 volunteers (15 male, 15 female) subjected to isotonic exercise (submaximal treadmill work) on three consecutive days. They were allowed to rest in silence on the first day, rest by hearing slow music on second day and rest with fast music on third day. Parameters such as Pulse rate, blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at predetermined intervals. Repeated measures ANOVA test showed that with slow music, recovery time of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (7.9 +/- 2.5), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (5.5 +/- 3.4) pulse rate recovery (PR) (8.0 +/- 2.3) and recovery from exertion (RPE) (7.7 +/- 2.5) were significantly faster when compared to both no music and fast music. The individual music preference made no significant difference in the relaxation time. The study concluded that music hastens post exercise recovery and slow music has greater relaxation effect than fast or no music, recovery time being independent of the gender and individual music preference.

  14. BMP signaling mediates effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T Gobeske

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to exercise or to environmental enrichment increases the generation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and promotes certain kinds of learning and memory. While the precise role of neurogenesis in cognition has been debated intensely, comparatively few studies have addressed the mechanisms linking environmental exposures to cellular and behavioral outcomes. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling mediates the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and cognition in the adult hippocampus. Elective exercise reduces levels of hippocampal BMP signaling before and during its promotion of neurogenesis and learning. Transgenic mice with decreased BMP signaling or wild type mice infused with a BMP inhibitor both exhibit remarkable gains in hippocampal cognitive performance and neurogenesis, mirroring the effects of exercise. Conversely, transgenic mice with increased BMP signaling have diminished hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognition. Exercise exposure does not rescue these deficits, suggesting that reduced BMP signaling is required for environmental effects on neurogenesis and learning. Together, these observations show that BMP signaling is a fundamental mechanism linking environmental exposure with changes in cognitive function and cellular properties in the hippocampus.

  15. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG metabolism in women. Methods Eleven healthy women (age: 23.5±2.7 years, BMI: 21.6±1.4 kg/m2) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123±18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06±0.39 MJ (~500 kcal)), ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10±0.41 MJ, and iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Results Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was ~30% lower after the exercise trial compared to the control trial (Phypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P>0.2). Conclusion (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction. PMID:23073216

  16. Effects of Pressure Support Ventilation May Be Lost at High Exercise Intensities in People with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekwe, David; de Marchie, Michel; Spahija, Jadranka

    2017-06-01

    Pressure support ventilation (PSV) may be used for exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its acute effect on maximum exercise capacity is not fully known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 10 cm H 2 O PSV and a fixed PSV level titrated to patient comfort at rest on maximum exercise workload (WLmax), breathing pattern and metabolic parameters during a symptom-limited incremental bicycle test in individuals with COPD. Eleven individuals with COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second: 49 ± 16%; age: 64 ± 7 years) performed three exercise tests: without a ventilator, with 10 cm H 2 O of PSV and with a fixed level titrated to comfort at rest, using a SERVO-i ventilator. Tests were performed in randomized order and at least 48 hours apart. The WLmax, breathing pattern, metabolic parameters, and mouth pressure (Pmo) were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean PSV during titration was 8.2 ± 4.5 cm H 2 O. There was no difference in the WLmax achieved during the three tests. At rest, PSV increased the tidal volume, minute ventilation, and mean inspiratory flow with a lower end-tidal CO 2 ; this was not sustained at peak exercise. Pmo decreased progressively (decreased unloading) with PSV at workloads close to peak, suggesting the ventilator was unable to keep up with the increased ventilatory demand at high workloads. In conclusion, with a Servo-i ventilator, 10 cm H 2 O of PSV and a fixed level of PSV established by titration to comfort at rest, is ineffective for the purpose of achieving higher exercise workloads as the acute physiological effects may not be sustained at peak exercise.

  17. Effects of low-dye taping on plantar pressure pre and post exercise: an exploratory study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nolan, Damien

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-Dye taping is used for excessive pronation at the subtalar joint of the foot. Previous research has focused on the tape\\'s immediate effect on plantar pressure. Its effectiveness following exercise has not been investigated. Peak plantar pressure distribution provides an indirect representation of subtalar joint kinematics. The objectives of the study were 1) To determine the effects of Low-Dye taping on peak plantar pressure immediately post-application. 2) To determine whether any initial effects are maintained following exercise. METHODS: 12 asymptomatic subjects participated; each being screened for excessive pronation (navicular drop > 10 mm). Plantar pressure data was recorded, using the F-scan, at four intervals during the testing session: un-taped, baseline-taped, post-exercise session 1, and post-exercise session 2. Each exercise session consisted of a 10-minute walk at a normal pace. The foot was divided into 6 regions during data analysis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess regional pressure variations across the four testing conditions. RESULTS: Reduced lateral forefoot peak plantar pressure was the only significant difference immediately post tape application (p = 0.039). This effect was lost after 10 minutes of exercise (p = 0.036). Each exercise session resulted in significantly higher medial forefoot peak pressure compared to un-taped; (p = 0.015) and (p = 0.014) respectively, and baseline-taped; (p = 0.036) and (p = 0.015) respectively. Medial and lateral rearfoot values had also increased after the second session (p = 0.004), following their non-significant reduction at baseline-taped. A trend towards a medial-to-lateral shift in pressure present in the midfoot immediately following tape application was still present after 20 minutes of exercise. CONCLUSION: Low-Dye tape\\'s initial effect of reduced lateral forefoot peak plantar pressure was lost after a 10-minute walk. However, the tape continued

  18. The combined effects of exercise and food intake on adipose tissue and splanchnic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Macdonald, I A

    2004-01-01

    were measured by Fick's Principle. Food intake before exercise reduced whole-body lipid combustion during exercise to about 50% of the combustion rate found during exercise in the fasted state. The increase in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise was not influenced...... by preexercise food intake, while the fatty acid mobilization was increased by only 1.5-fold during postprandial exercise compared to a fourfold increase during exercise in the fasted state. During exercise, catecholamine concentrations increased similarly in the fasted and the postprandial state, while...... for by changes in the regional splanchnic tissue or adipose tissue triacylglycerol metabolism. Exercise was able to increase hepatic glucose production irrespective of food intake before exercise. It is concluded that exercise performed in the fasted state shortly before a meal leads to a more favourable lipid...

  19. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rogerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion. In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007. Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001 but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  20. Quantifying the placebo effect in psychological outcomes of exercise training: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Jacob B; O'Connor, Patrick J; Dishman, Rod K

    2015-05-01

    The placebo effect could account for some or all of the psychological benefits attributed to exercise training. The magnitude of the placebo effect in psychological outcomes of randomized controlled exercise training trials has not been quantified. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the magnitude of the population placebo effect in psychological outcomes from placebo conditions used in exercise training studies and compare it to the observed effect of exercise training. Articles published before 1 July 2013 were located using Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library. To be included in the analysis, studies were required to have (1) a design that randomly assigned participants to exercise training, placebo, and control conditions and (2) an assessment of a subjective (i.e., anxiety, depression, energy, fatigue) or an objective (i.e., cognitive) psychological outcome. Meta-analytic and multi-level modeling techniques were used to analyze effects from nine studies involving 661 participants. Hedges' d effect sizes were calculated, and random effects models were used to estimate the overall magnitude of the placebo and exercise training effects. After adjusting for nesting effects, the placebo mean effect size was 0.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.02, 0.41) and the observed effect of exercise training was 0.37 (95% CI 0.11, 0.63). A small body of research suggests both that (1) the placebo effect is approximately half of the observed psychological benefits of exercise training and (2) there is an urgent need for creative research specifically aimed at better understanding the role of the placebo effect in the mental health consequences of exercise training.

  1. [Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Santiago Tavares; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2015-01-01

    To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. A search was performed in Pubmed/Medline and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies have found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of the effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. Regardless of type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in combating obesity. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  3. The effect of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Hun; Sim, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Myung Hoon; Bang, Ju Hee; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study is designed to compare the effects of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly females aged 65 or older who had complained of low back pain for three months or longer were selected as the subjects. They were randomly and equally assigned to either an abdominal drawing-in group or a myofascial release group. The subjects conducted exercise three times per week, 40 minutes each time, for eight weeks. As evaluation tools, visual analogue scale for pain, remodified schober test for flexibility, and upright posture with eye opening on hard platform, upright posture with eye closing on hard platform, upright posture with eye opening on soft platform, upright posture with eye closing on soft platform using tetrax for balance were used. [Results] The abdominal drawing-in exercise group saw significant difference in pain and balance after the exercise compared to before the exercise. The myofascial release group saw significant difference in pain and flexibility after exercise compared to before the exercise. [Conclusion] The above study showed that abdominal drawing-in exercise affected elderly females regarding pain and balance and myofascial release influenced their pain and flexibility.

  4. Effect of exercise on thicknesses of mature hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage, and subchondral bone of equine tarsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquille, Carolyne A; Blunden, Antony S; Dyson, Sue J; Parkin, Tim D H; Goodship, Allen E; Murray, Rachel C

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To investigate effects of exercise on hyaline cartilage (HC), calcified cartilage (CC), and subchondral bone (SCB) thickness patterns of equine tarsi. SAMPLE POPULATION-30 tarsi from cadavers of horses with known exercise history. PROCEDURES-Tarsi were assigned to 3 groups according to known exercise history as follows: pasture exercise only (PE tarsi), low-intensity general-purpose riding exercise (LE tarsi), and high-intensity elite competition riding exercise (EE tarsi). Osteochondral tissue from distal tarsal joints underwent histologic preparation. Hyaline cartilage, CC, and SCB thickness were measured at standard sites at medial, midline, and lateral locations across joints with a histomorphometric technique. RESULTS-HC, CC, and SCB thickness were significantly greater at all sites in EE tarsi, compared with PE tarsi; this was also true when LE tarsi were compared with PE tarsi. At specific sites, HC, CC, and SCB were significantly thicker in EE tarsi, compared with LE tarsi. Along the articular surface of the proximal aspect of the third metatarsal bone, SCB was thickest in EE tarsi and thinnest in LE tarsi; increases were greatest at sites previously reported to undergo peak strains and osteochondral damage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Increased exercise was associated with increased HC, CC, and SCB thickness in mature horses. At sites that undergo high compressive strains, with a reported predisposition to osteoarthritic change, there was increased CC and SCB thickness. These results may provide insight into the interaction between adaptive response to exercise and pathological change.

  5. The Effect of Resistance Exercise on Inflammatory and Myogenic Markers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients.Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls. A sub-set of the cohort consented to vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies (n = 10 exercise, n = 7 control in which the inflammatory response (IL-6, IL-15, MCP-1 TNF-α, myogenic (MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, anabolic (P-Akt, P-eEf2 and catabolic events (MuRF-1, MAFbx, 14 kDa, ubiquitin conjugates and overall levels of oxidative stress have been studied.Results: A large inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise was seen with IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α all significantly elevated from baseline by 53-fold (P < 0.001, 25-fold (P < 0.001, and 4-fold (P < 0.001, respectively. This response was reduced following training with IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α elevated non-significantly by 2-fold (P = 0.46, 2.4-fold (P = 0.19, and 2.5-fold (P = 0.06, respectively. In the untrained condition, an acute bout of resistance exercise did not result in increased phosphorylation of Akt (P = 0.84, but this was restored following training (P = 0.01. Neither unaccustomed nor accustomed exercise resulted in a change in myogenin or MyoD mRNA expression (P = 0.88, P = 0.90, respectively. There was no evidence that resistance exercise training created a prolonged oxidative stress response within the muscle, or increased catabolism.Conclusions: Unaccustomed exercise creates a large inflammatory response within the muscle, which is

  6. The effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbeer, Nivash; Ramklass, Serela; Mckune, Andrew; van Heerden, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly. One hundred participants were recruited for voluntary participation from five aged care facilities, with inclusion being based on the outcome of a medical assessment by a sports physician. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effect of a 12 week group exercise programme on two groups of participants using pre-test and post-test procedures. A significant difference was noted in social function post training 2X/week (MD = -13.85, 95% CI [-24.66, -3.38], p = 0.017, d = 0.674) and 3X/week (MD = -13.30, 95% CI [-21.81, -5.59], p = 0.003, d = 0.712) a week. Training 3X/week a week provided an additional benefit in vitality (MD = -7.55, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.91], p = 0.018, d =0. 379). Improvements in mental component summary scale post training 2X/week (MD = -4.08, 95% CI [-7.67, -0.42], p = 0.033, d = 0.425) and 3X/week (MD = -6.67, 95% CI [-10.92, -2.33], p = 0.005, d = 0.567) a week was further noted. Mental health and social health benefits can be obtained irrespective of exercise frequency 2X/week or 3X/week. The exercise intervention at a frequency 3X/ week was more effective in improving mental component summary due to a larger effect size obtained compared to the exercise frequency of 2X/week. Additional benefits in vitality were achieved by exercising 3X/week. This may assist the elderly in preserving their independence.

  7. High intensity interval exercise is an effective alternative to moderate intensity exercise for improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Tomlinson, Owen W; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) may offer a time efficient means to improve health outcomes compared to moderate-intensity exercise (MIE). This study examined the acute effect of HIIE compared to a work-matched bout of MIE on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (IS), resting fat oxidation and exercise enjoyment in adolescent boys. Within-measures design with counterbalanced experimental conditions. Nine boys (14.2 ± 0.4 years) completed three conditions on separate days in a counterbalanced order: (1) HIIE; (2) work matched MIE, both on a cycle ergometer; and (3) rest (CON). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after exercise or rest and the area under curve (AUC) responses for plasma [glucose] and [insulin] were calculated, and IS estimated (Cederholm index). Energy expenditure and fat oxidation were measured following the OGTT using indirect calorimetry. Exercise enjoyment was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for plasma [glucose] was reduced following both MIE (-23.9%, P = 0.013, effect size [ES] = -0.64) and HIIE (-28.9%, P=0.008, ES = -0.84) compared to CON. The iAUC for plasma [insulin] was lower for HIIE (-24.2%, P = 0.021, ES = -0.71) and MIE (-29.1%, P = 0.012, ES = -0.79) compared to CON. IS increased by 11.2% after HIIE (P = 0.03, ES = 0.76) and 8.4% after MIE (P = 0.10, ES = 0.58). There was a trend for an increase in fat oxidation following HIIE (P = 0.097, ES = 0.70). Both HIIE and MIE were rated as equally enjoyable (P > 0.05, ES effective alternative to MIE for improving glucose tolerance and IS in adolescent boys immediately after exercise. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term effects of manipulative treatment versus a therapeutic home exercise protocol for chronic cervical pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galindez-Ibarbengoetxea, Xabier; Setuain, Igor; Ramírez-Velez, Robinson

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While both manipulative treatment and physical exercises are used to treat cervical pain, it remains unclear which is most effective. OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term effects of high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation techniques (MT) with those of home-exercise (HE) with stretch......BACKGROUND: While both manipulative treatment and physical exercises are used to treat cervical pain, it remains unclear which is most effective. OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term effects of high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation techniques (MT) with those of home-exercise (HE...... scale (VAS); neck disability index (NDI); pressure pain thresholds; cervical spine range of motion and electromyography during the cranio-cervical flexion test was measured before and one week after the intervention. RESULTS: After the intervention, both groups showed improved (P

  9. A randomized study of the effects of exercise training on patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Kjaer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown.......Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown....

  10. Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matthew B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of a whey protein supplement in conjunction with an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise, in recreationally-active males, on serum insulin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and Akt/mTOR signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis: insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 10 males ingested 1 week apart, either 10 g of whey protein (5.25 g EAAs or carbohydrate (maltodextrose, 30 min prior to a lower-body resistance exercise bout. The resistance exercise bout consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 reps at 80% of the one repetition maximum (RM on the angled leg press and knee extension exercises. Blood and muscle samples were obtained prior to, and 30 min following supplement ingestion and 15 min and 120 min post-exercise. Serum and muscle data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results No significant differences were observed for IGF-1 (p > 0.05. A significant main effect for Test was observed for serum insulin (p 0.05. For the Akt/MTOR signaling intermediates, no significant Supplement × Test interactions were observed (p > 0.05. However, significant main effects for Test were observed for phosphorylated concentrations of IRS, mTOR, and p70S6K, as all were elevated at 15 min post-exercise (p Conclusion Ingestion of 10 g of whey protein prior to an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise had no significant preferential effect compared to carbohydrate on systemic and cellular signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis in untrained individuals.

  11. The Effects of Double Oscillation Exercise Combined with Elastic Band Exercise on Scapular Stabilizing Muscle Strength and Thickness in Healthy Young Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Cho, Kyeongbong Lee, Minkyu Kim, Joohee Hahn, Wanhee Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of double oscillation exercise combined with elastic band exercise on the strength and thickness ratio of the scapular stabilizing muscles in healthy young individuals. A total of 30 subjects (17 male, 13 female were randomly assigned to an elastic band exercise group (EBG (n = 15 or an elastic band plus double oscillation exercise group (EB-DOG (n = 15. A total of 28 subjects completed the experiment and evaluation. Patients in the EBG performed the elastic band exercise for shoulder flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, horizontal abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation for 30 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Patients in the EB-DOG performed the elastic band exercise for 15 minutes and the double oscillation exercise in three planes of motion (frontal, sagittal, and transverse, using a Bodyblade® for 15 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Shoulder muscle strength was assessed using a manual muscle test device during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, while the thicknesses of the scapular stabilizing muscles were assessed using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging both at rest and during MVIC. Both groups had significant effects on shoulder muscle strength, however, there was no significant difference between the two groups for change value of shoulder muscle strength (Bonferroni correction p < 0.005. Significant differences were observed in the group × time interactions for horizontal abduction, external rotation, and protraction. There was a statistically significant improvement in thickness ratio of LT and SA in the EB-DOG and no significant difference was founded in EBG (Bonferroni correction p < 0.006. In comparison between the two groups, EB-DOG showed a significant change in the thickness ratio of LT compared to EBG. In addition, significant differences were observed for the group × time interactions for the thickness ratio of the LT (F

  12. Comparing dynamic hyperinflation and associated dyspnea induced by metronome-paced tachypnea versus incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, Gregory L; Raine, Richard I; Bateman, Mary E; Bateman, Eric D; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during exercise is associated with both dyspnea and exercise limitation in COPD. Metronome-paced tachypnoea (MPT) is a simple alternative for studying DH. We compared MPT with exercise testing (XT) as methods of provoking DH, and assessed their relationship with dyspnea. We studied 24 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 59 ± 9% predicted) after inhalation of ipratropium/salbutamol combination or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design. Inspiratory capacity (IC) was measured at baseline and after 30 seconds of MPT with breathing frequencies (fR) of 20, 30 and 40 breaths/min and metronome-defined I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2, in random sequence, followed by incremental cycle ergometry with interval determinations of IC. DH was defined as a decline in IC from baseline (∆IC) for both methods. Dyspnea was assessed using a Borg CR-10 scale. ∆IC during MPT was greater with higher fR and I:E ratio of 1:1 versus 1:2, and less when patients were treated with bronchodilator rather than placebo (P = 0.032). DH occurred during 19 (40%) XTs, and during 35 (73%) tests using MPT. Eleven of 18 (61%) non-congruent XTs (where DH occurred on MPT but not XT) terminated before fR of 40 breaths/min was reached. Although greater during XT, the intensity of dyspnea bore no relationship to DH during either MPT and XT. MPT at 40 breaths/min and I:E of 1:1 elicits the greatest ∆IC, and is a more sensitive method for demonstrating DH. The relationship between DH and dyspnea is complex and not determined by DH alone.

  13. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N{sup G}-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  14. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N G -nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats

  15. The Effects of Core Stability Exercise on the Dynamic Balance of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadeghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic balance is a key component of injury prevention and rehabilitation in sports. Training the core muscles has been hypothesized as an intervention for improving balance. However, there is a lack of current scientific evidence to support this claim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a core stability program on dynamic balance of volleyball players as measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Thirty healthy participants were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise groups. All participants performed the SEBT before and after 8-week exercise time. During the 8-week time, the exercise group performed a core stability program, whereas the control group abstained from any new exercise. These results also illustrated there was significant differences in the scores for pre-test and post-test of all direction according SEBT in the experimental group. An independent sample t-test was conducted to compare experimental and control group (F=43.573, Sig=0.000. These results were a significant difference in the scores for control and experimental groups. Maximum excursion distances improved for the exercise group, compared with the control group. This result justifies the hypothesis that core strengthening can improve dynamic postural control during landing of volleyball players significantly. Keywords: Core stabilization; volleyball player; dynamic balance; SEBT

  16. Effects of Acute Exercise and Chronic Exercise on the Liver Leptin-AMPK-ACC Signaling Pathway in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejie Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rats with type 2 diabetes caused by a high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods. Animals were classified into control (CON, diabetes (DC, diabetic chronic exercise (DCE, and diabetic acute exercise (DAE groups. Results. Compared to CON, the leptin levels in serum and liver and ACC phosphorylation were significantly higher in DC, but the levels of liver leptin receptor, AMPKα1/2, AMPKα1, and ACC proteins expression and phosphorylation were significantly lower in DC. In addition, the levels of liver glycogen reduced significantly, and the levels of TG and FFA increased significantly in DC compared to CON. Compared to DC, the levels of liver AMPKα1/2, AMPKα2, AMPKα1, and ACC phosphorylation significantly increased in DCE and DAE. However, significant increase of the level of liver leptin receptor and glycogen as well as significant decrease of the level of TG and FFA were observed only in DEC. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that both acute and chronic exercise indirectly activated the leptin-AMPK-ACC signaling pathway and increased insulin sensitivity in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. However, only chronic and long-term exercise improved glucose and lipid metabolism of the liver.

  17. Is My Exercise Partner Similar Enough? Partner Characteristics as a Moderator of the Köhler Effect in Exergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Samuel T; Kerr, Norbert L; Irwin, Brandon C; Feltz, Deborah L

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown the Köhler motivation gain effect (working at a task with a more capable partner where one's performance is indispensable to the group) leads to greater effort in partnered exercise videogame play. The purpose of this article was to examine potential moderators of the Köhler effect by exploring dissimilarities in one's partner's appearance, namely, having an older partner (compared with a same-age partner) and having a heavier-weight partner (compared with a same-weight partner). One hundred fifty-three male and female college students completed a series of plank exercises using the "EyeToy: Kinetic™" for the PlayStation(®) 2 (Sony, Tokyo, Japan). Participants first completed the exercises individually and, after a rest, completed the same exercises with a virtually present partner. Exercise persistence, subjective effort, self-efficacy beliefs, enjoyment, and intentions to exercise were recorded and analyzed. A significant Köhler motivation gain was observed in all partner conditions (compared with individual controls) such that participants with a partner held the plank exercises longer (P<0.001) and reported higher subjective effort (P<0.01). These results were unmoderated by partner's age and weight, with one exception: Males tended to persist longer when paired with an obese partner (P=0.08). These results suggest that differences in age and weight do not attenuate the Köhler effect in exergames and may even strengthen it.

  18. Acute effects of dynamic exercises on the relationship between the motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of concentric versus eccentric exercise on motor control strategies. Fifteen men performed six sets of 10 repetitions of maximal concentric exercises or eccentric isokinetic exercises with their dominant elbow flexors on separate experimental visits. Before and after the exercise, maximal strength testing and submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions (40% of the maximal force) were performed. Both exercise conditions caused significant strength loss in the elbow flexors, but the loss was greater following the eccentric exercise (t=2.401, P=.031). The surface electromyographic signals obtained from the submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions were decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each submaximal trapezoid isometric contraction, the relationship between the average motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analysis. In contrast to the concentric exercise, which did not cause significant changes in the mean linear slope coefficient and y-intercept of the linear regression line, the eccentric exercise resulted in a lower mean linear slope and an increased mean y-intercept, thereby indicating that increasing the firing rates of low-threshold motor units may be more important than recruiting high-threshold motor units to compensate for eccentric exercise-induced strength loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham; Holst, Jens; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bård; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 and subjective feelings of appetite were measured every 30 min for 3 h. Nutrient and taste preferences were measured at the beginning and end of each condition using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Insulin levels were significantly reduced, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even at high intensity, does not induce any known physiological adaptation that would lead to increased EI.

  20. Exercise and Academic Achievement in Children: Effects of Acute Class-Based Circuit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Ben D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts increasing emphasis on improving academic achievement. While treadmill exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and cycling ergometers produce stronger effect sizes than treadmill running, it is impractical for schools to use these on a whole-class basis. There is a need to examine if more ecologically valid modes of exercise might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training is one such modality shown to benefit cognitive function and recall ability and is easily operationalised within schools. Methods. In a repeated measures design, twenty-six children (17 boys, 8 girls aged 10-11 years (mean age 10.3; SD ± 0.46 years completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4 at rest and following 30 minutes of exercise. Results. Standardised scores for word reading were significantly higher post exercise (F(1,18 = 49.9, p = 0.0001 compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores for sentence comprehension (F(1,18 = 0.078, p = 0.783, spelling (F(1,18 = 4.07, p = 0.06 mathematics (F(1,18 = 1.257, p = 0.277, and reading (F(1,18 = 2.09, p = 0.165 were not significantly different between rest and exercise conditions. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest acute bouts of circuit based exercise enhances word reading but not other areas of academic ability in 10-11 year old children. These findings support prior research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in children.

  1. Effect of a Facial Muscle Exercise Device on Facial Rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Ahn, Sun-Hee; Gwak, Gyeong-Tae

    2018-01-20

    The efficacy of facial muscle exercises (FMEs) for facial rejuvenation is controversial. In the majority of previous studies, nonquantitative assessment tools were used to assess the benefits of FMEs. This study examined the effectiveness of FMEs using a Pao (MTG, Nagoya, Japan) device to quantify facial rejuvenation. Fifty females were asked to perform FMEs using a Pao device for 30 seconds twice a day for 8 weeks. Facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area were measured sonographically. Facial surface distance, surface area, and volumes were determined using a laser scanning system before and after FME. Facial muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, midfacial surface distances, jawline surface distance, and lower facial surface area and volume were compared bilaterally before and after FME using a paired Student t test. The cross-sectional areas of the zygomaticus major and digastric muscles increased significantly (right: P jawline surface distances (right: P = 0.004, left: P = 0.003) decreased significantly after FME using the Pao device. The lower facial surface areas (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.006) and volumes (right: P = 0.001, left: P = 0.002) were also significantly reduced after FME using the Pao device. FME using the Pao device can increase facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area, thus contributing to facial rejuvenation. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  2. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise

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    Purpura Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that phosphatidylserine (PS supplementation has the potential to attenuate the serum cortisol response to acute exercise stress. Equivocal findings suggest that this effect might be dose dependent. This study aimed to examine the influence of short-term supplementation with a moderate dose of PS (600 mg per day on plasma concentrations of cortisol, lactate, growth hormone and testosterone before, during, and following moderate intensity exercise in healthy males. Methods 10 healthy male subjects participated in the study. Each subject was assigned to ingest 600 mg PS or placebo per day for 10 days using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Serial venous blood samples were taken at rest, after a 15 minute moderate intensity exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer that consisted of five 3-minute incremental stages beginning at 65% and ending at 85% VO2 max, and during a 65 minute passive recovery. Plasma samples were assessed for cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, lactate and testosterone to cortisol ratio for treatment (PS or placebo. Results Mean peak cortisol concentrations and area under the curve (AUC were lower following PS (39 ± 1% and 35 ± 0%, respectively when compared to placebo (p Conclusion The findings suggest that PS is an effective supplement for combating exercise-induced stress and preventing the physiological deterioration that can accompany too much exercise. PS supplementation promotes a desired hormonal status for athletes by blunting increases in cortisol levels.

  3. Effect of Breakfast Omission on Energy Intake and Evening Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Barutcu, Asya; Machin, Claire; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2015-12-01

    Breakfast omission may reduce daily energy intake. Exercising fasted impairs performance compared with exercising after breakfast, but the effect breakfast omission has on evening exercise performance is unknown. This study assessed the effect of omitting breakfast on evening exercise performance and within-day energy intake. Ten male, habitual breakfast eaters completed two trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Subjects arrived at the laboratory in an overnight-fasted state and either consumed or omitted a 733 ± 46 kcal (3095 ± 195 kJ) breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at 4.5 h (lunch) and 11 h (dinner). At 9 h, subjects completed a 30-min cycling exercise at approximately 60% VO2peak, followed by a 30-min maximal cycling performance test. Food was not permitted for subjects once they left the laboratory after dinner until 0800 h the following morning. Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1(7-36), glucose, and insulin were assessed at 0, 4.5, and 9 h. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded throughout. Energy intake was 199 ± 151 kcal greater at lunch (P daily energy intake but may impair performance later that day, even after consuming lunch.

  4. Effects of a multicomponent exercise on dual-task performance and executive function among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Yau Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Previous studies showed that multicomponent exercise enhanced physical and cognitive functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a multicomponent exercise on dual-task performance and executive function and to demonstrate the relationship between improvement in dual-task performance and enhancement in executive function among the elderly. Methods: A total of 27 people completed the intervention, with 16 in the experimental group and 11 in the control group. The 12-week multicomponent exercise lasted 1 h per day and 3 days per week. Participants' gait performance was assessed in dual-task conditions and executive function was examined at both pre- and post-intervention. Results: Results showed significant interaction effects of time x group on all selected gait parameters in both dual-task conditions and the Executive Interview. Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed greater improvements in most measures following intervention. Improved dual-task performance was correlated with enhanced executive function (r = 0.46–0.75. Conclusion: Our results suggested that a multicomponent exercise positively affects dual-task performance and executive function in the elderly. Keywords: Dual-task, Executive function, Exercise, Gait, Older adults

  5. Effect of exercise augmentation of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of suicidal ideation and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Najafi, Mahmoud; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Hosseinian, Simin; Shahidi, Shahriar; Carlbring, Per; Kalhori, Atefeh; Sadeghi, Hassan; Jalili, Marzieh

    2017-09-01

    Suicidal ideation and depression are prevalent and costly conditions that reduce quality of life. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for suicidal ideation and depression among depressed individuals. In a randomized clinical trial, 54 mildly to moderately depressed patients (54% female, mean age=48.25) were assigned to a combined CBT and exercise group or to a CBT only group. Both groups received one weekly session of therapy for 12 weeks, while the combined group also completed exercise three times weekly over the same period. Self-reported suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living were measured at the beginning and the end of treatment. Multilevel modelling revealed greater improvements in suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living in the combined CBT and exercise group, compared to the CBT only group. No follow-up data were collected, so the long-term effects (i.e., maintenance of gains) is unclear. The findings revealed that exercise adjunct to CBT effectively decreases both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in mildly to moderately depressed individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  7. Psychological effects of exercise on community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tada A

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Akio Tada Faculty of Health Science, Hyogo University, Kakogawa, Hyogo, Japan Background: In recent years, there have been an increasing number of older adults who suffer from mental disorders globally.Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention that consisted of an exercise program to improve the mental health of community-dwelling older adults.Participants and methods: The recruited participants of this study were community-dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years who participated in a comprehensive health promotion program in Kakogawa, Japan. Participants in the intervention group received an exercise program that was developed for older adults using Thera-Band. To measure participants’ mental health status, a Japanese version of the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS-SF was used. Stress markers were measured, such as salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and sIgA levels. All participants provided salivary samples and completed psychological questionnaires at baseline and 6-month follow-up.Results: No significant differences were observed between the intervention and control groups with respect to POMS-SF score and salivary biomarker profile at baseline. After the intervention, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in the POMS-SF “fatigue” score and cortisol level. No significant changes were observed in the control group.Conclusion: Simultaneous changes in feelings of fatigue and cortisol levels were observed among subjects who had received the intervention of regular exercise. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of exercise intervention in improving mental health among older adults. Keywords: intervention, exercise, psychological status, stress, cortisol

  8. Effects of low strength pedaling exercise on stress sensitivity and pain threshold

    OpenAIRE

    坂野, 裕洋

    2017-01-01

     This study conducted a comparative assessment of the effects of low intensity lower limb pedaling exercise on the stress sensitivity and pain threshold in healthy subjects and those with chronic stiff neck or lower back pain. The results showed a reduction in pain threshold depending on the applied mechanical stress in both healthy and chronic pain groups. The individuals with chronic pain felt pain more intensely compared to the healthy individuals, and showed a significant reduction in pai...

  9. Effect of aging and exercise on the tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene B; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Couppé, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review the literature on how tendons respond and adapt to ageing and exercise. With respect to aging, there are considerable changes early in life, but this seems to be maturation rather than aging per se. In vitro data indicate that aging is associated with a decreased potential for cel...... and modulus of the tendon and may reduce the amount of glycation. Exercise thereby tends to counteract the effects of aging.......Here, we review the literature on how tendons respond and adapt to ageing and exercise. With respect to aging, there are considerable changes early in life, but this seems to be maturation rather than aging per se. In vitro data indicate that aging is associated with a decreased potential for cell...... glycation-derived cross-links increase substantially. Mechanically, aging appears to be associated with a reduction in modulus and strength. With respect to exercise, tendon cells respond by producing growth factors, and there is some support for a loading-induced increase in tendon collagen synthesis...

  10. Effect of endurance exercise training on oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after emergence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroko; Kon, Nobuko; Furukawa, Satoshi; Mukaida, Masahiro; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuko; Sone, Hirohito; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effect of wheel training on oxidative stress maker levels in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the aorta of SHRs were allowed to run for 10 weeks from the age of 15 weeks were measured and compared with those of nonexercised SHRs. The 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the exercised group were significantly lower than those in the nonexercised group. The exercised group showed a significant increase of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase. Endurance exercise showed a possible suppressing effect on the arteriosclerosis development by reducing oxidative stress, even after emergence of hypertension.

  11. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Sontam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON, bipedal stance (BPS, or wheel exercise (WEX groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  12. Mobilization with movement and kinesiotaping compared with a supervised exercise program for painful shoulder: results of a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Olivera C; Vukicevic, Danijela; Katunac, Ljiljana; Jovic, Stevan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Mobilization with Movement (MWM) and kinesiotaping (KT) techniques with a supervised exercise program in participants with patients with shoulder pain. Twenty subjects with shoulder pain were included if subjects were diagnosed by the referring physician with either rotator cuff lesion with impingement syndrome or impingement shoulder syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups after clinical and radiologic assessment: group 1 was treated with MWM and KT techniques, whereas group 2 was treated with a supervised exercise program. The main outcome measures were active pain-free shoulder abduction and flexion tested on days 0, 5, and 10. Improvement in active pain-free shoulder range of motion was significantly higher in the group treated with MWM and KT. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated significant effects of treatment, time, and treatment×time interaction. This study suggests that MWM and KT may be an effective and useful treatment in range of motion augmentation of subjects with rotator cuff lesion and impingement syndrome or impingement shoulder syndrome. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ludyga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20 min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children

  14. Effects of Fluid Ingestion on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognition During Exercise in the Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roh Hee-Tae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of fluid ingestion during exercise in different environments on the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognition among athletes. Ten collegiate male athletes (soccer, n = 5; rugby, n = 5 were enrolled, and they completed running tests in the following four conditions (60 min each: 1 thermoneutral temperature at 18°C (group 18; 2 high ambient temperature at 32°C without fluid ingestion (group 32; 3 high ambient temperature at 32°C with water ingestion (group 32+W; and 4 high ambient temperature at 32°C with sports drink ingestion (group 32+S. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels significantly increased in group 18 immediately after exercise when compared with those at rest and were significantly higher than those in group 32 immediately and 60 min after exercise (p < 0.05. In the Stroop Color and Word Test, significantly increased Word, Color, and Color-Word scores were observed in group 18 immediately after exercise compared to those at rest (p < 0.05. However, the Color-Word score appeared to be significantly lower in group 32 immediately after exercise compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 and at 60 min post-exercise compared to group 18 (p < 0.05. We found that the exercise performed in a thermoneutral environment improved cognitive function, but the exercise performed in a hot environment did not. The differences according to the exercise environment would be largely affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and fluid ingestion regardless of the type of drink (water or sports beverage was assumed to have contributed to the improvement in cognitive function caused by exercising in a hot environment.

  15. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarmoghaddam, M; Torbati, H T; Sohrabi, M; Mashhadi, A; Kashi, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a Selected exercise program on the executive function of children with ADHD. Method. The participants were 40 male students, aged 7-11 years. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in an exercise program for 24 sessions, 90 minutes per session. The control group did not receive any intervention. Before and after the exercise period, all the participants were assessed with Stroop and Go-No-Go tests, and the resulting data were analyzed by using MANCOVA. Result. The results showed that the cognitive inhibition of the children in the experimental group was significantly different compared with the control group (p helps to improve the executive function in children with ADHD.

  16. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  17. The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included "stress", "exercise", and "physical activity". A rating scale (0-9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work-family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely to show an inverse association. 85.7 % of higher

  18. Spatiotemporal, kinematic, force and muscle activation outcomes during gait and functional exercise in water compared to on land: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Sophie; McClelland, Jodie; Geigle, Paula; Rahmann, Ann; Clark, Ross

    2016-07-01

    Exercises replicating functional activities are commonly used in aquatic rehabilitation although it is not clear how the movement characteristics differ between the two environments. A systematic review was completed in order to compare the biomechanics of gait, closed kinetic chain and plyometric exercise when performed in water and on land. Databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Embase and the Cochrane library were searched. Studies were included where a functional lower limb activity was performed in water and on land with the same instructions. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for spatiotemporal, kinematic, force and muscle activation outcomes. 28 studies included walking or running (19 studies), stationary running (three), closed kinetic chain exercise (two), plyometric exercise (three) and timed-up and go (one). Very large effect sizes showed self-selected speed of walking (SMD >4.66) and vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) (SMD >1.91) in water were less than on land, however, lower limb range of movement and muscle activity were similar. VGRF in plyometric exercise was lower in water when landing but more similar between the two environments in propulsion. Maximal speed of movement for walking and stationary running was lower in water compared to on land (SMD>3.05), however was similar in propulsion in plyometric exercise. Drag forces may contribute to lower self-selected speed of walking. Monitoring speed of movement in water assists in determining the potential advantages or limitations of aquatic exercise and the task specificity to land-based function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Losartan on the Acute Response of Human Elderly Skeletal Muscle to Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette Flindt; Andersen, Jesper L; Schjerling, Peter

    2018-01-01

    targets, with no specific effect of losartan on these. However, when compared with placebo, Losartan intake resulted in a greater suppression of myostatin mRNA. CONCLUSION: In general, there does not appear to be any effect of AT1R blocking upon satellite cell number or myogenic pathways in elderly men...... in the days after one bout of heavy resistance exercise. However, the greater suppression of myostatin may prove to be beneficial over a long term intervention designed to induce hypertrophy....

  20. Effects of Pilates Exercise Programs in People With Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. Th...

  1. Effects of Therapeutic Exercises on Functional Capacities of Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Zadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement with progressive deformities. This leads to limitation of motion and reduction of activity daily living (ADL. Previous reports showed the beneficial effects of therapeutic exercises in these patients in the remission phase. Methods and Materials: A clinical trial as a self-control sequential control study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a range of motion (ROM exercise program in patients with RA, referring to Rheumatology Research Center between 1994-1995. ROM of the selected joints by Goniometer, and ADL by a questionnaire was assessed in all patients in 3 phases: when entering the program, after 6 weeks of observation, and then after another 6 weeks with the therapeutic exercises. The mean difference in these 2 period were compared by student paired t test. The analysis of differences between different subgroups (job, education, etc. was done by one way variance analysis. Results: Forty patients completed the program. The mean ADL increased from 0437±0.252 before exercise to 6.69±3.06 after exercise (P<0.001, and the mean scores of ROM increased from 0.278±0.28 to 8±3.57 (P<0.0001, both statistically significant. This was more pronounced in women and in those with ankle joints involvement. The type of disease onset and duration of the disease did not influence the effects of treatment. No increase in disease activity was seen. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of our ROM exercises in increasing functional capacities of patients with RA in remission phase.

  2. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01