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Sample records for effects cataractogenesis progress

  1. Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Andjelić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cataractogenesis is the process of cataract formation. Cataract, which can be defined as any opacity of the crystalline lens, is the leading cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. The mechanisms involved in cataractogenesis are not yet understood. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of contemporary research in cataractogenesis. have been identified, including increasing age, genetic predisposition, oxidative stress and exposure to UV light. Cataract can be congenital, age-related or secondary. Secondary cataract can be associated with ocular conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa or uveitis, or systemic conditions as in the case of diabetes or homocistinuria, or can be also drug-induced, mainly by steroids.

  2. Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.

  3. Effect of curcumin on galactose-induced cataractogenesis in rats.

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    Suryanarayana, Palla; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2003-06-09

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, has been shown to have both antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on the onset and maturation of galactose induced cataract. Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old) were divided into 5 groups. The control group (A) received an AIN-93 diet, the galactose group (B) received 30% galactose in the diet, the test groups (C and D) received the B group diet plus 0.002% and 0.01% curcumin respectively, and group (E) received the control diet plus 0.01% curcumin, all for a period of 4 weeks. Cataract progression due to galactose feeding was monitored by slit lamp microscope and classified into 4 stages. At the end of the experiment biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, aldose reductase (AR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), reduced glutathione, protein content, and protein carbonyls were measured in the lens. Advanced glycated end products (AGE) and protein oxidation were measured by AGE and tryptophon fluorescence respectively. Crystallin profile was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (HPLC). Slit lamp microscope observations indicated that curcumin at 0.002% (group C) delayed the onset and maturation of cataract. In contrast even though there was a slight delay in the onset of cataract at the 0.01% level (group D), maturation of cataract was faster when compared to group B. Biochemical analysis showed that curcumin at the 0.002% level appeared to exert antioxidant and antiglycating effects, as it inhibited lipid peroxidation, AGE-fluorescence, and protein aggregation. Though the reasons for faster onset and maturation of cataract in group D rats was not clear, the data suggested that under hyperglycemic conditions higher levels of curcumin (0.01%) in the diet may increase oxidative stress, AGE formation, and protein aggregation. However, feeding of curcumin to normal rats up to a 0.01% level did not result in any changes in lens

  4. Effects of estrogen and gender on cataractogenesis induced by high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M.A.; Rusek, A.; Valluri, S.; Garrett, J.; Lopez, J.; Caperell-Grant, A.; Mendonca, M.; Bigsby, R.; Dynlacht, J.

    2010-01-01

    Planning for long-duration manned lunar and interplanetary missions requires an understanding of radiation-induced cataractogenesis. Previously, it was demonstrated that low-linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation with 10 Gy of 60 Co γ rays resulted in an increased incidence of cataracts in male rats compared to female rats. This gender difference was not due to differences in estrogen, since male rats treated with the major secreted estrogen 17-β-estradiol (E2) showed an identical increase compared to untreated males. We now compare the incidence and rate of progression of cataracts induced by high-LET radiation in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received a single dose of 1 Gy of 600 MeV 56 Fe ions. Lens opacification was measured at 2-4 week intervals with a slit lamp. The incidence and rate of progression of radiation-induced cataracts was significantly increased in the animals in which estrogen was available from endogenous or exogenous sources. Male rats with E2 capsules implanted had significantly higher rates of progression compared to male rats with empty capsules implanted (P = 0.025) but not compared to the intact female rats. These results contrast with data obtained after low-LET irradiation and suggest the possibility that the different types of damage caused by high- and low-LET radiation may be influenced differentially by steroid sex hormones.

  5. Role of pirenoxine in the effects of catalin on in vitro ultraviolet-induced lens protein turbidity and selenite-induced cataractogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao-Chien; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Hsu, Kuang-Yang; Lin, I-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Hsuan; Wu, Wen-Hsin; Wei, Tzu-Tang; Huang, Yi-Shiang; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Chen, Hsiang-Yin; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Tzu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical pharmacology of pirenoxine (PRX) and catalin under in vitro selenite/calcium- and ultraviolet (UV)-induced lens protein turbidity challenges. The systemic effects of catalin were determined using a selenite-induced cataractogenesis rat model. In vitro cataractogenesis assay systems (including UVB/C photo-oxidation of lens crystallins, calpain-induced proteolysis, and selenite/calcium-induced turbidity of lens crystallin solutions) were used to screen the activity of PRX and catalin eye drop solutions. Turbidity was identified as the optical density measured using spectroscopy at 405 nm. We also determined the in vivo effects of catalin on cataract severity in a selenite-induced cataract rat model. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied to analyze the integrity of crystallin samples. PRX at 1,000 μM significantly delayed UVC-induced turbidity formation compared to controls after 4 h of UVC exposure (pturbidity induced by 4 h of UVC exposure was ameliorated in the presence of catalin equivalent to 1~100 μM PRX in a concentration-dependent manner. Samples with catalin-formulated vehicle only (CataV) and those containing PRX equivalent to 100 μM had a similar protective effect after 4 h of UVC exposure compared to the controls (pturbidity formation compared to controls on days 0~4 (pturbidity on day 1 (pturbidity but required millimolar levels to protect against UVC irradiation. The observed inhibition of UVC-induced turbidity of lens crystallins by catalin at micromolar concentrations may have been a result of the catalin-formulated vehicle. Transient protection by catalin against selenite-induced turbidity of crystallin solutions in vitro was supported by the ameliorated cataract scores in the early stage of cataractogenesis in vivo by subcutaneously administered catalin. PRX could not inhibit calpain-induced proteolysis activated by calcium or catalin itself, and may be

  6. Physical factors in cataractogenesis: ambient ultraviolet radiation and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliney, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    A number of environmental cofactors have been implicated in cataracto-genesis. Two have received the greatest attention: ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and ambient temperature. Unfortunately, both temperature and UVR levels vary similarly with geographical latitude. Careful attention to several more refined physical variables and the geometry of exposure may permit investigators to separate the contributory effects of these two physical agents. This paper briefly reviews the available data, estimates the variation of lenticular temperature with ambient temperature, and provides measurements of short-wavelength (UV-B) UVR exposure to the human eye with different meterological conditions. The study attempts to provide epidemiological investigators with more detailed information necessary to perform more accurate studies of cataract and other ocular pathologies that appear to be related to environmental factors. Ocular UV-B radiation exposure levels were measured at nine locations in the USA near 40 degrees latitude at elevations from sea level to 8000 ft. Terrain reflectance is shown to be much more important than terrain elevation; cloud cover and haze may actually increase ocular exposure; and the value of wearing brimmed hats and spectacles varies with the environment. Several avenues for future research are suggested

  7. Late cataractogenesis in rhesus monkeys irradiated with protons and radiogenic cataract in other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Lee, A.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) which were irradiated at ca. 2 years of age with acute doses (less than or equal to 5 Gy) of protons (32-2300 MeV) are exhibiting the late progressive phase of radiation cataractogenesis 20-24 years after exposure, the period during which we have been monitoring the sequelae of irradiation of the lens. The median life span of the primate is approximately 24 years. Analogous late ocular changes also occur in a similar period of the lifetimes of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) exposed at 8-10 weeks of age to 460-MeV 56 Fe ions. In this experiment, which has been in progress for ca. 6 years, we are following the development of radiation-induced lenticular opacification (cataractogenic profiles) throughout the life span. The median life span of the lagomorph is 5-7 years. Cataractogenic profiles for NZW rabbits irradiated with 20 Ne and 40 Ar ions and 60 Co gamma photons were obtained previously. Reference is also made to measurements of the cataractogenic profiles of a short-lived rodent, the Fischer 344 rat (Rattus norvegicus) during the first year after exposure at 8-10 weeks of age to spread-Bragg-peak protons of 55 MeV nominal energy. The median life span of the rodent is reported to be 2-3 years

  8. Radiation-Induced Cataractogenesis: A Critical Literature Review for the Interventional Radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Kevin F., E-mail: KSeals@mednet.ucla.edu; Lee, Edward W., E-mail: EdwardLee@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center (United States); Cagnon, Christopher H., E-mail: CCagnon@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Radiology (United States); Al-Hakim, Ramsey A., E-mail: RAlhakim@mednet.ucla.edu; Kee, Stephen T., E-mail: SKee@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Extensive research supports an association between radiation exposure and cataractogenesis. New data suggests that radiation-induced cataracts may form stochastically, without a threshold and at low radiation doses. We first review data linking cataractogenesis with interventional work. We then analyze the lens dose typical of various procedures, factors modulating dose, and predicted annual dosages. We conclude by critically evaluating the literature describing techniques for lens protection, finding that leaded eyeglasses may offer inadequate protection and exploring the available data on alternative strategies for cataract prevention.

  9. Cinnamaldehyde Attenuates Cataractogenesis via Restoration of Hypertension and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have revealed that systemic hypertension is strongly associated with cataractogenesis. However, the pathophysiology and treatment is often unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-cataractogenic effect of cinnamaldehyde (CA, a natural organic compound, in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Methods: The rats were divided into six groups. For six weeks, the normal group received a suspension of 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose (10 mL/kg/day, p.o. while five other groups received a 10% (w/v fructose solution in their drinking water to induce hypertension. By the end of the third week hypertension had been induced in all the animals receiving fructose. From the beginning of the fourth week to the end of the sixth week, one of those five groups (control continued to receive only 10% (w/v fructose solution, one group (standard received ramipril (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. plus 10% (w/v fructose solution, and three groups (experimental received CA at doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/day p.o., plus 10% (w/v fructose solution. Blood pressure was measured weekly using a non-invasive blood pressure apparatus. After six weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the anti-cataractogenic effects on the eye lenses were evaluated. Results: Administration of fructose elevated both the systolic and the diastolic blood pressures, which were significantly reduced by CA at all dose levels. In the control group, a significant increase in the malonaldehyde (MDA level and decreases in the total protein, Ca2+adenosine triphosphate (ATPase activity, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels, as compared to the normal group, were observed. Administration of CA at all doses significantly restored the enzymatic, non-enzymatic, antioxidants, total protein, and Ca2+ATPase levels, but decreased the MDA level, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study revealed that CA modulated the antioxidant

  10. Some progress towards ''universal'' effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.M.G.

    1983-01-01

    The approximation methods introduced to treat the nuclear many-body problem usually imply that the appropriate nuclear force is an effective interaction, different from the free nucleon-nucleon interaction. An effective interaction is thus intimately related to a given nuclear model and its scope is generally confined to the description of a limited number of nuclei or nuclear states. However, in recent years there has been some progress towards ''universal'' effective nucleon-nucleon interactions, in the sense that they may be reasonably suitable to describe bulk properties of nuclear ground states throughout the periodic table and also properties of excited states. The authors conclude that a finite-range density-dependent effective interaction of the Gogny's type is capable of describing a large number of static and dynamical nuclear properties throughout the periodic table, including open-shell nuclei. Hopefully it may provide clues for the definition of some ''universal'' effective force

  11. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  12. Biochemical studies on the ocular lens in relation to cataractogenesis. Progress report, July 1, 1975--May 31, 1977. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, V.E.; Reddy, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Further studies were undertaken to determkine whether ..gamma..-glutamyl cycle is involved in transporting amino acids from aqueous humor into the lens. Oxoproline levels in rabbit lenses cultured in the presence of methionine and a specific inhibitor of oxoprolinase (imidazolidone-carboxylic acid) and in lenses of rats injected with the inhibitor and the amino acid were found to be unaffected. Investigations of x-irradiated rabbit lenses have shown that the level of reduced glutatbione decreased by 75% three weeks prior to cataract formation while levels of oxidized GSH and protein bound GSH remained unaltered, indicating that GSH synthesis has been reduced or that the tripeptide is lost through leakage out of the lens. Cataractous lenses from x-rayed rabbits showed a decrease in the relative amount of ..beta.. and ..gamma..-crystallins and an increase in ..cap alpha..-crystallin and high molecular weight protein aggregates. The development of galactose cataract in lenses from galactose fed rats was investigated to study more accurately changes in active and passive transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride. Results of sodium flux experiments suggest that sodium transport is unimpaired during initial stages of cataract formation, a conclusion consistent with the observation that the level of lens sodium is only slightly elevated. Unlike sodium transport, the turnover rate of potassium increased bya factor of two, while the active accumulation decreased fourfold. In order to evaluate more completely changes in cation and anion concentrations in cataractous lenses, bioelectric potentials were measured and observed to decline gradually over thirteen days, followed by a sudden loss of potential on the fourteenth day when nuclear opacities became visible.

  13. The Effect of Weekly Progress Reports on Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Katherine S.

    This study investigated the effect of weekly progress reports on the academic achievement of seventh grade language arts students. It also investigated the effects of weekly progress reports on locus of control attribution and the relationship between academic achievement and locus of control attribution. The study took place in a suburban school…

  14. Effect of Single-Sex Education on Progress in GCSE

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    Malacova, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…

  15. Progress on untargeted effects of ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Chen Jihong; Li Wenjian

    2010-01-01

    The side effect of ionizing irradiation has been paid more attention with its widely using in tumor treating and mutation breeding. In recent years, untargeted effects induced by ionizing irradiation have become a hotspot of radiobiology. Here, according to reported results, we reviewed the types (genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response) and mechanisms of untargeted effects of ionizing irradiation in this paper. (authors)

  16. Cumulative antioxidant defense against oxidative challenge in galactose-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rats.

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    Raju, T N; Kumar, C Sanat; Kanth, V Rajani; Ramana, B Venkata; Reddy, P Uma Maheswara; Suryanarayana, P; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2006-09-01

    Natural dietary ingredients are known for their antioxidant activity. Of such, curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, at 0.01% in the diet proved as pro-oxidative in galactose-induced cataract in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E (VE), a well-known antioxidant, in combination with curcumin on the onset and maturation of galactose induced cataract. Periodic slit-lamp microscope examination indicated that in combination with vitamin-E, 0.01% curcumin (G-IV) delayed the onset and maturation of galactose-induced cataract. Biochemical analyses revealed that combined treatment of 0.01% curcumin and vitamin-E diet exhibited an efficient antioxidant effect, as it inhibited lipid peroxidation and contributed to a distinct rise in reduced glutathione content. The results indicate that natural dietary ingredients are effective in combination rather than the individual administration as they are complementing each other in reducing the risk of galactose induced cataract.

  17. Immunological effects of methylprednisolone pulse treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, R; Romme Christensen, J; Romme Nielsen, B

    2014-01-01

    phenotypes investigated, 25 changed at nominal significance from baseline to week 12 (pmultiple comparisons, we found 5 subpopulations that changed compared to baseline. No pattern were suggesting modulation of Th17 or TFH cells. CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone pulse treatment has......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of monthly oral methylprednisolone pulse treatment in progressive MS. METHODS: 30 progressive MS patients were treated with oral methylprednisolone every month. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Out of 102 leukocyte...

  18. Dose Response for Radiation Cataractogenesis: A Meta-Regression of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Regimens

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    Hall, Matthew D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Schultheiss, Timothy E., E-mail: schultheiss@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Smith, David D. [Division of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Nguyen, Khanh H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Bayhealth Cancer Center, Dover, Delaware (United States); Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a meta-regression on published data and to model the 5-year probability of cataract development after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with and without total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: Eligible studies reporting cataract incidence after HSCT with TBI were identified by a PubMed search. Seventeen publications provided complete information on radiation dose schedule, fractionation, dose rate, and actuarial cataract incidence. Chemotherapy-only regimens were included as zero radiation dose regimens. Multivariate meta-regression with a weighted generalized linear model was used to model the 5-year cataract incidence and contributory factors. Results: Data from 1386 patients in 21 series were included for analysis. TBI was administered to a total dose of 0 to 15.75 Gy with single or fractionated schedules with a dose rate of 0.04 to 0.16 Gy/min. Factors significantly associated with 5-year cataract incidence were dose, dose times dose per fraction (D•dpf), pediatric versus adult status, and the absence of an ophthalmologist as an author. Dose rate, graft versus host disease, steroid use, hyperfractionation, and number of fractions were not significant. Five-fold internal cross-validation showed a model validity of 83% ± 8%. Regression diagnostics showed no evidence of lack-of-fit and no patterns in the studentized residuals. The α/β ratio from the linear quadratic model, estimated as the ratio of the coefficients for dose and D•dpf, was 0.76 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-1.55). The odds ratio for pediatric patients was 2.8 (95% CI, 1.7-4.6) relative to adults. Conclusions: Dose, D•dpf, pediatric status, and regimented follow-up care by an ophthalmologist were predictive of 5-year cataract incidence after HSCT. The low α/β ratio indicates the importance of fractionation in reducing cataracts. Dose rate effects have been observed in single institution studies but not in the

  19. Dose Response for Radiation Cataractogenesis: A Meta-Regression of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Matthew D.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Smith, David D.; Nguyen, Khanh H.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a meta-regression on published data and to model the 5-year probability of cataract development after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with and without total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: Eligible studies reporting cataract incidence after HSCT with TBI were identified by a PubMed search. Seventeen publications provided complete information on radiation dose schedule, fractionation, dose rate, and actuarial cataract incidence. Chemotherapy-only regimens were included as zero radiation dose regimens. Multivariate meta-regression with a weighted generalized linear model was used to model the 5-year cataract incidence and contributory factors. Results: Data from 1386 patients in 21 series were included for analysis. TBI was administered to a total dose of 0 to 15.75 Gy with single or fractionated schedules with a dose rate of 0.04 to 0.16 Gy/min. Factors significantly associated with 5-year cataract incidence were dose, dose times dose per fraction (D•dpf), pediatric versus adult status, and the absence of an ophthalmologist as an author. Dose rate, graft versus host disease, steroid use, hyperfractionation, and number of fractions were not significant. Five-fold internal cross-validation showed a model validity of 83% ± 8%. Regression diagnostics showed no evidence of lack-of-fit and no patterns in the studentized residuals. The α/β ratio from the linear quadratic model, estimated as the ratio of the coefficients for dose and D•dpf, was 0.76 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-1.55). The odds ratio for pediatric patients was 2.8 (95% CI, 1.7-4.6) relative to adults. Conclusions: Dose, D•dpf, pediatric status, and regimented follow-up care by an ophthalmologist were predictive of 5-year cataract incidence after HSCT. The low α/β ratio indicates the importance of fractionation in reducing cataracts. Dose rate effects have been observed in single institution studies but not in the

  20. Bounds on the Effect of Progressive Structural Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Bendsøe, Martin P; Taylor, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Problem formulations are presented for the evaluation of upper and lower bounds on the effect of progressive structural degradation. For the purposes of this study, degradation effect is measured by an increase in global structural compliance (flexibility). Thus the stated bounds are given simply...

  1. Bounds on the Effect of Progressive Structural Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, W.; Bendsøe, Martin P; Taylor, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Problem formulations are presented for the evaluation of upper and lower bounds on the effect of progressive structural degradation. For the purposes of this study, degradation effect is measured by an increase in global structural compliance (flexibility). Thus the slated bounds are given simply...

  2. Oxidative Stress in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cekić

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to compeer levels of antioxidative agent -total SH groups and the finale product of lipid peroxidationmalondialdehyde (MDA in serum, and glutathione (GSH and MDA in nucleocortical parts of lens after extracapsular extraction of cataract. Patient were (38 with cataract and 38 controls matched by sex and years of life. Diagnosis of cataract was established by complete ocular examination. All results are expressed as mean ± S.D. A Student’s t-test was used to estimate differences between the groups. The level of significance was p<0,05. Total sulfhydryl groups were determined in serum by the method of Ellman as well as GSH content in nucleocortical parts of lenses using the method of Sedlak and Lindsay. Lipid peroxidation, evidenced by formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, was determined in nucleocortical parts of the lens and in serum. Our results show a statistical significance in concentration of total SH groups (225,37±82,19μmol/L, controls 311,03±60,37μm0l/L p<0,05 and MDA (20,24±8,12, and controls 8,73±2,53μmol/L, p<0,001 in serum among patients with age related cataract and controls. There was no statistical significance in concentration of total SH groups and MDA in serum among patients with different type of age related cataract and in nucleocortical parts of lens. The present study concludes that there is a statistical significance in concentration of total SH groups and MDA in serum among patients with age related cataract and controls, but there were no statistical significance in concentration of GSH and MDA in serum and nucleocortical parts of lens in patient with different type of cataract.

  3. The research progress of microdose effect in semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yihua; Fan Ruyu; Guo Xiaoqiang; Lin Dongsheng; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Fengqi; Chen Wei

    2012-01-01

    The localized dose deposited around the track of a heavy ion can be high enough to induce a permanent failure in the semiconductor devices, such as the stuck bit error or functional failure. In this paper, progresses in studies on microdose effect are reviewed. Two basic failure mechanisms, i.e. the localized total dose effect and the strong coulomb repulsive force effect, are discussed. Typical failure modes in several types of devices, and the main impact factors, are discussed, too. (authors)

  4. The effect of a conservative versus an aggressive-progressive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a conservative versus an aggressive-progressive exercise programme on chronic low back pain and disability. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Thirty-two (N= 32) full-time working subjects between the ages of 20 and 55 years participated in a 12-week exercise intervention study.

  5. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1982-November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    A wide range of research is carried out at the Radiological Research Laboratory, from computer simulation of particle tracks to the determination of oncogenic transformation in mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies remain the central mission in an attempt to understand the biological action of ionizing radiations. Collaborative research is carried out on the use of radiosensitizers on chemosensitizers on the effect of hormones on oncogenic transformation and on cataractogenesis

  6. Effect of disease stage on progression of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Michael F; Hu, Julia

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxychloroquine sulfate retinopathy can progress after the drug is stopped. It is not clear how this relates to the stage of retinopathy or whether early screening with modern imaging technology can prevent progression and visual loss. To determine the relationship between progression of retinopathy and the severity of disease using objective data from optical coherence tomography and assess the value of early screening for the toxic effects of hydroxychloroquine. Clinical findings in patients with hydroxychloroquine retinopathy were monitored with repeated anatomical and functional examinations for 13 to 40 months after the drug was stopped in a referral practice in a university medical center. Eleven patients participated, with the severity of toxic effects categorized as early (patchy parafoveal damage shown on field or objective testing), moderate (a 50%-100% parafoveal ring of optical coherence tomography thinning but intact retinal pigment epithelium), and severe (visible bull's-eye damage). Visual acuity, white 10-2 visual field pattern density plots, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-density optical coherence tomography cross sections, thickness (from cube diagrams), and ellipsoid zone length. Visual acuity and visual fields showed no consistent change. Fundus autofluorescence showed little or no change except in severe cases in which the bull's-eye damage expanded progressively. Optical coherence tomography cross sections showed little visible change in early and moderate cases but progressive foveal thinning (approximately 7 μm/y) and loss of ellipsoid zone (in the range of 100 μm/y) in severe cases, which was confirmed by quantitative measurements. The measurements also showed some foveal thinning (approximately 4 μm/y) and deepening of parafoveal loss in moderate cases, but the breadth of the ellipsoid zone remained constant in both early and moderate cases. A few cases showed a suggestion of ellipsoid zone improvement. Patients with

  7. Effects of Lowering LDL Cholesterol on Progression of Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Richard; Lewis, David; Emberson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in CKD, but the effects of such treatment on progression of kidney disease remain uncertain. Here, 6245 participants with CKD (not on dialysis) were randomly assigned to simvastatin (20 mg) plus ezetimibe (10 mg) daily...... or matching placebo. The main prespecified renal outcome was ESRD (defined as the initiation of maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation). During 4.8 years of follow-up, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in an average LDL cholesterol difference (SEM) of 0.96 (0.02) mmol/L compared...... with placebo; rate ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.01; P=0.09). Exploratory analyses also showed no significant effect on the rate of change in eGFR. Lowering LDL cholesterol by 1 mmol/L did not slow kidney disease progression within 5 years in a wide range of patients with CKD....

  8. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Hernandez, E.; Lavenhar, M.; Vidaver, R.; Dowling, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI; 1980 cGy) or sham irradiation was given to 40 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. During mean follow-up of 21 months, MS patients treated with TLI has less functional decline than sham-irradiated MS patients (p<0.01). A significant relation was noted between absolute blood lymphocyte counts in the first year after TLI and subsequent course, patients with higher lymphocyte counts generally having a worse prognosis (p<0.01). TLI was well tolerated and associated with only mild short-term, and to date, long-term side-effects. (author)

  9. Geodynamic Effects of Ocean Tides: Progress and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Ray

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry, particularly Topex/Poseidon, has markedly improved our knowledge of global tides, thereby allowing significant progress on some longstanding problems in geodynamics. This paper reviews some of that progress. Emphasis is given to global-scale problems, particularly those falling within the mandate of the new IERS Special Bureau for Tides: angular momentum, gravitational field, geocenter motion. For this discussion I use primarily the new ocean tide solutions GOT99.2, CSR4.0, and TPXO.4 (for which G. Egbert has computed inverse-theoretic error estimates), and I concentrate on new results in angular momentum and gravity and their solid-earth implications. One example is a new estimate of the effective tidal Q at the M_2 frequency, based on combining these ocean models with tidal estimates from satellite laser ranging. Three especially intractable problems are also addressed: (1) determining long-period tides in the Arctic [large unknown effect on the inertia tensor, particularly for Mf]; (2) determining the global psi_l tide [large unknown effect on interpretations of gravimetry for the near-diurnal free wobble]; and (3) determining radiational tides [large unknown temporal variations at important frequencies]. Problems (2) and (3) are related.

  10. The Effect of Trabeculectomy on Cataract Formation or Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the effect of trabeculectomy on cataract formation or progression in patients with chronic glaucoma. METHODS: This controlled clinical trial was performed on patients over 50 years of age with glaucoma who were referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2007. Trabeculectomy was indicated only in one eye while the fellow eye had well-controlled intraocular pressure with medication(s. The fellow eyes served as controls. Lens opacity was evaluated using three criteria: visual acuity (VA, and Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCS III photographs and scores. RESULTS: Overall 82 eyes of 41 patients including 53.7% male and 46.3% female subjects with mean age of 62.5±9.3 (range 50-75 years were evaluated. Cataract progression in operated eyes was statistically significant according to VA (P=0.02, LOCS III photo-graphs (P=0.05 and LOCS III scores (P=0.01. However, compared to fellow control eyes, cataract progression was significant according to VA (P=0.023 and LOCS III scores (P=0.057 but not based on LOCS III photographs. Mean VA reduction was 2 Snellen lines in operated eyes; there were 3 cases of cataract formation or

  11. Antioxidant effect of Morus nigra on Chagas disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenote, Michelly Cristina; Wajsman, Vithor Zuccaro; Konno, Yoichi Takaki; Ferreira, Paulo César; Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves; Therezo, Altino Luiz Silva; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Martins, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2017-11-06

    Considering the widespread popular use of Morus nigra and the amount of scientific information on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, the effectiveness of this phytotherapeutic compound in the parasitemia progression during the acute phase of Chagas disease and its role in the development of the inflammatory process as well as its effects on the oxidative damage in the chronic phase of infection were evaluated. Thus, 96 male Swiss mice were randomly divided into eight groups, four groups were uninfected controls, and four groups were intraperitoneally infected with 5.0 x 104 blood trypomastigotes forms of T. cruzi QM2 strain. Four batches composed of one uninfected and one infected group were respectively treated with 70% alcohol solution and 25 μL, 50 μL and 75 μL of the phytotherapeutic compound. Levels of antioxidant elements (TBARS, FRAP, GSH and Sulfhydryl groups) were measured in plasma samples. The phytotherapeutic compound's antioxidant activity was measured by polyphenol and total flavonoid quantification, DPPH, NO, and FRAP method. Our results showed that the vehicle influenced some of the results that may have physiological relevance in Chagas disease. However, an important action of M. nigra tincture was observed in the progression of Chagas disease, since our results demonstrated a reduction in parasitemia of treated groups when compared to controls, especially in the group receiving 25 µL. However, in the chronic phase, the 50-µL dosage presented a better activity on some antioxidant defenses and minimized the tissue inflammatory process. Results indicated an important action of M. nigra tincture on the Chagas disease progression.

  12. Technological progress and sustainable development. What about the rebound effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binswanger, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainability concepts that rest on the idea of resource- or energy-efficiency improvements due to technological progress tend to overestimate the potential saving effects because they frequently ignore the behavioral responses evoked by technological improvements. Efficiency improvements also affect the demand for resources and energy, and often an increase in efficiency by 1% will cause a reduction in resource use that is far below 1% or, sometimes, it can even cause an increase in resource use. This phenomenon is commonly labeled the rebound effect, which is well-known among energy economists, but never attracted much attention in ecological economics. The paper starts with the traditional neoclassical analysis of the rebound effect in a partial equilibrium framework that concentrates on the demand of one particular energy service such as mobility or room temperature. It also provides an overview of some of the main empirical studies based on this model that mostly confirm the existence of the rebound effect, but are controversial about its actual importance. However, we have to go beyond the neoclassical single-service model in order to take care of the variety of possible feedback affecting energy use. The paper presents two important expansions of the single-service model in order to show the potential relevance of the rebound effect to ecological economics. First, it is shown that in a multi-services model it proves to be difficult to make general statements about the relevance of the rebound effect. In this case, the overall effect of an increase in energy efficiency on total energy use depends on the on the assumptions about the substitutability between the services considered and the direction of the income effect. Second, the paper also tries to take care of the fact that changes in resource use or energy use are frequently just 'side-effects' of other forms of technological progress. Especially technological change of a time-saving nature can have a

  13. Two Opposing Effects (Yin and Yang) Determine Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Xu, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we introduce a new vision of cancer describing opposing effects that control progression. Cancer is a paradigm of opposing of "Yin" and "Yang," with Yin being the effect to promote cancer and Yang that to maintain the normal state. This Yin Yang hypothesis has been used to select Yin and Yang genes to develop multigene signatures for determining prognosis in lung and breast cancer. Most of the Yin genes are involved in cell survival, growth, and proliferation, whereas most Yang genes are involved in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Yin and Yang pathways have been identified in breast cancer and compounds that can inhibit the Yin pathways or activate the Yang pathways have been examined, suggesting a new promising targeting therapy for cancer. We are building a Yin Yang model to represent the dynamic change of Yin and Yang genes and pathways.

  14. Progress in piezo-phototronic effect modulated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Miaoling; Zhou, Ranran; Wang, Xiandi; Yuan, Zuqing; Hu, Guofeng; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-11-02

    Wurtzite structured materials, like ZnO, GaN, CdS, and InN, simultaneously possess semiconductor and piezoelectric properties. The inner-crystal piezopotential induced by external strain can effectively tune/control the carrier generation, transport and separation/combination processes at the metal-semiconductor contact or p-n junction, which is called the piezo-phototronic effect. This effect can efficiently enhance the performance of photovoltaic devices based on piezoelectric semiconductor materials by utilizing the piezo-polarization charges at the junction induced by straining, which can modulate the energy band of the piezoelectric material and then accelerate or prevent the separation process of the photon-generated electrons and vacancies. This paper introduces the fundamental physics principles of the piezo-phototronic effect, and reviews recent progress in piezo-phototronic effect enhanced solar cells, including solar cells based on semiconductor nanowire, organic/inorganic materials, quantum dots, and perovskite. The piezo-phototronic effect is suggested as a suitable basis for the development of an innovative method to enhance the performance of solar cells based on piezoelectric semiconductors by applied extrinsic strains, which might be appropriate for fundamental research and potential applications in various areas of optoelectronics.

  15. Effect of bleomycin and irradiation on G2 progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of bleomycin and x-irradiation on the induction of G 2 delay in Chinese hamster ovary cells was investigated utilizing the mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis. Following the addition of BLM, the number of cells selected in mitosis remained at control level for a refractory period and then decreased. The location of the transition point, i.e., the age in G 2 at which cells become refractory to a progression blockade, was concentration-dependent, ranging from the S/G 2 boundary at low concentrations to the G 2 /M boundary at high concentrations. Depending upon the concentration of the drug used and the duration of exposure, the mitotic rate either decreased to zero or else leveled off at some intermediate value and then recovered to the control level. The duration of BLM-induced division delay was thus dependent upon the concentration used and the duration of exposure. When cells were treated with pulses of bleomycin (10-500 μg/ml) in addition to x-irradiation, the mitotic rate declined as with exposure to x-ray alone. However, the recovery from radiation-induced division delay and the subsequent reappearance of mitotic cells in the selection window was delayed until the cells had recovered from their BLM-induced division delay. This implies that, in contrast to the synergistic effects observed for cell lethality, BLM and radiation do not interact in the production of a progression blockade and the resultant division delay

  16. Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Yutaka; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Seo, Hoon-Seok

    2014-04-01

    Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE) and light-receiving (LR) OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These are categorized according to their functionalities: phototransistors, non-volatile optical memories, and photochromism-based transistors. For both, various device configurations are introduced: thin-film based transistors for practical applications, single-crystalline transistors to investigate fundamental physics, nanowires, multi-layers, and vertical transistors based on new concepts.

  17. Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Yutaka; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Seo, Hoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE) and light-receiving (LR) OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These are categorized according to their functionalities: phototransistors, non-volatile optical memories, and photochromism-based transistors. For both, various device configurations are introduced: thin-film based transistors for practical applications, single-crystalline transistors to investigate fundamental physics, nanowires, multi-layers, and vertical transistors based on new concepts. (review)

  18. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit thisvital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or noncariogenic diet.Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; groupC, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Sectionmethod, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III.Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenicdiet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen.

  19. Effect of iron containing supplements on rats' dental caries progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Ar; Kowsari-Isfahan, R; Rezaiefar, M; Razavi, M; Zeighami, S

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children's diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet. Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; group C, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Section method, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III. The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenic diet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (pcariogenic dietary regimen.

  20. Effects of curriculum organisation on study progress in engineering studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van der; Jansen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Procrastination and time investment are important issues in the study of student performance and progress. Previous research on these issues has mainly concentrated upon individual differences between students in personality and time management skills. However, study progress depends not only on

  1. Effects of curriculum organisation on study progress in engineering studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, M.; Jansen, E.P.W.A.

    Procrastination and time investment are important issues in the study of student performance and progress. Previous research on these issues has mainly concentrated upon individual differences between students in personality and time management skills. However, study progress depends not only on

  2. Shifting closeness: interpersonal effects of personal goal progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we examine how the shifting motivational priority of personal goals affects relationship closeness. We hypothesize that people will draw closer to significant others who are instrumental (vs. noninstrumental) for a goal that has not been progressing well-a goal that is thus high in motivational priority. Once the goal has progressed successfully, we predict that people will cease to draw closer to instrumental others. Five studies support these predictions by showing that the impact of goal progress on reduced preference for instrumental others (Experiment 1) depends on the framing of progress as partial attainment (vs. greater commitment, Experiment 2) and the intention to balance across goals (vs. focus on one goal; Experiments 3-4). We find that moving away from instrumental others post progress is functional, in that it allows for drawing closer to those who are instrumental for alternative goals (Experiment 5).

  3. Effect of Proton Beam on Cancer Progressive and Metastatic Enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Nam, K. S.; Oh, Y. H.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Jang, J. S.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of proton beam on enzymes for promotion/progression of carcinogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumor cells to clarify proton beam-specific biological effects. The changes of cancer chemopreventive enzymes in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells irradiated with proton beams were tested by measuring the activities of quinine reductase (QR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), glutathione (GSH) levels, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We also examined the effect of proton beam on the ODC activity and expression of COX-2 in human breast cancer cell. We then assessed the metastatic capabilities of HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 cells irradiated with proton beam by measuring the invasiveness of cells through Matrigel-coated membrane and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. QR activity of irradiated HT-29 cells was slightly increased. Proton irradiation at dose of 32 Gy in HT-29 cells increased GST activity by 1.23-fold. In addition GSH levels in HT-29 cells was significantly increased 1.23- (p<0.05), 1.32- (p<0.01) and 1.34-fold (p<0.01) with the proton irradiation at doses of 8, 16 and 32 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that colon cancer chemopreventive activity was increased with the proton irradiation by increasing QR and GST activities and GSH levels and inhibiting ODC activity. Proton ion irradiation decreased the invasiveness of TPA-treated HT-29 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane. Proton ion irradiation pretreatment decreased TPA-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. Further studies are necessary to investigate if these findings could be translated to in vivo situations

  4. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1985-01-01

    of urinary albumin excretion before and during 2.6 years +/- 1.0 (SD) of treatment. The blood pressure was depressed by the treatment (systolic blood pressure from 135 mm Hg +/- 8.6 to 124 mm Hg +/- 6.2, NS; mean blood pressure from 107 mm Hg +/- 7.6 to 97 mm Hg +/- 3.4, 2p less than 0.05; diastolic blood......The aim of the study was to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment with a selective beta blocker would have an effect on the progression rate of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six male patients with juvenile-onset diabetes with incipient nephropathy (urinary...... albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 hr) were treated with metoprolol (200 mg daily). At the start of the antihypertensive treatment the mean age was 32 years +/- 4.2 (SD). The patients were followed a mean 5.4 years +/- 3.1 (SD) with repeated measurements...

  5. Resting on Laurels: The Effects of Discrete Progress Markers as Subgoals on Task Performance and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, On; Ariely, Dan

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of progress certainty and discrete progress markers (DPMs) on performance and preferences. The authors suggest that the effects of DPMs depend on whether progress certainty is high or low. When the distance to the goal is uncertain, DPMs can help reduce uncertainty and thus improve performance and increase…

  6. [Burnout effect on academic progress of Oncology medical residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ávila, Gabriel; Bello-Villalobos, Herlinda

    2014-01-01

    In the formative period of the courses taken in medical specializations, new and greater responsibilities are accepted by physicians in personal and academic spheres. The interaction of several factors that encompass the practice of these physicians could surpass their capacity to cope, causing on these professionals a high level of stress and professional exhaustion, which will affect their academic development. The objective of this research was to establish if the occupational stress of these medical residents affects their academic progress. We administered the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to 52 residents of three specializations in Oncology (Medical Oncology, Surgical Oncology, and Radio-Oncology). These residents accepted voluntarily at the same time of their third cognitive exam. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 13.5 %, with a high frequency among medical residents of first degree. Medical Oncology residents showed a higher emotional exhaustion and lower personal fulfillment. Considering the three specializations, the academic progress was higher in the third year, with a significant difference to Surgical Oncology and Medical Oncology (p = 0.026 and 0.015, respectively). No significant difference was found between burnout syndrome, academic progress and sociodemographic characteristics. The presence of burnout syndrome does not affect the academic progress of Oncology medical residents.

  7. Effects of strontium ranelate on spinal osteoarthritis progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyere, O; Delferriere, D; Roux, C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 3-year treatment with strontium ranelate could delay the progression of spinal osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This study was a post-hoc analysis of pooled data from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) and TReatment...

  8. Rehabilitation in progressive supranuclear palsy: Effectiveness of two multidisciplinary treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Clerici

    Full Text Available to date, there are no medical or surgical treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP. It is possible to speculate that patients with PSP could benefit from rehabilitative treatments designed for Parkinson's disease, including the use of robot-assisted walking training.to evaluate whether the use of the robotic device Lokomat® is superior in PSP patients to the use of treadmill with visual cues and auditory feedbacks (treadmill-plus in the context of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT conceived for Parkinsonian patients.we enrolled twenty-four PSP patients. Twelve subjects underwent a 4-week MIRT exploiting the use of the treadmill-plus (MIRT group. Twelve subjects underwent the same treatment, but replacing the treadmill-plus with Lokomat® (MIRT-Lokomat group. Subjects were evaluated with clinical and functional scales at admission and discharge. The primary outcomes were the total PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS score and its "limb" and "gait" sub-scores. Secondary outcomes were Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Six Minutes Walking test (6MWT and the number of falls.total PSPRS, PSPRS-gait sub-score, BBS, 6MWT and number of falls improved significantly in both groups (p ≤ 0.003 all, except 6MWT, p = 0.032 and p = 0.018 in MIRT-Lokomat and MIRT group respectively. The PSPRS-limb sub-score improved significantly only in the MIRT group (p = 0.002. A significant difference between groups was observed only for total PSPRS, indicating a slightly better improvement for patients in the MIRT group (p = 0.047. No differences between groups were revealed for the other outcomes, indicating that the effect of rehabilitation was similar in both groups.Lokomat® training, in comparison with treadmill-plus training, does not provide further benefits in PSP patients undergoing MIRT. Our findings suggest the usefulness of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal

  9. Biochemical studies on the ocular lens in relation to cataractogenesis. Final report, July 1, 1968--December 31, 1978J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, V.E.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    As indicated in the scope and purpose of this program, the broad aim of these investigations was to provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which various inorganic ions and a number of organic substances, particularly amino acids, enter and leave the ocular lens and to assay the role of these mechanisms in the physiological and pathological conditions of the eye. The studies also dealt with the mechanisms of glutathione in the lens and its relationship to amino acid transport, the effect of x-ray on the protein aggregation mechanism as well as the studies of the biochemical changes associated with the development of the experimentally induced galactose cataract

  10. Effective progression of nuclear magnetic resonance-detected fragment hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Hugh L; Wyss, Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become increasingly popular over the last decade as an alternate lead generation tool to HTS approaches. Several compounds have now progressed into the clinic which originated from a fragment-based approach, demonstrating the utility of this emerging field. While fragment hit identification has become much more routine and may involve different screening approaches, the efficient progression of fragment hits into quality lead series may still present a major bottleneck for the broadly successful application of FBDD. In our laboratory, we have extensive experience in fragment-based NMR screening (SbN) and the subsequent iterative progression of fragment hits using structure-assisted chemistry. To maximize impact, we have applied this approach strategically to early- and high-priority targets, and those struggling for leads. Its application has yielded a clinical candidate for BACE1 and lead series in about one third of the SbN/FBDD projects. In this chapter, we will give an overview of our strategy and focus our discussion on NMR-based FBDD approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of different types of progress indicators on drop-out rates in web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, U.; Snijders, C.C.P.; Horst, van der W.

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzes whether and how different types of progress indicators affect the tendency of respondents to continue filling out a web survey, focusing on whether the progress indicators’ effects depend on the position of the respondent in the questionnaire. Using a sample of 2460

  12. Effect of Ebola progression on transmission and control in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Dan; Gertler, Shai; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Skrip, Laura A; Fallah, Mosoka; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Altice, Frederick L; Galvani, Alison P

    2015-01-06

    The Ebola outbreak that is sweeping across West Africa is the largest, most volatile, and deadliest Ebola epidemic ever recorded. Liberia is the most profoundly affected country, with more than 3500 infections and 2000 deaths recorded in the past 3 months. To evaluate the contribution of disease progression and case fatality on transmission and to examine the potential for targeted interventions to eliminate the disease. Stochastic transmission model that integrates epidemiologic and clinical data on incidence and case fatality, daily viral load among survivors and nonsurvivors evaluated on the basis of the 2000-2001 outbreak in Uganda, and primary data on contacts of patients with Ebola in Liberia. Montserrado County, Liberia, July to September 2014. Ebola incidence and case-fatality records from 2014 Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. The average number of secondary infections generated throughout the entire infectious period of a single infected case, R, was estimated as 1.73 (95% CI, 1.66 to 1.83). There was substantial stratification between survivors (RSurvivors), for whom the estimate was 0.66 (CI, 0.10 to 1.69), and nonsurvivors (RNonsurvivors), for whom the estimate was 2.36 (CI, 1.72 to 2.80). The nonsurvivors had the highest risk for transmitting the virus later in the course of disease progression. Consequently, the isolation of 75% of infected individuals in critical condition within 4 days from symptom onset has a high chance of eliminating the disease. Projections are based on the initial dynamics of the epidemic, which may change as the outbreak and interventions evolve. These results underscore the importance of isolating the most severely ill patients with Ebola within the first few days of their symptomatic phase. National Institutes of Health.

  13. Hypoxemia in patients with COPD: cause, effects, and disease progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. Alveolar hypoxia and consequent hypoxemia increase in prevalence as disease severity increases. Ventilation\\/perfusion mismatch resulting from progressive airflow limitation and emphysema is the key driver of this hypoxia, which may be exacerbated by sleep and exercise. Uncorrected chronic hypoxemia is associated with the development of adverse sequelae of COPD, including pulmonary hypertension, secondary polycythemia, systemic inflammation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. A combination of these factors leads to diminished quality of life, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, and greater risk of death. Concomitant sleep-disordered breathing may place a small but significant subset of COPD patients at increased risk of these complications. Long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, reduce erythrocytosis, and improve survival in selected patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, the optimal treatment for patients with exertional oxyhemoglobin desaturation, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, or mild-to-moderate resting daytime hypoxemia remains uncertain.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  15. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    OpenAIRE

    AR. Eshghi; R. Kowsari-Isfahan; M. Rezaiefar; M. Razavi; S. Zeighami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-...

  16. Progresses in organic field-effect transistors and molecular electronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Weiping; Xu Wei; Hu Wenping; Liu Yunqi; Zhu Daoben

    2006-01-01

    In the past years,organic semiconductors have been extensively investigated as electronic materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs).In this review,we briefly summarize the current status of organic field-effect transistors including materials design,device physics,molecular electronics and the applications of carbon nanotubes in molecular electronics.Future prospects and investigations required to improve the OFET performance are also involved.

  17. Prismatic displacement effect of progressive multifocal glasses on reaction time and accuracy in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Ashton C; Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; Sanderson, Gordon F

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal glasses (bifocals, trifocals, and progressives) increase the risk of falling in elderly people, but how they do so is unclear. To explain why glasses with progressive addition lenses increase the risk of falls and whether this can be attributed to false projection, this study aimed to 1) map the prismatic displacement of a progressive lens, and 2) test whether this displacement impaired reaction time and accuracy. The reaction times of healthy ≥75-year-olds (31 participants) were measured when grasping for a bar and touching a black line. Participants performed each test twice, wearing their progressives and new, matched single vision (distance) glasses in random order. The line and bar targets were positioned according to the maximum and minimum prismatic displacement effect through the progressive lens, mapped using a focimeter. Progressive spectacle lenses have large areas of prismatic displacement in the central visual axis and edges. Reaction time was faster for progressives compared with single vision glasses with a centrally-placed horizontal grab bar (mean difference 101 ms, P=0.011 [repeated measures analysis]) and a horizontal black line placed 300 mm below center (mean difference 80 ms, P=0.007). There was no difference in accuracy between the two types of glasses. Older people appear to adapt to the false projection of progressives in the central visual axis. This adaptation means that swapping to new glasses or a large change in prescription may lead to a fall. Frequently updating glasses may be more beneficial.

  18. Research progress on the anticancer effects of vitamin K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xv, Fan; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Li, Shuzhuang

    2018-06-01

    Despite the availability of multiple therapeutic methods for patients with cancer, the long-term prognosis is not satisfactory in a number of different cancer types. Vitamin K2 (VK2), which exerts anticancer effects on a number of cancer cell lines, is considered to be a prospective novel agent for the treatment of cancer. The present review aims to summarize the results of studies in which VK2 was administered either to patients with cancer or animals inoculated with cancerous cells, particularly investigating the inhibitory effects of VK2 on cancerous cells, primarily involving cell-cycle arrest, cell differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy and invasion. The present review summarizes evidence stating that treatment with VK2 could positively inhibit the growth of cancer cells, making it a potentially useful approach for the prevention and clinical treatment of cancer. Additionally, the combination treatment of VK2 and established chemotherapeutics may achieve better results, with fewer side effects. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the effects of micronutrients on tumors.

  19. Effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation are dependent on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayashima Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoshinori Kayashima,1,2,* Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1,* Manabu Makinodan,1 Yoko Nakanishi,1 Akio Wanaka,2 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A number of studies have indicated that relaxing and pleasant melodies are useful for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and dementia. However, few studies have investigated what constitutive elements of the music had an effect on brain activity. As Canon chord progression is one of critical elements for pleasant melodies, we sought to examine the effects of Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression on brain activity using performance on the auditory oddball task during event-related potentials (ERPs in 30 healthy subjects. Unexpectedly, we found no differences in ERP components between subjects listening to Canon chord progression (n=15 or pitch-shifted Canon chord progression (n=15. Next, we divided participants into two groups: those who found the melody pleasant (n=17 and those who did not (n=13, for both Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression. The average of P300 amplitude was higher at Fz in subjects found the music pleasant versus those finding it unpleasant. Moreover, subjects who found it pleasant exhibited higher motivation scores than those who felt it was unpleasant, whereas listening to Canon chord progression did not matter. These findings suggest that the effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation depend on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se. Keywords: music, Canon chord progression, motivation, event-related potential, subjective feelings 

  20. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach. Progress report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-31

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  1. Biological effects from electromagnetic fields: Research progress and exposure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, F.; Lovisolo, G.A.; Raganella, L.

    1992-01-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that exposure to high levels of electromagnetic, micro- and radiofrequency waves produces harmful effects to the health of man, the formulation of exposure limits is still an open process and dependent upon the evolving level of knowledge in this field. This paper surveys the current level of knowledge gained through 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' radiological and epidemiological studies on different types of electromagnetic radiation derived effects - chromosomal, mutagenic, carcinogenic. It then reviews efforts by international organizations, e. g., the International Radiation Protection Association, to establish exposure limits for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Brief notes are given on the electromagnetic radiation monitoring campaign being performed by public health authorities in the Lazio Region of Italy

  2. Adverse effect of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele on HIV-1 disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Kristiansen, T B; Katzenstein, T L

    2001-01-01

    /G transition that has been discovered recently, have also been shown to influence HIV progression. Since genetic linkages make these polymorphisms interdependent variables, the aim of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the effect on HIV disease progression for each of these mutations independently......HIV positive individuals heterozygous for a 32 basepair deletion in the CCR5 encoding gene (CCR5 Delta32) have a reduced number of CCR5 receptors on the cell surface and a slower progression towards AIDS and death. Other human polymorphisms, such as the CCR2 64I and the CCR5 promoter -2459 A...

  3. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Ruben; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Reid, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use. PMID:22254046

  4. Effect of beta-agonists on LAM progression and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kang; Steagall, Wendy K; Stylianou, Mario; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Darling, Thomas N; Vaughan, Martha; Moss, Joel

    2018-01-30

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare disease of women, is associated with cystic lung destruction resulting from the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells with mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 and/or TSC2 The mutant genes and encoded proteins are responsible for activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is inhibited by sirolimus (rapamycin), a drug used to treat LAM. Patients who have LAM may also be treated with bronchodilators for asthma-like symptoms due to LAM. We observed stabilization of forced expiratory volume in 1 s over time in patients receiving sirolimus and long-acting beta-agonists with short-acting rescue inhalers compared with patients receiving only sirolimus. Because beta-agonists increase cAMP and PKA activity, we investigated effects of PKA activation on the mTOR pathway. Human skin TSC2 +/- fibroblasts or LAM lung cells incubated short-term with isoproterenol (beta-agonist) showed a sirolimus-independent increase in phosphorylation of S6, a downstream effector of the mTOR pathway, and increased cell growth. Cells incubated long-term with isoproterenol, which may lead to beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization, did not show increased S6 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PKA blocked the isoproterenol effect on S6 phosphorylation. Thus, activation of PKA by beta-agonists increased phospho-S6 independent of mTOR, an effect abrogated by beta-agonist-driven receptor desensitization. In agreement, retrospective clinical data from patients with LAM suggested that a combination of bronchodilators in conjunction with sirolimus may be preferable to sirolimus alone for stabilization of pulmonary function.

  5. Progress toward the effective Quantum Chromodynamic Lagrangian from symmetry considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of an effective Lagrangian which satisfies both the axial and trace anomaly equations of Quantum Chromodynamics are investigated both from the theoretical and phenomenological points of view. The model Lagrangian requires that chiral symmetry be broken spontaneously. The non-linear approximation of the model illuminates eta-glue duality or mixing. The phase transition behavior of the model of Quantum Chromodynamics can be studied as the numbers of flavors and the vacuum angle are varied by analyzing a simple mechanical analog. The analog of the model is similar to the massive Schwinger model. The possibility of a physical scalar glue state is discussed and it is shown that it is characterized by a pronounced eta to two glue decay width. A nonperturbative Quantum Chromodynamic vacuum is seen to follow directly from satisfying the trace anomaly. The quark matter meson, eta, is at least as prominent as the glueball, iota, in the gluon dominated reaction psi to gamma plus anything. An associated large breaking of flavor SU(3) is shown to be ameliorated as the model is made more realistic by lowering scalar meson masses from infinity. The pi delta decay of the iota (1440) can be reasonably well estimated without the need of introducing any new parameters

  6. Social effects of wind power - Progress report; Samhaellseffekter av vindkraft - Delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The study of the social effects have been initiated in 2009 and will last until 2014. This progress report gives an overview of the two pilot projects; Dragaliden and Gabriel Mountain and their social conditions. Furthermore are reported social effects created thus far, focused on: 1. Local and regional employment effects. 2. Effects on the service industry. 3. Population growth. 4. Property price trends. 5. Infrastructure changes.

  7. Neuraxial analgesia effects on labor progression: facts, fallacies, uncertainties, and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Erica N.; Tao, Weike; Craig, Margaret; McIntire, Donald; Leveno, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of women who labor receive some form of neuraxial analgesia, but concerns have been raised regarding whether it negatively impacts the labor and delivery process. In this review, we attempt to clarify what has been established as truths, falsities, and uncertainties regarding the effects of this form of pain relief on labor progression, negative and/or positive. Additionally, although the term “epidural” has become synonymous with neuraxial analgesia, we discuss two other techniques, combined spinal-epidural and continuous spinal analgesia, that are gaining popularity, as well as their effects on labor progression. PMID:25088476

  8. Prismatic displacement effect of progressive multifocal glasses on reaction time and accuracy in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison AC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ashton C Ellison, A John Campbell, M Clare Robertson, Gordon F SandersonDunedin School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Dunedin, New ZealandBackground: Multifocal glasses (bifocals, trifocals, and progressives increase the risk of falling in elderly people, but how they do so is unclear. To explain why glasses with progressive addition lenses increase the risk of falls and whether this can be attributed to false projection, this study aimed to 1 map the prismatic displacement of a progressive lens, and 2 test whether this displacement impaired reaction time and accuracy.Methods: The reaction times of healthy ≥75-year-olds (31 participants were measured when grasping for a bar and touching a black line. Participants performed each test twice, wearing their progressives and new, matched single vision (distance glasses in random order. The line and bar targets were positioned according to the maximum and minimum prismatic displacement effect through the progressive lens, mapped using a focimeter.Results: Progressive spectacle lenses have large areas of prismatic displacement in the central visual axis and edges. Reaction time was faster for progressives compared with single vision glasses with a centrally-placed horizontal grab bar (mean difference 101 ms, P=0.011 [repeated measures analysis] and a horizontal black line placed 300 mm below center (mean difference 80 ms, P=0.007. There was no difference in accuracy between the two types of glasses.Conclusion: Older people appear to adapt to the false projection of progressives in the central visual axis. This adaptation means that swapping to new glasses or a large change in prescription may lead to a fall. Frequently updating glasses may be more beneficial.Keywords: fall prevention, false projection, stored visual spatial information

  9. Effect of biologic therapy on radiological progression in rheumatoid arthritis: what does it add to methotrexate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Graeme Jones, Erica Darian-Smith, Michael Kwok, Tania WinzenbergMenzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: There have been substantial advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in recent years. Traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs have been shown to have small effects on the progression of radiographic damage. This quantitative overview summarizes the evidence for biologic DMARDS and radiographic damage either alone or in combination with methotrexate. Two outcomes were used (standardized mean difference and odds of progression. A total of 21 trials were identified of which 18 had useable data. For biologic monotherapy, tocilizumab, adalimumab, and etanercept were significantly better than methotrexate, with tocilizumab ranking first in both outcomes while golimumab was ineffective in both outcomes. For a biologic in combination with methotrexate compared with methotrexate alone, most therapies studied (etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, certolizumab, tocilizumab, and rituximab were effective at slowing X-ray progression using either outcome, with infliximab ranking first in both outcomes. The exceptions to this were golimumab (no effect on standardized mean difference and abatacept (no effect on odds of progression. This effect was additional to methotrexate; thus, the overall benefit is moderate to large in magnitude, which is clearly of major clinical significance for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and supports the use of biologic DMARDs in those with a poor disease prognosis.Keywords: rheumatoid, trials, meta-analysis, radiographs, biologic, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, DMARDs

  10. Effect of lipid-lowering therapy on the progression of intracranial arterial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teng-Yeow; Kuo, Yeh-Lin; Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Ting-Yao

    2009-02-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS) is a severe disease with a high recurrent stroke rate even under the best medical treatment. Statins have been demonstrated to prevent stroke and to slow or halt atherosclerosis progression. This study was performed to observe the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of IAS, explore the factors associated with atherosclerosis regression and the recurrent rate of stroke. A hospital-base observation study enrolled 40 stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) or/and basilar artery (BA) stenosis. All participants had hyperlipidemia and were given atorvastatin 40 mg per day for at least six months. IAS was assessed by magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) at the time of enrollment and then at least six months later. The primary outcome was the progression of IAS. All patients were also given antiplatelet agents for stroke prevention. At the end of the study, 23 (58 %), 15 (38 %) and 2 (4 %) patients had regressed, stationary and progressed IAS, respectively. Females were likely to have regressed IAS. The recurrent stroke rate was 18 %. Among the 54 stenotic vessels, 29 (54 %) vessels were assessed as improvement in stenosis. Compared with other studies, more regressed, stationary IAS and less progressed IAS were found in our study. Female gender was likely to have regressed IAS after statin treatment. Further clinical outcome trials are required to assess the effects of such therapy on morbidity and mortality in this particular group of patients.

  11. Institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV: Countries progress in implementing technical guidelines and good governance requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieng, R.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid; Arts, B.; Brockhaus, M.; Herold, M.

    2016-01-01

    The UNFCCC requires REDD+ countries wishing to receive results-based payments to measure, report and verify (MRV) REDD+ impacts; and outlines technical guidelines and good governance requirements for MRV. This article examines institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV by assessing countries’ progress

  12. Effects of Most to Least Prompting on Teaching Simple Progression Swimming Skill for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Yanardag, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Effects of most to least prompting on teaching simple progression swimming skill for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across subjects with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week with session three times a week period using the single…

  13. Effect of Sex Hormones on Progression of Diabetic Renal Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Sex Hormones on Progression of Diabetic Renal Disease in Experimental Model of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. ... into five groups 8 rats each, normal control, diabetic, gonadectomized diabetic, 17 beta estradiol is given to female and testosterone propionate to male diabetic and gonadectomized diabetic.

  14. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Social Performance and Quality of Life in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the progressive muscle relaxation technique can effectively reduce the duration of rehabilitation, days of hospitalization and healthcare costs, as well as improve the quality of life, mood, and mental health in the elderly people.

  15. Effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for frequent neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Saervoll, Charlotte A; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical exercise is a cornerstone in rehabilitation programs, but adherence to comprehensive exercise remains low. This study determined the effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for relieving neck/shoulder pain in healthy adults with frequent symptoms...

  16. Mental Model Progression in Learning the Electron Transport Chain: Effects of Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Hemphill, Jennifer; Nelson, David W.; Boulware, Wilma; Liang, Xinya

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two instructional strategies, segmented and holistic, on the progression over time of learners' mental models toward that of an expert with the moderator of cognitive flexibility. Sixty-four juniors and seniors in a college metabolism course were randomly assigned to one of the two strategies for instruction…

  17. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation techniques on anxiety in Patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Jariani

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: progressive muscle relaxation can reduce the amount of anxiety, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in CCU ward, therefore it can play an effective role as a supplement non-medicinal, simple and cheap treatment for these patients

  18. Effects of heavy ions on rabbit tissues: damage to the forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.B.; Keng, P.C.; Lee, A.C.; Lett, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a study of progressive radiation effects in normal tissues, the forebrains of New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (about 6 weeks old) were irradiated locally with single acute doses of 60 Co γ-photons (LETsub(infinity)=0.3 keV/μm), Ne ions (LETsub(infinity)=35+-3 keV/μm) or Ar ions (LETsub(infinity)=90+-5 keV/μm). Other rabbits received fractionated doses of 60 Co γ-photons according to a standard radiotherapeutic protocol. Irradiated rabbits and appropriately aged controls were sacrificed at selected intervals, and whole sagittal sections of their brains were examined for pathological changes. Forebrain damage was scored with subjective indices based on histological differences between the anterior (irradiated) and posterior (unirradiated) regions of the brain. Those indices ranged from zero (no apparent damage) to five (severe infarctions, etc.). At intermediate levels of forebrain damage, the relative biological effectiveness (r.b.e.) of each heavy ion was similar to that found for alopecia and cataractogenesis, and the early expression of the damage was also accelerated as the LETsub(infinity) increased. Late deterioration of the forebrain appeared also to be accelerated by increasing LETsub(infinity), although its accurate quantification was not possible because other priorities in the overall experimental design limited systematic sacrifice of the animals. (author)

  19. Associations of hormonal contraceptive use with measures of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Maura K; Jeng, Gary; Samarina, Anna; Akatova, Natalia; Martirosyan, Margarita; Kissin, Dmitry M; Curtis, Kathryn M; Marchbanks, Polly A; Hillis, Susan D; Mandel, Michele G; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations between hormonal contraceptive use and measures of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral treatment (ART) effectiveness. A prospective cohort study of women with prevalent HIV infection in St. Petersburg, Russia, was conducted. After contraceptive counseling, participants chose to use combined oral contraceptives (COCs), depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a copper intrauterine device (IUD) or male condoms for pregnancy prevention. Among participants not using ART at enrollment, we used multivariate Cox regression to assess the association between current (time-varying) contraceptive use and disease progression, measured by the primary composite outcome of CD4 decline to contraceptive method. During a total of 5233 months follow-up among participants not using ART with enrollment CD4 ≥350 cells/mm(3) (n=315), 97 experienced disease progression. Neither current use of COCs [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-1.48] nor DMPA (aHR 1.28, 95% CI 0.71-2.31) was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for disease progression compared with use of nonhormonal methods (IUD or condoms). Among participants using ART at enrollment (n=77), we found no statistically significant differences in the predicted mean changes in CD4 cell count comparing current use of COCs (p=.1) or DMPA (p=.3) with nonhormonal methods. Hormonal contraceptive use was not significantly associated with measures of HIV disease progression or ART effectiveness among women with prevalent HIV infection. Hormonal contraceptive use was not significantly associated with measures of HIV disease progression or ART effectiveness among women with prevalent HIV infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The effect of conditional probability of chord progression on brain response: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have explored how and where musical syntax in Western music is processed in the human brain. An inappropriate chord progression elicits an event-related potential (ERP component called an early right anterior negativity (ERAN or simply an early anterior negativity (EAN in an early stage of processing the musical syntax. Though the possible underlying mechanism of the EAN is assumed to be probabilistic learning, the effect of the probability of chord progressions on the EAN response has not been previously explored explicitly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the empirical conditional probabilities in a Western music corpus were employed as an approximation of the frequencies in previous exposure of participants. Three types of chord progression were presented to musicians and non-musicians in order to examine the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the neuromagnetic response using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Chord progressions were found to elicit early responses in a negatively correlating fashion with the conditional probability. Observed EANm (as a magnetic counterpart of the EAN component responses were consistent with the previously reported EAN responses in terms of latency and location. The effect of conditional probability interacted with the effect of musical training. In addition, the neural response also correlated with the behavioral measures in the non-musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to reveal the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the corresponding neuromagnetic response. The current results suggest that the physiological response is a reflection of the probabilistic representations of the musical syntax. Moreover, the results indicate that the probabilistic representation is related to the musical training as well as the sensitivity of an individual.

  1. The Effects of Instructor Differences Upon Student Progress in Naval Aviation Training. Medical Research Progress No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Wayne L.; Shannon, Richard H.

    The investigation attempted to determine: whether instructor differences could be measured quantitatively; if such differences affected the grades which they assigned; if such differences affected the student's progress through the flight training program. Using an unstructured rating form, it was found that reliable instructor differences could…

  2. Effect of Curcuma zedoaria crude extract against tumor progression and immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FR Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the effect of the crude extract of Curcuma zedoaria on peripheral blood cells and tumor progression in C57Bl/6J mice injected with B16F10 murine melanoma cells. The intraperitoneal therapy showed a significant increase in total white and red blood cell counts, a decrease in peritoneal cell number and tumor volume reduction, whereas the oral administration revealed a noteworthy augmentation only in total leukocyte count. These results contribute to evaluate the importance of alternative treatments that employ phytotherapic compounds against tumor progression and its possible immunomodulation.

  3. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors on progression of advanced polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafar, Tazeen H; Stark, Paul C; Schmid, Christopher H

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not known whether angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors slow the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). We performed a patient-level meta-analysis to compare the effect of antihypertensive regimens, including ACE inhibitors, to those without ACE inhibitors...... of doubling of baseline serum creatinine or onset of kidney failure). We also performed multivariable linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses. Based on previous findings, we searched for interactions between the treatment effect (effect of ACE inhibitors vs. controls) and baseline urine......%) in the ACE inhibitor group and 30 patients (41%) in the control group (P= 0.17). ACE inhibitors had a greater effect on lowering urine protein excretion and slowing kidney disease progression in patients with higher levels of baseline urine protein excretion (interaction P

  4. Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  5. Progress on Beam-Plasma Effect Simulations in Muon Ionization Cooling Lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James [IIT, Chicago; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    New computational tools are essential for accurate modeling and simulation of the next generation of muon-based accelerators. One of the crucial physics processes specific to muon accelerators that has not yet been simulated in detail is beam-induced plasma effect in liquid, solid, and gaseous absorbers. We report here on the progress of developing the required simulation tools and applying them to study the properties of plasma and its effects on the beam in muon ionization cooling channels.

  6. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on gestational hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjkesh F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension is a common disorder in pregnancy. Although this disorder is accompanied by many difficulties in pregnancy, no effective therapy has still been found to treat it. One of the main methods in the treatment of hypertension is stress reducing programs such as relaxation and Guided Imagery. This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the gestational hypertension. Methods: The present study is a randomized clinical...

  7. Effects of energy related activities on the plankton of the Chesapeake Bay. Section I. Work in progress. Progress report, 1 August 1975--31 July 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: release of dissolved organic carbon by phytoplankton; plankton respiration and nutrient regeneration; bacterial utilization of labeled compounds; effects of heat and chlorine on natural assemblages of Chesapeake Bay phytoplankton; and nutrient flux between sediment and water

  8. EFFECT OF ALTITUDE AND WOUNDING ON BLOOD DISEASE PROGRESS OF PLANTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwiyono, S. Subandiyah, C. Sumardiyono, J. Widada, and M. Fegan.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Altitude and Wounding on Blood Disease Progress of Plantain. In the latest decade, the blood disease of banana has spread in almost all provinces in Indonesia and caused wilting of millions banana clusters in several provinces.  It is very difficult to control the disease due  to the base data about ecology and epidemiology of the pathogen are still poorly understood. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of  wounding of inoculation site on blood disease progress of plantain. The experiment was arranged using randomized completely block design It was conducted at three locations with altitude of 100, 1000, and 1600 m above sea levels as replication block. The treatments were wounding, unwounding inoculation site, inoculation, and uninoculation of plantain cv. Kepok Kuning Wounding was applied by stabbing with an injection pin around the corm of 15 stabs/seedling. The seedlings were planted singly in one liter of non sterile soil in plastic bag.  Each treatment consisted of 5 seedlings which was replicated 3 times. Inoculation was done  by soil drenching of 20 ml bacterial suspension at  concentration of 108 cfu/ml two week after planting.  The pathogen used for inoculation originated from low land area (about 100 m above sea level.  Observation was done weekly for 5 weeks. The variables observed were wilt intensity and area under disease progress (AUDPC. The results showed that blood disease was able to establish at altitude of 1600 m above sea level. The disease progress however was slower that those at 100 and 1000 m above sea level. On wounded seedling, the disease progress was more aggressive than those on unwounded one.

  9. Effect of cellular therapy in progression of Becker’s muscular dystrophy: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD is an inherited disorder due to deletions of the dystrophin gene that leads to muscle weakness. Effects of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC transplantation in Muscular Dystrophy have shown to be safe and beneficial. We treated a 20-year-old male suffering from BMD with autologous BMMNC transplantation followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation. He presented with muscle weakness and had difficulty in performing his activities. The BMMNCs were transplanted via intrathecal and intramuscular routes. The effects were measured on clinical and functional changes. Over 9 months, gradual improvement was noticed in muscle strength, respiratory functions and North Star Ambulatory Assessment Scale. Functional Independence Measure, Berg Balance Score, Brooke and Vignos Scale remained stable indicating halting of the progression. The case report suggests that cellular therapy combined with rehabilitation may have possibility of repairing and regenerating muscle fibers and decreasing the rate of progression of BMD.

  10. Cholestasis progression effects on long-term memory in bile duct ligation rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is evidence that cognitive functions are affected by some liver diseases such as cholestasis. Bile duct ligation induces cholestasis as a result of impaired liver function and cognition. This research investigates the effect of cholestasis progression on memory function in bile duct ligation rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, which include: control group for BDL-7, control group for BDL-21, sham group (underwent laparotomy without bile duct ligation, BDL-7 group (7 days after bile duct ligation, and BDL-21 group (21 days after bile duct ligation. Step-through passive avoidance test was employed to examine memory function. In all groups, short-term (7 days after foot shock and long-term memories (21 days after foot shock were assessed. Results: Our results showed that liver function significantly decreased with cholestasis progression (P < 0.01. Also our findings indicated BDL-21 significantly impaired acquisition time (P < 0.05. Memory retrieval impaired 7 (P < 0.05 and 21 days (P < 0.001 after foot shock in BDL-7 and BDL-21 groups, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, liver function altered in cholestasis and memory (short-term and long-term memory impaired with cholestasis progression in bile duct ligation rats. Further studies are needed to better insight the nature of progression of brain damage in cholestatic disease.

  11. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, 1978-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Current progress in studies on the mutagenic effect of 3 H incorporated into the DNA of Drosophila melanogaster is reported. It was shown that selected 3 H precursors incorporated into DNA are metabolized. The forms (metabolites) of tritium found in the DNA molecules and the mutation frequencies resulting therefrom were identified. An alcohol dehydrogenase system was developed for recovering mutations that is capable of distinguishing between base changes and chain breakage events that may lead to the formation of deletions

  12. α2-adrenergic blockade mimics the enhancing effect of chronic stress on breast cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Donald M.; Sung, Ha Yeon; Yang, Gyu Sik; David, John M.; Ma, Jeffrey C.Y.; Cole, Steve W.; Sloan, Erica K.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in preclinical mouse models of breast cancer have shown that chronic restraint stress can enhance disease progression by increasing catecholamine levels and subsequent signaling of β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines also signal α-adrenergic receptors, and greater α-adrenergic signaling has been shown to promote breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. However, antagonism of α-adrenergic receptors can result in elevated catecholamine levels, which may increase β-adrenergic signaling, because pre-synaptic α2-adrenergic receptors mediate an autoinhibition of sympathetic transmission. Given these findings, we examined the effect of α-adrenergic blockade on breast cancer progression under non-stress and stress conditions (chronic restraint) in an orthotopic mouse model with MDA-MB-231HM cells. Chronic restraint increased primary tumor growth and metastasis to distant tissues as expected, and non-selective α-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine significantly inhibited those effects. However, under non-stress conditions, phentolamine increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis. Sympatho-neural gene expression for catecholamine biosynthesis enzymes was elevated by phentolamine under non-stress conditions, and the non-selective β-blocker propranolol inhibited the effect of phentolamine on breast cancer progression. Selective α2-adrenergic blockade by efaroxan also increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis under non-stress conditions, but selective α1-adrenergic blockade by prazosin did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that α2-adrenergic signaling can act through an autoreceptor mechanism to inhibit sympathetic catecholamine release and, thus, modulate established effects of β-adrenergic signaling on tumor progression-relevant biology. PMID:25462899

  13. Molecular basis for the mutagenic and lethal effects of ultraviolet irradiation. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Pathways of DNA repair in bacteria and mammalian cells. Progress is reported on the following studies: genetic control of incision and excision in Escherichia coli; effects of binding proteins on the repair process in vitro; location of endonuclease - uv-irradiated DNA complexes; identification of eukaryotic repair mechanisms; nuclear complementation in HeLa cells; enzyme isolation from repair syndrome skin fibroblasts; and expression of the E. coli - SV40 hybrid DNA

  14. Progressing from programmatic to discovery research: a case example with the overjustification effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Roane, Henry S; Fisher, Wayne W; McDonough, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific research progresses along planned (programmatic research) and unplanned (discovery research) paths. In the current investigation, we attempted to conduct a single-case evaluation of the overjustification effect (i.e., programmatic research). Results of the initial analysis were contrary to the overjustification hypothesis in that removal of the reward contingency produced an increase in responding. Based on this unexpected finding, we conducted subsequent analyses to further evalua...

  15. Research progress in mutational effects of aerospace on crop and ground simulation on aerospace environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Wang Jing; Zhao Linshu; Guo Huijun; Zhao Shirong; Zheng Qicheng; Yang Juncheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the current status of aerospace botany research in aboard was briefly introduced. The research progress of mutational effects of aerospace on crop seed and its application in germplasm enhancement and new variety development by using recoverable satellite techniques in China has been reviewed. The approaches and its experimental advances of ground simulation on aerospace environmental factors were analyzed at different angles of particle biology, physical field biology and gravity biology

  16. Effect of fluoxetine on disease progression in a mouse model of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschnitzky, J. E.; Quinlan, K. A.; Lukas, T. J.; Kajtaz, E.; Kocevar, E. J.; Mayers, W. F.; Siddique, T.

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants are often prescribed to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients; however, the impact of these prescriptions on ALS disease progression has not been systematically tested. To determine whether SSRIs impact disease progression, fluoxetine (Prozac, 5 or 10 mg/kg) was administered to mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mice during one of three age ranges: neonatal [postnatal day (P)5–11], adult presymptomatic (P30 to end stage), and adult symptomatic (P70 to end stage). Long-term adult fluoxetine treatment (started at either P30 or P70 and continuing until end stage) had no significant effect on disease progression. In contrast, neonatal fluoxetine treatment (P5-11) had two effects. First, all animals (mutant SOD1G93A and control: nontransgenic and SOD1WT) receiving the highest dose (10 mg/kg) had a sustained decrease in weight from P30 onward. Second, the high-dose SOD1G93A mice reached end stage ∼8 days (∼6% decrease in life span) sooner than vehicle and low-dose animals because of an increased rate of motor impairment. Fluoxetine increases synaptic serotonin (5-HT) levels, which is known to increase spinal motoneuron excitability. We confirmed that 5-HT increases spinal motoneuron excitability during this neonatal time period and therefore hypothesized that antagonizing 5-HT receptors during the same time period would improve disease outcome. However, cyproheptadine (1 or 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT receptor antagonist, had no effect on disease progression. These results show that a brief period of antidepressant treatment during a critical time window (the transition from neonatal to juvenile states) can be detrimental in ALS mouse models. PMID:24598527

  17. Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early burn-wound progression in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue Guo

    Full Text Available Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression.Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn.The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management.Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-κB signalling pathway may be involved in regulating the

  18. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, 1975--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on research in the following areas: determination of mutagenic effects of tritium incorporated into DNA using 32 P, 33 P, and 14 C; dosimetry studies using number of disintegrations per minute per sperm cell; effect of the 5-position of the label of the cytosine moiety on mutation frequency; distribution of labeled thymine and comparison with labeled cytosine and a non-DNA labeled arginine-rich protein; detection of temperature sensitive mutants; induction of mosaics by x radiation; and methods for determining quantitatively the location of tritium in the deoxycytidine moiety

  19. Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, Miguel A; Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

  20. Effects of arsenite on cell cycle progression in a human bladder cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Zavala, A.; Cordova, E.; Razo, L.M. del; Cebrian, M.E.; Garrido, E.

    2005-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most important diseases associated with arsenic (As) exposure in view of its high prevalence and mortality rate. Experimental studies have shown that As exposure induces cell proliferation in the bladder of sodium arsenite (iAsIII) subchronically treated mice. However, there is little available information on its effects on the cell cycle of bladder cells. Thus, our purpose was to evaluate the effects of iAsIII on cell cycle progression and the response of p53 and p21 on the human-derived epithelial bladder cell line HT1197. iAsIII treatment (1-10 μM) for 24 h induced a dose-dependent increase in the proportion of cells in S-phase, which reached 65% at the highest dose. A progressive reduction in cell proliferation was also observed. BrdU was incorporated to cellular DNA in an interrupted form, suggesting an incomplete DNA synthesis. The time-course of iAsIII effects (10 μM) showed an increase in p53 protein content and a transient increase in p21 protein levels accompanying the changes in S-phase. These effects were correlated with iAs concentrations inside the cells, which were not able to metabolize inorganic arsenic. Our findings suggest that p21 was not able to block CDK2-cyclin E complex activity and was therefore unable to arrest cells in G1 allowing their progression into the S-phase. Further studies are needed to ascertain the mechanisms underlying the effects of iAsIII on the G1 to S phase transition in bladder cells

  1. The effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Aalami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are the main cause of maternal and fetal mortality; however, they have no definite effective treatment. The researchers aimed to study the effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure (BP during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This three-group clinical trial was conducted in Mashhad health centers and governmental hospitals. Sixty pregnant (after 20 weeks of gestational age women with systolic BP ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg were assigned to three groups. Progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control exercises were administered to the two experimental groups once a week in person and in the rest of the days by instructions given on a CD for 4 weeks. BP was checked before and after the interventions. BP was measured before and after 15 min subjects' waiting without any especial intervention in the control group. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, the systolic (by a mean of 131.3 to 117.2, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 131.05 to 120.5, P = 0.004, respectively and diastolic (by a mean of 79.2 to 72.3, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 80.1 to 76.5, P = 0.047, respectively BPs were significantly decreased in progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control groups, but they were not statistically significant in the control group. Conclusions: The interventions were effective on decreasing systolic and diastolic BP to normal range after 4 weeks in both the groups. The effects of both the interventions were more obvious on systolic BP compared to diastolic BP.

  2. The effect of cigarette smoking, tea, and coffee consumption on the progression of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandinov, Boris; Giladi, Nir; Korczyn, Amos D

    2007-05-01

    Previous epidemiological studies found a negative association between cigarette smoking, tea or coffee drinking with the occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is unknown how these factors affect the rate of progression of the disease. A retrospective study was conducted among 278 consecutive PD patients. Data on smoking and coffee or tea consumption were obtained through direct or proxy interviews, and the time from onset of motor symptoms until reaching Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage 3 was retrieved from the case records. Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meyer model were used to estimate whether the dependent variables (smoking, drinking coffee or tea) affect the rate of progression of the disease, which was measured by the time it took patients to reach H&Y stage 3. We found that disease progression was not affected by cigarette smoking, tea or coffee consumption. The present study suggests that these variables do not have a disease modifying effect in already diagnosed PD patients.

  3. Reduction in albuminuria predicts a beneficial effect on diminishing the progression of human diabetic nephropathy during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Hommel, E; Smidt, U M

    1994-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of increased mortality and morbidity in IDDM patients. The effect of antihypertensive treatment on the progression of the nephropathy is highly variable. The aim of this study was to evaluate putative predictors of the progression in diabetic nephropathy dur...

  4. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Fatigue and Quality of Life Among Iranian Aging Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassanpour-Dehkordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the elderly population is increasing rapidly in developing countries which may decrease the physical activity and exercise and in turn could affect the elderly’s quality of life, this study aimed to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the elderly’s quality of life in Iran. In a randomized clinical trial, participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. For the intervention group, muscular progressive relaxation was run three days per week for three months (totally 36 sessions. In relaxation, a patient contract a group of his/her muscles in each step and relaxes them after five seconds and finally loosens all muscles and takes five deep breaths. Each session lasts for 45 minutes. The instrument of data gathering consisted of questionnaires on individual’s demographic data and quality of life SF-36. After intervention, quality of life increased significantly in the patients undergoing muscular progressive relaxation and fatigue severity decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to prior to intervention. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of physical performance, restricted activity after physical problem, energy, socially function, physical pain, overall hygiene, and quality of life between intervention and control groups. By implementing regular and continuous progressive muscle relaxation, quality of life could be increased in different dimensions in the elderly and the context could be provided to age healthily and enjoy higher health and autonomy. Therefore, all of the therapeutic staffs are recommended to implement this plan to promote the elderly’s quality of life.

  5. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  6. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  7. Progressing from programmatic to discovery research: a case example with the overjustification effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Henry S; Fisher, Wayne W; McDonough, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific research progresses along planned (programmatic research) and unplanned (discovery research) paths. In the current investigation, we attempted to conduct a single-case evaluation of the overjustification effect (i.e., programmatic research). Results of the initial analysis were contrary to the overjustification hypothesis in that removal of the reward contingency produced an increase in responding. Based on this unexpected finding, we conducted subsequent analyses to further evaluate the mechanisms underlying these results (i.e., discovery research). Results of the additional analyses suggested that the reward contingency functioned as punishment (because the participant preferred the task to the rewards) and that withdrawal of the contingency produced punishment contrast.

  8. Effects of clusterin over-expression on metastatic progression and therapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Louise; Whyte, Lorna; Chatterjee, Namita; Tenniswood, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s) of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis. To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU) that over-expresses clusterin. We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. Orthotopic primary tumors derived from MCF-7CLU cells grow significantly more rapidly than tumors derived from parental MCF-7 cells and, unlike the parental cells, metastasize frequently to the lungs. These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells

  9. The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on The Occupational Stress of Nurses in Critical Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Matourypour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: In the nursing profession, there are numerous factors which altogether cause occupational stress and as a result occupational exhaustion in nurses and decrease the quality of patient care. Regarding the importance of this issue which influences the health indices of the society, this study investigates the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the occupational stress of nurses.Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental and before-after study was conducted using progressive muscle relaxation intervention on 33 nurses in special treatment (ICU and CCU and emergency units through simple sampling in Yazd in 2012. To assess occupational stress,Toft-Anderson questionnaire was used. The procedure of applying relaxation in a practical way was given to nurses in pamphlets and questionnaires were filled before and two weeks after the intervention. Analysis was done using SPSS.16 software and T-test.Results: The average total score of stress in nurses before and after the intervention was determined as – 28.12±43.74 and 52.12±04.72 respectively and this difference was not statistically significant (39.0>p. However, in the dimensions of nurses’ workload (/0>p 03 and t=2.27 and patients’ suffering and death, these scores were significantly different (0001.0>p and t=3.94.Conclusion: This study showed that applying progressive muscle relaxation technique as a method of emotion-focused coping cannot be effective in the reduction of occupational stress in nurses.

  10. Effects of clusterin over-expression on metastatic progression and therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Namita

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis. Methods To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU that over-expresses clusterin. We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. Results In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. Orthotopic primary tumors derived from MCF-7CLU cells grow significantly more rapidly than tumors derived from parental MCF-7 cells and, unlike the parental cells, metastasize frequently to the lungs. Conclusions These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells.

  11. Household structure vs. composition: Understanding gendered effects on educational progress in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Myroniuk, Tyler W; Kuhn, Randall; Collinson, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most extant research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. First, we offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household; and second, we demonstrate the value of this approach through an analysis of educational progress for boys and girls in rural South Africa. We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6-18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. The results suggest that non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Despite the wealth of literature on household structure and children's educational outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the conceptual basis of these effects has not been well articulated. We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations impact education.

  12. [Research progress of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of total glucosides of peony in hepatoprotective effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi-Yan; Zhan, Shu-Yu; Huang, Xuan; Ding, Bao-Yue; Liu, Yu-Qian; Ruan, Yu-Er; Jiang, Ning-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), containing the effective components of paeoniflorin (Pae), albiflorin (Alb) and so on, are effective parts of Radix Paeoniae Alba. And it possesses extensive pharmacological actions, one of which is hepatoprotective effect. In recent years, abundant of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics research of TGP in hepatoprotective effects have been performed. However, the relative medicine of TGP in hepatoprotective effect has not been developed for clinical application. In order to provide reference for the development and rational clinical application of TGP, the research progresses of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TGP in hepatoprotective effect were summarized in this paper. Pharmacokinetics research has clarified the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of TGP in vivo, and liver injury disease can significantly influence its metabolic processes. Pharmacodynamics studies suggested that TGP can protect against acute liver injury, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), chronic liver fibrosis and liver cancer. However, the action mechanism and in vivo process about hepatoprotective effects of TGP have not been clearly revealed. How liver injury influences the metabolism of TGP and its integrated regulation through multiple targets need to be further studied. The combined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies should be performed in favour of medicine development and clinical application of TGP in hepatoprotective effects. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Effect of point defects on mechanical properties of metals. Technical progress report, January 1, 1978--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, M.

    1978-11-01

    Progress is reported on deformation behavior of niobium single crystals below 77 0 K, the effect of electron irradiation on the deformation behavior of niobium single crystals, and surface film softening phenomenon in Ni plated iron single crystals

  14. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  15. Effect of hyperthermia and radiation on the cell cycle progression of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Nobuo

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hyperthermia and irradiation on cytokinetics was studied using exponentially growing HeLa cells. To determine the effect of heat and/or radiation on the cell cycle progression, the changes in the DNA distribution of the cell population after time intervals after treatment were studied. The cellular DNA content of the cell population was measured by flow cytometry. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Compared with the control, the cellular DNA content distribution of HeLa cells treated with 43 0 C for 20 min and 60 min showed cell accumulation in S and G 2 M phases 8 hours after treatment. 2. Hyperthermic treatment at 45 0 C for 20 min caused cells to accumulate in S phase in the first 4 hours and G 2 M phase after 8 to 14.5 hours, whereas heat treatment at 45 0 C for 60 min caused cells to accumulate in G 2 M phase after 24 hours. 3. Irradiation of exponentially growing cells induced a block in the progress from G 2 M to G 1 phase. 4. Dose survival curves of HeLa cells with and without postirradiation thermal treatment (43 0 C, 60 min) showed significant enhancement of radiosensitivity by hyperthermia. 5. The sequential treatment, i.e. 5 Gy irradiation followed immediately by heat treatment at 43 0 C for 60 min, caused more cells to accumulate in G 2 M phase after 24 and 48 hours, as compared with 5 Gy irradiation alone. (author)

  16. Comparison of the cytological effects produced by ionizing radiations of different LET. Progress report, March 1974--April 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, E.F. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: RBE of neutrons and x radiation for effects on rat lens epithelium; effects of x radiation on tumor cell transplants in mice; effects of fast neutrons on ascites tumors; the sparing effect of dose fractionation in the wounded rat lens; and DNA synthesis in wounded rat lens at various times after irradiation. (U.S.)

  17. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation during the Induction and Progression of Osteoarthritis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies correlate low levels of vitamin D with the osteoarthritis (OA progression. Cytokines and metalloproteases play a major role in OA promoting the inflammation and degradation of the cartilage and can be induced through the Toll-like receptor (TLR pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on the development of osteoarthritis (OA through examining the genetic regulation of TLRs, cytokines, and metalloproteases in chondrocytes as well as the wideness of cartilage in rats with OA. Our results demonstrate that the signaling through TLR-4 is a proinflammatory mechanism in osteoarthritis that drives the upregulation of MMP-3, IL-1β, and TNF-α gene expression, leading to cartilage degradation and inflammation. Vitamin D supplementation had a protective effect during the onset but not during the chronic stage of OA in the rat model.

  18. The effect of oxidative stress on the progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ihsan; Arikan, Mehmet Fettah; Altay, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2017-11-29

    We aimed to investigate the effects of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Forty euthyroid and 40 subclinical hypothyroid patients older than 18 years and not yet had received treatment were enrolled in the study. In the 9 months follow-up, 14 of the HT patients developed overt hypothyroidism. The mean total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were higher in patients who developed overt hypothyroidism than those who did not (p  .05). Multivariable Cox regression model showed thyroid stimulating hormone level (HR = 1.348, p OSI ratio (HR = 2.349, p OSI level, being over 2.96 with 92.9% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity, predicts the risk of hypothyroidism. Oxidative stress may be an effective risk factor in the development of overt hypothyroidism in HT.

  19. [The effect of EMG level by EMG biofeedback with progressive muscle relaxation training on tension headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, U J; Kim, N C; Kim, H S

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess if EMG biofeedback training with progressive muscle relaxation training is effective in reducing the EMG level in patients with tension headaches. This study which lasted from 23 October to 30 December 1989, was conducted on 10 females who were diagnosed as patients with tension headaches and selected from among volunteers at C. University in Seoul. The process of the study was as follows: First, before the treatment, the baseline was measured for two weeks and the level of EMG was measured five times in five minutes. And then EMG biofeedback training was used for six weeks, 12 sessions in all, and progressive muscle relaxation was done at home by audio tape over eight weeks. Each session was composed of a 5-minute baseline, two 5-minute EMG biofeedback training periods and a 5-minute self-control stage. Each stage was followed by a five minute rest period. So each session took a total of 40 minutes. The EMG level was measured by EMG biofeedback (Autogenic-Cyborg: M 130 EMG module). The results were as follows: 1. The average age of the subjects was 44.1 years and the average history of headache was 10.6 years (range: 6 months-20 years). 2. The level of EMG was lowest between the third and the fourth week of the training except in Cases I and IV. 3. The patients began to show a nonconciliatory attitude at the first session of the fifth week of the training.

  20. Effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fisher-344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Ricardo Biasoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understand the effect of chronic alcohol on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fischer-344 rats.Methods: For the study, 22 Fischer-344 rats, two months old were used, divided into groups: alcohol (n=8, ligature (n=7 and control (n=7. On the first day, the animals in the alcohol group were exposed to ingestion of a water solution containing 20% alcohol (size/size, up to day 90. After thirty days from the beginning of the experiment, the animals in the alcohol group and the ligature group were submitted to the placement of a silk thread around the right maxillary second molar. Nothing was performed on the left side, serving as control. All the groups were submitted to euthanasia 60 days after ligature placement. To assess the destruction of periodontitis, a radiographic exam was used to measure the destruction of bone height. Results: The results of the study showed that on the side in which periodontitis was induced, the group that ingested alcohol suffered an increase in destruction, with statistical differences when compared with the ligature and control groups and increased bone destruction in the ligature group when compared to control. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that chronic alcohol consumption by Fischer-344 rats led to greater progression of induced periodontitis.

  1. A Critical Review on the Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Cancer Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Marnie; Baker, Kristi; Postovit, Lynne M; Field, Catherine J

    2017-08-17

    Globally, there were 14.1 million new cancer diagnoses and 8.2 million cancer deaths in 2012. For many cancers, conventional therapies are limited in their successes and an improved understanding of disease progression is needed in conjunction with exploration of alternative therapies. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to enhance many cellular responses that reduce cancer cell viability and decrease proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. A small number of studies suggest that DHA improves chemotherapy outcomes in cancer patients. It is readily incorporated into cancer cell membranes and, as a result there has been considerable research regarding cell membrane initiated events. For example, DHA has been shown to mediate the induction of apoptosis/reduction of proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, there is limited research into the effect of DHA on cell cycle regulation in cancer cells and the mechanism(s) by which DHA acts are not fully understood. The purpose of the current review is to provide a critical examination of the literature investigating the ability of DHA to stall progression during different cell cycle phases in cancer cells, as well as the consequences that these changes may have on tumour growth, independently and in conjunction with chemotherapy.

  2. The effect of protein restriction on the progression of renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, B.U.; Becker, G.J.; Whitworth, J.A.; Charlwood, R.A.; Kincaid-Smith, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Dietary protein intake may be an important determinant of the rate of decline in renal function in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. We conducted a prospective, randomized study of the efficacy of protein restriction in slowing the rate of progression of renal impairment. The study lasted 18 months and included 64 patients with serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 350 to 1000 micromol per liter. The patients were randomly assigned to follow either a regular diet or an isocaloric protein-restricted diet (0.4 g of protein per kilogram of the body weight per day). Blood-pressure levels and the balance between calcium and phosphate were similar in the two groups. End-stage renal failure developed in 9 of the 33 patients (27 percent) who followed the regular diet during the study, as compared with 2 of the 31 patients (6 percent) who followed the protein-restricted diet (P less than 0.05). The mean (+/- SE) glomerular filtration rate, as measured by the clearance of 51Cr bound to EDTA, fell from 0.25 +/- 0.03 to 0.10 +/- 0.05 ml per second (P less than 0.01) in the group on the regular diet, whereas it fell from 0.23 +/- 0.04 to 0.20 +/- 0.05 ml per second (P not significant) in the group on the protein-restricted diet. We conclude that dietary protein restriction is effective in slowing the rate of progression of chronic renal failure

  3. Heterogeneous effects of M-CSF isoforms on the progression of MLL-AF9 leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Feng, Wenli; Yang, Feifei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Lina; Chen, Chong; Hu, Yuting; Ren, Qian; Zheng, Guoguang

    2018-02-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) regulates both malignant cells and microenvironmental cells. Its splicing isoforms show functional heterogeneity. However, their roles on leukemia have not been well established. Here, the expression of total M-CSF in patients with hematopoietic malignancies was analyzed. The roles of M-CSF isoforms on the progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were studied by establishing MLL-AF9-induced mouse AML models with high level membrane-bound M-CSF (mM-CSF) or soluble M-CSF (sM-CSF). Total M-CSF was highly expressed in myeloid leukemia patients. Furthermore, mM-CSF but not sM-CSF prolonged the survival of leukemia mice. While sM-CSF was more potent to promote proliferation and self-renew, mM-CSF was more potent to promote differentiation. Moreover, isoforms had different effects on leukemia-associated macrophages (LAMs) though they both increase monocytes/macrophages by growth-promoting and recruitment effects. In addition, mM-CSF promoted specific phagocytosis of leukemia cells by LAMs. RNA-seq analysis revealed that mM-CSF enhanced phagocytosis-associated genes and activated oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism pathway. These results highlight heterogeneous effects of M-CSF isoforms on AML progression and the mechanisms of mM-CSF, that is, intrinsically promoting AML cell differentiation and extrinsically enhancing infiltration of macrophages and phagocytosis by macrophages, which may provide potential clues for clinical diagnosis and therapy. © 2017 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc.

  4. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen; Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Hof, Holger; Klassen, Oliver; Habermann, Nina; Beckhove, Philipp; Debus, Juergen; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce. Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood. In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive

  6. Biochemical studies on the ocular lens in relation to cataractogenesis. Final report, July 1, 1968--December 31, 1978J. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, V.E.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    As indicated in the scope and purpose of this program, the broad aim of these investigations was to provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which various inorganic ions and a number of organic substances, particularly amino acids, enter and leave the ocular lens and to assay the role of these mechanisms in the physiological and pathological conditions of the eye. The studies also dealt with the mechanisms of glutathione in the lens and its relationship to amino acid transport, the effect of x-ray on the protein aggregation mechanism as well as the studies of the biochemical changes associated with the development of the experimentally induced galactose cataract.

  7. Progress of pyrene-based organic semiconductor in organic field effect transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin; Gong; Xuejun; Zhan; Qianqian; Li; Zhen; Li

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the pure blue emitting, high planarity, electron rich and ease of chemical modification, pyrene has been thoroughly investigated for applications in organic electronics such as organic light emitting diodes(OLEDs), organic field effect transistors(OFETs), and organic solar cells(OSCs). Especially, great progresses have been made of pyrene-based organic semiconductors for OFETs in past decades. Due to the difference of molecular structure, pyrene-based organic semiconductors are divided into three categories, pyrene as terminal group, pyrene as center core and fused pyrene derivatives. This minireview gives a brief introduction of the structure-property relationship and application in OFETs about most of pyrene-based semiconducting materials since 2006,illustrating that pyrene is a good building block to construct semiconductors with superior transport property for OFETs. Finally, we provide a summary concerning the methodology to improve the transport property of the pyrene-based semiconducting materials as well as an outlook.

  8. Alteration in ocular blood flow and its effect on the progression of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Zaman Safi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that can result in permanent vision loss by damaging optic nerves due to higher pressure in the eye. Although most of the fundamental pathophysiological mechanisms involved in glaucoma are undetermined but alteration in ocular blood flow(OBFin tissues such as optic nerve, retina, choroid and iris is an important risk factor for glaucoma. Various factors such as limited knowledge of the factors causing optic nerve damage, confusion in the measurement assays and lack of therapies, make hindrances in the understanding of glaucoma. Researchers are continuously accumulating evidence to suggest that alterations in OBF play important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma but most of the times they have diverse and contradictory conclusions regarding changes in the OBF and risk of glaucoma. In this article we have reviewed different aspects of glaucoma and the effect of OBF in the disease progression

  9. Computer simulation for the effect of coherent strain on the precipitation progress of binary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the microscopic elasticity theory and microscopic diffusion equation, the precipitation progress of the binary alloys including coherent strain energy was studied. The results show that coherent strain has obvious effect on the coherent two-phase morphology and precipitation mechanism. With the increase of coherent strain energy, the particles shape changes from the randomly distributed equiaxed particels to elliptical precipitate shapes, their arrangement orientation increases; in the late stage of precipitation, the particle arrangement presents obvious directionality along the [10] and [01] directions, and the precipitation mechanism of alloy changes from typical spinodal decomposition mechanism to the mixture process which possesses the characteristics of both non-classical nucleation growth and spinodal decomposition mechanisms.

  10. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of drosphila melanogaster. Progress report, 1976--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the genetic effect of tritium incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Following a short pulse exposure to tritium-labeled uridine most of the radioactivity appeared in RNA; however, the turnover of radioactivity in tritium-labeled RNA was rapid whereas there was no exchange of tritium from the labeled DNA during spermatogenesis. Furthermore, most of the cytoplasm and most of the RNA in primary spermatocytes was lost during spermatogenesis and thus the mature sperm cell was left with only the DNA labeled. Preliminary experiments did not show a significant level of labeled RNA remaining in the mature sperm cell, whereas labeled DNA was verified after extraction and purification with phenol and enzyme digestion. Preliminary results of genetic tests on the progeny of normal females inseminated with tritium-labeled sperm cells are reported

  11. Biological effects of high strength electric fields. Second interim progress report, September 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes progress made on the Project during the period of September 9, 1976 to March 31, 1977 towards the determination of the biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. The efforts to date can be divided into five categories: (1) the design, construction, and testing of a prototype and special studies exposure system; (2) the design and construction of exposure systems for rats and mice; (3) dosimetry; (4) experiments to determine the maximum field strength which does not produce corona discharge, ozone formation, shocks to the animal, hair stimulation, or a behavioral preference by rats to avoid exposure to the field; and (5) preparations for the biological screening experiments.

  12. The effect of progressive hypoxia on school structure and dynamics in Atlantic herring Clupea harengus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Ferrari, R Silvana; Steffensen, John F

    2002-01-01

    The effect of progressive hypoxia on the structure and dynamics of herring (Clupea harengus) schools in laboratory conditions was investigated. The length, width and depth of schools of about 20 individuals were measured from video recordings to test the hypothesis that during hypoxia fish schools...... change their shape and volume. School shape (calculated as the ratios of length/depth, width/depth and length/width) did not change significantly during hypoxia. School length, width, depth, area and volume were all significantly increased at 20% oxygen saturation. Volume, area and width were more...... to overtaking or falling back by individual fishes. School integrity and positional dynamics are the outcome of trade-offs among a number of biotic factors, such as food, predator defence, mating behaviour and various physical factors that may impose certain limits. Among these, our results indicate that oxygen...

  13. The effect of financial constraints, technological progress and long-term contracts on tradable green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) have recently become a diffuse instrument to support renewable electricity in OECD countries. Although it is perhaps too early to draw a conclusive judgement on the effectiveness of this instrument in increasing renewable capacity and decreasing the price of certificates, one view in the literature maintains that long-term contracts are of particular importance for TGCs to be effective. This paper contributes to this debate by analysing how financial constraints and technological progress can induce investors to hold pessimistic expectations of their ability to sell green certificates and still make a profit. Clearly, these expectations will prevent investors from building new capacity to fulfil the quota comprised in TGCs and will keep the price of certificates traded in the market high. As this kind of expectation is not influenced by most design features of TGCs, one can conclude that long-term contracts are particularly important in determining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these instruments. Some attention should therefore be paid to the features of the TGCs, which induce obliged parties to offer long-term contracts to renewable generators. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of the hydrotherapy in children with chronic encephalopathy no progressive of the childhood: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Karoline de Carvalho; Drumond, Nayana Rocha; Andrade, Silmara Aparecida Figueiredo; Chaves Júnior, Israel Penaforte; Toffol, Walesca Carla de

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Now Cerebral Palsy is considered like Chronic Encephalopathy no Progressive of the Childhood and defined as any disorder characterized by alteration in the structure and function of the body, activity and participation due to a lesion no progressive of the brain in development. Several techniques physiotherapy exist for individuals rehabilitation with that pathology, however, no technique stands out as more effective in the literature. The use of the approach hydrotherapy become...

  15. Independent and combined effect of bilirubin and smoking on the progression of chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiancheng Wang,1,* Binyan Wang,1,2,* Min Liang,1 Guobao Wang,1 Jianping Li,3 Yan Zhang,3 Yong Huo,3 Yimin Cui,4 Xiping Xu,1,5 Xianhui Qin1 1National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Institute for Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 3Department of Cardiology, 4Department of Pharmacy, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 5Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Whether serum bilirubin and cigarette smoking affect the risk of renal function decline remains inconclusive. We aimed to test the independent and combined effects of bilirubin and cigarette smoking on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD in hypertensive adults. Methods: The study population consisted of 12,633 patients in the renal sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The primary outcome was progression of CKD, defined as a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of ≥30% and to a level of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 if baseline eGFR was ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or a decrease in eGFR of ≥50% if baseline eGFR was <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or end-stage renal disease. The secondary outcomes included 1 rapid decline in renal function and 2 annual rate of eGFR decline. Results: The median follow-up duration was 4.4 years. Cigarette smoking had no significant effect on the progression of CKD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.78–1.57. However, a significantly lower risk of the primary event (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55–0.95 was found in participants in tertile 3 compared to those in tertiles 1–2 for total bilirubin (TBiL levels. More importantly, there was an interaction

  16. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ishizawa

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice, NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  17. Effect of reinforcing steel debonding on RC frame performance in resisting progressive collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Mohamed Elsayed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental program performed to study the effect of reinforcing steel debonding on progressive collapse resistance of moment resisting frame designed and detailed in accordance with the Egyptian code provisions for seismic design. Half-scale specimens of the first story were extracted from the frame structure prototype. Each specimen represented a two-bay beam resulting from the removal of middle supporting column of the lower floor. In all specimens, the exterior two short columns were restrained against horizontal and vertical displacements and a monotonic vertical load was applied on the middle column stub to simulate the vertical load of the upper stories. Gradually increasing vertical load at the location of the removed column is continuously applied and increased up to failure. The cracking patterns, strains and the deformations at selected locations of reinforcing steel and concrete are recorded for further analysis. Different debonded reinforcement ratios, places and length are examined in this study to evaluate its effect on the collapse resistance performance of the frame. The effect of debonding on the distribution of reinforcing steel strain is evaluated. The nonlinear response of the frame to the removal of the column is evaluated and the amount of energy absorbed during the course of deformation is calculated.

  18. Progress in Piezo-Phototronic-Effect-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes and Pressure Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Caofeng; Chen, Mengxiao; Yu, Ruomeng; Yang, Qing; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-24

    Wurtzite materials exhibit both semiconductor and piezoelectric properties under strains due to the non-central symmetric crystal structures. The three-way coupling of semiconductor properties, piezoelectric polarization and optical excitation in ZnO, GaN, CdS and other piezoelectric semiconductors leads to the emerging field of piezo-phototronics. This effect can efficiently manipulate the emission intensity of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by utilizing the piezo-polarization charges created at the junction upon straining to modulate the energy band diagrams and the optoelectronic processes, such as generation, separation, recombination and/or transport of charge carriers. Starting from fundamental physics principles, recent progress in piezo-phototronic-effect-enhanced LEDs is reviewed; following their development from single-nanowire pressure-sensitive devices to high-resolution array matrices for pressure-distribution mapping applications. The piezo-phototronic effect provides a promising method to enhance the light emission of LEDs based on piezoelectric semiconductors through applying static strains, and may find perspective applications in various optoelectronic devices and integrated systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Analysis of Surrounding Structure Effect on the Core Degradation Progress with COMPASS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Son, Dong Gun; Kim, Jong Tae; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Dong Ha [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In line with the importance of severe accident analysis after Fukushima accident, the development of integrated severe accident code has been launched by the collaboration of three institutes in Korea. KAERI is responsible to develop modules related to the in-vessel phenomena, while other institutes are to the containment and severe accident mitigation facility, respectively. In the first phase, the individual severe accident module has been developed and the construction of integrated analysis code is planned to perform in the second phase. The basic strategy is to extend the design basis analysis codes of SPACE and CAP, which are being validated in Korea for the severe accident analysis. In the first phase, KAERI has targeted to develop the framework of severe accident code, COMPASS (COre Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software), covering the severe accident progression in a vessel from a core heat-up to a vessel failure as a stand-alone fashion. In order to analyze the effect of surrounding structure, the melt progression has been compared between the central zone and the most outer zone under the condition of constant radial power peaking factor. Figure 2 and 3 shows the fuel element temperature and the clad mass at the central zone, respectively. Due to the axial power peaking factor, the axial node No.3 has the highest temperature, while the top and bottom nodes have the lowest temperature. When the clad temperature reaches to the Zr melting temperature (2129.15K), the Zr starts to melt. The axial node No.2 reaches to the fuel melting temperature about 5000 sec and the molten fuel relocates to the node No.1, which results to the blockage of flow area in node No.1. The blocked flow area becomes to open about 6100 sec due to the molten ZrO{sub 2} mass relocation to core support plate. Figure 4 and 5 shows the fuel element temperature and the clad mass at the most outer zone, respectively. It is shown that the fuel temperature increase more slowly

  20. [Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with effective braces: early response to trunk asymmetry may avoid curvature progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, J; Dingeldey, E; Wagner, F; Rezai, G; Nahr, K

    2014-07-01

    Vertical posture of the growing child requires minute central nervous control mechanisms in order to maintain symmetry of the torso in its various activities. Scoliosis describes a constant deviation in the frontal, transverse and sagittal planes from the dynamic symmetry of the trunk. Early intervention with effective bracing, physiotherapy and sports can reverse curve progression during growth spurts, once these are identified in screening. Modern braces have a derotating and reducing effect (mirror effect) on asymmetric body volumes, thus influencing the growing torso and restoring lasting symmetry. Recent data support the use of braces to reverse progressing scoliosis.

  1. Household structure vs. composition: Understanding gendered effects on educational progress in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. The Effective Dynamic Ranges for Glaucomatous Visual Field Progression With Standard Automated Perimetry and Stimulus Sizes III and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael; Zamba, Gideon K D; Artes, Paul H

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that threshold estimates below approximately 20 dB have little effect on the ability to detect visual field progression in glaucoma. We aimed to compare stimulus size V to stimulus size III, in areas of visual damage, to confirm these findings by using (1) a different dataset, (2) different techniques of progression analysis, and (3) an analysis to evaluate the effect of censoring on mean deviation (MD). In the Iowa Variability in Perimetry Study, 120 glaucoma subjects were tested every 6 months for 4 years with size III SITA Standard and size V Full Threshold. Progression was determined with three complementary techniques: pointwise linear regression (PLR), permutation of PLR, and linear regression of the MD index. All analyses were repeated on "censored'' datasets in which threshold estimates below a given criterion value were set to equal the criterion value. Our analyses confirmed previous observations that threshold estimates below 20 dB contribute much less to visual field progression than estimates above this range. These findings were broadly similar with stimulus sizes III and V. Censoring of threshold values < 20 dB has relatively little impact on the rates of visual field progression in patients with mild to moderate glaucoma. Size V, which has lower retest variability, performs at least as well as size III for longitudinal glaucoma progression analysis and appears to have a larger useful dynamic range owing to the upper sensitivity limit being higher.

  3. Benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin/UVA is more effective than fluticasone/UVA in progressive macular hypomelanosis: a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Relyveld, Germaine N.; Kingswijk, Melanie M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Menke, Henk E.; Bos, Jan D.; Westerhof, Wiete

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no effective treatment for progressive macular hypomelanosis. Recent findings indicate that Propionibacterium acnes may play a role in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy with anti-inflammatory therapy in patients with

  4. The effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients – A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lønbro, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Loss of lean body mass is a common problem in many post-treatment cancer patients and may negatively affect physical capacity in terms of maximal muscle strength and functional performance. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and ultimately 12 studies were included. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the effect of progressive resistance training was reported as the range of mean changes among RCTs and non-RCTs. Six RCTs and six non-RCTs were included in the study. In the RCTs the change in lean body mass in the progressive resistance training groups relative to control groups ranged from −0.4% to 3.9%, and in four of six trials the training effect was significantly larger than the change in the control groups. In the six non-RCTs, the mean change in lean body mass over time ranged from −0.01 to 11.8% which was significant in two of the trials. The included studies reported no or very limited adverse events following progressive resistance training. Based on 12 heterogenic studies there is moderate evidence supporting a positive effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients

  5. Protective effects of long-term lithium administration in a slowly progressive SMA mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Francesca; Ferrucci, Michela; Ryskalin, Larisa; Fulceri, Federica; Lazzeri, Gloria; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Busceti, Carla L; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of lithium administration to a knock-out double transgenic mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN1A2G+/-; SMN2+/+) of Spinal Muscle Atrophy type III (SMA-III). This model is characterized by very low levels of the survival motor neuron protein, slow disease progression and motor neuron loss, which enables to detect disease-modifying effects at delayed time intervals. Lithium administration attenuates the decrease in motor activity and provides full protection from motor neuron loss occurring in SMA-III mice, throughout the disease course. In addition, lithium prevents motor neuron enlargement and motor neuron heterotopy and suppresses the occurrence of radial-like glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining in the ventral white matter of SMA-III mice. In SMA-III mice long-term lithium administration determines a dramatic increase of survival motor neuron protein levels in the spinal cord. These data demonstrate that long-term lithium administration during a long-lasting motor neuron disorder attenuates behavioural deficit and neuropathology. Since low level of survival motor neuron protein is bound to disease severity in SMA, the robust increase in protein level produced by lithium provides solid evidence which calls for further investigations considering lithium in the long-term treatment of spinal muscle atrophy.

  6. Effect of low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids on progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneata, Liliana; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    Hypoproteic diets are most often discussed for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who do not receive dialysis. A very low-protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogues of essential amino acids (keto-diet) proved effective in ameliorating metabolic disturbances of advanced CKD and delaying the initiation of dialysis without deleterious effects on nutritional status. Several recent studies report that the keto-diet could also slow down the rate of decline in renal function, with better outcomes after the initiation of dialysis. Results of a single-center randomized controlled trial addressing the rate of CKD progression revealed a 57% slower decline in renal function with the keto-diet compared with a conventional low-protein diet (LPD). The keto-diet allowed the safe management of selected patients with stage 4-5 CKD, delaying dialysis for almost 1 year, with a major impact on patient quality of life and health expenditures. Therefore, the keto-diet could be a link in the integrated care model. Careful selection of patients, nutritional monitoring, and dietary counseling are required. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interfacial radiolysis effects in tank waste speciation. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.; Meisel, D.; Orlando, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The purpose of this program is to deliver pertinent, fundamental information that can be used to make technically defensible decisions on safety issues and processing strategies associated with storage and clean up of DOE mixed chemical and radioactive wastes. The radioactive and chemical wastes present in DOE underground storage tanks contain complex mixtures of sludges, salts, and supernatant liquids. These mixtures, which contain a wide variety of oxide materials, aqueous solvents, and organic components, are constantly bombarded with gamma quanta, beta and alpha particles produced via the decay of radioactive isotopes. Currently, there is a vital need to understand radiolysis of organic and inorganic species present in mixed waste tanks because these processes: (a) produce mixtures of toxic, flammable, and potentially explosive gases (i.e., H 2 , N 2 O and volatile organics) (b) degrade organics, possibly to gas-generating organic fragments, even as the degradation reduces the hazards associated with nitrate-organic mixtures, (c) alter the surface chemistry of insoluble colloids in tank sludge, influencing sedimentation and the gas/solid interactions that may lead to gas entrapment phenomena. This report summarizes the technical achievements of a 3-year project that is now in its 2nd year. Progress in three areas is reported: (1) radiation effects at NaNO 3 crystal interfaces, (2) reactions of organic complexants with NO 2 in water, and (3) radiation effects in oxide particles.'

  8. Effects of cisapride on colonic transit in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.J.; Lin, W.Y.; Lan, J.L.; Chen, D.Y.; Chen, Y.H.; Hsieh, T.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) may involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract including the colon. Constipation is common in patients with PSS. Cisapride, a benzamide derivative, is a potentially useful agent in the treatment if chronic idiopathic constipation. The effect of cisapride on colonic transit was evaluated in 16 PSS patients by radionuclide colonic transit method. Static images were acquired at regular times, then the geometric center (GC) values were calculated. Each patient received cisapride orally three times a day for a week. The median GC at 4 hours was 0.351 in patients before treatment and 0.775 after treatment. The difference is significant with a p value of 0.026. The median GC at 24 hours was 1.957 in patients before treatment and significantly increased to 2.509 after treatment. The p value was 0.038. Clinically, twelve patients had symptoms of constipation and 8 of them showed improvement of the symptoms after administration of cisapride. The result showed acceleration in colonic transit in response to cisapride. We conclude that cisapride is effective in the treatment of constipation in patients with PSS

  9. The effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients - A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Loss of lean body mass is a common problem in many post-treatment cancer patients and may negatively affect physical capacity in terms of maximal muscle strength and functional performance. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the effect of progressive...... resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and ultimately 12 studies were included. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the effect of progressive resistance training was reported...... as the range of mean changes among RCTs and non-RCTs. Six RCTs and six non-RCTs were included in the study. In the RCTs the change in lean body mass in the progressive resistance training groups relative to control groups ranged from -0.4% to 3.9%, and in four of six trials the training effect...

  10. Effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on proteinuria and progression of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, Gemma; Taylor, Alison H M; Fujita, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension and proteinuria are critically involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Despite treatment with renin angiotensin system inhibition, kidney function declines in many patients. Aldosterone excess is a risk factor for progression of kidney disease. Hyperkalaemi...... pressure and urinary protein/albumin excretion with a quantifiable risk of hyperkalaemia above predefined study upper limit....

  11. How do psychological factors influence adolescent smoking progression? The evidence for indirect effects through tobacco advertising receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Patel, Vaishali; Faith, Myles S; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn

    2006-04-01

    To determine whether novelty seeking and depressive symptoms had mediated or indirect effects on adolescent smoking progression through tobacco advertising receptivity. More than 1000 adolescents were monitored from 9th grade to 12th grade and completed annual surveys that measured demographic characteristics, smoking behavior, tobacco advertising receptivity, novelty-seeking personality, depressive symptoms, family and peer smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Latent growth modeling indicated that novelty seeking had a significant indirect effect on smoking progression through baseline tobacco advertising receptivity. For each 1-SD increase in novelty seeking, the odds of being more receptive to tobacco advertising increased by 12% (ie, being in a specific category or higher), which in turn resulted in an 11% increase in the odds of smoking progression from 9th grade to 12th grade. The indirect effect from depressive symptoms to smoking progression did not reach significance. These findings may inform future research on other factors that influence tobacco advertising receptivity, as well as programs aimed at preventing adolescent smoking initiation and progression.

  12. Effects of Robot Assisted Gait Training in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP: a preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio eSale

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a rare neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by prominent axial extrapyramidal motor symptoms with frequent falls. Over the last years the introduction of robotic technologies to recover lower limb function has been greatly employed in the rehabilitative practice. This observational trial is aimed at investigating the feasibility, the effectiveness and the efficacy of end-effector robot training in people with PSP.Method: Pilot observational trial.Participants: Five cognitively intact participants with PSP and gait disorders.Interventions: Patients were submitted to a rehabilitative program of robot-assisted walking sessions for 45 minutes, 5 times a week for 4 weeks.Main outcome measures: The spatiotemporal parameters at the beginning (T0 and at the end of treatment (T1 were recorded by a gait analysis laboratory.Results: Robot training was feasible, acceptable and safe and all participants completed the prescribed training sessions. All patients showed an improvement in the gait index (Mean velocity, Cadence, Step length and Step width (T0 versus T1.Conclusions: Robot training is a feasible and safe form of rehabilitation for cognitively intact people with PSP. This innovative approach can contribute to improve lower limb motor recovery. The focus on gait recovery is another quality that makes this research important for clinical practice. On the whole, the simplicity of treatment, the lack of side effects and the positive results in the patients support the recommendation to extend the trials of this treatment. Further investigation regarding the effectiveness of robot training in time is necessary.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01668407.

  13. Retrospective study of the effect of disease progression on patient reported outcomes in HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study evaluated the impact of disease progression and of specific sites of metastasis on patient reported outcomes (PROs that assess symptom burden and health related quality of life (HRQoL in women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC. Methods HER-2 negative mBC patients (n = 102 were enrolled from 7 U.S. community oncology practices. Demographic, disease and treatment characteristics were abstracted from electronic medical records and linked to archived Patient Care Monitor (PCM assessments. The PCM is a self-report measure of symptom burden and HRQoL administered as part of routine care in participating practices. Linear mixed models were used to examine change in PCM scores over time. Results Mean age was 57 years, with 72% of patients Caucasian, and 25% African American. Median time from mBC diagnosis to first disease progression was 8.8 months. Metastasis to bone (60%, lung (28% and liver (26% predominated at initial metastatic diagnosis. Results showed that PCM items assessing fatigue, physical pain and trouble sleeping were sensitive to either general effects of disease progression or to effects associated with specific sites of metastasis. Progression of disease was also associated with modest but significant worsening of General Physical Symptoms, Treatment Side Effects, Acute Distress and Impaired Performance index scores. In addition, there were marked detrimental effects of liver metastasis on Treatment Side Effects, and of brain metastasis on Acute Distress. Conclusions Disease progression has a detrimental impact on cancer-related symptoms. Delaying disease progression may have a positive impact on patients' HRQoL.

  14. Role of rasagiline in treating Parkinson’s disease: effect on disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene A Malaty

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Irene A Malaty, Hubert H FernandezUniversity of Florida Movement Disorders Center, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Rasagiline is a second generation, selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B inhibitor. It has demonstrated efficacy in monotherapy for early Parkinson’s disease (PD patients in one large randomized, placebo-controlled trial (TVP-1012 in Early Monotherapy for Parkinson’s Disease Outpatients, and has shown ability to reduce off time in more advanced PD patients with motor fluctuations in two large placebo-controlled trials (Parkinson’s Rasagiline: Efficacy and Safety in the Treatment of “Off”, and Lasting Effect in Adjunct Therapy With Rasagiline Given Once Daily. Preclinical data abound to suggest potential for neuroprotection by this compound against a variety of neurotoxic insults in cell cultures and in animals. The lack of amphetamine metabolites provides an advantage over the first generation MAO-B inhibitor selegiline. One large trial has investigated the potential for disease modification in PD patients (Attenuation of Disease progression with Azilect Given Once-daily and preliminary results maintain some possible advantage to earlier initiation of the 1 mg/day dose. The clinical significance of the difference detected remains a consideration.Keywords: rasagiline, Parkinson’s disease, neuroprotection, selegiline

  15. Role of rasagiline in treating Parkinson's disease: Effect on disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaty, Irene A; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2009-08-01

    Rasagiline is a second generation, selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitor. It has demonstrated efficacy in monotherapy for early Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in one large randomized, placebo-controlled trial (TVP-1012 in Early Monotherapy for Parkinson's Disease Outpatients), and has shown ability to reduce off time in more advanced PD patients with motor fluctuations in two large placebo-controlled trials (Parkinson's Rasagiline: Efficacy and Safety in the Treatment of "Off", and Lasting Effect in Adjunct Therapy With Rasagiline Given Once Daily). Preclinical data abound to suggest potential for neuroprotection by this compound against a variety of neurotoxic insults in cell cultures and in animals. The lack of amphetamine metabolites provides an advantage over the first generation MAO-B inhibitor selegiline. One large trial has investigated the potential for disease modification in PD patients (Attenuation of Disease progression with Azilect Given Once-daily) and preliminary results maintain some possible advantage to earlier initiation of the 1 mg/day dose. The clinical significance of the difference detected remains a consideration.

  16. Role of rasagiline in treating Parkinson’s disease: Effect on disease progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaty, Irene A; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2009-01-01

    Rasagiline is a second generation, selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitor. It has demonstrated efficacy in monotherapy for early Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients in one large randomized, placebo-controlled trial (TVP-1012 in Early Monotherapy for Parkinson’s Disease Outpatients), and has shown ability to reduce off time in more advanced PD patients with motor fluctuations in two large placebo-controlled trials (Parkinson’s Rasagiline: Efficacy and Safety in the Treatment of “Off”, and Lasting Effect in Adjunct Therapy With Rasagiline Given Once Daily). Preclinical data abound to suggest potential for neuroprotection by this compound against a variety of neurotoxic insults in cell cultures and in animals. The lack of amphetamine metabolites provides an advantage over the first generation MAO-B inhibitor selegiline. One large trial has investigated the potential for disease modification in PD patients (Attenuation of Disease progression with Azilect Given Once-daily) and preliminary results maintain some possible advantage to earlier initiation of the 1 mg/day dose. The clinical significance of the difference detected remains a consideration. PMID:19753135

  17. Effective social justice advocacy: a theory-of-change framework for assessing progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    This article offers a theory-of-change framework for social justice advocacy. It describes broad outcome categories against which activists, donors and evaluators can assess progress (or lack thereof) in an ongoing manner: changes in organisational capacity, base of support, alliances, data and analysis from a social justice perspective, problem definition and potential policy options, visibility, public norms, and population level impacts. Using these for evaluation enables activists and donors to learn from and rethink their strategies as the political context and/or actors change over time. The paper presents a case study comparing factors that facilitated reproductive rights policy wins during the transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa and factors that undermined their implementation in the post-apartheid period. It argues that after legal and policy victories had been won, failure to maintain strong organizations and continually rethink strategies contributed to the loss of government focus on and resources for implementation of new policies. By implication, evaluating effectiveness only by an actual policy change does not allow for ongoing learning to ensure appropriate strategies. It also fails to recognise that a policy win can be overturned and needs vigilant monitoring and advocacy for implementation. This means that funding and organising advocacy should seldom be undertaken as a short-term proposition. It also suggests that the building and maintenance of organisational and leadership capacity is as important as any other of the outcome categories in enabling success. Copyright © 2011 Foundation Review. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effectiveness of electromagnetic terahertz radiation use in the treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenova A.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to increase the efficiency of treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP using electromagnetic radiation at terahertz frequencies of molecular spectrum of radiation and absorption of nitric oxide 150,176-150,664 GHz. Material and methods. The study involved 50 patients with RPP, which according to the method of therapy were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients receiving conventional therapy, group 2 consisted of patients who, along with traditional therapy received EHF-therapy device "Orbit" YAKUL.941526.001. The control group consisted of 20 healthy subjects with intact periodontium. For the non-invasive study of tissue blood flow in the periodontal tissue Doppler ultrasound was used MiniMax-Doppler-Phono. The study of the microvasculature of periodontitis has been conducted. To determine the reactivity of microvascular periodontal tissue reflex functional tests on the indirect effect of the cold were performed. Results. Reductions achieved values of periodontal indices, especially important index PMA, a significant increase in the linear blood flow indices, decreased pulse pressure gradient and the index followed appropriate reduction to their cold test. Conclusion. The proposed complex therapy can accelerate the relief of inflammation in the periodontal tissues of the complex, to improve the elastic properties of blood vessels, reduce their tone and restore microcirculation in periodontal tissues.

  19. [Research Progress on the Interaction Effects and Its Neural Mechanisms between Physical Fatigue and Mental Fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Chuncui; He, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is an exhaustion state caused by prolonged physical work and mental work, which can reduce working efficiency and even cause industrial accidents. Fatigue is a complex concept involving both physiological and psychological factors. Fatigue can cause a decline of concentration and work performance and induce chronic diseases. Prolonged fatigue may endanger life safety. In most of the scenarios, physical and mental workloads co-lead operator into fatigue state. Thus, it is very important to study the interaction influence and its neural mechanisms between physical and mental fatigues. This paper introduces recent progresses on the interaction effects and discusses some research challenges and future development directions. It is believed that mutual influence between physical fatigue and mental fatigue may occur in the central nervous system. Revealing the basal ganglia function and dopamine release may be important to explore the neural mechanisms between physical fatigue and mental fatigue. Future effort is to optimize fatigue models, to evaluate parameters and to explore the neural mechanisms so as to provide scientific basis and theoretical guidance for complex task designs and fatigue monitoring.

  20. Progressivity of personal income tax in Croatia: decomposition of tax base and rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Urban

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents progressivity breakdowns for Croatian personal income tax (henceforth PIT in 1997 and 2004. The decompositions reveal how the elements of the system – tax schedule, allowances, deductions and credits – contribute to the achievement of progressivity, over the quantiles of pre-tax income distribution. Through the use of ‘single parameter’ Gini indices, the social decision maker’s (henceforth SDM relatively more or less favorable inclination toward taxpayers in the lower tails of pre-tax income distribution is accounted for. Simulations are undertaken to show how the introduction of a flat-rate system would affect progressivity.

  1. The effects of environmental regulation and technical progress on CO2 Kuznets curve: An evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jianhua; Zheng, Mingzheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Based on environmental Kuznets curve theory, a panel data model which takes environmental regulation and technical progress as its moderating factors was developed to analyse the institutional and technical factors that affect the path of low-carbon economic development. The results indicated that there was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve seen in China. Environmental regulation had a significant moderating effect on the curve, and the inflection of CO 2 emissions could come substantially earlier under stricter environmental regulation. Meanwhile, the impact of technical progress on the low-carbon economic development path had a longer hysteresis effect but restrained CO 2 emission during its increasing stage and accelerated its downward trend during the decreasing stage which was conducive to emission reduction. Strict environmental regulation could force the high-carbon emitting industries to transfer from the eastern regions to the central or the western regions of China, which would make the CO 2 Kuznets curve higher in its increasing stage and lower in its decreasing stage than that under looser regulation. Furthermore, energy efficiency, energy structure, and industrial structure exerted a significant direct impact on CO 2 emissions; we should consider the above factors as essential in the quest for low-carbon economic development. - Highlights: • Estimate moderating effect of environmental regulation and technical progress on EKC. • There was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve in effect in China. • Environmental regulation presents significant moderating effect on EKC. • Technical progress moderates the relationship between income and CO 2 emissions

  2. Effects of tyrosine kinase and phosphatase inhibitors on mitosis progression in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Ya A; Yemets, A I; Azmi, A; Vissenberg, K; Verbelen, J P; Blume, Ya B

    2012-01-01

    To test whether reversible tubulin phosphorylation plays any role in the process of plant mitosis the effects of inhibitors of tyrosine kinases, herbimycin A, genistein and tyrphostin AG 18, and of an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases, sodium orthovanadate, on microtubule organization and mitosis progression in a synchronized BY-2 culture has been investigated. It was found that treatment with inhibitors of tyrosine kinases of BY-2 cells at the G2/M transition did not lead to visible disturbances of mitotic microtubule structures, while it did reduce the frequency of their appearance. We assume that a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation level could alter the microtubule dynamic instability parameters during interphase/prophase transition. All types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors used caused a prophase delay: herbimycin A and genistein for 2 h, and tyrphostin AG18 for 1 h. Thereafter the peak of mitosis was displaced for 1 h by herbimycin A or genistein exposure, but after tyrphostin AG18 treatment the timing of the mitosis-peak was comparable to that in control cells. Enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation induced by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor resulted in the opposite effect on BY-2 mitosis transition. Culture treatment with sodium orthovanadate during 1 h resulted in an accelerated start of the prophase and did not lead to the alteration in time of the mitotic index peak formation, as compared to control cells. We suppose that the reversible tyrosine phosphorylation can be involved in the regulation of interphase to M phase transition possibly through regulation of microtubule dynamics in plant cells.

  3. Active Self-Paced Learning for Cost-Effective and Progressive Face Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang; Wang, Keze; Meng, Deyu; Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a novel cost-effective framework for face identification, which progressively maintains a batch of classifiers with the increasing face images of different individuals. By naturally combining two recently rising techniques: active learning (AL) and self-paced learning (SPL), our framework is capable of automatically annotating new instances and incorporating them into training under weak expert recertification. We first initialize the classifier using a few annotated samples for each individual, and extract image features using the convolutional neural nets. Then, a number of candidates are selected from the unannotated samples for classifier updating, in which we apply the current classifiers ranking the samples by the prediction confidence. In particular, our approach utilizes the high-confidence and low-confidence samples in the self-paced and the active user-query way, respectively. The neural nets are later fine-tuned based on the updated classifiers. Such heuristic implementation is formulated as solving a concise active SPL optimization problem, which also advances the SPL development by supplementing a rational dynamic curriculum constraint. The new model finely accords with the "instructor-student-collaborative" learning mode in human education. The advantages of this proposed framework are two-folds: i) The required number of annotated samples is significantly decreased while the comparable performance is guaranteed. A dramatic reduction of user effort is also achieved over other state-of-the-art active learning techniques. ii) The mixture of SPL and AL effectively improves not only the classifier accuracy compared to existing AL/SPL methods but also the robustness against noisy data. We evaluate our framework on two challenging datasets, which include hundreds of persons under diverse conditions, and demonstrate very promising results. Please find the code of this project at: http://hcp.sysu.edu.cn/projects/aspl/.

  4. Effects of errors and gaps in spatial data sets on assessment of conservation progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, P; Di Marco, M; Álvarez-Romero, J G; Januchowski-Hartley, S R; Pressey, R L; Weeks, R; Rondinini, C

    2013-10-01

    Data on the location and extent of protected areas, ecosystems, and species' distributions are essential for determining gaps in biodiversity protection and identifying future conservation priorities. However, these data sets always come with errors in the maps and associated metadata. Errors are often overlooked in conservation studies, despite their potential negative effects on the reported extent of protection of species and ecosystems. We used 3 case studies to illustrate the implications of 3 sources of errors in reporting progress toward conservation objectives: protected areas with unknown boundaries that are replaced by buffered centroids, propagation of multiple errors in spatial data, and incomplete protected-area data sets. As of 2010, the frequency of protected areas with unknown boundaries in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) caused the estimated extent of protection of 37.1% of the terrestrial Neotropical mammals to be overestimated by an average 402.8% and of 62.6% of species to be underestimated by an average 10.9%. Estimated level of protection of the world's coral reefs was 25% higher when using recent finer-resolution data on coral reefs as opposed to globally available coarse-resolution data. Accounting for additional data sets not yet incorporated into WDPA contributed up to 6.7% of additional protection to marine ecosystems in the Philippines. We suggest ways for data providers to reduce the errors in spatial and ancillary data and ways for data users to mitigate the effects of these errors on biodiversity assessments. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Prismatic displacement effect of progressive multifocal glasses on reaction time and accuracy in elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Ashton C; Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; Sanderson, Gordon F

    2014-01-01

    Ashton C Ellison, A John Campbell, M Clare Robertson, Gordon F SandersonDunedin School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Dunedin, New ZealandBackground: Multifocal glasses (bifocals, trifocals, and progressives) increase the risk of falling in elderly people, but how they do so is unclear. To explain why glasses with progressive addition lenses increase the risk of falls and whether this can be attributed to false projection, this study aimed to 1) map the prismatic displacement of a progr...

  6. Research on energy-saving effect of technological progress based on Cobb-Douglas production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chaoqing; Liu Sifeng; Wu Junlong

    2009-01-01

    Energy issues receive more and more attention these days. And it is considered that technological progress is an essential approach to save energy. This essay is to analyze the relation between energy intensity and technological progress by Cobb-Douglas production function in which energy, labor, capital and technological progress are taken as independent variables. It proves that the growth of output per capital and output per labor will increase energy intensity while technological progress will decrease energy intensity. Empirical research on Chinese industry is used here to indicate technological progress greatly decreases energy intensity. Because of the interferences of Asian financial crisis, there is something abnormal in the data. So in the empirical research, average weaken buffer operator (ABWO) is applied to weaken the interference of Asian financial crisis to the fixed assets, energy and value added. The results of the empirical research show that technological progress decreases energy intensity of Chinese industry an average of 6.3% every year in China.

  7. Effects of progressive fatigue and expertise on self-talk content in running: an ambulatory assessment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A; Veltman, L.J.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Davis, P.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of Progressive Fatigue and Expertise on Self-Talk Content in Running: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Arne Nieuwenhuys (1)*, Laurens J. Veltman (2), Louise M.A. Braakman-Jansen (2), & Paul A. Davis (3) (1) Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands (2)

  8. Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Program. Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimblott, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 Quarterly Progress Report on NERI Proposal No.99-0010 for the Development of an Experiment and Calculation Based Model to Describe the Effects of Radiation on Non-standard Aqueous Systems Like Those Encountered in the Advanced Light Water Reactor

  9. Effect of radiation-sensitive mutations and mutagens/carcinogens on bacterial recombination and mutagenesis. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, T.S.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on effects of temperature sensitive DNA-initiation mutation in E. coli K-12 mutants; the use of Bacillus subtilis transforming system as an in vitro mutagenesis system; characteristics of the E. coli lysogen used to test the permeability to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and the genetic toxicology of gentian violet. (PCS)

  10. Recent progress in the field of non-auditory health effects of noise. Trends and research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Matsui, T.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim to identify recent research achievements, current trends in research, remaining gaps of knowledge and priority areas of future research in the field of non-auditory health effects of noise, recent research progress was reviewed. A search was performed in PubMed (search terms “noise AND

  11. Effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, V.A.; Becher, J.G.; Janssen-Potten, Y.J.; Dekkers, H.; Smallenbroek, L.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP).Fifty-one ambulant children with spastic CP (mean age 10 years 5 months, 29 boys) were randomized to an intervention (n=

  12. Effect of atorvastatin on glycaemia progression in patients with diabetes: an analysis from the Collaborative Atorvastatin in Diabetes Trial (CARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Shona J; Looker, Helen C; Akbar, Tahira; Betteridge, D John; Durrington, Paul N; Hitman, Graham A; Neil, H Andrew W; Fuller, John H; Colhoun, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    In an individual-level analysis we examined the effect of atorvastatin on glycaemia progression in type 2 diabetes and whether glycaemia effects reduce the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with atorvastatin. The study population comprised 2,739 people taking part in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) who were randomised to receive atorvastatin 10 mg or placebo and who had post-randomisation HbA1c data. This secondary analysis used Cox regression to estimate the effect of atorvastatin on glycaemia progression, defined as an increase in HbA1c of ≥ 0.5% (5.5 mmol/mol) or intensification of diabetes therapy. Mixed models were used to estimate the effect of atorvastatin on HbA1c as a continuous endpoint. Glycaemia progression occurred in 73.6% of participants allocated placebo and 78.1% of those allocated atorvastatin (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.08, 1.29], p effect was seen in on-treatment analyses: HR 1.20 (95% CI 1.07, 1.35), p = 0.001. The net mean treatment effect on HbA1c was 0.14% (95% CI 0.08, 0.21) (1.5 mmol/mol). The effect did not increase through time. Diabetes treatment intensification alone did not differ with statin allocation. Neither baseline nor 1-year-attained HbA1c predicted subsequent CVD, and the atorvastatin effect on CVD did not vary by HbA1c change (interaction p value 0.229). The effect of atorvastatin 10 mg on glycaemia progression among those with diabetes is statistically significant but very small, is not significantly different between sexes, does not increase with duration of statin and does not have an impact on the magnitude of CVD risk reduction with atorvastatin.

  13. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  14. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is effective for progressive-stage lumbar spondylolysis with MRI high-signal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiji; Togawa, Daisuke; Mihara, Yuki; Murata, Hideyuki; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the treatment effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on progressive-stage spondylolysis. Spondylolysis is a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis. Based on the results of computed tomography, spondylolysis was classified into three categories: early, progressive, and terminal. Bone healing was prolonged or not obtained in progressive-stage spondylolysis. The progression of spondylolysis to nonunion has been associated with an increased incidence of spondylolisthesis. To prevent these clinical conditions, achieving bony healing of the spondylolysis site should be the goal of treatment. 15 consecutive pediatric patients with progressive-stage spondylolysis (defects) with MRI high-signal change were analyzed. Nine patients were treated conservative treatment including avoidance of any sport activity and the use of a brace during treatment (conventional). Six patients were treated using LIPUS everyday during treatment in addition to conservative treatment. Approximately every 1.5 months, bone healing was evaluated via CT. Cases that retained defects after 4.5 months were defined as nonunion. Two patients dropped out during the study period. A total of 13 patients (mean 14.6 ± 2.5 years) from the database met with 19 interarticularis defects. The bone union rate in LIPUS group was significantly higher than that in conventional group (66.7 vs. 10.0%, p = 0.020). The treatment period to bone union was 3.8 months and 2.7 ± 0.3 months in conventional and LIPUS groups. This study revealed that LIPUS treatment might be effective for bone union in patients with progressive-stage spondylolysis with MRI high-signal change. 4.

  15. Effect of blood pressure lowering on markers of kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Suneel M; Koyner, Jay L

    2009-10-01

    Hypertension remains a common comorbidity and cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As the number of patients with CKD grows, so does the need to identify modifiable risk factors for CKD progression. Data on slowing progression of CKD or preventing end-stage renal disease with aggressive blood pressure control have not yielded definitive conclusions regarding ideal blood pressure targets. Shifting the focus of antihypertensive therapy to alternative markers of end-organ damage, specifically proteinuria, has yielded some promise in preventing the progression of CKD. Nevertheless, proteinuria and decline in estimated GFR may represent an irreversible degree of injury to the kidney that limits the impact of any therapy. The identification and use of novel markers of kidney injury to assess the impact of antihyper-tensive therapy may yield clearer direction with regard to optimal management of hypertension in the setting of CKD.

  16. Effect of thymectomy and splenectomy on the course of x-ray induced progressive intercapillary glomerulosclerosis in the mouse kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttman, P H

    1967-01-01

    Whole body neonatal irradiation (450 rads) of Swiss-Webster mice resulted in progressive intercapillary glomerulosclerosis (IGS). Neonatal thymectomy potentiated the effect of irradiation. Removal of the spleen at 18 days markedly reduced the effect of irradiation on the kidney when combined with thymectomy at birth. In the presence of an intact thymus, splenectomy had no effect on the course of radiation induced IGS. Germinal center formation and plasma cell infiltration were observed in the thymus of splenectomized-irradiated mice. The possible role of immunity in the pathogenesis of late effects of x-ray on the kidney is considered in the light of these findings.

  17. Continuous NSAID use reverts the effects of inflammation on radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Féline; Landewé, Robert; Dougados, Maxime; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to compare continuous and on-demand NSAID treatment with respect to their ability to suppress radiographic progression in subgroups of patients with high/elevated CRP-levels, ESR, ASDAS-levels or BASDAI-levels in comparison to patients with normal levels. Post-hoc analyses were performed

  18. Comparative study of radiation, chemical, and aging effects on viral transformation. Annual progress report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: evaluation of isotopic antiglobulin test (IAT) to detect tumor associated antigens using antisera induced by x-irradiated tumor cells; development of cytotoxic antibody for embryonic antigens (EA); acrylamide gel cell culture assay for transformation; and evaluation of 3-MCA induced sarcomas for TSTA and cross-reacting antigens

  19. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.; Burns, C.C.; Cochrane, H.; Johnson, G.R.; Leong, H.; Sheaffer, J.D.

    1980-07-01

    Research progress for the period September 1979 to July 1980 is reported. Research was structured along four major tasks: (1) atmospheric circulation and climate variability; (2) urban mesoclimate; (3) energy demand modelling; and (4) economic implications of weather variability and energy demand: stimulating residential energy conservation through the financial section. (ACR)

  20. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  1. Direct modeling of regression effects for transition probabilities in the progressive illness-death model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarang, Leyla; Scheike, Thomas; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present direct regression analysis for the transition probabilities in the possibly non-Markov progressive illness–death model. The method is based on binomial regression, where the response is the indicator of the occupancy for the given state along time. Randomly weighted score...

  2. Comparative study of radiation, chemical, and aging effects on viral transformation. Annual progress report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1976-03-31

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: evaluation of isotopic antiglobulin test (IAT) to detect tumor associated antigens using antisera induced by x-irradiated tumor cells; development of cytotoxic antibody for embryonic antigens (EA); acrylamide gel cell culture assay for transformation; and evaluation of 3-MCA induced sarcomas for TSTA and cross-reacting antigens. (HLW)

  3. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  4. Academic dismissal policy for medical students : effect on study progress and help-seeking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Splinter, Ted A. W.; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT Medical students often fail to finish medical school within the designated time. An academic dismissal (AD) policy aims to enforce satisfactory progress and to enable early identification and timely support or referral of struggling students. In this study, we assessed whether the

  5. The Effects of Progressive Taxation on Labor Supply when Hours and Wages Are Jointly Determined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends a standard intertemporal labor supply model to account for progressive taxation as well as the joint determination of hourly wages and hours worked. We show that these two factors can have implications for both estimating labor supply elasticities as well as for using these elasticities in tax analysis. Failure to account for…

  6. The Effect of Daily Progress Reports on Parental Academic Support: Paper versus Electronic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    In this age of data based decision making and accountability, parent involvement and data collection are paramount. This study represents a significant contribution to educational research by extending the understanding of home-school communication media with specific regard to daily progress reports. The purpose of this study was to compare…

  7. Effects of rosuvastatin on progression of stenosis in adult patients with congenital aortic stenosis (PROCAS Trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, D. van der; Yap, S.C.; Dijk, A.P. van; Budts, W.; Pieper, P.G.; Burgh, P.H. van der; Mulder, B.J.; Witsenburg, M.; Cuypers, J.A.; Lindemans, J.; Takkenberg, J.J.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent trials have failed to show that statin therapy halts the progression of calcific aortic stenosis (AS). We hypothesized that statin therapy in younger patients with congenital AS would be more beneficial, because the valve is less calcified. In the present double-blind, placebo-controlled

  8. Effect of Common Neuropathologies on Progression of Late Life Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue; Schneider, Julie A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Brain pathologies of Alzheimer’s, cerebrovascular and Lewy body diseases are common in old age, but the relationship of these pathologies with progression from normal cognitive function to the various stages of cognitive impairment is unknown. In this study, we fit latent Markov models from longitudinal cognitive data to empirically derive three latent stages corresponding to no impairment, mild impairment, and moderate impairment; then, we examined the associations of common neuropathologies with the rates of transition among these stages. Cognitive and neuropathological data were available from 653 autopsied participants in two ongoing cohort studies of aging who were cognitively healthy at baseline (mean baseline age 79.1 years) and had longitudinal cognitive data. On average, participants in these analyses developed mild impairment 5 years after enrollment, progressed to moderate impairment after an additional 3.4 years, and stayed impaired for 2.8 years until death. AD and chronic macroscopic infarcts were associated with a higher risk of progression to mild impairment and subsequently to moderate impairment. By contrast, Lewy bodies were associated only with progression from mild to moderate impairment. The 5-year probability of progression to mild or moderate impairment was 20% for persons without any of these three pathologies, 38% for AD only, 51% for AD and macroscopic infarcts, and 56% for AD, infarcts and Lewy bodies. Thus, the presence of AD pathology alone nearly doubles the risk of developing cognitive impairment in late life, and the presence of multiple pathologies further increases this risk over multiple years prior to death. PMID:25976345

  9. Effect of fluoride on caries progression and dentin apposition in rats fed on a cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortelainen, S; Larmas, M

    1993-02-01

    The effect of fluoride in drinking water on the progression of dentinal caries and dentin apposition was studied in Wistar rats. The initiation of enamel caries lesions was first induced for 2 wk with S. sobrinus and a 43% sucrose diet after weaning. Thereafter the animals were fed on either a cariogenic or a non-cariogenic diet and distilled water supplemented with 0, 1, 7 or 19 ppm fluoride. The areas of dentinal caries and dentin apposition were quantified after tetracycline staining. Fluoride reduced dentinal caries progression after the initiation of lesions in the presence of a cariogenic diet at a concentration of 19 ppm F, and without sucrose at 1 ppm F. The effect of fluoride in reducing dentin apposition with a cariogenic diet was dose-dependent, whereas fluoride in non-cariogenic groups had practically no effect on dentin formation. These results suggest that fluoride together with a high concentration of sucrose in the diet might have an odontoblast-mediated effect on the regulation of the progression of dentinal caries.

  10. Preventive Effect of Zea mays L. (Purple Waxy Corn) on Experimental Diabetic Cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Thiraphatthanavong, Paphaphat; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Tong-un, Terdthai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-01-01

    Recently, substances possessing antioxidant can prevent cataractogenesis of diabetic cataract. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the anticataract effect of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn), a flavonoids rich plant, in experimental diabetic cataract. Enucleated rat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor containing 55 mM glucose with various concentrations of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn) ranging between 2, 10, and 50 mg/mL at room temperature for 72 h. At the end of ...

  11. The Effectiveness of the Progression of Widex Zen Tinnitus Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Richard S; Deshpande, Aniruddha K; Lau, Chi C; Kuk, Francis

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this study was to measure the progression of benefits to individuals with tinnitus from providing informational counseling, hearing aids, a brief tinnitus activities treatment and Zen therapy. Several magnitude estimation scales and tinnitus handicap scales were administered for the duration of the study to 20 participants. Results indicated that all participants benefited from this sequential approach of providing different components of this tinnitus treatment. Large benefits were observed following the tinnitus activities treatment and the Zen treatments. We conclude that the progressive approach of treatment demonstrated here should be of benefit to most individuals with tinnitus and that the Widex Zen sound therapy is a worthwhile treatment for many tinnitus sufferers.

  12. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Manuscript s • Submitted to the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Feb 21, 2012) “The soy isoflavone equol may increase cancer malignancy via upregulation...29] Ko KP, Park SK, Park B et al. Isoflavones from phytoestrogens and gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study within the Korean...Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Columba de la Parra Simental CONTRACTING

  13. The effect of dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) on lymphocyte counts: A potential contributor to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Bhupendra O; Garland, Jeffery; Berger, Joseph; Kramer, John; Sershon, Lisa; Olapo, Tayo; Sesing, Jean; Dukic, Mary; Rehn, Eileen

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) is an effective therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our study suggests that this drug may have immunosuppressive properties evidenced by significant sustained reduction in CD8 lymphocyte counts and, to a lesser extent, CD4 lymphocyte counts. This observation is relevant in light of the recent case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient receiving this drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Biological effects of ionizing radiation at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levals. Triannual progress report, July 15, 1974--October 14, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: organization and repair of DNA; size measurement of DNA by means of the ultracentrifuge; effects of hydroxyurea, cycloheximide, and methylmercury on cell cycle progression; absence of an effect of photoreactivation on sublethal damage repair in a photoreactivating Wallaby cell line; and the control of differentiation and tissue polarity in planarians

  15. Effects of therapeutic exercise on masticatory function in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawazoe, Y; Kobayashi, M; Tasaka, T; Tamamoto, M

    1982-01-01

    The slope of the curve relating integrated electromyographic activity of masseter muscle to biting force, the latency of the jaw-jerk reflex, and masticatory performance wee estimated in patients with Duchenne type of progressive muscular dystrophy before and during therapeutic exercise of the somatogenc system. The slope and latency were slightly decreased, and masticatory performance was increased during exercise. These results suggest that therapeutic exercise of the stomatognathic system ...

  16. Effect of reinforcer magnitude on performance maintained by progressive-ratio schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, J F; Body, S; Zhang, Z; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2009-01-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between reinforcer magnitude and quantitative measures of performance on progressive-ratio schedules. Fifteen rats were trained under a progressive-ratio schedule in seven phases of the experiment in which the volume of a 0.6-M sucrose solution reinforcer was varied within the range 6-300 microl. Overall response rates in successive ratios conformed to a bitonic equation derived from Killeen's (1994) Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement. The "specific activation" parameter, a, which is presumed to reflect the incentive value of the reinforcer, was a monotonically increasing function of reinforcer volume; the "response time" parameter, delta, which defines the minimum response time, increased as a function of reinforcer volume; the "currency" parameter, beta, which is presumed to reflect the coupling of responses to the reinforcer, declined as a function of volume. Running response rate (response rate calculated after exclusion of the postreinforcement pause) decayed monotonically as a function of ratio size; the index of curvature of this function increased as a function of reinforcer volume. Postreinforcement pause increased as a function of ratio size. Estimates of a derived from overall response rates and postreinforcement pauses showed a modest positive correlation across conditions and between animals. Implications of the results for the quantification of reinforcer value and for the use of progressive-ratio schedules in behavioral neuroscience are discussed.

  17. Triple pelvic osteotomy: effect on limb function and progression of degenerative joint disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.L.; Smith, C.W.; Pijanowski, G.J.; Hungerford, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate prospectively the outcome of 21 clinical patients treated with triple pelvic osteotomies during the year following surgery. Specific aims included documenting the time of and extent of improved limb function as measured by force plate analysis, evaluating the progression of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the treated and untreated coxofemoral joints, and determining whether or not triple pelvic osteotomy resulted in degenerative joint changes in the ipsilateral stifle and hock. Twelve dogs were treated unilaterally and nine dogs were treated bilaterally with triple pelvic osteotomies. There were no differences in mean anteversion angles, angles of inclination, or preoperative DJD between treated hips and untreated hips. Degenerative joint disease progressed significantly in all hips regardless of treatment. Two cases developed hyperextension of their hocks after the triple pelvic osteotomies. However, no radiographic evidence of DJD was observed for any of the stifles or hocks at any observation time. A significant increase in vertical peak force (VPF) scores was noted for treated legs by two-to-three months after surgery, which continued over time. Untreated legs did not show a significant change in VPF scores over time. No differences were found in progression to higher scores when unilaterally treated legs, first-side treated legs, and second-side treated legs were compared

  18. Progressive Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining: The Effect of Liquid Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kaynak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study focuses on various cooling strategies and lubrication-assisted cooling strategies to improve machining performance in the turning process of AISI 4140 steel. Liquid nitrogen (LN2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 were used as cryogenic coolants, and their performances were compared with respect to progression of tool wear. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL was also used with carbon dioxide. Progression of wear, including flank and nose, are the main outputs examined during experimental study. This study illustrates that carbon dioxide-assisted cryogenic machining alone and with minimum quantity lubrication does not contribute to decreasing the progression of wear within selected cutting conditions. This study also showed that carbon dioxide-assisted cryogenic machining helps to increase chip breakability. Liquid nitrogen-assisted cryogenic machining results in a reduction of tool wear, including flank and nose wear, in the machining process of AISI 4140 steel material. It was also observed that in the machining process of this material at a cutting speed of 80 m/min, built-up edges occurred in both cryogenic cooling conditions. Additionally, chip flow damage occurs in particularly dry machining.

  19. Effect of enalapril on the progression of chronic renal failure. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Leyssac, P P

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the influence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the progression of chronic nephropathy, 70 patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15 (range, 6 to 54) mL/min/1.73 m2 were randomized in an open study to basic treatment with enalapril or conve......In order to study the influence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the progression of chronic nephropathy, 70 patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15 (range, 6 to 54) mL/min/1.73 m2 were randomized in an open study to basic treatment with enalapril...... or conventional antihypertensive treatment. The patients were followed for at least 2 years or until they needed dialysis. The groups were comparable with respect to age and sex distribution, etiology of renal diseases, initial levels of renal function and arterial blood pressure (BP), and protein intake.......18 to -7.11) mL/min/1.73 m2/month and in the control group it was -0.31 (+0.01 to -1.97) mL/min/1.73 m2/month (P less than .05). There was no significant difference in blood pressure or plasma lipid levels between the groups. Thus, the progression of moderate to severe chronic nephropathy was slower...

  20. Progression and effect of cognitive-behavioral changes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Meredith; Duong, Y-Nhy; Kim, Anthony; Allen, Isabel; Murphy, Jennifer; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    To prospectively evaluate the progression of cognitive-behavioral function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examine the association of cognitive-behavioral deficits with disease progression, patient quality of life (QOL), and caregiver burden. We evaluated cognitive-behavioral function using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioral Screen at enrollment and after 7 months in a cohort of patients with ALS. Paired t tests were used to evaluate the change in the 2 assessments. Linear regression and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to investigate how initial cognitive or behavioral status related to outcomes. The mean test-retest interval was 6.8 months (SD 1.6). Cognitive status of the study population (n = 49) overall did not change over the study period ( p = 0.06) despite progression of motor weakness ( p cognitive change. Patients initially classified as behaviorally normal showed increased behavioral problems over time ( t = -2.8, p = 0.009). Decline in cognitive (β = -1.3, p = 0.03) and behavioral (β = -0.76, p = 0.002) status predicted increasing caregiver burden. Behavioral abnormalities predicted decline in forced vital capacity and ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised score ( p = 0.008, 0.012) in the study population and patient QOL in the most severely affected group ( t = 4.3, p = 0.003). Cognitive-behavioral change is a key aspect of disease heterogeneity in ALS. Executive function in ALS overall remains stable over 7 months as detected by an administered screening tool. However, patients may develop caregiver-reported behavioral symptoms in that time period. Screening for caregiver-reported symptoms has a particular utility in predicting future clinical decline, increased caregiver burden, and worsening patient QOL.

  1. Effects of progressive backward body weight suppoted treadmill training on gait ability in chronic stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hun; Lee, Kyoung Bo; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Suk Min

    2017-10-23

    A stroke patient with hemiplegic gait is generally described as being slow and asymmetric. Body weight-supported treadmill training and backward gait training are recent additions to therapeutic gait trainings that may help improve gait in stroke patient with hemiplegic gait. Therefore, we examined the effect of progressive backward body weight-supported treadmill training on gait in chronic stroke patients with hemiplegic gait. Thirty subjects were divided to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group consisted of 15 patients and underwent progressive backward body weight-supported treadmill training. The control group consisted of 15 patients and underwent general treadmill gait training five times per week, for a total of four weeks. The OptoGait was used to analyze gait kinematics, and the dynamic gait index (DGI) and results of the 6-minute walk test were used as the clinical evaluation indicators. A follow-up test was carried out four weeks later to examine persistence of exercise effects. The experimental group showed statistically significant results in all dependent variables week four compared to the control group. However, until the eighth week, only the dependent variables, of affected step length (ASL), stride length (SL), and DGI differed significantly between the two groups. This study verified that progressive bodyweight-supported treadmill training had a positive influence on the temporospatial characteristics of gait and clinical gait evaluation index in chronic stroke patients.

  2. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, 1981-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Research during the 1981-1982 year emphasized the development of tests that can distinguish between mutations induced at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus in Drosophila melanogaster by ionizing radiation, which induces largely deletions, and mutations that result from single base changes. For development of these tests three alleles at the Adh locus were used which have been shown by sequencing to differ by only a single base change, and for contrast a group of mutants induced by x-rays were used in which at least 71% of the mutants were deletions. Two tests that give complementary information were selected and progress in validation is described

  3. Effect of progressive resistance exercise with neuromuscular joint facilitation on the dynamic balance performance of junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; Guan, Peipei; Onoda, Ko; Chen, Di; Huang, Qiuchen; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in dynamic balance performance of junior soccer players after progressive resistance treatment with neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF). [Subjects] The subjects were 14 healthy males who were divided into two groups, namely the NJF and control groups. The NJF group consisted of 8 subjects, and the control group consisted of 6 subjects. [Methods] The participants in the NJF group received NJF progressive resistance treatment. Dynamic balance performance was measured before and after 3 weeks of exercise. [Results] Significant improvement in dynamic balance performance was observed both in the NJF and control groups. In the NJF group, dynamic balance performance was significantly increased compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] The NJF intervention shortened movement time, which implies that NJF is effective for dynamic balance performance.

  4. Ceramic research on transformational superplasticity and stoichiometry effects on fracture. Research progress report, June 1, 1975--May 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradt, R.C.; Hoke, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    The progress of the program is reviewed by treating each of the areas separately. In the superplasticity investigation, the results of the Bi 2 WO 6 and Bi 2 MoO 3 systems are discussed both in terms of the transformational deformation and also the thermal cycling growth phenomenon. The growth phenomenon on thermal cycling through the phase transition shows some interesting bulk and microstructural features in terms of specimen strain and highly anisotropic grain growth. The stoichiometry effects on the fracture (K/sub Ic/ and K-V behavior) of TiO/sub 2-x/ and Fe/sub 1-x/ are reviewed as that study has been completed. Progress on the MgO . X Al 2 O 3 system is discussed

  5. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Counseling on Anxiety among Primigravida Women Referred to Health Care Centers in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Shobeiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Progressive muscle relaxation is a non-invasive, cost-effective and complication less method which can be performed independently by the individual. Considering the importance of psychological problems during pregnancy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation counseling on anxiety among primigravida women referred to health care centers in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with two groups (experimental and control with pre-test and post-test. A total of 120 women were referred to health centers in Hamadan who were experiencing their first pregnancy and were consecutively enrolled in the study, after obtaining informed consents. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (60 women in each group by allocation concealment. The control group only received routine prenatal care, but the experimental group after two counseling sessions and learning muscle relaxation techniques performed progressive muscle relaxation exercises from 21-22 weeks for 10 weeks, and completed the daily performance sheet of relaxation. The study data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, and the daily performance sheet for the intervention group. Data were analyzed in SPSS 20 using independent samples t-test, Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and paired t-test. Results: Data analysis reflected the homogeneity of the state and trait anxiety levels in both groups before the intervention. The results showed that state and trait anxiety in the control group after the intervention was significantly increased (P<0.001, but the experimental group showed a significant decrease in state and trait anxiety after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusions: Teaching progressive muscle relaxation techniques to pregnant women can have a significant impact on reducing pregnancy anxiety.

  6. Effects of deep brain stimulation on rest tremor progression in early stage Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mallory L; DeLong, Mahlon R; Turchan, Maxim; Heusinkveld, Lauren E; Ostrem, Jill L; Molinari, Anna L; Currie, Amanda D; Konrad, Peter E; Davis, Thomas L; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Cannard, Kevin R; Drye, Lea T; Sternberg, Alice L; Shade, David M; Tonascia, James; Charles, David

    2018-06-29

    To evaluate whether the progression of individual motor features was influenced by early deep brain stimulation (DBS), a post hoc analysis of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) score (after a 7-day washout) was conducted from the 2-year DBS in early Parkinson disease (PD) pilot trial dataset. The prospective pilot trial enrolled patients with PD aged 50-75 years, treated with PD medications for 6 months-4 years, and no history of dyskinesia or other motor fluctuations, who were randomized to receive optimal drug therapy (ODT) or DBS plus ODT (DBS + ODT). At baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, all patients stopped all PD therapy for 1 week (medication and stimulation, if applicable). UPDRS-III "off" item scores were compared between the ODT and DBS + ODT groups (n = 28); items with significant between-group differences were analyzed further. UPDRS-III "off" rest tremor score change from baseline to 24 months was worse in patients receiving ODT vs DBS + ODT ( p = 0.002). Rest tremor slopes from baseline to 24 months favored DBS + ODT both "off" and "on" therapy ( p will be tested in the Food and Drug Administration-approved, phase III, pivotal, multicenter clinical trial evaluating DBS in early PD. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with early PD, DBS may slow the progression of rest tremor. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Opposite effects of training in rats with stable and progressive pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, M L; de Man, F S; Happé, C M; Schalij, I; Musters, R J P; Westerhof, N; Postmus, P E; Paulus, W J; van der Laarse, W J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2009-07-07

    Exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is a promising adjunct to medical treatment. However, it is still unclear whether training is beneficial for all PH patients. We hypothesized that right ventricular adaptation plays a pivotal role in the response to training. Two different dosages of monocrotaline were used in rats to model stable PH with preserved cardiac output and progressive PH developing right heart failure. Two weeks after injection, PH was confirmed by echocardiography, and treadmill training was initiated. Rats were trained for 4 weeks unless manifest right heart failure developed earlier. At the end of the study protocol, all rats were functionally assessed by endurance testing, echocardiography, and invasive pressure measurements. Lungs and hearts were further analyzed in quantitative histomorphologic analyses. In stable PH, exercise training was well tolerated and markedly increased exercise endurance (from 25+/-3.9 to 62+/-3.9 minutes; Ptraining worsened survival (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 14.2) and increased pulmonary vascular remodeling. In addition, training induced widespread leukocyte infiltration into the right ventricle (from 135+/-14 to 276+/-18 leukocytes per 1 mm(2); Ptraining was found to be beneficial in stable PH but detrimental in progressive PH. Future studies are necessary to address the clinical implications of our findings.

  8. The Effect of Fiber Strength Stochastics and Local Fiber Volume Fraction on Multiscale Progressive Failure of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Jr., Thomas E.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous fiber unidirectional polymer matrix composites (PMCs) can exhibit significant local variations in fiber volume fraction as a result of processing conditions that can lead to further local differences in material properties and failure behavior. In this work, the coupled effects of both local variations in fiber volume fraction and the empirically-based statistical distribution of fiber strengths on the predicted longitudinal modulus and local tensile strength of a unidirectional AS4 carbon fiber/ Hercules 3502 epoxy composite were investigated using the special purpose NASA Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC); local effective composite properties were obtained by homogenizing the material behavior over repeating units cells (RUCs). The predicted effective longitudinal modulus was relatively insensitive to small (8%) variations in local fiber volume fraction. The composite tensile strength, however, was highly dependent on the local distribution in fiber strengths. The RUC-averaged constitutive response can be used to characterize lower length scale material behavior within a multiscale analysis framework that couples the NASA code FEAMAC and the ABAQUS finite element solver. Such an approach can be effectively used to analyze the progressive failure of PMC structures whose failure initiates at the RUC level. Consideration of the effect of local variations in constituent properties and morphologies on progressive failure of PMCs is a central aspect of the application of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) principles for composite materials.

  9. Intermittent induction of HIF-1α produces lasting effects on malignant progression independent of its continued expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsung Choi

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α correlates with poor prognosis in human cancers; yet, divergent and sometimes opposing activities of these factors in cancer biology have been observed. Adding to this complexity is that HIF-1α apparently possesses tumor-suppressing activities, as indicated by the loss-of-function mutations or even homozygous deletion of HIF1A in certain human cancers. As a step towards understanding this complexity, we employed 8-week intermittent induction of a stable HIF-1α variant, HIF1α(PP, in various cancer cell lines and examined the effects on malignant progression in xenografts of immunocompromised mice in comparison to those of HIF2α(PP. Although 8-week treatment led to eventual loss of HIF1α(PP expression, treated osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells acquired tumorigenicity in the subcutaneous tissue. Furthermore, the prior treatment resulted in widespread invasion of malignant glioma U-87 MG cells in the mouse brain and sustained growth of U-118 MG glioma cells. The lasting effects of HIF-1α on malignant progression are specific because neither HIF2α(PP nor β-galactosidase yielded similar effects. By contrast, transient expression of HIF1α(PP in U-87 MG cells or constitutive expression of HIF1α(PP but not HIF2α(PP in a patient-derived glioma sphere culture inhibited tumor growth and spread. Our results indicate that intermittent induction of HIF-1α produces lasting effects on malignant progression even at its own expense.

  10. The regulation effect of STAT 5 signaling pathway on the cell cycle progression of irradiated KG-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Luo Qingliang; Wen Gengyun; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    The author investigated the role of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway regulating cell cycle progression in the irradiated KG-1 cells. By permanent transfecting the cells with DN-STAT 5 cDNA to block the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and then transient transfecting with cyclin D 1 or cyclin B 1 cDNA, the effects of cyclin D 1 protein and cyclin B 1 protein on the cell cycle progression were examined. Results showed that after irradiation with 8Gy 60 Co rays, the irradiated KG-1 cells transfected with only DN-STAT 5 cDNA can not recover form the G 1 arrest, even though GM-CSF was added. Meanwhile, the cells transfected with both the DN-STAT 5 cDNA and cyclin D 1 cDNA or cyclin B 1 cDNA can recover from the G 1 arrest or the G 2 arrest to a great extent. Thus, it was proved indirectly that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway activated by GM-CSF regulated the cell cycle progression through cyclin D 1 and cyclin B 1 protein

  11. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  12. Effect of Progressive Heart Failure on Cerebral Hemodynamics and Monoamine Metabolism in CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalyga, M L; Mamalyga, L M

    2017-07-01

    Compensated and decompensated heart failure are characterized by different associations of disorders in the brain and heart. In compensated heart failure, the blood flow in the common carotid and basilar arteries does not change. Exacerbation of heart failure leads to severe decompensation and is accompanied by a decrease in blood flow in the carotid and basilar arteries. Changes in monoamine content occurring in the brain at different stages of heart failure are determined by various factors. The functional exercise test showed unequal monoamine-synthesizing capacities of the brain in compensated and decompensated heart failure. Reduced capacity of the monoaminergic systems in decompensated heart failure probably leads to overstrain of the central regulatory mechanisms, their gradual exhaustion, and failure of the compensatory mechanisms, which contributes to progression of heart failure.

  13. Daily Home Spirometry: An Effective Tool for Detecting Progression in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anne-Marie; Adamali, Huzaifa; Molyneaux, Philip L; Lukey, Pauline T; Marshall, Richard P; Renzoni, Elisabetta A; Wells, Athol U; Maher, Toby M

    2016-10-15

    Recent clinical trial successes have created an urgent need for earlier and more sensitive endpoints of disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Domiciliary spirometry permits more frequent measurement of FVC than does hospital-based assessment, which therefore affords the opportunity for a more granular insight into changes in IPF progression. To determine the feasibility and reliability of measuring daily FVC in individuals with IPF. Subjects with IPF were given handheld spirometers and instruction on how to self-administer spirometry. Subjects recorded daily FEV 1 and FVC for up to 490 days. Clinical assessment and hospital-based spirometry was undertaken at 6 and 12 months, and outcome data were collected for 3 years. Daily spirometry was recorded by 50 subjects for a median period of 279 days (range, 13-490 d). There were 18 deaths during the active study period. Home spirometry showed excellent correlation with hospital-obtained readings. The rate of decline in FVC was highly predictive of outcome and subsequent mortality when measured at 3 months (hazard ratio [HR], 1.040; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.021-1.062; P ≤ 0.001), 6 months (HR, 1.024; 95% CI, 1.014-1.033; P spirometry in patients with IPF is highly clinically informative and is feasible to perform for most of these patients. The relationship between mortality and rate of change of FVC at 3 months suggests that daily FVC may be of value as a primary endpoint in short proof-of-concept IPF studies.

  14. Treatments for compulsive buying: A systematic review of the quality, effectiveness and progression of the outcome evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Ben; Hall, Jo; Kellett, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims This review appraises the progression and status of the evidence base for the treatment of compulsive buying disorder (CBD), in order to highlight what currently works and to prompt useful future research. Methods Online databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and PubMed via Ovid were searched at two time points. Two quality checklists and an established model of therapy evaluation (hourglass model) evaluated the quality and progression of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy treatments for CBD. Uncontrolled effect sizes were calculated and meta-regression analyses were performed regarding treatment duration. Results A total of 29 articles met the inclusion criteria, which were divided into psychotherapy (n = 17) and pharmacotherapy treatments (n = 12). Of the 29 studies, only 5 studies have been tested under conditions of high methodological quality. Both forms of treatment had been evaluated in a haphazard manner across the stages of the hourglass model. Although large effects were demonstrated for group psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, such evidence of effectiveness was undermined by poor study quality and risk of publication bias. Long-term CBD treatment was associated with improved outcome with pharmacotherapy, but not when delivering psychotherapy. Discussion Group psychotherapy currently appears the most promising treatment option for CBD. Poor methodological control and sporadic evaluation of specific treatments have slowed the generation of a convincing evidence base for CBD treatment. Defining the active ingredients of effective CBD treatment is a key research goal.

  15. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

  16. Comparative Effects of Different Balance-Training-Progression Styles on Postural Control and Ankle Force Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Duncan, Ashley; Wikstrom, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Despite the effectiveness of balance training, the exact parameters needed to maximize the benefits of such programs remain unknown. One such factor is how individuals should progress to higher levels of task difficulty within a balance-training program. Yet no investigators have directly compared different balance-training-progression styles. To compare an error-based progression (ie, advance when proficient at a task) with a repetition-based progression (ie, advance after a set amount of repetitions) style during a balance-training program in healthy individuals. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. A total of 28 (16 women, 12 men) physically healthy young adults (age = 21.57 ± 3.95 years, height = 171.60 ± 11.03 cm, weight = 72.96 ± 16.18 kg, body mass index = 24.53 ± 3.7). All participants completed 12 supervised balance-training sessions over 4 weeks. Each session consisted of a combination of dynamic unstable-surface tasks that incorporated a BOSU ball and lasted about 30 minutes. Static balance from an instrumented force plate, dynamic balance as measured via the Star Excursion Balance Test, and ankle force production in all 4 cardinal planes of motion as measured with a handheld dynamometer before and after the intervention. Selected static postural-control outcomes, dynamic postural control, and ankle force production in all planes of motion improved (P .05) for any of the outcome measures. A 4-week balance-training program consisting of dynamic unstable-surface exercises on a BOSU ball improved dynamic postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults. These results suggest that an error-based balance-training program is comparable with but not superior to a repetition-based balance-training program in improving postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults.

  17. Effectiveness of the hydrotherapy in children with chronic encephalopathy no progressive of the childhood: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Carvalho Jacques

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Now Cerebral Palsy is considered like Chronic Encephalopathy no Progressive of the Childhood and defined as any disorder characterized by alteration in the structure and function of the body, activity and participation due to a lesion no progressive of the brain in development. Several techniques physiotherapy exist for individuals rehabilitation with that pathology, however, no technique stands out as more effective in the literature. The use of the approach hydrotherapy becomes viable in several aspects structural, functional and social in the rehabilitation process. OBJETIVE: It is done necessary to evaluate, through the selection and discerning analysis of article, the evidences of the effectiveness of the hydrotherapy in children and/or adolescents with Chronic Encephalopathy no Progressive of the childhood with inferior age to 17 years. METHODS: Research was accomplished at the Virtual Library in Health in the bases of bibliographical data of LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, Cochrane Library and search active in national and international newspapers. RESULTS: The databases located only two article of systematic review on the approached theme. Through these, it was possible to locate for search activates six scientific articles. These were analyzed in agreement with the inclusion criteria, and finally, only three articles composed the study, where the same ones were appraised as for the methodological quality. No article of the type randomized controlled trial was found, just an quasy- randomized one. CONCLUSION: It had limited evidence of the effects hydrotherapy in that population. Like this being, future studies of the type randomized controlled trial are made necessary for the clinical conduct and for scientific community.

  18. Effects of [3H]UdR on the cell-cycle progression of L1210 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darzynkiewicz, Z.; Carter, S.; Kimmel, M.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium-labelled uridine (( 3 H)UdR)perturbs progression of L1210 cells through the mitotic cycle. A slowdown of G 2 cells is observed 2 hr after addition of 0.5-5.0 μci/ml of ( 3 H)UdR into cultures. At 2.5-5.0 μCi/ml of ( 3 H)UdR a slowdown of cell progression through S is also apparent. Additionally, there is an increase in the number of cells with DNA values higher than 4C in cultures growing in the presence of ( 3 H)UdR for 8-24 hr. A pulse of ( 3 H)UdR of 2 hr duration labels predominantly (95%) cellular RNA. The first cell-cycle effects (G 2 slowdown) are observed when the amount of the incorporated ( 3 H)UdR is such that, on average there are fewer than thirty-six ( 3 H) decays per cell which corresponds to approximately 12-19 rads. The S-phase slowdown is seen at a dose of incorporated ( 3 H)UdR twice as high as that inducing G 2 effects. The specific localization of ( 3 H)UdR in nucleoli, peripheral nucleoplasm and in cytoplasm, as well as differences in the kinetics of the incorporation in relation to phases of the cell cycle are discussed. Mathematical modelling of the cell-cycle effects of ( 3 H)UdR is provided. (author)

  19. Investigating the effect of music on labor pain and progress in the active stage of first labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S E; Bagheri, M; Honarparvaran, N

    2013-06-01

    DESIGN AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of music-therapy on labor pain and progress in parturient primipara. Music-therapy during labor increases tolerance to pain; decreasing anxiety, it increases paturition and uterus activity and shorten labor duration. The subjects of this research were 30 women, selected voluntarily and they have been put in two experimental and control group. This research has been conducted in the form of pre-test and post-test design. The experimental group listened to a relaxing music for 30 minutes in each hour for a two-hour period a nd the control group was not exposed to music during this period. For the purpose of gathering data in both groups, the pain scales (verbal, numeric and visual) was used to measure pain. The independent variable in this research is relaxing music and the dependent variables are the pain level and delivery progress. The independent t for sensations of pain in the experimental and control group before intervention has been (p = 0.875) 0.601 in numeric and visual pain and (p independent t for the duration of delivery in control group before and after intervention shows that music has not had any effect on the rate of serotonin. The results of statistical analysis show the effect of music on the decrease of sensation of pain in the experimental group as compared with the control group.

  20. Understanding the effects of stimulant medications on cognition in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a decade of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James; Baler, Ruben D; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-01-01

    The use of stimulant drugs for the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most widespread pharmacological interventions in child psychiatry and behavioral pediatrics. This treatment is well grounded on controlled studies showing efficacy of low oral doses of methylphenidate and amphetamine in reducing the behavioral symptoms of the disorder as reported by parents and teachers, both for the cognitive (inattention and impulsivity) and non-cognitive (hyperactivity) domains. Our main aim is to review the objectively measured cognitive effects that accompany the subjectively assessed clinical responses to stimulant medications. Recently, methods from the cognitive neurosciences have been used to provide information about brain processes that underlie the cognitive deficits of ADHD and the cognitive effects of stimulant medications. We will review some key findings from the recent literature, and then offer interpretations of the progress that has been made over the past decade in understanding the cognitive effects of stimulant medication on individuals with ADHD.

  1. A Case Study: Effect of Progressive Resistance and Balance Training on Upper Trunk Muscle Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Ismailiyan

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion The results of this study showed that 8 weeks of progressive resistance and balance training (in combination has increased muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy. The present research showed that resistance and balanced trainings have significant effects on muscle strength of children with CP. It seems that these practices have been effective, especially for the wrist flexor and elbow flexor muscles. It can be said that the increase in the muscles of children with CP was due to practice principle along with increase in neuronal compatibility. One of the important points in the effectiveness of resistance training is the intensity of training. The results showed that resistance and balanced trainings increase the muscle strength of children with CP. This power could be partly due to increase in muscle volume and partly due to anabolic hormones.

  2. Chernobyl Studies Project - working group 7.0 environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, October 1993--January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, S.M. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project was begun as part of a cooperative agreement between the US and the former USSR, (quote) To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future reactor accident (quote). Most of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus has now turned primarily to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are extensively engaged in case-control and cohort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children and in the Ukraine. A major part of the effort is providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and providing support and equipment for the medical teams. This document contains reports on progress in the following task areas: Management; External Dose; Hydrological Transport; Chromosome Painting Dosimetry; Stochastic Effects; Thyroid Studies; and Leukemia Studies.

  3. A research program on radiative, chemical, and dynamical feedback progresses influencing the carbon dioxide and trace gases climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This report summarizes the up-to-date progress. The program includes two tasks: atmospheric radiation and climatic effects and their objective is to link quantitatively the radiation forcing changes and the climate responses caused by increasing greenhouse gases. Here, the objective and approach are described. We investigate the combined atmospheric radiation characteristics of the greenhouse gases (H 2 O, CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CFCs, and O 3 ), aerosols and clouds. Since the climatic effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases is initiated by perturabtion to the longwave thermal radiation, it is critical to understand better the radiation characteristics of the greenhouse gases and their relationship to radiatively-important aerosols and clouds; the latter reflect solar radiation (a cooling of the surface) and provide a greenhouse effect (a warming to the surface). Therefore, aerosol and cloud particles are an integral part of the radiation field in the atmosphere. 9 refs

  4. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  5. The effect of physician staffing model on patient outcomes in a medical progressive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, E J; Damaghi, N; Shakespeare, W G; Sherman, M S

    2016-04-01

    Although evidence supports the impact of intensivist physician staffing in improving intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes, the optimal coverage for progressive care units (PCU) is unknown. We sought to determine how physician staffing models influence outcomes for intermediate care patients. We conducted a retrospective observational comparison of patients admitted to the medical PCU of an academic hospital during 12-month periods of high-intensity and low-intensity staffing. A total of 318 PCU patients were eligible for inclusion (143 high-intensity and 175 low-intensity). We found that low-intensity patients were more often stepped up from the emergency department and floor, whereas high-intensity patients were ICU transfers (61% vs 42%, P = .001). However, Mortality Probability Model scoring was similar between the 2 groups. In adjusted analysis, there was no association between intensity of staffing and hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-1.99; P = .69) or PCU mortality (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.45; P = .69). There was also no difference in subsequent ICU admission rates or in PCU length of stay. We found no evidence that high-intensity intensivist physician staffing improves outcomes for intermediate care patients. In a strained critical care system, our study raises questions about the role of the intensivist in the graded care options between intensive and conventional ward care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Rebamipide on the Premalignant Progression of Chronic Gastritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Jiang, Kui; Wang, Bangmao; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Xin; Li, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Chronic gastritis frequently progresses into precancerous intestinal metaplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. Rebamipide is a free radical scavenger and we assessed its efficacy on clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions, pathologic grade, and immunohistochemistry in chronic gastritis patients. 178 eligible patients were randomized into treatment and control groups. Both groups followed an optimized lifestyle for 26 weeks, but the treatment group was additionally medicated with rebamipide 0.1 g three times per day. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients to evaluate the severity of gastritis by the Modified Lanza Scoring (MLS) and histological changes were evaluated by the Updated Sydney System Score (USSS). Gastric mucosa immunohistochemistry in the treatment group was performed using the intestinal metaplasia markers caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) detection. There were significant outcome differences between the treatment and control groups regarding the clinical symptom scores (2.62 ± 1.86 vs. 1.55 ± 1.61, P = 0.0001), gastric mucosal lesion scores (0.57 ± 1.05 vs. 0.16 ± 0.90, P = 0.002), and inflammation (P gastritis patients and decreased the expression rates of CDX2 and TFF3 in gastric cells.

  7. Genome-wide effects of acute progressive feed restriction in liver and white adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Linden, Jere; Wendelin, Dominique; Okey, Allan B.

    2008-01-01

    Acute progressive feed restriction (APFR) represents a specific form of caloric restriction in which feed availability is increasingly curtailed over a period of a few days to a few weeks. It is often used for control animals in toxicological and pharmacological studies on compounds causing body weight loss to equalize weight changes between experimental and control groups and thereby, intuitively, to also set their metabolic states to the same phase. However, scientific justification for this procedure is lacking. In the present study, we analyzed by microarrays the impact on hepatic gene expression in rats of two APFR regimens that caused identical diminution of body weight (19%) but differed slightly in duration (4 vs. 10 days). In addition, white adipose tissue (WAT) was also subjected to the transcriptomic analysis on day-4. The data revealed that the two regimens led to distinct patterns of differentially expressed genes in liver, albeit some major pathways of energy metabolism were similarly affected (particularly fatty acid and amino acid catabolism). The reason for the divergence appeared to be entrainment by the longer APFR protocol of peripheral oscillator genes, which resulted in derailment of circadian rhythms and consequent interaction of altered diurnal fluctuations with metabolic adjustments in gene expression activities. WAT proved to be highly unresponsive to the 4-day APFR as only 17 mRNA levels were influenced by the treatment. This study demonstrates that body weight is a poor proxy of metabolic state and that the customary protocols of feed restriction can lead to rhythm entrainment

  8. A systematic review of the effect of moderate intensity exercise on function and disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Andrew J; Byl, Nancy N

    2009-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic disease of adults affecting upper and lower motor neurons. In one to four years, progressive weakness, spasticity, and respiratory insufficiency compromise independence and survival. Current medical treatment is limited to medication and supportive care. The benefit and harm of moderate physical exercise are controversial. This review examined current research related to moderate exercise for maintaining independence without accelerating disease progression in persons with ALS. An evidence-based search was conducted using keywords alone and in combination (ALS, exercise, Lou Gehrig's disease, physical therapy) to search PubMed, PEDro, Hooked on Evidence, Ovid, and Cochrane databases. Human and animal models were included and graded on level of evidence and strength of recommendations for developing guidelines to practice. A secondary reviewer evaluated all selected studies, and statistics were calculated. The search yielded the following nine studies: four small clinical studies, one clinical systematic review, and four randomized, controlled trials based on animal models. In human studies, there were small to moderate effect sizes supporting the benefit of moderate exercise in persons with early-stage ALS, with no adverse affects on disease progression or survival time. In transgenic mice with superoxide dismutase-1 ALS, moderate exercise most often had a moderate effect size for increasing life span. Large randomized clinical trials are needed to develop specific exercise guidelines. However, evidence suggests that moderate exercise is not associated with adverse outcomes in persons with early-stage ALS. Moderate exercise programs can be safely adapted to abilities, interests, specific response to exercise, accessibility, and family support.

  9. Effect of progressive drought stress on growth, leaf gas exchange, and antioxidant production in two maize cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Ashraf, Umair; Hussain, Saddam; Shahzad, Babar; Khan, Imran; Wang, Longchang

    2016-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the major environmental factors responsible for reduction in crop productivity. In the present study, responses of two maize cultivars (Rung Nong 35 and Dong Dan 80) were examined to explicate the growth, yield, leaf gas exchange, leaf water contents, osmolyte accumulation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity under progressive drought stress. Maize cultivars were subjected to varying field capacities (FC) viz., well-watered (80 % FC) and drought-stressed (35 % FC) at 45 days after sowing. The effects of drought stress were analyzed at 5, 10, 15, 20, ad 25 days after drought stress (DAS) imposition. Under prolonged drought stress, Rung Nong 35 exhibited higher reduction in growth and yield as compared to Dong Dan 80. Maize cultivar Dong Dan 80 showed higher leaf relative water content (RWC), free proline, and total carbohydrate accumulation than Run Nong 35. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion were increased with prolongation of drought stress, with higher rates in cultivar Run Nong 35 than cultivar Dong Dan 80. Higher production of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) resulted in improved growth and yield in Dong Dan 80. Overall, the cultivar Dong Dan 80 was better able to resist the detrimental effects of progressive drought stress as indicated by better growth and yield due to higher antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation, better accumulation of osmolytes, and maintenance of tissue water contents.

  10. Understanding the Role and Impact of Effective Country and Community Leadership in Progress Toward the Global Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Charles; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-05-01

    Individual leadership and leaders have played pivotal roles in the history of efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. The goal of this article is to reflect on and understand how leadership and leaders have impacted and enabled the success of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). To accomplish this goal, multiple interviews were conducted with individuals in positions of leadership who had been identified as people whose actions drove progress. Interviewees were selected from all levels of traditional hierarchies and sectors to provide a more complete account and representation of leadership, with a particular emphasis on the community, district, and country levels. The leaders interviewed provide insight into their work, motivations, and approaches to effective leadership. Through their experiences, they shed light on the strategies they used to drive changes in policy, programs, practice, and communities that allowed for progress toward the goals of the Global Plan. Leaders also identify future challenges and areas of improvement in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic that they feel require leadership and urgent action. In conclusion, this article identifies common characteristics of effective leadership and reflects on the experiences of individuals who are leaders in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic, and how their lessons learned can be applied to help realize future global public health goals.

  11. Effect of intensive plasma exchange (PE) in rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis (RPCGN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, G; Sinico, R; Fornasieri, A; Ferrario, F; Colasanti, G; Porri, M T; Paracchini, M L; Gibelli, A

    1983-07-01

    Ten adult patients with RPCGN (crescents in greater than 70% of glomeruli), primary in 6 and associated with systemic diseases in 4, were treated with PE, associated with oral steroids (P) and cyclophosphamide (C) in all cases and with intravenous methylprednisolone pulses (MP) in 7 cases. Four out of ten patients were anuric and needed dialysis treatment at the start of treatment. Therapeutic benefit, i.e. reversal of the trend to further deterioration and substantial improvement of GFR, was achieved in 8 out of 10 patients (80%), including 2 of 4 anuric patients, and in 7 of those (8) who had still active cellular crescents (87.5%). Similar therapeutic benefit had been achieved only in 10% of a comparable population of 10 patients with RPCGN treated before 1980 with P and C, without PE or MP pulses. It is difficult to establish whether the better therapeutic results in the more recently treated group were due to PE or to MP pulses of to both the new approaches, even though the clinical improvement obtained in all the 3 patients treated with PE without concomitant MP suggest a specific beneficial role for PE. RPCGN is a catastrophic illness characterized by progressive deterioration of kidney function, resulting in oliguria and uremia, usually within weeks or months. The most consistent histopathologic finding is the presence of extensive glomerular crescents resulting from proliferation of the extracapillary epithelial cell lining of Bowman's capsule. It is apparent that RPCGN is not a homogeneous entity, clinically, histologically or immunohistologically, but rather a clinicopathologic syndrome, the features of which may be seen in a variety of systemic disorders, including SLE, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cryoglobulinemia, and subacute bacterial endocarditis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The Effect of Chemically Modified Tetracycline-3 on the Progression of Dental Caries in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Miao, Congcong; Tian, Zhenchuan; Li, Jinlu; Zhang, Chunmei; Yang, Dongmei

    2018-02-07

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exist in human saliva and dentin and play an important role in the degradation of organic matrix in teeth. Chemically modified tetracycline-3 (CMT-3) is an inhibitor of MMPs. CMT-3 has been used experimentally to treat caries since 1999, but no distinction between dental caries prevalence and dentin caries prevalence has been described. A total of 65 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The positive control group (25 rats) was inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (ATCC700610) and fed the cariogenic feed of improved Keyes Diet 2000. The CMT-3 group (25 rats) was also inoculated with S. mutans and fed the cariogenic feed of improved Keyes Diet 2000; the surfaces of rats' molars were daily treated with 0.02% CMT-3. The negative control group (15 rats) was only fed the standard rodent chow. At the end of the 10th week, the dental caries prevalence and dentin caries prevalence of each group were calculated, and the regions of caries were assessed. No caries was found in the negative control group. The dental caries prevalence of the CMT-3 and the positive control group was 75.0 and 83.3%, respectively (p > 0.05, Table 2). The dentin caries prevalence of the CMT-3 and the positive control group was 33.3 and 70.8%, respectively (p caries in the CMT-3 group was significantly lower than that in the positive control group (p caries, but could lower the prevalence and slow down the progression of dentin caries. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  14. The effect of progressive resistance training on aerobic fitness and strength in adults with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Matthew; Mavros, Yorgi; Freeston, Jonathan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Design We aimed to evaluate the effect of progressive resistance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in coronary heart disease, when compared to control or aerobic training, and when combined with aerobic training. Secondary aims were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of progressive resistance training on other physiological and clinical outcomes. Methods and results Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2016. Designs included progressive resistance training vs control, progressive resistance training vs aerobic training, and combined training vs aerobic training. From 268,778 titles, 34 studies were included (1940 participants; 71.9% male; age 60 ± 7 years). Progressive resistance training was more effective than control for lower (standardized mean difference 0.57, 95% confidence interval (0.17-0.96)) and upper (1.43 (0.73-2.13)) body strength. Aerobic fitness improved similarly after progressive resistance training (16.9%) or aerobic training (21.0%); (standardized mean difference -0.13, 95% confidence interval (-0.35-0.08)). Combined training was more effective than aerobic training for aerobic fitness (0.21 (0.09-0.34), lower (0.62 (0.32-0.92)) and upper (0.51 (0.27-0.74)) body strength. Twenty studies reported adverse event information, with five reporting 64 cardiovascular complications, 63 during aerobic training. Conclusion Isolated progressive resistance training resulted in an increase in lower and upper body strength, and improved aerobic fitness to a similar degree as aerobic training in coronary heart disease cohorts. Importantly, when progressive resistance training was added to aerobic training, effects on both fitness and strength were enhanced compared to aerobic training alone. Reporting of adverse events was poor, and clinical gaps were identified for women, older adults, high intensity progressive resistance training and long-term outcomes, warranting future trials to confirm safety and

  15. Differential effects of FXR or TGR5 activation in cholangiocarcinoma progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erice, O; Labiano, I; Arbelaiz, A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive tumor type affecting cholangiocytes. CCAs frequently arise under certain cholestatic liver conditions. Intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids may facilitate cocarcinogenic effects by triggering an inflammatory response and cholangioc...

  16. Effects of caffeine on protein phosphorylation and cell cycle progression in X-irradiated two-cell mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Th.; Streffer, C.

    1992-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of the caffeine-induced uncoupling of mitosis and the cellular reactions to DNA-damaging agents, the authors studied the effects of caffeine treatment on cell cycle progression and protein phosphorylation in two-cell mouse embryos after X-irradiation. Caffeine alone had no effect on timing of and changes in phosphorylation associated with the embryonic cell cycle. In combination with X-rays, caffeine was able to override the radiation induced G 2 block and restored normal timing of these phosphorylation changes after X-irradiation. New additional changes in protein phosphorylation appeared after the combined treatment. Isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX), a substance chemically related to caffeine but a more specific inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that breaks down cyclic AMP, reduced radiation induced G 2 block from 4 to 5 h to about 1 h and restored the cell cycle associated changes in protein phosphorylation. (author)

  17. Effects of caffeine on protein phosphorylation and cell cycle progression in X-irradiated two-cell mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Th. (AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Babraham (United Kingdom)); Streffer, C. (Essen Univ (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiolgie)

    1992-08-01

    To understand the mechanism of the caffeine-induced uncoupling of mitosis and the cellular reactions to DNA-damaging agents, the authors studied the effects of caffeine treatment on cell cycle progression and protein phosphorylation in two-cell mouse embryos after X-irradiation. Caffeine alone had no effect on timing of and changes in phosphorylation associated with the embryonic cell cycle. In combination with X-rays, caffeine was able to override the radiation induced G[sub 2] block and restored normal timing of these phosphorylation changes after X-irradiation. New additional changes in protein phosphorylation appeared after the combined treatment. Isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX), a substance chemically related to caffeine but a more specific inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that breaks down cyclic AMP, reduced radiation induced G[sub 2] block from 4 to 5 h to about 1 h and restored the cell cycle associated changes in protein phosphorylation. (author).

  18. Wind effected redistribution of surface contamination. Progress report, September 1974--August 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical resuspension ratios were computed through the extension of a one-dimensional model used to simulate the wind effected movement of surface contaminants. The surface movement of contamination associated with inhalable size particles was considered in relation to time, space, wind velocity, distance from the source, soil resuspension ratios, and other variables. A computer program was developed to calculate the wind effected distribution of surface contaminants. (U.S.)

  19. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Björn, Lars Olof; Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, United Nations Environment Programme,

    2005-01-01

    The measures needed for the protection of the layer are decided regularly by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, now consisting of 188 countries. The Parties are advised on knowledge relevant to this task by three panels of experts: the Scientific, Environmental Effects, and Technology and Economic Assessment Panels. These panels produce an assessment every four years. The Environmental Effects Assessments are also published in the scientific literature; the latest report was published as a...

  20. Effect of Progressive Volume-Based Overload During Plyometric Training on Explosive and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Burgos, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Zapata, Daniel; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Baez, Eduardo I; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Peñailillo, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of progressive volume-based overload with constant volume-based overload on muscle explosive and endurance performance adaptations during a biweekly short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) plyometric training intervention in young soccer players. Three groups of young soccer players (age 13.0 ± 2.3 years) were divided into: control (CG; n = 8) and plyometric training with (PPT; n = 8) and without (NPPT; n = 8) a progressive increase in volume (i.e., 16 jumps per leg per week, with an initial volume of 80 jumps per leg each session). Bilateral and unilateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), 10-m sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) were measured. Although both experimental groups significantly increased CMJA, RSI20, CODS, and endurance performance, only PPT showed a significant improvement in MKV and 10-m sprint time. In addition, only PPT showed a significantly higher performance improvement in jumping, MKV, and Yo-Yo IR1 compared with CG. Also, PPT showed higher meaningful improvement compared with NPPT in all (except 1) jump performance measures. Furthermore, although PPT involved a higher total volume compared with NPPT, training efficiency (i.e., percentage change in performance/total jump volume) was similar between groups. Our results show that PPT and NPPT ensured significant improvement in muscle explosive and endurance performance measures. However, a progressive increase in plyometric training volume seems more advantageous to induce soccer-specific performance improvements.

  1. Progressive age-dependence and frequency difference in the effect of gap junctions on active cochlear amplification and hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Liang; Chen, Jin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Hong-Bo

    2017-07-22

    Mutations of Connexin 26 (Cx26, GJB2), which is a predominant gap junction isoform in the cochlea, can induce high incidence of nonsyndromic hearing loss. We previously found that targeted-deletion of Cx26 in supporting Deiters cells and outer pillar cells in the cochlea can influence outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility and reduce active cochlear amplification leading to hearing loss, even though there are no gap junction connexin expressions in the auditory sensory hair cells. Here, we further report that hearing loss and the reduction of active amplification in the Cx26 targeted-deletion mice are progressive and different at high and low frequency regions, first occurring in the high frequency region and then progressively extending to the middle and low frequency regions with mouse age increased. The speed of hearing loss extending was fast in the basal high frequency region and slow in the apical low frequency region, showing a logarithmic function with mouse age. Before postnatal day 25, there were no significant hearing loss and the reduction of active cochlear amplification in the low frequency region. Hearing loss and the reduction of active cochlear amplification also had frequency difference, severe and large in the high frequency regions. These new data indicate that the effect of gap junction on active cochlear amplification is progressive, but, consistent with our previous report, exists in both high and low frequency regions in adulthood. These new data also suggest that cochlear gap junctions may have an important role in age-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on proteinuria and progression of chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, G. (Gemma); Taylor, A.H.M. (Alison H. M.); Fujita, T. (Toshiro); Ohtsu, H. (Hiroshi); Lindhardt, M. (Morten); K. Rossing; Boesby, L. (Lene); Edwards, N.C. (Nicola C.); Ferro, C.J. (Charles J.); J. Townend (Jonathan); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton); Saklayen, M.G. (Mohammad G.); Oveisi, S. (Sonia); Jardine, A.G. (Alan G.); C. Delles (Christian); Preiss, D.J. (David J.); Mark, P.B. (Patrick B.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hypertension and proteinuria are critically involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Despite treatment with renin angiotensin system inhibition, kidney function declines in many patients. Aldosterone excess is a risk factor for progression of kidney disease.

  3. Progression of hydroxychloroquine toxic effects after drug therapy cessation: new evidence from multimodal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mititelu, Mihai; Wong, Brandon J; Brenner, Marie; Bryar, Paul J; Jampol, Lee M; Fawzi, Amani A

    2013-09-01

    Given the infrequent occurrence of hydroxychloroquine toxic effects, few data are available about the presenting features and long-term follow-up of patients with hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, making it difficult to surmise the clinical course of patients after cessation of drug treatment. To report functional and structural findings of hydroxychloroquine retinal toxic effects after drug therapy discontinuation. A retrospective medical record review was performed to identify patients taking hydroxychloroquine who were screened for toxic effects from January 1, 2009, through August 31, 2012, in the eye centers of Northwestern University and the University of Southern California. Northwestern University Sorrel Rosin Eye Center, Chicago, Illinois, and the Doheny Eye Institute at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Seven consecutive patients diagnosed as having hydroxychloroquine retinal toxic effects. Retinal toxic effects. Seven patients (1 man and 6 women) with a mean age of 55.9 years (age range, 25-74 years) developed retinal toxic effects after using hydroxychloroquine for a mean of 10.4 years (range, 3-19 years). Fundus examination revealed macular pigmentary changes in all 7 patients, corresponding to abnormal fundus autofluorescence (FAF). On spectral domain optical coherence tomography, there was outer retinal foveal resistance (preservation of the external limiting membrane and the photoreceptor layer) in 6 patients. After drug therapy discontinuation, 5 patients experienced outer retinal regeneration (3 subfoveally and 2 parafoveally), with associated functional visual improvement on static perimetry in 2 patients. Over time, FAF remained stable in 3 patients, whereas the remaining patients had a pattern of hypoautofluorescence that replaced areas of initial hyperautofluorescence (2 patients) and enlargement of the total area of abnormal FAF (2 patients). Preservation of the external limiting membrane carries a positive prognostic value in

  4. Irradiation effects on reactor structural materials. Semi-annual progress report, August 1974--February 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudson, T.T.

    1975-03-01

    Data are reported on: effects of cold work on creep-fatigue of irradiated 304 and 316 stainless steel (ss); swelling of 304 and 316 ss irradiated with protons and fast neutrons; effects of hold time on fatigue crack propagation in neutron-irradiated 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss; radiation resistance of 0.03 percent Cu A533-B steel; microstructure of irradiated Inconel 718, Incoloy 800, PH13-8Mo, Mo, and Nb; dose dependence of 2.8-MeV Ni + ion damage (swelling) in Ni; notch ductility and strength of 316 ss submerged arc weld deposits; effects of microstructure of 316 ss on its irradiation response; in-reactor deformation of 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss; microstructure of HFIR-irradiated 316 ss; void microstructures of V bombarded by 46-MeV Ni 6+ ions (with and without preinjected helium) or 7.5-MeV Ta 3+ ions; swelling of Mo, Mo--0.5 Ti, Nb, Nb--1 Zr, W, and W--25 Re after fast neutron irradiation; swelling of V ion-irradiated Mo; creep of 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss at 850, 1000, and 1100 0 F; effects of fast neutrons on mechanical properties of 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss; notch effects in tensile behavior of irradiated, annealed 304 ss (EBR-II duct thimbles); equations for thermal creep in pressurized tubes of 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss; irradiation creep in cold-worked 316 ss; helium production cross sections in neutron-irradiated elements; and radiation effects on various alloys. (U.S.)

  5. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  6. Comparative Effects of Different Balance-Training–Progression Styles on Postural Control and Ankle Force Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Duncan, Ashley; Wikstrom, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Despite the effectiveness of balance training, the exact parameters needed to maximize the benefits of such programs remain unknown. One such factor is how individuals should progress to higher levels of task difficulty within a balance-training program. Yet no investigators have directly compared different balance-training–progression styles. Objective:  To compare an error-based progression (ie, advance when proficient at a task) with a repetition-based progression (ie, advance after a set amount of repetitions) style during a balance-training program in healthy individuals. Design:  Randomized controlled trial. Setting:  Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 28 (16 women, 12 men) physically healthy young adults (age = 21.57 ± 3.95 years, height = 171.60 ± 11.03 cm, weight = 72.96 ± 16.18 kg, body mass index = 24.53 ± 3.7). Intervention(s):  All participants completed 12 supervised balance-training sessions over 4 weeks. Each session consisted of a combination of dynamic unstable-surface tasks that incorporated a BOSU ball and lasted about 30 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Static balance from an instrumented force plate, dynamic balance as measured via the Star Excursion Balance Test, and ankle force production in all 4 cardinal planes of motion as measured with a handheld dynamometer before and after the intervention. Results:  Selected static postural-control outcomes, dynamic postural control, and ankle force production in all planes of motion improved (P .05) for any of the outcome measures. Conclusions:  A 4-week balance-training program consisting of dynamic unstable-surface exercises on a BOSU ball improved dynamic postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults. These results suggest that an error-based balance-training program is comparable with but not superior to a repetition-based balance-training program in improving postural control and ankle force production in

  7. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Annual progress report, November 15, 1977--November 14, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1978-07-01

    Acquisition of information on molecular biology involves four stages: establishment of procedures for the separation, isolation, and characterization of radiation products of nucleic acid bases, nucleosides, etc.; development of methods for the synthesis of these products once they are identified so that a constant supply in milligram to gram quantities is available for the studies in stages 3 and 4; examination of the apparent biological effects of each product in vitro and in vivo; and study of the molecular mechanism related to an observed biological phenomenon. In view of the difficulties experienced in this area of research and this deliberate and careful investigative approach, it was generally believed that progress toward our final goal would be rather prolonged. Yet the elucidation of a molecular mechanism by which ionizing radiation induces mutation in vivo is very near at hand. Further progress has been made in the separation and isolation of three hydroperoxy derivatives of thymidine. One communication has appeared and another has been submitted for publication. The former reports the efficient stereospecific synthesis of cis-pyrimidine glycols and the latter describes the study of mutagenicity and toxicity of seven radiation products of thymine and thymidine using Ames Salmonella test. Also, a quantitative study of the reversion of cytosine N(3)-oxide, a hydroperoxidation product induced by 6-TOOH, to cytosine has been carried out

  8. Effective control of acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia progression by telomerase specific adoptive T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Sara; De Sanctis, Francesco; Lamolinara, Alessia; Boschi, Federico; Poffe, Ornella; Trovato, Rosalinda; Fiore, Alessandra; Sartori, Sara; Sbarbati, Andrea; Bondanza, Attilio; Cesaro, Simone; Krampera, Mauro; Scupoli, Maria T; Nishimura, Michael I; Iezzi, Manuela; Sartoris, Silvia; Bronte, Vincenzo; Ugel, Stefano

    2017-10-20

    Telomerase (TERT) is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that preserves the molecular organization at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Since TERT deregulation is a common step in leukaemia, treatments targeting telomerase might be useful for the therapy of hematologic malignancies. Despite a large spectrum of potential drugs, their bench-to-bedside translation is quite limited, with only a therapeutic vaccine in the clinic and a telomerase inhibitor at late stage of preclinical validation. We recently demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of T cell transduced with an HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognize human TERT with high avidity, controls human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) progression without severe side-effects in humanized mice. In the present report, we show the ability of our approach to limit the progression of more aggressive leukemic pathologies, such as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). Together, our findings demonstrate that TERT-based adoptive cell therapy is a concrete platform of T cell-mediated immunotherapy for leukaemia treatment.

  9. Effects of temperature on disease progression and swimming stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R; Hershberger, P; Sanders, G; Winton, J

    2009-10-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were infected with Ichthyophonus sp. and held at 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C for 28 days to monitor mortality and disease progression. Infected fish demonstrated more rapid onset of disease, higher parasite load, more severe host tissue reaction and reduced mean-day-to-death at higher temperature. In a second experiment, Ichthyophonus-infected fish were reared at 15 degrees C for 16 weeks then subjected to forced swimming at 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Stamina improved significantly with increased temperature in uninfected fish; however, this was not observed for infected fish. The difference in performance between infected and uninfected fish became significant at 15 degrees C (P = 0.02) and highly significant at 20 degrees C (P = 0.005). These results have implications for changes in the ecology of fish diseases in the face of global warming and demonstrate the effects of higher temperature on the progression and severity of ichthyophoniasis as well as on swimming stamina, a critical fitness trait of salmonids. This study helps explain field observations showing the recent emergence of clinical ichthyophoniasis in Yukon River Chinook salmon later in their spawning migration when water temperatures were high, as well as the apparent failure of a substantial percentage of infected fish to successfully reach their natal spawning areas.

  10. Effects of temperature on disease progression and swimming stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Sanders, G.; Winton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were infected with Ichthyophonus sp. and held at 10 ??C, 15 ??C and 20 ??C for 28 days to monitor mortality and disease progression. Infected fish demonstrated more rapid onset of disease, higher parasite load, more severe host tissue reaction and reduced mean-day-to-death at higher temperature. In a second experiment, Ichthyophonus-infected fish were reared at 15 ??C for 16 weeks then subjected to forced swimming at 10 ??C, 15 ??C and 20 ??C. Stamina improved significantly with increased temperature in uninfected fish; however, this was not observed for infected fish. The difference in performance between infected and uninfected fish became significant at 15 ??C (P = 0.02) and highly significant at 20 ??C (P = 0.005). These results have implications for changes in the ecology of fish diseases in the face of global warming and demonstrate the effects of higher temperature on the progression and severity of ichthyophoniasis as well as on swimming stamina, a critical fitness trait of salmonids. This study helps explain field observations showing the recent emergence of clinical ichthyophoniasis in Yukon River Chinook salmon later in their spawning migration when water temperatures were high, as well as the apparent failure of a substantial percentage of infected fish to successfully reach their natal spawning areas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable...

  12. Disease progression continues in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and effective subthalamic nucleus stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, R; Portman, AT; Voges, J; Staal, MJ; Burghaus, L; van Laar, T; Koulousakis, A; Maguire, RP; Pruim, J; de Jong, BM; Herholz, K; Sturm, [No Value; Heiss, WD; Leenders, KL

    Objectives: Glutamate mediated excitotoxicity of the hyperactive subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been reported to contribute to nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation of the STN (STN DBS), in its role as a highly effective treatment of severe PD motor complications,

  13. Understanding Unique Effects of Parental Incarceration on Children: Challenges, Progress, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Growth in U.S. incarceration rates during the 1980s and 1990s prompted a body of research focused on understanding the diverse effects of incarceration on individuals, families, and communities. An area of particular interest has been how the incarceration of a parent may affect child well-being. Despite what appears to be converging evidence that…

  14. Irradiation effects on reactor structural materials. Semiannual progress report, March 1975--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudson, T.T.

    1975-12-01

    Mechanical properties and irradiation effects are reported by Aerojet, ANL, AI, GE, HEDL, NRL, ORNL, PNL, and Univ. of Cincinnati for: Type 304, 304L, and 316 stainless steels; Inconel 718; nickel; Ni alloys; V alloys; Mo; Nb; and Nb--1 Zr

  15. Effects of (/sup 3/H)UdR on the cell-cycle progression of L1210 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darzynkiewicz, Z.; Carter, S.; Kimmel, M. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (USA))

    1984-11-01

    Tritium-labelled uridine ((/sup 3/H)UdR)perturbs progression of L1210 cells through the mitotic cycle. A slowdown of G/sub 2/ cells is observed 2 hr after addition of 0.5-5.0 ..mu..ci/ml of (/sup 3/H)UdR into cultures. At 2.5-5.0 ..mu..Ci/ml of (/sup 3/H)UdR a slowdown of cell progression through S is also apparent. Additionally, there is an increase in the number of cells with DNA values higher than 4C in cultures growing in the presence of (/sup 3/H)UdR for 8-24 hr. A pulse of (/sup 3/H)UdR of 2 hr duration labels predominantly (95%) cellular RNA. The first cell-cycle effects (G/sub 2/ slowdown) are observed when the amount of the incorporated (/sup 3/H)UdR is such that, on average there are fewer than thirty-six (/sup 3/H) decays per cell which corresponds to approximately 12-19 rads. The S-phase slowdown is seen at a dose of incorporated (/sup 3/H)UdR twice as high as that inducing G/sub 2/ effects. The specific localization of (/sup 3/H)UdR in nucleoli, peripheral nucleoplasm and in cytoplasm, as well as differences in the kinetics of the incorporation in relation to phases of the cell cycle are discussed. Mathematical modelling of the cell-cycle effects of (/sup 3/H)UdR is provided.

  16. From LDEF to a national Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program: A natural progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, David E.; Calloway, Robert L.; Funk, Joan G.; Kinard, William H.; Levine, Arlene S.

    1995-02-01

    As the LDEF program draws to a close, it leaves in place the fundamental building blocks for a Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program. Results from LDEF data analyses and investigations now form a substantial core of knowledge on the long term effects of the space environment on materials, system and structures. In addition, these investigations form the basic structure of a critically-needed SEE archive and database system. An agency-wide effort is required to capture all elements of a SEE program to provide a more comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, determining the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, updating the models which predict both the environments and those effects on subsystems and spacecraft, and, finally, ensuring that this multitudinous information is properly maintained, and inserted into spacecraft design programs. Many parts and pieces of a SEE program already exist at various locations to fulfill specific needs. The primary purpose of this program, under the direction of the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in NASA Headquarters, is to take advantage of these parts; apply synergisms where possible; identify and when possible fill-in gaps; coordinate and advocate a comprehensive SEE program. The SEE program must coordinate and support the efforts of well-established technical communities wherein the bulk of the work will continue to be done. The SEE program will consist of a NASA-led SEE Steering Committee, consisting of government and industry users, with the responsibility for coordination between technology developers and NASA customers; and Technical Working Groups with primary responsibility for program technical content in response to user needs. The Technical Working Groups are as follows: Materials and Processes; Plasma and Fields; Ionizing Radiation; Meteoroids and Orbital Debris; Neutral External Contamination; Thermosphere, Thermal, and Solar

  17. Meteorological effects of thermal energy releases (METER) program. Progress report, October 1980-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report examines the inadvertent weather modification effects of large cooling towers and cooling ponds. Emphasis was placed on field studies, and the focus of the program was on a precipitation modification study around the Bowen Electric Generating Plant in northwestern Georgia. The field effort includes the study of wetfall chemistry in the plant's vicinity. The analysis of three years of precipitation data have failed to show a significant effect of the plant on rainfall volume; the investigation of rainfall pattern variability has been inconclusive. The studies of wetfall chemistry have provided valuable information on the mechanisms of plume washout from large point sources and on the general characteristics of precipitation chemistry in the southeastern US

  18. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  19. Pathophysiological effects of radiation on atherosclerosis development and progression, and the incidence of cardiovascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraju, Sekhara Rao; Easterly, Clay E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation therapy while important in the management of several diseases, is implicated in the causation of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular complications. Cancer and atherosclerosis go through the same stages of initiation, promotion, and complication, beginning with a mutation in a single cell. Clinical observations before the 1960s lead to the belief that the heart is relatively resistant to the doses of radiation used in radiotherapy. Subsequently, it was discovered that the heart is sensitive to radiation and many cardiac structures may be damaged by radiation exposure. A significantly higher risk of death due to ischemic heart disease has been reported for patients treated with radiation for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Certain cytokines and growth factors, such as TGF-β1 and IL-1 β, may stimulate radiation-induced endothelial proliferation, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, and fibrosis leading to advanced lesions of atherosclerosis. The treatment for radiation-induced ischemic heart disease includes conventional pharmacological therapy, balloon angioplasty, and bypass surgery. Endovascular irradiation has been shown to be effective in reducing restenosis-like response to balloon-catheter injury in animal models. Caution must be exercised when radiation therapy is combined with doxorubicin because there appears to be a synergistic toxic effect on the myocardium. Damage to endothelial cells is a central event in the pathogenesis of damage to the coronary arteries. Certain growth factors that interfere with the apoptotic pathway may provide new therapeutic strategies for reducing the risk of radiation-induced damage to the heart. Exposure to low level occupational or environmental radiation appears to pose no undue risk of atherosclerosis development or cardiovascular mortality. But, other radiation-induced processes such as the bystander effects, abscopal effects, hormesis, and individual variations in radiosensitivity may be

  20. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent

  1. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of SO 2 on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO 2 . Atmospheric SO 2 concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout 137 Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed

  2. Prostate tumor progression in the TRAMP mouse. Protective effects of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, W.; Lin, T.M.; Peterson, R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The developing male reproductive system is highly sensitive to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, to produce sustained alterations in gene expression. Mice lacking the AhR (AhRKO, Ahr{sup -/-}) have permitted further characterization of the role of the AhR in mediating TCDD effects and revealed a physiological role for the AhR in normal development. We previously demonstrated that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure significantly reduced ventral, dorsolateral and anterior prostate weights, and that these effects were dependent on the AhR5. However, reductions in prostate lobe weights in untreated, AhRKO mice compared to wild-type counterparts at various ages demonstrated that the AhR signaling pathway is involved in normal development of the dorsolateral and anterior prostates, but apparently not the ventral prostate. Unaltered serum testosterone concentrations and modest reduction in serum 5{alpha}-androstane-3{alpha},17{beta}a-diol concentrations could not account for reductions in prostate weights in mice lacking AhR (Ahr{sup -/-}). Normal histology and lack of alteration in androgen receptor mRNA levels further indicate that the reduction in prostate weights is not a result of reduced androgen action in AhRKO mice. The observation that regulation of early prostate growth in mice occurs following AhR activation by TCDD, as well as by loss of AhR, suggests that the AhR may also regulate aberrant prostate growth that results from ''reawakening'' of the prostate growth regulatory signals later in life. Our objective was to determine if the AhR signaling pathway has an effect on prostate cancer development.

  3. Radiation effects on transport and bubble formation in silicate glasses. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    'To study the fundamental chemistry of radiation damage in silicate/borosilicate glasses and simulated high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms. Special emphasis is on delineating molecular processes crucial for understanding the aggregation of defects and formation of oxygen bubbles. The knowledge obtained will provide the needed scientific basis for extrapolating long-term behavior of stored radiative waste glass forms. This report summarizes the first 6 months of a 3-year project. The following issues have been addressed: (i) the production of radiolytic oxygen, (ii) the chemistry of hydrogenous species, and (iii) the effect of glass composition and microstructure on the formation and accumulation of metastable point defects.'

  4. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  5. Progressive effects of silver nanoparticles on hormonal regulation of reproduction in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziendzikowska, K.; Krawczyńska, A.; Oczkowski, M.; Królikowski, T.; Brzóska, K.; Lankoff, A.; Dziendzikowski, M.; Stępkowski, T.; Kruszewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various applications, including consumer, agriculture and medicine products, has raised many concerns about the potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) to human health and the environment. An increasing body of evidence suggests that AgNPs may have adverse effects of humans, thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive system. Silver particles (20 nm AgNPs (groups Ag I and Ag II) and 200 nm Ag sub-micron particles (SPs) (group Ag III)) were administered intravenously to male Wistar rats at a dose of 5 (groups Ag I and Ag III) or 10 (group Ag II) mg/kg of body weight. The biological material was sampled 24 h, 7 days and 28 days after injection. The obtained results revealed that the AgNPs had altered the luteinising hormone concentration in the plasma and the sex hormone concentration in the plasma and testes. Plasma and intratesticular levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly decreased both 7 and 28 days after treatment. No change in the prolactin and sex hormone-binding globulin concentration was observed. Exposure of the animals to AgNPs resulted in a considerable decrease in 5α-reductase type 1 and the aromatase protein level in the testis. Additionally, expression analysis of genes involved in steroidogenesis and the steroids metabolism revealed significant down-regulation of Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3 and Srd5a1 mRNAs in AgNPs/AgSPs-exposed animals. The present study demonstrates the potential adverse effect on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive function following AgNP/AgSP administration, in particular alterations of the sex steroid balance and expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis and the steroids metabolism. - Highlights: • Assessment of the toxic effects of AgNPs/AgSPs on the regulation of male reproductive function • AgNP −/AgSP-induced alterations of sex steroid status in male Wistar rats.

  6. Progressive effects of silver nanoparticles on hormonal regulation of reproduction in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziendzikowska, K., E-mail: k.dziendzikowska@gmail.com [Division of Nutrition Physiology, Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Science, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159C, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Krawczyńska, A. [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, 05-110 Jabłonna (Poland); Oczkowski, M.; Królikowski, T. [Division of Nutrition Physiology, Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Science, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159C, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland); Brzóska, K. [Centre for Radiobiology and Biological Dosimetry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Lankoff, A. [Centre for Radiobiology and Biological Dosimetry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiobiology and Immunology, Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Dziendzikowski, M. [Airworthiness Division, Air Force Institute of Technology, Ks. Boleslawa 6, 01-494 Warsaw (Poland); Stępkowski, T. [Centre for Radiobiology and Biological Dosimetry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Kruszewski, M. [Department of Medical Biology and Translational Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Information Technology and Management, Sucharskiego 2, 35-225 Rzeszów (Poland); Department of Molecular Biology and Translational Research, Institute of Rural Health, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); and others

    2016-12-15

    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various applications, including consumer, agriculture and medicine products, has raised many concerns about the potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) to human health and the environment. An increasing body of evidence suggests that AgNPs may have adverse effects of humans, thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive system. Silver particles (20 nm AgNPs (groups Ag I and Ag II) and 200 nm Ag sub-micron particles (SPs) (group Ag III)) were administered intravenously to male Wistar rats at a dose of 5 (groups Ag I and Ag III) or 10 (group Ag II) mg/kg of body weight. The biological material was sampled 24 h, 7 days and 28 days after injection. The obtained results revealed that the AgNPs had altered the luteinising hormone concentration in the plasma and the sex hormone concentration in the plasma and testes. Plasma and intratesticular levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly decreased both 7 and 28 days after treatment. No change in the prolactin and sex hormone-binding globulin concentration was observed. Exposure of the animals to AgNPs resulted in a considerable decrease in 5α-reductase type 1 and the aromatase protein level in the testis. Additionally, expression analysis of genes involved in steroidogenesis and the steroids metabolism revealed significant down-regulation of Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3 and Srd5a1 mRNAs in AgNPs/AgSPs-exposed animals. The present study demonstrates the potential adverse effect on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive function following AgNP/AgSP administration, in particular alterations of the sex steroid balance and expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis and the steroids metabolism. - Highlights: • Assessment of the toxic effects of AgNPs/AgSPs on the regulation of male reproductive function • AgNP −/AgSP-induced alterations of sex steroid status in male Wistar rats.

  7. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on Chesapeake Bay wetlands. [Progress report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, B.G.; Arp, W.J.; Balduman, L.

    1990-12-31

    Research during 1988--89 focused on several new aspects of the response of the salt marsh ecosystem to elevated CO{sub 2}. In previous years we gave highest priority to studies of the effect of CO{sub 2} on biomass production into above and below-ground tissues, nitrogen content, light response of photosynthesis of single leaves, leaf water potential and carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange between the plant canopy and the ambient air. Result from the work in 87 and 88 had shown that the C3 plant, Scirpus olneyi, responded vigorously to elevated CO{sub 2} but the two C4 species, Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata did not. The responses of photosynthesis were also reflected in the canopy and ecosystem processes. Thus our emphasis shifted from determining the growth responses to exploring photosynthesis in greater detail. The main questions were: does acclimation to high CO{sub 2} involve reduction of some aspect of photosynthesis either at the single leaf level or in canopy structure? How much more carbon will be accumulated in a high CO{sub 2} than under present CO{sub 2} concentration? Our results give us partial answers to these questions but since the long term aspect of CO{sub 2} stimulation remains the most important one, it is unlikely that we can do more than add some pieces of data to a continuing debate in the ecological community regarding the eventual effect of CO{sub 2} on ecosystems.

  8. Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Development. Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, R. Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halvorsen, Michele B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duberstein, Corey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matzner, Shari [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whiting, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blake, Kara M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stavole, Jessica [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy projects are not well understood, and regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. To examine the environmental risks associated with OSW developments in the U.S. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) focused on the following four priority research areas in FY 2012: • Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) - Followed project developments on the two OSW projects that PNNL screened in FY 2011 for environmental consequence: Fishermen’s Energy off the coast of Atlantic City, NJ and LEEDCo. near Cleveland, OH in Lake Erie. • Tethys - Developed a smart knowledge base which houses environmental research, data and information pertaining to OSW energy: • Technical Assessment - Produced a new software to create an automated process of identifying and differentiating between flying organism such as birds and bats by using thermal imagery; and • North Atlantic Right Whales - Developed an environmental risk management system to mitigate the impacts on North Atlantic Right Whales (NARW) during installation and piledriving stages of OSW developments. By identifying and addressing the highest priority environmental risks for OSW devices and associated installations the ERES process assists project proponents, regulators, and stakeholders to engage in the most efficient and effective siting and permitting pathways.

  9. Microflora Disturbance during Progression of Glucose Intolerance and Effect of Sitagliptin: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emerging evidences have shown a close interplay between obesity, diabetes, and intestinal flora disturbance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exemplified by sitagliptin, is highly efficacious in treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM, yet little is known if sitagliptin exerts beneficial effects on microbiota associated with obesity and T2DM. We evaluated changes of gut microbiota following the induction of obesity and T2DM in a streptozotocin treated high fat/high carbohydrate fed (HF/HC-STZ rat model and explored the effect of sitagliptin on gut microbiota for HF/HC-STZ rats. Methods. Sitagliptin was administered via oral gavage to diabetic rats. Fecal DNA extraction and 454 pyrosequencing based on analysis of 16S rRNA genes was utilized to determine the overall structure of microbiota in fecal DNA samples. Results. Results showed that, at the level of phylum, there was higher abundance of Firmicutes and Tenericutes and less abundance of Bacteroidetes in obese rats compared to their lean counterparts. At the level of genus, short-chain fatty acid- (SCFA- producing bacteria, Blautia, Roseburia, and Clostridium, and probiotics Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and so forth were identified significantly different from each other among conditions. Conclusion. Marked shifts of the gut microbiota structure were observed in the rats during development of glucose intolerance. Intestinal flora changed in the process of glucose intolerance, and treatment of sitagliptin moderately corrected the dysbiosis of microbiota in T2DM.

  10. Dynamic effects of tank waste aging on radionuclide-complexant interactions. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterburn, J.B.; Chamberlin, R.

    1998-01-01

    'The overall objective of this project is to provide a scientific basis for safely processing complexant-containing high-level tank wastes for disposal. The key goals are to identify a means to prepare realistic complexant-containing tank waste simulants, and to use those simulants to determine the relative importance of organic complexants and their breakdown products on the partitioning of important radionuclides. These goals will be accomplished by artificially aging complexant-containing tank waste simulants using microwave, ultrasound, and photolysis techniques. The simulants will be compared to samples of actual Hanford tank wastes to determine the most realistic aging method, on the basis of the organic fragmentation and the partitioning behavior of the important radionuclides 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 239 Pu. Also, the authors will use their simulant aging process to investigate the relative effects of chelator degradation products on the partitioning of important radionuclides from the waste. Using NMR-active labels in the chelators, they will use a combinatorial approach of generating multiple chelator fragments in a single experiment and then determining which fragments have a negative effect on the separations chemistry. The successful completion of this goal will specifically identify the most problematic organic fragments in complexant-containing waste and provide the basis for developing successful treatment strategies for these wastes. This report summarizes work carried out at Los Alamos during the first 8 months of a 3-year project.'

  11. Very low temperature studies of hyperfine effects in metals. [Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyhmann, W.

    1985-01-01

    We are using nuclei through the hyperfine coupling as a probe of magnetic interactions in metallic systems, emphasizing the role conduction electrons play. Three types of systems are of interest to us: nuclear singlet ground state intermetallic compounds, very dilute magnetic impurities in non-magnetic metals, and itinerant ferromagnets. The nuclear ordering in singlet ground state alloys of praseodymium appears to be analogous to electronic ordering in rare earth metals, with the RKKY interaction moderating the indirect exchange in both cases. We are measuring the static and dynamic properties of these materials both to study rare earth ordering, since only first order effects should play a role in the nuclear case, and to develop the sub-millikelvin refrigeration capabilities of these materials. Using this cooling power, we propose studying the local moment of Mn based Kondo systems at millikelvin and sub-millikelvin temperatures. Kondo systems with a Kondo temperature below 0.1 K have the advantage that magnetic saturation can be achieved with available magnets. We propose studying both the local magnetization as measured with nuclear orientation and the macroscopic magnetization measured with SQUID magnetometry. We also propose searching for electron polarization effects in itinerant ferromagnets using nuclear orientation. Induced hyperfine fields of less than 1 k0e can be detected at 1 mK

  12. Predicting the multi-domain progression of Parkinson's disease: a Bayesian multivariate generalized linear mixed-effect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Li, Zheng; Lee, Eun Young; Lewis, Mechelle M; Zhang, Lijun; Sterling, Nicholas W; Wagner, Daymond; Eslinger, Paul; Du, Guangwei; Huang, Xuemei

    2017-09-25

    It is challenging for current statistical models to predict clinical progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of the involvement of multi-domains and longitudinal data. Past univariate longitudinal or multivariate analyses from cross-sectional trials have limited power to predict individual outcomes or a single moment. The multivariate generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM) under the Bayesian framework was proposed to study multi-domain longitudinal outcomes obtained at baseline, 18-, and 36-month. The outcomes included motor, non-motor, and postural instability scores from the MDS-UPDRS, and demographic and standardized clinical data were utilized as covariates. The dynamic prediction was performed for both internal and external subjects using the samples from the posterior distributions of the parameter estimates and random effects, and also the predictive accuracy was evaluated based on the root of mean square error (RMSE), absolute bias (AB) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. First, our prediction model identified clinical data that were differentially associated with motor, non-motor, and postural stability scores. Second, the predictive accuracy of our model for the training data was assessed, and improved prediction was gained in particularly for non-motor (RMSE and AB: 2.89 and 2.20) compared to univariate analysis (RMSE and AB: 3.04 and 2.35). Third, the individual-level predictions of longitudinal trajectories for the testing data were performed, with ~80% observed values falling within the 95% credible intervals. Multivariate general mixed models hold promise to predict clinical progression of individual outcomes in PD. The data was obtained from Dr. Xuemei Huang's NIH grant R01 NS060722 , part of NINDS PD Biomarker Program (PDBP). All data was entered within 24 h of collection to the Data Management Repository (DMR), which is publically available ( https://pdbp.ninds.nih.gov/data-management ).

  13. Apigenin has anti-atrophic gastritis and anti-gastric cancer progression effects in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Weng, Bi-Chuang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Wu, Deng-Chang; Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-02-12

    Apigenin, one of the most common flavonoids, is abundant in celery, parsley, chamomile, passionflower, and other vegetables and fruits. Celery is recognized as a medicinal vegetable in Oriental countries to traditionally treat inflammation, swelling, blood pressure, serum lipid, and toothache. In this study, we investigated apigenin treatment effects on Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression in Mongolian gerbils. Five to eight-week-old Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with Helicobacter pylori for four weeks without (atrophic gastritis group) or with N'-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) (gastric cancer group) in drinking water, and were then rested for two weeks. During the 7th-32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 7th-52th (gastric cancer group) weeks, they were given various doses (0-60 mg/kgbw/day) of apigenin. At the end of the 32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 52th (atrophic gastritis group) week, all Mongolian gerbils were sacrificed using the CO2 asphyxia method. The histological changes of Helicobacter pylori colonization, neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations, and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils were examined using immunohistochemistry stain and Sydney System scoring. Apigenin treatments (30-60 mg/kgbw/day) effectively decreased atrophic gastritis (atrophic gastritis group) and dysplasia/gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) rates in Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin treatment (60 mg/kgbw/day) significantly decreased Helicobacter pylori colonization and Helicobacter pylori-induced histological changes of neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin has the remarkable ability to inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression as well as possessing potent anti-gastric cancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  14. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, May 1974--May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of 3 H incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster was studied in relation to age and radiation dose. The 3 H was incorporated into DNA in the germ line by feeding male larvae in late second instar a pulse of the radionuclide. Genetic stocks were used in a mating scheme to produce a cross that produces only male larvae for labeling with the radionuclide, and another cross was made that produces the parental females as virgins since no male progeny are produced. The F 1 generation was scored for losses of the X or Y chromosome because of dominant markers, Bar-Stone and yellow-plus, on the Y-chromosome. All the F 1 and F 2 males were sterile permitting out-crossing of females to nontreated stocks for sex-linked recessive lethal tests in the F 2 and F 3 . (U.S.)

  15. [Recent research progress in immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicine on asthma treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang-Fang; Xu, Zhao-Xia; Adila, Aipire; Li, Jin-Yao

    2017-10-01

    Asthma is a kind of chronic respiratory inflammation, commonly with breathlessness, chest tightness, coughing, recurrent episodes of wheezing and airflow obstruction, severely affecting human health. A variety of immunocytes are involved in this chronic disease. Chinese herbal medicine(CHM) has a long history in the treatment of asthma. A large number of studies have shown that CHM could ameliorate asthma symptoms through regulating cellular immune responses. This paper reviewed the studies of CHM on the regulation of immunocytes and their mechanisms in recent years, including the count of inflammatory cells, maturation of dendritic cells, balance of helper T cell subtypes, induction of regulatory T cells and intracellular signaling pathways. We also proposed the future research directions about the effects of CHM on asthma treatment. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Health effects of low level radiation in shipyard workers. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of low-level doses of radiation it was necessary to define an adequate population, to gather and collate data relating to this population and to organize this data in such a manner as to render it suitable for analysis. We have completed much of the groundwork, including the development of data collection systems and the establishment of liaisons with public and private data resources for ascertaining vital status and current address. The major tasks which we now face are two fold: (1) to determine the cause of death for deceased members of the population, and (2) to locate and secure information (occupational, medical and smoking histories) from living members of the population. Once these tasks have been completed we can undertake an analysis of this information to assess the risks of low-level doses of radiation and establish mechanisms through which this population can be followed prospectively

  17. Effects of radiation and chemicals on SV40 oncogenesis. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    This project is directed toward developing rapid, quantitative methods and immunologic markers which will permit the early detection of newly forming tumors induced or enhanced by x-irradiation, chemical carcinogens, viruses or combinations of the three. The projects under study in our ongoing collaborative program seek to develop the detailed understanding and precise methodology required for the early detection of embryonic antigens in transformed cells induced by the co-carcinogenic effects of viruses and low-level radiation. A new technique for assaying the earliest transformed cells appearing in a carcinogen treated population affords a unique tool for this study. Present plans involve efforts to purify embryonic determinants from fetal and transformed cells of hamsters and mice in order to define their role in the transformation process and in tumor development

  18. Effects of radiation on model plant rice - OMICS: Recent progress and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Fukutani, Satoshi; Tamogami, Shigeru; Endo, Satoru; Sahoo, Sarat Kumar; Kimura, Shinzo

    2011-01-01

    This is the age of functional genomics, where genomes to high-throughput technologies and to the phenotype are making inroads into various biological questions and problems. In this report, I along with my co-workers will present an outline into the omics approaches, focusing on the global gene expression profiling (DNA microarray technique), plants and the environment, and culminating in the use of genomics to analyze the effects of radiation on plant life. For this, rice (Oryza sativa L.) geonome model and monocot cereal crop plant will be used as an example. It is our hope that use of both model and non-model plants in conjunction with high-throughput transcriptomics approaches will lead the way for unraveling radiation responses in plants, setting the stage for further research on this important aspect of our environment with direct and indirect impact on human life and civilization. (author)

  19. Plant rhizosphere effects on metal mobilization and transport. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, D.E.; Fan, T.W.M.; Higashi, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    'During the funding period of 1996--1997, the authors explored the utility of multi-nuclear, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for a comprehensive analysis of barley root exudates collected under Fe sufficient and deficient conditions. As both structural and quantitative information was obtained directly from crude root exudates using this approach, no tedious sample fractionation was necessary, which will greatly facilitate future chemical characterization of root exudates in general. They found that the phytosiderophore mugineic acids (including 2'-deoxymugineic acid, mugineic acid, and 3-epi-hydroxymugineic acid) were readily identified and quantified in crude exudate samples along with a number of amino and organic acids. The amount of mugineic acids excreted was correlated positively with the extent of Fe deficiency with 3-epi-hydroxymugineic acid being the most prominent component. The total Fe chelating capacity was also measured using the ferrozine assay and compared with the production of the mugineic acids. They were surprised to find that the mugineic acids may account for a part of the Fe chelating capacity, especially under mild and moderatley Fe deficient conditions. Lactate, alanine, y-aminobutyrate, malate, and glycinebetaine collectively may contribute to a significant fraction of the Fe chelating capacity. In light of the known stimulatory effect of alanine and citrate on metal availability to algae (Campell, 1995), the function of these low molecular weight metabolites as vehicles for Fe or metal uptake in general warrant further investigation. This work is now published in Analytical Biochemistry 251, 57-68 ( 1997). They then proceeded to apply the above approach to investigate the interaction of elevated cadmium (Cd) with Fe deficiency in gramineous plants. They have completed one each series of cadmium (Cd) treatments of barley and wheat seedlings under Fe sufficient

  20. Interfacial radiolysis effects in tank waste speciation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    'The purpose of this program is to deliver pertinent, fundamental information that can be used to make technically defensible decisions on safety issues and processing strategies associated with mixed chemical and radioactive waste cleanup. In particular, an understanding of radiolysis in mixed-phase systems typical of U. Department of Energy (DOE) heterogeneous, radioactive/chemical wastes will be established. This is an important scientific concern with respect to understanding tank waste chemistry issues; it has received relatively little attention. The importance of understanding solid-state radiolysis, secondary electron interactions, charge-transfer dynamics, and the general effect of heterogeneous solids (interface and particulate surface chemistry) on tank waste radiation processes will be demonstrated. In particular, the author will investigate (i) the role of solid-state and interfacial radiolysis in the generation of gases, (ii) the mechanisms of organic compound degradation, (iii) scientific issues underlying safe interim storage, and (iv) the effects of colloid surface-chemical properties on waste chemistry. Controlled radiolysis studies of NaNO 3 solids and SiO 2 particles were carried out using pulsed, low- (5--150 eV) and high- (3 MeV) energy electron-beams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), respectively. The pulsed, low-energy electron beams probe the inelastic scattering and secondary cascading effects produced by high-energy beta and gamma particles. Pulsed radiolysis allows time-resolved measurements of the high-energy processes induced by these particles. Using low-energy (10--75 eV) electron-beam irradiation of nominally dry NaNO 3 solution-grown and melt-grown single crystals, they observed H + , Na + , O + , NO + , NO, NO 2 , O 2 , and O( 3 P) desorption signals. The threshold measurements and yields indicate that the degradation proceeds mainly via destruction of the nitrate moiety. The

  1. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Hess, N.J.; Strachan, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of 137 Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi 2 O 6 267 0.5 H 2 O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of 137 Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the 137 Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO 4 ). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (fluorescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to β radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of β radiation damage than under normal decay of the 137 Cs. In fact, the dose was equivalent to several thousand years of normal

  2. THE EFFECT OF PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS DURING SURGICAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avnish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to study the effect of muscular relaxation technique and counseling on physiological parameters on subjects undergoing surgery. The study was conducted in 32 individuals between ages of 20 – 70 at Civil hospital, GMERS, Valsad and was compared with a control group (N=32 of the same age. The parameters recorded were arterial pulse, arterial blood pressure. The results show the significant differences in the recorded parameters in control ( n=34 and study group (n=33. Pulse rat e ( 75.54 to 80.17 , systolic ( 121.49 to 126.29 and diastolic blood pressure ( 80.4 to 84.23 values increased in preoperative period than on admission in the control group while study group showed decrease in the preoperative value compared to that on admi ssion Pulse rate ( 77.94 to 74.80, systolic ( 124.50 to 122.19 and diastolic blood pressure ( 82.88 to 81. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance. The results obtained were statistically significant

  3. Experimental investigation of ICRF effects: Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1988-October 15, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Phaedrus Program now consists of two major devices, the Phaedrus-B Tandem mirror and the Phaedrus-T tokamak. Phaedrus-B has been modified to operate as an axisymmetric tandem mirror with no quadrupole end cell fields and only circular baffles. Phaedrus-T is now under construction. The Phaedrus-T vacuum chamber is nearing completion and new toroidal field coils have been ordered (with completion expected in early 1989). As originally proposed, when Phaedrus-T is operational, our initial plan is to continue operating both devices (on alternating schedules). We will utilize the same control room, power supplies, and staff for both devices, and graduate students will have thesis project physics issues that can be studied on both devices. Investigations are currently and, will continue to be, centered around five physics areas. All involve ICRF. These are: edge physics; ponderomotive effects; mode conversion; mode control; and tandem mirror specific. The first four will ultimately involve activities on both Phaedrus-T and Phaedrus-B. The fifth includes work that is specifically related to tandem mirror issues. 4 figs

  4. Research progress in the radioprotective effect of the canonical Wnt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Qu; Huang, Guan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Irradiation from diverse sources is ubiquitous and closely associated with human activities. Radiation therapy (RT), an important component of multiple radiation origins, is a common therapeutic modality for cancer. More importantly, RT provides significant contribution to oncotherapy by killing tumor cells. However, during the course of therapy, irradiation of normal tissues can result in a wide range of side effects, including self-limited acute toxicities, mild chronic symptoms, or severe organ dysfunction. Although numerous promising radioprotective agents have emerged, only a few have successfully entered the market because of various limitations. At present, the widely accepted hypothesis for protection against radiation-caused injury involves the Wnt canonical pathway. Activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may protect the salivary gland, oral mucosa, and gastrointestinal epithelium from radiation damage. The underlying mechanisms include inhibiting apoptosis and preserving normal tissue functions. However, aberrant Wnt signaling underlies a wide range of pathologies in humans, and its various components contribute to cancer. Moreover, studies have suggested that Wnt/β-catenin signaling may lead to radioresistance of cancer stem cell. These facts markedly complicate any definition of the exact function of the Wnt pathway

  5. Barriers to effective perioperative communication in indigenous Australians: an audit of progress since 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W Y C; Blum, P; Spain, B

    2004-08-01

    This prospective study was designed to elucidate barriers limiting effective perioperative communication between indigenous Australians and anaesthetists, and to identify strategies for improving communication. A questionnaire was used to collect data on 1040 consecutive patients undergoing anaesthesia at Royal Darwin Hospital between February and March 2003. 27.1% of these patients described themselves as Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were more likely to undergo emergency surgery and were more likely to be classified as ASA 3, 4 or 5 than non-indigenous patients. Communication difficulties were identified in 28.7% of all Aboriginal patients, which was 31 times higher than those in non-Aboriginal patients. The most common reason identified for this was difficulty in speaking English. Only 17.7% of Aboriginal patients presenting to the operating theatre spoke English as their first language. Unfortunately, the anaesthetic team utilized the Aboriginal interpreter service in only a minority of cases. Communication difficulty in indigenous Australians is pervasive and often goes unrecognized. The results suggest that heath care providers may need staff training in cross-cultural communication and that protocols need to be developed within the health care system so that interpreters are called upon automatically early in the admission process.

  6. Momentum effect in stocks’ returns between the rational and the behavioural financial theories: Proposition of the progressive rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Zoghlami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available     The puzzling momentum strategies’ payoffs defied the rational financial theory asserting the stocks returns’ unpredictability. Moreover, the momentum effect persist the main stocks returns’ anomaly escaping any risk-based explanation. The resilience of this phenomenon had favoured the development of behavioural financial field, which breaks with the investor’ full rationality hypothesis. This paper attempts to reconcile between the rational and behavioural financial theories, through the introduction of the progressive rationality concept. Especially, we argue that recognizing the temporary inappropriate investors’ reactions; can resolve the puzzling momentum anomaly. To fulfil our objective, we identify the appropriate autoregressive level that captures the significant autocorrelations involved by the investors’ over and under reactions. Then, we explore the profitability of the 6/6 momentum strategy implemented on the adjusted stocks’ returns. The adjusted momentum strategy is still profitable but no longer puzzling, since the related excess return is henceforth fully captured by a β and a size effect.Key words: Tunisian momentum effect, the rational finance theory, the behavioural finance theory, the three-factorial model and the autoregressive process.

  7. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Exercises Accompanied by Music on Low Back Pain and Quality of Life During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Zehra Baykal; Oran, Nazan Tuna

    2014-01-01

    Back pain is commonly experienced by pregnant women. Evidence suggests that progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) therapy, a complementary therapy widely used by pregnant women, may improve the physical and psychological outcomes of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PMR training accompanied by music on perceived pain and quality of life (QOL) in pregnant women with low back pain (LBP). This was a prospective randomized controlled trial. The study was designed to examine the effects of PMR accompanied by music on pregnant women with LBP. In total, 66 pregnant women were assigned randomly to a PMR group or a control group (33 women in each). A personal information form was used as a data collection tool; a visual analog scale was used for measuring pain; and the Short Form-36 was used to evaluate QOL. The control and intervention groups were comparable at baseline. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention. The intervention group showed significant improvement in all QOL subscales after the intervention. The intervention group, but not the control group, showed significant improvement in perceived pain after the intervention. The intervention group experienced a greater decrease in perceived pain and improved QOL than the control group. Our findings show that PMR accompanied by music may be an effective therapy for improving pain and QOL in pregnant women with LBP. Large randomized studies are recommended to confirm these results. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  8. What effects has the cataract surgery on the development and progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cataract (Cataracta senilis is the most frequent eye disease of elderly people worldwide. In Germany, the cataract operation - with currently 450,000 interventions each year the most frequent operation in ophthalmology – can be seen as routine surgery. The age related macular degeneration (AMD is a further one of the most common, age-related eye diseases and the most frequent cause of blindness of elderly people in industrial nations. Due to demographic changes an increasing number of patients will suffer from cataract and AMD at the same time. This coincidence leads to a greater interest in the question of a mutual influence of both diseases, respectively their therapies, on each other. Objectives: The aim of this report was the evaluation of the medical and health economic effects of cataract operations on the development and progression of an age related macular degeneration (AMD. It was differentiated between first manifestations of AMD, progression of early stages of AMD and influence on further impairment in late stages of AMD. Methods: The relevant publications for this report were identified by DIMDI via structured database enquiry as well as common, self-made enquiry and were evaluated, based on the criteria of evidence based medicine. The present report included German and English literature published since 1983. Results: The database enquiry generated a record of 2769 issue-related publications. Eight medical publications were eligible for analysis in the course of the present HTA report. No relevant studies on health economical, ethical, social or legal issues could be included. Three epidemiological cohort studies provided some evidence for a promoting influence of cataract extractions on the progression of early types of AMD. Two of the epidemiological studies assessed the risk of first manifestation of AMD after cataract extraction. Both came up with up with increased incidences that did not reach statistical

  9. Effects of PTEN transfer on cell cycle progression and expression of P27kipl followed by X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Mei; Wu Congmei; Liu Linlin; Piao Chunji; Li Xiuyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pEgr-hPTEN stable transfer combined with irradiation on the cell cycle progression and the expression of cell cycle kinase inhibitor P27 kipl protein of SHG-44 human glioma cells. Methods: pEgr-hPTEN vector containing the exogenous wild type PTEN gene was transfected into SHG-44 cells under mediation of lipofectamine in vitro, the positive cell clones were selected and amplified by using G418. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of PTEN protein. Transmission electron microscope was adopted to detect the cell ultrastructural changes and flow cytometry was adopted to analysis the changes of cell cycle progression and the expression of P27 kipl in SHG-44-sPTEN cells followed by different doses of X-ray irradiation. Results: Egr-1 promoter could be induced and activated by irradiation and then enhanced the expression of downstream PTEN gene within 5 Gy. The ultrastructure of SHG-44-sPTEN cells had many degenerative changes and many early apoptotic changes including the chromosome condensate around the nuclear envelope. pEgr-hPTEN stable transfer combined with X-ray irradiation could significantly induce G 1 arrest. The expression of P27 kipl proteins increased in SHG-44-sPTEN stable transfected cells. Conclusion: PTEN stable transfer combined with irradiation can significantly induce G 1 arrest. The molecular basis may be correlated with the enhanced expression of PTEN induced by irradiation and increased expression of cell cycle kinase inhibitor P27 kipl . (authors)

  10. The effects of slow- and fast-rhythm classical music on progressive cycling to voluntary physical exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, A; Small, A; Leigh, M

    1999-09-01

    To investigate, based on the parallel information processing model and arousal hypothesis, whether musical tempo and its manipulation during exercise affect the maximal workload (watts) achieved during progressive cycling. repeated measures experiment that involved one control and four treatment conditions. the experiment was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. twenty-four male and female volunteers, recruited from among a University population, were tested. the data collection proceeded in five counterbalanced test-sessions that included control (C), slow music (SM), fast music (FM) slow to fast music (SFM) and fast to slow music (FSM) interventions. In the last two conditions, musical tempo was changed when the participant's maximal HR reserve has reached 70%. In all test-sessions, participants started to cycle at 50 watts and then the workload was increased in increments of 25 watts every minute until self-declared exhaustion. Maximal ergometer cycling was defined as the workload at the last completed minute of exercise. workload, HR, and postexperimental ratings of test-session preferences were the dependent measures. Significantly higher workload was accomplished in the SFM condition. No between-session differences were seen in HR. The results also yielded significantly better "efficiency", in terms of workload/HR reserve ratio, in the SFM session. PARTICIPANTS preferred the FM and SFM sessions more than the other sessions. Switching to FM during progressive exercise results in the accomplishment of more work without proportional changes in HR. These effects may be due to distraction from fatigue and are, apparently, dependent on the attention capturing strength of the distracting stimulus.

  11. Renal expression of FGF23 in progressive renal disease of diabetes and the effect of ACE inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zanchi

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 is a phosphaturic hormone mainly produced by bone that acts in the kidney through FGF receptors and Klotho. Here we investigated whether the kidney was an additional source of FGF23 during renal disease using a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of FGF23 and Klotho was assessed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and control lean rats at 2, 4, 6, 8 months of age. To evaluate whether the renoprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor in this model was associated with changes in FGF23 and Klotho, ZDF rats received ramipril from 4, when proteinuric, to 8 months of age. FGF23 mRNA was not detectable in the kidney of lean rats, nor of ZDF rats at 2 months of age. FGF23 became measurable in the kidney of diabetic rats at 4 months and significantly increased thereafter. FGF23 protein localized in proximal and distal tubules. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein decreased during time in ZDF rats. As renal disease progressed, serum phosphate levels increased in parallel with decline of fractional phosphorus excretion. Ramipril limited proteinuria and renal injury, attenuated renal FGF23 upregulation and ameliorated Klotho expression. Ramipril normalized serum phosphate levels and tended to increase fractional phosphorus excretion. These data indicate that during progressive renal disease the kidney is a site of FGF23 production which is limited by ACE inhibition. Interfering pharmacologically with the delicate balance of FGF23 and phosphorus in diabetes may have implications in clinics.

  12. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Hess, N.J.; Strachan, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    interpreted. The authors conclude that Cs and Ba K-edge EXAFS can be used successfully for materials where the structure is relatively simple and the material is well ordered. However, in materials with low atomic number backscatterers and low symmetry such as pollucite, it is not possible to determine the effects of 137 Cs beta decay and transmutation on the pollucite structure. However, one can reasonably hope to identify the presence of metallic Ba clusters or BaO, if either are the result of transmutation. To overcome the shortcomings with the high-energy EXAFS, they have explored the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to examine the local structure of the cesium in some laboratory-prepared pollucite. Small quantities, typical of what they expect to recover from the sealed capsules, proved to be sufficient material to obtain spectra with both magic-angle spinning and static NMR techniques (Figure 2). The chemical shift is expected to be sensitive to local structure and to disorder. They expect to prepare a sample from the 137 Cs pollucite when the authors open a capsule.'

  13. Effects of episodic future thinking on discounting: Personalized age-progressed pictures improve risky long-term health decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Jarmolowicz, David P

    2016-03-01

    Many everyday choices are associated with both delayed and probabilistic outcomes. The temporal attention hypothesis suggests that individuals' decision making can be improved by focusing attention on temporally distal events and implies that environmental manipulations that bring temporally distal outcomes into focus may alter an individual's degree of discounting. One such manipulation, episodic future thinking, has shown to lower discount rates; however, several questions remain about the applicability of episodic future thinking to domains other than delay discounting. The present experiments examine the effects of a modified episodic-future-thinking procedure in which participants viewed age-progressed computer-generated images of themselves and answered questions related to their future, on probability discounting in the context of both a delayed health gain and loss. Results indicate that modified episodic future thinking effectively altered individuals' degree of discounting in the predicted directions and demonstrate the applicability of episodic future thinking to decision making of socially significant outcomes. © 2015 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  15. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Progress report, August 15, 1976--November 14, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1977-08-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on nucleic acids and components were studied in vitro. Our approach involves four levels of operation and progress is being made at each stage. First, procedures were established to separate and purify three reactive radiation products from thymidine. Second, improved methods of synthesizing trans-glycols of pyrimidines were developed, and a new method for the stereospecific synthesis of cis-glycol of pyrimidines was realized. Thirdly, the Ames Salmonella test was used to determine the mutagenicity of the radiation products and the reactive ones from thymine and thymidine were found to be highly mutagenic. Therefore, all radiation products should be considered potential human health hazards and should be screened when they can be purified and synthesized. In the fourth stage, the reaction of each nucleic-acid base with Cu ++ and cis-5,6-dihydro-6-hydroperoxy-5-hydroxythymine (6-TOOH) was studied in order to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation mutagenesis. The presence of Cu ++ was shown to be necessary for the effective mutagenic activity of 6-TOOH in the H. influenzae transformation assay. These findings provide fundamental information about the possible health hazards of ionizing radiation and will be useful in designing methods to protect against and repair radiation damage, which may be mutagenic and carcinogenic

  16. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent pre-frailty and frailty progression in older adults: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João; Cooke, Richard; Bobrowicz-Campos, Elzbieta; Santana, Silvina; Marcucci, Maura; Cano, Antonio; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; Germini, Federico; D’Avanzo, Barbara; Gwyther, Holly; Holland, Carol

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To summarize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions for preventing frailty progression in older adults. Introduction: Frailty is an age-related state of decreased physiological reserves characterized by an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. Evidence supporting the malleability of frailty, its prevention and treatment, has been presented. Inclusion criteria: The review considered studies on older adults aged 65 and over, explicitly identified as pre-frail or frail, who had been undergoing interventions focusing on the prevention of frailty progression. Participants selected on the basis of specific illness or with a terminal diagnosis were excluded. The comparator was usual care, alternative therapeutic interventions or no intervention. The primary outcome was frailty. Secondary outcomes included: (i) cognition, quality of life, activities of daily living, caregiver burden, functional capacity, depression and other mental health-related outcomes, self-perceived health and social engagement; (ii) drugs and prescriptions, analytical parameters, adverse outcomes and comorbidities; (iii) costs, and/or costs relative to benefits and/or savings associated with implementing the interventions for frailty. Experimental study designs, cost effectiveness, cost benefit, cost minimization and cost utility studies were considered for inclusion. Methods: Databases for published and unpublished studies, available in English, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and Dutch, from January 2001 to November 2015, were searched. Critical appraisal was conducted using standardized instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data was extracted using the standardized tools designed for quantitative and economic studies. Data was presented in a narrative form due to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results: Twenty-one studies, all randomized controlled trials, with a total of 5275 older adults and describing 33 interventions, met

  17. Chernobyl Studies Project: Working group 7.0, Environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, March--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    In April 1988, the US and the former-USSR signed a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety; this MOC was a direct result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 and the following efforts by the two countries to implement a joint program to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. A Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) was formed to implement the MOC. The JCCCNRS established many working groups; most of these were the responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as far as the US participation was concerned. The lone exception was Working Group 7 on Environmental Transport and Health Effects, for which the US participation was the responsibility of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of Working Group 7 was succintly stated to be, ``To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` To implement the work DOE then formed two subworking groups: 7.1 to address Environmental Transport and 7.2 to address Health Effects. Thus, the DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project began. The majority of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus is now turned to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are involved in and making progress on the case-control and co-hort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children. Dosimetric aspects are a fundamental part of these studies. We are currently working to implement similar studies in Ukraine. A major part of the effort of these projects is supporting these studies, both by providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and by providing support and equipment for the medical teams.

  18. Three year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: x-ray and uv effects in photosynthetic organisms; effects of alcohols and oxygen concentration on transforming DNA; free radical studies; sensitization by metal ions; role of the solvated electron in radiation damage to cells; effectiveness of organic and inorganic compounds in sensitizing bacterial spores to high energy radiation; oxygen effects; radiosensitivity of enzyme systems in Chlorella; and effects of pre-irradiation of solutions on spores

  19. Effect of noise stress on count, progressive and non-progressive sperm motility, body and genital organ weights of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It was decided to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the body weight, genital organ weights, and also on sperm parameters. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 20 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into 2 equal groups (n = 10: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were exposed to noise for 50 days with an intensity of 90-120 db and frequency of 300 - 350 Hz for 12 hours daily. After 50 days, at first, body weights of all animals were recorded, and then they were killed. The right epididymides were removed and also, sperm concentration and motility were determined. Each organ was weighed separately on an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The statistical significance of difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The weights of the testes, epididymes, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were found to be significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise pollution when compared with the weights of the same organs obtained from control group (P < 0.05. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the 2 groups in terms of sperm concentration. Conclusions: It is concluded that noise pollution has the bad effects on sperm concentration and motility; therefore, it is supposed that homes and places of working must be build far away of noisy of factories and other places with noise.

  20. Effects of uric acid-lowering therapy on the progression of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Zhai, Tingting; Ma, Ruixia; Luo, Congjuan; Wang, Huifang; Liu, Liqiu

    2018-11-01

    Whether uric acid levels were associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remained controversial. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess the effect of lowering serum uric acid therapy on the progression of CKD to clarify the role of uric acid in the progression of CKD indirectly. Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane library, CBM were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficiency of lowering serum uric acid therapy on the progression of CKD without language restriction. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and relative risk (RR) were obtained by using random-effect or fixed-effect models. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. A total of 12 randomized controlled trials with 832 CKD participants were included in the analysis. Pooled estimate for eGFR was in favor of lowering serum uric acid therapy with a mean difference (MD) of 3.88 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , 95% CI 1.26-6.49 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , p = .004 and this was consistent with results for serum creatinine. The risk of worsening of kidney function or ESRD or death was significantly decreased in the treatment group compared to the control group (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.28-0.52, pUric acid-lowering therapy may be effective in retarding the progression of CKD. Further randomized controlled trials should be performed to confirm the effect of lowering serum uric acid therapy on the progression of CKD.

  1. Lipoprotein subclasses in the Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS). Treatment effects and relation to coronary angiographic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, W J; Krauss, R M; Hodis, H N

    1996-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contribute to coronary artery disease. Using data from the Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study, an angiographic trial of middle-aged men and women randomized to lovastatin or placebo, we investigated relationships between lipoprotein subclasses and progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Coronary artery lesion progression was determined by quantitative coronary angiography in low-grade ( or = 50% diameter stenosis), and all coronary artery lesions in 220 baseline/2-year angiogram pairs. Analytical ultracentrifugation was used to measure lipoprotein masses that were statistically evaluated for treatment group differences and relationships to progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. All low density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) masses were significantly lowered and all high density lipoprotein (HDL) masses were significantly raised with lovastatin therapy. The mass of smallest LDL (Svedberg flotation rate [Sf] 0 to 3), IDL (Sf 12 to 20), all VLDL subclasses (Sf 20 to 60, Sf 60 to 100, and Sf 100 to 400), and peak LDL flotation rate were significantly related to the progression of coronary artery lesions, specifically low-grade lesions. Greater baseline levels of HDL3, were related to a lower likelihood of coronary artery lesion progression. In multivariate analyses, small VLDL (Sf 20 to 60) and HDL3 mass were the most important correlates of coronary artery lesion progression. These results provide further evidence for the importance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the progression of coronary artery disease. In addition, these results present new evidence for the possible protective role of HDL3 in the progression of coronary artery lesions. More specific information on coronary artery lesion progression may be obtained through the study of specific apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins.

  2. Progress towards an effective model for FeSe from high-accuracy first-principles quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Brian; Wagner, Lucas K.

    While the origin of superconductivity in the iron-based materials is still controversial, the proximity of the superconductivity to magnetic order is suggestive that magnetism may be important. Our previous work has suggested that first-principles Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) can capture magnetic properties of iron-based superconductors that density functional theory (DFT) misses, but which are consistent with experiment. We report on the progress of efforts to find simple effective models consistent with the FN-DMC description of the low-lying Hilbert space of the iron-based superconductor, FeSe. We utilize a procedure outlined by Changlani et al.[1], which both produces parameter values and indications of whether the model is a good description of the first-principles Hamiltonian. Using this procedure, we evaluate several models of the magnetic part of the Hilbert space found in the literature, as well as the Hubbard model, and a spin-fermion model. We discuss which interaction parameters are important for this material, and how the material-specific properties give rise to these interactions. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program under Award No. FG02-12ER46875, as well as the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program.

  3. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on language improvement and cortical activation in nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wu, Dongyu; Chen, Yan; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Meikui

    2013-08-09

    We investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on language improvement and cortical activation in nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). A 67-year-old woman diagnosed as nfvPPA received sham-tDCS for 5 days over the left posterior perisylvian region (PPR) in the morning and over left Broca's area in the afternoon in Phases A1 and A2, and tDCS for 5 days with an anodal electrode over the left PPR in the morning and over left Broca's area in the afternoon in Phases B1 and B2. Auditory word comprehension, picture naming, oral word reading and word repetition subtests of the Psycholinguistic Assessment in Chinese Aphasia (PACA) were administered before and after each phase. The EEG nonlinear index of approximate entropy (ApEn) was calculated before Phase A1, and after Phases B1 and B2. Our findings revealed that the patient improved greatly in the four subtests after A-tDCS and ApEn indices increased in stimulated areas and non-stimulated areas. We demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the left PPR and Broca's area can improve language performance of nfvPPA. tDCS may be used as an alternative therapeutic tool for PPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective Effect of a Lipid-Based Preparation from Mycobacterium smegmatis in a Murine Model of Progressive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de los Angeles García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A more effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB is urgently needed. Based on its high genetic homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the nonpathogenic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms, could be an attractive source of potential antigens to be included in such a vaccine. We evaluated the capability of lipid-based preparations obtained from Ms to provide a protective response in Balb/c mice after challenge with Mtb H37Rv strain. The intratracheal model of progressive pulmonary TB was used to assess the level of protection in terms of bacterial load as well as the pathological changes in the lungs of immunized Balb/c mice following challenge with Mtb. Mice immunized with the lipid-based preparation from Ms either adjuvanted with Alum (LMs-AL or nonadjuvanted (LMs showed significant reductions in bacterial load (P<0.01 compared to the negative control group (animals immunized with phosphate buffered saline (PBS. Both lipid formulations showed the same level of protection as Bacille Calmette and Guerin (BCG. Regarding the pathologic changes in the lungs, mice immunized with both lipid formulations showed less pneumonic area when compared with the PBS group (P<0.01 and showed similar results compared with the BCG group. These findings suggest the potential of LMs as a promising vaccine candidate against TB.

  5. IB-11PSEUDO-PROGRESSION (PsdPg) IS A HARBINGER OF A MORE EFFECTIVE ANTI-TUMOR RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Lisa; Donahue, John; Machan, Jason; Delamonte, Suzanne; Jeyapalan, Suriya

    2014-01-01

    , which are mediators of anti-tumor immunity, play an important role in pseudo-progression. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a more effective anti-tumor immune response in PsdPg patients, which may explain their longer overall survival.

  6. Effects of progressive resistance training on physical disability among older community-dwelling people with history of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Johanna; Rantanen, Taina; Heinonen, Ari; Portegijs, Erja; Alén, Markku; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Kallinen, Mauri; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2012-04-01

    Hip fracture is a common trauma in older people, and often leads to decreased muscle strength and increased physical disability. This randomized controlled trial examined whether three months of progressive resistance training (PRT) can reduce physical disability among older people with a history of hip fracture. A population-based sample of 60-85-year-old community- dwelling persons, with hip fractures sustained on average three years earlier, were enrolled in the study. Of 78 people participating in laboratory assessments, those without contraindications for participation in resistance training were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n=22) or a control group (CG, n=21). TG took part in resistance training for three months twice a week. Training focused on lower limb muscles. Disability was assessed by a validated questionnaire containing six questions on activities of daily living (ADL) and nine on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). A sum score was calculated separately for both items. High scores indicated more difficulties. Group differences were analysed with the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. The effects of PRT on disability were tested with the McNemar test and by covariance analysis (ANCOVA). TG and CG were comparable with respect to gender, age, chronic diseases, BMI, time since fracture, self-reported health, and level of physical activity at baseline. The ADL sum score in TG was 1.8 (2.0) at baseline and 1.1 (1.3) after follow-up; in CG values were 1.7 (1.8) and 1.5 (1.8) (ANCOVA p=0.034). IADL sum scores in TG were 3.9 (4.6) at baseline and 2.2 (3.8) after follow-up, and in CG 3.4 (3.6) and 2.4 (2.3) (ANCOVA p=0.529). Progressive resistance training reduced self-reported difficulties in ADL, even several years after fracture. More research is still needed on how to prevent physical disability among community-dwelling older people, especially after hip fracture.

  7. The effect of mitomycin C trabeculectomy on the progression of visual field defect in normal-tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Y; Yamamoto, T; Kitazawa, Y

    2000-03-01

    We investigated in a prospective fashion the visual prognosis and complications in normal-tension glaucoma following unilateral trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C. Trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C was carried out unilaterally in 21 cases of normal-tension glaucoma. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual prognosis, and complications were compared between the operated eyes and the non-operated fellow eyes. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 7 years. The IOP dropped significantly from 14.8+/-1.8 mmHg (mean +/- SD) to 9.6+/-3.9 mmHg in the operated eyes (P=0.0002, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), but did not drop in the non-operated eyes. The mean deviation (MD) was -12.69+/-6.41 dB preoperatively and -14.70+/-5.49 dB at the last clinic visit in the operated eyes, whereas in non-operated eyes it was -7.85+/-5.65 dB and -11.15+/-5.62 dB, respectively. The MD deteriorated significantly in both operated and non-operated eyes (operated eyes P=0.0239, non-operated eyes: P=0.0002; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The MD slope was -0.37+/-0.60 dB/year and -0.71+/-0.89 dB/year for the operated and non-operated eyes, respectively (P=0.5243, Mann-Whitney U-test). Visual field deterioration was more frequently observed in the non-operated eyes by a pointwise definition of the progression (Ptest). Visual acuity deteriorated in 6 of the operated eyes and in 5 of the non-operated eyes. Cataract developed in 6 (29%) of the 21 operated eyes, while among the non-operated eyes 4 (19%) developed cataract. Mitomycin C trabeculectomy is effective in delaying progression of visual field defect in normal-tension glaucoma, but complications may arise and cause some visual disturbance.

  8. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients' Affected Side Lower Extremity's Walking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity's walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability.

  9. COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF A PROGRESSIVE MOBILIZATION AND MOZART MUSIC THERAPY ON NON-INVASIVE HEMODYNAMIC STATUS CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH HEAD INJURY IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Indriani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The instability of hemodynamic status in patients with head injury with decreased consciousness has an effect on the increase of intracranial pressure. The recovery of hemodynamic status can be done through nursing intervention either by providing a sensory stimulus (music therapy or motor stimulus (progressive mobilization. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of progressive mobilization of level I with Mozart's music therapy on non-invasive hemodynamic status changes in patients with head injury with decreased awareness. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest design. There were 34 samples selected using consecutive sampling, which 17 samples assigned in a group of progressive mobilization and group of music therapy. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon test were used for paired group, and Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney test for unpaired group. Results: Progressive mobilization of level I had significant effect on changes in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002 and MAP (p = 0.019, and no significant effect on heart rate (p = 0.155, respiration (p = 0.895 and oxygen saturation (p = 0.248. Mozart's music therapy had a significant effect on changes in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, respiration (p= 0.032 and oxygen saturation (p = 0.008, but no effect on MAP (p = 0.561. There was a significant difference between the two interventions in the systolic blood pressure and heart rate variables (p 0.05. Conclusion: The Mozart's music therapy is more effective on non-invasive hemodynamic status changes in patients with head injury with decreased consciousness compared with progressive mobilization of level I.

  10. The Effect of Glucosamine and/or Chondroitin Sulfate on the Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis: A GAIT Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitzke, Allen D; Shi, Helen; Finco, Martha; Dunlop, Dorothy D; Bingham, Clifton O; Harris, Crystal L; Singer, Nora G; Bradley, John D; Silver, David; Jackson, Christopher G; Lane, Nancy E; Oddis, Chester V; Wolfe, Fred; Lisse, Jeffrey; Furst, Daniel E; Reda, Domenic J; Moskowitz, Roland W; Williams, H James; Clegg, Daniel O

    2010-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis of the knee causes significant morbidity and current medical treatment is limited to symptom relief, as therapies able to slow structural damage remain elusive. This study sought to evaluate the effect of glucosamine hydrochloride (glucosamine, G), sodium chondroitin sulfate (chondroitin sulfate, CS) (alone and in combination), celecoxib and placebo on progressive loss of joint space width (JSW). Methods A double-blind twenty-four month placebo-controlled study conducted at nine sites in the United States enrolled 572 participants from Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) who satisfied radiographic criteria (Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) Grade 2 or 3 changes and JSW of at least 2mm at baseline). Persons with primarily lateral compartment narrowing at any time point were excluded. Patients continued G 500mg three times daily, CS 400mg three times daily, the combination, celecoxib 200mg daily or placebo as randomized for GAIT. Minimum medial tibiofemoral JSW was measured at baseline, 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome measure was JSW change from baseline. Results The average JSW loss at 2 years for placebo, adjusted for design and clinical factors, was 0.16mm. No statistically significant difference for any treatment group compared to the placebo group was observed. Treatment effects for K&L Grade 2 knees, but not K&L Grade 3 knees showed a trend toward improvement relative to placebo. The study’s power was diminished by sample size, variance of JSW measurement and a smaller than expected loss in JSW. Conclusions At two years, no treatment achieved a predefined clinically important difference in JSW loss compared to placebo. However, patients with K&L Grade 2 osteoarthritis appear to have the greatest potential for modification by these treatments (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00032890). PMID:18821708

  11. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  12. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, July 16, 1983-June 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of methods for economically analyzing mutants at the molecular level so that mutants induced by x-rays, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and tritium could be classified

  13. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  14. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymaster, K A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Clawson, M L; Harhay, G P; Heaton, M P

    2013-11-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLV, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections, and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalence are costly. Variants of ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) affect susceptibility to OPPV. The primary experimental objective was to estimate additive and dominance effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to OPPV infection following natural exposure. A group of 187 trial lambs was born and raised by mature, infected ewes to ensure natural exposure to OPPV. Parents of trial lambs were heterozygous for haplotypes 1 and 3, producing lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3." A group of 20 sentinel lambs was born and raised by mature, uninfected ewes that were diplotype "1 1." Sentinel lambs had diplotypes "1 1" and "1 3," being sired by the same set of rams as trial lambs. Trial and sentinel lambs were comingled during the experiment. Lambs were weaned at 60 d of age, bled 1 wk after weaning, and thereafter at intervals of 4 or 5 wk until 9 mo of age when OPPV infection status was determined by use of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only 1 sentinel lamb became infected. Infection status of trial lambs was analyzed using logistic regression procedures to account for the binary nature of infection status and random effects of sires. Effects of sex, type of birth, type of rearing, age of dam, breed type of dam, and sires were not detected (P>0.20). Infection status was affected by diplotype of lamb (P=0.005), with additive (P=0.002) and dominance (P=0.052) effects identified. Predicted probabilities of infection for lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" were 0.094, 0.323, and 0.346, respectively. Confidence intervals for probabilities of infection for diplotypes "1 3" and "3 3" were similar, but distinct from diplotype

  15. Cost-effectiveness of Paclitaxel + Ramucirumab Combination Therapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer Progressing After First-line Chemotherapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shota; Muneoka, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2017-12-01

    The combination of paclitaxel + ramucirumab is a standard second-line treatment in patients with advanced gastric cancer. This therapy has been associated with increased median overall survival and progression-free survival compared with those with paclitaxel monotherapy. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of paclitaxel + ramucirumab combination therapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer, from the perspective of health care payers in Japan. We constructed a Markov model to compare, over a time horizon of 3 years, the costs and effectiveness of the combination of paclitaxel + ramucirumab and paclitaxel alone as second-line therapies for advanced gastric cancer in Japan. Health outcomes were measured in life-years (LYs) and quality-adjusted (QA) LYs gained. Costs were calculated using year-2016 Japanese yen (¥1 = US $17.79) according to the social insurance reimbursement schedule and drug tariff of the fee-for-service system in Japan. Model robustness was addressed through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The costs and QALYs were discounted at a rate of 2% per year. The willingness-to-pay threshold was set at the World Health Organization's criterion of ¥12 million, because no consensus exists regarding the threshold for acceptable cost per QALY ratios in Japan's health policy. Paclitaxel + ramucirumab combination therapy was estimated to provide an additional 0.09 QALYs (0.10 LYs) at a cost of ¥3,870,077, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ¥43,010,248/QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the combination therapy was >¥12 million/QALY in all of the 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Adding ramucirumab to a regimen of paclitaxel in the second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer is expected to provide a minimal incremental benefit at a high incremental cost per QALY. Based on our findings, adjustments in the price of ramucirumab, as well as improves in other clinical parameters such as survival

  16. Effects of heated effluents on the reproduction of selected species of the Centrarchid family. Progress report, October 26, 1975--October 25, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clugston, J.P.; Provost, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the effects of thermal effluents on the development of gametes in the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; on uptake of the trace metal contaminants, Cd, Cr, and Pb by fishes; on food habits of the bluegill and the largemouth bass, Microptems salmoides; on the distribution of fishes in cooling reservoirs; and on the behavior of the largemouth bass

  17. Role of Working Memory and Strategy-Use in Feedback Effects on Children's Progression in Analogy Solving:an Explanatory Item Response Theory Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Claire E.

    2017-01-01

    This study contrasted the effects of tutoring, multiple try and no feedback on children's progression in analogy solving and examined individual differences herein. Feedback that includes additional hints or explanations leads to the greatest learning gains in adults. However, children process feedback differently from adults and effective…

  18. Progressivity Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than a scientific text, the author contributes a concise memorandum from the originator of the idea who has managed the campaign for the conversion of the military barracks into a creative cluster between 1988 and 2002, when he parted ways with Metelkova due to conflicting views on the center’s future. His views shed light on a distant period of time from a perspective of a participant–observer. The information is abundantly supported by primary sources, also available online. However, some of the presented hypotheses are heavily influenced by his personal experiences of xenophobia, elitism, and predatorial behavior, which were already then discernible on the so-called alternative scene as well – so much so that they obstructed the implementation of progressive programs. The author claims that, in spite of the substantially different reality today, the myths and prejudices concerning Metelkova must be done away with in order to enhance its progressive nature. Above all, the paper calls for an objective view on internal antagonisms, mainly originating in deep class divisions between the users. These make a clear distinction between truly marginal ndividuals and the overambitious beau-bourgeois, as the author labels the large part of users of Metelkova of »his« time. On these grounds, he argues for a robust approach to ban all forms of xenophobia and self-ghettoization.

  19. The effects of orally administered Bacillus coagulans and inulin on prevention and progression of rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics have been considered as an approach to addressing the consequences of different inflammatory disorders. The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic inulin also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Objective: In the present study, an in vivo model was conducted to investigate the possible influences of probiotic B. coagulans and prebiotic inulin, both in combination and/or separately, on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, using arthritis-induced rat model. Design: Forty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into six experimental groups as follows: 1 control: normal healthy rats fed with standard diet, 2 disease control (RA: arthritis-induced rats fed with standard diet, 3 prebiotic (PRE: RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin, 4 probiotic (PRO: RA+ 109 spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5 synbiotic (SYN: RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin and 109 spores/day B. coagulans, and 6 treatment control: (INDO: RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with the listed diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by the biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for fibrinogen (Fn, serum amyloid A (SAA, and TNF-α and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1 AGp was performed on day 21, 28, and 35 (7, 14 and 21 days post RA induction, respectively. Results: Pretreatment with PRE, PRO, and SYN diets significantly inhibits SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001. A significant decrease in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, was seen in the PRE, PRO, and SYN

  20. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  1. The effects of orally administered Bacillus coagulans and inulin on prevention and progression of rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Khadijeh; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Nazifi, Saeid; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics have been considered as an approach to addressing the consequences of different inflammatory disorders. The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic inulin also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. In the present study, an in vivo model was conducted to investigate the possible influences of probiotic B. coagulans and prebiotic inulin, both in combination and/or separately, on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using arthritis-induced rat model. Forty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into six experimental groups as follows: 1) control: normal healthy rats fed with standard diet, 2) disease control (RA): arthritis-induced rats fed with standard diet, 3) prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin, 4) probiotic (PRO): RA+ 10(9) spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin and 10(9) spores/day B. coagulans, and 6) treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with the listed diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by the biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for fibrinogen (Fn), serum amyloid A (SAA), and TNF-α and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28, and 35 (7, 14 and 21 days post RA induction), respectively. Pretreatment with PRE, PRO, and SYN diets significantly inhibits SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P coagulans and prebiotic inulin can improve the biochemical and clinical parameters of induced RA in rat.

  2. Effect of visible light on progressive dormancy of Escherichia coli cells during the survival process in natural fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcina, I.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Iriberri, J.; Egea, L.

    1989-01-01

    Some effects of visible light on the survival of Escherichia coli in waters of the Butron river were studied by comparing illuminated and nonilluminated systems. The following count methods were used: CFU on a selective medium (eosin-methylene blue agar), CFU on a medium of recuperation (Trypticase soy agar with yeast extract and glucose), number of metabolically active cells by reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan, and total number of E. coli cells as determined by the acridine orange direct-count method. In the illuminated systems, decreases in CFU of E. coli and in the number of metabolically active cells were observed. However, no decline of the total number of E. coli cells was observed. By count methods, different stages of progressive dormancy of E. coli cells were determined to exist in illuminated systems. Culturable and recoverable cells were defined as viable cells, and metabolically active cells and morphologically intact cells were defined as somnicells. Indirect activity measurements were also done by using [14C]glucose. In illuminated systems, a decrease of glucose uptake by E. coli cells was observed throughout the experiments. The assimilated fraction of [14C]glucose decreased faster than the respired fraction in illuminated systems. The percentage of respired [14C]glucose (14CO2 production) with respect to the total glucose uptake increased throughout the experiments, and the percentage of assimilated glucose decreased. Therefore, the visible light was also responsible for an additional inhibition of biosynthetic processes

  3. Characterization of the effect of sample quality on high density oligonucleotide microarray data using progressively degraded rat liver RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenzweig Barry A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interpretability of microarray data can be affected by sample quality. To systematically explore how RNA quality affects microarray assay performance, a set of rat liver RNA samples with a progressive change in RNA integrity was generated by thawing frozen tissue or by ex vivo incubation of fresh tissue over a time course. Results Incubation of tissue at 37°C for several hours had little effect on RNA integrity, but did induce changes in the transcript levels of stress response genes and immune cell markers. In contrast, thawing of tissue led to a rapid loss of RNA integrity. Probe sets identified as most sensitive to RNA degradation tended to be located more than 1000 nucleotides upstream of their transcription termini, similar to the positioning of control probe sets used to assess sample quality on Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays. Samples with RNA integrity numbers less than or equal to 7 showed a significant increase in false positives relative to undegraded liver RNA and a reduction in the detection of true positives among probe sets most sensitive to sample integrity for in silico modeled changes of 1.5-, 2-, and 4-fold. Conclusion Although moderate levels of RNA degradation are tolerated by microarrays with 3'-biased probe selection designs, in this study we identify a threshold beyond which decreased specificity and sensitivity can be observed that closely correlates with average target length. These results highlight the value of annotating microarray data with metrics that capture important aspects of sample quality.

  4. The effect of intrathecal baclofen treatment on activities of daily life in children and young adults with cerebral palsy and progressive neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonouvrié, Laura; Becher, Jules; Soudant, Dan; Buizer, Annemieke; van Ouwerkerk, Willem; Vles, Georges; Vermeulen, R Jeroen

    2016-07-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) treatment is applied in patients with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), dystonic cerebral palsy (DCP) and progressive neurological disease (PND). Our aim was to investigate whether ITB treatment has a different effect on activities of daily life (ADL) in these groups. A retrospective and cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire to assess the qualitative effect of ITB (Likert scale) on different domains of functioning (mobility, personal care, communication, comfort) and satisfaction with the results. Groups were compared using non-parametric statistics. Questionnaires were completed for 68 patients (39 SCP, 13 DCP, 16 PND). Satisfaction scores were relatively high in all groups (7-8) and the positive effect on personal care and communication was similar in all groups. The PND group had the shortest follow-up and scored significantly less favourably for the effect on mobility and comfort. This is the first study to show that ITB treatment has similar effects on personal care and communication in stable and progressive neurological disease. The decrease in mobility in the PND group is likely due to the progressive nature of the disease. The different effect on comfort between groups is mainly due to the smaller effect on startles in the PND group. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  6. Theoretical studies of multistep processes, isospin effects in nuclear scattering, and meson and baryon interactions in nuclear physics. Interim progress report, May 1, 1984-April 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, V.A.; Landau, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is briefly described on the following research topics: a theory for proton -3 He scattering, momentum space Dirac equation, atomic and nuclear bound states of kaonic hydrogen and helium, calculation of the absorptive charge-exchange potential, role of higher-order processes in the absorptive optical potential W, the deformation-parameter reversal effect, and interference effect in T/sub i/ (p,n) reactions. Publications are listed. 23 refs

  7. Antiproliferative effects of lanreotide autogel in patients with progressive, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours: a Spanish, multicentre, open-label, single arm phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Richard, Marta; Sala, Maria Angeles; Pericay, Carlos; Rivera, Fernando; Sastre, Javier; Segura, Ángel; Quindós, Maria; Maisonobe, Pascal; Massutí, Bartomeu; Pineda, Eva; Alonso, Vicente; Marmol, Maribel; Castellano, Daniel; Fonseca, Emilio; Galán, Antonio; Llanos, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) are indicated to relieve carcinoid syndrome but seem to have antiproliferative effects on neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). This is the first prospective study investigating tumour stabilisation with the long-acting SSA lanreotide Autogel in patients with progressive NETs. This was a multicentre, open-label, phase II trial conducted in 17 Spanish specialist centres. Patients with well-differentiated NETs and radiologically confirmed progression within the previous 6 months received lanreotide Autogel, 120 mg every 28 days over ≤92 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were response rate, tumour biomarkers, symptom control, quality of life (QoL), and safety. Radiographic imaging was assessed by a blinded central radiologist. Of 30 patients included in the efficacy and safety analyses, 40% had midgut tumours and 27% pancreatic tumours; 63% of tumours were functioning. Median PFS time was 12.9 (95% CI: 7.9, 16.5) months, and most patients achieved disease stabilisation (89%) or partial response (4%). No deterioration in QoL was observed. Nineteen patients (63%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, most frequently diarrhoea and asthenia; only one treatment-related adverse event (aerophagia) was severe. Lanreotide Autogel provided effective tumour stabilisation and PFS >12 months in patients with progressive NETs ineligible for surgery or chemotherapy, with a safety profile consistent with the pharmacology of the class. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00326469; EU Clinical Trial Register EudraCT no 2004-002871-18

  8. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management [fr

  9. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information [fr

  10. Placement of effective work-in-progress limits in route-specific unit-based pull systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziengs, N.; Riezebos, J.; Germs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unit-based pull systems control the throughput time of orders in a production system by limiting the number of orders on the shop floor. In production systems where orders can follow different routings on the shop floor, route-specific pull systems that control the progress of orders on the shop

  11. Physico-chemical studies of radiation effects in cells. Progress report, February 15, 1982-February 14, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in studies investigating the chemical mechanisms involved in radiation-induced cellular damage is reported. Three organisms currently being tested are Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli, silver and mercury have been used as radiosensitizers, and their interaction with DNA studied

  12. Effect of deletion polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme gene on progression of diabetic nephropathy during inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Jacobsen, P; Tarnow, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concept that an insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene predicts the therapeutic efficacy of inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme on progression of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Observational follow up study of patients with insu...

  13. A Canine Audience: The Effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Reading Progress among Students Identified with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griess, Julie Omodio

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the use of animal-assisted therapy with students identified with a learning disability and limited reading success. Initially, reading progress was defined as the participants' comprehension rate obtained from an oral Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) passage. The nature of the Informal Reading Inventory requires the…

  14. Effects of progressive strength training on muscle mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients determined by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauza, E.; Strehblow, C.; Hanusch-Enserer, U.; Fasching, P.; Metz-Schimmerl, S.; Strasser, B.; Kostner, K.; Dunstan, D.; Haber, P.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the effect of a 4-month progressive strength training program on muscle and fat mass assessed by computed tomography (CT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, and to assess the relationships of changes in muscle cross-section area (CSA) with glycaemic control. Twenty adults (mean age ± SE: 56.4 ± 0.9 a) with T2DM participated in a supervised strength training program for 4 months 3 days/week. Muscle and fat areas of the quadriceps muscle were estimated by CT volumetry before and immediately after the training. Glycaemic (HbA1c) and anthropometric (BMI, skinfolds) measurements were assessed at 0 and 4 months, respectively. After strength training, muscle strength increased significantly in all measured muscle groups. Quadriceps size (CSA of the muscle) was increased by 2.4 % (from 7.99 ± 0.3 cm 3 to 8.18 ± 0.3 cm 3 , p = 0.003) for the right extremity, 3.9 % (from 8.1 ± 0.4 cm 3 to 8.41 ± 0.5 cm 3 , p = 0.04) for the left side. Fat tissue CSA reduced from 0.66 ± 0.1 cm 3 to 0.56 ± 0.12 cm 3 for the right leg (15.3 % reduction) and from 0.58 ± 0.12 cm 3 to 0.37 ± 0.13 cm 3 for the left leg (35.8 % reduction), resulting in a mean fat CSA reduction of 24.8 %. Fat mass assessed by skin folds was significantly reduced and lean body mass was significantly increased. The change in muscle CSA was not correlated with the changes in HbA1c or muscle strength. Strength training significantly improves both muscle mass and the muscle to fat ratio in T2DM. However, changes in muscle observed with computed tomography were not related to changes observed in HbA1c with training. (author) [de

  15. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nakul; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tock Han; Yong, Shao Onn

    2015-06-01

    To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation) to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aged 40-79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treatment scenarios: (a) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by ranibizumab (as needed) for wet AMD. (b) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by bevacizumab (monthly) for wet AMD. (c) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by aflibercept (VIEW I and II trial treatment regimen). Costs were estimated for the above scenarios from the providers' perspective, and cost-effectiveness was measured by cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted with a disability weight of 0.22 for wet AMD. The costs were discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Over 5400 patients could be prevented from progressing to wet AMD cumulatively if AREDS formulation were prescribed. AREDS formulation followed by ranibizumab was cost-effective compared to placebo-ranibizumab or placebo-aflibercept combinations (cost per DALY averted: SGD$23,662.3 and SGD$21,138.8, respectively). However, bevacizumab (monthly injections) alone was more cost-effective compared to AREDS formulation followed by bevacizumab. Prophylactic treatment with AREDS formulation for intermediate AMD patients followed by ranibizumab or for patients who progressed to wet AMD was found to be cost-effective. These findings have implications for intermediate AMD screening, treatment and healthcare planning in Singapore.

  16. Effect of an Enhanced Nose-to-Brain Delivery of Insulin on Mild and Progressive Memory Loss in the Senescence-Accelerated Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Misa; Choi, Hayoung; Okada, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Takamasa; Itokazu, Rei; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-03-06

    Insulin is now considered to be a new drug candidate for treating dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, whose pathologies are linked to insulin resistance in the brain. Our recent work has clarified that a noncovalent strategy involving cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can increase the direct transport of insulin from the nasal cavity into the brain parenchyma. The present study aimed to determine whether the brain insulin level increased by intranasal coadministration of insulin with the CPP penetratin has potential for treating dementia. The pharmacological actions of insulin were investigated at different stages of memory impairment using a senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) model. The results of spatial learning tests suggested that chronic intranasal administration of insulin with l-penetratin to SAMP8 slowed the progression of memory loss in the early stage of memory impairment. However, contrary to expectations, this strategy using penetratin was ineffective in recovering the severe cognitive dysfunction in the progressive stage, which involves brain accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ). Immunohistological examination of hippocampal regions of samples from SAMP8 in the progressive stage suggested that accelerated nose-to-brain insulin delivery had a partial neuroprotective function but unexpectedly increased Aβ plaque deposition in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that the efficient nose-to-brain delivery of insulin combined with noncovalent CPP strategy has different effects on dementia during the mild and progressive stages of cognitive dysfunction.

  17. The effects of progressive muscular relaxation as a nursing procedure used for those who suffer from stress due to multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla Gabrielle Nascimento Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation as a nursing procedure on the levels of stress for sufferers of multiple sclerosis. Method: random clinical trials conducted at the Neurology outpatients unit at a University Hospital. The sample consisted of 40 patients who were being monitored as outpatients (20 in a control group and 20 in an experimental group. The Progressive Muscle Relaxation technique was used. The control variables were collected through interviews that were recorded on forms and on the Perceived Stress Scale that we used. Five meetings were held every fortnight covering a period of eight weeks. The experimental group was advised to carry out daily progressive muscle relaxation activities. After eight weeks of these activities, they were evaluated again to measure their levels of stress. In order to analyze the data used, the software package Statistics for Social Sciences version 19.0 was used. Results: the application of the t test showed a significant reduction in the Perceived Stress Scale scores in the experimental group (p<0.001, which in turn proved that there was a reduction in the levels of stress after the application of the relaxation practic-es. Conclusion: the progressive muscle relaxation activities contributed to the reduction in stress levels for multiple sclerosis suffers and thus can be used in nursing for patients. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT 02673827.

  18. [Effect of inhibitors serine/threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases on mitosis progression of synchronized tobacco by-2 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Ia A; Emets, A I; Azmi, A; Vissenberg, K; Verbelen, J-P; Blium, Ia B

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of various serine/ threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases in the regulation of mitosis progression in plant cells the influence of cyclin-dependent (olomoucine) and Ca2+ -calmodulin-dependent (W7) protein kinases inhibitors, as well as protein kinase C inhibitors (H7 and staurosporine) and protein phosphatases inhibitor (okadaic acid) on mitosis progression in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells has been studied. It was found that BY-2 culture treatment with inhibitors of cyclin dependent protein kinases and protein kinase C causes prophase delay, reduces the mitotic index and displaces of mitotic peak as compare with control cells. Inhibition of Ca2+ -calmodulin dependent protein kinases enhances the cell entry into prophase and delays their exit from mitosis. Meanwhile inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases insignificantly enhances of synchronized BY-2 cells entering into all phases of mitosis.

  19. Effects of CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles on disease progression of perinatally HIV-1-infected children: an international meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Rosenberg, Philip S; Goedert, James J; De Rossi, Anita; Espanol, Teresa; Frenkel, Lisa; Mayaux, Marie-Jeanne; Newell, Marie-Louise; Pahwa, Savita G; Rousseau, Christine; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Sei, Shizuko; Sen, Luisa; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2003-07-25

    Among perinatally infected children, the effects of certain alleles of the CCR5 and CCR2 genes on the rate of disease progression remain unclear. We addressed the effects of CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I in an international meta-analysis. Genotype data were contributed from 10 studies with 1317 HIV-1-infected children (7263 person-years of follow-up). Time-to-event analyses were performed stratified by study and racial group. Endpoints included progression to clinical AIDS, death, and death after the diagnosis of clinical AIDS. The time-dependence of the genetic effects was specifically investigated. There was large heterogeneity in the observed rates of disease progression between different cohorts. For progression to clinical AIDS, both CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I showed overall non-significant trends for protection [hazard ratios 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.23; and 0.87, 95% CI 0.67-1.14, respectively]. However, analyses of survival showed statistically significant time-dependence. No deaths occurred among CCR5-delta32 carriers in the first 3 years of life, whereas there was no protective effect (hazard ratio 0.95; 95% CI 0.43-2.10) in later years (P=0.01 for the time-dependent model). For CCR2-64I, the hazard ratio for death was 0.69 (95% CI 0.39-1.21) in the first 6 years of life and 2.56 (95% CI 1.26-5.20) in subsequent years (P<0.01 for the time-dependent model). CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I offered no clear protection after clinical AIDS had developed. The CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles are associated with a decreased risk of death among perinatally infected children, but only for the first years of life.

  20. Comparing the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on sleep quality in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers-1393

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Golmakani; Farnaz Sadat Seyed Ahmadi Nejad; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri; Negar Asghari Pour

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Decreased sleep quality is a common complaint during pregnancy. Relaxation is one of the non-pharmaceutical treatments for sleep disorders. Different techniques could have different impacts on various biological and mental stressors. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the sleep quality of primigravida women. Methods:This three-group clinical trial was conducted on 100 primigravida women, referring to Mash...

  1. Electron hybridization effects and the crystal structure of plutonium: Progress report, January 1, 1987--May 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The main research effort during the past year was on the theory of surface electronic behavior of plutonium. This research was described in last year's Progress Report and deals with both development of the resonant band-f scattering theory for the magnetic properties of highly correlated actinide systems and the synthesis of band and model Hamiltonian theory for actinide systems. A summary of the results for the surface electronic behavior of plutonium are included

  2. Analysis of progressive distorsion. Validation of the method based on effective primary stress. Discussion of Anderson's experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, Didier.

    1981-02-01

    An empirical rule usable for design by analysis against progressive distorsion has been set up from experiments conducted in C.E.N. Saclay. This rule is checked with experimental data obtained by W.F. ANDERSON, this experiment is sufficiently different from the Saclay one to evaluate the merits of the rule. The satisfactory results achieved, are another validation of the efficiency diagram on which the method is based [fr

  3. Effect of fosinopril on progression of the asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The cardiovascular changes (vascular structure changes, hypertrophy of the left ventricle contribute to both the increased cardiovascular morbidity and the mortality of essential hypertension. Therefore, modern treatment strategies should not only target blood pressure (BP reduction but also normalize cardiovascular structure and function. OBJECTIVE Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the ACE inhibitor Fosinopril on the Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery and on the left ventricle mass after 9-month treatment of hypertensive patients. METHOD The study included 40 patients with the arterial hypertension and the left ventricle hypertrophy verified by echocardiography. The patients were randomized on A ACE-inhibitor - Fosinopril and 6 without ACE inhibitor - atenolol, and they were followed up 9 months. The groups were not different by age, sex, and metabolic status. Color Duplex ultrasonography of the carotid arteries was performed by Acuson Sequia C236 with high-frequency linear probe of 8 MHz. The Intima-media thickness of the common carotids on the left and the right was measured in diastole at 1.5. cm from the highest point of bifurcation under maximal magnification. Using the same device, the left ventricle mass and other parameters of the left ventricle were determined in M-mode and by means of 2D image. RESULTS After 9 months, BP In both groups Was reduced In similar range (group A: systolic BP from 158 to 137 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 94 to 85 mmHg, and group B; systolic BP from 164 to 137 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 87 to 84 mmHg. The thickness of the intimomedial complex in patients using Fosinopril was decreased by 0.0278 ± 0.03 mm, while in the group of patients that did not use the ACE-inhibitor, it was increased by 0.078 ±0.13 mm. The left ventricle mass in patients using Fosinopril was decreased by 5 grams (312 ± 72 g vs. 307 ± 77 g, while in group B patients, it was increased by 15

  4. Sample size requirements for one-year treatment effects using deep gray matter volume from 3T MRI in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gloria; Chu, Renxin; Yousuf, Fawad; Tauhid, Shahamat; Stazzone, Lynn; Houtchens, Maria K; Stankiewicz, James M; Severson, Christopher; Kimbrough, Dorlan; Quintana, Francisco J; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L; Healy, Brian C; Bakshi, Rohit

    2017-11-01

    The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50.8±8.0 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (median, range) 5.0, 2.0-6.5)]. DGM segmentation applied the fully automated FSL-FIRST pipeline ( http://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk ). Total DGM volume was the sum of the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus. On-study change was calculated using a random-effects linear regression model. We detected one-year decreases in raw [mean (95% confidence interval): -0.749 ml (-1.455, -0.043), p = 0.039] and annualized [-0.754 ml/year (-1.492, -0.016), p = 0.046] total DGM volumes. A treatment trial for an intervention that would show a 50% reduction in DGM brain atrophy would require a sample size of 123 patients for a single-arm study (one-year run-in followed by one-year on-treatment). For a two-arm placebo-controlled one-year study, 242 patients would be required per arm. The use of DGM fraction required more patients. The thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus, showed smaller effect sizes in their on-study changes than the total DGM; however, for the caudate, the effect sizes were somewhat larger. DGM atrophy may prove efficient as a short-term outcome for proof-of-concept neurotherapeutic trials in PMS.

  5. Theory of electron--photon scattering effects in metals. Progress report, December 1, 1976--November 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The general areas in which the investigations were carried out are transport properties and quasiparticle lifetimes in normal metals and superconductors. The more specific research projects upon which progress is reported are (a) the calculation of order parameter relaxation times in aluminum, (b) transport coefficients of the noble metals (emphasizing deviations from Matthiessen's rule), (c) variational transport calculations for a superconductor, (d) some general results on quasiparticle relaxation time anisotropy in polyvalent metals, and (e) a clarification of the roles of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering in somple metals at low temperatures

  6. Effectiveness of home-based cupping massage compared to progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic neck pain--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Materdey, Svitlana; Cramer, Holger; Haller, Heidemarie; Stange, Rainer; Dobos, Gustav; Rampp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a major public health problem with very few evidence-based complementary treatment options. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of a partner-delivered home-based cupping massage, compared to the same period of progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to self-directed cupping massage or progressive muscle relaxation. They were trained and asked to undertake the assigned treatment twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the current neck pain intensity (0-100 mm visual analog scale; VAS) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included pain on motion, affective pain perception, functional disability, psychological distress, wellbeing, health-related quality of life, pressure pain thresholds and adverse events. Sixty one patients (54.1±12.7 years; 73.8%female) were randomized to cupping massage (n = 30) or progressive muscle relaxation (n = 31). After treatment, both groups showed significantly less pain compared to baseline however without significant group differences. Significant effects in favor of cupping massage were only found for wellbeing and pressure pain thresholds. In conclusion, cupping massage is no more effective than progressive muscle relaxation in reducing chronic non-specific neck pain. Both therapies can be easily used at home and can reduce pain to a minimal clinically relevant extent. Cupping massage may however be better than PMR in improving well-being and decreasing pressure pain sensitivity but more studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01500330.

  7. Effectiveness of Home-Based Cupping Massage Compared to Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Materdey, Svitlana; Cramer, Holger; Haller, Heidemarie; Stange, Rainer; Dobos, Gustav; Rampp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a major public health problem with very few evidence-based complementary treatment options. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of a partner-delivered home-based cupping massage, compared to the same period of progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to self-directed cupping massage or progressive muscle relaxation. They were trained and asked to undertake the assigned treatment twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the current neck pain intensity (0–100 mm visual analog scale; VAS) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included pain on motion, affective pain perception, functional disability, psychological distress, wellbeing, health-related quality of life, pressure pain thresholds and adverse events. Sixty one patients (54.1±12.7 years; 73.8%female) were randomized to cupping massage (n = 30) or progressive muscle relaxation (n = 31). After treatment, both groups showed significantly less pain compared to baseline however without significant group differences. Significant effects in favor of cupping massage were only found for wellbeing and pressure pain thresholds. In conclusion, cupping massage is no more effective than progressive muscle relaxation in reducing chronic non-specific neck pain. Both therapies can be easily used at home and can reduce pain to a minimal clinically relevant extent. Cupping massage may however be better than PMR in improving well-being and decreasing pressure pain sensitivity but more studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01500330 PMID:23762355

  8. Photo-oxidation of proteins and its role in cataractogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Truscott, R J

    2001-01-01

    by the protein, or bound chromophore groups, thereby generating excited states (singlet or triplets) or radicals via photo-ionisation. The second major process involves indirect oxidation of the protein via the formation and subsequent reactions of singlet oxygen generated by the transfer of energy to ground...... state (triplet) molecular oxygen by either protein-bound, or other, chromophores. The basic principles behind these mechanisms of photo-oxidation of amino acids, peptides and proteins and the potential selectivity of damage are discussed. Emphasis is placed primarily on the intermediates...

  9. Progressive thalamocortical neuron loss in Cln5 deficient mice: Distinct effects in Finnish variant late infantile NCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schantz, Carina; Kielar, Catherine; Hansen, Stine N; Pontikis, Charlie C; Alexander, Noreen A; Kopra, Outi; Jalanko, Anu; Cooper, Jonathan D

    2009-05-01

    Finnish variant LINCL (vLINCL(Fin)) is the result of mutations in the CLN5 gene. To gain insights into the pathological staging of this fatal pediatric disorder, we have undertaken a stereological analysis of the CNS of Cln5 deficient mice (Cln5-/-) at different stages of disease progression. Consistent with human vLINCL(Fin), these Cln5-/- mice displayed a relatively late onset regional atrophy and generalized cortical thinning and synaptic pathology, preceded by early and localized glial responses within the thalamocortical system. However, in marked contrast to other forms of NCL, neuron loss in Cln5-/- mice began in the cortex and only subsequently occurred within thalamic relay nuclei. Nevertheless, as in other NCL mouse models, this progressive thalamocortical neuron loss was still most pronounced within the visual system. These data provide unexpected evidence for a distinctive sequence of neuron loss in the thalamocortical system of Cln5-/- mice, diametrically opposed to that seen in other forms of NCL.

  10. Progress in cadmium-related health effects in persons with high environmental exposure in northwestern Thailand: A five-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Krintratun, Somyot; Punta, Boonyarat; Funkhiew, Thippawan

    2012-01-01

    Food-borne cadmium was the principal source of exposure for persons living in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. This report presents progress in cadmium-related health effects among persons with high cadmium exposure. The study included 436 persons who had urinary cadmium levels ≥5 μg/g creatinine and were screened for urinary cadmium, renal function, hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones in 2005 (baseline) and 2010 (5-year follow-up). Study renal biomarkers included urinary excretion of β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), total protein and calcium, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium statistically significantly reduced from 9.5±1.6 μg/g creatinine in 2005 to 8.8±1.6 μg/g creatinine in 2010. Compared to baseline, the follow-up examination revealed significant increases in urinary β 2 -MG (tubular effect), urinary total protein and serum creatinine, and a decrease in GFR (glomerular effects). Progressive renal dysfunctions were similarly observed in persons both with and without reduction in cadmium intake. Significant increases in prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones were also detected at follow-up. These three disorders were found to markedly impair renal functions in the study persons. Our study indicates that in persons with prolonged excessive cadmium exposure, toxic health effects may progress even after exposure reduction. Renal damage from cadmium can be due to its direct nephrotoxic effect and also through the related disorders causing nephropathy.

  11. Progress in cadmium-related health effects in persons with high environmental exposure in northwestern Thailand: A five-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Punta, Boonyarat; Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2012-01-15

    Food-borne cadmium was the principal source of exposure for persons living in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. This report presents progress in cadmium-related health effects among persons with high cadmium exposure. The study included 436 persons who had urinary cadmium levels {>=}5 {mu}g/g creatinine and were screened for urinary cadmium, renal function, hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones in 2005 (baseline) and 2010 (5-year follow-up). Study renal biomarkers included urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), total protein and calcium, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium statistically significantly reduced from 9.5{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2005 to 8.8{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2010. Compared to baseline, the follow-up examination revealed significant increases in urinary {beta}{sub 2}-MG (tubular effect), urinary total protein and serum creatinine, and a decrease in GFR (glomerular effects). Progressive renal dysfunctions were similarly observed in persons both with and without reduction in cadmium intake. Significant increases in prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones were also detected at follow-up. These three disorders were found to markedly impair renal functions in the study persons. Our study indicates that in persons with prolonged excessive cadmium exposure, toxic health effects may progress even after exposure reduction. Renal damage from cadmium can be due to its direct nephrotoxic effect and also through the related disorders causing nephropathy.

  12. The effect of melatonin on eye lens of rats exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M M; Moustafa, M A

    2001-05-01

    We investigated the influence of exogenously administered melatonin on adult rats eye lenses exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV) A and B ranging from 356-254 nm irradiation at 8 microW/cm(2). Rats exposed to this range of UV for 15 min for one week showed a significant (PUV-radiation significantly (PUV irradiation, may be the main cause of lens opacification. Melatonin injection with radiation significantly reduced (Pradiation, SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities increased significantly (PUV radiation was as effective as melatonin treatment concurrent with UV irradiation. We conclude that melatonin may protect the eye lens from the damaging effects of UV exposure, and its actions protect lens from oxidative stress, elevating Ca(2+) levels, which are considered as an important causes of cataractogenesis.

  13. Malthusian Progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    is a theoretical demonstration that, even though a Malthusian society is inherently stagnant in the sense that sustained economic growth is absent, scattered advances in technology can permanently raise the long-term wage rate. The key reason why new technology can have a short-term as well as a long-term (i.......e. permanent) effect on the wage rate is the fact that a technological development can influence the degree to which the standard of living impacts upon birth and death rates. The second contribution of the dissertation is the empirical illustration that pre-industrial England, in spite of its Malthusian...... reallocation between sectors, and human capital investments – are features of development that are incompatible with the idea of Malthusian stagnation. These opponents also reject the idea that Malthusian forces drove English wage rates down to a biological minimum. The contest between the Malthusian and anti...

  14. Comparing the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on sleep quality in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers-1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Golmakani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Decreased sleep quality is a common complaint during pregnancy. Relaxation is one of the non-pharmaceutical treatments for sleep disorders. Different techniques could have different impacts on various biological and mental stressors. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the sleep quality of primigravida women. Methods:This three-group clinical trial was conducted on 100 primigravida women, referring to Mashhad health care centers in 2014. All women, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to three groups: progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and control groups. The intervention groups performed the exercises twice a day for a period of four weeks at home after two sessions of relaxation training (held during two weeks. Then, the quality of sleep was measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. For data analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, paired t-test, and post-hoc test were performed, using SPSS version 11.5. Results: The total score of sleep quality and its components (except use of sleep medication was significantly lower after the intervention, compared to the pre-intervention period in progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery groups (P

  15. Modest effect on plaque progression and vasodilatory function in atherosclerosis-prone mice exposed to nanosized TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone; Sheykhzade, Majid; Jensen, Keld A

    2011-01-01

    of atherosclerotic plaques in aorta was assessed in mice exposed to nanosized TiO2 (0.5 mg/kg bodyweight) once a week for 4 weeks. We measured mRNA levels of Mcp-1, Mip-2, Vcam-1, Icam-1 and Vegf in lung tissue to assess pulmonary inflammation and vascular function. TiO2-induced alterations in nitric oxide (NO...... were intratracheally instilled (0.5 mg/kg bodyweight) with rutile fine TiO2 (fTiO2, 288 nm), photocatalytic 92/8 anatase/rutile TiO2 (pTiO2, 12 nm), or rutile nano TiO2 (nTiO2, 21.6 nm) at 26 and 2 hours before measurement of vasodilatory function in aorta segments mounted in myographs. The progression...

  16. The effects of noncoding aquaporin-4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on cognition and functional progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, Kevin G; Murchison, Charles F; Westaway, Shawn K; Simon, Matthew J; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Quinn, Joseph F; Iliff, Jeffrey J

    2017-09-01

    The glymphatic system is a brain-wide perivascular network that facilitates clearance of proteins, including amyloid β, from the brain interstitium through the perivascular exchange of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid. The astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is required for glymphatic system function, and impairment of glymphatic function in the aging brain is associated with altered AQP4 expression and localization. In human cortical tissue, alterations in AQP4 expression and localization are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) status and pathology. Although this suggests a potential role for AQP4 in the development or progression of AD, the relationship between of naturally occurring variants in the human AQP4 gene and cognitive function has not yet been evaluated. Using data from several longitudinal aging cohorts, we investigated the association between five AQP4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the rate of cognitive decline in participants with a diagnosis of AD. None of the five SNPs were associated with different rates of AD diagnosis, age of dementia onset in trial subjects. No association between AQP4 SNPs with histological measures of AD pathology, including Braak stage or neuritic plaque density was observed. However, AQP4 SNPs were associated with altered rates of cognitive decline after AD diagnosis, with two SNPS (rs9951307 and rs3875089) associated with slower cognitive decline and two (rs3763040 and rs3763043) associated with more rapid cognitive decline after AD diagnosis. These results provide the first evidence that variations in the AQP4 gene, whose gene product AQP4 is vital for glymphatic pathway function, may modulate the progression of cognitive decline in AD.

  17. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunt Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. Methods To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT breast cancer mouse model. Results We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs, demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. Conclusion These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

  18. The Effect of Chinese rhubarb, Rheum officinale, with and without benazepril on the progression of naturally occurring chronic kidney disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlicek, A S; Roof, C J; Sanderson, M W; Grauer, G F

    2014-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is common in progressive kidney disease. Transforming growth factors β (TGF-β) are important mediators of all types of fibrosis, including renal fibrosis. Chinese rhubarb has been shown to have antifibrotic properties in part because of inhibition of TGF-β and has slowed the progression of kidney disease in rodent models. That administration of a Chinese rhubarb supplement will slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats and the concurrent administration of Chinese rhubarb and benazepril will be more effective than either alone. Twenty-nine client-owned cats with naturally occurring IRIS Stage 2 or early Stage 3 CKD and without comorbidity such as cancer, urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infection, poorly controlled hyperthyroidism, or systemic hypertension were enrolled in the study. A randomized, positive-controlled, prospective study was performed. Cats received Chinese rhubarb, benazepril, or both in addition to standard treatment for CKD. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess changes in serum creatinine concentration, body weight, hematocrit, urine protein: urine creatinine ratio (UPC), and systemic arterial blood pressure over time between and within treatment groups over an average of 22 months. No significant differences were detected in serum creatinine concentration, body weight, hematocrit, UPC, and systemic arterial pressure over time between or within treatment groups. This study failed to detect a significant difference in the progression of CKD in cats treated with Chinese rhubarb, benazepril, or both. Further study in specific subsets of cats with CKD is warranted. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Abolition of reflex bradycardia by cardiac vagotomy has no effect on the regulation of oxygen uptake by Atlantic cod in progressive hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Taylor, E.W.T.

    2009-01-01

    The functional significance of chemoreflexive hypoxic bradycardia was explored in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. (mean mass similar to 800 g, acclimated to a seawater temperature of 11 degrees C) by investigating responses to progressive hypoxia following section of the cardiac branches of cranial...... nerve X Cardiac denervation had no effect on oxygen uptake rate (M-O2), gill ventilation rate (f(G)) or opercular pressure amplitude (P-OP) under normoxic conditions, but caused a significant increase in heart rate (f(H)), to 50 +/- 1 beats min(-1) by comparison to 40 +/- 2 beats min(-1) in sham...

  20. Effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karina S S; Dias, João M D; Araújo, Marília C; Pinheiro, Ana C; Moreira, Bruno S; Dias, Rosângela C

    2016-07-11

    Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability in older people, especially in women. Resistance exercises are recommended for this population, but their efficacy is not clear. To evaluate the effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. Twenty-eight women 65 to 80 years old, with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and handgrip strength ≤21kg were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group underwent a 10-week resistance exercise program designed to improve strength, power, and endurance of lower-limb muscles, with open chain and closed chain exercises. The control group had their health status monitored through telephone calls. The primary outcomes were lower limb muscle performance measured by knee extensor strength, power and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry, and mobility measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery and by gait velocity. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 Questionnaire. The average rate of adherence was 85%, with few mild adverse effects. There were no significant between-group differences for any of the outcomes. In this study, a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component was not effective for improving the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity.

  1. Comment on “Recent progress in thermodynamics of radiation——exergy of radiation,effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chen et al.proposed the concepts of effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon in a recent paper [Chen Z S,Mo S P,Hu P.Recent progress in thermodynamics of radiation―exergy of radiation,effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon.Sci China Ser E-Tech Sci,2008,51(8):1096―1109] by enduing a single photon with macroscale thermodynamic parameters such as exergy and entropy.This paper argues that applying these concepts and their inferences to macro-scale thermodynamic system will lead to the results which conflict with macroscale thermodynamic laws.This means that the concepts of effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon are not correct.

  2. No effect of one-year treatment with indomethacin on Alzheimer's disease progression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle de Jong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether treatment with the nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID indomethacin slows cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD.This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between May 2000 and September 2005 in two hospitals in the Netherlands. 51 patients with mild to moderate AD were enrolled into the study. Patients received 100 mg indomethacin or placebo daily for 12 months. Additionally, all patients received omeprazole. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline after one year of treatment on the cognitive subscale of the AD Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog. Secondary outcome measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clinician's Interview Based Impression of Change with caregiver input, the noncognitive subscale of the ADAS, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and the Interview for Deterioration in Daily life in Dementia. Considerable recruitment problems of participants were encountered, leading to an underpowered study. In the placebo group, 19 out of 25 patients completed the study, and 19 out of 26 patients in the indomethacin group. The deterioration on the ADAS-cog was less in the indomethacin group (7.8+/-7.6, than in the placebo group (9.3+/-10.0. This difference (1.5 points; CI -4.5-7.5 was not statistically significant, and neither were any of the secondary outcome measures.The results of this study are inconclusive with respect to the hypothesis that indomethacin slows the progression of AD.

  3. Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Bettolo, Chiara Marini; Onesti, Emanuela; Frasca, Vittorio; Iacovelli, Elisa; Gilio, Francesca; Giacomelli, Elena; Gabriele, Maria; Aragona, Massimiliano; Tomassini, Valentina; Pantano, Patrizia; Pozzilli, Carlo; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2009-05-01

    Although clinical studies show that cannabinoids improve central pain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) neurophysiological studies are lacking to investigate whether they also suppress these patients' electrophysiological responses to noxious stimulation. The flexion reflex (FR) in humans is a widely used technique for assessing the pain threshold and for studying spinal and supraspinal pain pathways and the neurotransmitter system involved in pain control. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study we investigated cannabinoid-induced changes in RIII reflex variables (threshold, latency and area) in a group of 18 patients with secondary progressive MS. To investigate whether cannabinoids act indirectly on the nociceptive reflex by modulating lower motoneuron excitability we also evaluated the H-reflex size after tibial nerve stimulation and calculated the H wave/M wave (H/M) ratio. Of the 18 patients recruited and randomized 17 completed the study. After patients used a commercial delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol mixture as an oromucosal spray the RIII reflex threshold increased and RIII reflex area decreased. The visual analogue scale score for pain also decreased, though not significantly. Conversely, the H/M ratio measured before patients received cannabinoids remained unchanged after therapy. In conclusion, the cannabinoid-induced changes in the RIII reflex threshold and area in patients with MS provide objective neurophysiological evidence that cannabinoids modulate the nociceptive system in patients with MS.

  4. Radiation and chemical effects on viral transformation and tumor antigen expression. Annual progress report, August 1, 1978--May 1, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Studies aimed at the biological, biochemical, and immunologic characterization of fetal antigens (EA) in hamsters and mice and locating and determining the distribution of fetal antigens in tumor tissues and in developing fetuses have been underway for several months. Progress has been made in isolating embryonic or fetal antigens from fetuses and from tumor cells. We have developed and reported a reliable lymphocyte transformation assay (LTA) which meets our needs in routinely assaying cell free tumor associated antigen (TAA) preparations from fetal and tumor cells. The assay correlated with transplantation resistance assays and has appropriate specificity. We have also developed the staph-A protein binding assay utilizing anti-serum derived against embryonic antigens present on SV40 tumor cells. In other studies, we have reported increases and perturbations in thymocytes during viral and chemical oncogenesis in hamsters, have developed a simple technique for preserving functional lymphocytes sensitized against TAA by freezing for use in our model system work, have reported the cross-reactivity of tranplantation resistance antigen on a spectrum of chemically induced tumors previously believed to only contain individually specific TSTAs and have recently reported the cross-reactivity of papovavirus induced transplantation resistance antigen in sarcoma cells induced by different viruses. We have concluded our studies of glycosyltransferases in the membranes of developing fetuses and noted no differences in their levels with advancing days of gestation using whold embryo cell populations

  5. Effect of high saturated free fatty acids feeding on progression of renal failure in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid O. Ibraheem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFDreceived an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat for the same period. The third group (HFDG was given 80 mg/kg (body weight/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 24 days of the feeding period while the fourth group was given gentamicin as above along with the standard rodents chow. Renal function was assessed through measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium. At the end, rats underwent a surgical procedure for blood pressure measurement. Renal function study showed a stronger nephrotoxicity for HFDG group. Hypertension was observed in HFD group while the pressure declined after gentamicin co-administration. Overall, changing the feeding behavior toward using more SAFFAs for rats injected with gentamicin promotes the progression of renal failure.

  6. Molecular insights into the proliferation and progression mechanisms of the oral cancer: Strategies for the effective and personalized therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu Fukuda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process involving numerous genetic events that alter normal functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. It is well established that an accumulation of genetic alterations is the basis for the progression from a normal cell to a cancer cell, referred to as multi-step carcinogenesis. This event may be increased the production of growth factors or the number of receptors on the cell surface, and/or increased transcription factors or intracellular signal messengers, further that associated with deregulated control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Together with the loss of tumor suppressor activity, these changes lead to a cell phenotype that can increase cell proliferation, with loss of cell cohesion, and infiltration to adjacent tissue thus causing distant metastasis. Molecular medicine is responsible for defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie the onset of oral cancer. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular control of the innumerable pathways related to these processes. These may lead to short- or medium term improvements in the diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancerous lesions and to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to this disease.

  7. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-04-01

    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  8. Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, G; Body, S; Cheung, T H C; Hampson, C L; Deakin, J F W; Anderson, I M; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2008-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) is believed to contribute to the control of operant behaviour by reinforcers. Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers. This study aims to examine the effect of AcbC lesions on performance on a progressive-ratio schedule using a quantitative model that dissociates effects of interventions on motor and motivational processes (Killeen 1994 Mathematical principles of reinforcement. Behav Brain Sci 17:105-172). Rats with bilateral quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the AcbC (n = 15) or sham lesions (n = 14) were trained to lever-press for food-pellet reinforcers under a progressive-ratio schedule. In Phase 1 (90 sessions) the reinforcer was one pellet; in Phase 2 (30 sessions), it was two pellets; in Phase 3, (30 sessions) it was one pellet. The performance of both groups conformed to the model of progressive-ratio performance (group mean data: r2 > 0.92). The motor parameter, delta, was significantly higher in the AcbC-lesioned than the sham-lesioned group, reflecting lower overall response rates in the lesioned group. The motivational parameter, a, was sensitive to changes in reinforcer size, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. The AcbC-lesioned group showed longer post-reinforcement pauses and lower running response rates than the sham-lesioned group. The results suggest that destruction of the AcbC impairs response capacity but does not alter the efficacy of food reinforcers. The results are consistent with recent findings that AcbC lesions do not alter sensitivity to reinforcer size in inter-temporal choice schedules.

  9. Dietary Oleate Has Beneficial Effects on Every Step of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-fed animal model.MethodsA total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day. Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.ResultsAdditional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001. Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively. The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001. Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.ConclusionDietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

  10. Breast cancer pulmonary metastasis is increased in mice undertaking spontaneous physical training in the running wheel; a call for revising beneficial effects of exercise on cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, Marta; Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Dawid; Stojak, Marta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Nieckarz, Zenon; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that regular aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on incidence and progression of cancer. However, the data regarding effects of exercise on metastatic dissemination remain conflicting. Therefore, in the present study the possible preventive effects of voluntary wheel running on primary tumor growth and metastases formation in the model of spontaneous pulmonary metastasis were analyzed after orthotopic injection of 4T1 breast cancer cells into mammary fat pads of female Balb/C mice. This study identified that in the mice injected with 4T1 breast cancer cells and running on the wheels (4T1 ex) the volume and size of the primary tumor were not affected, but the number of secondary nodules formed in the lungs was significantly increased compared to their sedentary counterparts (4T1 sed). This effect was associated with decreased NO production in the isolated aorta of exercising mice (4T1 ex), suggesting deterioration of endothelial function that was associated with lower platelet count without their overactivation. This was evidenced by comparable selectin P, active GPIIb/IIIa expression, fibrinogen and vWF binding on the platelet surface. In conclusion, voluntary wheel running appeared to impair, rather than improve endothelial function, and to promote, but not decrease metastasis in the murine orthotopic model of metastatic breast cancer. These results call for revising the notion of the persistent beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on breast cancer progression, though further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms involved in pro-metastatic effects of voluntary exercise.

  11. A treat-to-target strategy with methotrexate and intra-articular triamcinolone with or without adalimumab effectively reduces MRI synovitis, osteitis and tenosynovitis and halts structural damage progression in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Eshed, Iris; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether a treat-to-target strategy with methotrexate and intra-articular glucocorticosteroid injections suppresses MRI inflammation and halts structural damage progression in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA), and whether adalimumab provides an additional effect....

  12. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

  13. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  14. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas

  15. Effect of self-assembled peptide–mesenchymal stem cell complex on the progression of osteoarthritis in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ji Eun Kim,1 Sang Mok Lee,2 Soo Hyun Kim,1 Phil Tatman,3 Albert O Gee,4 Deok-Ho Kim,3,5 Kyung Eun Lee,6 Youngmee Jung,1 Sang Jun Kim21Biomaterials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Bioengineering, 4Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, 5Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine and Center for Cardiovascular Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 6Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, South KoreaPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs encapsulated in self-assembled peptide (SAP hydrogels in a rat knee model for the prevention of osteoarthritis (OA progression.Materials and methods: Nanostructured KLD-12 SAPs were used as the injectable hydrogels. Thirty-three Sprague Dawley rats were used for the OA model. Ten rats were used for the evaluation of biotin-tagged SAP disappearance. Twenty-three rats were divided into four groups: MSC (n=6, SAP (n=6, SAP-MSC (n=6, and no treatment (n=5. MSCs, SAPs, and SAP-MSCs were injected into the knee joints 3 weeks postsurgery. Histologic examination, immunofluorescent staining, measurement of cytokine levels, and micro-computed tomography analysis were conducted 6 weeks after injections. Behavioral studies were done to establish baseline measurements before treatment, and repeated 3 and 6 weeks after treatment to measure the efficacy of SAP-MSCs.Results: Concentration of biotinylated SAP at week 1 was not significantly different from those at week 3 and week 6 (P=0.565. Bone mineral density was significantly lower in SAP-MSC groups than controls (P=0.002. Significant differences in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining between the control group and all other groups were observed. Caspase-8, tissue inhibitor of

  16. The effect of chronic progressive-dose sodium bicarbonate ingestion on CrossFit-like performance: A double-blind, randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Zawieja, Emilia E; Podgórski, Tomasz; Łoniewski, Igor; Zawieja, Bogna E; Warzybok, Marta; Jeszka, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been proposed as an ergogenic aid, as it improves high-intensity and resistance exercise performance. However, no studies have yet investigated SB application in CrossFit. This study examined the effects of chronic, progressive-dose SB ingestion on CrossFit-like performance and aerobic capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial, 21 CrossFit-trained participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups and underwent 2 trials separated by a 14-day washout period. Participants ingested either up to 150 mg∙kg-1 of SB in a progressive-dose regimen or placebo for 10 days. Before and after each trial, Fight Gone Bad (FGB) and incremental cycling (ICT) tests were performed. In order to examine biochemical responses, blood samples were obtained prior to and 3 min after completing each exercise test. No gastrointestinal (GI) side effects were reported during the entire protocol. The overall FGB performance improved under SB by ~6.1% (pCrossFit-like performance, as well as delayed ventilatory threshold occurrence.

  17. Tumor Progression Locus 2 (Tpl2 Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Double-Sided Effects of Tpl2 on Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K that conveys various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli to effector proteins of cells provoking adequate adoptive responses. Recent studies have elucidated that Tpl2 is an indispensable signal transducer as an MAP3K family member in diverse signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival, and death. Since tumorigenesis results from dysregulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, Tpl2 participates in many decisive molecular processes of tumor development and progression. Moreover, Tpl2 is closely associated with cytokine release of inflammatory cells, which has crucial effects on not only tumor cells but also tumor microenvironments. These critical roles of Tpl2 in human cancers make it an attractive anti-cancer therapeutic target. However, Tpl2 contradictorily works as a tumor suppressor in some cancers. The double-sided effects of Tpl2 originate from the specific upstream and downstream signaling environment of each tumor, since Tpl2 interacts with various signaling components. This review summarizes recent studies concerning the possible roles of Tpl2 in human cancers and considers its possibility as a therapeutic target, against which novel anti-cancer agents could be developed.

  18. Dose-rate effect of adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression induced by low-dose ionizing radiation in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuchun; Lu Zhe; Li Yanbo; Kang Shunai; Gong Shouliang; Zhao Wenju

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the dose-rate effect of adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression induced by low-dose ionizing radiation in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro in order to reveal the possible mechanism of biological effect and adaptive response induced by low dose radiation. Methods: The experiment was divided into D2 (challenging dose), D1 (inductive dose) + D2 and sham-irradiation groups. EL-4 lymphoma cells were irradiated with D1 (75 mGy, 6.25-200.00 mGy·mm -1 ) and D2(1.5 Gy, 287 mGy·min -1 ), the time interval between D1 and D2 was 6 h. The percentage of apoptosis and each cell cycle phase were measured with flow cytometry. Results: When the dose rates of D1 were 6.25-50.00 mGy·min -1 , the percentages of apoptosis in the D1 + D2 group were significantly lower than those in the D2 group (P 0 /G 1 phase cells decreased significantly (P -1 , D2 is 1.5 Gy (287 mGy·min -1 ), and the time interval between D1 and D2 is 6 h, the adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro could be induced. (authors)

  19. Working Group 7.0 Environmental Transport and Health Effects, Chernobyl Studies Project. Progress report, October 1994 -- March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the details from the working group 7.0 Chernobyl Studies Project. This working group looked at the environmental transport and health effects from the fallout due to the meltdown of Chernobylsk-4 reactor. Topics include: hydrological transport; chromosome painting dosimetry; EPR, TL and OSL dosimetry; stochastic effects; thyroid studies; and leukemia studies

  20. Zolpidem in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip K. Dash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor symptoms, postural instability, personality changes, and cognitive impairment. There is no effective treatment for this disorder. Reduced neurotransmission of GABA in the striatum and globus pallidus may contribute to the symptoms of motor and cognitive symptoms seen in PSP. Zolpidem is a GABA agonist of the benzodiazepine subreceptor BZ1. Here a nondiabetic, normotensive case of PSP is (Progressive Supranuclear Palsy described, which showed improvement in swallowing, speech, and gaze paresis after zolpidem therapy and possible mechanism of actions are discussed. However, more trials are needed with large number of patients to confirm the effectiveness of zolpidem in progressive supranuclear palsy.

  1. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  2. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  3. HSX progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Brief statements on the progress of the design and construction of the HSX experiment are reported. Topics covered include the modular and auxiliary coil systems, the coil support structure, vacuum vessel, the ECH system, the magnet power supply and site. The proposed budget for Year 2 (August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1995) is presented. The effects of a flat funding profile (based on Year 2 budget level of $1137K) on out-years and the HSX project schedule are discussed. The stretching out of the program to accommodate the reduced funding profile should result in only a slight delay in HSX operations

  4. [Research progress on fascioliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Cheng, Na; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Xue-Nian

    2013-06-01

    Fascioliasis is an important zoonosis caused by Fasciola spp. It can cause pathological damages to human liver and gallbladder, as well as economic loss in animal husbandry. Fascioliasis can be easily misdiagnosed with other hepatobiliary diseases. The appearance of resistance to triclabendazole is an issue problem for fascioliasis control. Therefore, research for better diagnostic methods, effective drugs and vaccines become to the focus of fascioliasis control. This article summarizes the progress on epidemiological status, diagnostic method, therapy, drug resistance, vaccine and omics of fascioliasis.

  5. The potential effect of age on the natural behavior of bladder cancer: Does urothelial cell carcinoma progress differently in various age groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlusoy, Bulent; Ceylan, Yasin; Degirmenci, Tansu; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Yonguc, Tarik; Sen, Volkan; Kozacioglu, Zafer

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the potential effect of age on the natural behavior of bladder cancer and to compare these findings between different age groups. The clinical and pathologic data of 239 patients treated at our institution between 1994 and 2014 were analyzed. The patients were classified into three groups according to age: ≤ 40 years (Group 1), 41-59 years (Group 2), and ≥ 60 years (Group 3). The following data were collected: characteristics of the patients, initial pathological findings after transurethral resection, tumor stage and grade, tumor size and multiplicity, and disease recurrence and progression. The mean age of the patients at initial diagnosis was 34.2±5.5 years, 53±5.1 years, and 71.1±7 years in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There were 207 (86.6%) patients with nonmuscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer and 32 (13.4%) patients with muscle-invasive disease. Tumor recurrence was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p=0.001) and Group 3 (p=0.001). Although the time to tumor recurrence was significantly different between the three groups (p=0.001), no significant difference was noted in the time to progression (p=0.349). Patients with urothelial cancer younger than 40 years tend to have single and small tumors. The tumor recurrence rate is lower in the younger age group, but tumor progression is similar in older and younger patients. Therefore, the findings indicate that clinicians should be careful when assessing the invasiveness of urothelial tumors in younger patients and start treatment as soon as possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on vegetation. Progress report, 1 June 1977--28 February 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, L.H.; McCune, D.C.; MacLean, D.C.

    1978-02-01

    The areas of research selected are related to fossil fuel combustion and are believed or are known to occur in the field: the mode of action of SO/sub 2/ in relation to its metabolic fate; the influence of NO/sub 2/ on the phytotoxicity of SO/sub 2/, and the combined effects of these pollutants on crop yield under field conditions; the effect of SO/sub 2/ on the plant with respect to its susceptibility to plant diseases; and the effect of SO/sub 2/ on the behavior and development of the Mexican bean beetle on soybean and on the production of volatile terpenoids in conifers with respect to their suitability for colonization by insects.

  7. Solvent and solute isotope effects in the aqueous solution of gases. Progress report, July 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.B.; Krause, D. Jr.

    1979-10-01

    After developing a 3 He/ 4 He dual beam collection system for the mass spectrometer, the isotopic fractionation factor was determined for helium dissolved in H 2 O, D 2 O, seawater and ethanol. In all solvents the temperature dependence of the fractionation is different from that for a simple isotope vapor pressure effect. Addition of salt to H 2 O increases the fractionation, and the relative salting-out coefficient changes with temperature. A double isotopic effect occurs - the fractionations in D 2 O and H 2 O differ. In ethanol the fractionation is 25% less than in H 2 O

  8. A MULTICENTRE STUDY OF ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SALVAGING LYMPHADENECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER WITH DISEASE PROGRESSION AFTER THE RADICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    in the marker level was observed in 47 (82.5% patients. The decline in PSA level ≥50% from initial level in a month after the operation was in 38 (66,7% patients. A complete answer in the form of lower marker ≤0.2 ng/ml was observed in 13 (22,8% patients. For the entire median follow-up period of 12 months, patients with complete response to therapy had received any hormonal treatment.Conclusion. The saving pelvic lymphadenectomy is an effective method for the treatment of patients with the presence of lymphogenic progression of prostate cancer after a radical treatment with satisfactory oncological results. A significant contingent of patients, SLE is associated with good response to therapy and reduction in PSA levels and long disease-free period. In some patients the removal of nodal metastases allows to postpone or to abandon the HT and hope to increase overall survival of patients.

  9. BRD7 inhibits the Warburg effect and tumor progression through inactivation of HIF1α/LDHA axis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Weihong; Luo, Yanwei; Wang, Xinye; Zhou, Yao; Li, Hui; Wang, Heran; Fu, Yaojie; Liu, Shanshan; Yin, Shanghelin; Li, Jianglei; Zhao, Ran; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Songqing; Li, Zheng; Xiong, Wei; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Guiyuan; Ren, Caiping; Tan, Ming; Zhou, Ming

    2018-05-03

    The bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) was first identified as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and has critical roles in cancer development and progression. However, the regulatory roles and mechanisms of BRD7 in cancer metabolism are still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that BRD7 was lowly expressed in breast cancer tissues and was identified as a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer. Meanwhile, BRD7 could suppress cell proliferation, initiate cell apoptosis and reduce aerobic glycolysis, suggesting that BRD7 plays a tumor suppressive roles in breast cancer. Mechanistically, BRD7 could negatively regulate a critical glycolytic enzyme LDHA through directly interaction with its upstream transcription factor, HIF1α, facilitating degradation of HIF1α mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Moreover, restoring the expression of LDHA in breast cancer cells could reverse the effect of BRD7 on aerobic glycolysis, cell proliferation, and tumor formation, as well as the expression of cell cycle and apopotosis related molecules such as cyclin D1, CDK4, P21, and c-PARP both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that BRD7 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and represses the glycolysis and tumor progression through inactivation of HIF1α/LDHA transcription axis.

  10. Effects of low dose radiation on tumor apoptosis, cell cycle progression and changes of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Fei Conghe; Shen Fangzhen; Liang Jun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on tumor apoptosis, cell cycle progression and changes of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Kunming stain male mice were implanted with S180 sarcoma cells in the left inguen subcutaneously as an in situ experimental animal model. Seven days after implantation, the mice were given 75 mGy whole-body γ-irradiation. At 24 and 48 h after irradiation, all mice were sacrificed to measure the tumor volume, and tumor cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 and the apoptotic rate of tumor cells were observed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results: Tumor growth was significantly slowed down after LDR (P 1 phase and the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased at 24 h. Apoptotic rate of tumor cells increased significantly at 48 h after LDR. Conclusion: LDR could cause a G 1 -phase arrest and increase the apoptosis of tumor cells through the low level of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in the tumor-bearing mice. The organized immune function and anti-tumor ability are markedly increased after LDR. The study provides practical evidence of clinical application to cancer treatment

  11. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: complexation and transport of actinides. First technical progress report (work period 01.97 - 12.97)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckau, G.

    1998-08-01

    The present report describes progress within the first year of the EC-project 'Effects of Humic Substances on the Migration of Radionuclides: Complexation and Transport of Actinides'. The project is conducted within the EC-Cluster 'Radionuclide Transport/Retardation Processes'. Contrary to formal requirements of the Commission, this report with a great deal of detail is established already after one year of project work. It is scheduled to be followed by a second technical progress report covering the second year of the project. In agreement with the contractual obligations a final report of similar technical detail will also be generated. The report contains an executive summary written by the coordinator (FZK/INE) with strong support from the other three task leaders (BGS, CEA-SGC and RMC-E). More detailed results are given by individual contributions of the project partners in 13 annexes. In the executive summary report the origin of results presented is given, also serving as guidance for finding more detailed results in the annexes. Not all results are discussed or referred to in the executive summary report and thus readers with a deeper interest also need to consult the annexes. (orig.)

  12. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Three year progress report, 15 August 1972--14 August 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1975-01-01

    Research in this project has proceeded with the chemical objective of isolating and characterizing radiation products and with the biological objective of determining the action of reactive radiation products on and in biological systems. Study has also been made on the simulation of γ radiation by various photochemical reaction conditions. Progress is reported in the chemical studies on the isolation and characterization of thymine glycols, isolation and characterization of glycols of 1-carbamylimidazolidone as products of cytosine, identification of the major hydroperoxy thymine (T 6 OOH), attempted synthesis of the nucleoside and nucleotide of T 6 OOH, and synthesis and characterization of 5-hydroperoxy-methyluracil. Progress is reported in the biological studies on the effects of T 6 OOH on nucleic acid components, on C--N glycosidic bonds, as a chemical mutagen, on the chromosomes of cells, and as a potential synergist of ionizing radiation. The photoproducts of uracil, cytosine, thymine, and thymidine that have been isolated and characterized are tabulated. (U.S.)

  13. Effects of a Progressive Prompting-Based Educational Game on Second Graders' Mathematics Learning Performance and Behavioral Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Hsiang; Chu, Hui-Chun; Chiang, Li-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Game-based learning (GBL) has been proven to be an attractive learning model by many studies; however, scholars have pointed out that the effectiveness of game-based learning could be limited if proper learning strategies are not incorporated. Prompting is a strategy that plays the important role of providing hints and guidance in interactive…

  14. Combined toxicity effects of chlorine, ammonia, and temperature on marine plankton. Progress report, November 1976--31 January 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J. C.

    1978-02-01

    Studies on the effects of chlorine, chloramines, and temperature on marine plankton have been carried out for three years. Species studied include marine phytoplankton, lobster larvae (Homarus americanus), oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica), copepods (Acartia tonsa), rotifers (Brachionas plicatilis), grass shrimp (Palamonetes pugio) summer flounder larvae (Paralichthys dentatus), larval and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), juvenile scup (Stenotomus versicolor), and juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). In addition extensive studies on chlorine chemistry in seawater have been carried out. The major conclusions are that entrainment effects on permanent plankton such as phytoplankton, copepods, and rotifers are temporary, that is those organisms surviving chlorination and temperature shocks are capable of renewed and unrestricted growth once returned to the receiving water. Because chlorine is only applied for short periods daily in most power plants, the total population of the above organisms actually exposed to chlorine is small and the effects may be hardly measurable in receiving waters. However, chlorination effects on larval species that spawn intermittently could be catastrophic. In addition, there are many unanswered questions regarding the fate of chlorine that is dissipated in marine waters. Are the losses real and, if so, do they pose a toxicity threat to marine biota.

  15. Progressive and cumulative fabric effects of multiple hydroentangling impacts at different water pressures on greige cotton substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    A practical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroentangling jet strip’s orifice size and the hydroentangling water pressure on the energy expended and the properties of the resulting nonwoven fabrics produced on a commercial-grade hydro-entanglement (HE) system, using greige cott...

  16. Technological progress and effects of (supra) regional innovation and production collaboration. An agent-based model simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Pyka, A.; Serguieva, A.; Maringer, D.; Palade, V.; Almeida, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a novel technology development model in which economic agents search for transformations to build artifacts. Using this technology development model, we conduct an agent-based model simulation study on the effect of (supra-)regional collaboration in production and innovation on

  17. Countries’ contributions to climate change: effect of accounting for all greenhouse gases, recent trends, basic needs and technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, M.J.; Olivier, J.J.; Hoehne, N.E.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of recent discussions at the UN climate negotiations we compared several ways of calculating historical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and assessed the effect of these different approaches on countries’ relative contributions to cumulative global emissions. Elements not covered

  18. General Relativity Theory Explains the Shnoll Effect and Makes Possible Forecasting Earthquakes and Weather Cataclysms (Letters to Progress in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Shnoll effect manifests itself in the fine structure of the noise registered in very sta- ble processes, where the magnitude of signal and the average noise remain unchanged. It is found in the periodic fluctuation of the fine structure of the noise according to the cosmic cycles connected with stars, the Sun, and the Moon. Th e Shnoll effect is ex- plained herein, employing the framework of General Relativity, as the twin / entangled synchronization states of the observer’s reference frame. The states are repeated while the observer travels, in common with the Earth, through the c osmic grid of the geodesic synchronization paths that connect his local reference fra me with the reference frames of other cosmic bodies. These synchronization periods matc h the periods that are man- ifested due to the Shnoll e ff ect, regardless of which process produces the noise. These synchronization periods are expected to exist in the noise o f natural processes of any type (physics, biology, social, etc. as well as in such arti ficial processes as computer- software random-number generation. This conclusion accor ds with what was registered according the Shnoll effect. The theory not only explains the Shnoll effect but also al- lows for forecasting fluctuations in the stock exchange mark et, fluctuations of weather, earthquakes, and other cataclysms.

  19. Effects of environmental stresses on the species composition of phytoplankton populations. Progress report, May 1, 1978--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.; Sanders, J. G.

    1979-02-01

    Unfiltered Vineyard Sound seawater circulated through 1000-liter fiberglass tanks at 10% volume exchange per day maintains a reasonably constant phytoplankton community that is also representative of the natural assemblage. Sixteen such tanks have been stresed with addition of free chlorine and copper, and temperature increase, in all possible combinations and at increments of 0.05 ppM Cl/sup -/, 5.0 ..mu..g/l Cu/sup + +/, and 2/sup 0/C temperature increase in experiments of 4 to 6 weeks duration. At the lowest stress level, the tank culture exposed to chlorine after 19 days had a decreased total population size, lower diversity, a similarity index significantly different from the control, and a community dominated by Skeletonema costatum, which was absent from the control culture. The copper-exposed culture showed similar but smaller effects. Chlorine and copper together cancelled each others effects. No effect was seen from a temperature increase of 2/sup 0/C alone or together with other stresses. The experiment at the next highest stress level was complicated by sub-zero temperatures and freezing input lines. The greatest effect was caused by temperature increase (+4/sup 0/C) which caused a shift from diatoms to a variety of flagellates. Diatoms, particularly S. costatum and Chaetoceros spp., remained dominant in the C/sup -/ and Cu/sup + +/ stressed culture not exposed to thermal increase.

  20. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Vaughan T. J.

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing

  1. An application of a double bootstrap to investigate the effects of technological progress on total-factor energy consumption performance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) for measuring China's energy efficiency across 30 provinces during the period 1997 to 2012. The TEPI is derived by solving an improved non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, which is based on an energy distance function. The production possibility set is constructed by combining the super-efficiency and sequential DEA models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress”. In order to explore the impacts of technological progress on TEPI and perform statistical inferences on the results, a two-stage double bootstrap approach is adopted. The important findings are that China's energy technology innovation produces a negative effect on TEPI, while technology import and imitative innovation produce positive effects on TEPI. Thus, the main contribution of TEPI improvement is technology import. These conclusions imply that technology import especially foreign direct investment (FDI) is important for imitative innovation and can improve China's energy efficiency. In the long run, as the technical level of China approaches to the frontier, energy technology innovation and its wide adoption become a sustained way to improve energy efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent for China to introduce measures such as technology translation and spillover policies as well as energy pricing reforms to support energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • A total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) is introduced. • Three types of technological progress have various effects on TEPI. • FDI is the main contributor of TEPI improvement. • An improved DEA calculation method is introduced. • A two-stage double-bootstrap non-radial DEA model is used.

  2. Establishing a cause and effect relationship for ambient ozone exposure and tree growth in the forest: Progress and an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about the effects of ambient ozone on tree growth. Cause and effect has been established with seedlings in chambers. Results from multi-year studies with older tree seedlings, in open-top chambers, have been inconclusive, due to chamber effects. Extrapolation of results from chambers to trees in the forest is not possible. Predictive models for forest tree growth reductions caused by ozone have been developed, but not verified. Dendrochronological methods have been used to establish correlations between radial growth reductions in forest trees and ambient ozone exposure. The protective chemical ethylenediurea (EDU) has been used to protect tree seedlings from ozone injury. An experimental approach is advocated here that utilizes forest trees selected for sensitivity and non-sensitivity to ozone, dendrochronological methods, the protective chemical EDU, and monitoring data for ambient ozone, stomatal conductance, soil moisture potential, air temperature, PAR, etc. in long-term investigations to establish cause and effect relationships. - Progress is reviewed and an experimental approach is proposed to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship for ambient ozone and forest tree growth

  3. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: Complexation of actinides with humic substances. 1. progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.; Rhee, D.S.; Wimmer, H.; Decambox, P.; Mauchien, P.; Moulin, C.; Moulin, V.; Tits, J.; Marquardt, C.; Riegel, J.; Sattelberger, P.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Diercks, A.; Vancluysen, J.; Maes, A.; Bidoglio, G.; Righetto, L.

    1992-02-01

    The aim of the present research programme is to study the complexation behaviour of actinide ions with humic substances in natural aquifer systems and hence to quantify the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration. Aquatic humic substances commonly found in all groundwaters in different concentrations have a strong tendency towards complexation with actinide ions. This is one of the major geochemical reactions but hitherto least quantified. Therefore, the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration is poorly understood. In the present research programme the complexation of actinide ions with humic substances will be described thermodynamically. This description will be based on a model being as simple as possible to allow an easy introduction of the resulting constants into geochemical modelling of the actinide migration. This programme is a continuation of the activities of the COCO group in the second phase of the CEC-MIRAGE project. (orig.)

  4. Effect of LET and microdistribution of radiation on the transformation in vitro and in vivo. Comprehensive progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Work has involved the following three areas: (1) an investigation of the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis by studying the events involved in the process of malignant transformation of mouse 10 T-1/2 cells; (2) an investigation of the effects of promoting agents on radiation-induced transformation in vitro; and (3) an investigation of the induction of transformation by internally emitting radionuclides incorporated into cellular DNA. The latter area has been extended to include studies of mutagenesis by these radionuclides in human lymphoblasts, and molecular measurements of DNA strand breaks. During the past year, research has focused on the first area, as well as on studies of the mutagenic effects of incorporated radionuclides

  5. Effect of LET and microdistribution of radiation on the transformation in vitro and in vivo. Comprehensive progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.

    1983-09-01

    Work has involved the following three areas: (1) an investigation of the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis by studying the events involved in the process of malignant transformation of mouse 10 T-1/2 cells; (2) an investigation of the effects of promoting agents on radiation-induced transformation in vitro; and (3) an investigation of the induction of transformation by internally emitting radionuclides incorporated into cellular DNA. The latter area has been extended to include studies of mutagenesis by these radionuclides in human lymphoblasts, and molecular measurements of DNA strand breaks. During the past year, research has focused on the first area, as well as on studies of the mutagenic effects of incorporated radionuclides.

  6. Physico-chemical studies of radiation effects in cells. Progress report, February 15, 1984-February 14, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of Hg ++ were investigated in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria having very different gc ratios in their DNA. A protective effect is seen in both with first order curves or at least in the k/sub L/ region of the breakpoints. However, it is curious that there is a distinct difference in the metal-free N 2 baseline of Staphylococcus aureus compared to its EtOH metal-free N 2 response while with Pseudomonas aeruginosa both the metal-free N 2 baseline and its EtOH metal-free results are similar. In related studies a new radioprotective substance was evaluated in bacterial systems. Results showed that, in the presence of Rh(NH 3 ) 3 C/ 3 , the anoxic cell shows greater sensitivity than the oxygenated cell. This compound has considerable therapeutic promise providing it acts the same on mammalian cells. 8 refs., 6 figs. (DT)

  7. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Technical progress report, December 15, 1985-July 15, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This project compares the mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation from tritium to that of x-ray. Mutants are described at the molecular level after having been characterized by classical genetic techniques in Drosophila melanogaster, therefore tying together the molecular studies with previous work in mutagenesis. The objectives of this project are to analyze x-ray and tritium induced mutants by ''walking down'' the chromosomes and studying the frequency of breaks that are not associated with the gene used in screening for the mutants, to study the molecular effect of these mutants in heterozygotes with the aim of developing methods of detecting mutants in heterozygotes that may be applicable to human populations, and to induce mutants from tritium beta radiation and analyze them at the molecular level. 9 refs., 4 figs

  8. Effect of dihydroartemisinin on the cell cycle progress of irradiated human cervical cancer cell line and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xialin; Ji Rong; Cao Jianping; Zhu Wei; Fan Sanjun; Wang Jianfang; Cao Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of cell cycle on cancer cells after dihydroartemisinin and X-ray irradiation. Methods: Human HeLa cells of cervical cancer with p53 mutation was used and human SiHa cells of cervical cancer with wild p53 was used as control. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of dihydroartemisinin (20 and 100 μmol/L) and irradiation (6 Gy)on cell cycle. Western blot was used to measure the levels of cell cycle protein. Results: G 2 arrest was observed in irradiated HeLa cells, which the proportion of cells in G 2 phase was increased from 14.45% to 73.58% after 6 Gy X-ray irradiation, but it was abrogated by dihydroartemisinin from 73. 58% to 48.31% in HeLa cells, and it had no change on the SiHa cells. The elevated Wee1 protein and the lowered Cyclin B1 protein were observed with the G 2 arrest severity. The expression of radiation-induced Wee1 protein was suppressed and the Cyclin B1 protein was increased after dihydroartemisinin treatment, which was in accordance with the abrogation of radiation-induced G 2 delay. Conclusions: The main effect of irradiation on cell cycle of p53 mutated HeLa cells is G 2 arrest. Dihydroartemisinin could abrogate it, which is associated with the changes of Wee1 protein and Cyclin B1 protein. In Siha cells, the main effect of irradiation on cell cycle is G 1 arrest, and dihydroartemisinin has no effect on it. (authors)

  9. Protective effects of Morus alba leaves extract on ocular functions of pups from diabetic and hypercholesterolemic mother rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, H I H; El-Sherbiny, M A; Sobh, M A; Abou-El-Naga, A M; Ibrahim, M A N; Mousa, S A

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

  10. Sulforaphane enhances irradiation effects in terms of perturbed cell cycle progression and increased DNA damage in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Naumann

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN, an herbal isothiocyanate enriched in cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower, has gained popularity for its antitumor effects in cell lines such as pancreatic cancer. Antiproliferative as well as radiosensitizing properties were reported for head and neck cancer but little is known about its effects in pancreatic cancer cells in combination with irradiation (RT.In four established pancreatic cancer cell lines we investigated clonogenic survival, analyzed cell cycle distribution and compared DNA damage via flow cytometry and western blot after treatment with SFN and RT.Both SFN and RT show a strong and dose dependent survival reduction in clonogenic assays, an induction of a G2/M cell cycle arrest and an increase in γH2AX protein level indicating DNA damage. Effects were more pronounced in combined treatment and both cell cycle perturbation and DNA damage persisted for a longer period than after SFN or RT alone. Moreover, SFN induced a loss of DNA repair proteins Ku 70, Ku 80 and XRCC4.Our results suggest that combination of SFN and RT exerts a more distinct DNA damage and growth inhibition than each treatment alone. SFN seems to be a viable option to improve treatment efficacy of chemoradiation with hopefully higher rates of secondary resectability after neoadjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer.

  11. Combined toxicity effects of chlorine, ammonia, and temperature on marine plankton. Progress report, September 16, 1975--September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J. C.; Ryther, J. H.

    1976-10-01

    Research on the combined effects of chlorine, ammmonia and temperature on marine plankton have been carried out for 20 months. To date continuous-flow bioassays have been conducted on lobster larvae (Homarus americanus), oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica), copepods (Acartia tonsa), rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), three juvenile and larval fish, killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), scup (Stenotomus versicolor), and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), and phytoplankton (the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum). In addition, studies on zooplankton metabolism, filtration rates, and growth were carried out on exposed organisms. In general, the responses of invertebrates were distinctly different than those of fish: increasing mortality with increasing chlorine dose and greater sensitivity to chloramines than free chlorine in the former, and a threshold level of chlorine and greater sensitivity to free chlorine in the latter. Phytoplankton responses indicate that chlorine effects on primary producers are minimal compared to the serious effects on zooplankton, particularly larval forms that spawn intermittently. The overall conclusion of our studies is that chlorine application at power plants must be carried out with extreme caution and that serious consideration should be given to applying dechlorination at all coastal cooling systems.

  12. Study of the effects of radiation of nucleic acids and related compounds. Progress report, August 15, 1975--August 14, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1976-04-01

    Ionizing radiation produces genetic effects in biological systems. Since genetic effects are usually the result of modifications of DNA or sometimes of RNA, interest is being centered on the chemical and physical nature of radiation-induced lesions to nucleic acids and their components. These investigations have revealed the enormous complexity of chemical events and the possible degradation of nucleic acids by strand breakage. Therefore, work in the ionization radiation of nucleic acids has proceeded along a dual course. On the one hand, molecular changes have been characterized for a number of primary radiation products. On the other hand, strand breakage has been investigated intensively as a direct primary event. Both of these aspects were emphasized in our research last year. We succeeded in improving the synthesis of 5-hydroxy-methyl thymine (α-TOOH). α-TOOH was found to be much more effective than cis-5,6-dihydro-6-hydroperoxy-5-hydroxy thymine (6-TOOH) in the inactivation of transforming DNA of H. influenzae cells although α-TOOH is much less reactive chemically than 6-TOOH. 6-TOOH causes inactivation and acts as an inhibitor of DNA synthesis in mammalian cells. In addition, evidence may indicate that 6-TOOH does not induce strand breaks directly in DNA although we showed that 6-TOOH is a clastogenic compound

  13. An effective convectivity model for simulation of in-vessel core melt progression in a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, C.T.; Dinh, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with development and application of a so-called Effective Convection Model (ECM), which aims to provide a detailed, mechanistic description of heat transfer processes in a BWR lower plenum. The ECM is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-like tool which employs a simpler and more effective approach to compute heat transfer by solving only energy conservation equation instead of solving the full set of Navier-Stokes and energy equations by a CFD code. We implement the ECM in a CFD code (Fluent), with detailed description of the ECM development, implementation and validation. A dual approach is used to validate the ECM, namely validation against experimental data and against heat transfer results obtained by CFD predictions in the same geometries and conditions. Insights gained from CFD simulations are also used to improve ECM. The ECM capability as an effective tool to simulate heat transfer of an internally heated volume in 3-dimensional complex geometry is demonstrated through examples of heat transfer analysis in a BWR lower plenum being cooled by coolant flow in Control Rod Guide Tubes. Simulation results and key findings of this case are reported and discussed. (authors)

  14. Radiation effects on organic insulators for superconducting magnets. Annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Klabunde, C.E.; Kernohan, R.H.; Long, C.J.

    1979-11-01

    The most recent efforts in a program to study the effects of irradiation near 5 K on organic insulators for fusion reactors have extended the irradiation dose from 2 x 10 9 to 1 x 10 10 rads and have studied additional effects due to fast neutrons. When added to a gamma-ray dose of 2.4 x 10 9 rads, a fast-neutron fluence of 2.4 x 10 20 n/m 2 has little effect upon changes in electrical and mechanical properties. At this dose, present results are in agreement with previous results. At a dose of 1 x 10 10 rads, particle-filled epoxies are at end of life in terms of mechanical strength, while fiberglass-cloth-filled epoxies retain sufficient strength for use. Electrical-resistivity and voltage-breakdown values were reduced in some materials but remained in a usable range. Two sheet-type materials showed excellent stability in their electrical properties. Dimensional stability was generally good, except for one epoxy which showed considerable swelling at the higher dose

  15. A case–control study on the effect of Apolipoprotein E genotypes on gastric cancer risk and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Feo, Emma; Boccia, Stefania; Simone, Benedetto; Persiani, Roberto; Cananzi, Ferdinando; Biondi, Alberto; Arzani, Dario; Amore, Rosarita; D’Ugo, Domenico; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a multifunctional protein playing both a key role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides, and in tissue repair and inflammation. The ApoE gene (19q13.2) has three major isoforms encoded by ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles with the ε4 allele associated with hypercholesterolemia and the ε2 allele with the opposite effect. An inverse relationship between cholesterol levels and gastric cancer (GC) has been previously reported, although the relationship between apoE genotypes and GC has not been explored so far. One hundred and fifty-six gastric cancer cases and 444 hospital controls were genotyped for apoE polymorphism (ε2, ε3, ε4 alleles). The relationship between GC and putative risk factors was measured using the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression analysis. A gene-environment interaction analysis was performed. The effect of the apoE genotypes on survival from GC was explored by a Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression model. Subjects carrying at least one apoE ε2 allele have a significant 60% decrease of GC risk (OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.19 – 0.84) compared with ε3 homozygotes. No significant interaction emerged between the ε4 or ε2 allele and environmental exposures, nor ε2 or ε4 alleles affected the median survival times, even after correcting for age, gender and stadium. Our study reports for the first time a protective effect of the ε2 allele against GC, that might be partly attributed to the higher antioxidant properties of ε2 compared with the ε3 or ε4 alleles. Given the study’s sample size, further studies are required to confirm our findings

  16. Environmental reactions and their effects on mechanical behavior of metallic materials. Technical progress report, February 1, 1977--January 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibala, R.; Sethi, V.K.; Fournier, R.

    1977-01-01

    New results obtained in surface oxide softening of the Group VB refractory metals and mechanical behavior of Nb-H and Nb-D alloys are presented. The results include: (a) experimental verification of a model of surface oxide softening of body-centered cubic metals; (b) determination of a stress-differential effect in surface oxide softening; and (c) characterization of hydrogen and deuterium strengthening in Nb and Nb-O alloys. The second section reviews major contributions in topics on: interstitials in metals, mechanical behavior of body-centered cubic metals, solute-defect interactions and internal friction mechanisms in solids

  17. Theoretical studies of multistep processes, isospin effects in nuclear scattering, and meson and baryon interactions in nuclear physics: [Annual] progress report, May 1, 1986 to April 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, V.A.; Landau, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    A progress report on a grant from the DOE supporting theoretical studies in nuclear physics at Oregon State University in 1986, 1987 is presented. The research was led by Professors Landau and Madsen and carried out in collaboration with graduate students in Corvallis and scientists at LLNL-Livermore, KFA-Juelich, Purdue University, Florida State University and TRIUMF. The studies included meson exchange current effects deduced from spin observables in p- 3 He scattering, coupled bound and continuum eigenstates in momentum space for kaons and antiprotons, and charge symmetry violation in π scattering from trinucleons. Additional studies included microscopic optical potential calculations, multiple step processes, and differences in neutron and proton multipole matrix elements and transition densities in low lying collective states and in giant resonances

  18. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L R; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... of the operated leg, at the primary endpoint 10 weeks after surgery in THR patients with lower pre-operative function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01214954....

  19. The Progress in Clinical and Basic Research of the Effect ofAcupuncture in Treating Disorders of Gastrointestinal Motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Though the function of “spleen” in TCM refers to a lot of systems, it is mainly related to digestive system, reflecting changes of physiology and pathology of gastrointestinal tract. The deficiency of Spleen Qi is correlated to the disorders of gastrointestinal motility.(19) In recent years the research has been developed in adjustment of Spleen and Stomach function and the improvement of gastrointestinal motility by acupuncturing mainly Zusanli, which formed a theoretic base for acupuncture therapy of disorders of gastrointestinal motility.Effect of Acupuncture on Gastric Peristalsis  Observation by gastroendoscopy and B-ultrasonography showed that, acupuncture at Zusanli could decrease gastric tension and resolve spasm of cardia, gastric body and pylorus, and improve delayed opening of pylorus, so as to make gastric hyperperistalsis tend to go placid and normalize retarding. It is demonstrated that acupuncture at Zusanli could adjust the function of gastric peristalsis bi-directionally.(20,21) In healthy volunteers after acupuncture at Zusanli the frequency and the amplititude of gastric peristalsis both increased. In patients whose pylorus ring could not open during the operation of gastroscopy, acupuncture at Zusanli could relax and open it. Acupuncture at Neiguan could produce either opening or closing the bi-directional effect of pylorus.(22) In patients with disorders of gastrointestinal motility it was observed that the amplititude and frequency of constriction of sphincter pylori increased and the strength and frequency of stomach improved after acupuncture at Zusanli according to the measurement of gastroscopic manometry.(23) Acupuncture may accelerate or reduce the speed of gastric evacuation.(24,25) In addition, acupuncture can increase the volume of gastric antrum. Observed by B-ultrasonography, acupuncture Zusanli, Shangjuxu (ST37), Chongyang (ST42) and Neiting (ST44) in the lower extremity section of the Yangming meridian of the foot could

  20. Biological effects of implanted nuclear energy sources for artificial heart devices. Progress report, September 1, 1974--August 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Wentworth, R.A.; Cady, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the biological effects of radiation from mock plutonium power sources in dogs and a study of the feasibility of a tissue heat sink for waste heat from such sources in calves. It is also designed to evaluate effects of heat and radiation from plutonium sources in calves. The work is part of a program to evaluate the use of plutonium as a power source for an artificial heart device. A total of 60 dogs have been implanted with mock plutonium sources (producing a similar radiation flux as plutonium but having no associated heat) at levels of from 1 to 70 times the expected radiation flux from a 30 watt plutonium source. Results up to 4.5 years after implantation indicate that mammals may be able to tolerate the radiation flux from such sources. Results in calves indicate that 30 watts of additional endogenous heat can be dissipated to a connective tissue covered heat exchanger with a surface area of 494 cm 2 providing a heat flux of 0.06 watts/cm 2 . (U.S.)

  1. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: Complexation of actinides with humic substances. 3. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Rhee, D.S.; Buckau, G.; Moulin, V.; Tits, J.; Decambox, P.; Franz, C.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Dierckx, A.; Vancluysen, J.; Maes, A.

    1993-03-01

    The aim of the present research programme is to study the complexation behaviour of actinide ions with humic substances in natural aquifer systems and hence to quantify the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration. Aquatic humic substances commonly found in all groundwaters in different concentrations have a strong tendency towards complexation with actinide ions. This is one of the major geochemical reactions but hitherto least quantified. Therefore, the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration is poorly understood. In the present research programme the complexation of actinide ions with humic substances will be described thermodynamically. This description will be based on a model being as simple as possible to allow an easy introduction of the resulting reaction constants into geochemical modelling of the actinide migration. This programme is a continuation of the activities of the COCO group in the second phase of the CEC-MIRAGE project. The programme consists of the following three main tasks: Task 1: Complexation reactions of actinide ions with well characterized reference and site-specific humic and fulvic acids; Task 2: Competition reactions with major cations in natural groundwaters; Task 3: Validation of the complexation data in natural aquatic systems by comparison of calculation with spectroscopic experiment. (orig./EF)

  2. Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Sheet silicates (e.g. micas and clays) are important constituents of a wide variety of geological formations such as granite, basalt, and sandstone. Sheet silicates, particularly clays such as bentonite are common materials in near-field engineered barriers in high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repositories. This is because migration of radionuclides from an underground HLW repository to the geosphere may be significantly reduced by sorption of radionuclides (e.g., Pu, U and Np) onto sheet silicates (e.g., clays and micas) that line the fractures and pores of the rocks along groundwater flowpaths. In addition to surface sorption, it has been suggested that some sheet silicates may also be able to incorporate many radionuclides, such as Cs and Sr, in the inter-layer sites of the sheet structure. However, the ability of the sheet silicates to incorporate radionuclides and retard release and migration of radionuclides may be significantly affected by the near-field radiation due to the decay of fission products and actinides. for example, the unique properties of the sheet structures will be lost completely if the structure becomes amorphous due to irradiation effects. Thus, the study of irradiation effects on sheet-structures, such as structural damage and modification of chemical properties, are critical to the performance assessment of long-term repository behavior.'

  3. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Annual progress report, August 15, 1974--August 14, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1975-01-01

    Interest is being centered on the chemical and physical nature of radiation-induced lesions to nucleic acids and their components. These investigations have revealed the enormous complexity of chemical events in these systems and the possible degradation of nucleic acids by strand breakage. Therefore, work in the ionizing radiation of DNA and its components has proceeded along a dual course. For chemical studies, our prime concern is the stepwise isolation and identification of the radiation products of derivatives of pyrimidines and the study of the actual mechanisms of their formation. For biological studies, H. influenzae cells, the Chinese hamster V79B-1 cell line, and the Dunn osteosarcoma lung colony system were used. During the last year, the method of synthesis of 5-hydroperoxymethyluracil (T/sub α/OOH) was greatly improved. Large-scale preparation of 5-hydroxy-6-hydroperoxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (T 6 OOH) were carried out in order to study the action of T 6 OOH on neighboring bases, glycosidic bond-breakage, cell mutagenesis, chromosomal aberrations, and possible synergistic effects on x radiation. These results allow one to relate radiobiological effects with radiation chemical changes in DNA

  4. Comparing the effect of visual and non-visual music on functional factors in a progressive aerobic exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Alizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Aerobic exercises have a significant effect on losing weight and increasing the energy levels. This research aimed to increase the fatigue time in this type of exercises, making it more enjoyable.  Method: In this study, eight physical education female students with the same preparedness level were selected by random sampling. The subjects participated ina periodic aerobic exercise during three stages with an interval of 48 hours. The test was based on the Bruce Protocol, which measured the burnout, the maximum oxygen consumption, the perceived exercise pressure, and the heart rate in each stage.  Findings: the results revealed that there was a significant difference in the subjects’ burnout time (p = 0.039 while the impact of the visual music compared to the non-visual music in perceiving the exercise pressure was significantly different (p = 0.034. Nonetheless, while measuring the heart rate (p = 0.443, the maximum oxygen consumption (p <0.05 had no significant effect.  Conclusion: In was found in the current research that the visual music can be a stronger factor than the non-visual music in making the exercise more enjoyable and increasing the fatigue time.

  5. [Effect of hypnosis and autogenic training on acral circulation and coping with the illness in patients with progressive scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikowski, K; Weber, B; Haustein, U F

    1995-02-01

    In 12 patients with systemic sclerosis the influence of hypnosis and autogenic training on the acral blood circulation and the coping with the disease was investigated in a pilot study. In the first step significant increases in the skin temperature of the finger (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 1.2 degrees C) could be found after relaxation hypnosis. In the second step six patients (study group) gained experience with autogenic training. The other six patients served as control group. In the study group, the skin temperature of the fingers (short-term effect) was significantly higher than in the control group (1.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C). Long-term effects of the autogenic training (mean acral rewarning time, duration and course of the Raynaud attacks, acral lesions of the hands, psychosomatic status of complaints, type of relation to the disease as precondition for coping with the disease) were not found within the relatively short follow-up period of 4 months. Two patients, however, reported that they could shorten the duration of Raynaud attacks by autogenic training. In our patients heterogenicity and an increased score of multiple psychosomatic complaints were registered at the outset. As far as the type of relation to the disease is concerned, the patients could be assessed as almost adapted. Hypnosis and autogenic training can be recommended as complementary therapy in systemic sclerosis.

  6. Effects of cilostazol and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers on the renal disease progression of Korean patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yoojin; Lee, Jimin; Shin, Sooyoung; Park, Inwhee; Bae, Soo Kyung; Oh, Euichul; Lee, Sukhyang

    2018-02-01

    Background Decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is an important surrogate marker for the assessment of renal function. Addition of a second agent to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) treatment may improve current therapeutic strategies aimed at suppressing renal disease progression. Objective To determine the effect of cilostazol in combination with ACEI or ARB treatment on the decline in eGFR. Setting A tertiary hospital in Korea. Method In an observational cohort study, we analyzed 5505 patients who were prescribed ACEI or ARB and cilostazol or other antiplatelet agents. Main outcome measure The primary outcome assessed was worsening of renal function defined as a 30% decline in eGFR per year. The secondary outcomes included commencement of dialysis, renal transplantation, death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. Results Following propensity score matching, eGFR decreased over time in the majority of patients, but the decline was less in patients in the cilostazol treated (CT) group of stage 1-2 category compared to the cilostazol untreated (CU) group (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.98). In the subgroup analysis, the strongest effect in slowing eGFR decline was observed in CT patients at a high risk of diabetes (OR 0.782; 95% CI 0.615-0.993) and the elderly (OR 0.693; 95% CI 0.504-0.953) in the stage 1-2 category. No significant increase in cardiovascular risk was observed between the CT and CU groups. Conclusion Treatment with cilostazol plus ACEI or ARB was observed to prevent worsening of renal progression in patients in the stages 1-2.

  7. Effects of x-irradiation on steroid biotransformations by testicular tissue. Progress report, August 1, 1974--July 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    X irradiation of rat testicular tissue either in vivo or in vitro labilized the lysosomal membranes with a release of both acid phosphatase and phospholipase A 2 resulting in an increased lipid peroxidation. The results from these investigations suggest that the lipid endoperoxides and malonaldehyde are responsible for mediating the effects of radiation on steroid biotransformations. Estradiol, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, prolactin, acetylcholine, cGMP, H 2 O 2 , PUFA, ethanol and vitamin A increased lysosomal fragility and initiated enzyme release while ATP, cAMP, vitamin E, theophylline, indomethacin, caffeine, cortisol, epinephrine, NADPH, NDGA, FSH and Zn ++ decreased both phenomena. An increase in catalase activity was consistently observed after irradiation and by cAMP indicative of an increase in testicular cAMP content following irradiation. Seminiferous tubules were found to be dependent on prostaglandins for their contractions. (U.S.)

  8. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  9. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which cause different symptoms. Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include these difficulties: Comprehending spoken or written ... word meanings Naming objects Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include: Having difficulty retrieving words Frequently pausing ...

  10. Recent progress on the effects of microRNAs and natural products on tumor epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He SJ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shu-Jin He,1,2,* Chu-Qi Xiang,1,3,* Yu Zhang,3 Xiang-Tong Lu,1 Hou-Wen Chen,1,4 Li-Xia Xiong1,4 1Department of Pathophysiology, Medical College, Nanchang University, 2Second Clinical Medical College, Nanchang University, 3First Clinical Medical College, Nanchang University, 4Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Tumor Pathogenesis and Molecular Pathology, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT is a biological process of phenotypic transition of epithelial cells that can promote physiological development as well as tissue healing and repair. In recent years, cancer researchers have noted that EMT is closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors. When tumor cells undergo EMT, they can develop enhanced migration and local tissue invasion abilities, which can lead to metastatic growth. Nevertheless, two researches in NATURE deny its necessity in specific tumors and that is discussed in this review. The degree of EMT and the detection of EMT-associated marker molecules can also be used to judge the risk of metastasis and to evaluate patients’ prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding small RNAs, which can inhibit gene expression and protein translation through specific binding with the 3' untranslated region of mRNA. In this review, we summarize the miRNAs that are reported to influence EMT through transcription factors such as ZEB, SNAIL, and TWIST, as well as some natural products that regulate EMT in tumors. Moreover, mutual inhibition occurs between some transcription factors and miRNAs, and these effects appear to occur in a complex regulatory network. Thus, understanding the role of miRNAs in EMT and tumor growth may lead to new treatments for malignancies. Natural products can also be combined with conventional chemotherapy to enhance curative effects. Keywords: epithelial–mesenchymal transition, miRNA, tumor, natural products

  11. Effects of experimental parameters on the sorption of cesium, strontium, and uranium from saline groundwaters onto shales: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O'Kelley, G.D.

    1988-11-01

    This report concerns an extension of the first series of experiments on the sorption properties of shales and their clay mineral components reported earlier. Studies on the sorption of cesium and strontium were carried out on samples of Chattanooga (Upper Dowelltown), Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales that had been heated to 120/degree/C in a 0.1-mol/L NaCl solution for periods up to several months and on samples of the same shales which had been heated to 250/degree/C in air for six months, to simulate limiting scenarios in a HLW repository. To investigate the kinetics of the sorption process in shale/groundwater systems, strontium sorption experiments were done on unheated Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales in a diluted, saline groundwater and in 0.03-mol/L NaHCO 3 , for periods of 0.25 to 28 days. Cesium sorption kinetics tests were performed on the same shales in a concentrated brine for the same time periods. The effect of the water/rock (W/R) ratio on sorption for the same combinations of unheated shales, nuclides, and groundwaters used in the kinetics experiments was investigated for a range of W/R ratios of 3 to 20 mL/g. Because of the complexity of the shale/groundwater interaction, a series of tests was conducted on the effects of contact time and W/R ratio on the pH of a 0.03-mol/L NaHCO 3 simulated groundwater in contact with shales. 8 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs

  12. The progressive tax

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the argumentative structure of Hayek on the relationship between power to tax and the progressive tax. It is observed throughout its work giving special attention to two works: The Constitution of Liberty (1959) and Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol3; The Political Order of Free People, 1979) Hayek describes one of the arguments most complete information bout SFP progressive tax systems (progressive tax). According to the author the history of the tax progressive system...

  13. Effect of Shenkang granules on the progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, YU; ZHOU, NAN; WANG, HONGYING; WANG, SICEN; HE, JIANYU

    2015-01-01

    Shenkang granules (SKGs) are a Chinese herbal medicinal formula, consisting of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), Salvia miltiorrhiza, milkvetch root [Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge] and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of SKG on chronic renal failure (CRF) in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats. The rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n=10 per group) as follows: (i) 5/6 Nx (model group; 2.25 ml/kg/day normal saline); (ii) SKGL (low dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 2 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (iii) SKGM (moderate dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 4 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (iv) SKGH (high dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 8 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (v) benazepril treatment group (5/6 Nx treated with 5 mg/kg/day benazepril); (vi) Shenkang injection (SKI) group (5/6 Nx with 13.3 ml/kg/day SKI); and (vii) sham-operated group (2.25 ml/kg/day normal saline). After 30 days, the levels of microalbumin, total protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and serum lipid were found to be significantly decreased in the SKGL and SKGM rats, showing histological improvement compared with the untreated 5/6 Nx rats, as determined by hematoxylin and eosin, and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, SKG was found to significantly improve the levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduce the damage caused by free radicals to the kidney tissues. Furthermore, SKG prevented the accumulation of extracellular matrix by decreasing the expression of collagen I and III and inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and −9 in the renal tissue, as determined by western blot analysis. SKG was also shown to decrease the concentrations of serum transforming growth factor-β1, as determined by ELISA, and kidney angiotensin II, as determined using a radioimmunoassay kit. In conclusion, SKG was demonstrated to ameliorate renal injury in a 5/6 Nx rat model of CRF. Thus, SKG may exert a good therapeutic effect on CRF. PMID:26136932

  14. Effects of barium chloride treatment of uranium mill tailings and ore on radon emanation and 226Ra levels. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.A.; Flot, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of barium chloride treatments on: reduction of 222 Rn emanation from mill wastes; reduction of 226 Ra levels in wastewater; and decreased leachability of 226 Ra from mill wastes. Baseline 226 Ra concentrations were determined for ore and tailings as well as radon emanation fractions. Uranium ore was treated with soluble barium at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg per litre of slurry. The leach-liquor declined in 226 Ra concentration by as much as 50%. When soluble potassium as well as barium was used in the treatment process at equal concentrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg per litre of slurry, a similar reduction was observed. No significant difference was noted between the two treatment regimes. An accelerated leaching experiment was performed on the ore treated with barium chloride. All treatment groups except that treated with 10 mg of soluble barium per litre of slurry showed significant decreases in leachability. Available 222 Rn (corresponds with radon emanation fraction) was measured in treated and untreated ore. Ore treated with concentrations of Ba ++ up to 1.00 mg per gram of ore did not show a statistically significant reduction in available 222 Rn, however when potassium sulfate was also added, a significant decline was noted. This study suggests that barium chloride treatments reduce radon emanation from mill wastes and reduce 226 Ra levels in wastewater. Leachability of 226 Ra from treated samples decreased markedly. 19 references, 8 figures, 7 tables

  15. Effects of radiations on DNA and repair of the damage. Progress report, May 1, 1976--March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, F.

    1977-01-01

    Last year's report that repair of DNA double-strand breaks from gamma rays occurs in E. coli was verified by additional experiments. Such repair requires recA function and the presence of another DNA molecule of the same base sequence, so it may involve a recombination-like event. Ultraviolet light acting on DNA containing bromouracil produces double-strand breaks by single photochemical events, and a single model can explain this as well as other results. Strains of E. coli which are unusually mutable by bromouracil--uvrE, mutL, mutR, mutS, are defective in mismatch repair. This strengthens the suggestion in last year's report that such mutagenesis occurs when enzymes responsible for the removal of mismatched bases are unable to remove all the mismatches. Ultraviolet mutagenesis of lambda phage may be a useful model for the study of mutagenesis in cells, because the effects of lesions in the gene mutated (i.e., in the phage) and changes in enzyme systems (by treating the host cells) can be examined separately. Quantitative data support this approach

  16. Effects of light on respiration and development of photosynthetic cells. Renewal application and progress report, March 1-November 1, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, M.

    1980-11-20

    The oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/ was studied in H/sub 2/- adapted Scenedesmus obliquus by monitoring the initial rates of H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake and the effect of inhibitors on these rates. Glucose and acetate respiration was competitive with H/sub 2/ uptake. KCN inhibited equally respiration and the oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/. It was concluded that the oxyhydrogen reaction both in the absence and presence of CO/sub 2/ has properties in common with components of respiration and photosynthesis. Participation of these two processes in the oxyhydrogen reaction would require a closely linked shuttle between mitochondrion and chloroplast. Protoplasts and chloroplasts will be isolated from a H/sub 2/-adapted alga in order to elucidate the cooperation between the two organelles. Acetate was shown to stimulate H/sub 2/ photoproduction in H/sub 2/-adapted algae even more so than an uncoupler of electron transport. The role of these compounds will be evaluated either in terms of the glyoxylate cycle or electron acceptors resulting in formation of alcohols. The term chloroplast respiration was proposed to account for the breakdown of polyglucan within the chloroplast. A means of reoxidizing reduced pyridine nucleotide was required to complete the cycle. A new enzyme ascorbic acid reduced pyridine nucleotide peroxidase was isolated from the chloroplast. The characterization of this enzyme will continue.

  17. Effect of light on respiration and development of photosynthetic cells. Progress report, September 1, 1975--June 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, M

    1976-06-01

    Adaptation and deadaptation of unicellular algal cells to a hydrogen metabolism may involve not only hydrogenase but also the site of entry of electrons from NADH. NADPH can also serve as an electron donor in a chloroplast preparation fortified with hydrogenase but the rate of photoevolution falls off rapidly perhaps due to competition with NADP for electrons. The evolution of H/sub 2/ with reduced pyridine nucleotide as electron donor is coupled to ATP formation. Evidence is presented that soluble ferredoxin may not be the immediate donor of H/sub 2/. Hydrogenases from Chlamydomonas and Scenedesmus have been highly purified and will be used to test the stoichiometry of NADH disappearance, ATP and H/sub 2/ formation and also whether H/sub 2/-photoevolution in contrast to dark evolution is ferredoxin dependent. Studies with intact Chlamydomonas provide evidence that a reduced carbon compound and not water is the source of H/sub 2/. The presence of acetate eliminates the CO/sub 2/ production. The ratio of CO/sub 2/:H/sub 2/ is 1:2 and evolution is blocked by inhibitors of glycolysis. Acetate has a strong effect on H/sub 2/O. Cells starved over a long period still retain photoreduction but will not evolve H/sub 2/ until glucose is added.

  18. Mutagenic effect of tritium on DNA of Drosophila melanogaster: Technical progress report, December 15, 1986-July 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques were used to analyze mutants induced by either tritium or x-ray. Mutations induced at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus (Adh) in Drosophila melanogaster were first characterized by genetic complementation tests to determine if a multi-locus deletion has occurred. Mutants that are intragenic as defined by the complementation test are then placed opposite a deficiency so that the DNA from the mutant allele may be extracted and analyzed. Part I of the project is to analyze mutants induced by ionizing radiation with molecular techniques, and part II is to determine the molecular effects of these mutant phenotypes on their expression in the polypeptide produced by the mutant gene. Part III of this project consists of inducing mutants with tritiated water at the Adh locus in D. melanogaster. We have reported the development of a feeding method for exposing male D. melanogaster to tritiated water that would give a range in dose from 6.66 Gy to 26.64 Gy. This method of exposing Drosophila was used first to study a dose response curve for tritium using as a genetic endpoint the sex-linked recessive lethal test. 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Effects of Liver Fibrosis Progression on Tissue Relaxation Times in Different Mouse Models Assessed by Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, clinical studies demonstrated that magnetic resonance relaxometry with determination of relaxation times T1 and T2⁎ may aid in staging and management of liver fibrosis in patients suffering from viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis. In the present study we investigated T1 and T2⁎ in different models of liver fibrosis to compare alternate pathophysiologies in their effects on relaxation times and to further develop noninvasive quantification methods of liver fibrosis. MRI was performed with a fast spin echo sequence for measurement of T1 and a multigradient echo sequence for determination of T2⁎. Toxic liver fibrosis was induced by injections of carbon tetrachloride (1.4 mL CCl4 per kg bodyweight and week, for 3 or 6 weeks in BALB/cJ mice. Chronic sclerosing cholangitis was mimicked using the ATP-binding cassette transporter B4 knockout (Abcb4 -/- mouse model. Untreated BALB/cJ mice served as controls. To assess hepatic fibrosis, we ascertained collagen contents and fibrosis scores after Sirius red staining. T1 and T2⁎ correlate differently to disease severity and etiology of liver fibrosis. T2⁎ shows significant decrease correlating with fibrosis in CCl4 treated animals, while demonstrating significant increase with disease severity in Abcb4 -/- mice. Measurements of T1 and T2⁎ may therefore facilitate discrimination between different stages and causes of liver fibrosis.

  20. Effects of radiations on DNA and repair of the damage. Progress report, May 1, 1974--June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, F.

    1977-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks produced by gamma rays takes place in E. coli. Such repair requires recA function and the presence of another DNA molecule of the same base sequence, so it may involve a recombination-like event. Ultraviolet light acting on DNA containing bromouracil produces doublestrand breaks by single photochemical events, and a simple model can explain this, as well as other results. Bromouracil mutagenesis of either E. coli or lambda phage does not involve the recA or red functions. Bromouracil mutagenesis is greatly increased in E. coli mutants such as uvrE, mutL, mutR and mutS, which are defective in mismatch repair. This, and other results, suggest that bromouracil mutagenesis occurs when cell enzymes fail to remove mismatched bases. Ultraviolet mutagenesis of lambda phage may be a useful model for the study of mutagenesis in cells, because the effects of lesions in the gene mutated (i.e. in the phage) and changes in enzyme systems (by treating the host cells) can be examined separately. Quantitative data support this approach

  1. Annual progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The technical support activities of the IPSN to competent administrations in 1980 has been marked: namely by the authorizations of divergence for 9 units EdF-PWR of 900 MW, the authorization project of creation and extension of reprocessing plant of COGEMA at the Hague UP 2 -800 and the authorization of starting up of the third unit of production of the EURODIF enrichment plant at Tricastin. On the other hand, IPSN has participated at the elaboration of a certain number of legislative and regulation texts relative to the control of nuclear matter, to radioprotection standards and to criteria of safety. For the safety of breeder, the test made at CABRI pile, in the international research program has given confirmation of the validity of theoretical models used in accidents calculations, hypothetical accidents which has allowed to reactualize safety criteria which have to be used for the development of this type of reactor. In worker radioprotection the results obtained in laboratory on the effect of radon, the progress made in personal dosimetry and the action of radioprotection undertaken in uranium mines constitutes a coherent effort. The deep drilling in granit (1000 m) and the experimental associated program which has finished the indispensable scientific data for the future policy in matter of storage of radioactives wastes. IPSN has contributed to progress made in the rules of exploitation of reactors, in the definition of wastes containment -specially at the output of reprocessing plant- in handling machines in hazardeous areas and in the study of environment [fr

  2. Effects of Common Polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ACE Genes on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Progression: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuai; Han, Yan; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Zezhi; Guan, Yangtai

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms in the development of DPN. We systematically reviewed published studies on MTHFR 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms and DPN found in various types of electronic databases. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) quality score systems were used to determine the quality of the articles selected for inclusion. Odds ratios (ORs) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated. We used STATA statistical software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) to deal with statistical data. Our results indicated an association of ACE D>I mutation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12-1.83, P = 0.004) and MTHFR 677 C>T mutation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.08-1.90, P = 0.014) with DPN under the allele model, and similar results were also found under the dominant model (all P T polymorphism may be the main risk factor for DPN in Turkey under four genetic models. ACE D>I mutation was correlated with DPN in Japanese and Pakistani populations in the majority of groups. The relationships of MTHFR 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms with DPN patients presented in this meta-analyses support the view that the MTHFR and ACE genes might play an important role in the development of DPN.

  3. Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of nuclear waste repository. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    'Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste generated at DOE facilities involve working with and within various types and levels of radiation fields. Once the nuclear waste is incorporated into a final form, radioactive decay will decrease the radiation field over geologic time scales, but the alpha-decay dose for these solids will still reach values as high as 10 18 alpha-decay events/gm in periods as short as 1,000 years. This dose is well within the range for which important chemical (e.g., increased leach rate) and physical (e.g., volume expansion) changes may occur in crystalline ceramics. Release and sorption of long-lived actinides (e.g., 237 Np) can provide a radiation exposure to backfill materials, and changes in important properties (e.g., cation exchange capacity) may occur. The objective of this research program is to evaluate the long term radiation effects in the materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository with accelerated experiments in the laboratory using energetic particles (electrons, ions and neutrons). Experiments on the microstructural evolution during irradiation of two important groups of materials, sheet silicates (e.g., clays) and zeolites (analcime), have been conducted; and studies of radiation-induced changes in chemical properties (e.g. cation exchange capacity) are underway. As of the mid-2nd year of the 3-year project, experiments on the microstructural evolution during irradiation of two important group of materials, sheet silicates (mica) and zeolites (analcime), have been conducted; and studies of radiation-induced changes in chemical properties (e.g., cation exchange capacity) are underway.'

  4. The effect of 2-[(aminopropyl)amino] ethanethiol (WR 1065) on radiation-induced DNA damage and repair and cell progression in V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grdina, D.J.; Nagy, B.

    1986-01-01

    The radioprotector 2-[(aminopropyl)amino] ethanethiol (WR 1065) was investigated with respect to its ability to affect radiation-induced DNA damage and repair in V79 cells. At a concentration of 4mM, WR 1065 protected against the formation of single strand breaks (SSB), when present during irradiation. The protector appeared, however, to inhibit the subsequent postirradiation repair or rejoining of SSB. While repair was complete within 24h, the protector reduced the rate of repair by a factor of 3. This inhibitory effect on the rate of repair did not correlate with either measured differences in cell survival or mutagenesis. WR 1065 present in the growth medium inhibited the progression of cells through S-phase, and cell-doubling time following a 3h exposure to the protector was increased from 11 to 18h. These data are consistent with the property of thiols to inhibit DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that, while the presence of WR 1065 during irradiation reduced SSB-DNA damage, its effect on the subsequent rejoining of these breaks could not be correlated with its observed effect on protecting against radiation-induced mutagenesis. (author)

  5. Does depression decrease the moderating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between illness perception and fear of progression in breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Jong Won; Min, Yul Ha

    2018-02-01

    Fear of progression (FOP) is a prevalent concern among breast cancer patients that affect their adjustment to disease. This study examined whether self-efficacy moderates the effect of illness perception (IP) on FOP and whether the moderating effect of self-efficacy depends on the level of depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional survey including brief illness perception questionnaire (BIPQ), FOP short form, general self-efficacy scale, and the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale were administered to 245 patients with breast cancer in Korea. Self-efficacy moderated the negative impact of the patients' perception of chronic timeline and a greater emotional impact of the illness on FOP. However, the moderating effect of self-efficacy of the BIPQ timeline and emotions on FOP depended on level of depressive symptoms. The findings underscore the importance of considering the IP as determinants of FOP, as well as of self-efficacy and depression as the moderating factors in the relationship between IP and FOP, suggesting the need to enhance self-efficacy and depressive symptoms in order to compensate the negative impact of IP on FOP in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of vitamin K2 on progression of atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in nondialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, Ilona; Grzelak, Piotr; Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Vermeer, Cees; Maresz, Katarzyna; Nowicki, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have shown that high dietary intake of vitamin K2 is associated with reduced risk of coronary vascular disease and vascular calcification. We assessed the effect of vitamin K2 substitution on the progression of atherosclerosis and calcification in nondialyzed patients with CKD stages 3-5. The study included 42 nondialyzed patients with CKD. The following measurements were taken at baseline and after 270 ±12 days of supplementation with vitamin K2 at a dose of 90 μg (menaquinone, MK-7) together with 10 μg of cholecalciferol (K+D group) or 10 μg of cholecalciferol (group D): common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcification score (CACS), basic biochemical parameters, lipids, and calcification modulators: matrix Gla protein (MGP), desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), fetuin A, osteocalcin (OC), and fibroblast growth factor 23. The increase of CCA-IMT was significantly lower in the K+D group compared with the D group: from 0.95 ±0.2 mm to 1.01 ±0.3, P = 0.003 vs from 1.02 ±0.2 mm to 1.16 ±0.3, P = 0.003 (ΔCCA-IMT, 0.06 ±0.08 vs 0.136 ±0.05 mm, P = 0.005, respectively). The increase in CACS was slightly lower in the K+D group than in the D group (ΔCACS, 58.1 ±106.5 AU vs 74.4 ±127.1 AU, P = 0.7). In the K+D group, a significant decrease in the level of dp-ucMGP and total OC was observed. A 270-day course of vitamin K2 administration in patients with CKD stages 3-5 may reduce the progression of atherosclerosis, but does not significantly affect the progression of calcification. Vitamin K2 significantly changes the levels of calcification promoters and inhibitors: dp-ucMGP, OC, and OPG.

  7. The synergistic effect of chemical carcinogens enhances Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and tumor progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Huang, Sheng-Yen; Wu, Chung-Chun; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Chou, Sheng-Ping; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Yao; Takada, Kenzo; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have demonstrated previously that low dose N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 0.1 µg/ml) had a synergistic effect with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate (SB) in enhancing EBV reactivation and genome instability in NPC cells harboring EBV. Considering that residents in NPC high-risk areas may contact regularly with these chemical carcinogens, it is vital to elucidate the relation between chemicals and EBV and their contributions to the carcinogenesis of NPC. In this study, we constructed a cell culture model to show that genome instability, alterations of cancer hallmark gene expression, and tumorigenicity were increased after recurrent EBV reactivation in NPC cells following combined treatment of TPA/SB and MNNG. NPC cells latently infected with EBV, NA, and the corresponding EBV-negative cell, NPC-TW01, were periodically treated with MNNG, TPA/SB, or TPA/SB combined with MNNG. With chemically-induced recurrent reactivation of EBV, the degree of genome instability was significantly enhanced in NA cells treated with a combination of TPA/SB and MNNG than those treated individually. The Matrigel invasiveness, as well as the tumorigenicity in mouse, was also enhanced in NA cells after recurrent EBV reactivation. Expression profile analysis by microarray indicates that many carcinogenesis-related genes were altered after recurrent EBV reactivation, and several aberrations observed in cell lines correspond to alterations in NPC lesions. These results indicate that cooperation between chemical carcinogens can

  8. The effect of post-wash total progressive motile sperm count and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination cycles: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Elvan Koyun; Doğan, Omer Erbil; Okyay, Recep Emre; Gülekli, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of post-wash total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC) and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. The retrospective study included a total of 156 cycles (141 couples) and was performed in our center over a 24-month period. The semen parameters were recorded for each man and each insemination. The semen samples were re-evaluated after the preparation process. Post-wash TPMSC values were divided into four groups; Group 1: 10×10(6). Post-wash inseminated semen volume was divided into three groups; Group 1: 0.3 mL; Group 2: 0.4 mL; Group 3: 0.5 mL. The effect of post-wash total progressive motile sperm and semen volume on pregnancy outcomes was evaluated. The pregnancy rates per cycle and per couple were 27.56% and 30.49%, respectively. There was not a significant relationship between the inseminated semen volume and pregnancy rate (p>0.05). However, a significant linear-by-linear association was documented between the TPMSC and pregnancy rate (p=0.042). Our findings suggest that the post-wash inseminated semen volume should be between 0.3-0.5 mL. An average post-wash total motile sperm count of 10×10(6) may be a useful threshold value for IUI success, but more studies are needed to determine a cut-off value for TPMSC.

  9. Adjuvant effect of Chakshushya Rasayana with beta-blocker eye drops in the management of progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy: An open-label randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, K S; Adhoor, Veeranagouda S; Agarwal, Riju; Mehta, Amit J

    2016-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is an insidious and chronic vision-threatening eye ailment due to neuro-retino-optic nerve degeneration, which may be due to the raised intraocular pressure (IOP) or due to independent factors. Management of glaucoma is mainly concentrated on lowering IOP that requires lifetime topical medication, different ocular medicaments for lowering of IOP, and surgical interventions, but it has its own limitations to control the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), and this is the reason behind the use of alternative neuroprotective adjuvants. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Ayurvedic line of management of progressive GON. Ingredients of trial drug Vara Fort powder ( Chakshushya Rasayana ) were procured from the Institute Pharmacy, except Swarnamakshika Bhasma , which was purchased from Dhootapapeshwar Pharmaceuticals. The patients fulfilling inclusion criteria, attending outpatient and inpatient departments, irrespective of their sex, race, religion, occupation, etc., were selected and divided into two groups with open-labeled randomization. In Group A, in addition to betaxolol (0.1%) or timolol (0.5%) (non-iobrim), Chakshushya Rasayana 6 g/day orally with Triphala Ghrita and honey along with Koshtha-Shuddhi (body-microchannel clearing treatment) protocol was tried. Nasya (oleation through nasal route) with Jeevantyadi Taila and Tarpana (eye satiation) with Go-Ghrita were also performed. In Group B (control), brimonidine (iobrim) 0.2% eye drop was used for 3 months. Significant improvement was observed in subjective parameters in Group A such as blurred vision, frequent change of presbyopic glasses, and delayed dark adaptation. Chakshushya Rasayana , if administered in a systematic approach along with a modern topical betaxolol or timolol eye drops, has a definite role in improving the lost retinal sensitivity as much as up to 12 dB in 3 months duration.

  10. Effects of different foot progression angles and platform settings on postural stability and fall risk in healthy and medial knee osteoarthritic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saad Jawaid; Khan, Soobia Saad; Usman, Juliana; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of varying toe angles at different platform settings on Overall Stability Index of postural stability and fall risk using Biodex Balance System in healthy participants and medial knee osteoarthritis patients. Biodex Balance System was employed to measure postural stability and fall risk at different foot progression angles (ranging from -20° to 40°, with 10° increments) on 20 healthy (control group) and 20 knee osteoarthritis patients (osteoarthritis group) randomly (age: 59.50 ± 7.33 years and 61.50 ± 8.63 years; body mass: 69.95 ± 9.86 kg and 70.45 ± 8.80 kg). Platform settings used were (1) static, (2) postural stability dynamic level 8 (PS8), (3) fall risk levels 12 to 8 (FR12) and (4) fall risk levels 8 to 2 (FR8). Data from the tests were analysed using three-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance. The participant group, platform settings and toe angles all had a significant main effect on balance ( p ≤ 0.02). Platform settings had a significant interaction effect with participant group F(3, 144) = 6.97, p fall risk as compared to the healthy group. Changing platform settings has a more pronounced effect on balance in knee osteoarthritis group than in healthy participants. Changing toe angles produced similar effects in both the participant groups, with decreased stability and increased fall risk at extreme toe-in and toe-out angles.

  11. The effect of improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on reducing pianists' music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngshin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two music therapy approaches, improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on ameliorating the symptoms of music performance anxiety (MPA) among student pianists. Thirty female college pianists (N = 30) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) improvised music-assisted desensitization group (n = 15), or (b) music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and imagery group (n = 15). All participants received 6 weekly music therapy sessions according to their assigned group. Two lab performances were provided; one before and one after the 6 music therapy sessions, as the performance stimuli for MPA. All participants completed pretest and posttest measures that included four types of visual analogue scales (MPA, stress, tension, and comfort), the state portion of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Music Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (MPAQ) developed by Lehrer, Goldman, and Strommen (1990). Participants' finger temperatures were also measured. When results of the music-assisted PMR and imagery condition were compared from pretest to posttest, statistically significant differences occurred in 6 out of the 7 measures-MPA, tension, comfort, STAI, MPAQ, and finger temperature, indicating that the music-assisted PMR and imagery treatment was very successful in reducing MPA. For the improvisation-assisted desensitization condition, the statistically significant decreases in tension and STAI, with increases in finger temperature indicated that this approach was effective in managing MPA to some extent. When the difference scores for the two approaches were compared, there was no statistically significant difference between the two approaches for any of the seven measures. Therefore, no one treatment condition appeared more effective than the other. Although statistically significant differences were not found between

  12. The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Exercises After Endotracheal Extubation on Vital Signs and Anxiety Level in Open Heart Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem İbrahimoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the exercises of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on vital signs and anxiety level after endotracheal extubation in open heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out as quasi-experimental, pre-test, and post-test with a control group. The study recruited 30 experimental and 30 control group open heart surgery patients, who met the inclusion criteria, from a cardiac and vascular surgery clinic of a university hospital. PMR exercises, which were taught before the surgery, were implemented after the surgery in the intensive care unit simultaneously with endotracheal extubation. The vital signs of the patients were monitored for the first 30 min. The anxiety levels were measured after 30 min of extubation with state anxiety inventory. Results: The lower rates of heartbeat, breathing, arterial blood pressure, and anxiety were observed in the experimental group in all measurements (first 30 min after endotracheal extubation, and the differences were statistically significant in favor of the experimental group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The study showed that the relaxation exercises after endotracheal extubation in open heart surgery patients was effective in improving vital signs and reducing anxiety level.

  13. Research progress of Tribulus terrestris composition and main pharmaco-logic effects%蒺藜成分及主要药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    候爽; 陈长军; 杨博; 于飞飞; 崔晓莉; 孟雨; 田洪艳; 李质馨

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Tribulus terrestris contains a variety of important biological active substances, such as saponins, flavonoids and other compounds, which has many pharmacological effects. Modern medi-cal research indicates that Tribulus terrestris can remarkably delay senescence, reduce blood glucose and blood lipid, strengthen sexual function and enhance the sex hormones in the human body, etc. And it has good curative effects for cancer, high blood pressure, bacteria and fungal infections, diabetes and etc. This article mainly discusses the research progress on Tribulus terrestris composition and its main pharmacological activities in recent years.%中药蒺藜中含有多种重要的生物活性物质如皂苷类、黄酮类等的化合物,具有众多的药理作用。现代医学研究证明,蒺藜具有显著的抗衰老、降血糖、降血脂、性强壮及提高人体中性激素含量等的作用,对肿瘤、高血压、细菌真菌感染、糖尿病等均有较好疗效。本文主要对近年来中药蒺藜成分及主要药理作用研究进展进行综述。

  14. An overview of recent progress using low-cost and cost-effective composite materials and processes to produce SSC magnet coils and associated non-metallic parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morena, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoplastic and thermoset polymer systems have been used in high-energy physics applications throughout the world for many years. Like other industries and industrial communities, the materials and processes requirements of these polymers have recently taken on new meanings. New accelerators and other machines are pushing all material parameters beyond limits. New polymeric and composite materials are being developed, invented, and formulated, as is new process and application equipment. This is a decade of change. Composite materials are being chosen for performance characteristics and cost-effective processing as well. The information that follows will note some of the recent progress in the development of composite materials and processes for producing low-cost and cost-effective, high-quality, non-metallic composite components for use in SSC magnets and in other accelerators. The materials and methods for making composite molds, tools, and structural parts for magnet coils and other components are demonstrated. New, unique, and innovative approaches for processing thermoset polymers are presented. The formulated polymer systems are used to form semi and structural insulators, spacers, supports, coil end parts, blocks, housings, adhesives, and other composite applications

  15. Investigation of the Effect of Tool Edge Geometry upon Cutting Variables, Tool Wear and Burr Formation Using Finite Element Simulation — A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen, Yung-Chang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-06-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM. In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. Investigation of the effect of tool edge geometry upon cutting variables, tool wear and burr formation using finite element simulation - A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen Yungchang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM.In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively

  17. Effect of late-stage therapy on disease progression in AAV-mediated rescue of photoreceptor cells in the retinoschisin-deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Andreas; Min, Seok H; Molday, Laurie L; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Seeliger, Mathias W; Hauswirth, William W; Molday, Robert S; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2008-06-01

    Proof-of-concept for a successful adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5)-mediated gene therapy in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) has been demonstrated in an established mouse model for this condition. The initial studies concentrated on early time-points of treatment. In this study, we aimed to explore the consequences of single subretinal injections administered at various stages of more advanced disease. By electroretinogram (ERG), functional improvement in treated versus untreated eyes is found to be significant in retinoschisin-deficient mice injected at the time-points of 15 days (P15), 1 month (PM1), and 2 months (PM2) after birth. In mice treated at 7 months after birth (PM7), an age previously shown to exhibit advanced retinal disease, ERG responses reveal no beneficial effects of vector treatment. Generally, functional rescue is paralleled by sustained retinoschisin expression and significant photoreceptor survival relative to untreated eyes. Quantitative measures of photoreceptors and peanut agglutinin-labeled ribbon synapses demonstrate rescue effects even in mice injected as late as PM7. Taken together, AAV5-mediated gene replacement is beneficial in slowing disease progression in murine XLRS. In addition, we show the effectiveness of rescue efforts even if treatment is delayed until advanced signs of disease have developed. Human XLRS patients might benefit from these findings, which suggest that the effectiveness of treatment appears not to be restricted to the early stages of the disease, and that treatment may prove to be valuable even when administered at more advanced stages.

  18. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Mortimer, Joanne E; Schroeder, E Todd; Courneya, Kerry; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Buchanan, Thomas A; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-04-03

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments. This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effects of a 16-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention on MetS in 100 breast cancer survivors. Main inclusion criteria are histologically-confirmed breast cancer stage I-III, completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation within 6 months prior to initiation of the study, sedentary, and free from musculoskeletal disorders. The primary endpoint is MetS; secondary endpoints include: muscle strength, shoulder function, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone mineral density, and QOL. Participants randomized to the Exercise group participate in 3 supervised weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Participants randomized to the Control group are offered the same intervention after the 16-week period of observation. This is the one of few RCTs examining the effects of exercise on MetS in breast cancer survivors. Results will contribute a better understanding of metabolic disease-related effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training and inform

  19. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Mortimer, Joanne E; Schroeder, E Todd; Courneya, Kerry; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Buchanan, Thomas A; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments. This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effects of a 16-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention on MetS in 100 breast cancer survivors. Main inclusion criteria are histologically-confirmed breast cancer stage I-III, completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation within 6 months prior to initiation of the study, sedentary, and free from musculoskeletal disorders. The primary endpoint is MetS; secondary endpoints include: muscle strength, shoulder function, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone mineral density, and QOL. Participants randomized to the Exercise group participate in 3 supervised weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Participants randomized to the Control group are offered the same intervention after the 16-week period of observation. This is the one of few RCTs examining the effects of exercise on MetS in breast cancer survivors. Results will contribute a better understanding of metabolic disease-related effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training and inform

  20. Effects of laterally wedged insoles on symptoms and disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Richard

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst laterally wedged insoles, worn inside the shoes, are advocated as a simple, inexpensive, non-toxic self-administered intervention for knee osteoarthritis (OA, there is currently limited evidence to support their use. The aim of this randomised, double-blind controlled trial is to determine whether laterally wedges insoles lead to greater improvements in knee pain, physical function and health-related quality of life, and slower structural disease progression as well as being more cost-effective, than control flat insoles in people with medial knee OA. Methods/Design Two hundred participants with painful radiographic medial knee OA and varus malalignment will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to lateral wedge or control insole groups using concealed allocation. Participants will be blinded as to which insole is considered therapeutic. Blinded follow up assessment will be conducted at 12 months after randomisation. The outcome measures are valid and reliable measures recommended for OA clinical trials. Questionnaires will assess changes in pain, physical function and health-related quality-of-life. Magnetic resonance imaging will measure changes in tibial cartilage volume. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health-related treatments in a log-book returned to the assessor on a monthly basis. To test the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat analysis, linear regression modelling will be applied adjusting for baseline outcome values and other demographic characteristics. Discussion Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of laterally wedged insoles for the management of medial knee OA. Trial registration ACTR12605000503628; NCT00415259.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a structured progressive task-oriented circuit class training programme to enhance walking competency after stroke: The protocol of the FIT-Stroke trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelse Hanneke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients who suffer a stroke experience reduced walking competency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. A key factor in effective stroke rehabilitation is intensive, task-specific training. Recent studies suggest that intensive, patient-tailored training can be organized as a circuit with a series of task-oriented workstations. Primary aim of the FIT-Stroke trial is to evaluate the effects and cost-effectiveness of a structured, progressive task-oriented circuit class training (CCT programme, compared to usual physiotherapeutic care during outpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation centre. The task-oriented CCT will be applied in groups of 4 to 6 patients. Outcome will be defined in terms of gait and gait-related ADLs after stroke. The trial will also investigate the generalizability of treatment effects of task-oriented CCT in terms of perceived fatigue, anxiety, depression and perceived HRQoL. Methods/design The multicentre single-blinded randomized trial will include 220 stroke patients discharged to the community from inpatient rehabilitation, who are able to communicate and walk at least 10 m without physical, hands-on assistance. After discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, patients in the experimental group will receive task-oriented CCT two times a week for 12 weeks at the physiotherapy department of the rehabilitation centre. Control group patients will receive usual individual, face-to-face, physiotherapy. Costs will be evaluated by having each patient keep a cost diary for the first 24 weeks after randomisation. Primary outcomes are the mobility part of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0 and the EuroQol. Secondary outcomes are the other domains of SIS-3.0, lower limb muscle strength, walking endurance, gait speed, balance, confidence not to fall, instrumental ADL, fatigue, anxiety, depression and HRQoL. Discussion Based on assumptions about the effect of intensity of practice and specificity of

  2. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Copping, Andrea E.; Marshall, Kathryn E.

    2013-05-20

    Energy generated by the world’s oceans and rivers offers the potential to make substantial contributions to the domestic and global renewable energy supply. However, the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry faces challenges related to siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilotand commercial-scale facilities. One of the challenges is to understand the potential effects to marine organisms from electromagnetic fields, which are produced as a by-product of transmitting power from offshore to onshore locations through underwater transmission cables. This report documents the progress of the third year of research (fiscal year 2012) to investigate environmental issues associated with marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) generation. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Wind and Water Technologies Office. The report addresses the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on selected marine species where significant knowledge gaps exist. The species studied this fiscal year included one fish and two crustacean species: the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and American lobster (Homarus americanus).

  3. Trends in the Distribution of Teacher Effectiveness in the Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching: Progress Report. Working Paper WR-1036-BMGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Baird, Matthew; Engberg, John; Hunter, Gerald Paul

    2014-01-01

    As part of its effective teaching initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation partnered with three urban school districts across the U.S. and a group of four charter management organizations to undertake a strategic set of human capital reforms. A key objective of the "Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching" program was to…

  4. Desensitization by progressive up-titration prevents first-dose effects on the heart: guinea pig study with ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rey

    Full Text Available Ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, reduces the blood lymphocyte count in all tested species by preventing egress of T and B cells from thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs. In addition, ponesimod transiently affects heart rate and atrioventricular (AV conduction in humans, effects not observed in mice, rats, and dogs with selective S1P1 receptor modulators, suggesting that the regulation of heart rate and rhythm is species dependent. In the present study, we used conscious guinea pigs implanted with a telemetry device to investigate the effects of single and multiple oral doses of ponesimod on ECG variables, heart rate, and blood pressure. Oral administration of ponesimod did not affect the sinus rate (P rate but dose-dependently induced AV block type I to III. A single oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg had no effect on ECG variables, while a dose of 3 mg/kg induced AV block type III in all treated guinea pigs. Repeated oral dosing of 1 or 3 mg/kg ponesimod resulted in rapid desensitization, so that the second dose had no or a clearly reduced effect on ECG variables as compared with the first dose. Resensitization of the S1P1 receptor in the heart was concentration dependent. After desensitization had been induced by the first dose of ponesimod, the cardiac system remained desensitized as long as the plasma concentration was ≥75 ng/ml. By using a progressive up-titration regimen, the first-dose effect of ponesimod on heart rate and AV conduction was significantly reduced due to desensitization of the S1P1 receptor. In summary, conscious guinea pigs implanted with a telemetry device represent a useful model to study first-dose effects of S1P1 receptor modulators on heart rate and rhythm. This knowledge was translated to a dosing regimen of ponesimod to be tested in humans to avoid or significantly reduce the first-dose effects.

  5. Dose-dependent effects of calorie restriction on gene expression, metabolism, and tumor progression are partially mediated by insulin-like growth factor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Leticia M; Lavigne, Jackie A; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Lui, Huaitian; Barrett, J Carl; Hursting, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for breast and many other cancer types, remains very high in the United States and throughout the world. Calorie restriction (CR), a reduced-calorie dietary regimen typically involving a 20–40% reduction in calorie consumption, prevents or reverses obesity, and inhibits mammary and other types of cancer in multiple tumor model systems. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying the tumor inhibitory effects of CR are poorly understood, and a better understanding of these mechanisms may lead to new intervention targets and strategies for preventing or controlling cancer. We have previously shown that the anticancer effects of CR are associated with decreased systemic levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the primary source of which is liver. We have also reported that CR strongly suppresses tumor development and growth in multiple mammary cancer models. To identify CR-responsive genes and pathways, and to further characterize the role of IGF-1 as a mediator of the anticancer effects of CR, we assessed hepatic and mammary gland gene expression, hormone levels and growth of orthotopically transplanted mammary tumors in control and CR mice with and without exogenous IGF-1. C57BL/6 mice were fed either control AIN-76A diet ad libitum (AL), subjected to 20%, 30%, or 40% CR plus placebo timed-release pellets, or subjected to 30% or 40% CR plus timed-release pellets delivering murine IGF-1 (mIGF-1, 20 μg/day). Compared with AL-fed controls, body weights were decreased 14.3% in the 20% CR group, 18.5% in the 30% CR group, and 38% in the 40% CR group; IGF-1 infusion had no effect on body weight. Hepatic transcriptome analyses indicated that compared with 20% CR, 30% CR significantly modulated more than twice the number of genes and 40% CR more than seven times the number of genes. Many of the genes specific to the 40% CR regimen were hepatic stress-related and/or DNA damage-related genes

  6. Molecular mechanisms underlying protective effects of quercetin against mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cell culture and MitoPark transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced cAMP response-element binding protein phosphorylation and expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates the PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of escitalopram on the progression-delaying effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young Min; Kim, Ki Woong; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Ryu, Seung Ho; Seo, Eun Hyun; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Byun, Min Soo; Bak, Jae-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Min; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Han, Myeong-Il; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2016-07-01

    A series of preclinical studies have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants not only stimulate neurogenesis but also have neuroprotective effects. The present study primarily aimed to investigate whether escitalopram would decelerate the brain atrophy of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). We also assessed the effects of escitalopram on the cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms of these participants. Seventy-four probable AD patients without major depression were recruited from four dementia clinics of university hospitals and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio. Each group received 20 mg/day of escitalopram or placebo for 52 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the change rates of hippocampal and whole brain volume on magnetic resonance imaging for 52 weeks. The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) were also applied. We did not find any significant differences in the changes of hippocampal or whole brain volume between the groups. Escitalopram showed significant beneficial effects on the CSDD score at 28 weeks compared with placebo (t = -2.17, df = 50.42, p = 0.035), but this finding did not persist throughout the study. The findings of the present study do not support the role of escitalopram as a progression-delaying treatment for AD. However, the negative results of the present trial should be interpreted cautiously because of the relatively small sample size. Further large-scale escitalopram trials targeting the earlier stages of AD, even prodromal AD, are still needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of valproic acid and pioglitazone on cell cycle progression and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Saghaeian Jazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is an aggressive hematologic malignant tumor. Administration of chemical compounds influencing apoptosis and T cell development has been discussed as promising novel therapeutic strategies. Valproic acid (VPA as a recently emerged anti-neoplastic histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor and pioglitazone (PGZ as a high-affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ agonist have been shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different studies. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in anti-proliferative effects of these compounds on human Jurkat cells. Materials and Methods: Treated cells were evaluated for cell cycle progression and apoptosis using flowcytometry and MTT viability assay. Real-time RT-PCR was carried out to measure the alterations in key genes associated with cell death and cell cycle arrest. Results: Our findings illustrated that both VPA and PGZ can inhibit Jurkat E6.1 cells in vitro after   24 hr; however, PGZ 400 μM presents the most anti-proliferative effect. Interestingly, treated cells have been arrested in G2/M with deregulated cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A phosphatase and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B or p27 expression. Expression of cyclin D1 gene was inhibited when DNA synthesis entry was declined. Cell cycle deregulation in PGZ and VPA-exposed cells generated an increase in the proportion of aneuploid cell population, which has not reported before. Conclusion: These findings define that anti-proliferative effects of PGZ and VPA on Jurkat cell line are mediated by cell cycle deregulation. Thus, we suggest PGZ and VPA may relieve potential therapeutic application against apoptosis-resistant malignancies.

  9. Storming the Citadel: The Fundamental Revolution Against Progressive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterli, Richard

    The first four chapters ("Progressive Education,""The Impact of Progressive Education,""The Remedies: Focusing on the Wrong Problems," and "Progressive Education Challenged") examine the deleterious effect that progressive education has had on student achievement and on society as a whole. The last five…

  10. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the white matter of the brain, caused by a virus infection ...

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery as Anxiety Reducing Interventions in Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Charalambous

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To test the effectiveness of guided imagery (GI and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR as stress reducing interventions in patients with prostate and breast cancer who undergo chemotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomly assigned to either the control group or the intervention group (PMR and GI. Patients were observed for a total duration of 3 weeks and assessed with the SAS and BECK-II questionnaires for anxiety and depression, respectively, in addiotion to two biological markers (saliva cortisol and saliva amylase (trial registration number: NCT01275872. Results. 256 patients were registered and 236 were randomly assigned. In total 104 were randomised to the control group and 104 to the intervention group. Intervention’s mean anxiety score and depression score changes were significantly different compared to the control’s (b=-29.4, p<0.001; b=-29.4, p<0.001, resp.. Intervention group’s cortisol levels before the intervention (0.30±0.25 gradually decreased up to week 3 (0.16±0.18, whilst the control group’s cortisol levels before the intervention (0.21±0.22 gradually increased up to week 3 (0.44±0.35. The same interaction appears for the Amylase levels (p<0.001. Conclusions. The findings showed that patients with prostate and breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment can benefit from PMR and GI sessions to reduce their anxiety and depression.

  12. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on stress, anxiety, and depression of pregnant women referred to health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Akbari, Hossein; Tagharrobi, Leila; Tabatabaee, Akram Sadat

    2018-01-01

    If anxiety and depression do not detect in pregnant women, they may cause complications for the mother, child, and family, including postpartum depression. With regard to the administrative capability of relaxation in health centers, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women in the city of Kashan at 28-36 weeks. At the onset of the study, demographic questionnaire, Edinburgh Depression Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were completed. Providing obtaining score of mild-to-moderate in the stress, anxiety, and depression scale and score of 10 or higher in Edinburgh Depression Scale, individuals were divided randomized to the intervention group ( n = 33) and control group ( n = 33). DASS-21 was again completed in the 4 th -7 th weeks of beginning of the study by all women. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated significant differences in mean of scores of stress, anxiety, and depression at three different times in relaxation group ( P pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Microwave radiation - Biological effects and exposure standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal and nonthermal effects of exposure to microwave radiation are discussed and current standards for microwave exposure are examined in light of the proposed use of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Effects considered include cataractogenesis at levels above 100 mW/sq cm, and possible reversible disturbances such as headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, cardiovascular changes and circadian rhythm disturbances at levels less than 10 mW/sq cm. It is pointed out that while the United States and western Europe have adopted exposure standards of 10 mW/sq cm, those adopted in other countries are up to three orders of magnitude more restrictive, as they are based on different principles applied in determining safe limits. Various aspects of the biological effects of microwave transmissions from space are considered in the areas of the protection of personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, interactions of the transmitted radiation with cardiac pacemakers, and effects on birds. It is concluded that thresholds for biological effects from short-term microwave radiation are well above the maximal power density of 1 mW/sq cm projected at or beyond the area of exclusion of a rectenna.

  14. The effects of progressive muscular relaxation as a nursing procedure used for those who suffer from stress due to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Paolla Gabrielle Nascimento; Batista, Karla de Melo; Grazziano, Eliane da Silva; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa

    2016-09-01

    to evaluate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation as a nursing procedure on the levels of stress for sufferers of multiple sclerosis. random clinical trials conducted at the Neurology outpatients unit at a University Hospital. The sample consisted of 40 patients who were being monitored as outpatients (20 in a control group and 20 in an experimental group). The Progressive Muscle Relaxation technique was used. The control variables were collected through interviews that were recorded on forms and on the Perceived Stress Scale that we used. Five meetings were held every fortnight covering a period of eight weeks. The experimental group was advised to carry out daily progressive muscle relaxation activities. After eight weeks of these activities, they were evaluated again to measure their levels of stress. In order to analyze the data used, the software package Statistics for Social Sciences version 19.0 was used. the application of the t test showed a significant reduction in the Perceived Stress Scale scores in the experimental group (pencontros quinzenais em um período de oito semanas. O grupo experimental foi orientado a realizar diariamente o Relaxamento Muscular Progressivo. Após oito semanas de intervenção avaliou-se novamente os níveis de estresse. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o pacote Estatístico para Ciências Sociais-versão 19.0. a aplicação do Teste t demonstrou uma diminuição significante dos escores da Escala de Stress Percebido no grupo experimental (p<0,001), evidenciando diminuição nos níveis de estresse após a prática do relaxamento. a intervenção Relaxamento Muscular Progressivo contribui para redução dos níveis de estresse em pessoas com Esclerose Múltipla, podendo ser incluída como prática na assistência de enfermagem prestada a esses pacientes. NCT 02673827. evaluar el efecto del Relajamiento Muscular Progresivo, como intervención de Enfermería en los niveles de estrés en personas con Esclerosis

  15. The effects of progressive-resisted exercises on muscle strength and health-related quality of life in persons with HIV-related poly-neuropathy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandla, Khumbula; Myezwa, Hellen; Musenge, Eustasius

    2016-01-01

    Distal symmetrical poly-neuropathy (DSP) is a neurological complication associated with HIV/AIDS and stavudine (d4T) containing antiretroviral therapy. People with DSP experience pain, numbness and muscle weakness, which affect their quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of a progressive-resisted exercise (PRE) intervention on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP. An assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted, with participants sourced from 10 clinics with HIV services, the family care clinic at Wilkins Hospital and 2 large hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe. A 12-week PRE intervention was conducted twice weekly for 80 participants, while the control group with 80 participants continued with usual daily activities. The main outcome variable was HR-QOL for which we controlled for demographic and clinical measures in generalised estimating equation population-averaged models. Data were summarised and analysed using an intention to treat analysis approach using the Stata v10 program. Mean age of participants was 42.2 years (SD = 8.5). While d4T was used by 59% (n = 94), an equal proportion of the participants also had moderate to severe neuropathy. PRE was found to significantly improve HR-QOL in the intervention group based on the mean difference between the intervention group mean change and the mean change in the control group (F ratio 4.24; p = .04). This study established that PREs have positive effects on HR-QOL for people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of short-term treatment with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (Isentress) on the course of progressive feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Andrea; Cattori, Valentino; Riond, Barbara; Willi, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Rentsch, Katharina M; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2015-02-25

    Cats persistently infected with the gammaretrovirus feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are at risk to die within months to years from FeLV-associated disease, such as immunosuppression, anemia or lymphoma/leukemia. The integrase inhibitor raltegravir has been demonstrated to reduce FeLV replication in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate raltegravir in vivo for its safety and efficacy to suppress FeLV replication. The safety was tested in three naïve specified pathogen-free (SPF) cats during a 15 weeks treatment period (initially 20mg then 40mg orally b.i.d.). No adverse effects were noted. The efficacy was tested in seven persistently FeLV-infected SPF cats attained from 18 cats experimentally exposed to FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The seven cats were treated during nine weeks (40mg then 80mg b.i.d.). Raltegravir was well tolerated even at the higher dose. A significant decrease in plasma viral RNA loads (∼5×) was found; however, after treatment termination a rebound effect was observed. Only one cat developed anti-FeLV antibodies and viral RNA loads remained decreased after treatment termination. Of note, one of the untreated FeLV-A infected cats developed fatal FeLV-C associated anemia within 5 weeks of FeLV-A infection. Moreover, progressive FeLV infection was associated with significantly lower enFeLV loads prior to infection supporting that FeLV susceptibility may be related to the genetic background of the cat. Overall, our data demonstrate the ability of raltegravir to reduce viral replication also in vivo. However, no complete control of viremia was achieved. Further investigations are needed to find an optimized treatment against FeLV. (250 words). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  18. STAGE-DEPENDENCE, SEASONAL CHANGES AND EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON CELL CYCLE AND APOPTOTIC ACTIVITIES DURING THE SPERMATOGENIC PROGRESSION IN THE DOGFISH SHARK (SQUALUS ACANTHIAS). (R825434)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Effect of sedentary behaviour and vigorous physical activity on segment-specific carotid wall thickness and its progression in a healthy population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether sedentary behaviour and different activity levels have an independent association with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and with the 3-year IMT progression in different carotid segments.

  20. EFFECT OF 3-YEARS ADHERENCE TO A LOW PROTEIN DIET ON THE PROGRESSION OF GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rizzetto

    2012-06-01

    There was no difference between diabetic and non-diabetic patients who adhered to the diet. Both groups showed improvement on GFR. In conclusion, these analyses suggest that a lower protein intake retards the progression of renal disease.

  1. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaturvedi, Nish; Porta, Massimo; Klein, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system blockers might reduce the burden of diabetic retinopathy. We therefore designed the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme to assess whether candesartan could reduce the incidence and progression of ...

  2. The Glass Ceiling Effect and Its Impact on Mid-Level Female Military Officer Career Progression in the United States Marine Corps and Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evertson, Adrienne

    2004-01-01

    ...%), while the Marine Corps has the smallest proportion (6%). Multiple Defense organizations have expressed concern about the progression of women officers into senior leadership positions and if they face barriers to their continued success in the military...

  3. Progressive geometric algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijnse, S.P.A.; Bagautdinov, T.M.; de Berg, M.T.; Bouts, Q.W.; ten Brink, Alex P.; Buchin, K.A.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms

  4. Progressive geometric algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijnse, S.P.A.; Bagautdinov, T.M.; Berg, de M.T.; Bouts, Q.W.; Brink, ten A.P.; Buchin, K.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms

  5. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  6. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates: Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms - Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Ward, Jeffrey A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2012-05-01

    This fiscal year (FY) 2011 progress report (Task 2.1.3 Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.3.1.1 Electromagnetic Fields) describes studies conducted by PNNL as part of the DOE Wind and Water Power Program to examine the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from marine and hydrokinetic devices on aquatic organisms, including freshwater and marine fish and marine invertebrates. In this report, we provide a description of the methods and results of experiments conducted in FY 2010-FY 2011 to evaluate potential responses of selected aquatic organisms. Preliminary EMF laboratory experiments during FY 2010 and 2011 entailed exposures with representative fish and invertebrate species including juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister). These species were selected for their ecological, commercial, and/or recreational importance, as well as their potential to encounter an MHK device or transmission cable during part or all of their life cycle. Based on previous studies, acute effects such as mortality were not expected to occur from EMF exposures. Therefore, our measurement endpoints focused on behavioral responses (e.g., detection of EMF, interference with feeding behavior, avoidance or attraction to EMF), developmental changes (i.e., growth and survival from egg or larval stage to juvenile), and exposure markers indicative of physiological responses to stress. EMF intensities during the various tests ranged from 0.1 to 3 millitesla, representing a range of upper bounding conditions reported in the literature. Experiments to date have shown there is little evidence to indicate distinct or extreme behavioral responses in the presence of elevated EMF for the species tested. Several developmental and physiological responses were observed in the fish exposures, although most were not

  7. A KCNC3 mutation causes a neurodevelopmental, non-progressive SCA13 subtype associated with dominant negative effects and aberrant EGFR trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Swati; Nick, Jerelyn A; Zhang, Yalan; Galeano, Kira; Butler, Brittany; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Hathorn, Tyisha; Ranum, Laura P W; Smithson, Lisa; Golde, Todd E; Paucar, Martin; Morse, Richard; Raff, Michael; Simon, Julie; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Rincon-Limas, Diego E; Lewis, Jada; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Nick, Harry S; Waters, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3). We detail the clinical phenotype of four SCA13 kindreds that confirm causation of the KCNC3R423H allele. The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. Targeted expression of human KCNC3R423H in Drosophila triggers aberrant wing veins, maldeveloped eyes, and fused ommatidia consistent with the neurodevelopmental presentation of patients. Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. Confirmation of the absence of plasma membrane targeting was based on the loss of current conductance in cells expressing the mutant channel. Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr) results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Together, these results indicate that the neurodevelopmental consequences of

  8. A KCNC3 mutation causes a neurodevelopmental, non-progressive SCA13 subtype associated with dominant negative effects and aberrant EGFR trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Khare

    Full Text Available The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3. We detail the clinical phenotype of four SCA13 kindreds that confirm causation of the KCNC3R423H allele. The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. Targeted expression of human KCNC3R423H in Drosophila triggers aberrant wing veins, maldeveloped eyes, and fused ommatidia consistent with the neurodevelopmental presentation of patients. Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. Confirmation of the absence of plasma membrane targeting was based on the loss of current conductance in cells expressing the mutant channel. Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT protein, which explains dominant inheritance. We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Together, these results indicate that the neurodevelopmental

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Using a Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on the Self-Efficacy of Breastfeeding in Mothers With Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbandi, Soheila; Hosseini, Seyedeh Maryam; Hosseini, Seyedeh Asieh; Sadeghi, Farshad; Hesari, Maryam; Masoudi, Reza

    2017-08-01

    Breast milk is a God-given gift that conveys a mother's love and compassion and that is made according to the needs and age of the child. Mothers who are interested in the welfare of their newborns tend to breastfeed their children. Training programs have been shown to improve breastfeeding self-efficacy in terms of both duration and amount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using the progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) technique on the self-efficacy of breastfeeding in mothers with preterm infants. A clinical trial approach was used. Sixty mothers with preterm infants were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. The clinical trial ran for a period of 2 months for both groups. At 24-72 hours postpartum, the researcher used the Jacobson method to provide 30-45 minutes of individual training to the intervention group participants on PMR. Under the Jacobson method, mothers contract the 16 groups of muscles until they experience the feeling of pressure and then relax these muscles. The tools used in this study were the standard questionnaire of Dennis breastfeeding self-efficacy, which was completed by the participants at baseline, at the end of the fourth week, and during the eighth week. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. No significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups in terms of demographic variables (p > .05). Independent t tests found no significant difference between the two groups (p = .45) in terms of mean score of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy at pretest and significantly higher scores for the intervention group than the control group at both 4 (p = .001) and 8 (p mothers with preterm infants, training and performing these exercises as an effective and low-cost method to improve the health of mothers, particularly mothers of preterm infants, are recommended. The PMR technique facilitates the self-efficacy of breastfeeding in mothers with preterm infants and should be

  10. Dimorphic effects of transforming growth factor-β signaling during aortic aneurysm progression in mice suggest a combinatorial therapy for Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason R; Clayton, Nicholas P; Carta, Luca; Galatioto, Josephine; Chiu, Emily; Smaldone, Silvia; Nelson, Carol A; Cheng, Seng H; Wentworth, Bruce M; Ramirez, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Studies of mice with mild Marfan syndrome (MFS) have correlated the development of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) with improper stimulation of noncanonical (Erk-mediated) TGFβ signaling by the angiotensin type I receptor (AT1r). This correlation was largely based on comparable TAA modifications by either systemic TGFβ neutralization or AT1r antagonism. However, subsequent investigations have called into question some key aspects of this mechanism of arterial disease in MFS. To resolve these controversial points, here we made a head-to-head comparison of the therapeutic benefits of TGFβ neutralization and AT1r antagonism in mice with progressively severe MFS (Fbn1(mgR/mgR) mice). Aneurysm growth, media degeneration, aortic levels of phosphorylated Erk and Smad proteins and the average survival of Fbn1(mgR/mgR) mice were compared after a ≈3-month-long treatment with placebo and either the AT1r antagonist losartan or the TGFβ-neutralizing antibody 1D11. In contrast to the beneficial effect of losartan, TGFβ neutralization either exacerbated or mitigated TAA formation depending on whether treatment was initiated before (postnatal day 16; P16) or after (P45) aneurysm formation, respectively. Biochemical evidence-related aneurysm growth with Erk-mediated AT1r signaling, and medial degeneration with TGFβ hyperactivity that was in part AT1r dependent. Importantly, P16-initiated treatment with losartan combined with P45-initiated administration of 1D11 prevented death of Fbn1(mgR/mgR) mice from ruptured TAA. By demonstrating that promiscuous AT1r and TGFβ drive partially overlapping processes of arterial disease in MFS mice, our study argues for a therapeutic strategy against TAA that targets both signaling pathways although sparing the early protective role of TGFβ. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Infant feeding with soy formula milk: effects on puberty progression, reproductive function and testicular cell numbers in marmoset monkeys in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karen A L; Walker, Marion; Morris, Keith; Greig, Irene; Mason, J Ian; Sharpe, Richard M

    2006-04-01

    This marmoset study addresses concerns about feeding human male infants with soy formula milk (SFM). From age 4 to 5 days, seven male co-twin sets were fed standard formula milk (SMA) or SFM for 5-6 weeks; blood samples were subsequently collected at 10-week intervals. Testes from co-twins killed at 120-138 weeks were fixed for cell counts. SFM- and SMA-fed twins showed normal weight gain; puberty started and progressed normally, based on blood testosterone measurements. Body weight, organ weights (prostate, seminal vesicles, pituitary, thymus and spleen) and penis length were comparable in co-twins. All SMA- and 6/7 SFM-fed males were fertile. Unexpectedly, testis weight (P = 0.041), Sertoli (P = 0.025) and Leydig cell (P = 0.026) numbers per testis were consistently increased in SFM-fed co-twins; the increase in Leydig cell numbers was most marked in males with consistently low-normal testosterone levels. Seminiferous epithelium volume per tubule showed a less consistent, non-significant increase in SFM-fed males; raised germ cell numbers per testis, probably due to increased Sertoli cells, conceivably resulted in larger testes. Average lumen size, although greater in SFM-fed group, was inconsistent between co-twins and the difference was not significant. Infant feeding with SFM has no gross adverse reproductive effects in male marmosets, though it alters testis size and cell composition, and there is consistent, if indirect, evidence for possible 'compensated Leydig cell failure'. Similar and perhaps larger changes likely occur in adult men who were fed SFM as infants.

  12. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafi Kuchay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69 or no Vitamin D (n = 68. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4% in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%. Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7 and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16 were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25 at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels.

  13. Effectivity of intravescical thermo-chemotherapy prophylaxis for patients with high recurrence and progression risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözen, Ali Serdar; Umari, Paolo; Scheitlin, Walter; Su, Fuat Ernis; Akin, Yigit; Rassweiler, Jens

    2017-06-30

    Background&Aim: High grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is common in urological practice. Most of these cancers are or become refractory to intravesical immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Here we evaluated the efficacy of combined local bladder hyperthermia and intravesical mitomycin-C (MMC) instillation in patients with high-risk recurrent NMIBC. Between February 2014 and December 2015, 18 patients with high risk NMIBC were enrolled. Patients were treated in an outpatient basis with 6 weekly induction sessions followed by monthly maintenance sessions with intravesical MMC in local hyperthermia with bladder wall thermo-chemotherapy (BWT) system (PelvixTT system, Elmedical Ltd., Hod Hasharon, Israel). The follow-up regimen included cystoscopy after the induction cycle and thereafter with regular intervals. Time to disease recurrence was defined as time from the first intravesical treatment to endoscopic or histological documentation of a new bladder tumour. Adverse events were recorded according to CTC 4.0 (Common Toxicity Criteria) score system. Mean age was 72 (32-87) years. 10 patients had multifocal disease, 9 had CIS, 6 had recurrent disease and 2 had highly recurrent disease (> 3 recurrences in a 24 months period). 6 patients underwent previous intravesical chemotherapy with MMC. The average number of maintenance sessions per patient was 7.6. After a mean follow-up of 433 days, 15 patients (83.3%) were recurrence-free. 3 patients had tumour recurrence after a mean period of 248 days without progression. Side effects were limited to grade 1 in 2 patients and grade 2 in 1 patient. BWT seems to be feasible and safe in high grade NMIBC. More studies are needed to identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit more from this treatment.

  14. Effectivity of intravescical thermo-chemotherapy prophylaxis for patients with high recurrence and progression risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Serdar Gözen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background&Aim: High grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC is common in urological practice. Most of these cancers are or become refractory to intravesical immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Here we evaluated the efficacy of combined local bladder hyperthermia and intravesical mitomycin-C (MMC instillation in patients with high-risk recurrent NMIBC. Materials and methods: Between February 2014 and December 2015, 18 patients with high risk NMIBC were enrolled. Patients were treated in an outpatient basis with 6 weekly induction sessions followed by monthly maintenance sessions with intravesical MMC in local hyperthermia with bladder wall thermo-chemotherapy (BWT system (PelvixTT system, Elmedical Ltd., Hod Hasharon, Israel. The follow-up regimen included cystoscopy after the induction cycle and thereafter with regular intervals. Time to disease recurrence was defined as time from the first intravesical treatment to endoscopic or histological documentation of a new bladder tumour. Adverse events were recorded according to CTC 4.0 (Common Toxicity Criteria score system. Results: Mean age was 72 (32-87 years. 10 patients had multifocal disease, 9 had CIS, 6 had recurrent disease and 2 had highly recurrent disease (> 3 recurrences in a 24 months period. 6 patients underwent previous intravesical chemotherapy with MMC. The average number of maintenance sessions per patient was 7.6. After a mean follow-up of 433 days, 15 patients (83.3% were recurrence-free. 3 patients had tumour recurrence after a mean period of 248 days without progression. Side effects were limited to grade 1 in 2 patients and grade 2 in 1 patient. Conclusions: BWT seems to be feasible and safe in high grade NMIBC. More studies are needed to identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit more from this treatment.

  15. Progress test utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vleuten, Cees; Freeman, Adrian; Collares, Carlos Fernando

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of progress testing. A utopia is described where medical schools would work together to develop and administer progress testing. This would lead to a significant reduction of cost, an increase in the quality of measurement and phenomenal feedback to learner and school. Progress testing would also provide more freedom and resources for more creative in-school assessment. It would be an educationally attractive alternative for the creation of cognitive licensing exams. A utopia is always far away in the future, but by formulating a vision for that future we may engage in discussions on how to get there.

  16. Waste management progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    During the Cold War era, when DOE and its predecessor agencies produced nuclear weapons and components, and conducted nuclear research, a variety of wastes were generated (both radioactive and hazardous). DOE now has the task of managing these wastes so that they are not a threat to human health and the environment. This document is the Waste Management Progress Report for the U.S. Department of Energy dated June 1997. This progress report contains a radioactive and hazardous waste inventory and waste management program mission, a section describing progress toward mission completion, mid-year 1997 accomplishments, and the future outlook for waste management

  17. [Riboflavin UVA crosslinking in progressive keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, P; Reinhard, T

    2017-06-01

    In patients with keratoconus, a progressive, ectatic disease of the cornea, the shape of the cornea is continuously changing leading to a reduction in visual acuity by progressive myopia and more and more (irregular) astigmatism. The symptomatic treatment consists of the prescription of glasses or special gas-permeable rigid contact lenses. Corneal tomography is generally used for diagnosis. After initial diagnosis of keratoconus, regular tomographic follow-ups should be performed. If clinically significant progression is found and confirmed by repeated measurements, riboflavin UVA collagen crosslinking should be offered to the patients. The aim of riboflavin UVA collagen crosslinking is to halt the progression of the disease to avoid further complications. The therapeutic principle is a combined effect of the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA light. This stiffening effect of the corneal tissue halts the progression of keratoconus. The efficacy of this treatment has been demonstrated in various randomized, controlled trials.

  18. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  19. Progressive Taxes and Firm Births

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrich Bacher; Marius Brülhart

    2013-01-01

    Tax reform proposals in the spirit of the 'flat tax' model typically aim to reduce three parameters: the average tax burden, the progressivity of the tax schedule, and the complexity of the tax code. We explore the implications of changes in these three parameters on entrepreneurial activity, measured by counts of firm births. The Swiss fiscal system offers sufficient intra-national variation in tax codes to allow us to estimate these effects with considerable precision. We find that high ave...

  20. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now The Progression of Liver ...