WorldWideScience

Sample records for effects general

  1. Effects of electronic communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, WJ; Moorman, PW; Koppejan-Mulder, MJ

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To obtain insight into the effects of electronic communication on GPs by studying those publications in literature describing the effects of structured electronic clinical communication in general practice. Methods: We retrieved all publications in the English language indexed in MEDLINE

  2. The Faraday effect revisited: General theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers of the strength of th...

  3. The Geometric Nonlinear Generalized Brazier Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    denoted the generalized Brazier effect. The original work of Brazier dealt with very large deformations that changed the cross section significantly and hereby also the bending moment of inertia and the bending moment capacity. In this paper the aim is to describe the Brazier effect for smaller...... to solve the complex non-linear geometric problem with a high accuracy. This is of importance in simulations of wind turbine blades, where the wind load simulations are based on small Finite Element models based on beam type elements in order to be realistic. The linearized solution exploits...... that the generalized Brazier effect is a local effect not influencing the overall mechanical behavior of the structure significantly. The offset is a nonlinear geometric beam-type Finite Element calculation, which takes into account the large displacements and rotations. The beam-type model defines the stresses which...

  4. General Relativistic Effects in Atom Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-03-17

    Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the non-relativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. This formalism is then used to find the relativistic effects in an atom interferometer in a weak gravitational field for application to laboratory tests of general relativity. The potentially testable relativistic effects include the non-linear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of kinetic energy, and the falling of light. We propose experiments, one currently under construction, that could provide a test of the principle of equivalence to 1 part in 10{sup 15} (300 times better than the present limit), and general relativity at the 10% level, with many potential future improvements. We also consider applications to other metrics including the Lense-Thirring effect, the expansion of the universe, and preferred frame and location effects.

  5. Prototype Effect and the Persuasiveness of Generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually has. This prototype effect increases the persuasiveness of the argument in situations where the audience finds the judgment more warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (positive prototype effect), but decreases persuasiveness in situations where the audience finds the judgment less warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (negative prototype effect).

  6. Intervals in Generalized Effect Algebras and their Sub-generalized Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Riečanová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider subsets G of a generalized effect algebra E with 0∈G and such that every interval [0, q]G = [0, q]E ∩ G of G (q ∈ G , q ≠ 0 is a sub-effect algebra of the effect algebra [0, q]E. We give a condition on E and G under which every such G is a sub-generalized effect algebra of E.

  7. The Faraday effect revisited General theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cornean, H D; Pedersen, T G

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers of the strength of the magnetic field $B$. Then the linear term in $B$ of this expansion is written down in terms of the zero magnetic field Green function and the zero field current operator. In the periodic case, the linear term in $B$ of the conductivity tensor is expressed in terms of zero magnetic field Bloch functions and energies. No derivatives with respect to the quasimomentum appear and thereby all ambiguities are removed, in contrast to earlier work.

  8. The Faraday effect revisited: General theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers of the strength of the magnetic field B. Then the linear term in B of this expansion is written down in terms of the zero...... magnetic field Green function and the zero field current operator. In the periodic case, the linear term in B of the conductivity tensor is expressed in terms of zero magnetic field Bloch functions and energies. No derivatives with respect to the quasimomentum appear and thereby all ambiguities are removed...

  9. Another failure to generalize the Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, L E

    2000-08-01

    Several studies have not replicated Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's 1993 finding that 10 minutes of exposure to Mozart piano music temporarily enhanced performance on three spatial reasoning tasks. Later Rauscher and Shaw argued that enhanced performance is unlikely unless three conditions are met. The present study was designed to meet those three conditions. 36 adults were exposed to one of six listening orders and one of six test orders. Listening and test orders had no systematic effect on spatial reasoning performance. A one-factor, repeated-measures analysis of variance yielded no significant difference on spatial reasoning performance after listening to classical music, jazz, or silence. A reanalysis, using only those items most likely to tap spatial reasoning, fell short of significance, and mean scores were in the direction opposite to that hypothesized. These results were inconsistent with studies that have supported a Mozart effect.

  10. Renormalization and effective actions for general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugebohrn, F.

    2007-05-15

    Quantum gravity is analyzed from the viewpoint of the renormalization group. The analysis is based on methods introduced by J. Polchinski concerning the perturbative renormalization with flow equations. In the first part of this work, the program of renormalization with flow equations is reviewed and then extended to effective field theories that have a finite UV cutoff. This is done for a scalar field theory by imposing additional renormalization conditions for some of the nonrenormalizable couplings. It turns out that one so obtains a statement on the predictivity of the effective theory at scales far below the UV cutoff. In particular, nonrenormalizable theories can be treated without problems in the proposed framework. In the second part, the standard covariant BRS quantization program for Euclidean Einstein gravity is applied. A momentum cutoff regularization is imposed and the resulting violation of the Slavnov-Taylor identities is discussed. Deriving Polchinski's renormalization group equation for Euclidean quantum gravity, the predictivity of effective quantum gravity at scales far below the Planck scale is investigated with flow equations. A fine-tuning procedure for restoring the violated Slavnov-Taylor identities is proposed and it is argued that in the effective quantum gravity context, the restoration will only be accomplished with finite accuracy. Finally, the no-cutoff limit of Euclidean quantum gravity is analyzed from the viewpoint of the Polchinski method. It is speculated whether a limit with nonvanishing gravitational constant might exist where the latter would ultimatively be determined by the cosmological constant and the masses of the elementary particles. (orig.)

  11. Developing functional requesting: acquisition, durability, and generalization of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapelle, L; Cipani, E

    This study investigated the effects of a language program called the missing-item format, on the acquisition of requesting during snack periods. The missing-item format, an assessment and training approach, develops a child's spontaneous requesting skills in everyday tasks. Generalization and response-durability measures were also collected. The missing-item format produced effects in requests for targeted snack items, but not for the majority of generalization and durability measures. A generalization training program was then implemented, using the missing-item format. As a result, a requesting repertoire that was durable and generalized across multiple settings and stimulus conditions was established in both students.

  12. General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...

  13. Acute pain management in general practice: steps to effective pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain is one of the most common complaints that general practitioners encounter in everyday practice. The swift and effective management of pain is a medical mandate, not only to fulfil an ethical obligation to the patient, but also to prevent long-term complications, such as chronic pain. General practitioners are often ...

  14. Acute pain management in general practice: Steps to effective pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain is one of the most common complaints that general practitioners encounter in everyday practice. The swift and effective management of pain is a medical mandate, not only to fulfil an ethical obligation to the patient, but also to prevent long-term complications, such as chronic pain. General practitioners are often ...

  15. A General Model for Testing Mediation and Moderation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes methods for testing mediation and moderation effects in a dataset, both together and separately. Investigations of this kind are especially valuable in prevention research to obtain information on the process by which a program achieves its effects and whether the program is effective for subgroups of individuals. A general model that simultaneously estimates mediation and moderation effects is presented, and the utility of combining the effects into a single model is described. Possible effects of interest in the model are explained, as are statistical methods to assess these effects. The methods are further illustrated in a hypothetical prevention program example. PMID:19003535

  16. Effective Biot theory and its generalization to poroviscoelastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark

    2018-02-01

    A method is suggested to express the effective bulk modulus of the solid frame of a poroelastic material as a function of the saturated bulk modulus. This method enables effective Biot theory to be described through the use of seismic dispersion measurements or other models developed for the effective saturated bulk modulus. The effective Biot theory is generalized to a poroviscoelastic model of which the moduli are represented by the relaxation functions of the generalized fractional Zener model. The latter covers the general Zener and the Cole-Cole models as special cases. A global search method is described to determine the parameters of the relaxation functions, and a simple deterministic method is also developed to find the defining parameters of the single Cole-Cole model. These methods enable poroviscoelastic models to be constructed, which are based on measured seismic attenuation functions, and ensure that the model dispersion characteristics match the observations.

  17. Effects of music therapy under general anesthesia in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Background: Music therapy, an innovative approach that has proven effectiveness in many medical conditions, seems beneficial also in managing surgical patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness.

  18. Generalizations on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical promotional expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.T.M.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    We perform a meta-analysis to formulate generalizations on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical promotional instruments. A literature search on this topic yields 58 usable (published and unpublished) sources documenting 781 effects. We investigate different direct-to-physician (DTP) and

  19. Effects of music therapy under general anesthesia in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Music therapy, an innovative approach that has proven effectiveness in many medical conditions, seems beneficial also in managing surgical patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness. Methods: This is a ...

  20. How the generalized anomeric effect influences the conformational preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changwei; Chen, Zhenhua; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong

    2013-01-21

    The generalized anomeric effect refers to the conformational preference of a gauche structure over an anti structure for molecules with a R-X-C-Y moiety. Whereas there are conflicting reports regarding the origin of this ubiquitous effect, a general consensus is that both the steric (more specifically electrostatic) and hyperconjugative interactions contribute. Here we employed the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method, which is the simplest variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and can define reference electron-localized states self-consistently, to evaluate the magnitude of the hyperconjugation effect in a number of acyclic molecules exhibiting the generalized anomeric effect. The BLW-based energy decomposition analysis revealed that both the steric and hyperconjugation effects contribute to the conformational preferences of methoxymethyl fluoride and methoxymethyl chlorides. But for the other systems under investigation, including methanediol, methanediamine, aminomethanol and dimethoxymethane, the hyperconjugative interactions play a negative role in the conformational preferences and the steric effect is solely responsible for the generalized anomeric effect. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A general equilibrium view of global rebound effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Taoyuan, E-mail: taoyuan.wei@cicero.uio.n [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo (CICERO), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    How do energy efficiency gains affect energy consumption? The effects are generally called 'rebound effects' in the literature. Previous studies have extensively focused on only part of the global economy to study rebound effects, e.g. energy consumption by households, one industry, or one country. However, since the global economy is highly connected among countries, these studies may lead to misleading conclusions if the rebound effects in the rest of the economy are significant. Recently Saunders (2008) analyzes the demand side by taking the global economy as a whole. Wei (2007) also provides a general analysis by using Cobb-Douglas production functions for the global economy. The present article expands Wei (2007) general analysis to explore the rebound effects from an economist's viewpoint by taking the global economy as a whole and applying general forms of production functions. The analysis provides new insights related to rebound effects: we highlight the role of energy supply as a determinant of rebound. We show that the substitution between energy resources and other productive resources is more relevant to long term rebound. We predict that long term rebound may be lower than short term rebound. And we also discover that super-conservation can happen in both the short term and the long term.

  2. A general equilibrium view of global rebound effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Taoyuan [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo (CICERO), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    How do energy efficiency gains affect energy consumption? The effects are generally called 'rebound effects' in the literature. Previous studies have extensively focused on only part of the global economy to study rebound effects, e.g. energy consumption by households, one industry, or one country. However, since the global economy is highly connected among countries, these studies may lead to misleading conclusions if the rebound effects in the rest of the economy are significant. Recently Saunders (2008) analyzes the demand side by taking the global economy as a whole. Wei (2007) also provides a general analysis by using Cobb-Douglas production functions for the global economy. The present article expands Wei (2007) general analysis to explore the rebound effects from an economist's viewpoint by taking the global economy as a whole and applying general forms of production functions. The analysis provides new insights related to rebound effects: we highlight the role of energy supply as a determinant of rebound. We show that the substitution between energy resources and other productive resources is more relevant to long term rebound. We predict that long term rebound may be lower than short term rebound. And we also discover that super-conservation can happen in both the short term and the long term. (author)

  3. An investigation of the effectiveness of the modular general English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of the effectiveness of the modular general English language teaching preparatory program at a Turkish university. ... and should be replaced by a more manageable and feasible system considering specific contextual constraints, such as the number of instructors, classrooms and teaching resources. Also ...

  4. An investigation of the effectiveness of the modular general English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating existing foreign language programs on a regular basis is essential because program evaluation leads to more effective programs. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the modular intensive general English language teaching program applied at a university in Turkey by investigating students' and English ...

  5. A general, multivariate definition of causal effects in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, W Dana; Klein, Mitchel

    2015-07-01

    Population causal effects are often defined as contrasts of average individual-level counterfactual outcomes, comparing different exposure levels. Common examples include causal risk difference and risk ratios. These and most other examples emphasize effects on disease onset, a reflection of the usual epidemiological interest in disease occurrence. Exposure effects on other health characteristics, such as prevalence or conditional risk of a particular disability, can be important as well, but contrasts involving these other measures may often be dismissed as non-causal. For example, an observed prevalence ratio might often viewed as an estimator of a causal incidence ratio and hence subject to bias. In this manuscript, we provide and evaluate a definition of causal effects that generalizes those previously available. A key part of the generalization is that contrasts used in the definition can involve multivariate, counterfactual outcomes, rather than only univariate outcomes. An important consequence of our generalization is that, using it, one can properly define causal effects based on a wide variety of additional measures. Examples include causal prevalence ratios and differences and causal conditional risk ratios and differences. We illustrate how these additional measures can be useful, natural, easily estimated, and of public health importance. Furthermore, we discuss conditions for valid estimation of each type of causal effect, and how improper interpretation or inferences for the wrong target population can be sources of bias.

  6. A general approach to mixed effects modeling of residual variances in generalized linear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizilkaya Kadir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a general Bayesian approach to heteroskedastic error modeling for generalized linear mixed models (GLMM in which linked functions of conditional means and residual variances are specified as separate linear combinations of fixed and random effects. We focus on the linear mixed model (LMM analysis of birth weight (BW and the cumulative probit mixed model (CPMM analysis of calving ease (CE. The deviance information criterion (DIC was demonstrated to be useful in correctly choosing between homoskedastic and heteroskedastic error GLMM for both traits when data was generated according to a mixed model specification for both location parameters and residual variances. Heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were fitted, respectively, to BW and CE data on 8847 Italian Piemontese first parity dams in which residual variances were modeled as functions of fixed calf sex and random herd effects. The posterior mean residual variance for male calves was over 40% greater than that for female calves for both traits. Also, the posterior means of the standard deviation of the herd-specific variance ratios (relative to a unitary baseline were estimated to be 0.60 ± 0.09 for BW and 0.74 ± 0.14 for CE. For both traits, the heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were chosen over their homoskedastic error counterparts based on DIC values.

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the General Surgery Intern Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolfield, Clint S; Samra, Navdeep; Kim, Roger H; Shi, Runhua; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented general surgery intern boot camp. A 2-day didactic and skills-based intern boot camp was implemented before the start of clinical duties. Participants who did not attend all boot camp activities and had prior postgraduate training were excluded. A survey utilizing a 5-point Likert scale scoring system was used to assess the participants' confidence to perform intern-level tasks before and after the boot camp. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing changes in confidence among graduates from home institution versus others and general surgery versus other subspecialties. In the analysis, 21 participants over two years were included. Among them, 7 were graduates from home institution (4 general surgery, 3 subspecialty) and 14 were from other institutions (6 general surgery and 8 subspecialty). There were significant increases in overall confidence levels (pre = 2.79 vs post = 3.43, P surgery (2.78 vs 3.46, P = 0.001) and other specialties (2.74 vs 3.34, P surgery intern boot camp before the start of official rotation is effective in improving confidence level in performing level-appropriate tasks of the incoming new interns.

  8. The effect of Malaysia general election on stock market returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Rowland, Racquel

    2016-01-01

    During the latest episode of general election held in Malaysia, it is observed that the FBMKLCI index was lifted 62.52 points in a day soon after the announcement of election outcome. Moreover, the index registered a highest gain of 96.29 points in the middle of the intra-day trade. This suggests that investors who had got the right direction could make profitable intra-day trading the next trading day of the general election date. Results from statistical analysis uncover significant before-election-effect and after-election-effect from the most recent general elections held in Malaysia. Different subsets of macroeconomic variables are found to have significant role on stock market return depending on the market situation. Remarkably, when there was close fight between the two major political parties during the 2008 and 2013 election years, political uncertainty showed up its negative and significant role in influencing the stock market return. The major implication of these findings is that while investors may seek abnormal returns before and after the next general election, which is around the corner, they will have to pay attention on the influence of macroeconomic variables and political uncertainty on stock market return during the election year.

  9. Yarkovsky effect in Generalized Photogravitational 3-Bodies Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ershkov, Sergey V

    2015-01-01

    Here is presented a generalization of photogravitational restricted 3-bodies problem to the case of influence of Yarkovsky effect, which is known as reason of additional infinitesimal acceleration of a small bodies in the space (due to anisotropic re-emission of absorbed energy from the sun, other stellar sources). Asteroid is supposed to move under the influence of gravitational forces from 2 massive bodies (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler trajectories), as well under the influence of pressure of light from both the primaries. Analyzing the ODE system of motion, we explore the existense of equilibrium points for a small body (asteroid) in the case when the 2-nd primary is non-oblate spheroid. In such a case, it is proved the existence of maximally 256 different non-planar libration points in generalized photogravitational restricted 3-bodies problem when we take into consideration even a small Yarkovsky effect.

  10. Generalized Effective Medium Theory for Particulate Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usama Siddiqui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposites is strongly dependent on the size, shape, orientation and dispersion uniformity of the inclusions. To correctly estimate the effective thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite, all these factors should be included in the prediction model. In this paper, the formulation of a generalized effective medium theory for the determination of the effective thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposites with multiple inclusions is presented. The formulated methodology takes into account all the factors mentioned above and can be used to model nanocomposites with multiple inclusions that are randomly oriented or aligned in a particular direction. The effect of inclusion dispersion non-uniformity is modeled using a two-scale approach. The applications of the formulated effective medium theory are demonstrated using previously published experimental and numerical results for several particulate nanocomposites.

  11. Aging Effects on Brain Efficiency in General Aviation Pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Zarrin; Causse, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effect of aging on brain efficiency and executive functions is important for high risk activities such as general aviation. In this study, ten private pilots in the age group 19-25 and ten in the 52-72 range completed the spatial working memory (SWM) and spatial planning and reasoning (One Touch Stockings, OTS) from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The change in deoxygenated and oxygenated hemogoblin (HbO2) was measured. Younger pilots were found to ...

  12. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  13. Substitution effects in a generalized token economy with pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2017-01-01

    Pigeons made repeated choices between earning and exchanging reinforcer-specific tokens (green tokens exchangeable for food, red tokens exchangeable for water) and reinforcer-general tokens (white tokens exchangeable for food or water) in a closed token economy. Food and green food tokens could be earned on one panel; water and red water tokens could be earned on a second panel; white generalized tokens could be earned on either panel. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a fixed-ratio schedule, whereas responses on a second key produced exchange periods, during which all previously earned tokens could be exchanged for the appropriate commodity. Most conditions were conducted in a closed economy, and pigeons distributed their token allocation in ways that permitted food and water consumption. When the price of all tokens was equal and low, most pigeons preferred the generalized tokens. When token-production prices were manipulated, pigeons reduced production of the tokens that increased in price while increasing production of the generalized tokens that remained at a fixed price. The latter is consistent with a substitution effect: Generalized tokens increased and were exchanged for the more expensive reinforcer. When food and water were made freely available outside the session, token production and exchange was sharply reduced but was not eliminated, even in conditions when it no longer produced tokens. The results join with other recent data in showing sustained generalized functions of token reinforcers, and demonstrate the utility of token-economic methods for assessing demand for and substitution among multiple commodities in a laboratory context. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  15. Generalized Spatial Talbot Effect based on All-dielectric Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2016-01-01

    A generalized spatial Talbot effect is proposed where the period of the input aperture is scaled by a non-integer real value, as opposed to the integer-only factor in a conventional Talbot effect. This is achieved by allowing and engineering the phase discontinuity distributions in space using metasurfaces, in conjunction with free-space propagation. The introduction of such abrupt phase discontinuities thereby enables non-integer scalings of the aperture periodicities. Specific implementations using Huygens' metasurfaces are proposed and their operation to achieve non-integer scaling of the input aperture period is demonstrated using numerical results based on Fourier propagation.

  16. Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.

  17. Analysis of general power counting rules in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavela, Belen; Merlo, Luca [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Physics, La Jolla, CA (United States); CERN TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in d dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and they predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. We show that the size of the cross sections is controlled by the Λ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory (χPT). The relation between Λ and f is generalized to d dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis 4π counting is related to ℎ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to χPT, low-energy weak interactions, Standard Model EFT and the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT. (orig.)

  18. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success.

  19. Generalized Magnetic Field Effects in Burgers' Nanofluid Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, M M; Yang, Z; Awais, Muhammad; Nawaz, Maria; Hayat, Tasawar

    2017-01-01

    Analysis has been conducted to present the generalized magnetic field effects on the flow of a Burgers' nanofluid over an inclined wall. Mathematical modelling for hydro-magnetics reveals that the term "[Formula: see text]" is for the Newtonian model whereas the generalized magnetic field term (as mentioned in Eq 4) is for the Burgers' model which is incorporated in the current analysis to get the real insight of the problem for hydro-magnetics. Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomenon are presented to analyze the nanofluidics for the non-Newtonian fluid. Mathematical analysis is completed in the presence of non-uniform heat generation/absorption. The constructed set of partial differential system is converted into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential system by employing the suitable transformations. Homotopy approach is employed to construct the analytical solutions which are shown graphically for sundr5y parameters including Deborah numbers, magnetic field, thermophoresis, Brownian motion and non-uniform heat generation/absorption. A comparative study is also presented showing the comparison of present results with an already published data.

  20. Effective and Robust Generalized Predictive Speed Control of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patxi Alkorta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and validates a new proposal for effective speed vector control of induction motors based on linear Generalized Predictive Control (GPC law. The presented GPC-PI cascade configuration simplifies the design with regard to GPC-GPC cascade configuration, maintaining the advantages of the predictive control algorithm. The robust stability of the closed loop system is demonstrated by the poles placement method for several typical cases of uncertainties in induction motors. The controller has been tested using several simulations and experiments and has been compared with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and Sliding Mode (SM control schemes, obtaining outstanding results in speed tracking even in the presence of parameter uncertainties, unknown load disturbance, and measurement noise in the loop signals, suggesting its use in industrial applications.

  1. Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, Antonio; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li

    2016-01-01

    We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to non-trivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling $G_{\\rm eff}$ with matter density perturbations under a quasi-static approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility ...

  2. The Effect of Sleep on Children's Word Retention and Generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Emma L; Williams, Sophie E; Horst, Jessica S

    2016-01-01

    In the first few years of life children spend a good proportion of time sleeping as well as acquiring the meanings of hundreds of words. There is now ample evidence of the effects of sleep on memory in adults and the number of studies demonstrating the effects of napping and nocturnal sleep in children is also mounting. In particular, sleep appears to benefit children's memory for recently-encountered novel words. The effect of sleep on children's generalization of novel words across multiple items, however, is less clear. Given that sleep is polyphasic in the early years, made up of multiple episodes, and children's word learning is gradual and strengthened slowly over time, it is highly plausible that sleep is a strong candidate in supporting children's memory for novel words. Importantly, it appears that when children sleep shortly after exposure to novel word-object pairs retention is better than if sleep is delayed, suggesting that napping plays a vital role in long-term word retention for young children. Word learning is a complex, challenging, and important part of development, thus the role that sleep plays in children's retention of novel words is worthy of attention. As such, ensuring children get sufficient good quality sleep and regular opportunities to nap may be critical for language acquisition.

  3. Methotrexate: an effective monotherapy for refractory generalized morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platsidaki E

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Eftychia Platsidaki, Vassiliki Tzanetakou, Anargyros Kouris, Panagiotis G Stavropoulos Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Andreas Syggros Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Introduction: Morphea is an inflammatory skin disorder characterized by excessive collagen deposition. Although treatment algorithms for morphea subtypes have been suggested, no consistent recommendations are available. This study attempts to evaluate the clinical efficacy of methotrexate (MTX as monotherapy in refractory generalized morphea. Methods: It is a retrospective study, including 20 patients who had already been treated with various topical and systemic therapies with minimal clinical improvement. Patients received orally MTX at a of dosage 15 mg once weekly. Duration of the use, dosage of MTX, and adverse events were recorded. Clinical assessment of skin lesions was performed and documented. Results: The mean disease duration was 27 months before the initiation of MTX treatment. After 12 months of therapy, very good response was achieved in 6 patients (30%, good response in 10 patients (50%, and fair response in 2 patients (10%, while 2 patients (10% had failed treatment. Patients were followed up for a mean time interval of 21 months. No serious adverse event was recorded. Conclusion: MTX has been already proved to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment in pediatric patients with morphea. The majority of the group of adult patients showed very good and good improvement when treated with MTX. Although this is an uncontrolled study, MTX monotherapy was considered a safe and effective treatment for the management of this specific clinical subset of morphea in adults. Keywords: methotrexate, adults, generalized morphea

  4. Generalizing Effective Teaching Skills: The Missing Link in Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeler, Mary Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A clear need to teach preservice teachers to generalize newly acquired teaching skills across time and settings has been well established in the literature. Few empirical studies exist that inform teacher educators on ways to promote generalization of teaching skills with beginning teachers, however. Programming for generalization continues to be…

  5. Smart management in effective schools : effective management configurations in general and vocational education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.H.A.; Hofman, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the authors focus on different (configurations of) leadership or management styles in schools for general and vocational education. Findings: Using multilevel (students and schools) analyses, strong differences in effective management styles between schools with different

  6. The effects of training breadth on motor generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hamid; Kording, Konrad P.

    2014-01-01

    To generate new movements, we have to generalize what we have learned from previously practiced movements. An important question, therefore, is how the breadth of training affects generalization: does practicing a broad or narrow range of movements lead to better generalization? We address this question with a force field learning experiment. One group adapted while making many reaches in a small region (narrow group), and another group adapted while making reaches in a large region (broad group). Subsequently, both groups were tested for their ability to generalize without visual feedback. Not surprisingly, the narrow group exhibited smaller adaptation errors, yet they did not generalize any better than the broad group. Path errors during generalization were indistinguishable across the two groups, whereas the broad group exhibited reduced terminal errors. These findings indicate that overall, practicing a variety of movements is advantageous for performance during generalization; movement paths are not hindered, and terminal errors are superior. Moreover, the evidence suggests a dissociation between the ability to generalize information about a novel dynamic disturbance, which generalizes narrowly, and the ability to locate the limb accurately in space, which generalizes broadly. PMID:25210163

  7. Typicality effects in contingency-shaped generalized equivalence classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizio, Mark; Stewart, Katherine L; Pilgrim, Carol

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted using match-to-sample methodologies in an effort to model lexical classes, which include both arbitrary and perceptual relations between class members. Training in both experiments used a one-to-many mapping procedure with nonsense syllables as samples and eight sets of abstract stimuli as comparisons. These abstract stimuli differed along a number of dimensions, four of which were critical to the experimenter-defined class membership. Stimuli in some comparison sets included only one of the class-defining features, but stimuli in other sets included two, three, or all four of the critical features. After mastery of the baseline training, three types of probe tests were conducted: symmetry, transitivity/equivalence, and novel probe tests in which the training nonsense syllables served as samples, and comparisons were novel abstract stimuli that included one or more of the class-defining features. Symmetry and transitivity/equivalence probe tests showed that the stimuli used in training became members of equivalence classes. The novel stimuli also became class members on the basis of inclusion of any of the critical features. Thus these probe tests revealed the formation of open-ended generalized equivalence classes. In addition, typicality effects were observed such that comparison sets with more critical features were learned with fewer errors, responded to more rapidly, and judged to be better exemplars of the class. Contingency-shaped stimulus classes established through a match-to-sample procedure thus show several important behavioral similarities to natural lexical categories.

  8. Effect of general health screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of diabetes in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine J; Pisinger, Charlotta; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N

    2016-01-01

    screening and lifestyle counselling programme (n=11,629) or control group (n=47,987) and followed for ten years in nationwide registers. Intention to treat was applied and risk of diabetes was modeled by Cox regression and expressed as hazard ratios (HRs). We found that 1692 individuals had diabetes.......91 to 1.17). Inviting the general population to participate in a repeated screening and lifestyle counselling programme over five years did not result in lower incidence of diabetes after 10years of follow-up. As expected, significantly more individuals were diagnosed with diabetes in the intervention...

  9. General Merrill A. McPeak: An Effective Change Agent?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopper, Tim

    1997-01-01

    .... It also looks at the role he played as a change agent. Current models of how organizational change should be implemented are compared to how General McPeak implemented his organizational change...

  10. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    -Square test indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of accidents among the different certification categories when either Controlled Flight into Terrain or Structural Failure was listed as cause. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of accidents with regard to Loss of Control and Engine Failure accidents. The results of the ANCOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference in the accident rate with regard to Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, or Structural Failure accidents. There was, however, a significant difference in Engine Failure accidents between Experimental-Amateur Built and the other categories.The text mining analysis of the narrative causes of Loss of Control accidents indicated that only the Civil Air Regulations 3 category airplanes had clusters of words associated with visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured prior to the 1960s and in most cases have not been retrofitted to take advantage of newer technologies that could help prevent Loss of Control accidents. The study indicated that General Aviation aircraft certification rules do not have a statistically significant effect on aircraft accidents except for Loss of Control and Engine Failure. According to the literature, government oversight could have become an obstacle in the implementation of safety enhancing equipment that could reduce Loss of Control accidents. Oversight should focus on ensuring that Experimental-Amateur Built aircraft owners perform a functional test that could prevent some of the Engine Failure accidents.

  11. General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2016-01-01

    contact area as function of the normalized contact pressure is based on slip-line analysis and hence on the assumption of rigid-ideally plastic material behavior. In the present work, a general finite element model is established to, firstly, reproduce the original model under the assumption of rigid......-ideally plastic material, and secondly, to extend the solution by the influence of material strain hardening. This corresponds to adding a new variable and, therefore, a new axis to the general friction model. The resulting model is presented in a combined function suitable for e.g. finite element modeling...... of friction in metal forming, where the material generally strain hardens. The extension of the model to cover strain hardening materials is validated by comparison to previously published experimental data....

  12. Effects of Serial and Concurrent Training on Acquisition and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Kara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Donaldson, Jeanne M.; Phillips, Cara L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a large body of research demonstrating that generalization to novel stimuli can be produced by training sufficient exemplars, the methods by which exemplars can be trained remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate 2 methods, serial and concurrent presentation of stimuli, to train sufficient exemplars. Five preschool…

  13. Cardiovascular effects of oesophageal dilation under general anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C H; Rasmussen, V; Rosenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    under general anaesthesia. Ten consecutive patients with benign oesophageal strictures were evaluated. Arterial oxygen saturation was measured by continuous pulse oximetry, ECG was recorded continuously with a Holter tape recorder, and blood pressure was measured non-invasively every five minutes during...

  14. Effects of combined general anesthesia and thoracic epidural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... during the first 24 h of the intraoperative and postoperative period by suppressing cytokine levels. However, we determined that this ... Key words: Bupivacaine, combined-general-epidural anesthesia, inflammatory cytokines, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, ..... [26] Serum IL‑6 level is an early marker of tissue ...

  15. Smart Management in Effective Schools: Effective Management Configurations in General and Vocational Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Hofman, Roelande H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the authors focus on different (configurations of) leadership or management styles in schools for general and vocational education. Findings: Using multilevel (students and schools) analyses, strong differences in effective management styles between schools with different student populations were observed. Conclusions: The…

  16. Effect of Local and General Anesthetics on Interfacial Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Kundacina

    Full Text Available Water undergoes structural change as it interfaces with hydrophilic surfaces, including the many hydrophilic surfaces within the cell. This interfacial water has become known as "Exclusion Zone (EZ water" or "fourth-phase water" [1].We tested the hypothesis that anesthetics diminish the amount of EZ water, and that this change may correlate with functional changes in anesthesia. By using the local anesthetics Lidocaine and Bupivacaine as well as a general inhalational anesthetic, Isoflurane, we tracked the EZ size as these anesthetics were introduced.All three anesthetics diminished EZ size in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations of 0.18 mM and greater for Bupivacaine, 0.85 mM and greater for Lidocaine, and 0.2% for Isoflurane. At extremely low (micromolar concentrations, however, all three anesthetics increased EZ size.The sharp increase of EZ size associated with micromolar anesthetic concentrations follows a similar pattern to induction of general anesthesia, from the excitation stage (Stage II to the depression and overdose stages of surgical anesthesia (Stages III and IV. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that anesthetics may act on water, a fundamental organizational component common to all cells.

  17. Young infants' generalization of emotional expressions: effects of familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Andrews, Arlene S; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Mayhew, Estelle M Y; Coffield, Caroline N

    2011-08-01

    From birth, infants are exposed to a wealth of emotional information in their interactions. Much research has been done to investigate the development of emotion perception, and factors influencing that development. The current study investigates the role of familiarity on 3.5-month-old infants' generalization of emotional expressions. Infants were assigned to one of two habituation sequences: in one sequence, infants were visually habituated to parental expressions of happy or sad. At test, infants viewed either a continuation of the habituation sequence, their mother depicting a novel expression, an unfamiliar female depicting the habituated expression, or an unfamiliar female depicting a novel expression. In the second sequence, a new sample of infants was matched to the infants in the first sequence. These infants viewed the same habituation and test sequences, but the actors were unfamiliar to them. Only those infants who viewed their own mothers and fathers during the habituation sequence increased looking. They dishabituated looking to maternal novel expressions, the unfamiliar female's novel expression, and the unfamiliar female depicting the habituated expression, especially when sad parental expressions were followed by an expression change to happy or to a change in person. Infants are guided in their recognition of emotional expressions by the familiarity of their parents, before generalizing to others. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Effect of general anesthesia and orthopedic surgery on serum tryptase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Bech, Birgitte Louise; Mosbech, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Mast cell tryptase is used clinically in the evaluation of anaphylaxis during anesthesia, because symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis are often masked by the effect of anesthesia. No larger studies have examined whether surgery and anesthesia affect serum tryptase. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the effect of anesthesia and surgery on serum tryptase in the absence of anaphylaxis....

  19. Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…

  20. Toward a general theory of momentum-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    The future actions, behaviors, and outcomes of objects, individuals, and processes can often be anticipated, and some of these anticipations have been hypothesized to result from momentum-like effects. Five types of momentum-like effects (representational momentum, operational momentum, attentional momentum, behavioral momentum, psychological momentum) are briefly described. Potential similarities involving properties of momentum-like effects (continuation, coherence, role of chance or guessing, role of sensory processing, imperviousness to practice or error feedback, shifts in memory for position, effects of changes in velocity, rapid occurrence, effects of retention interval, attachment to an object rather than an abstract frame of reference, nonrigid transformation) are described, and potential constraints on a future theory of momentum-like effects (dynamic representation, nature of extrapolation, sensitivity to environmental contingencies, bridging gaps between stimulus and response, increasing adaptiveness to the environment, serving as a heuristic for perception and action, insensitivity to stimulus format, importance of subjective consequences, role of knowledge and belief, automaticity of occurrence, properties of functional architecture) are discussed. The similarity and ubiquity of momentum-like effects suggests such effects might result from a single or small number of mechanisms that operate over different dimensions, modalities, and time-scales and provide a fundamental adaptation for perception and action. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  2. Generality of a congruity effect in judgements of relative order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang S; Chan, Michelle; Caplan, Jeremy B

    2014-10-01

    The judgement of relative order (JOR) procedure is used to investigate serial-order memory. Measuring response times, the wording of the instructions (whether the earlier or the later item was designated as the target) reversed the direction of search in subspan lists (Chan, Ross, Earle, & Caplan Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(5), 945-951, 2009). If a similar congruity effect applied to above-span lists and, furthermore, with error rate as the measure, this could suggest how to model order memory across scales. Participants performed JORs on lists of nouns (Experiment 1: list lengths = 4, 6, 8, 10) or consonants (Experiment 2: list lengths = 4, 8). In addition to the usual distance, primacy, and recency effects, instructions interacted with serial position of the later probe in both experiments, not only in response time, but also in error rate, suggesting that availability, not just accessibility, is affected by instructions. The congruity effect challenges current memory models. We fitted Hacker's (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6(6), 651-675, 1980) self-terminating search model to our data and found that a switch in search direction could explain the congruity effect for short lists, but not longer lists. This suggests that JORs may need to be understood via direct-access models, adapted to produce a congruity effect, or a mix of mechanisms.

  3. Correlation between effective dose and radiological risk: general concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Nersissian, Denise Yanikian; Melo, Camila Souza, E-mail: pcosta@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-05-15

    The present review aims to offer an educational approach related to the limitations in the use of the effective dose magnitude as a tool for the quantification of doses resulting from diagnostic applications of ionizing radiation. We present a critical analysis of the quantities accepted and currently used for dosimetric evaluation in diagnostic imaging procedures, based on studies published in the literature. It is highlighted the use of these quantities to evaluate the risk attributed to the procedure and to calculate the effective dose, as well as to determine its correct use and interpretation. (author)

  4. Effect of General Anesthesia Compared to Regional Anesthesia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: cesarean section (CS) is one of the common operations performed in obstetric practice worldwide; it can be conducted as elective or emergency operation. Objective: to assess the effect of different types of anesthesia used during conducting elective cesarean sections (CS) on the health of neonates by using ...

  5. Effects of combined general anesthesia and thoracic epidural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Severe postoperative pain is not often experienced in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesthesia, surgery, and pain are stressful and cause different reactions in neuro‑immuno‑endocrine systems. Many factors such as the pharmacological effect of the drugs used, as well as the type and depth of anesthesia, ...

  6. Effect of general anesthesia and orthopedic surgery on serum tryptase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Bech, Birgitte Louise; Mosbech, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Mast cell tryptase is used clinically in the evaluation of anaphylaxis during anesthesia, because symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis are often masked by the effect of anesthesia. No larger studies have examined whether surgery and anesthesia affect serum tryptase. The aim of this study was to inve...

  7. Proximity effect on the general base catalysed hydrolysis of amide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed slowing down of the rate of this reaction for I in the micellar pseudo phase of CTABr also supports the proposed mechanism. Under premicellar conditions, however, rate acceleration is observed, a consequence believed to be associated with the capping effect of the hydrophobic tail of the surfactant cation ...

  8. Effects of sevoflurane general anesthesia: immunological studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, N R; Ferrero, P; Bay, M L; Hidalgo, G; Valenti, J; Amerio, N; Elena, G

    2002-01-01

    Based on the immunomodulatory effects of anesthesia and surgery, a study was undertaken to assess the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on the immune system in a murine model without surgery. Adult male mice were anesthetized with 3% sevoflurane (1.2 minimal alveolar concentration, MAC) in oxygen for 40 min, whereas nontreated animals served as controls. After sevoflurane anesthesia, peripheral blood leukocyte counts, the splenic composition and in vitro macrophage phagocytic activity and lymphoproliferative response were assessed. The in vivo specific immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), a conventional T-dependent antigen was determined. In addition, liver, spleen, thymus and kidney histopathology and also hepatic and renal functions after anesthesia were studied. Sevoflurane diminished the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes and splenic B-cell counts, enhancing CD4+ lymphocytes in spleen. The in vitro functionality of macrophages and the mitogen-induced lymphoproliferative response were preserved, while the in vivo immune response to SRBC was enhanced in treated animals. Microscopic studies revealed conserved architecture of the spleen, thymus, lymph node, liver and kidney, and there were no differences in serum parameters of hepatic and renal functions between treated and control groups. Our results suggest that 3 days after the anesthetic exposure, animals treated with sevoflurane modulated their peripheral blood leukocyte counts, splenic lymphoid composition and the characteristics of the specific response to SRBC, while there was no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity.

  9. The General Effects of Dioxins on Livestock Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Çalışlar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dioxins is one of the chemicals groups that cause liver toxicity, live weight reduction, immune suppression, reproductive impairments, eggshell thinning, birth defects, cancers and death in animals. The 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is the most poisonous environmental chemical and many studies were showed high dosage of TCDD affects all animal group. Also TCDD increase cancer risk in human so this chemical described as carcinogenic by International Agency for Research on Cancer. Dioxins are stored in animal foods such as meat, milk, eggs and fish, because they are soluble in oil and remain in these products for many years. Dioxins can dissolve in fat and high stability therefore it can be infected to meat, milk, egg, and fish and store there for long time as a result people could be contained with dioxin during daily life. Animal feed additives such as organic acids, pH modifiers, starch, sugar, vegetable oil, fat, fruit and by-products of plant, kaolinite, rendering products, pelleting aids cause dioxin contamination. The maximum dioxin content in plant-origin feedstuffs and their by-products is 0.75 ng toxic equivalent/kg body weight. In this rewiew, the effects of dioxins on livestock feeding was examined.

  10. Effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensing, M; Mainz, Jan; Kramme, O

    1999-01-01

    Randomized trials were performed in Denmark and The Netherlands to determine the effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice. In both countries, general practitioners handed out questionnaires to 200 adult patients who came to visit them. An inter......) but not in Denmark (87% versus 81%, respectively). Mailed reminders can improve the response rate in surveys related to a general practice, but they are not effective in all situations....

  11. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  12. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  13. Effect of extension of postgraduate training in general practice on the acquisition of knowledge of trainees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, A.W.M.; Dusman, H.; Tan, L.; Jansen, K.J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postgraduate training in general practice aims to develop clinical competence. However, little is known about its effect on trainees' development of competence. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether 3 years of postgraduate training in general practice leads to a higher level of

  14. The Practice Nurse Mental Health in general practices: effects on diagnoses of alcohol abuse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidi, L.; Oenema, A.; Verhaak, P.; Mheen, D. van de

    2017-01-01

    Background: As part of health policy aiming to improve early detection and treatment of mental illness in general practices, from 2008 mental health practice nurses were gradually introduced in general practices in the Netherlands. The current study aims to investigate the effect of the

  15. Size effects in two-dimensional Voronoi foams : A comparison between generalized continua and discrete models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekoglu, Cihan; Onck, Patrick R.

    2008-01-01

    In view of size effects in cellular solids, we critically compare the analytical results of generalized continuum theories with the computation a I results of discrete models. Representatives are studied from two classes of generalized continuum theories: the strain divergence theory from the class

  16. Different goods, different effects: Exploring the roles of generalized trust in public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim

    -product situation (whether to buy organic food or not). This design provides a possibility to detect whether any effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior or due to altruistic motives among trusters. The results show that generalized trust enhances recycling significantly whereas it only has a very...... and not altruistic motives....

  17. Measuring the effectiveness of an intensive IPV training program offered to Greek general practitioners and residents of general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakaki, Maria; Petridou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Lionis, Christos

    2013-03-28

    The need for effective training of primary care physicians in the prevention, detection and handling of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been widely acknowledged, given its frequency in daily practice. The current intervention study aimed to measure changes in the actual IPV knowledge, perceived knowledge, perceived preparedness and detection ability of practicing general practitioners (GPs) and general practice residents, following an intensive IPV training program. A pre/post-test design with a control group was employed to compare changes in baseline measures of IPV at the post intervention stage and at 12 months. A total of 40 participants provided full data; 25 GPs (11 in the intervention and 14 in the control) and 15 residents (intervention only). Three scales of the PREMIS survey were used to draw information on the study outcomes. The training program met high acceptance by both groups of participants and high practicality in clinical practice. The GPs in the intervention group performed better than the GPs in the control group on "Perceived preparedness" and "Perceived knowledge" in both the post-intervention (p= .012, r= .50 and p= .001, r= .68) and the 12-month follow-up (p= .024, r= .45 and p= .007, r= .54) as well as better than the residents in "Perceived preparedness" at post-intervention level (p= .037, r= .41). Residents on the other hand, performed better than the GPs in the intervention group on "Actual knowledge" at the 12-month follow-up (p= .012, r= .49). No significant improvements or between group differences were found in terms of the self-reported detection of IPV cases. Further studies are needed to decide whether residency training could serve as an early intervention stage for IPV training.

  18. Effects of conventional and problem-based learning on clinical and general competencies and career development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Geertsma, Jelle; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    OBJECTIVE: To test hypotheses regarding the longitudinal effects of problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional learning relating to students' appreciation of the curriculum, self-assessment of general competencies, summative assessment of clinical competence and indicators of career development.

  19. EFFECT OF RECOMBINANT TISSUE-PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR ON INTRAABDOMINAL ABSCESS FORMATION IN RATS WITH GENERALIZED PERITONITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; de Graaf, JS; Kooi, K; Sluiter, WJ; Bom, VJJ; van der Meer, J; Bleichrodt, RP

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During generalized peritonitis, intraabdominal fibrin deposition is stimulated whereas fibrinolytic activity is reduced, which predisposes intra-abdominal abscess formation. We investigated the effects of increasing the intra-abdominal fibrinolytic activity on abscess formation by

  20. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  1. More on PT-Symmetry in (Generalized Effect Algebras and Partial Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paseka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue in the direction of our paper on PT-Symmetry in (Generalized Effect Algebras and Partial Groups. Namely we extend our considerations to the setting of weakly ordered partial groups. In this setting, any operator weakly ordered partial group is a pasting of its partially ordered commutative subgroups of linear operators with a fixed dense domain over bounded operators. Moreover, applications of our approach for generalized effect algebras are mentioned.

  2. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Mousavi; Mansour Rezaei; Sahar Amiri Baghni; Maryam Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were an...

  3. Induced polarization effect in reservoir rocks and its modeling based on generalized effective-medium theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Burtman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major tasks of the petroleum resource-efficient technologies (pREFFIT is the development and improvement of the methods of exploration for energy resources. This review paper summarizes the results of the research on induced polarization (IP effect in reservoir rocks conducted by the University of Utah Consortium for Electromagnetic Modeling and Inversion (CEMI and TechnoImaging. The electrical IP effect in hydrocarbon (HC bearing reservoir rocks having nonmetallic minerals is usually associated with membrane polarization, which is caused by a variation in the mobility of the ions throughout the rock structure. This mobility is related to the size and shape of the pores filled with electrolyte and the double electrical layers. We have studied the IP response of multiphase porous systems by conducting complex resistivity (CR frequency-domain IP measurements for two different groups of samples: sands and sandstones containing salt water in pores and those whose unsaturated pores were filled with synthetic oil. We have also studied selected carbonate reservoir formations, typical of some major HC deposits. The generalized effective-medium theory of induced polarization (GEMTIP was used to analyze the IP parameters of the measured responses. This paper presents a conceptual model of polarizing clusters to explain the observed IP phenomena. The results of this study show that the HC bearing sands and sandstone samples and carbonate rocks are characterized by a significant IP response. These experimental observations, compared with the theoretical modeling based on the GEMTIP approach, confirm earlier geophysical experiments with the application of the IP method for HC exploration.

  4. Anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of magnesium in rats and their effect on general behavioural parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Janko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg is an essential element that catalyses more than 300 enzyme systems. Its effects on the central nervous system are exhibited through the blocking of activity of N-methyl D-aspartat (NMDA receptors and potentiating of GABA-ergic neurotransmission. Due to the vast importance of these two neurotransmission systems in the fine regulation of the central integrative function activity, the aim of this research was to test the anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of magnesium, after acute and repeated application, and its influence on general behavioural parameters. In this research Wistar albino rats were treated with increasing doses of Mg chloride 6-hydrate (MgCl 10, 20, 30 mg/kg. In order to determine anxiolytic and antidepressive properties of magnesium two models were used: elevated plus maze (EPM and forced swim test (FST. Behavioural parameters (stillness and mobility were recorded during acute and repeated administration of the active substance. Results of EPM testing showed no significant difference between groups, p>0.05. After acute application of increasing doses of magnesium chloride hydrate in FST, we showed the statistically significant difference in immobility time between the group of animals treated with Mg and the control group treated with the solvent, p<0.01. The statistically significant difference between groups treated with the lowest and the middle dose of magnesium and the controls was observed already on the first day of examining behavioural parameters (p=0.020, p=0.010. Our research has showed that magnesium, following acute administration, increases locomotor activity, and has an antidepressive but not an anxiolytic effect.

  5. Effective Potential from the Generalized Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifce Sandev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the generalized time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the force free case, as a generalization, for example, of the standard time-dependent Schrödinger equation, time fractional Schrödinger equation, distributed order time fractional Schrödinger equation, and tempered in time Schrödinger equation. We relate it to the corresponding standard Schrödinger equation with effective potential. The general form of the effective potential that leads to a standard time-dependent Schrodinger equation with the same solution as the generalized one is derived explicitly. Further, effective potentials for several special cases, such as Dirac delta, power-law, Mittag-Leffler and truncated power-law memory kernels, are expressed in terms of the Mittag-Leffler functions. Such complex potentials have been used in the transport simulations in quantum dots, and in simulation of resonant tunneling diode.

  6. Generalized uncertainty principle as a consequence of the effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, Korte Spinhuissteeg 3, 1012 CG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nassar, Ali, E-mail: anassar@zewailcity.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, 12588, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-02-10

    We will demonstrate that the generalized uncertainty principle exists because of the derivative expansion in the effective field theories. This is because in the framework of the effective field theories, the minimum measurable length scale has to be integrated away to obtain the low energy effective action. We will analyze the deformation of a massive free scalar field theory by the generalized uncertainty principle, and demonstrate that the minimum measurable length scale corresponds to a second more massive scale in the theory, which has been integrated away. We will also analyze CFT operators dual to this deformed scalar field theory, and observe that scaling of the new CFT operators indicates that they are dual to this more massive scale in the theory. We will use holographic renormalization to explicitly calculate the renormalized boundary action with counter terms for this scalar field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle, and show that the generalized uncertainty principle contributes to the matter conformal anomaly.

  7. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and paired t-test. Results: There was a significant difference between pre- and post-test results in terms of general health score (t= 3.138, P= 0.002, i.e., fasting could increase the population’s general health. There was a significant positive relationship between fasting and four subscales of general health including somatic symptoms (t=2.138, P=0.035, insomnia/anxiety (t=2.587, P=0.011, and social dysfunction (t=2.627, P=0.010. However, fasting had no significant effect on severe depression and suicidal tendencies (t=1.700, P=0.092. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that fasting has a positive effect on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah. Thus, more attention should be paid to fasting and its impact on people’s mental health.

  8. 77 FR 37283 - General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 618 RIN 3052-AC66 General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm...

  9. Implementation of the Generalized Brazier Effect in Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    As wind turbine blades are getting longer and more slender, new failure modes occur and these may be related to the non-linear geometric Brazier effect1,2,3, where the bending moments ovalize the thin-walled cross-sections. For general cross-sections the torsional moments have a similar effect. T...

  10. The Effects of Clickers and Online Homework on Students' Achievement in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Misganaw T.

    2012-01-01

    Retention of an introductory general chemistry course material is vital for student success in future chemistry and chemistry-related courses. This study investigated the effects of clickers versus online homework on students' long-term content retention, examined the effectiveness of online homework versus no graded homework on…

  11. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  12. A randomised controlled trial to improve general practitioners' services in cancer rehabilitation: Effects on general practitioners' proactivity and on patients' participation in rehabilitation activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, SH; Søndergaard, J; Larsen, PV

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have evaluated initiatives targeting implementation of cancer rehabilitation. In this study we aim to test the effects of a complex intervention designed to improve general practitioners' (GPs) involvement in cancer rehabilitation. Outcomes were proactive contacts to patients...

  13. Distinguishing f( R) theories from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongguang; Wang, Xin; Li, Haida; Ma, Yongge

    2017-11-01

    The post-Newtonian formulation of a general class of f( R) theories is set up in a third-order approximation. It turns out that the information of a specific form of f( R) gravity is encoded in the Yukawa potential, which is contained in the perturbative expansion of the metric components. Although the Yukawa potential is canceled in the second-order expression of the effective refraction index of light, detailed analysis shows that the difference of the lensing effect between the f( R) gravity and general relativity does appear at the third order when √{f''(0)/f'(0)} is larger than the distance d_0 to the gravitational source. However, the difference between these two kinds of theories will disappear in the axially symmetric spacetime region. Therefore only in very rare case the f( R) theories are distinguishable from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect in a third-order post-Newtonian approximation.

  14. The effects of single instance, multiple instance, and general case training on generalized vending machine use by moderately and severely handicapped students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, J R; Horner, R H

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an experimental analysis of generalized vending machine use by six moderately or severely retarded high school students. Dependent variables were training trials to criterion and performance on 10 nontrained "generalization" vending machines. A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to compare three strategies for teaching generalized vending machine use. Training occurred with (a) a single vending machine, (b) three similar machines, or (c) three machines that sampled the range of stimulus and response variation in a defined class of vending machines. Results indicated that the third approach was the most effective method of obtaining generalized responding. Methodological implications for the experimental analysis of generalization and programmatic implications for teaching generalized behaviors are discussed.

  15. General practitioner fees: the effect of an additional 10% goods and services tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, L J; Chetwynd, S J; Botting, C H

    1987-09-23

    The effects of an increase in general practitioner fees on the timing of decisions to seek certain consultations were studied at the time of the introduction of a 10% goods and services tax (GST) on 1 October 1986. Fifty-six general practitioners collected information on 4113 consecutive paediatric consultations over a four week study period. The price rise itself appeared to have little or no effect either on numbers attending, pattern of illness or on the timing of consultations. However, private medical insurance may have influenced decisions on when to seek medical attention.

  16. General and specific effects of lexicon in grammar: determiner and object pronoun omissions in child Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Castilla-Earls, Anny Patricia; Brunner, Jerry

    2012-04-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that vocabulary growth can have 2 types of effects in morphosyntactic development. One is a general effect, where vocabulary growth globally determines utterance complexity, defined in terms of sentence length and rates of subordination. There are also specific effects, where vocabulary size has a selective impact on the acquisition of grammatical markers and where lexicon is a prerequisite for typological convergence. The study compares the differential effects of vocabulary in 2 measures of morphosyntactic development: omissions of object clitic pronouns and definite articles. Correlation analysis and structural equation models were used to analyze the statistical effects of measures of vocabulary and grammatical development in 110 Spanish-speaking monolingual children ages 3-5 years. The data revealed general effects of vocabulary growth on utterance length and subordination rates and on the use of definite determiners and object pronouns. Specific effects of vocabulary growth were identified for object pronouns but not for determiners. The study found support for a 2-dimensional model separating lexicon and syntax and for 2 types of relationships. Vocabulary development generally determines sentence complexity and further evidence for specific effects in object pronoun use.

  17. Synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östergren, Per-Olof; Canivet, Catarina; Moghadassi, Mahnaz; Lindeberg, Sara; Karasek, Robert; Isacsson, Sven-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the interaction between job control and social support at work on common mental disorders. To examine whether there is a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress and whether it differs by the level of job demands. Methods About 1,940 male and female workers from the Malmö Shoulder and Neck Study were chosen for this cross-sectional study. Job control, social support at work, and job demands were measured by the Swedish version of the Job Content Questionnaire, and general psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Results A significant excessive risk increase for general psychological distress was observed when workers had both low job control and low social support at work in both men and women. The synergistic effect was stronger in women, when job demands were low (Rothman’s synergy index was 2.16 vs. 1.51 when job demands were high). However, in male workers, while a strong synergistic effect between job control and social support at work was found when job demands were low (synergy index was 9.25), there was an antagonistic effect when job demands were high (synergy index was 0.52). Conclusions There was a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress, but the synergistic effect or its effect size differed by the level of job demands and gender. An atomic, additive approach to the risk assessment of the psychosocial work characteristics on common mental disorders could be misleading or lead to a risk underestimation. PMID:20582551

  18. The effect of laughter Yoga on general health among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Mohsen; Esmaeilzadeh, Mojtaba; Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid; Khaledi, Firouz

    2014-01-01

    Promotion and provision of individuals' health is one of the bases for development in societies. Students' mental health is very important in each society. Students of medical sciences universities, especially nursing students, are under various stresses in clinical environment, in addition to the stress they experience in theoretical education environment. With regard to the importance of nursing students' general health and considering the various existing strategies to promote general health components, use of complementary treatments is more considered because of their better public acceptance, low costs, and fewer complications. One of the new strategies in this regard is laughter Yoga. The present study was conducted with an aim to define the effect of laughter Yoga on general health among nursing students. This is a quasi-experimental two-group three-step study conducted on 38 male nursing students in the nursing and midwifery school of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. In the study group, eight 1 h sessions of laughter Yoga were held (two sessions a week), and in the control group, no intervention was conducted. The data of the present study were collected by Goldberg and Hiller's General Health Questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS version 12. The findings showed a significant difference in the mean scores of general health before and after laughter Yoga intervention in the two groups of study and control. The findings showed that laughter Yoga had a positive effect on students' general health and improved the signs of physical and sleep disorders, lowered anxiety and depression, and promoted their social function. Therefore, laughter Yoga can be used as one of the effective strategies on students' general health.

  19. Learning and generalization in schizophrenia: effects of disease and antipsychotic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohamy, Daphna; Mihalakos, Perry; Chin, Ronald; Thomas, Binu; Wagner, Anthony D; Tamminga, Carol

    2010-05-15

    Schizophrenia involves alterations in hippocampal function. The implications of these alterations for memory function in the illness remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it remains unknown how memory is impacted by drug treatments for schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to delineate specific memory processes that are disrupted in schizophrenia and explore how they are affected by medication. We specifically focus on memory generalization--the ability to flexibly generalize memories in novel situations. Individuals with schizophrenia (n = 56) and healthy control subjects (n = 20) were tested on a computerized memory generalization paradigm. Participants first engaged in trial-by-error associative learning. They were then asked to generalize what they learned by responding to novel stimulus combinations. Individuals with schizophrenia were tested on or off antipsychotic medication, using a between-subject design in order to eliminate concerns about learning-set effects. Individuals with schizophrenia were selectively impaired in their ability to generalize knowledge, despite having intact learning and memory accuracy. This impairment was found only in individuals tested off medication. Individuals tested on medication generalized almost as well as healthy control subjects. This between-group difference was selective to memory generalization. These findings suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have a selective alteration in the ability to flexibly generalize past experience toward novel learning environments. This alteration is unaccompanied by global memory impairments. Additionally, the results indicate a robust generalization difference on the basis of medication status. These results suggest that hippocampal abnormalities in schizophrenia might be alleviated with antipsychotic medication, with important implications for understanding adaptive memory-guided behavior. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Generalized linear models with random effects unified analysis via H-likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Youngjo; Pawitan, Yudi

    2006-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1972, generalized linear models (GLMs) have proven useful in the generalization of classical normal models. Presenting methods for fitting GLMs with random effects to data, Generalized Linear Models with Random Effects: Unified Analysis via H-likelihood explores a wide range of applications, including combining information over trials (meta-analysis), analysis of frailty models for survival data, genetic epidemiology, and analysis of spatial and temporal models with correlated errors.Written by pioneering authorities in the field, this reference provides an introduction to various theories and examines likelihood inference and GLMs. The authors show how to extend the class of GLMs while retaining as much simplicity as possible. By maximizing and deriving other quantities from h-likelihood, they also demonstrate how to use a single algorithm for all members of the class, resulting in a faster algorithm as compared to existing alternatives. Complementing theory with examples, many of...

  1. Effects of concurrent load on feature- and rule-based generalization in human contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Andy J; Graham, Steven; Koh, Zhisheng; McLaren, Ian P L; Rolland, Matthew D

    2011-07-01

    The effect of concurrent load on generalization performance in human contingency learning was examined in 2 experiments that employed the combined positive and negative patterning procedure of Shanks and Darby (1998). In Experiment 1, we tested 32 undergraduates and found that participants who were trained and tested under full attention showed generalization consistent with the application of an opposites rule (i.e., single cues signal the opposite outcome to their compound), whereas participants trained and tested under a concurrent cognitive load showed generalization consistent with surface similarity. In Experiment 2, we replicated the effect with 148 undergraduates and provided evidence that it was the presence of concurrent load during training, rather than during testing, that was critical. Implications for associative, inferential, and dual-process accounts of human learning are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  2. On the validity and generality of transfer effects in cognitive training research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Hannes; Lövdén, Martin; Schmiedek, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation of training effectiveness is a long-standing problem of cognitive intervention research. The interpretation of transfer effects needs to meet two criteria, generality and specificity. We introduce each of the two, and suggest ways of implementing them. First, the scope of the construct of interest (e.g., working memory) defines the expected generality of transfer effects. Given that the constructs of interest are typically defined at the latent level, data analysis should also be conducted at the latent level. Second, transfer should be restricted to measures that are theoretically related to the trained construct. Hence, the construct of interest also determines the specificity of expected training effects; to test for specificity, study designs should aim at convergent and discriminant validity. We evaluate the recent cognitive training literature in relation to both criteria. We conclude that most studies do not use latent factors for transfer assessment, and do not test for convergent and discriminant validity.

  3. Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife-a generalized impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrom, L.; Kautsky, L.; Malm, T.

    2014-01-01

    study synthesizes the current state of understanding on the effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife, in order to identify general versus local conclusions in published studies. The results were translated into a generalized impact assessment for coastal waters in Sweden, which covers a range......, and level of certainty. Research on the environmental effects of offshore wind farms has gone through a rapid maturation and learning process, with the bulk of knowledge being developed within the past ten years. The studies showed a high level of consensus with respect to the construction phase, indicating...... in studies on cumulative impacts and long-term effects on the food web, as well as on combined effects with other human activities, such as the fisheries. These aspects remain key open issues for a sustainable marine spatial planning....

  4. Exploring the Effects of General Remediation on Ninth-Graders' Achievement of the Mole Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Eugene L.; McBride, John W.

    1980-01-01

    Reported is a study involving a modification of the mastery learning technique designed to determine the effects of general remediation on the achievement of the mole concept by 99 ninth-grade physical science students. Results of one way analysis of covariance did not indicate a significant difference in mean scores between treatments. (DS)

  5. General and Specific Self-Esteem in Late Adolescent Students: Race x Gender x SES Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Charles L; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed effects of gender, race, and social class on general and area-specific self-esteem of high school students (N=195). Results indicated that females, Whites, and lower-class adolescents were consistently lower in their self-esteem scores than were males, Blacks, and upper-social-class teenagers, respectively. (Author/NRB)

  6. The effect of copper and zinc at neutral and acidic pH on the general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sublethal copper and zinc concentrations at a neutral and an acidic pH, on selected haematological parameters as well as on the total osmolality and electrolyte concentrations of Oreochromis mossambicus. In general, at neutral pH copper and zinc caused blood ...

  7. General Surveillance of the soil ecosystem: An approach to monitoring unexpected adverse effects of GMO's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Bergmans, H.; Bloem, J.; Griffiths, B.; Rutgers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union (EU) necessitates, according to EU legislation, the setting up of a General Surveillance (GS) system that should be able to detect unanticipated effects of GM crops on the environment. Although the applicant is

  8. Do general practices adhere to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    BACKGROUND: Well-organized cervical screening has been shown to be effective in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality from cancer of the uterine cervix. In The Netherlands, the GP plays an important role in the cervical screening. The question is whether the general practices are able to

  9. Relative Effectiveness of DRO and Self-Monitoring in a General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Michael J.; Gresham, Frank M.; Dart, Evan H.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes a research project designed to examine the relative effectiveness of a two non-function-based interventions (differential reinforcement of other behavior and self- monitoring) for decreasing problem behavior in a general education classroom for three students whose problem behaviors were hypothesized to be functionally…

  10. Effect of cisatracurium versus atracurium on intraocular pressure in patients undergoing tracheal intubation for general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Jabalameli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Compared with atracurium, administration of cisatracurium can better prevent the increase of IOP following tracheal intubation in general anesthesia. The observed difference might be related to different effects on hemodynamic variables. Application of these results in patients under ophthalmic surgery is warranted.

  11. Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Intervention in Dutch Pharmacies and General Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Ciska; Mudde, Aart N.; Dijk, Froukje; de Vries, Hein

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the effectiveness of a computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention, distributed through 75 Dutch general practices (GP) and 65 pharmacies (PH) in a randomised control trial. Design/methodology/approach: Respondents receive a tailored letter or a thank you letter (control condition). Main outcome…

  12. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students' Approach to General Gymnastics Course and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    The subjects of the present study are comprised of 50 university students who were enrolled in two classes of the general gymnastics course in the first year of Physical Education and Athletics Teaching during the 2009 to 2010 academic years. The purpose of this research, is to determine the effect of two different (cooperative and traditional)…

  13. The Effect of General Creative Personality and Freedom of Task Choice on Adolescents' Social Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chuanhua; Hu, Bi Ying; Ngwira, Flemmings Fishani; Jing, Zhi; Zhou, Zongkui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of general creative personality and freedom of task choice on the social creativity of adolescents. The results indicated, first, that senior high school students scored higher than junior high school students. Second, girls scored higher than boys on originality, fluency, flexibility, appropriateness, and…

  14. Quantum Gravity in Everyday Life: General Relativity as an Effective Field Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cliff P

    2004-01-01

    This article is meant as a summary and introduction to the ideas of effective field theory as applied to gravitational systems, ideas which provide the theoretical foundations for the modern use of general relativity as a theory from which precise predictions are possible.

  15. Macroeconomic effects of CO2 emission limits : A computable general equilibrium analysis for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    The study analyzes the macroeconomic effects of limiting China's CO2 emissions by using a time-recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Chinese economy. The baseline scenario for the Chinese economy over the period to 2010 is first developed under a set of assumptions

  16. The combined effect of cancer and chronic diseases on general practitioner consultation rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Donker, G.A.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: More than two-thirds of cancer patients have one or more chronic diseases besides cancer. The purpose of this study was to get detailed insight into the combined effect of cancer and chronic diseases on general practitioner (GP) consultation rates. Methods: From the NIVEL Primary Care Database

  17. The combined effect of cancer and chronic diseases on general practitioner consultation rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Donker, G.A.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: More than two-thirds of cancer patients have one or more chronic diseases besides cancer. The purpose of this study was to get detailed insight into the combined effect of cancer and chronic diseases on general practitioner (GP) consultation rates. Methods: From the NIVEL Primary Care Database

  18. Effect of Comprehensive Oncogenetics Training Interventions for General Practitioners, Evaluated at Multiple Performance Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, E.J.F.; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; van Teeffelen, S.R.; Henneman, L.; Rethans, J.J.; Jacobi, F.; van der Jagt, L.; Stirbu, I.; van Luijk, S.J.; Stumpel, C.T.R.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; van der Vleuten, C.; Cornel, M.C.; Dinant, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are increasingly called upon to identify patients at risk for hereditary cancers, and their genetic competencies need to be enhanced. This article gives an overview of a research project on how to build effective educational modules on genetics, assessed by randomized

  19. Effect of comprehensive oncogenetics training interventions for general practitioners, evaluated at multiple performance levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, E.J.; Muijtjens, A.M.; Teeffelen, S.R. van; Henneman, L.; Rethans, J.J.; Jacobi, F.; Jagt, L. van der; Stirbu, I.; Luijk, S.J. van; Stumpel, C.T.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Cornel, M.C; Dinant, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are increasingly called upon to identify patients at risk for hereditary cancers, and their genetic competencies need to be enhanced. This article gives an overview of a research project on how to build effective educational modules on genetics, assessed by randomized

  20. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  1. [Spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia in the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia. Cost-effectiveness analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ordóñez, M; Tenías, J M; Picazo-Yeste, J

    2014-05-01

    To compare the costs related to the clinical effectiveness of general anesthesia versus spinal anesthesia in inguinal hernioplasty ambulatory surgery. An observational, retrospective cohort study measurement and analysis of cost-effectiveness, in the ambulatory surgery unit of a general hospital. All patients over 18 years of age diagnosed with primary inguinal hernia and scheduled for unilateral hernioplasty between January 2010 and December 2011 were included. Duration of anesthetic induction, length of stay in both the operating room, and in the post-anesthesia care unit, the anesthetic effectiveness (the incidence of adverse effects and the patient's comfort level), and variable economic costs associated with the use of drugs, as well as the use of human resources, were compared. The final analysis included 218 patients, 87.2% male, with a mean age of 53 years (range: 18-85 years). Of these, 139 (63.76%) received subarachnoid anesthesia and 79,(36.2%) general anesthesia. The length of time a patient remained in the post-anesthesia care unit was 337.6±160.2min in the subarachnoid anesthesia group, and 210.0±97.5min for the general anesthesia group (Poutpatient inguinal hernia repair surgery. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Do elevated temperature and CO2 generally have counteracting effects on phenolic phytochemistry of boreal trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.O. Veteli; W.J. Mattson; P. Niemela; R. Julkunen-Tiitto; S. Kellomaki; K. Kuokkanen; A. Lavola

    2007-01-01

    Global climate change includes concomitant changes in many components of the abiotic flux necessary for plant life. In this paper, we investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 (720 ppm) and temperature (+2 K) on the phytochemistry of three deciduous tree species. The analysis revealed that elevated CO2 generally...

  3. Reconstruction of the History of the Photoelectric Effect and Its Implications for General Physics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The photoelectric effect is an important part of general physics textbooks. To study the presentation of this phenomenon, we have reconstructed six essential, history and philosophy of science (HPS)-related aspects of the events that culminated in Einstein proposing his hypothesis of lightquanta and the ensuing controversy within the scientific…

  4. Serious Mental Illness and Arrest: The Generalized Mediating Effect of Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, James A.; Lurigio, Arthur J.

    2007-01-01

    Past studies of the mediating effects of substance use on the criminal justice involvement of the mentally ill have tended to focus on a single disorder, schizophrenia, and on violent crimes. This study examined the generality of the relationships among psychiatric disorders, substance use, and arrests for violent, nonviolent, and drug-related…

  5. Measuring general relativity effects in a terrestrial lab by means of laser gyroscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Beverini, N; Beghi, A; Belfi, J; Bouhadef, B; Calamai, M; Carelli, G; Cuccato, D; Di Virgilio, A; Maccioni, E; Ortolan, A; Porzio, A; Santagata, R; Solimeno, S; Tartaglia, A

    2013-01-01

    GINGER is a proposed tridimensional array of laser gyroscopes with the aim of measuring the Lense-Thirring effect, predicted by the General Relativity theory, in a terrestrial laboratory environment. We discuss the required accuracy, the methods to achieve it, and the preliminary experimental work in this direction.

  6. Caution: Alcohol Advertising and the Surgeon General's Alcohol Warnings May Have Adverse Effects on Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Deborah J.; Snyder, Leslie B.

    A study investigated the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates in communication sciences at the University of Connecticut viewed slides of alcohol products, with or without advertisements and warnings. Following the viewings, subjects filled…

  7. General and Specific Self-Esteem in Late Adolescent Students: Race x Gender x SES Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Charles L.; And Others

    Self-concept formation has long been considered the most significant developmental milestone of adolescence. To assess the effects of gender, race, and social class on the general and area-specific self-esteem of late adolescents, 195 eleventh grade students, divided according gender, race (black, white), and social class (low, middle, high) were…

  8. The Gender-Linked Language Effect: An Empirical Test of a General Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Anthony; Giles, Howard; Bradac, James J.; Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    The gender-linked language effect (GLLE) is a phenomenon in which transcripts of female communicators are rated higher on Socio-Intellectual Status and Aesthetic Quality and male communicators are rated higher on Dynamism. This study proposed and tested a new general process model explanation for the GLLE, a central mediating element of which…

  9. The effect of intrauterine growth retardation on the quality of general movements in the human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; Visser, G H; Prechtl, H F

    The effect of severe intrauterine growth retardation on the quality of general movements was studied longitudinally in 17 human fetuses. During the prenatal and postnatal periods, fetal movements were recorded by means of weekly 1 h ultrasound and video registrations. Neurological examinations were

  10. The effects of different decalcification protocols on TUNEL and general cartilage staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, PJ; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, R

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by DNA strand breaks with a 3'-OH terminus, which are analyzed by terminal deoxy(d)-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Proteinase K digestion is thought to be an essential step in the TUNEL procedure. The effects of decalcifying reagents on general staining and the TUNEL assay

  11. Enhanced anger superiority effect in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin, Chris; Holas, Pawel; Broadhurst, Shanna; Kokoszka, Andrzej; Georgiou, George A.; Fox, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    People are typically faster and more accurate to detect angry compared to happy faces, which is known as the anger superiority effect. Many cognitive models of anxiety suggest anxiety disorders involve attentional biases towards threat, although the nature of these biases remains unclear. The present study used a Face-in-the-Crowd task to investigate the anger superiority effect in a control group and patients diagnosed with either generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or panic disorder (PD). Th...

  12. Alprazolam withdrawal in patients with panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder: vulnerability and effect of carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E; Colin, V; Stolk, J; Lenox, R H

    1994-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the possibility that patients with panic disorder are especially vulnerable to alprazolam withdrawal, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of carbamazepine as adjunctive treatment during alprazolam discontinuation. After a 2-month open trial of alprazolam, 36 patients with panic disorder and 35 with generalized anxiety disorder entered a controlled discontinuation phase. Carbamazepine or placebo was added in a randomized, double-blind fashion, followed after 1 week by single-blind dose reduction of alprazolam, approximately 25% every third day. Fifty-two percent of the patients were able to discontinue alprazolam, but only 37% completed the study, maintaining alprazolam-free status for 4 weeks. Survival analysis revealed that among the patients receiving placebo as adjunctive therapy, panic disorder patients had a significantly greater dropout rate than patients with generalized anxiety disorder. While carbamazepine exerted no beneficial effect for patients with generalized anxiety disorder, it appeared to improve outcome in the panic disorder group. Results of this study indicate that panic disorder patients are more vulnerable to alprazolam withdrawal than patients with generalized anxiety disorder, and this may reflect a general diathesis of panic disorder patients to encounter more difficulty during drug withdrawal. Carbamazepine may selectively assist with alprazolam withdrawal in panic disorder patients. However, these data do not support its widespread use during benzodiazepine discontinuation, especially given its potential toxicity. In light of a proposed greater vulnerability of panic disorder patients to withdrawal, future studies need to account for differential effects related to specific diagnosis.

  13. Analytic theory of curvature effects for wave problems with general boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan

    2010-01-01

    A formalism based on a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory is used to obtain analytic expressions for confined eigenmode changes due to general curvature effects. In cases of circular-shaped and helix-shaped structures, where alternative analytic solutions can be found......, the perturbative solution is shown to yield the same result. The present technique allows the generalization of earlier results to arbitrary boundary conditions. The power of the method is illustrated using examples based on Maxwell’s and Schrödinger’s equations for applications in photonics and nanoelectronics....

  14. Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. The Turn-of-the-Month-Effect: Evidence from Periodic Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (PGARCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Giovanis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the turn of the month effect on stock returns in 20 countries. This will allow us to explore whether the seasonal patterns usually found in global data; America, Australia, Europe and Asia. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS is problematic as it leads to unreliable estimations; because of the autocorrelation and Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH effects existence. For this reason Generalized GARCH models are estimated. Two approaches are followed. The first is the symmetric Generalized ARCH (1,1 model. However, previous studies found that volatility tends to increase more when the stock market index decreases than when the stock market index increases by the same amount. In addition there is higher seasonality in volatility rather on average returns. For this reason the Periodic-GARCH (1,1 is estimated. The findings support the persistence of the specific calendar effect in 19 out of 20 countries examined.

  16. Testing for constant nonparametric effects in general semiparametric regression models with interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei

    2011-07-01

    We consider the problem of testing for a constant nonparametric effect in a general semi-parametric regression model when there is the potential for interaction between the parametrically and nonparametrically modeled variables. The work was originally motivated by a unique testing problem in genetic epidemiology (Chatterjee, et al., 2006) that involved a typical generalized linear model but with an additional term reminiscent of the Tukey one-degree-of-freedom formulation, and their interest was in testing for main effects of the genetic variables, while gaining statistical power by allowing for a possible interaction between genes and the environment. Later work (Maity, et al., 2009) involved the possibility of modeling the environmental variable nonparametrically, but they focused on whether there was a parametric main effect for the genetic variables. In this paper, we consider the complementary problem, where the interest is in testing for the main effect of the nonparametrically modeled environmental variable. We derive a generalized likelihood ratio test for this hypothesis, show how to implement it, and provide evidence that our method can improve statistical power when compared to standard partially linear models with main effects only. We use the method for the primary purpose of analyzing data from a case-control study of colorectal adenoma.

  17. General practitioners' perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions: an exploration of underlying constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions shown to be effective through clinical trials are not readily implemented in clinical practice. Unfortunately, little is known regarding how clinicians construct their perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions. This study aims to explore general practitioners' perceptions of the nature of 'effectiveness'. Methods The design was qualitative in nature using the repertory grid technique to elicit the constructs underlying the perceived effectiveness of a range of medical interventions. Eight medical interventions were used as stimuli (diclophenac to reduce acute pain, cognitive behaviour therapy to treat depression, weight loss surgery to achieve weight loss, diet and exercise to prevent type 2 diabetes, statins to prevent heart disease, stopping smoking to prevent heart disease, nicotine replacement therapy to stop smoking, and stop smoking groups to stop smoking. The setting involved face-to-face interviews followed by questionnaires in London Primary Care Trusts. Participants included a random sample of 13 general practitioners. Results Analysis of the ratings showed that the constructs clustered around two dimensions: low patient effort versus high patient effort (dimension one, and small impact versus large impact (dimension two. Dimension one represented constructs such as 'success requires little motivation', 'not a lifestyle intervention', and 'health-care professional led intervention'. Dimension two represented constructs such as 'weak and/or minimal evidence of effectiveness', 'small treatment effect for users', 'a small proportion of users will benefit' and 'not cost-effective'. Constructs within each dimension were closely related. Conclusions General practitioners judged the effectiveness of medical interventions by considering two broad dimensions: the extent to which interventions involve patient effort, and the size of their impact. The latter is informed by trial evidence, but

  18. A generalized estimating equations approach to mixed-effects ordinal probit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy R; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2004-11-01

    Clustered ordinal responses, which are commonplace in behavioural and educational research, are often analysed using mixed-effects ordinal probit models. Likelihood-based inference for these models can be computationally burdensome, and may compromise the consistency of estimators if the model is misspecified. We propose an alternative inferential approach based on generalized estimating equations. We show that systems of estimating equations can be specified for mixed-effects ordinal probit models that avoid the potentially heavy computational demands of maximum likelihood estimation, and can also provide inferences that are robust with respect to some forms of model misspecification--particularly serial effects in longitudinal data.

  19. Effect of resilient liner on masticatory efficiency and general patient satisfaction in completely edentulous patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangtani, Nidhi; Pillai, Rajath; Babu, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of resilient lined denture on patient masticatory efficiency, general patient satisfaction and denture quality as compare to conventional complete denture over a period of one year. Material and methodology: A total of 28 completely edentulous patients (14 males...... denture liner – group 2). All patients were clinically evaluated to assess the denture quality, and administered questionnaires for masticatory efficiency and patients general satisfaction level at three intervals i.e. one month (T0), 6 months (T1) and 1 year post-insertion (T2). Results: Statistical...... masticatory efficiency improved significantly over time in controls, while in experimental group masticatory efficiency remained the same (p>.05) for almost all the questions. Patient general satisfaction score at different time intervals for each question showed no significant difference (P>.05) on inter...

  20. Effect of a tailored physical activity intervention delivered in general practice settings: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluijs, E.M.F.; van Poppel-Bruinvels, M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Calfas, K.J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of a minimal intervention physical activity strategy (physician-based assessment and counseling for exercise [PACE]) applied in general practice settings in the Netherlands. Methods. Randomization took place at the general practice level. Participants were

  1. Is the Generally Held View That Intravenous Dihydroergotamine Is Effective in Migraine Based on Wrong "General Consensus" of One Trial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekan, Goran; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2016-01-01

    the results in the more than 100 articles subsequently referring to the article. METHODS: The correctness of the stated effect of intravenous DHE in the randomized clinical trial (RCT) was first critically evaluated. Then, Google Scholar was searched for references to the article and these references were...... for the article in Google scholar. Among the 95 articles with a judgment on the efficacy of intravenous DHE in the RCT, 90 stated that DHE was effective or likely effective whereas only 5 articles stated that DHE was ineffective. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a "negative" RCT, authors of subsequent articles...

  2. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC AND STATIC STRETCHING WITHIN GENERAL AND ACTIVITY SPECIFIC WARM-UP PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Samson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1 general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2 general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3 general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4 general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance, countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013 in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083 than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance

  3. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Azam; Sirati-Nir, Masoud; Ebadi, Abbas; Aliasgari, Matin; Hajiamini, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy may be accompanied by serious physiological and psychological changes as it is a stressful period in a woman's life. So, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health. In this clinical trial, 60 primigravida women admitted to the prenatal clinic of selected hospitals in Iran constituted the study population. Using purposive sampling method, the level of general health of the women was measured with General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Then, the samples were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Three 1.5-2 h relaxation training sessions were held for the experimental group. After 8 weeks, the level of general health of both groups was measured again. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using Chi-square and paired t-test (P progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health, the prenatal clinics can include a training program for progressive muscle relaxation in the routine training programs for pregnant women.

  4. Effects of Dynamic and Static Stretching Within General and Activity Specific Warm-Up Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Michael; Button, Duane C.; Chaouachi, Anis; Behm, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1) general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2) general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3) general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4) general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance), countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013) in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM) by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083) than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance. Key pointsActivity specific warm-up may improve sprint performance.Static stretching was more effective than dynamic stretching for increasing static range of motion.There was no effect of the warm-up protocols on countermovement jump height or movement time. PMID:24149201

  5. Generalized essential energy space random walks to more effectively accelerate solute sampling in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2012-01-28

    Molecular dynamics sampling can be enhanced via the promoting of potential energy fluctuations, for instance, based on a Hamiltonian modified with the addition of a potential-energy-dependent biasing term. To overcome the diffusion sampling issue, which reveals the fact that enlargement of event-irrelevant energy fluctuations may abolish sampling efficiency, the essential energy space random walk (EESRW) approach was proposed earlier. To more effectively accelerate the sampling of solute conformations in aqueous environment, in the current work, we generalized the EESRW method to a two-dimension-EESRW (2D-EESRW) strategy. Specifically, the essential internal energy component of a focused region and the essential interaction energy component between the focused region and the environmental region are employed to define the two-dimensional essential energy space. This proposal is motivated by the general observation that in different conformational events, the two essential energy components have distinctive interplays. Model studies on the alanine dipeptide and the aspartate-arginine peptide demonstrate sampling improvement over the original one-dimension-EESRW strategy; with the same biasing level, the present generalization allows more effective acceleration of the sampling of conformational transitions in aqueous solution. The 2D-EESRW generalization is readily extended to higher dimension schemes and employed in more advanced enhanced-sampling schemes, such as the recent orthogonal space random walk method. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  6. Generalized poroviscoelastic model based on effective Biot theory and its application to borehole guided wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Heinson, Graham

    2016-12-01

    A method using modified attenuation factor function is suggested to determine the parameters of the generalized Zener model approximating the attenuation factor function. This method is applied to constitute the poroviscoelastic model based on the effective Biot theory which considers the attenuative solid frame of reservoir. In the poroviscoelastic model, frequency-dependent bulk modulus and shear modulus of solid frame are represented by generalized Zener models. As an application, the borehole logging dispersion equations from Biot theory are extended to include effects from the intrinsic body attenuation in formation media in full-frequency range. The velocity dispersions of borehole guided waves are calculated to investigate the influence from attenuative bore fluid, attenuative solid frame of the formation and impermeable bore wall.

  7. Effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems: a general approach and examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blekhman, I. I.; Sorokin, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    A general approach to study effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems is developed. It implies a transition from initial governing equations of motion to much more simple equations describing only the main slow component of motions (the vibro-transformed dynamics equat.......g., the requirement for the involved nonlinearities to be weak. The approach is illustrated by several relevant examples from various fields of science, e.g., mechanics, physics, chemistry and biophysics.......A general approach to study effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems is developed. It implies a transition from initial governing equations of motion to much more simple equations describing only the main slow component of motions (the vibro-transformed dynamics...

  8. Testing concordance of instrumental variable effects in generalized linear models with application to Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, James Y.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Hsu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental variable regression is one way to overcome unmeasured confounding and estimate causal effect in observational studies. Built on structural mean models, there has been considerale work recently developed for consistent estimation of causal relative risk and causal odds ratio. Such models can sometimes suffer from identification issues for weak instruments. This hampered the applicability of Mendelian randomization analysis in genetic epidemiology. When there are multiple genetic variants available as instrumental variables, and causal effect is defined in a generalized linear model in the presence of unmeasured confounders, we propose to test concordance between instrumental variable effects on the intermediate exposure and instrumental variable effects on the disease outcome, as a means to test the causal effect. We show that a class of generalized least squares estimators provide valid and consistent tests of causality. For causal effect of a continuous exposure on a dichotomous outcome in logistic models, the proposed estimators are shown to be asymptotically conservative. When the disease outcome is rare, such estimators are consistent due to the log-linear approximation of the logistic function. Optimality of such estimators relative to the well-known two-stage least squares estimator and the double-logistic structural mean model is further discussed. PMID:24863158

  9. Effects of a Fluctuating Carrying Capacity on the Generalized Malthus-Verhulst Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Calisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalized Malthus-Verhulst model with a fluctuating carrying capacity and we study its effects on population growth. The carrying capacity fluctuations are described by a Poissonian process with an exponential correlation function. We will find an analytical expression for the average of a number of individuals and show that even in presence of a fluctuating carrying capacity the average tends asymptotically to a constant quantity.

  10. Effect of specific soccer training on general soccer ability of high fit tribal soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Gopal Chandra Saha; Dr. Hiralal Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of specific soccer training on General Soccer ability (volleying Skill) by using Mcdonald Soccer Test of high fit tribal soccer players. ninety, high fit tribal Soccer players out of two hundred and seventy, 9th and 10th grade school level tribal Soccer players from Ergoda School parihati of paschim Medinipur, District of West Bengal were randomly selected as the tribal subjects for this study. To ascertain the high fit tribal Soccer play...

  11. Effects of different methods of general anesthesia on intraoperative awareness in surgical patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Haijiao; Wu, Di

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and combined of intravenous and inhaled anesthesia (CIIA) on intraoperative awareness in surgical patients. A total of 678 patients were recruited in the CIIA group, while TIVA group included 566 patients. The clinical characteristics and the occurrence of intraoperative awareness were compared between the groups. Mini-Mental State Examination, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7, and Patient He...

  12. General practitioners' beliefs about effectiveness and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications: qualitative and quantitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners' (GPs negative beliefs about nicotine dependence medications may act as barriers to prescribing them. Methods Study1: Twenty-five GPs from 16 practices across London were interviewed in this qualitative study. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes. Study 2: A convenience sample of 367 GPs completed an internet-based survey. Path-analysis was used to examine the relations between beliefs and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications. Results Study 1: Whilst nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and bupropion were generally perceived as effective and cost-effective, the effectiveness of NRT was seen as critically dependent on behavioural support for smoking cessation. This dependence appeared to be influenced by perceptions that without support smokers would neglect psychological aspects of smoking and use NRT incorrectly. GPs perceived bupropion as dangerous and were concerned about its side-effects. Study 2: GPs' beliefs had medium (NRT, f2 = .23 to large (bupropion, f2=.45; NRT without support, f2=.59 effects on their intentions to prescribe medications. Beliefs about effectiveness of NRT and bupropion and the perceived danger of bupropion were the key predictors of intentions to prescribe NRT and bupropion, respectively. Beliefs about neglecting psychological aspects of smoking and incorrect use had indirect effects on intentions to prescribe NRT without support, operating via beliefs about effectiveness. Conclusion GPs vary in their beliefs about the effectiveness and safety of smoking cessation medications. Their intentions to prescribe these medications vary in line with these beliefs. Interventions aimed at increasing the likelihood with which GPs prescribe these medications may be more effective if they addressed these beliefs.

  13. Prevention, screening and treatment of colorectal cancer: a global and regional generalized cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Benjamin P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of prevention, screening and treatment interventions for colorectal cancer are presented. Methods Standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology was used. A colorectal cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. Results In regions characterised by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of screening to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective, although no particular intervention stands out in cost-effectiveness terms relative to the others. In regions characterised by low income, low mortality with existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without screening is cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening (no treatment scenario would not be cost effective. In regions characterised by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, the most cost-effective intervention is expanding treatment. Conclusions From a cost-effectiveness standpoint, screening programmes should be expanded in developed regions and treatment programmes should be established for colorectal cancer in regions with low treatment coverage.

  14. Some general effects of strong high-frequency excitation: stiffening, biasing, and smoothening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2002-01-01

    that can be modeled by a finite number of second order ordinary differential equations, generally nonlinear, with periodically oscillating excitation terms of high frequency and small amplitude. The results should be useful for understanding the effects in question in a broader perspective than is possible......Mechanical high-frequency (HF) excitation provides a working principle behind many industrial and natural applications and phenomena. This paper concerns three particular effects of HF excitation, that may change the apparent characteristics of mechanical systems: 1) stiffening, by which...

  15. GINGER (Gyroscopes IN General Relativity), a ring lasers array to measure the Lense-Thirring effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Angela D. V.

    The purpose of the GINGER is to perform the first test of general relativity (not considering the gravitational redshift measurements) in a terrestrial laboratory, using light as a probe. The experiment will complement the ones in space, performed or under way, with an entirely different technique and at a far lower cost. The methodology is based on ring-lasers, which are extremely accurate rotation sensors and can not only sense purely kinematical rotations (Sagnac effect accounting for the Earth rotation, polar motion of the terrestrial axis, local rotational movements of the laboratory due to the Earth crust dynamics...), but also general relativistic contributions such as the de Sitter effect (coupling between the gravito-electric field of the earth and the kinematical rotation) and the Lense-Thirring effect (inertial frame dragging due to the angular momentum of the earth). In order to reveal the latter effects, ring-laser response must be improved to be able to measure the effective rotation vector (kinematic plus GR terms) with an accuracy of 1 part in 109 or better. This is a challenging technological aspect, which however has been accurately taken into account by designing a system of ring lasers that will be implemented in this project. A ring laser have been installed inside the underground laboratory of GranSasso, with the purpose to see if an underground location is the right choice for GINGER. The apparatus and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  16. The effect of music on the neurohormonal stress response to surgery under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneault, Brigitte; Girard, François; Albert, Caroline; Chouinard, Philippe; Boudreault, Daniel; Provencher, Diane; Todorov, Alexandre; Ruel, Monique; Girard, Dominique C

    2004-02-01

    Several pharmacological interventions reduce perioperative stress hormone release during surgery under general anesthesia. Listening to music and therapeutic suggestions were also studied, but mostly in awake patients, and these have a positive effect on postoperative recovery and the need for analgesia. In this study, we evaluated the effect of listening to music under general anesthesia on the neurohormonal response to surgical stress as measured by epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) blood levels. Thirty female patients scheduled for abdominal gynecological procedures were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: group NM (no music) and group M (music). In group M, music was played from after the induction of anesthesia until the end of surgery. In the NM group, the patients wore the headphones but no music was played. We established three sample times for hormonal dosage during the procedure and one in the recovery room. Hemodynamic data were recorded at all times, and postoperative consumption of morphine in the first 24 h was noted. There was no group difference at any sample time or in the postoperative period in terms of mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, isoflurane end-tidal concentration, time of the day at which the surgery was performed, bispectral index (BIS) value, doses of fentanyl, or consumption of postoperative morphine. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to plasmatic levels of norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, or ACTH at any sample time, although the blood level of these hormones significantly increased in each group with surgical stimulation. In conclusion, we could not demonstrate a significant effect of intraoperative music on surgical stress when used under general anesthesia. Listening to music under general anesthesia did not reduce perioperative stress hormone release or opioid consumption in patients undergoing gynecological surgery.

  17. The effect of domain-general inhibition-related training on language switching: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanhuan; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan; Fan, Ning; Chen, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that inhibitory control ability could be improved by training, and the Inhibitory Control (IC) Model implies that enhanced domain-general inhibition may elicit certain changes in language switch costs. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of domain-general inhibition training on performance in a language switching task, including which phase of domain-general inhibitory control benefits from training during an overt picture naming task in L1 and L2, using the event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results showed that the language switch costs of bilinguals with high inhibitory control (high-IC) were symmetrical in both pretest and posttest, and those of bilinguals with low inhibitory control (low-IC) were asymmetrical in the pretest, but symmetrical in the posttest. Moreover, the high-IC group showed a larger LPC (late positive component) for L2 switch trials than for L1 trials in both pretest and posttest. In contrast, the low-IC group only exhibited a similar pattern of LPC in the posttest, but not in the pretest. These results indicate that inhibition training could increase the efficiency of language switching, and inhibitory control may play a key role during the lexical selection response phase. Overall, the present study is the first one to provide electrophysiological evidence for individual differences in the domain-general inhibition impact on language switching performance in low-proficient bilinguals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency and effects of non-English consultations in New Zealand general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearn, Andy; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Everts, Hans; Huggard, Peter

    2007-10-26

    To identify the frequency of non-English languages used in general practice consultations and to explore the effects on practice for general practitioners (GPs). Randomly selected Auckland GPs were telephone-interviewed using standardised questions. Interview data were entered electronically in real time and audiotaped. Data were reviewed upon collection and analysed using constant comparison thematic content analysis. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS (v12) software. Eighty GPs were interviewed. Forty-two spoke one or more languages apart from English. Thirty-one different languages were spoken, 83% of which were used in patient consultation. Most GPs (73/80) experienced language difficulties in practice. Three broad issues arose: English language proficiency per se, accented English, and physical problems affecting speech. Four themes reflected the influence of language difficulties on the encounter: information sharing, process effects, cultural issues, and use of interpreters. Non-English language consultations occur commonly within current Auckland general practice with associated issues of misunderstanding and interpretation difficulties. GPs are often called upon to use their own language skills, especially Asian and Pacific Island tongues. Non-English speaking encounters frequently require additional time. Patients with some English language proficiency may cause more anxiety than those with none. Non-professional interpreters may colour or alter patients' meaning and accurate translation is required rather than 'interpretation'.

  19. Retrospective analysis of 30-day mortality for emergency general surgery admissions evaluating the weekend effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, I J D; McLean, R C; Dixon, S; O'Loughlin, P

    2016-10-01

    The weekend effect describes excess mortality associated with hospital admission on Saturday or Sunday. This study assessed whether a weekend effect exists for patients admitted for emergency general surgery. Data for emergency general surgical admissions to National Health Service hospitals in the Northern Deanery in England between 2000 and 2014 were collected, including demographics, co-morbidities, diagnoses, operations undertaken and outcomes. The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital death within 30 days of admission. Cox regression analysis was undertaken with adjustment for co-variables. There were 12 100 in-hospital deaths within 30 days of admission (3·3 per cent). The overall 30-day mortality rate reduced significantly during the 15-year interval studied, from 5·4 per cent (2000-2004) to 4·0 per cent (2005-2009) and 2·9 per cent during 2010-2014 (P surgery at the weekend compared with weekdays in 2000-2004 (HR 1·46 for Saturday and 1·55 for Sunday; both P surgery based on day of operation, but not day of admission. Overall mortality for emergency general surgery has improved significantly, and in the past 5 years the increased mortality risk of weekend surgery has reduced. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children's Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Nasser; Shahtusi, Mina; Haj Norousali Tehrani, Maryam; Nazari, Sara

    2014-09-01

    Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events.

  1. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  2. Effect of an Aquatic Endurance Exercise on Mental General Health in Male Elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Sadreddin Shojaeddin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aquatic exercise is one of the major activities that recommend to elderly people. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aquatic endurance exercise on the mental health, physical symptoms, social performance, anxiety and depression of the male elders. Methods & Materials: In this study, 30 male elders were selected and randomly divided into control and experimental groups. First, all subjects completed General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Then the experimental group received 6 weeks aquatic endurance exercise (three sessions per week for six weeks and the control group performed their daily routine activities. After the training intervention, both groups again completed the GHQ - 28. Data analysis with paired and independent samples t-test was performed. Results: The results showed that aquatic endurance exercise has significant effect on mental health (P=0.000, physical symptoms (P=0.000, social performance (P=0.000, anxiety (P=0.034 and depression (P=0.000 of the experimental groups, while in the control group who had not participated in aquatic endurance exercises, no significant changes were observed. The results also showed that there is a significant difference (P=0.001 between the average score of mental general health of experimental and control group after the exercise. Conclusion: Based on this study it can be concluded that aquatic endurance exercise has a positive impact to geriatric psychiatric assessment on the mental general health, physical symptoms, social performance, anxiety and depression.

  3. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  4. Slip effects on a generalized Burgers’ fluid flow between two side walls with fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research for the 3D flow of a generalized Burgers’ fluid between two side walls generated by an exponential accelerating plate and a constant pressure gradient, where the no-slip assumption between the exponential accelerating plate and the Burgers’ fluid is no longer valid. The governing equations of the generalized Burgers’ fluid flow are established by using the fractional calculus approach. Exact analytic solutions for the 3D flow are established by employing the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier sine transform. Furthermore, some 3D and 2D figures for the fluid velocity and shear stress are plotted to analyze and discuss the effects of various parameters.

  5. Extending the linear model with R generalized linear, mixed effects and nonparametric regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2005-01-01

    Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...

  6. SNR Wall Effect Alleviation by Generalized Detector Employed in Cognitive Radio Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbat, Modar Safir; Tuzlukov, Vyacheslav

    2015-07-03

    The most commonly used spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio (CR) networks, such as the energy detector (ED), matched filter (MF), and others, suffer from the noise uncertainty and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) wall phenomenon. These detectors cannot achieve the required signal detection performance regardless of the sensing time. In this paper, we explore a signal processing scheme, namely, the generalized detector (GD) constructed based on the generalized approach to signal processing (GASP) in noise, in spectrum sensing of CR network based on antenna array with the purpose to alleviate the SNR wall problem and improve the signal detection robustness under the low SNR. The simulation results confirm our theoretical issues and effectiveness of GD implementation in CR networks based on antenna array.

  7. Psychological Effect of a Mass Casualty Event on General Surgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havron, William S; Safcsak, Karen; Corsa, Joshua; Loudon, Andrew; Cheatham, Michael L

    To evaluate the psychological effect of a mass casualty shooting event on general surgery residents. Three and 7 months following the Pulse nightclub mass casualty shooting, the mental well-being of general surgery residents employed at the receiving institution was evaluated. A voluntary and anonymous screening questionnaire for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) was administered. Responses were stratified into 2 groups; residents who worked (ON-CALL) and residents who did not work (OFF-CALL) the night of the event. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests and are reported as median with interquartile range (IQR) or percentage. Level I trauma center. Thirty-one general surgery residents. Twenty-four residents (77%) returned the 3-month questionnaire: 10 ON-CALL and 14 OFF-CALL. There was no difference in PTSD and MD between the 2 groups (30% vs. 14%; p = 0.61) and (30% vs. 7%; p = 0.27), respectively. Twenty-three of the 24 residents responded to the 7-month questionnaire. Over time, the incidence of PTSD did not resolve in the ON-CALL group, but did resolve in the OFF-CALL group (30% vs. 0%; p = 0.07). There was no significant change in the incidence of MD in either group (30% vs. 8%; p = 0.28). At 7 months postevent, more residents in both groups stated that they had sought counseling (30% vs. 44%; p = 0.65) and (0% vs. 15%; p = 0.22). The emotional toll associated with this mass casualty event had a substantial effect upon the general surgery residents involved. With the incidence of PTSD and MD identified, we believe that all residents should be provided with counseling following such events. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anomaly-induced effective action and Chern–Simons modification of general relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently it was shown that the quantum vacuum effects of massless chiral fermion field in curved space–time leads to the parity-violating Pontryagin density term, which appears in the trace anomaly with imaginary coefficient. In the present work the anomaly-induced effective action with the parity-violating term is derived. The result is similar to the Chern–Simons modified general relativity, which was extensively studied in the last decade, but with the kinetic terms for the scalar different from those considered previously in the literature. The parity-breaking term makes no effect on the zero-order cosmology, but it is expected to be relevant in the black hole solutions and in the cosmological perturbations, especially gravitational waves.

  9. Enhanced anger superiority effect in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Holas, Pawel; Broadhurst, Shanna; Kokoszka, Andrzej; Georgiou, George A; Fox, Elaine

    2012-03-01

    People are typically faster and more accurate to detect angry compared to happy faces, which is known as the anger superiority effect. Many cognitive models of anxiety suggest anxiety disorders involve attentional biases towards threat, although the nature of these biases remains unclear. The present study used a Face-in-the-Crowd task to investigate the anger superiority effect in a control group and patients diagnosed with either generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or panic disorder (PD). The main finding was that both anxiety groups showed an enhanced anger superiority effect compared to controls, which is consistent with key theories of anxiety. Furthermore, both anxiety groups showed a differential pattern of enhanced bias towards threat depending on the crowd in the displays. The different attentional bias patterns between the GAD and PD groups may be related to the diverse symptoms in these disorders. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of lexical factors on recall from working memory: Generalizing the neighborhood size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraugh, Lesley S; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M; Beaudry, Olivia; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2017-03-01

    The word-length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, is 1 of the 4 benchmark phenomena that guided development of the phonological loop component of working memory. However, previous work has noted a confound in word-length studies: The short words used had more orthographic neighbors (valid words that can be made by changing a single letter in the target word) than long words. The confound is that words with more neighbors are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbors. Two experiments are reported that address criticisms of the neighborhood-size account of the word-length effect by (1) testing 2 new stimulus sets, (2) using open rather than closed pools of words, and (3) using stimuli from a language other than English. In both experiments, words from large neighborhoods were better recalled than words from small neighborhoods. The results add to the growing number of studies demonstrating the substantial contribution of long-term memory to what have traditionally been identified as working memory tasks. The data are more easily explained by models incorporating the concept of redintegration rather than by frameworks such as the phonological loop that posit decay offset by rehearsal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Improving the effectiveness of interpreted consultations: Australian interpreter, general practitioner and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Farley, Rebecca; Claudio, Fernanda; Avila, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare consultations with patients lacking English proficiency are challenging for all parties, even in Australian primary care where the engagement of interpreters is encouraged and fully subsidised. Our objective was to understand these challenges from the perspectives of interpreters, patients and general practitioners in order to improve the effectiveness of interpreted consultations. Our investigator team approached the interpreted consultation as an interprofessional collaboration. A convenience sample of seven general practitioners, eight health interpreters and six representatives from culturally and linguistically diverse communities (representing the patient perspective) participated in three separate focus group discussions, lasting 60-90 min each, exploring participant experiences with healthcare consultations in which interpreters were present. Two semistructured interviews were undertaken subsequently with three additional community representatives purposively recruited to increase participant diversity. Data were collected in 2016 and analysed inductively using a method of constant comparison to identify, and reach consensus on, key emerging themes. All participant groups emphasised the importance of working with trained interpreters, rather than relying on family interpreters or a doctor's own second language skills. Although participants reported experiences of effective interpreted consultations, other reports suggested that some doctors are unaware of, or have difficulty following, accepted guidelines about speech, gaze and turn-taking. Challenges identified in relation to interpreted consultations fell into the five themes of contextual constraints, consultation complexity, communication difficulties, the interpreter role and collaboration. Some general practitioner participants appeared to be unsure and anxious about the etiquette of interpreted consultations, and there was some confusion between and within participant groups about

  12. Effects of conventional anticonvulsant drugs on generalized tonic-clonic seizures in Noda epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Maki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Kaneko, Yuka; Noda, Atsushi; Naito, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Noda epileptic rats (NERs) present with clinico-pathological manifestations reminiscent of human generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy. Thus, this strain of rat has been a model of primary, generalized, tonic-clonic epilepsy. However, the infrequency of seizures in these rats makes the assessment of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) difficult. Therefore, traditional AEDs have only been tested in NERs against audiogenic seizures evoked by weekly acoustic priming from 3 to 22 weeks of age or by using the kindling procedure in adult animals. Adult NERs are susceptible to changes in their environment, such as bedding replacement or unpleasant sensory stimuli. In the present study, traditional AEDs-phenobarbital (PB) and sodium valproate (VPA)-were evaluated against seizures evoked by strong environmental stimuli in mature NERs that had not been previously primed. The number of animals presenting with seizures decreased in a dose-dependent manner following administration of either PB (dose range 1.0-5.0mg/kg) or VPA (50 and 100mg/kg). Consequently, the utility of NERs as a model of generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy was confirmed. This type of protocol can be used to further evaluate AEDs and test effects of chronic administration of AEDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical effects of colonic cleansing for general health promotion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Ruben D; Cash, Brooks D

    2009-11-01

    The practice of colonic cleansing to promote general health and well-being continues to generate interest among the lay population. These practices are widely touted as adjuncts to improve vitality and as therapeutic modalities to minimize the symptoms, or prevent the actual development, of a variety of chronic disease states. The data supporting colonic cleansing and body "detoxification" have not been studied well in a systematic manner. This report describes a systematic review of the published literature of both the traditional and complementary and alternative medicine arenas that was performed in an attempt to qualify and quantify the value of colonic cleansing. The investigators concluded that there are no methodologically rigorous controlled trials of colonic cleansing to support the practice for general health promotion. Conversely, there are multiple case reports and case series that describe the adverse effects of colonic cleansing. The practice of colonic cleansing to improve or promote general health is not supported in the published literature and cannot be recommended at this time.

  14. Determination and generalization of the effects of design parameters on Francis turbine runner performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Ayli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The runner design is the most challenging part of the turbine design process. Several parameters determine the performance and cavitation characteristics of the runner: the metal angle (flow beta angle, the alpha angle, the blade beta angle, the runner inlet and outlet diameters, and the blade height. All of these geometrical parameters need to be optimized to ensure that the head, flow rate and power requirements of the system are met. A hydraulic designer has to allocate time to optimize these parameters and should be experienced in carrying out the iterative design process. In this article, the turbine runner parameters that affect the performance and cavitation characteristics of designed turbines are examined in detail. Furthermore, turbines are custom designed according to the properties of hydroelectric power plants; this makes the design process even more challenging, as the rotational speed, runner geometry, system head and flow rate vary for each turbine. The effects of the design parameters are examined for four different turbine runners specifically designed and used in actual power plants in order to obtain general results and generalizations applicable to turbine design aided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The flow behavior, flow angles, head losses, pressure distribution, and cavitation characteristics are computed, analyzed, and compared. To assist hydraulic designers, the general influences of these parameters on the performance of turbines are summarized and empirical formulations are derived for runner performance characterization.

  15. Psychological effects of prescriptive vs general lifestyle advice for weight loss in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew S; Norman, Robert J; Clifton, Peter M; Noakes, Manny

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of prescriptive lifestyle advice with quantifiable dietary and physical goals compared to general lifestyle advice on weight and psychological outcomes in young women with overweight or obesity. A total of 203 women (body mass index 33.3+/-0.3, age 28+/-0.3 years) received either prescriptive or general lifestyle advice for weight loss over 12 weeks. Linear mixed models found that the prescriptive lifestyle advice group had significantly greater weight loss (4.2+/-0.4 kg vs 0.6+/-0.2 kg, Padvice group. However, the prescriptive lifestyle advice group also had greater attrition (48% vs 31%, Padvice group. Linear mixed models found that the prescriptive lifestyle advice group had greater improvement in psychological distress (-3.0+/-0.04 vs -1.1+/-0.01, Padvice group. Changes in psychological distress and self-esteem remained significantly different between groups after correcting for weight loss. Food cravings decreased significantly over time without group differences (P0.05). Drop-outs had greater baseline psychological distress (15.1+/-0.7 vs 12.5+/-0.4, Pyoung women compared to general lifestyle advice. However, these quantitative targets should be accompanied with qualitative advice on how they could be met in a variety of circumstances.

  16. Detecting treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered data with generalized linear mixed-effects model trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, M; Smits, N; Zeileis, A; Hothorn, T; Kelderman, H

    2017-10-25

    Identification of subgroups of patients for whom treatment A is more effective than treatment B, and vice versa, is of key importance to the development of personalized medicine. Tree-based algorithms are helpful tools for the detection of such interactions, but none of the available algorithms allow for taking into account clustered or nested dataset structures, which are particularly common in psychological research. Therefore, we propose the generalized linear mixed-effects model tree (GLMM tree) algorithm, which allows for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions, while accounting for the clustered structure of a dataset. The algorithm uses model-based recursive partitioning to detect treatment-subgroup interactions, and a GLMM to estimate the random-effects parameters. In a simulation study, GLMM trees show higher accuracy in recovering treatment-subgroup interactions, higher predictive accuracy, and lower type II error rates than linear-model-based recursive partitioning and mixed-effects regression trees. Also, GLMM trees show somewhat higher predictive accuracy than linear mixed-effects models with pre-specified interaction effects, on average. We illustrate the application of GLMM trees on an individual patient-level data meta-analysis on treatments for depression. We conclude that GLMM trees are a promising exploratory tool for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered datasets.

  17. The testing effect in general chemistry: Effects of repeated testing on student performance across different test modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisacari, Anna Agripina

    Research on the testing effect shows that practice tests are more effective than additional studying for enhancing learning. However, there has been little research directly addressing the role of additional testing when students take paper-based or computer-based tests in college courses. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the testing effect and test mode on student performance. The participants were 664 general chemistry students from two large universities in the Midwest and the Pacific Northwest. After covering the test material in their course, students completed two proctored practice tests that included 17 algorithmic question pairs, 5 conceptual pairs, and 2 definition pairs. Each practice test was delivered on computer or paper according to one of four conditions that were defined by the mode of the initial test and the mode of the final test. These conditions were: Computer-Computer, Computer-Paper, Paper-Computer, and Paper-Paper. After completing the initial practice test, students repeated half of the items. Feedback was provided after each test and performance was measured with normalized gains. After completing all of the tests, students were asked to indicate and explain their test mode preferences for general chemistry tests. Four major conclusions resulted from the study. First, the testing effect was found in all conditions, but varied in terms of the test mode. Paper-Computer showed the lowest gains and these gains were significantly lower than those for Paper-Paper. Gains from Computer-Paper and Paper-Paper were not significantly different from each other. Second, the test mode did not affect the students' performance on algorithmic questions, but affected their performance on conceptual and definition questions. Third, the gains from repeated items were significantly higher than the gains from non-repeated items. However, this testing effect was not consistent across all areas of chemistry content. Fourth, a

  18. General and specific solvent effects in optical spectra of ortho-aminobenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Marcelo; Ito, Amando Siuiti

    2005-03-01

    We describe studies about solvent effects on the absorption and emission properties of o-aminobenzoic acid (o-Abz), interpreting the results within the framework of general and specific solute-solvent interactions. Measurements were performed in several solvents and analysis of the absorption and emission wavelengths were made based on Lippert's model for general solvent effects and on the use of different parameters to describe the ability of the solvent to promote specific interactions with the solute. We observed low sensitivity of the Stokes shift upon changes in the medium polarity, and large deviation from the linearity predicted by Lippert's equation when the solvents were characterized as Bronsted acid in the Kamlet-Taft pi* scale. Quantum yield and fluorescence lifetimes were best interpreted based on the AN+DN scale used to describe the electron donor/acceptor properties of the solvent. The results indicated that non-radiative deexcitation processes are favoured in solvents which promote the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond, while interactions with electron acceptor solvents lead to enhancement of fluorescence.

  19. Volunteering and health benefits in general adults: cumulative effects and forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jerf W K; Zhang, Zhuoni; Kim, Tae Yeun

    2017-07-11

    Although the health benefits of volunteering have been well documented, no research has examined its cumulative effects according to other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering on multiple health outcomes in the general adult public. This study examined other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering in cumulative contribution to health outcomes (mental and physical health, life satisfaction, social well-being and depression). Data were drawn from the Survey of Texas Adults 2004, which contains a statewide population-based sample of adults (n = 1504). Multivariate linear regression and Wald test of parameters equivalence constraint were used to test the relationships. Both forms of volunteering were significantly related to better health outcomes (odds ratios = 3.66% to 11.11%), except the effect of self-oriented volunteering on depression. Other-oriented volunteering was found to have better health benefits than did self-volunteering. Volunteering should be promoted by public health, education and policy practitioners as a kind of healthy lifestyle, especially for the social subgroups of elders, ethnic minorities, those with little education, single people, and unemployed people, who generally have poorer health and less participation in volunteering.

  20. Motivating Exercise: The Interactive Effect of General Action Goals and Past Behavior on Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity (“just do it”, “be active”) hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise. PMID:23606776

  1. The effect of a focused instructional session on knowledge of surgical staplers in general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Ryan J; Karmali, Shahzeer; Reso, Artan; Paolucci, Elizabeth; Sherman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Surgical stapling devices have been used for a variety of purposes in both laparoscopic and open surgery. Nevertheless, trainees rarely receive any focused instruction on their application and use. This study attempts to determine the baseline knowledge of surgical stapling devices possessed by surgical residents. Furthermore, we attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of a short didactic session in improving the trainee's knowledge of the use and function of surgical staplers. A 20-question multiple-choice test was created to evaluate a general surgery resident's knowledge on the design and use of circular, linear, and laparoscopic surgical staplers. The test was administered before and after attending a 40-minute instructional session on surgical stapling devices. The tests were then scored by a data analyst. A total of 26 residents of 39 in the residency program (26/39, 67%) participated. The pretest mean was 10.62/20 (53%), whereas the posttest mean was 15.38/20 (77%). These results were significantly different on paired samples t-test analysis (t((25)) = -10.3; p 0.05). There is a deficiency of knowledge of surgical staplers in general surgery residents, more so in junior residents. Didactic instruction is effective in raising the level of knowledge of surgical staplers in all residents, up to a similar level. Surgical educators should consider implementing programs like these for staplers and other types of surgical equipment.

  2. An effective formalism for testing extensions to General Relativity with gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, Solomon; Gorbenko, Victor; Huang, Junwu; Senatore, Leonardo

    2017-09-01

    The recent direct observation of gravitational waves (GW) from merging black holes opens up the possibility of exploring the theory of gravity in the strong regime at an unprecedented level. It is therefore interesting to explore which extensions to General Relativity (GR) could be detected. We construct an Effective Field Theory (EFT) satisfying the following requirements. It is testable with GW observations; it is consistent with other experiments, including short distance tests of GR; it agrees with widely accepted principles of physics, such as locality, causality and unitarity; and it does not involve new light degrees of freedom. The most general theory satisfying these requirements corresponds to adding to the GR Lagrangian operators constructed out of powers of the Riemann tensor, suppressed by a scale comparable to the curvature of the observed merging binaries. The presence of these operators modifies the gravitational potential between the compact objects, as well as their effective mass and current quadrupoles, ultimately correcting the waveform of the emitted GW.

  3. General practitioners' beliefs about effectiveness and intentions to recommend smoking cessation services: qualitative and quantitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners' (GPs negative beliefs about smoking cessation services may act as barriers to them recommending such services to smokers motivated to stop smoking. Methods In Study 1, 25 GPs from 16 practices across London were interviewed in this qualitative study. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes in GPs' beliefs about smoking cessation services. In Study 2, a convenience sample of 367 GPs completed an internet-based survey. Path-analysis was used to examine relationships between beliefs identified in Study 1 and intentions to recommend smoking cessation services. Results In Study 1, GPs felt that smoking cessation assistance was best provided by others. GPs favoured local services (i.e. practice nurses offering stop smoking support over central services (i.e. offered through the Primary Care Trust, mainly because these were seen as more personalised and accessible for patients. These beliefs appeared to influence GPs' beliefs about the effectiveness of services. In Study 2, GPs' beliefs had a large effect on their intentions to recommend both central services, (f2 = .79 and local services, (f2 = 1.04. GPs' beliefs about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness were key predictors their intentions to recommend central services and local services. Beliefs about the level of personalisation offered and smokers' likelihood of attending services had indirect effects on intentions to recommend services operating via beliefs about effectiveness. Conclusion GPs vary in their perceptions of the effectiveness of smoking cessation services and their intentions to recommend these services vary in line with these beliefs. Interventions aimed at increasing the likelihood with which GPs recommend these services may therefore be more effective if they addressed these beliefs.

  4. Health Education and General Practitioner Training in Hypertension Management: Long-Term Effects on Kidney Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, Tazeen H; Allen, John C; Jehan, Imtiaz; Hameed, Aamir; Saffari, Seyed Ehsan; Ebrahim, Shah; Poulter, Neil; Chaturvedi, Nish

    2016-06-06

    In the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation trial, a 2×2 factorial design study (2004-2007), the combined home health education and trained general practitioner intervention delivered over 2 years was more effective than no intervention (usual care) in lowering systolic BP among adults with hypertension in urban Pakistan. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the interventions on kidney function. In 2012-2013, we conducted extended follow-up of a total of 1271 individuals aged ≥40 years with hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or receipt of antihypertensive treatment) and serum creatinine measurements with 2 years in-trial and 5 years of post-trial period in 12 randomly selected low-income communities in Karachi, Pakistan. The change in eGFR from baseline to 7 years was assessed among randomized groups using a generalized estimating equation method with multiple imputation of missing values. At 7 years of follow-up, adjusted mean eGFR remained unchanged, with a change of -0.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.5 to 2.9) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) among adults randomly assigned to the combined home health education plus trained general practitioner intervention compared with a significant decline of -3.6 (95% CI, -5.7 to -2.0) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in those assigned to usual care (P=0.01, modified intention-to-treat analysis). The risk for the combined intervention of death from kidney failure or >20% decline in eGFR relative to usual care was significantly reduced (risk ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.89). The combined home health education plus trained general practitioner intervention is beneficial in preserving kidney function among adults with hypertension in communities in Karachi. These findings highlight the importance of scaling up simple strategies for renal risk reduction in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Relative age effects in fitness testing in a general school sample: how relative are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Scott; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Faught, Brent

    2015-01-01

    When children or adolescents are grouped by age or year of birth, older individuals tend to outperform younger ones. These phenomena are known as relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs may result directly from differences in maturation, but may also be associated with psychological, pedagogic or other factors. In this article, we attempt to quantify RAEs in a simple fitness task and to identify the mechanisms operating. Data come from a 5-year study of 2278 individuals that included repeated administrations of the 20 m shuttle run. We use mixed-effect modelling to characterise change over time and then examine residuals from these models for evidence of an effect for age relative to peers or for season of birth. Age alone appears to account for RAEs in our sample, with no effects for age relative to peers or month of birth. Age grouping produces large disparities for girls under 12, moderate ones for boys of all ages and negligible ones for girls between 12 and 15. RAEs for this task and population appear to arise from simple age differences. Similar methods may be useful in determining whether other explanations of RAEs are necessary in other contexts. Evaluation processes that take age into account have the potential to mitigate RAEs in general settings.

  6. Task-specific and general cognitive effects in Chiari malformation type I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A Allen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use episodic memory and executive function tests to determine whether or not Chiari Malformation Type I (CM patients experience cognitive dysfunction. BACKGROUND: CM is a neurological syndrome in which the cerebellum descends into the cervical spine causing neural compression, severe headaches, neck pain, and number of other physical symptoms. While primarily a disorder of the cervico-medullary junction, both clinicians and researchers have suspected deficits in higher-level cognitive function. DESIGN AND METHODS: We tested 24 CM patients who had undergone decompression neurosurgery and 24 age- and education-matched controls on measures of immediate and delayed episodic memory, as well as three measures of executive function. RESULTS: The CM group showed performance decrements relative to the controls in response inhibition (Stroop interference, working memory computational speed (Ospan, and processing speed (automated digit symbol substitution task, but group differences in recall did not reach statistical significance. After statistical control for depression and anxiety scores, the group effects for working memory and processing speed were eliminated, but not for response inhibition. This response inhibition difference was not due to overall general slowing for the CM group, either, because when controls' data were transformed using the linear function fit to all of the reaction time tasks, the interaction with group remained statistically significant. Furthermore, there was a multivariate group effect for all of the response time measures and immediate and delayed recall after statistical control of depression and anxiety scores. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CM patients with decompression surgery exhibit cognitive dysfunction compared to age- and education-matched controls. While some of these results may be related to anxiety and depression (likely proxies for chronic pain, response inhibition

  7. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Natasha J; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien L M

    2015-05-01

    A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. A three-arm cluster randomised trial was conducted in a mixed method study, studying the effect of administering a patient safety culture questionnaire (intervention I), the questionnaire complemented with a practice-based workshop (intervention II) and no intervention (control) in 30 general practices in the Netherlands. The primary outcome, the number of reported incidents, was measured with a questionnaire at baseline and a year after. Analysis was performed using a negative binomial model. Secondary outcomes were quality and safety indicators and safety culture. Mixed effects linear regression was used to analyse the culture questionnaires. The number of incidents increased in both intervention groups, to 82 and 224 in intervention I and II respectively. Adjusted for baseline number of incidents, practice size and accreditation status, the study showed that practices that additionally participated in the workshop reported 42 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.81 to 177.50) times more incidents compared to the control group. Practices that only completed the questionnaire reported 5 (95% CI = 1.17 to 25.49) times more incidents. There were no statistically significant differences in staff perception of patient safety culture at follow-up between the three study groups. Educating staff and facilitating discussion about patient safety culture in their own practice leads to increased reporting of incidents. It is beneficial to invest in a team-wise effort to improve patient safety. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  9. Behavioral and emotional effects of repeated general anesthesia in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H Bakri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preclinical and clinical data suggest the possibility of neurotoxicity following exposure of young children to general anesthetics with subsequent behavioral disturbances. The aim of the study was to determine the overall effect of repeated general anesthesia on behavior and emotions of young children aged 1½-5 years old, compared to healthy children. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five children underwent repeated anesthesia and surgery were matched with the same number of healthy children who attended vaccination clinic, as a control group. Both groups were administered the child behavior checklist (CBCL 1½-5 years and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM oriented scale. Behavior data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The CBCL score revealed that children with repeated anesthesia were at risk to become anxious or depressed (relative risk [RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11 [1.5-80.7], to have sleep (RR; 95% CI = 4.5 [1.1-19.4], and attention problems (RR; 95% CI = 8 [1.1-60.6]. There was no difference in the risk between the two groups regarding emotionally reactive, somatic complaints, withdrawn problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing or externalizing problems. On DSM scale, children with repeated anesthesia were at risk to develop anxiety problems (RR; 95% CI = 3.7 [1.1-12.0], and attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (RR; 95% CI = 3 [1.1-8.4]. There was no difference in the risk between the two groups regarding affective, pervasive developmental and oppositional defiant problems. Conclusion: Young children who undergone repeated surgical procedures under general anesthesia were at risk for subsequent behavioral and emotional disturbances. Proper perioperative pain management, social support, and avoidance of unpleasant surgical experiences could minimize these untoward consequences.

  10. Inflammatory cytokines in general and central obesity and modulating effects of physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Chronic systemic inflammation in obesity originates from local immune responses in visceral adipose tissue. However, assessment of a broad range of inflammation-mediating cytokines and their relationship to physical activity and adipometrics has scarcely been reported to date.To characterize the profile of a broad range of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the impact of physical activity and energy expenditure in individuals with general obesity, central obesity, and non-obese subjects.A cross-sectional study comprising 117 obese patients (body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and 83 non-obese community-based volunteers.Serum levels of interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured. Physical activity and energy expenditure (MET were assessed with actigraphy. Adipometrics comprised BMI, weight, abdominal-, waist- and hip-circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR.General obesity was associated with significantly elevated levels of IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ and TNF-α, central obesity with significantly elevated IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IFN-γ-levels. In participants with general obesity, levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly elevated in participants with low physical activity, even when controlled for BMI which was negatively associated with physical acitivity. Cytokines significantly correlated with adipometrics, particularly in obese participants.Results confirm up-regulation of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in obesity. In obese subjects, physical activity may lower levels and thus reduce pro-inflammatory effects of cytokines that may link obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  11. The effect of caregiver-delivered social-communication interventions on skill generalization and maintenance in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ee Rea; Neely, Leslie; Gerow, Stephanie; Gann, Candace

    2018-01-19

    Although caregiver-delivered social communication interventions have been considered scientifically proven practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorders, it is not well examined if these types of intervention modes are truly effective in promoting skill generalization and maintenance within those individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the status of the extant literature regarding the measures on generalization and/or maintenance of effects of caregiver-delivered communication interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis evaluated peer-reviewed research regarding the effects of caregiver-implemented interventions on the maintenance and generalization of the social-communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorders. A total of 34 articles were included following a systematic search. Articles were summarized according to the following categories: (a) generalization dimension, (b) generalization assessment design, (c) maintenance assessment design, (d) generalization/maintenance teaching strategy, and (e) latency to maintenance probes. After application of design standards, aggregate Tau-U and non-overlap of pairs effect sizes were calculated with a total of 67 separate contrasts across seven studies. Overall, effect size scores ranged from small to large effects across all comparisons. On average, most of the baseline to maintenance and generalization comparisons produced moderate to large effects. Whereas, small to moderate or even deteriorate effects were found in most of the intervention to maintenance and generalization comparisons. The findings in this review suggest that caregiver-delivered social-communication interventions are likely to result in mixed effects on skill generalization and maintenance within children with autism spectrum disorders. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. Copyright

  12. Effects of Devoflurane and Sevoflurane on Cognitive Function in Elderly Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chunlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing general anesthesia. Methods Eighty elderly patients undergoing general anesthesia under open surgery were enrolled in this study, ASA I ~ II, were divided into group A (desflurane group and group B (sevoflurane group randomly. Intravenous drugs included midazolam 0.03 mg / kg, sufentanil 0.5ug / kg, propofol 1-2mg / kg, vecuronium 0.1 mg / kg. All patients were treated with desflurane or sevoflurane to maintain anesthesia, with depth 1.2 ~ 1.4MAC. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE scores were recorded before operation and 1h, 6h, 12h, 24h and 48h after operation. Results The MMSE scores of the two groups had no significant difference before operation but were significantly lower than those before operation (P <0.05. The MMSE scores of patients in group recovered at 12h after operation(P <0.05. Scores of group B returned in 24h after operation. Scores of group A were higher than group B at 1 h, 6 h and 12 h after operation, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion The recovery time of cognitive function in elderly desflurane anesthesia patients was significantly less than that of sevoflurane.

  13. [Exploration on the effect and mechanism of shenfu injection on resuscitation from general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuan-dong; Min, Su

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the effect and the mechanism of Shenfu injection (SFI) on the resuscitation from general anesthesia. Forty patients who received selective abdominal surgery with general anesthesia for 3-4 hrs and ASA grade I-II were divided into two groups, the trial group and the control group, 20 patients in each group. After being sent into the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), the trial group was treated with intravenous dripping of SFI 1.0 ml/kg and the control group was treated with intravenous dripping of equal volume of normal saline. All patients were observed in double blindly manner, the self ventilation recovery time, extubation time, the time of leaving PACU and their Glasgow coma scale (GCS) were recorded and compared. 2 ml of peripheral venous blood were taken to determine the plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) content at the time points of before (T1), 5 min (T2), 15 min (T3) and 30 min (T4) after dripping. The self ventilation recovery time, extubation time and time of leaving PACU in the trial group were all shorter than those in the control group (P 0.05), but at T3 and T4, the content was higher in the trial group than that in the control group respectively (P mechanism may be related with its action in raising plasma beta-EP level.

  14. Generalized warping effect in the dynamic analysis of beams of arbitrary cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikaros, I. C.; Sapountzakis, E. J.; Argyridi, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a general formulation for the nonuniform warping dynamic analysis of beams of arbitrary simply or multiply connected cross section, under arbitrary external loading and general boundary conditions is presented taking into account the effects of rotary and warping inertia. The nonuniform warping distributions are taken into account by employing four independent warping parameters multiplying a shear warping function in each direction and two torsional warping functions, respectively, which are obtained by solving the corresponding boundary value problems, formulated exploiting the longitudinal local equilibrium equation. A shear stress "correction" is also performed in order to improve the stress field arising from the employed kinematical considerations. Ten initial boundary value problems are formulated with respect to the displacement and rotation components as well as to the independent warping parameters and solved using the Analog Equation Method, a Boundary Element Method based technique in combination with an appropriate time integration scheme. The warping functions and the geometric constants including the additional ones due to warping are evaluated employing a pure BEM approach.

  15. Generalized slow roll in the unified effective field theory of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Hu, Wayne

    2017-07-01

    We provide a compact and unified treatment of power spectrum observables for the effective field theory (EFT) of inflation with the complete set of operators that lead to second-order equations of motion in metric perturbations in both space and time derivatives, including Horndeski and Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi theories. We relate the EFT operators in ADM form to the four additional free functions of time in the scalar and tensor equations. Using the generalized slow-roll formalism, we show that each power spectrum can be described by an integral over a single source that is a function of its respective sound horizon. With this correspondence, existing model independent constraints on the source function can be simply reinterpreted in the more general inflationary context. By expanding these sources around an optimized freeze-out epoch, we also provide characterizations of these spectra in terms of five slow-roll hierarchies whose leading-order forms are compact and accurate as long as EFT coefficients vary only on time scales greater than an e -fold. We also clarify the relationship between the unitary gauge observables employed in the EFT and the comoving gauge observables of the postinflationary universe.

  16. The Effect of Magnetic Field and Initial Stress on Fractional Order Generalized Thermoelastic Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Deswal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study magneto-thermoelastic interactions in an initially stressed isotropic homogeneous half-space in the context of fractional order theory of generalized thermoelasticity. State space formulation with the Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the general solution, and the resulting formulation is applied to the ramp type increase in thermal load and zero stress. Solutions of the problem in the physical domain are obtained by using a numerical method of the Laplace inverse transform based on the Fourier expansion technique, and the expressions for the displacement, temperature, and stress inside the half-space are obtained. Numerical computations are carried out for a particular material for illustrating the results. Results obtained for the field variables are displayed graphically. Some comparisons have been shown in figures to present the effect of fractional parameter, ramp parameter, magnetic field, and initial stress on the field variables. Some particular cases of special interest have been deduced from the present investigation.

  17. Communication Skills in Dental Students: New Data Regarding Retention and Generalization of Training Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Hillary L; Janal, Malvin; Mitnick, Danielle M; Rodriguez, Jasmine Y; Sischo, Lacey

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that a communications program using patient instructors (PIs) facilitates data-gathering and interpersonal skills of third-year dental students. The aim of this study was to address the question of whether those skills are retained into the students' fourth year and generalized from the classroom to the clinic. In the formative training phase, three cohorts of D3 students (N=1,038) at one dental school received instruction regarding effective patient-doctor communication; interviewed three PIs and received PI feedback; and participated in a reflective seminar with a behavioral science instructor. In the follow-up competency phase, fourth-year students performed two new patient interviews in the clinic that were observed and evaluated by clinical dental faculty members trained in communications. Mean scores on a standardized communications rating scale and data-gathering assessment were compared over training and follow-up sessions and between cohorts with a linear mixed model. The analysis showed that the third-year students' mean communication and data-gathering scores increased with each additional encounter with a PI (pcommunication scores were not only maintained but increased during the fourth-year follow-up competency evaluations (pcommunications curriculum, prior instruction facilitated the students' clinical communication performance at baseline (pCommunications program improved students' data-gathering and interpersonal skills. Those skills were maintained and generalized through completion of the D4 students' summative competency performance in a clinical setting.

  18. Effect of generalized joint hypermobility on knee function and muscle activation in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Olesen, Annesofie T.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated muscle activation strategy and performance of knee extensor and flexor muscles in children and adults with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and compared them with controls. Methods: Muscle activation, torque steadiness, electromechanical delay, and muscle strength...... was greater in GJH during knee flexion compared with controls. Torque steadiness was impaired in adults with GJH during knee flexion. No effect of GJH was found on muscle strength or electromechanical delay. Correlation analysis revealed an association between GJH severity and function in adults. Conclusions......: The results indicate that muscle activation strategy and quality of force control were significantly affected in adults with GJH during knee flexion, whereas only muscle activation strategy was affected in children with GJH. Muscle Nerve, 2013....

  19. Sea quark densities in the effective chiral quark model with generalized harmonic oscillator potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdanpannah, M.M.; Dehghanzadeh, M. [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirjalili, A. [Yazd University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The solution of the Dirac equation with a generalized harmonic oscillator potential is used to extract the constituent bare parton densities. The results are firstly in spatial space which are converted to momentum space, using the Fourier transformation. The final results are presented in terms of the Bjorken x-variable. Employing the effective chiral quark model and the related convolutions, the parton densities inside the proton are obtained. Choosing an appropriate radius of proton, they indicate reasonable behavior. Although the initial framework is completely theoretical, the results for the sea and valence quark densities and also the ratio of d to u valence quarks inside the proton are in good agreement with the available experimental data and some theoretical models. (orig.)

  20. Motivation towards extracurricular activities and motivation at school: A test of the generalization effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Guay, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is a promising avenue for enhancing students' school motivation. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the goal of this study was to test a serial multiple mediator model. In this model, students' perceptions of autonomy support from their extracurricular activity leader predicted their activity-based intrinsic and identified regulations. In turn, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations during the same school year. Finally, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations one year later. A total of 276 youths (54% girls) from disadvantaged neighborhoods were surveyed over two waves of data collection. The proposed mediation model was supported for both types of regulation. These results highlight the generalization effects of motivation from the extracurricular activity context to the school context. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generalized linear longitudinal mixed models with linear covariance structure and multiplicative random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Jørgensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a versatile class of multiplicative generalized linear longitudinal mixed models (GLLMM) with additive dispersion components, based on explicit modelling of the covariance structure. The class incorporates a longitudinal structure into the random effects models and retains...... a marginal as well as a conditional interpretation. The estimation procedure is based on a computationally efficient quasi-score method for the regression parameters combined with a REML-like bias-corrected Pearson estimating function for the dispersion and correlation parameters. This avoids...... the multidimensional integral of the conventional GLMM likelihood and allows an extension of the robust empirical sandwich estimator for use with both association and regression parameters. The method is applied to a set of otholit data, used for age determination of fish....

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of the patient’s response to drug effect during general anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Clara; Tenreiro Machado, Jose; De Keyser, Robin; Decruyenaere, Johan; Struys, Michel M. R. F.

    2015-03-01

    In today's healthcare paradigm, optimal sedation during anesthesia plays an important role both in patient welfare and in the socio-economic context. For the closed-loop control of general anesthesia, two drugs have proven to have stable, rapid onset times: propofol and remifentanil. These drugs are related to their effect in the bispectral index, a measure of EEG signal. In this paper wavelet time-frequency analysis is used to extract useful information from the clinical signals, since they are time-varying and mark important changes in patient's response to drug dose. Model based predictive control algorithms are employed to regulate the depth of sedation by manipulating these two drugs. The results of identification from real data and the simulation of the closed loop control performance suggest that the proposed approach can bring an improvement of 9% in overall robustness and may be suitable for clinical practice.

  3. Effect of Generalized Uncertainty Principle on Main-Sequence Stars and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the effect of generalized uncertainty principle, emerged from different approaches of quantum gravity within Planck scale, on thermodynamic properties of photon, nonrelativistic ideal gases, and degenerate fermions. A modification in pressure, particle number, and energy density are calculated. Astrophysical objects such as main-sequence stars and white dwarfs are examined and discussed as an application. A modification in Lane-Emden equation due to a change in a polytropic relation caused by the presence of quantum gravity is investigated. The applicable range of quantum gravity parameters is estimated. The bounds in the perturbed parameters are relatively large but they may be considered reasonable values in the astrophysical regime.

  4. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including....... One hundred and thirty-three GPs completed the project. The main outcome measures were the number of consultations involving AIDS prevention and the number of talks about AIDS initiated by the GP, and some elements of the content were registered on a chart. RESULTS: No statistically significant...... difference was observed in the frequency of consultations involving AIDS prevention between the intervention group (1.2% of consultations) and the control group (1.4%). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed regarding the content of these consultations or regarding the fraction...

  5. Effects of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on general reproductive performance and teratology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Fernanda B; Jacobus, Daniela; Carvalho, Kelly; Mello, João R B

    2005-03-15

    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) possesses several medicinal properties and it is used in folk medicine with antipyretic, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. This plant is one of the 10 most noxious weeds in the world. Lantana poisoning have caused severe economic losses and was the major cause of livestock mortality and morbidity. In this article we report the effects of hydroalcoholic extract from Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves on fertility, general reproductive performance and teratology in the rat. The data showed that the extract interfered in the frequency of fetal skeleton anomalies from dams treated with the extract and induced embryotoxicity as indicated by post-implantation loss, without any signs of maternal toxicity. The other parameters evaluated did not suggest modifications.

  6. Generalized effects in two-group cross sections and discontinuity factors for PWR`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabellos, O.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    In order to improve the internal core 3-D calculation, a extended parametrization of 2-group cross sections and discontinuity factors have been developed and implemented in the SEANAP system. We have introduced additional `generalized state` variables: a new spectral history index, equivalencing the different burnup paths in parameter space, and new boundary indexes, to account for the intragroup spectral effects due to changes in the boundary conditions by the different kinds of neighbor cells or nodes. The new library per cell type including fuel pins at different locations or with gadolinium, water tubes, control rods and burnable absorber tubes, is used by COBAYA for cell-by-cell 2D diffusion calculations. (author)

  7. On fitting generalized linear mixed-effects models for binary responses using different statistical packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Lu, Naiji; Feng, Changyong; Thurston, Sally W; Xia, Yinglin; Zhu, Liang; Tu, Xin M

    2011-09-10

    The generalized linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) is a popular paradigm to extend models for cross-sectional data to a longitudinal setting. When applied to modeling binary responses, different software packages and even different procedures within a package may give quite different results. In this report, we describe the statistical approaches that underlie these different procedures and discuss their strengths and weaknesses when applied to fit correlated binary responses. We then illustrate these considerations by applying these procedures implemented in some popular software packages to simulated and real study data. Our simulation results indicate a lack of reliability for most of the procedures considered, which carries significant implications for applying such popular software packages in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Sleep on Children’s Word Retention and Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Axelsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first few years of life children spend a good proportion of time sleeping as well as acquiring the meanings of hundreds of words and their related associations. There is now ample evidence of the effects of sleep on memory in adults and the number of studies demonstrating the effects of napping and nocturnal sleep in children is also mounting. In particular, sleep appears to benefit children’s memory for recently-encountered novel words. The effect of sleep on children’s generalization of novel words across multiple items, however, is less clear. Given that sleep is polyphasic in the early years, made up of multiple episodes, and children’s word learning is gradual and strengthened slowly over time, it is highly plausible that sleep is a strong candidate in supporting children’s memory for novel words. Importantly, it appears that when children sleep shortly after exposure to novel word-object pairs retention is better than if sleep is delayed, suggesting that napping plays a vital role in long-term word retention for young children. Word learning is a complex, challenging and important part of development, thus the role that sleep plays in children’s retention of novel words is worthy of attention. As such, ensuring children get sufficient good quality sleep and regular opportunities to nap may be critical for strong language acquisition.

  9. Determining the distribution of fitness effects using a generalized Beta-Burr distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Paul; Abdo, Zaid

    2017-07-12

    In Beisel et al. (2007), a likelihood framework, based on extreme value theory (EVT), was developed for determining the distribution of fitness effects for adaptive mutations. In this paper we extend this framework beyond the extreme distributions and develop a likelihood framework for testing whether or not extreme value theory applies. By making two simple adjustments to the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) we introduce a new simple five parameter probability density function that incorporates nearly every common (continuous) probability model ever used. This means that all of the common models are nested. This has important implications in model selection beyond determining the distribution of fitness effects. However, we demonstrate the use of this distribution utilizing likelihood ratio testing to evaluate alternative distributions to the Gumbel and Weibull domains of attraction of fitness effects. We use a bootstrap strategy, utilizing importance sampling, to determine where in the parameter space will the test be most powerful in detecting deviations from these domains and at what sample size, with focus on small sample sizes (nProbability Theory and Mathematical Statistics. A Tribute section is provided at the end that includes Paul's original writing in the first iterations of this manuscript. The Introduction and Alternatives to the GPD sections were obtained from the last iteration that Paul and I have worked on, with some adjustments. I hope that the rest gives justice to his thoughts and possible conclusions that he might have wanted to portray. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of music therapy under general anesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahloul, Mohamed; Mhamdi, Salah; Nakhli, Mohamed Said; Sfeyhi, Ahmed Nadhir; Azzaza, Mohamed; Chaouch, Ajmi; Naija, Walid

    2017-12-01

    Music therapy, an innovative approach that has proven effectiveness in many medical conditions, seems beneficial also in managing surgical patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness. This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted in the operating theatre of visceral surgery at Sahloul Teaching Hospital over a period of 4 months. Patients aged more than 18 undergoing a scheduled surgery under general anesthesia were included. Patients undergoing urgent surgery or presenting hearing or cognitive disorders were excluded. Before induction, patients wore headphones linked to an MP3 player. They were randomly allocated into 2 groups: Group M (with music during surgery) and group C (without music). Hemodynamic parameters, quality of arousal, pain experienced, patient's satisfaction, and awareness incidence during anesthesia were recorded. One hundred and forty patients were included and allocated into 2 groups that were comparable in demographic characteristics, surgical intervention type and anesthesia duration. Comparison of these two groups regarding the hemodynamic profile found more stability in group M for systolic arterial blood pressure. A calm recovery was more often noted in group M (77.1% versus 44%, p < 10-3). The average Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score was lower in the intervention group (33.8 ± 13.63 versus 45.1 ± 16.2; p < 10-3). The satisfaction rate was significantly higher among the experimental group (81.4% versus 51.4%; p < 10-3). The incidence of intraoperative awareness was higher in group C (8 cases versus 3 cases) but the difference was not statistically significant. Music therapy is a non-pharmacological, inexpensive, and non-invasive technique that can significantly enhance patient satisfaction and decrease patients' embarrassing experiences related to perioperative stress, pain, and awareness.

  11. Long-term enhancement of maze learning in mice via a generalized Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Peter; Jones, Timothy; Shaw, Gordon L; Bodner, Mark

    2005-12-01

    An animal model of the 'generalized Mozart effect' (GME) - enhanced/normalized higher brain function in response to music exposure - has been established. We extend those results in two studies using another species (mice). Study 1: (1) maze testing after music exposure was extended to a minimum of 6 hours; (2) no exposure to music in utero. Study 2: (1) music exposure time further reduced; (2) maze testing extended to 24 hours. Study 1: two mouse groups were exposed to music continuously for 10 hours per day for 10 weeks (Group I: Mozart's Sonata K.448, Group II: Beethoven's Fur Elise). After 10 weeks, the ability to negotiate a T-maze was assessed (recording working time in maze, number of errors). Maze ability was tested 6 hours following the last music exposure. Study 2: two mouse groups were exposed periodically to music (58% silence) 10 hours per day for 10 weeks. Experiments after 10 weeks examined the groups' abilities to run the maze (recording working time/errors). Experiments were conducted 24 hours following the last music exposure. The Mozart group exhibited significant enhancements compared with the control mice in both studies, i.e. significantly lower working time (p<0.05) and committed fewer errors. Observation of GME in another species supports its generality for the mammalian cortex. The absence of a GME in fMRI studies for the control music also indicates a neurophysiological basis. With extended exposure, GME is a long-term effect, indicating potential clinical importance. It has been demonstrated that GME reduces neuropathological spiking significantly in epileptics. We discuss the relevance of this study for epilepsy treatment.

  12. Effects of eHealth Literacy on General Practitioner Consultations: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Peter Johannes; Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne; Hess, Alexandra; Sudbury-Riley, Lynn; Hartung, Uwe

    2017-05-16

    Most evidence (not all) points in the direction that individuals with a higher level of health literacy will less frequently utilize the health care system than individuals with lower levels of health literacy. The underlying reasons of this effect are largely unclear, though people's ability to seek health information independently at the time of wide availability of such information on the Internet has been cited in this context. We propose and test two potential mediators of the negative effect of eHealth literacy on health care utilization: (1) health information seeking and (2) gain in empowerment by information seeking. Data were collected in New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States using a Web-based survey administered by a company specialized on providing online panels. Combined, the three samples resulted in a total of 996 baby boomers born between 1946 and 1965 who had used the Internet to search for and share health information in the previous 6 months. Measured variables include eHealth literacy, Internet health information seeking, the self-perceived gain in empowerment by that information, and the number of consultations with one's general practitioner (GP). Path analysis was employed for data analysis. We found a bundle of indirect effect paths showing a positive relationship between health literacy and health care utilization: via health information seeking (Path 1), via gain in empowerment (Path 2), and via both (Path 3). In addition to the emergence of these indirect effects, the direct effect of health literacy on health care utilization disappeared. The indirect paths from health literacy via information seeking and empowerment to GP consultations can be interpreted as a dynamic process and an expression of the ability to find, process, and understand relevant information when that is necessary.

  13. Detection of parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits using general pedigree data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai-Qiang; Mao, Wei-Gao; Pan, Dongdong; Zhou, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Ping-Yan; Fung, Wing Kam

    2014-08-01

    Genomic imprinting is a genetic phenomenon in which certain alleles are differentially expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, and plays an important role in the study of complex traits. For a diallelic marker locus in human, the parentalasymmetry tests Q-PAT(c) with any constant c were developed to detect parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits. However, these methods can only be applied to deal with nuclear families and thus are not suitable for extended pedigrees. In this study, by making no assumption about the distribution of the quantitative trait, we first propose the pedigree parentalasymmetry tests Q-PPAT(c) with any constant c for quantitative traits to test for parent-of-origin effects based on nuclear families with complete information from general pedigree data, in the presence of association between marker alleles under study and quantitative traits. When there are any genotypes missing in pedigrees, we utilize Monte Carlo (MC) sampling and estimation and develop the Q-MCPPAT(c) statistics to test for parent-of-origin effects. Various simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of the proposed methods, for different sample sizes, genotype missing rates, degrees of imprinting effects and population models. Simulation results show that the proposed methods control the size well under the null hypothesis of no parent-of-origin effects and Q-PPAT(c) are robust to population stratification. In addition, the power comparison demonstrates that Q-PPAT(c) and Q-MCPPAT(c) for pedigree data are much more powerful than Q-PAT(c) only using two-generation nuclear families selected from extended pedigrees.

  14. Study of the effects of ß-myrcene on rat fertility and general reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paumgartten F.J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available ß-Myrcene (MYR is a monoterpene found in the oils of a variety of aromatic plants including lemongrass, verbena, hop, bay, and others. MYR and essential oils containing this terpenoid compound are used in cosmetics, household products, and as flavoring food additives. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of MYR on fertility and general reproductive performance in the rat. MYR (0, 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg in peanut oil was given by gavage to male Wistar rats (15 per dose group for 91 days prior to mating and during the mating period, as well as to females (45 per dose group continuously for 21 days before mating, during mating and pregnancy, and throughout the period of lactation up to postnatal day 21. On day 21 of pregnancy one-third of the females of each group were submitted to cesarean section. Resorption, implantation, as well as dead and live fetuses were counted. All fetuses were examined for external malformations, weighed, and cleared and stained with Alizarin Red S for skeleton evaluation. The remaining dams were allowed to give birth to their offspring. The progeny was examined at birth and subsequently up to postnatal day 21. Mortality, weight gain and physical signs of postnatal development were evaluated. Except for an increase in liver and kidney weights, no other sign of toxicity was noted in male and female rats exposed to MYR. MYR did not affect the mating index (proportion of females impregnated by males or the pregnancy index (ratio of pregnant to sperm-positive females. No sign of maternal toxicity and no increase in externally visible malformations were observed at any dose level. Only at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg did MYR induce an increase in the resorption rate and a higher frequency of fetal skeleton anomalies. No adverse effect of MYR on postnatal weight gain was noted but days of appearance of primary coat, incisor eruption and eye opening were slightly delayed in the exposed offspring. On the

  15. Domain-General and Domain-Specific Creative-Thinking Tests: Effects of Gender and Item Content on Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Wu, Junbin

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender and item content of domain-general and domain-specific creative-thinking tests on four subscale scores of creative-thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). Chinese tenth-grade students (234 males and 244 females) participated in the study. Domain-general creative thinking was measured…

  16. Determination of effective electromagnetic parameters of concentrated suspensions of ellipsoidal particles using Generalized Differential Effective Medium approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M.; Levin, V.; Markova, I.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents an approach to determine the effective electromagnetic parameters of suspensions of ellipsoidal dielectric particles with surface conductivity. This approach takes into account the existence of critical porosity that corresponds to the maximum packing volume fraction of solid inclusions. The approach is based on the Generalized Differential Effective Medium (GDEM) method. We have introduced a model of suspensions containing ellipsoidal inclusions of two types. Inclusions of the first type (phase 1) represent solid grains, and inclusions of the second type (phase 2) contain material with the same physical properties as the host (phase 0). In this model, with increasing porosity the concentration of the host decreases, and it tends to zero near the critical porosity. The proposed model has been used to simulate the effective electromagnetic parameters of concentrated suspensions. We have compared the modeling results for electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity with the empirical equations. The results obtained have shown that the GDEM model describes the effective electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of suspensions in a wide range of inclusion concentrations.

  17. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  18. The effects of general mental ability and memory on adaptive transfer in work settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Frank

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To handle complex technical operations, operators acquire skills in vocational training. Most of these skills are not used immediately but at some point later; this is called temporal transfer. Our previous research showed that cognitive abilities such as general mental ability (GMA and memory are good predictors of temporal transfer. In addition to temporal transfer, operators also have to solve non-routine and abnormal upcoming problems using their skill set; this type of transfer is called adaptive transfer. Based on previous findings, it is assumed that GMA and memory will affect adaptive transfer as well. Thirty-three engineering students learned how to operate a complex technical system in normal operation with either a fixed or a contingent sequence. After two weeks, all participants had to adapt their learned skills to handle the adaptive transfer task, which was not initially trained. It was shown that high GMA positively predicted adaptive transfer, but no effect of memory was found. This implies that GMA is required to solve new complex tasks using a learned skill set. The findings are in line with studies that showed an effect of GMA on temporal transfer.

  19. Effect of scaling and root planing on blood counts in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many systemic diseases have been implicated as risk factors in periodontal disease. Studies suggest that periodontal infection can adversely affect systemic health; by inference periodontal disease will also have an effect on blood values, but the data available is not conclusive. Aim: This clinical study was designed to evaluate the effect of treatment of plaque induced periodontitis on commonly assessed blood parameters. Materials and Method: 37 males and 31 females aged between 20 and 50 years in good general health but suffering from plaque induced chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The selected patients were assessed for ESR, TLC, PMN count, lymphocyte count from DLC, HB, BT and their periodontal condition before the start of the study. SCRP was carried out and patients were reassessed for the same clinical and hematological parameters 21 days after the periodontal therapy (SCRP. Results: A highly significant reduction in the counts of PMNs and the values of ESI was seen after SCRP. Furthermore a significant reduction in TLC, lymphocytes count, and BT and a non significant decrease in Hb were also observed. Conclusion: SCRP done in patients of chronic periodontitis has a considerable affect on the assessed blood parameters.

  20. Effects of implementation of an urgent surgical care service on subspecialty general surgery training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Leanne; Buczkowski, Andrzej; Panton, Ormond M.N.; Sidhu, Ravi S.; Hameed, S. Morad

    2010-01-01

    Background In July 2007, a large Canadian teaching hospital realigned its general surgery services into elective general surgery subspecialty-based services (SUBS) and a new urgent surgical care (USC) service (also know in the literature as an acute care surgery service). The residents on SUBS had their number of on-call days reduced to enable them to focus on activities related to SUBS. Our aim was to examine the effect of the creation of the USC service on the educational experiences of SUBS residents. Methods We enrolled residents who were on SUBS for the 6 months before and after the introduction of the USC service. We collected data by use of a survey, WEB eVAL and recorded attendance at academic half days. Our 2 primary outcomes were residents’ attendance at ambulatory clinics and compliance with the reduction in the number of on-call days. Our secondary outcomes included residents’ time for independent study, attendance at academic half days, operative experience, attendance at multidisciplinary rounds and overall satisfaction with SUBS. Results Residents on SUBS had a decrease in the mean number of on-call days per resident per month from 6.28 to 1.84 (p = 0.006), an increase in mean attendance at academic half days from 65% to 87% (p = 0.028), at multidisciplinary rounds (p = 0.002) and at ambulatory clinics and an increase in independent reading time (p = 0.015), and they reported an improvement in their work environment. There was no change in the amount of time residents spent in the operating room or in their overall satisfaction with SUBS. Conclusion Residents’ education in the SUBS structure was positively affected by the creation of a USC service. Compliance with the readjustment of on-call duties was high and was identified as the single most significant factor in enabling residents to take full advantage of the unique educational opportunities available only while on SUBS. PMID:20334744

  1. Effectiveness of a clinical pathway for acute stroke care in a district general hospital: an audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegert Richard J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organised stroke care saves lives and reduces disability. A clinical pathway might be a form of organised stroke care, but the evidence for the effectiveness of this model of care is limited. Methods This study was a retrospective audit study of consecutive stroke admissions in the setting of an acute general medical unit in a district general hospital. The case-notes of patients admitted with stroke for a 6-month period before and after introduction of the pathway, were reviewed to determine data on length of stay, outcome, functional status, (Barthel Index, BI and Modified Rankin Scale, MRS, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP sub-type, use of investigations, specific management issues and secondary prevention strategies. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences in case-mix. Results N = 77 (prior to the pathway and 76 (following the pathway. The median (interquartile range, IQR age was 78 years (67.75–84.25, 88% were European NZ and 37% were male. The median (IQR BI at admission for the pre-pathway group was less than the post-pathway group: 6 (0–13.5 vs. 10 (4–15.5, p = 0.018 but other baseline variables were statistically similar. There were no significant differences between any of the outcome or process of care variables, except that echocardiograms were done less frequently after the pathway was introduced. A good outcome (MRS Conclusion A clinical pathway for acute stroke management appeared to have no benefit for the outcome or processes of care and may even have been associated with worse outcomes. These data support the conclusions of a recent Cochrane review.

  2. Effects of anisotropy on gravitational infall in galaxy clusters using an exact general relativistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxel, M.A.; Peel, Austin; Ishak, Mustapha, E-mail: troxel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: austin.peel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: mishak@utdallas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75083 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We study the effects and implications of anisotropies at the scale of galaxy clusters by building an exact general relativistic model of a cluster using the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres metric. The model is built from a modified Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile. We compare this to a corresponding spherically symmetric structure in the Lemaȋtre-Tolman (LT) model and quantify the impact of introducing varying levels of anisotropy. We examine two physical measures of gravitational infall — the growth rate of density and the velocity of the source dust in the model. We introduce a generalization of the LT dust velocity profile for the Szekeres metric and demonstrate its consistency with the growth rate of density. We find that the growth rate of density in one substructure increases by 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.75% for 5%, 10%, and 15% levels of introduced anisotropy, which is measured as the fractional displaced mass relative to the spherically symmetric case. The infall velocity of the dust is found to increase by 2.5, 10, and 20 km s{sup −1} (0.5%, 2%, and 4.5%), respectively, for the same three levels of anisotropy. This response to the anisotropy in a structure is found to be strongly nonlinear with respect to the strength of anisotropy. These relative velocities correspond to an equivalent increase in the total mass of the spherically symmetric structure of 1%, 3.8%, and 8.4%, indicating that not accounting for the presence of anisotropic mass distributions in cluster models can strongly bias the determination of physical properties like the total mass.

  3. Effect of hypertonic saline on hypotension following induction of general anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Kashefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preoperatively administered i.v. hypertonic saline on hypotension following induction of general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients who scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated to two groups of 27 patients who received hypertonic saline 5% (2.3 ml/kg or received normal saline (13 ml/kg. Infusion of hypertonic saline was done half an hour before induction of anesthesia during 30 minutes. Anesthesia was conducted in a standard protocol for all patients. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP, heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP were assessed in all patients. Results: The mean age of patients was 36.68 ± 10.8 years. Forty percent of patients were male. The mean SBP at min 2 and min 5, mean of DBP at min 2, 5, and 15, mean of HR at all time points and mean of MAP at min 2 and 15 between groups were no significantly different (P > 0.05, but mean of SBP at min 10 and 15, mean of DBP at min 10, and mean of MAP at min 5 and 10 in hypertonic saline group was significantly more than the normal group (P 0.05. Conclusions: Infusion of hypertonic saline 5% (2.3 mg/kg before the general anesthesia led to a useful reduction in MAP and reduced heart rate, with no episodes of severe hypotension.

  4. Effects of general, specific and combined warm-up on explosive muscular performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cristobal Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of general, specific and combined warm-up (WU on explosive performance. Healthy male (n=10 subjects participated in six WU protocols in a crossover randomized study design. Protocols were: passive rest (PR; 15 min of passive rest, running (Run; 5 min of running at 70% of maximum heart rate, stretching (STR; 5 min of static stretching exercise, jumping [Jump; 5 min of jumping exercises – 3x8 countermovement jumps (CMJ and 3x8 drop jumps from 60 cm (DJ60], and combined (COM; protocols Run + STR + Jump combined. Immediately before and after each WU, subjects were assessed for explosive concentric-only (i.e. squat jump – SJ, slow stretch-shortening cycle (i.e. CMJ, fast stretch-shortening cycle (i.e. DJ60 and contact time (CT muscle performance. PR significantly reduced SJ performance (p =0.007. Run increased SJ (p =0.0001 and CMJ (p =0.002. STR increased CMJ (p =0.048. Specific WU (i.e. Jump increased SJ (p =0.001, CMJ (p =0.028 and DJ60 (p =0.006 performance. COM increased CMJ performance (p =0.006. Jump was superior in SJ performance vs. PR (p =0.001. Jump reduced (p =0.03 CT in DJ60. In conclusion, general, specific and combined WU increase slow stretch-shortening cycle (SSC muscle performance, but only specific WU increases fast SSC muscle performance. Therefore, to increase fast SSC performance, specific fast SSC muscle actions must be included during the WU.

  5. The effect of graphic organizers on students' attitudes and academic performance in undergraduate general biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lacy

    High attrition among undergraduate Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors has led national and business leaders in the United States to call for both research and educational reform within the collegiate STEM classrooms. Included among suggestions for reform are ideas to improve retention of first-year students and to improve critical thinking and depth of knowledge, instead of covering large quantities of materials. Past research on graphic organizers suggest these tools assist students in learning information and facilitate conceptual and critical thinking. Despite their widespread use in high school science departments, collegiate humanities departments, and even medical schools, their use is considerably less prevalent in the undergraduate biology classroom. In addition to their lack of use, little research has been conducted on their academic benefits in the collegiate classroom. Based on national calls for improving retention among undergraduate STEM majors and research suggesting that academic success during an individual first major's related course highly determine if that individual will continue on in their intended major, the researcher of this dissertation chose to conduct research on an introductory general biology class. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the research in this dissertation examines the effectiveness of graphic organizers in promoting academic success and also examines their influence on student attitudes. This research is grounded in the theories of constructivism and cognitive load theory. Constructivism suggests that individuals must build their knowledge from their personal experiences, while the cognitive load theory recognizes the limited nature of one's working memory and suggests that instructional practices minimize cognitive overload. The results of this dissertation suggest that the use of graphic organizers in an undergraduate general biology classroom can increase students' academic

  6. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  7. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Rummer

    Full Text Available The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2 transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb. A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect and carrying capacity (Root effect. This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human. We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2 associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2, Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts.

  8. Generalized derivation of an exact relationship linking different coefficients that characterize thermodynamic effects of preferential interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles F; Felitsky, Daniel J; Hong, Jiang; Record, M Thomas

    2002-12-10

    In solutions consisting of solvent water (component '1') and two solute components ('2' and '3'), various thermodynamic effects of differences between solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions are quantitatively characterized by state functions commonly called 'preferential interaction coefficients': gamma(mu(1),mu(3)) triple bond (delta(m3)/delta(m2))(T,mu(1),mu(3)) and gamma(mu(k)) triple bond (delta(m3)/delta(m2))(T,P,mu(k)), where k = 1,2 or 3. These different derivatives are not all directly accessible to experimental determination, nor are they entirely equivalent for analyses and interpretations of thermodynamic and molecular effects of preferential interactions. Consequently, various practical and theoretical considerations arise when, for a given system, different kinds of preferential interaction coefficients have significantly different numerical values. Previously we derived the exact relationship linking all three coefficients of the type gamma(mu(k), and hence identified the physical origins of the differences between gamma(mu(1)) and gamma(mu(3)) that have been experimentally determined for each of various common biochemical solutes interacting with a protein [J. Phys. Chem. B, 106 (2002) 418-433]. Continuing our investigation of exact thermodynamic linkages among different types of preferential interaction coefficients, we present here a generalized derivation of the relationship linking gamma(mu(1),mu(3)), gamma(mu(3)) and gamma(mu(1)), with no restrictions on m(2), m(3) or any physical characteristic of either solute component (such as partial molar volume). Hence, we show that (gamma(mu(1),mu(3)) - gamma(mu(3))) is related directly to (gamma(mu(3)) - gamma(mu(1))), for which the physical determinants have been considered in detail previously, and to a factor dependent on the ratio of the partial molar volumes V3/V1. Our generalized expression also provides a basis for calculating gamma(mu(1),mu(3)), even in situations where preferential

  9. HAEMATOMA BLOCK- AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO GENERAL ANAESTHESIA FOR REDUCTION OF DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES

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    Prabhati Rani Mishra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Most common fracture in elderly patients is distal radius fracture. The most common method of management is closed reduction and immobilisation. The aim of the study is to compare the analgesic effects of haematoma block and general anaesthesia for closed reduction of distal fracture of radius. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective randomised controlled study was carried out among 100 patients of age group between 15-70 years of either sex who had fracture distal radius between 2015-2016. The patients having multiple fractures, pathological fractures or suffering from any organic diseases were excluded from the study. After taking informed written consent, the patients were randomised into two equal groups. In group A, reduction of fracture was done following administration of IV propofol and in group B after infiltration with 2% lignocaine into fracture haematoma site. Pain score was compared by VAS before, during and after manipulation in both the groups. Time taken from presentation at emergency department to reduction and discharge from hospital was also compared. Statistical analysis was done by applying SPSS software. RESULTS 100 patients of mean age 42.5 years, male: female 43:57 with fracture distal radius were studied. Mean time from admission to fracture reduction in group A was 2.64±0.93 hours and in group B 0.90±0.45 hours (P=0.0001. Discharge time from hospital after reduction of fracture in group A was 4.24±0.94 hours and in group B 0.75±0.2 hours (P=0.0001. VAS during reduction in group A was 0 and in group B 0.98±0.8 (P=0.0001. 10 minutes after reduction VAS in group A was 2.28±0.24 and group B 0.72±0.45 (P=0.0001. CONCLUSION For closed reduction of distal radius fracture, haematoma block with lignocaine is safe and effective alternative to intravenous general anaesthesia with propofol.

  10. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  11. The Effect of Stimulus Variability on Learning and Generalization of Reading in a Novel Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan-Mansour, Jasmeen; Bitan, Tali

    2017-10-17

    The benefit of stimulus variability for generalization of acquired skills and knowledge has been shown in motor, perceptual, and language learning but has rarely been studied in reading. We studied the effect of variable training in a novel language on reading trained and untrained words. Sixty typical adults received 2 sessions of training in reading an artificial script. Participants were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a variable training group practicing a large set of 24 words, and 2 nonvariable training groups practicing a smaller set of 12 words, with twice the number of repetitions per word. Variable training resulted in higher accuracy for both trained and untrained items composed of the same graphemes, compared to the nonvariable training. Moreover, performance on untrained items was correlated with phonemic awareness only for the nonvariable training groups. High stimulus variability increases the reliance on small unit decoding in adults reading in a novel script, which is beneficial for both familiar and novel words. These results show that the statistical properties of the input during reading acquisition influence the type of acquired knowledge and have theoretical and practical implications for planning efficient reading instruction methods. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5302195.

  12. Effectiveness of radio waves application in modern general dental procedures: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Arslan; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Pikos, Michael A; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review indexed literature and provide an update on the effectiveness of high-frequency radio waves (HRW) application in modern general dentistry procedures. Indexed databases were searched to identify articles that assessed the efficacy of radio waves in dental procedures. Radiosurgery is a refined form of electrosurgery that uses waves of electrons at a radiofrequency ranging between 2 and 4 MHz. Radio waves have also been reported to cause much less thermal damage to peripheral tissues compared with electrosurgery or carbon dioxide laser-assisted surgery. Formation of reparative dentin in direct pulp capping procedures is also significantly higher when HRW are used to achieve hemostasis in teeth with minimally exposed dental pulps compared with traditional techniques for achieving hemostasis. A few case reports have reported that radiosurgery is useful for procedures such as gingivectomy and gingivoplasty, stage-two surgery for implant exposure, operculectomy, oral biopsy, and frenectomy. Radiosurgery is a relatively modern therapeutic methodology for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia; however, its long-term efficacy is unclear. Radio waves can also be used for periodontal procedures, such as gingivectomies, coronal flap advancement, harvesting palatal grafts for periodontal soft tissue grafting, and crown lengthening. Although there are a limited number of studies in indexed literature regarding the efficacy of radio waves in modern dentistry, the available evidence shows that use of radio waves is a modernization in clinical dentistry that might be a contemporary substitute for traditional clinical dental procedures.

  13. The psychophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder: 2. Effects of applied relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ansgar; Isaac, Linda; Roth, Walton T

    2008-05-01

    Muscle relaxation therapy assumes that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients lack the ability to relax but can learn this in therapy. We tested this by randomizing 49 GAD patients to 12 weeks of Applied Relaxation (AR) or waiting. Before, during, and after treatment participants underwent relaxation tests. Before treatment, GAD patients were more worried than healthy controls (n=21) and had higher heart rates and lower end-tidal pCO2, but not higher muscle tension (A. Conrad, L. Isaac, & W.T. Roth, 2008). AR resulted in greater symptomatic improvement than waiting. However, 28% of the AR group dropped out of treatment and some patients relapsed at the 6-week follow-up. There was little evidence that AR participants learned to relax in therapy or that a reduction in anxiety was associated with a decrease in activation. We conclude that the clinical effects of AR in improving GAD symptoms are moderate at most and cannot be attributed to reducing muscle tension or autonomic activation.

  14. The effect of stem curvature on torsional stability of a generalized cemented joint replacement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Yara K; Clynick, Meghan P; McLachlin, Stewart D; King, Graham J W; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2013-12-16

    Implant loosening is a common complication that compromises the stability of joint replacement systems. Stem geometry is particularly influential in the stability of cemented implants, both before and after debonding occurs at the stem-cement interface. There are few studies assessing the effect of stem longitudinal curvature as a geometric factor in cemented implant stability. The purpose of this study was to compare the torsional stability of four generalized cemented implant stems (i.e., non-specific to joint), with varying degrees of longitudinal curvatures--zero, two, four, and six degrees. Twelve specimens of each curvature angle were potted to a depth of 20 mm using bone cement, given 24 hours to cure, and then tested in a materials testing machine. Torque was applied to the stems under monotonic loading at a rate of 2.5 degrees/min, until five degrees of rotation had occurred. There were no differences in torsional stability among the four stem curvature angles, when the magnitudes of peak torque (P=.72; 1-β = 0.13), rotation of the stem at peak torque (P=0.23; 1-β = 0.38) and work required for five degrees of stem rotation (P=.58; 1-β = 0.07) were compared. The findings from this study demonstrate that for short stems, stem curvature angles up to six degrees does not improve torsional stability when compared to the straight stem design.

  15. Effects of different methods of general anesthesia on intraoperative awareness in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijiao; Wu, Di

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and combined of intravenous and inhaled anesthesia (CIIA) on intraoperative awareness in surgical patients.A total of 678 patients were recruited in the CIIA group, while TIVA group included 566 patients. The clinical characteristics and the occurrence of intraoperative awareness were compared between the groups. Mini-Mental State Examination, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7, and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 tests were performed to estimate cognitive and psychological functions of the patients. In addition, logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the risk factors for intraoperative awareness in surgical patients.In CIIA group, 3 patients (0.44%) were confirmed with intraoperative awareness, while 11 patients (1.94%) in TIVA group underwent intraoperative awareness. The occurrence rate of intraoperative awareness was significantly higher in VITA group than that in the CIIA group (P = .029). Awareness classification demonstrated that intraoperative awareness mainly included auditory, tactile, and pain perceptions. Moreover, 4 patients showed distress after operation. Patients with intraoperative awareness exhibited poor performance in cognitive and psychological tests (P awareness history (OR = 10.131, 95% CI = 2.206-45.517), and duration of surgery (OR = 1.016, 95% CI = 1.001-1.032) were significantly associated with intraoperative awareness.Intraoperative awareness can significantly influence the cognitive and psychological functions of surgical patients. CIIA and midazolam application may lower the risk of intraoperative awareness.

  16. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of the local resonance on the wave propagation in periodic frame structures: generalized Newtonian mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Céline; Boutin, Claude; Hans, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the wave propagation in infinite two-dimensional structures made up of the periodic repetition of frames. Such materials are highly anisotropic and, because of lack of bracing, can present a large contrast between the shear and compression deformabilities. Moreover, when the thickness to length ratio of the frame elements is small, these elements can resonate in bending at low frequencies when compressional waves propagate in the structure. The frame size being small compared to the wavelength of the compressional waves, the homogenization method of periodic discrete media is extended to situations with local resonance, and it is applied to identify the macroscopic behavior at the leading order. In particular, the local resonance in bending leads to an effective mass different from the real mass and to the generalization of the Newtonian mechanics at the macroscopic scale. Consequently, compressional waves become dispersive and frequency bandgaps occur. The physical origin of these phenomena at the microscopic scale is also presented. Finally, a method is proposed for the design of such materials.

  18. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to childhood adversities (CA is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV. Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4 with (n = 27 or without (n = 31 CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life.

  19. Generalized epilepsy syndromes and callosal thickness: Differential effects between patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and those with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulou, Stavroula; Kurth, Florian; Luders, Eileen; Savic, Ivanka

    2017-01-01

    The definition of two well-studied genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes (GGE) - juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone (GTCS) - suggests the absence of structural cerebral abnormalities. Nevertheless, there are various reports of such abnormalities (especially in JME), where effects mainly occur within thalamus and mesial prefrontal regions. This raises the question of whether JME is particularly linked to midline structure abnormalities, which may also involve the corpus callosum. We studied callosal morphology in a well-matched sample of 22 JME patients, 15 GTCS patients, and 42 controls (CTL) for all of whom we obtained T1-weighted data on a 3T MRI scanner. More specifically, we measured callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points across the callosal surface, and subsequently compared the three groups (JME, GTCS, and CTL) against each other. Significant differences between JME patients and controls were observed within the callosal genu, anterior midbody, and isthmus, with thinner regions in JME patients. There were no significant differences between GTCS patients and controls, and also not between JME patients and GTCS patients. The present outcomes point to callosal abnormalities in JME patients suggesting an impairment of interhemisperic communication between prefrontal, motor, parietal and temporal cortices. These findings further support the notion that structural aberrations are present and differentiated across GGE syndromes, with significant callosal deviations from normality in JME. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effectiveness of a semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention to optimise chronic care management in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2014-01-01

    ; and in the Capital Region of Denmark a facilitator-based intervention was undertaken to support the implementation of the programmes in general practice. The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention. METHOD: The study was a stepped-wedge, randomised......BACKGROUND: The Danish health care sector is reorganising based on disease management programmes designed to secure integrated and high quality chronic care across hospitals, general practitioners and municipalities. The disease management programmes assign a central role to general practice......, controlled trial among general practices in the Capital Region of Denmark. The intervention group was offered three one-hour visits by a facilitator. The intervention was semi-tailored to the perceived needs as defined by each general practice, and the practices could choose from a list of possible topics...

  1. The effects of disequilibrium carbon chemistry in general circulation models of hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinrueck, Maria Elisabeth; Parmentier, Vivien; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-10-01

    Abundances of methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) are expected to be in disequilibrium in the photospheres of hot Jupiter exoplanets due to transport-induced quenching. It has been proposed that including this effect in general circulation models (GCMs) could resolve the mismatch between models and the observed 4.5 micron phase curves of hot Jupiters HD 189733b and HD 209458b.We modified the SPARC/MITgcm to mimic quenched carbon chemistry by assuming a constant ratio of CH4 to CO to calculate the opacities. Water abundances are modified accordingly so that the number of oxygen atoms is conserved. We ran global circulation models of HD 189733b assuming different values of the CH4/CO ratio. The change in temperature structure due to the quenched abundances is significant enough to affect the emission spectra. Thus, the radiative effect of the quenched abundances should be included in global circulation modelsWe show that including disequilibrium effects does not lower the 4.5 micron night side fluxes. If CO is the dominant species, as predicted by kinetics models, the increased CO opacity is offset by a lower water opacity. In this case, the 4.5 micron band turns out to be a bad diagnostic for disequilibrium carbon chemistry. As a consequence, disequilibrium carbon chemistry does not provide a good explanation for the small nightside flux observed at 4.5 microns in HD 189733b. The 3.6 Spitzer band should be a better indicator of disequilibrium chemistry. We find that the presence of quenched abundances always reduces the phase curve amplitude at 3.6 microns compared to the chemical equilibrium case, such that they are inconsistent with existing observations of HD 189733b. Therefore, other processes such as the presence of drag or night side clouds must be responsible for the shape of currently observed HD 189733b phase curves.We find that observations between 7 and 10 microns are a better diagnostic of disequilibrium carbon chemistry in the CO dominated regime

  2. Effect of general anesthesia and major versus minor surgery on late postoperative episodic and constant hypoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Oturai, P; Erichsen, C J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative contribution of general anesthesia alone and in combination with the surgical procedure to the pathogenesis of late postoperative hypoxemia. DESIGN: Open, controlled study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: 60 patients undergoing major abdominal...... surgery and 16 patients undergoing middle ear surgery, both with comparable general anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were monitored with continuous pulse oximetry on one preoperative night and the second postoperative night. Significant episodic or constant hypoxemia did not occur...... on the second postoperative night following middle ear surgery and general anesthesia, but severe episodic and constant hypoxemia did occur on the second postoperative after major abdominal surgery and general anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: General anesthesia in itself is not an important factor in the development...

  3. Effect of Guided Collaboration on General and Special Educators' Perceptions of Collaboration and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a guided collaboration approach during professional learning community meetings (PLC's) on the perceptions of general and special educators as well as the effect on student performance as measured by benchmark evaluation. A mixed methodology approach was used to collect data through surveys, weekly…

  4. Investigating the effect of work stress, general health quality, organizational intelligence and job satisfaction on employee performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samadzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on measuring the effects of different factors such as work stress, general heath quality, etc. on performance of employees. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the effects of work stress, general health, organizational intelligence and job satisfaction on employee performance. The proposed study of this paper uses two questionnaires where one is associated with general heath quality (GHQ with 20 questions and the other one consists of 12 questions, which is associated with work stress. The study chooses a sample of 144 employees from 222 people who worked for one of Islamic Azad University in Iran. Cronbach alphas for work stress, general health, organizational intelligence, job satisfaction and organizational performance are 0.911, 0.895, 0.795, 0.863 and, 0.864, respectively. The results indicate that job satisfaction has the highest influence on organizational performance followed by other factors.

  5. Generalizing across stimuli as well as subjects: A non-mathematical tutorial on mixed-effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it has long been known that analyses that treat stimuli as a fixed effect do not permit generalization from the sample of stimuli to the population of stimuli, surprisingly little attention has been paid to this issue outside of the field of psycholinguistics. The purposes of the article are (a to present a non-technical explanation of why it is critical to provide a statistical basis for generalizing to both the population subjects and the population of stimuli and (b to provide instructions for doing analyses that allows this generalization using four common statistical analysis programs (JMP, R, SAS, and SPSS.

  6. Effect of comprehensive oncogenetics training interventions for general practitioners, evaluated at multiple performance levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa J F Houwink

    Full Text Available General practitioners (GPs are increasingly called upon to identify patients at risk for hereditary cancers, and their genetic competencies need to be enhanced. This article gives an overview of a research project on how to build effective educational modules on genetics, assessed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, reflecting the prioritized educational needs of primary care physicians. It also reports on an ongoing study to investigate long-term increase in genetic consultation skills (1-year follow-up and interest in and satisfaction with a supportive website on genetics among GPs. Three oncogenetics modules were developed: an online Continuing Professional Development (G-eCPD module, a live genetic CPD module, and a "GP and genetics" website (huisartsengenetica.nl providing further genetics information applicable in daily practice. Three assessments to evaluate the effectiveness (1-year follow-up of the oncogenetic modules were designed: 1.An online questionnaire on self-reported genetic competencies and changes in referral behaviour, 2.Referral rates from GPs to clinical genetics centres and 3.Satisfaction questionnaire and visitor count analytics of supportive genetics website. The setting was Primary care in the Netherlands and three groups of study participants were included in the reported studies:. Assessment 1. 168 GPs responded to an email invitation and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, evaluating the G-eCPD module (n = 80 or the live module (n = 88. Assessment 2. Referral rates by GPs were requested from the clinical genetics centres, in the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands (Amsterdam and Maastricht, for the two years before (2010 [n = 2510] and 2011 [n = 2940] and the year after (2012 [n = 2875] launch of the oncogenetics CPD modules and the website. Assessment 3. Participants of the website evaluation were all recruited online. When they visited the website during the month of February

  7. Effective and organ doses from common CT examinations in one general hospital in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramian, Daryoush; Hashemi, Bijan

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: It is well known that the main portion of artificial sources of ionizing radiation to human results from X-ray imaging techniques. However, reports carried out in various countries have indicated that most of their cumulative doses from artificial sources are due to CT examinations. Hence assessing doses resulted from CT examinations is highly recommended by national and international radiation protection agencies. The aim of this research has been to estimate the effective and organ doses in an average human according to 103 and 60 ICRP tissue weighting factor for six common protocols of Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) machine in a comprehensive training general hospital in Tehran/Iran. Methods: To calculate the patients' effective dose, the CT-Expo2.2 software was used. Organs/tissues and effective doses were determined for about 20 patients (totally 122 patients) for every one of six typical CT protocols of the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis and spine exams. In addition, the CT dosimetry index (CTDI) was measured in the standard 16 and 32 cm phantoms by using a calibrated pencil ionization chamber for the six protocols and by taking the average value of CT scan parameters used in the hospital compared with the CTDI values displayed on the console device of the machine. Results: The values of the effective dose based on the ICRP 103 tissue weighting factor were: 0.6, 2.0, 3.2, 4.2, 2.8, and 3.9 mSv and based on the ICRP 60 tissue weighting factor were: 0.9, 1.4, 3, 7.9, 4.8 and 5.1 mSv for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis, spine CT exams respectively. Relative differences between those values were -22, 21, 23, -6, -31 and 16 percent for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis, spine CT exams, respectively. The average value of CTDIv calculated for each protocol was: 27.32 ± 0.9, 18.08 ± 2.0, 7.36 ± 2.6, 8.84 ± 1.7, 9.13 ± 1.5, 10.42 ± 0.8 mGy for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis and spine CT exams, respectively

  8. Effect of comprehensive oncogenetics training interventions for general practitioners, evaluated at multiple performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Elisa J F; Muijtjens, Arno M M; van Teeffelen, Sarah R; Henneman, Lidewij; Rethans, Jan Joost; Jacobi, Florijn; van der Jagt, Liesbeth; Stirbu, Irina; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Stumpel, Connie T R M; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are increasingly called upon to identify patients at risk for hereditary cancers, and their genetic competencies need to be enhanced. This article gives an overview of a research project on how to build effective educational modules on genetics, assessed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reflecting the prioritized educational needs of primary care physicians. It also reports on an ongoing study to investigate long-term increase in genetic consultation skills (1-year follow-up) and interest in and satisfaction with a supportive website on genetics among GPs. Three oncogenetics modules were developed: an online Continuing Professional Development (G-eCPD) module, a live genetic CPD module, and a "GP and genetics" website (huisartsengenetica.nl) providing further genetics information applicable in daily practice. Three assessments to evaluate the effectiveness (1-year follow-up) of the oncogenetic modules were designed: 1.An online questionnaire on self-reported genetic competencies and changes in referral behaviour, 2.Referral rates from GPs to clinical genetics centres and 3.Satisfaction questionnaire and visitor count analytics of supportive genetics website. The setting was Primary care in the Netherlands and three groups of study participants were included in the reported studies:. Assessment 1. 168 GPs responded to an email invitation and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, evaluating the G-eCPD module (n = 80) or the live module (n = 88). Assessment 2. Referral rates by GPs were requested from the clinical genetics centres, in the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands (Amsterdam and Maastricht), for the two years before (2010 [n = 2510] and 2011 [n = 2940]) and the year after (2012 [n = 2875]) launch of the oncogenetics CPD modules and the website. Assessment 3. Participants of the website evaluation were all recruited online. When they visited the website during the month of February 2013, a

  9. Effects of Exercise on Sleep Among Young Women With Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Matthew P; Kline, Christopher E; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2015-10-01

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and disturbed sleep are prevalent, debilitating, and frequently comorbid problems for which successful treatment remains limited. Exercise can promote sleep but whether it does among GAD patients is unknown. Thirty sedentary women (18-37y) with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD were randomized to six weeks of resistance (RET) or aerobic exercise training (AET), or waitlist (WL). RET and AET involved twice-weekly sessions of either lower-body weightlifting or leg cycling matched on multiple features of exercise. Outcomes included total sleep time (TST), lights out time, awakening out of bed time, time in bed (TIB), sleep onset latency (SOL), wakefulness after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency. Hedges' d effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each exercise condition compared to WL. Regression examined baseline associations between anxiety and sleep and associated change. Twenty-two of 26 participants reported poor baseline sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5). RET significantly decreased weekend TIB (d=-1.79; [-2.89, -0.70]) and SOL (d=-1.30; [-2.32, -0.28]), and significantly increased weekend sleep efficiency (d=1.30; [0.29,2.32]). AET significantly reduced weekend TIB (d=-1.13; [-2.16, -0.11]) and SOL (d=-1.08; [-2.09, -0.06]). Reduced GAD clinical severity rating was significantly associated with improved weekend sleep efficiency among RET (t6=-3.48, p≤0.013). Short-term exercise training improves sleep outcomes among GAD patients, especially for RET and weekend sleep. Findings suggest improved sleep may be associated with reduced clinical severity among GAD patients.

  10. New tests of the distal speech rate effect: Examining cross-linguistic generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDilley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings [Dilley and Pitt, 2010. Psych. Science. 21, 1664-1670] have shown that manipulating context speech rate in English can cause entire syllables to disappear or appear perceptually. The current studies tested two rate-based explanations of this phenomenon while attempting to replicate and extend these findings to another language, Russian. In Experiment 1, native Russian speakers listened to Russian sentences which had been subjected to rate manipulations and performed a lexical report task. Experiment 2 investigated speech rate effects in cross-language speech perception; non-native speakers of Russian of both high and low proficiency were tested on the same Russian sentences as in Experiment 1. They decided between two lexical interpretations of a critical portion of the sentence, where one choice contained more phonological material than the other (e.g., /stərʌ'na/ side vs. /strʌ'na/ country. In both experiments, with native and non-native speakers of Russian, context speech rate and the relative duration of the critical sentence portion were found to influence the amount of phonological material perceived. The results support the generalized rate normalization hypothesis, according to which the content perceived in a spectrally ambiguous stretch of speech depends on the duration of that content relative to the surrounding speech, while showing that the findings of Dilley and Pitt (2010 extend to a variety of morphosyntactic contexts and a new language, Russian. Findings indicate that relative timing cues across an utterance can be critical to accurate lexical perception by both native and non-native speakers.

  11. Effect of general anesthesia on pulmonary function and clinical status on children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Chetan; Valentin, Roumel; De Lima, Jonathan; Robinson, Paul; Fitzgerald, Dominic; van Asperen, Peter; Baines, David; Cooper, Peter; Selvadurai, Hiran

    2014-02-01

    Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) receive general anesthesia (GA) for a variety of different procedures. Historical studies assessing risk of GA report a high risk of morbidity. There is a paucity of data evaluating the risk of currently available anesthetic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of GA on clinical status and lung function on children with CF. Children with CF aged 8-18 years admitted for IV antibiotic treatment for a pulmonary exacerbation were invited to participate. Spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), and CF clinical score (CFCS) were measured pre-GA, at 24 and 48 h post-GA. The nature and duration of the GA were recorded. Twenty two patients were recruited of which 19 patients (mean age 11.4 years, range 8-18 years, 12 male) required GA. Typically, either propofol or sevoflurane was used as induction agent and maintenance of anesthesia was with sevoflurane. A laryngeal mask was used in most cases. FEV1 mean (±SD) pre-GA was 75.1% (±23.46) which decreased at 24 h to 74.8 (±23.0) and at 48 h to 74.3 (±20.5). FOT resistance and reactance decreased at 24 and 48 h from baseline. Changes in spirometry and CFCS were not statistically significant. Two adverse events were observed in this cohort. The results suggest that children with mild to moderate CF lung disease do not experience significant deterioration in central or peripheral airway function following GA. The low rate of complications suggests an improved level of safety for children with CF with modern anesthesia compared with historical published data. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of particulate matter on inflammatory markers in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Dai-Hua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying this association are still unclear, the induction of systemic inflammation following particle inhalation represents a plausible mechanistic pathway. Methods We used baseline data from the CoLaus Study including 6183 adult participants residing in Lausanne, Switzerland. We analyzed the association of short-term exposure to PM10 (on the day of examination visit with continuous circulating serum levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and tumor-necrosis-factor alpha (TNF-α by robust linear regressions, controlling for potential confounding factors and assessing effect modification. Results In adjusted analyses, for every 10 μg/m3 elevation in PM10, IL-1ß increased by 0.034 (95 % confidence interval, 0.007-0.060 pg/mL, IL-6 by 0.036 (0.015-0.057 pg/mL, and TNF-α by 0.024 (0.013-0.035 pg/mL, whereas no significant association was found with hs-CRP levels. Conclusions Short-term exposure to PM10 was positively associated with higher levels of circulating IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the adult general population. This positive association suggests a link between air pollution and cardiovascular risk, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanistic pathway linking PM10 to cardiovascular risk.

  13. HIV in children in a general population sample in East Zimbabwe: prevalence, causes and effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Pufall

    Full Text Available There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population.From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2-14 years in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%. Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort.HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6-2.8% and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03 or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04 but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0% were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy.Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is associated with poorer physical

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF ECONOMIC COMPETENCE OF HEADS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION FOR EFFECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GENERAL SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Dyvak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the actual problem of improvement of economic competence of professional work of directors of schools for more efficient control of activity of general schools is considered.

  15. Usability and Effectiveness of Advanced General Aviation Cockpit Displays for Instrument Flight Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    .... The study was designed to identify human factors that should be considered during the deployment of this technology to the entire general aviation community and in the development of future displays...

  16. General relativistic effects on the orbit of the S2 star with GRAVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grould, M.; Vincent, F. H.; Paumard, T.; Perrin, G.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The first observations of the GRAVITY instrument obtained in 2016, have shown that it should become possible to probe the spacetime close to the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) at the Galactic center by using accurate astrometric positions of the S2 star. Aims: The goal of this paper is to investigate the detection by GRAVITY of different relativistic effects affecting the astrometric and/or spectroscopic observations of S2 such as the transverse Doppler shift, the gravitational redshift, the pericenter advance and higher-order general relativistic (GR) effects, in particular the Lense-Thirring effect due to the angular momentum of the black hole. Methods: We implement seven stellar-orbit models to simulate both astrometric and spectroscopic observations of S2 beginning near its next pericenter passage in 2018. Each model takes into account a certain number of relativistic effects. The most accurate one is a fully GR model and is used to generate the mock observations of the star. For each of the six other models, we determine the minimal observation times above which it fails to fit the observations, showing the effects that should be detected. These threshold times are obtained for different astrometric accuracies as well as for different spectroscopic errors. Results: Transverse Doppler shift and gravitational redshift can be detected within a few months by using S2 observations obtained with pairs of accuracies (σA,σV) = (10-100 μas, 1-10 km s-1) where σA and σV are the astrometric and spectroscopic accuracies, respectively. Gravitational lensing can be detected within a few years with (σA,σV) = (10 μas, 10 km s-1). Pericenter advance should be detected within a few years with (σA,σV) = (10 μas, 1-10 km s-1). Cumulative high-order photon curvature contributions, including the Shapiro time delay, affecting spectroscopic measurements can be observed within a few months with (σA,σV) = (10 μas, 1 km s-1). By using a stellar

  17. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten Jan P; Kromhout Hans; Kerkhof Marjan; de Meer Gea; Heederik Dick

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background For individual exposures, effect modification by atopy or smoking has been reported on the occurrence of occupational airway disease. It is unclear if effect modification can be studied in a general population by an aggregated exposure measure. Assess relationship between airway obstruction and occupational exposure using a job-exposure-matrix (JEM) classifying jobs into 3 broad types of exposure, and test for effect modification by atopy, and smoking. Methods Data from 1,...

  18. Effect of Passive Smoke Exposure on General Anesthesia for Pediatric Dental Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thikkurissy, S.; Crawford, Bethany; Groner, Judith; Stewart, Roderick; Smiley, Megann K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that children with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (also known as passive smoke exposure) do not demonstrate an increased likelihood of adverse respiratory events during or while recovering from general anesthesia administered for treatment of early childhood caries. Parents of children (ages 19 months–12 years) preparing to receive general anesthesia for the purpose of dental restorative procedures were interviewed regardin...

  19. Perceptions of teachers' general and informational feedback and intrinsic motivation in physical education: two-year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Andre; Hein, Vello

    2006-10-01

    Relative change or stability of perceived positive general feedback and perceived informational feedback and their influence on students' intrinsic motivation in physical education over two years were examined. 302 students, ages 11 to 15 years, responded to the Perception of Teacher's Feedback questionnaire. Two years later, these students filled out the questionnaire again, along with a modified version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Analysis showed that both types of perceived feedback exhibited moderate stability over the two years. Perceived positive general feedback demonstrated a significant direct effect on students' intrinsic motivation measured concurrently in physical education. Further, fixing to zero the effect of perceived positive general feedback on intrinsic motivation measured concurrently, an effect emerged over the two years.

  20. Effect of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health of hospital nurses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of studies to date have focused on the effects of work stress in the nursing environment, with the effect of personal stress in nursing being less explored. This study sought to determine whether personal stress is a more significant predictor of burnout, job satisfaction and general health than work stress. Of the 1200 nurses randomly selected to participate in the study, 895 agreed to complete six questionnaires over 3 weeks. Data was analysed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. Findings revealed that personal stress is a better predictor of burnout and general health than job satisfaction, which is better predicted by work stress. The findings of this study could inform potential solutions to reduce the impact of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health. Coping strategies and staffing strategies need to be evaluated within developing contexts such as South Africa to as certain their effectiveness.

  1. A study on the effects of general fatigue on head and neck proprioception in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhravi, Seyed Mehdi; Zavveyeh, Minoo Khalkhali; Kalantari, Khosro Khademi; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzade; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the factors causing disturbance in proprioception which can be manifested in two ways: general and local. Due to the important role of cervical proprioception on body stability and posture, research on the effects of general fatigue on proprioception helps to better understand its mechanism and to improve the strategies to prevent injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the effects of general fatigue on head and neck proprioception in young healthy adults. This clinical study was done by implementing pre- and post-test measurements in 112 young healthy subjects aged between 18-30 years and able to walk at a speed of 10Km for 5 minutes. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. The patients in the control (not exposed to a general fatigue task) and experimental (exposed to a general fatigue task) groups were matched for age, height and weight. In the first step, the zero absolute reposition angle of the head and neck was measured in all participants. Then the subjects in the experimental group did a five-minute run on the treadmill to achieve the level of general fatigue, following which the head and neck reproduction angle was measured in all subjects for the second time. There was a statistical significant difference between pre- and post-test absolute angular error in the experimental group; however, there was no noticeable difference between the pre- and post-test data in the control group. 1. General fatigue increased the repositioning angular error of head and neck. 2. Neck proprioception decreased due to general fatigue. 3. General fatigue increased the risk of neck injury.

  2. The Effectiveness of Relaxation Training on General Health and Sleep Quality of Pregnant Women in the Last Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheyla shojaei sourk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy is an event that changes many views of pregnant woman and it has effect on health, happiness and social roles and sometimes causes psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of relaxation training on general health and quality of sleep in pregnant women in the last trimester of pregnancy.   Methods: The research design of current study was quasi-experimental and pretest-posttest with control group. A sample size of 32 patients between nulliparous pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in Yazd were selected in the available sampling and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups (Each 16 people. After completing the pre-test, the experimental group was tested for relaxation exercises in seven sessions. Measuring instruments were General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1978, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Boyce et al., 1989. Data using analysis of co-variance test with SPSS software were analyzed. Results: Results showed that the mean score of the experimental group on general health and quality of sleep was significantly increased compared to control group. That means relaxation training had effect for increasing general health and quality of sleep in pregnant women. Conclusion: The results confirmed the importance and effectiveness of relaxation training for increasing general health and improving sleep quality in pregnant women

  3. Contemporaneous and Lagged Effects of Life Domains and Substance Use: A Test of Agnew's General Theory of Crime and Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawn T. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a partial test of Agnew’s general theory of crime and delinquency. Relying on a sample of adolescents and employing measures of the self, family, school, and peers domains, this study examines the contemporaneous and lagged effects of these four life domains on the likelihood of consuming alcohol and using marijuana. This study also assesses the contemporaneous and lagged effects of the life domain variables on themselves and on one another. Overall, the results lend support for Agnew’s general theory. The results also reveal several notable puzzles and underscore the complexity of this potentially important contemporary theoretical perspective.

  4. Effect of Endovascular Interventions on General Surgery Trainee Operative Experience; a Comparison of Case Log Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rose C; Li, Yiping; Chang, Jason S; Lew, Wesley K; Patel, Kaushal Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Vascular surgery fellowship training has evolved with the widespread adoption of endovascular interventions. The purpose of this study is to examine how general surgery trainee exposure to vascular surgery has changed over time. Review of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education national case log reports for graduating Vascular Surgery Fellows (VF), and general surgery residents (GSR) from 2001 to 2012 was performed. The number of GSR increased from 1021 to 1098, and the number of VF increased from 96 to 121 from 2001 to 2012. The total number of vascular cases done by VF increased by 1161 since 2001 (298-762), whereas the total number of vascular cases done by GSR has decreased by 40% during this time period (186-116). Vascular fellows increase was due primarily to an increase in endovascular experience; a finding not noted in general surgery residents. Vascular fellow case log changes are due primarily to an increase in endovascular experience that has not been mirrored by general surgery trainees. Open surgery experience has decreased overall for general surgery residents in all major categories, a change not seen in vascular surgery fellows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing positive social-emotional behaviors: a study of training and generalization effects1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Thomas P.; Apolloni, Tony

    1976-01-01

    Four handicapped children were taught four positive social-emotional behaviors: smiling, sharing, positive physical contacting, and verbal complimenting, using instructions, modelling, and praise. Rates of these behaviors were shown to increase in four trained subjects using a within-subject multiple-baseline experimental design. The generality of the behavior change was investigated by integrating three untrained subjects with the trained subjects in a setting free of adult-imposed contingencies and through a series of follow-up observations. Three trained subjects evidenced collateral increases in the generalization setting on at least one other behavior when training in smiling was conducted. One trained subject showed generalization session increases for each behavior when training was conducted to increase that behavior. All three untrained subjects demonstrated increased rates of smiling and sharing when interventions were conducted to increase those behaviors with the trained subjects. There was no appreciable generalization of verbal complimenting by either the trained or the untrained subjects. Both trained and untrained subjects generally maintained their increased rates of smiling, sharing, and positive physical contacting across four weeks of follow-up observations. PMID:16795516

  6. The effect on outcome of peribulbar anaesthesia in conjunction with general anesthesia for vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, A M; El Btarny, A M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate peri-operative outcome after vitreoretinal surgery when peribulbar anaesthesia is combined with general anaesthesia. Sixty adult patients undergoing elective primary retinal detachment surgery with scleral buckling or an encircling procedure received either peribulbar anaesthesia in conjunction with general anaesthesia or general anaesthesia alone. For peribulbar anaesthesia a single percutaneous injection of 5-7 ml of local anaesthetic solution (0.75% ropivacaine with hyaluronidase 15 iu.ml(-1)) was used. The incidence of intra-operative oculocardiac reflex and surgical bleeding interfering with the surgical field, postoperative pain and analgesia requirements, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded. In the block group there was a lower incidence of oculocardiac reflex and surgical bleeding intra-operatively. Patients in the block group also had better postoperative analgesia and a lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with the group without a block. The use of peribulbar anaesthesia in conjunction with general anesthesia was superior to general anaesthesia alone for vitreoretinal surgery with scleral buckling.

  7. Effects of aerobic exercise and yoga on fatigue and general health of patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a common disease of central nervous system (CNS that causes sensorimotor complications through demyelination of CNS neurons. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise and yoga on the fatigue and general health of patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: In this clinical trial, the samples were randomly assigned to three groups of yoga (n: 30, aerobics exercises (n: 30, and control group (n: 30. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, ANOVA and independent and pair t-test. Results: The results indicated no significant difference in fatigue and general health among the three groups prior to the study, but after the study, the results showed a significant difference in general health and fatigue in yoga and aerobic exercise groups. Conclusion: Yoga and aerobics exercise decreased the fatigue, promoted the general health, and improved the psychological performance and efficiency of MS patients.

  8. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generale preventie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1949-01-01

    In part I of this study a survey has veen given of what Dutch authors have written since 1870, when capital punishment was abolished, on subjects concerning the general preventive effect of punishment. This historical survey ends where, during the years 1940-1945, under the stress of the occupation

  10. The effects of single instance, multiple instance, and general case training on generalized vending machine use by moderately and severely handicapped students.

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, J. R.; Horner, R H

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an experimental analysis of generalized vending machine use by six moderately or severely retarded high school students. Dependent variables were training trials to criterion and performance on 10 nontrained "generalization" vending machines. A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to compare three strategies for teaching generalized vending machine use. Training occurred with (a) a single vending machine, (b) three similar machines, or (c) three machines that...

  11. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate

  12. Effects of Various Methods of Assigning and Evaluating Required Reading in One General Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John L., III; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Wiley, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Different approaches to creating out-of-class reading assignments for university general education courses might affect the amount of time students actually spend reading. Five instructors of a required religion/philosophy class used different approaches to assign out-of-class reading. Subsequently, their students (n = 504) were surveyed about…

  13. ADHD medication prescription: effects of child, sibling, parent and general practice characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Bruggers, I.; Dijk, L. van; Korevaar, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Many children receive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, but factors that determine medication prescription are largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the relative impact of factors on the child, family and general practitioner (GP) practice level on ADHD medication

  14. Minor surgery in general practice and effects on referrals to hospital care: observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: Strengthening primary care is the focus of many countries, as national healthcare systems with a strong primary care sector tend to have lower healthcare costs. However, it is unknown to what extent general practitioners (GPs) that perform more services generate fewer hospital

  15. Effect of Financial Incentive on Productivity in a Postgraduate General Dentistry Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Oivind E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The advanced education in general dentistry program at the Eastman Dental Center (Rochester, NY) operates an after-hours clinic simulating private practice. With an optional financial incentive program for students in lieu of a fixed stipend, the clinic's fee income has increased substantially. Advantages and potential abuses are discussed. (MSE)

  16. The Effect of Competency-Based Dental Education on Postdoctoral General Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Spencer W.

    1994-01-01

    If competency-based dental education is implemented in the United States, it will have a significant impact on postdoctoral general dentistry, particularly in the areas of accreditation standards and the specificity of competencies required. Development of a core of standards for all postdoctoral programs is recommended. (MSE)

  17. The Effects of Reporting One's Gender on General Education Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin D.; Thelk, Amy D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether collecting gender information before general education assessments affects the performance of subjects for whom a negative domain performance stereotype exists. Results show that inquiry is not a sufficient priming stimulus to trigger stereotype threat in low-stakes assessments, yet its removal may increase motivation…

  18. Talking about the boss : effects of generalized and interpersonal trust on workplace gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwardt, L.; Wittek, R.P.M.; Wielers, R.J.J.

    This study developed and tested a relational theory of positive and negative gossip about managers. It is argued that spreading information about managers depends on trust in organizations, more specifically the employees' generalized and interpersonal trust in managers and colleagues. Hypotheses

  19. The effect of pharmacotherapy audit meetings on early new drug prescribing by general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentinus, S.R.; Hulten, R. van; Kloth, M.E.M.; Heerdink, E.R.; Griens, A.M.G.F.; Leufkens, H.G.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New drugs are cornerstones of clinical practice. However, when included in practice in an erratic fashion, there is valid concern about uncertain risk-benefit for patients and increased healthcare expenditures. In several countries, general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists work

  20. The Effect of Inhibitory Control on General Mathematics Achievement and Fraction Comparison in Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…

  1. Recognizing cognates and interlingual homographs: Effects of code similarity in language specific and generalized lexical decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemhöfer, K.M.L.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments investigated how cross-linguistic overlap in semantics, orthography, and phonology affects bilingual word recognition in different variants of the lexical decision task. Dutch-English bilinguals performed a language-specific or a generalized lexical decision task including words

  2. Effects and Implications of Mini-Lectures on Learning in First-Semester General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toto, Joe; Booth, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of a novel tool, mini-lecture movies, in teaching Web based general chemistry. The analysis shows a marked improvement in student learning, as evidenced by a corresponding increase in homework and final exam scores. Students with access to mini-lecture movies scored 11.2% (p = 0.016) higher than students who did…

  3. Effects of Active Learning on Enhancing Student Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate General Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungna; Sharma, Priya; Land, Susan M.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' critical thinking in an undergraduate general science course, we designed and implemented active learning modules by incorporating group-based learning with authentic tasks, scaffolding, and individual reports. This study examined the levels of critical thinking students exhibited in individual reports and the students'…

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of the patient's response to drug effect during general anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, Clara; Machado, Jose Tenreiro; De Keyser, Robin; Decruyenaere, Johan; Struys, Michel M. R. F.

    In today's healthcare paradigm, optimal sedation during anesthesia plays an important role both in patient welfare and in the socio-economic context. For the closed-loop control of general anesthesia, two drugs have proven to have stable, rapid onset times: propofol and remifentanil. These drugs are

  5. A randomized general population study of the effects of repeated health checks on incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2018-01-01

    results, the participants were given individual information about the results, disease risk and lifestyle. Their general practitioner, too, was provided with written information on the test results. Both groups were followed in the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Diabetes Register...

  6. The Effects of Simultaneous Sound-Position Training on the Generalization of [s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver-Spurlock, Shelley; Brasseur, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Three kindergarten children with residual articulation problems, as evidenced by the consistent misarticulation of "s," participated in a therapy program which employed simultaneous training of "s" in the initial, medial, and final positions of familiar words. Rapid generalization of correct "s" production occurred for all children. (Author/DB)

  7. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalization after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Vânia; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Capasso, Rita; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Rossi, Giorgio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance generalization has not been systematically investigated. Here, we test the efficacy of ACTION (a linguistically motivated protocol) and tDCS in producing item-specific and generalized improvement in aphasia. Nine individuals with post-stroke aphasia participated in this study. Participants were pre-tested with a diagnostic language battery and a cognitive screening. Experimental tasks were administered over multiple baselines. Production of infinitives, of finite verbs and of full sentences were assessed before and after each treatment phase. Nonword repetition was used as a control measure. Each subject was treated in two phases. Ten daily 1-h treatment sessions were provided per phase, in a double-blind, cross-over design. Linguistically-motivated language therapy focusing on verb inflection and sentence construction was provided in both phases. Each session began with 20 min of real or sham tDCS. Stimulation site was determined individually, based on MRI scans. Group data showed improved production of treated and untreated verbs, attesting the efficacy of behavioral treatment, and its potential to yield generalization. Each individual showed significant item-specific improvement. Generalization occurred in the first phase of treatment for all subjects, and in the second phase for two subjects. Stimulation effects at the group level were significant for treated and untreated verbs altogether, but a ceiling effect for Sham cannot be excluded, as scores between real tDCS and Sham differed only before treatment. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of ACTION and suggest that tDCS may enhance both item-specific effects and generalization.

  8. Effects of health education for migrant females with psychosomatic complaints treated by general practitioners. A randomised controlled evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Zwanenburg, E.J.-v.; Hoop, T.de

    2008-01-01

    Objective: : The effectiveness of use of migrant health educators in the general practitioners' care for female migrants with psychosomatic problems was evaluated to contribute to the improvement of the care for these patients. Methods: : A randomised controlled trial (RCT) design was used. A total

  9. The Effect of Instruction Based on Multiple Intelligences Theory on the Attitude and Learning of General English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Habib; Moinnzadeh, Ahmad; Kassaian, Zohreh; Ketabi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is investigating the effect of instruction based on Multiple intelligence (MI) theory on attitude and learning of General English course among students of Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch in the second semester of educational year of 2010-2011. 61 male and female students in two different classes…

  10. Effects of a Social Skills Intervention among High School Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism and Their General Education Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; Golas, Melissa; Cosgriff, Joseph; Brigham, Nicolette; Edwards, Caitlin; Cashen, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating general education peers into social skills instructional programs has been effective at increasing social interaction of high school students with intellectual disabilities and autism with their classmates. In this study, communication book use (Hughes et al., 2000), combined with providing the opportunity to interact, was associated…

  11. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of the Modular General English Language Teaching Preparatory Program at a Turkish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating existing foreign language programs on a regular basis is essential because program evaluation leads to more effective programs. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the modular intensive general English language teaching program applied at a university in Turkey by investigating students' and English instructors' perceptions of…

  12. Voice Disorders in Teachers and the General Population: Effects on Work Performance, Attendance, and Future Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Thibeault, Susan; Gray, Steven D.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the frequency and adverse effects of voice disorders on job performance and attendance in teachers and the general population, 2,401 participants from Iowa and Utah ([n.sub.1] = 1,243 teachers and [n.sub.2] = 1,279 nonteachers) were randomly selected and were interviewed by telephone using a voice disorder questionnaire. Teachers were…

  13. The Effect of Training Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disability in Scaffolding Strategies and Computer Software on Their Generalization Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloul, Farah; EL-Daou, Badrie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed at investigating the effect of scaffolding strategies as thinking out loud and verbalization of instructions strategies on the generalization skills of language-related concepts in mildly intellectual disabled students. Method: Twenty-seven subjects in three treatments were trained in solving a pattern of the Thurston…

  14. The positive effect on determinants of physical activity of a tailored, general practice-based physical activity intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van E.M.F.; Poppel-Bruinvels, van M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs)

  15. Gender and General Strain Theory: A Comparison of Strains, Mediating, and Moderating Effects Explaining Three Types of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry

    2017-01-01

    The present study of 659 Korean adolescents tests General Strain Theory's (GST) utility in explaining gender differences in delinquency causation. It models the effects of key strains, negative emotions, and a composite measure of several conditioning factors separately for boys and girls and for delinquency. Consistent with the theory, males and…

  16. Are effects of depression management training for General Practitioners on patient outcomes mediated by improvements in the process of care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, TWDP; van den Brink, RHS; Tiemens, BG; Jenner, JA; van der Meer, K; Ormel, J

    Background: Depression treatment by General Practitioners (GPs) and patient outcomes improved significantly after a comprehensive 20-h training program of GPs. This study examines whether the effects on patient outcomes are caused by the improvements in the process of care. Methods: Seventeen GPs

  17. Effects of outreach visits by trained nurses on cardiovascular risk-factor recording in general practice: A controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. van Drenth (Bernard); M.E.J.L. Hulscher (Marlies); H.G. Mokkink; E.H. van de Lisdonk (Eloy); R.P.T.M. Grol (Richard); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To study the effects of outreach visits by trained nurses on cardiovascular risk-factor recording. This strategy was compared with a strategy composed of more commonly used methods to improve the quality of care in general practice such as written feedback. Methods: A

  18. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interactive Laser Disc and Classroom Video Tape for Safety Instruction of General Motors Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, James; Wagner, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Describes evaluation that assessed the effectiveness of the Interactive Laser Disc System (ILDS) Training Program in comparison with classroom instruction with videotape for training of General Motors workers. Topics discussed include achievement test, attitude scales, opinion surveys, user preference questionnaires, interviews, and variables that…

  19. The Effects of Relaxation Instructions and EMG Biofeedback of Test Anxiety, General Anxiety, and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael; Saslow, Carol

    1980-01-01

    Brief relaxation instruction alone and instructions plus electromyographic (EMG) feedback produced significant decreases in general and test-specific anxiety. EMG feedback added little to the effectiveness of relaxation instructions and practice. Relaxation instruction without EMG biofeedback shifted subjects toward a more internal locus of…

  20. Brief Report: An Assessment of Stimulus Generalization and Contingency Effects in Functional Communication Training with Two Students with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Sweetland-Baker, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a study that used functional communication training (FCT) with two students, (ages 6 and 15) with autism and severe mental retardation, to add information to a database assessing the potential generalized effects of FCT and to examine the role that contingencies for appropriate and problem behaviors play in…

  1. Alternatives for Mixed-Effects Meta-Regression Models in the Reliability Generalization Approach: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, José Antonio; Botella, Juan; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Marín-Martínez, Fulgencio

    2013-01-01

    Since heterogeneity between reliability coefficients is usually found in reliability generalization studies, moderator analyses constitute a crucial step for that meta-analytic approach. In this study, different procedures for conducting mixed-effects meta-regression analyses were compared. Specifically, four transformation methods for the…

  2. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalization after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Aguiar, Vania; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Capasso, Rita; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Rossi, Giorgio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance

  3. Concentration Addition, Independent Action and Generalized Concentration Addition Models for Mixture Effect Prediction of Sex Hormone Synthesis In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Hadrup; Camilla Taxvig; Mikael Pedersen; Christine Nellemann; Ulla Hass; Anne Marie Vinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and generalized concentration addition (GCA) models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthes...

  4. A Basic Study on the General Properties and the Effective Utilization of Coal Ash for Earth Work Problem

    OpenAIRE

    棚橋, 由彦; 後藤, 恵之輔; 宮川, 英也; 持下, 輝雄

    1992-01-01

    Coal ash produced at the thermal power plants is one of the largest source of waste materials in Japan. Due to environment protection and increasing problems of the disposing of coal ash, there are important reasons for its effective utilization for earth work problem. This paper deals with the general properties of coal ash and the laboratory investigations on the effective utilization of coal ash for earth work problem. Specific earth work problems are included light-weight fill and subgrad...

  5. Randomised controlled trial of non-directive counselling, cognitive-behaviour therapy, and usual general practitioner care for patients with depression. I: Clinical effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Elaine; King, Michael; Lloyd, Margaret; Bower, Peter; Sibbald, Bonnie; Farrelly, Sharon; Gabbay, Mark; Tarrier, Nicholas; Addington-Hall, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of general practitioner care and two general practice based psychological therapies for depressed patients. Design: Prospective, controlled trial with randomised and patient preference allocation arms. Setting: General practices in London and greater Manchester. Participants: 464 of 627 patients presenting with depression or mixed anxiety and depression were suitable for inclusion. Interventions: Usual general practitioner care ...

  6. Spinal anesthesia for pediatric urological surgery: Reducing the theoretic neurotoxic effects of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Emmett E; Wiemann, Brianne Z; DaJusta, Daniel G; Alpert, Seth A; Ching, Christina B; McLeod, Daryl J; Tobias, Joseph D; Jayanthi, Venkata R

    2017-08-01

    Spinal anesthesia (SA) is an effective technique that has been used in children for years. With growing concern with regard to the risks of general anesthesia (GA), we developed a SA program to provide an alternative option. We present our initial experience with this program. To implement a SA program at a large tertiary care pediatric center and assess the safety and efficacy of the technique as an alternative to GA for urologic surgery. We prospectively collected data on all children undergoing SA at our institution. We recorded demographics, procedure, time required for placement of the SA, length of surgery, success of lumbar puncture, success of attaining adequate surgical anesthesia, need for supplemental systemic sedation, conversion to GA, and perioperative complications. SA was attempted in 105 consecutive children (104 boys, 1 girl) with a mean age of 7.4 ± 4.3 months (range 19 days-24 months) and mean weight of 8.3 ± 1.7 kg (range 3.5-13.7). Placement of the SA was successful in 93/105 children (89%). Inability to achieve lumbar puncture (cerebrospinal fluid was not obtained) meant that SA was abandoned in seven (7%) patients and GA was administered. In five patients in whom SA was successful and surgery was begun, 5/93 (5%) required conversion to GA: two because of evisceration of intestine through large hernia defects related to coughing and abdominal irritation, two because of lack of motor blockade despite an adequate sensory block, and one because of an inability to place an intravenous catheter in the lower extremities (required per SA protocol). If necessary, an intravenous catheter can be placed in the upper extremity, but this must be weighed against the fact that the block has already been placed and is of limited duration. Overall, SA was successful (SA was placed and surgery was completed without conversion to GA) in 88/105 children (84%). No additional sedation and no systemic anesthetic agents were required in 75/88 children (85

  7. General Time Dependent Approach to Vibronic Spectroscopy Including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller, and Duschinsky Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2013-09-10

    An effective time-dependent (TD) approach to compute vibrationally resolved optical spectra from first principles is presented for the computation of one-photon electronic spectra induced by either electric or magnetic transition dipoles or by their mutual interaction, namely absorption, emission, and circular dichroism. Particular care has been devoted to generality, modularity, and numerical stability including all the contributions that play a role at the harmonic level of approximation, namely Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller, and Dushinsky (i.e., mode mixing) effects. The implementation shares the same general framework of our previous time-independent (TI) model, thus allowing an effective integration between both approaches with the consequent enhancement of their respective strengths (e.g., spectrum completeness and straightforward account of temperature effects for the TD route versus band resolution and assignment for the TI route) using a single set of starting data. Implementation of both models in the same general computer program allows comprehensive studies using several levels of electronic structure description together with effective account of environmental effects by atomistic and/or continuum models of different sophistication. A few medium-size molecules (furan, phenyl radical, anthracene, dimethyloxirane, coumarin 339) have been studied in order to fully validate the approach.

  8. The Effect of Positive and Negative Perfectionism and Type D Personality on General Health of the Aged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahamadi Tahoor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Many factors such as retirement, work disability, being isolated from the society, physical illness… affect the general health of the aged , one factor among many, is the role of psychological variables. The purpose of this study has been the investigation of the effect of positive and negative perfectionism and type D personality on general health of the aged. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 80 subjects (47 males and 33 females were selected through available sampling method among the aged in nursing homes in Hamadan and Malayer. Then the positive and negative perfectionism questionnaire of Terry- Short et al, that of type D personality and Goldberg and Hiller's general health questionnaire were administered to them. Results: Positive perfectionism (r=-0.30 and type D personality (r=0.32 had significant correlations with general health. Multiple regression analysis also revealed that positive perfectionism and type D could explain at least 49 percent of the variance of general health. The females’ mean was higher than that of males concerning the variables of depression-anxiety, speech inhibition and irritability and in positive perfectionism, general health and social function variables the males’ mean was higher than that of females. Conclusion: Creating optimistic attitudes and enhancing social functions, positive perfectionism may cause the mental disorder to be decreased in old age and type D personality; however, positive perfectionism makes the aged apt to physical illness and mental disorder. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 64-69

  9. Decision-making in general practice: the effect of financial incentives on the use of laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkerud, Siri Fauli

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the reaction of general practitioners (GPs) to a reform in 2004 in the remuneration system for using laboratory services in general practice. The purpose of this paper is to study whether income motivation exists regarding the use of laboratory services in general practice, and if so, the degree of income motivation among general practitioners (GPs) in Norway. We argue that the degree of income motivation is stronger when the physicians are uncertain about the utility of the laboratory service in question. We have panel data from actual physician-patient encounters in general practices in the years 2001-2004 and use discrete choice analysis and random effects models. Estimation results show that an increase in the fees will lead to a small but significant increase in use. The reform led to minor changes in the use of laboratory analyses in GPs' offices, and we argue that financial incentives were diluted because they were in conflict with medical recommendations and existing medical practice. The patient's age has the most influence and the results support the hypothesis that the impact of income increases with increasing uncertainty about diagnosis and treatment. The policy implication of our results is that financial incentives alone are not an effective tool for influencing the use of laboratory services in GPs' offices.

  10. A Common Polymorphism in SCN2A Predicts General Cognitive Ability through Effects on PFC Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scult, Matthew A; Trampush, Joey W; Zheng, Fengyu; Conley, Emily Drabant; Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K; Dickinson, Dwight; Weinberger, Daniel R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-09-01

    Here we provide novel convergent evidence across three independent cohorts of healthy adults (n = 531), demonstrating that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding the α2 subunit of neuronal voltage-gated type II sodium channels (SCN2A) predicts human general cognitive ability or "g." Using meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the minor T allele of a common polymorphism (rs10174400) in SCN2A is associated with significantly higher "g" independent of gender and age. We further demonstrate using resting-state fMRI data from our discovery cohort (n = 236) that this genetic advantage may be mediated by increased capacity for information processing between the dorsolateral PFC and dorsal ACC, which support higher cognitive functions. Collectively, these findings fill a gap in our understanding of the genetics of general cognitive ability and highlight a specific neural mechanism through which a common polymorphism shapes interindividual variation in "g."

  11. Listening strategies instruction: Effects on Hong Kong students' general strategic behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueroles López, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The present article reports on a study which explores the impact of listening strategies instruction on typical strategic behaviour. Participants were 38 Hong Kong students of Spanish divided into two groups: the experimental group, who were trained in listening strategies, and the control group......, who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development of listening strategies into a regular course of Spanish as a foreign language. Data referring...... to participants' general strategic behaviour were gathered at two time points (before and after the instruction) from a researcher-designed self-report questionnaire which required students to express the frequency they employed every specific listening strategy. Results point out modest differences in general...

  12. Generalized herd effects and vaccine evaluation: impact of live influenza vaccine on off-target bacterial colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Interactions between pathogens and commensal microbes are major contributors to health and disease. Infectious diseases however are most often considered independent, viewed within a one-host one-pathogen paradigm and, by extension, the interventions used to treat and prevent them are measured and evaluated within this same paradigm. Vaccines, especially live vaccines, by stimulating immune responses or directly interacting with other microbes can alter the environment in which they act, with effects that span across pathogen species. Live attenuated infl uenza vaccines for example, while safe, increase upper respiratory tract bacterial carriage density of important human commensal pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Further, by altering the ecological niche and dynamics of phylogenetically distinct microbes within the host, vaccines may unintentionally affect transmission of non-vaccine targeted pathogens. Thus, vaccine effects may span across species and across scales, from the individual to the population level. In keeping with traditional vaccine herd-effects that indirectly protect even unvaccinated individuals by reducing population prevalence of vaccine-targeted pathogens, we call these cross-species cross-scale effects "generalized herd-effects". As opposed to traditional herd-effects, "generalized" relaxes the assumption that the effect occurs at the level of the vaccine-target pathogen and "herd effect" implies, as usual, that the effects indirectly impact the population at large, including unvaccinated bystanders. Unlike traditional herd-effects that decrease population prevalence of the vaccine-target, generalized herd-effects may decrease or increase prevalence and disease by the off-target pathogen. LAIV, for example, by increasing pneumococcal density in the upper respiratory tract of vaccine recipients, especially children, may increase pneumococcal transmission and prevalence, leading to excess pneumococcal invasive

  13. Effects on generalized growth models driven by a non-Poissonian dichotomic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, M.; Calisto, H.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we consider a general growth model with stochastic growth rate modelled via a symmetric non-poissonian dichotomic noise. We find an exact analytical solution for its probability distribution. We consider the, as yet, unexplored case where the deterministic growth rate is perturbed by a dichotomic noise characterized by a waiting time distribution in the two state that is a power law with power 1 Malthus-Verhulst and Gompertz.

  14. Generality and specificity in the effects of musical expertise on perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel; Rosen, Stuart; Krishnan, Saloni; Pearce, Marcus T; Shepherd, Alex; Aydelott, Jennifer; Dick, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    Performing musicians invest thousands of hours becoming experts in a range of perceptual, attentional, and cognitive skills. The duration and intensity of musicians' training - far greater than that of most educational or rehabilitation programs - provides a useful model to test the extent to which skills acquired in one particular context (music) generalize to different domains. Here, we asked whether the instrument-specific and more instrument-general skills acquired during professional violinists' and pianists' training would generalize to superior performance on a wide range of analogous (largely non-musical) skills, when compared to closely matched non-musicians. Violinists and pianists outperformed non-musicians on fine-grained auditory psychophysical measures, but surprisingly did not differ from each other, despite the different demands of their instruments. Musician groups did differ on a tuning system perception task: violinists showed clearest biases towards the tuning system specific to their instrument, suggesting that long-term experience leads to selective perceptual benefits given a training-relevant context. However, we found only weak evidence of group differences in non-musical skills, with musicians differing marginally in one measure of sustained auditory attention, but not significantly on auditory scene analysis or multi-modal sequencing measures. Further, regression analyses showed that this sustained auditory attention metric predicted more variance in one auditory psychophysical measure than did musical expertise. Our findings suggest that specific musical expertise may yield distinct perceptual outcomes within contexts close to the area of training. Generalization of expertise to relevant cognitive domains may be less clear, particularly where the task context is non-musical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible Simple Structures of the Universe to Include General Relativity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BERBENTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The general relativity describes the universe properties, the gravity playing a fundamental role. One uses a metric tensor in a Riemann space, g  , which should be in agreement with a mass (or energy tensor in order to satisfy the Einstein equation of the general relativity [1]. This equation contains the Ricci curvature as well. In general, applications are done considering that a chosen metric is valid without region limits. In fact, the density of the energy whose distribution is however unknown is variable in universe; therefore, the metrics need to be adapted to different regions. For this reason one suggests to start with a simple, average mass-energy distribution that could represent in a first step the actual universe. This suggestion is in agreement with the symmetrical distribution of equal spheres existing in a model of the early universe given by one of the authors. Two kinds of distribution are given. The possibility of black holes formation is studied and a criterion is given.

  16. Different Effect of Local and General Fatigue on Knee Joint Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; DE Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of locally and generally induced fatigue on the stiffness properties of the knee joint. Twenty-two male (24.9 ± 4.5 yr, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, 75.4 ± 6.4 kg, 23.9 ± 1.8 kg·m) and 18 female (21.1 ± 1.5 yr, 1.66 ± 0.05 m, 63.4 ± 6.5 kg, 22.9 ± 2.5 kg·m) amateur athletes participated. Peak torque (PT) of the knee extensor musculature, muscle stiffness (MS) of the vastus lateralis, and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joint were assessed pre- and postlocally and generally induced fatigue (undertaken on two separate days with a 1-wk interval). Males were characterized by higher values of MAS, relaxed and contracted MS, normalized PT (PT/body mass), and normalized MAS (MAS/external load) irrespective of time point (P sexes; and normalized contracted MS (contracted MS/external load) in males (P < 0.001). Normalized PT decreased significantly in males (P < 0.01) postfatigue. Contracted MS (P = 0.01) and MAS (P = 0.05) decreased significantly in males post-fatigue. The stiffness properties of the knee joint are influenced by locally and generally induced fatigue, with different responses being observed in males and females.

  17. Changing author counts in five major general medicine journals: effect of author contribution forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerlocher, Mark Otto; Gautam, Tina; Newton, Marshall; Tomlinson, George

    2009-08-01

    Objective and indirect evidence was used to determine whether required author contribution forms were associated with a decrease in author counts in four major general medicine journals (British Medical Journal [BMJ], Journal of the American Medical Association [JAMA], Canadian Medical Association Journal [CMAJ], and the Lancet). The number of authors listed per article before and after the introduction of explicit author contribution requirements were counted and compared with that found for the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) that did not require such disclosure. The primary hypothesis was that author counts decreased more in the BMJ, CMAJ, JAMA, and the Lancet after introduction of the rules than they did in the NEJM. The number of authors listed per original research article published in the five general medical journals with the greatest 2004 Impact Factors in the first issue of each month in the years before and after introduction of required author contribution forms was compared. Introduction of the required author contribution forms by the four leading general medical journals did not result in a drop in the rate of increasing authors per article per year, or in the number of authors per article compared with the control. Overall, there was a trend of an increasing number of authors listed per article. Based on the presented objective and indirect evidence, required author contribution forms were not associated with a decrease in author counts.

  18. Quantification of Ethanol's Anti-Punishment Effect in Humans Using the Generalized Matching Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Erin B.; Newland, M. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Increases in rates of punished behavior by the administration of drugs with anxiolytic effects (called antipunishment effects) are well established in animals but not humans. The present study examined antipunishment effects of ethanol in humans using a choice procedure. The behavior of 5 participants was placed under six concurrent…

  19. Hierarchical generalized linear models for multiple groups of rare and common variants: jointly estimating group and individual-variant effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengjun Yi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex diseases and traits are likely influenced by many common and rare genetic variants and environmental factors. Detecting disease susceptibility variants is a challenging task, especially when their frequencies are low and/or their effects are small or moderate. We propose here a comprehensive hierarchical generalized linear model framework for simultaneously analyzing multiple groups of rare and common variants and relevant covariates. The proposed hierarchical generalized linear models introduce a group effect and a genetic score (i.e., a linear combination of main-effect predictors for genetic variants for each group of variants, and jointly they estimate the group effects and the weights of the genetic scores. This framework includes various previous methods as special cases, and it can effectively deal with both risk and protective variants in a group and can simultaneously estimate the cumulative contribution of multiple variants and their relative importance. Our computational strategy is based on extending the standard procedure for fitting generalized linear models in the statistical software R to the proposed hierarchical models, leading to the development of stable and flexible tools. The methods are illustrated with sequence data in gene ANGPTL4 from the Dallas Heart Study. The performance of the proposed procedures is further assessed via simulation studies. The methods are implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/.

  20. Hierarchical generalized linear models for multiple groups of rare and common variants: jointly estimating group and individual-variant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Nengjun; Liu, Nianjun; Zhi, Degui; Li, Jun

    2011-12-01

    Complex diseases and traits are likely influenced by many common and rare genetic variants and environmental factors. Detecting disease susceptibility variants is a challenging task, especially when their frequencies are low and/or their effects are small or moderate. We propose here a comprehensive hierarchical generalized linear model framework for simultaneously analyzing multiple groups of rare and common variants and relevant covariates. The proposed hierarchical generalized linear models introduce a group effect and a genetic score (i.e., a linear combination of main-effect predictors for genetic variants) for each group of variants, and jointly they estimate the group effects and the weights of the genetic scores. This framework includes various previous methods as special cases, and it can effectively deal with both risk and protective variants in a group and can simultaneously estimate the cumulative contribution of multiple variants and their relative importance. Our computational strategy is based on extending the standard procedure for fitting generalized linear models in the statistical software R to the proposed hierarchical models, leading to the development of stable and flexible tools. The methods are illustrated with sequence data in gene ANGPTL4 from the Dallas Heart Study. The performance of the proposed procedures is further assessed via simulation studies. The methods are implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/).

  1. [Medical opinion leaders conflict of interests: effects of disclosures on the trust of the public and general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, R; Milhabet, I

    2011-08-01

    Key medical opinion leaders influence the behaviors of physicians and patients. By law, they have to disclose their interests with pharmaceutical companies when they communicate in the media. Up to now, it appears that no study has explored the effect of opinion leaders' disclosures despite their potential impact on public health and economy. The study objective was to assess the effects of opinion leaders' disclosures of interest on the public and general practitioners' trust in opinion leader by comparison with the overall medical community. In an experimental setting, three opinion leader profiles were built that differed only by the disclosure of their interests (hidden vs. weak vs. strong interests). One of the three profiles was randomly assigned to the subjects of two groups: 67 students and 60 general practitioners. According to an Anova analysis, the main effects and interactions of the disclosure of interests, of the message recipients, and of the assessed targets on the level of trust were measured. The results show that the average level of trust expressed by general practitioners was lower than that expressed by the general public. The level of trust in the opinion leader was lower than that of the overall medical community. The level of trust of exposed subjects fell much lower with stronger disclosed interests. While the general public did not distinguish trust between opinion leaders and the overall medical community, practitioners showed a significantly lower level of trust in opinion leaders with increasingly strong levels of disclosed interests. These study results refute the assertion that public trust would be reduced by the disclosure of interests. They reinforce the importance of the "who judges who" and "which kind of disclosure impacts who ?" effects and draw attention to further research on the role of social interactions in both mass and group communications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rate and convulsion as an adverse effect chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Andid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on the relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rale and convulsion as an adverse effect of chemotherapy was conducted in leukemia patients of the hematology-oncology subdivision, Departmenl of Child Health, Medical School, University of North Sumatra, Medan. Of 114 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 81 (71.05% received chemotherapy, 31 patients among them was in good general condition. Remission rate of the 31 patients was 80.6% (25 children. Whereas in the remaining 50 patients, the remission rate among them was 84% (42 patients. There was no significant relationship between their general condition to the recurrence rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients who had been administered chemotherapy during induction phase. Convulsion was found In 2 cases, due to CNS leukemia.

  3. Alveolar recruiting maneuver in dogs under general anesthesia: effects on alveolar ventilation, gas exchange, and respiratory mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffieri, F; De Monte, V; De Marzo, C; Scrascia, F; Crovace, A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a recruiting maneuver (RM) on lung aeration, gas exchange, and respiratory mechanics during general anesthesia in mechanically ventilated dogs. A thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan, an arterial blood sample, and measurement of respiratory mechanics were performed 10 min before (baseline) and both 5 and 30 min after a vital capacity RM in 10 dogs under general anesthesia. The RM was performed by inflating the lung at 40 cm H(2)O for 20 s. Lung aeration was estimated by analyzing the radiographic attenuation of the CT images. Lung aeration and gas exchange improved significantly 5 min after the RM compared to baseline and returned to values similar to baseline by 30 min. Static lung compliance was not significantly affected by the RM. An RM induces a temporary improvement in lung function in healthy dogs under general anesthesia.

  4. The effect of laryngeal mask airway insertion on intraocular pressure measurement in children receiving general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Patrick; Lim, May Kim; Gandhewar, Ravikiran; Mukherjee, Aychut; Wintle, Richard; Armstrong, Trevor; Zatman, Tahsin; Jones, Rhys; Al Madfai, Hasan

    2007-10-01

    To study changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) in children while under general anesthesia before and after laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion. Prospective, comparative study. IOP was measured in children after induction and one minute after LMA insertion. Children younger than 16 years who were scheduled to undergo elective ophthalmic surgery while receiving a general anesthetic were included. Children with a history of glaucoma or previous intraocular surgery were excluded. Data were collected on the age of the child, IOP, heart rate (HR), end tidal CO2, and blood pressure (BP) before and after LMA insertion. Sixty-six children with a mean age of 5.5 +/- 3.6 years (range, four months to 16 years) were included in the study. The mean IOP was 13.6 +/- 3.9 mm Hg and 13.6 +/- 3.6 mm Hg in right and left eyes, respectively, before LMA insertion and 15.5 +/- 3.8 mm Hg and 15.2 +/- 3.8 mm Hg in right and left eyes, respectively, after LMA insertion (P = .001). A decrease in BP was significantly associated with an increase in IOP (P = .008), and the interaction between the change in the BP, HR, and CO2 affected the change in IOP measured after insertion of the LMA (P = .04). There was no correlation between the age of the child and the change in IOP measured after insertion of the LMA. In our study, a small but significantly higher IOP was found after LMA insertion than before. It is recommended that the measurement of IOP in children receiving a general anesthetic is carried out before the insertion of the LMA.

  5. Effects of dose ranging of adenosine infusion on electrocardiographic findings during and after general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Xia; Habib, Ashraf S; Wenger, Tom; Gratz, Irwin; Glick, David; Adsumelli, Rishimani; Creed, Mary R; Gan, Tong J

    2012-10-01

    To assess changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) associated with intraoperative infusion of adenosine in patients undergoing open abdominal gynecological surgery. One hundred and sixty-six patients undergoing gynecological surgery were randomly assigned to receive one of four doses of adenosine infusion (25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/kg/min) or matching placebo. Study drug administration was started at skin incision and discontinued at end of surgery. A standardized general anesthetic regimen was used and adjusted based on hemodynamic and bispectral index values. Heart rate and rhythm variables, and PR, QRS, QT, and QTc intervals were recorded from 12-lead ECGs before anesthesia and immediately after patient arrival in the postanesthesia care unit. In addition, a rhythm strip was obtained during administration of the loading dose of the study drug. ECG variables were compared within and between groups. Incidence of ECG and hemodynamic abnormalities was recorded. One hundred and fifty-one subjects had a full set of electrocardiographic data: placebo (n = 38), group adenosine 25 μg/kg/min (n = 31), group adenosine 50 μg/kg/min (n = 29), group adenosine 100 μg/kg/min (n = 28), and group adenosine 200 μg/kg/min (n = 25). Statistically significant postoperative QTc prolongation was observed in all study groups when compared with baseline except for the adenosine 200 μg/kg/min group. However, these changes from baseline were not different among the groups. There were also no significant differences in PR, QRS, and QT intervals between the treatment groups. There was no difference in QTc prolongation following intraoperative administration of adenosine infusion compared with placebo during isoflurane general anesthesia. However, QTc prolongation is common following general anesthesia.

  6. PROYECT METHOD AND ITS EFFECT ON LEARNING COURSE IN STATISTICS GENERAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Durand, Elba

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto que tiene el método basado en proyectos sobre el aprendizaje del curso Estadística General por parte de los estudiantes de pregrado de una universidad privada, durante el semestre 2010-II. El texto es de tipo descriptivo-explicativo; aplica el método ex post facto y el diseño correlacional. Para la recolección de datos, se aplicó a los estudiantes un cuestionario, que recogió sus opiniones sobre las variables del estudio. En r...

  7. The effects of general anaesthesia on nerve-motor response characteristics (rheobase and chronaxie) to peripheral nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, B C

    2014-04-01

    Using a simple surface nerve stimulation system, I examined the effects of general anaesthesia on rheobase (the minimum current required to stimulate nerve activity) and chronaxie (the minimum time for a stimulus twice the rheobase to elicit nerve activity). Nerve stimulation was used to elicit a motor response from the ulnar nerve at varying pulse widths before and after induction of general anaesthesia. Mean (SD) rheobase before and after general anaesthesia was 0.91 (0.37) mA (95% CI 0.77-1.04 mA) and 1.11 (0.53) mA (95% CI 0.92-1.30 mA), respectively. Mean (SD) chronaxie measured before and after general anaesthesia was 0.32 (0.17) ms (95% CI 0.26-0.38 ms) and 0.29 (0.13) ms (95% CI 0.24-0.33 ms), respectively. Under anaesthesia, rheobase values increased by an average of 20% (p = 0.05), but chronaxie values did not change significantly (p = 0.39). These results suggest that threshold currents used for motor response from nerve stimulation under general anaesthesia might be higher than those used in awake patients. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy training on improving emotional intelligence and general health of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghel Masjedi, M; Taghavizadeh, M; Azadi, N; Hosseinzadeh, F; Koushkestani, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the current research was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT) training on the general health and improve the emotional intelligence of male adolescents in Tehran city. Methodology: The current research is a semi-trial research with pretest-posttest experimental design and two test and control groups, which were carried out in the 2014-2015 academic year. 40 high school male students were chosen via proper sampling approach and they were stochastically classified into test and control team (each team, n = 20). The students were protested via Baron emotional intelligence and GHQ-28 general health questionnaire. Subsequently, the test group was trained in the cognitive-behavioral group therapy for eight sessions and the control group received no interventions. In the end, both groups were post-tested, and the data were investigated by using a multivariate investigation of covariance method and SPSS-20. Findings: The outcomes demonstrated that there were notable distinctions between the experiment and the checking teams after the implementation of the CBT training (P emotional intelligence and general health increased in test group rather than in the check team. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the CBT practice is useful in improving emotional intelligence and general health in adolescent male students. Thus, one can recommend that appropriate therapy training could be designed to improve their emotional intelligence and general health.

  9. Effectiveness and usage of a decision support system to improve stroke prevention in general practice: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Derk L; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Medlock, Stephanie K; van Weert, Henk C P M

    2017-01-01

    Adherence to guidelines pertaining to stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation is poor. Decision support systems have shown promise in increasing guideline adherence. To improve guideline adherence with a non-obtrusive clinical decision support system integrated in the workflow. Secondly, we seek to capture reasons for guideline non-adherence. A cluster randomized controlled trial in Dutch general practices. A decision support system was developed that implemented properties positively associated with effectiveness: real-time, non-interruptive and based on data from electronic health records. Recommendations were based on the Dutch general practitioners guideline for atrial fibrillation that uses the CHA2DS2-VAsc for stroke risk stratification. Usage data and responses to the recommendations were logged. Effectiveness was measured as adherence to the guideline. We used a chi square to test for group differences and a mixed effects model to correct for clustering and baseline adherence. Our analyses included 781 patients. Usage of the system was low (5%) and declined over time. In total, 76 notifications received a response: 58% dismissal and 42% acceptance. At the end of the study, both groups had improved, by 8% and 5% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups (Control: 50%, Intervention: 55% P = 0.23). Clustered analysis revealed similar results. Only one usable reasons for non-adherence was captured. Our study could not demonstrate the effectiveness of a decision support system in general practice, which was likely due to lack of use. Our findings should be used to develop next generation decision support systems that are effective in the challenging setting of general practice.

  10. Effect of General Health Status on Chronicity of Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing patients at a higher risk of developing chronic low back pain (LBP is important in industrial medicine. This study aimed to assess the power and quality of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ for prediction of the odds of chronicity of acute LBP. This study was conducted on industrial workers. All subjects with acute LBP who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, occupational, physical, and mental parameters and the general health status of subjects were evaluated;  they were followed up for developing chronic LBP for one year. Cigarette smoking, high body mass index, job stress, physical load and high GHQ scores were found to be the risk factors for the progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP (P<0.05. Standing position while working, age, work experience, exercise, level of education, weekly work hours and shift work were not the risk factors for chronic LBP (P>0.05.High GHQ score can be a risk factor for progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP. The GHQ in combination with the Job Content Questionnaire can be used as a quick and simple screening tool for detection of subjects at high risk of chronic LBP when evaluating acute LBP in an occupational setting.

  11. Communication problems between dementia carers and general practitioners: effect on access to community support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David G; Paley, Glenys A; Underwood, Peter J; Roberts, David; Steed, Duncan

    2002-08-19

    To investigate the circumstances that led general practitioners to refer dementia sufferers and their carers to community support services. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, carried out between 1 September 1999 and 30 April 2000. 21 live-in carers of patients with dementia referred for the first time to a Western Australian metropolitan Aged Care Assessment Team, and 19 of their referring general practitioners. Most referrals occurred after the carers had been experiencing carer stress, and were precipitated by crisis situations. Carers failed to discuss their difficulties with the referring GP for a variety of reasons, including the belief that they should cope because it was their duty. The doctors found it difficult to know how the carers were coping or when to intervene, and some carers tended to resist their attempts to help. Time constraints were a significant problem for both groups. Attitudinal barriers in both carers of patients with dementia and GPs, combined with time constraints, often lead to inadequate assessment of carer problems. While it is important that strategies to improve communication between carers and GPs are developed, it would be sensible for GPs to assume that dementia carers are at risk of carer stress and should be encouraged to use community care services.

  12. Library Anxiety As A Great Barrier Before Effective Library Use: A General Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Library anxiety is a subject which has been searched in international platform in its various dimensions since 1986 in which the concept was first defined. On the other hand, this important subject, in the context of this article, as of the end of 2010 year in which we concluded literature survey, has never been handled and studied on in the scope of Turkish Librarianship.2 Main purpose of this study which is the first article in which library anxiety is studied as an independent subject in the scope of Turkish Librarianship is to draw attention to the subject of library anxiety which is a great barrier for the users before the high level satisfaction relating to the library services, who are the existence reason of the libraries andfurthermore is to handle the studies prepared in the past on this subject under a general approach. Furthermore in this study, studies close to the subject in the Turkish Librarianship were handled and a general appraisal was made on the subject. At the final part of the study, place was given to some proposals which are directed towards the discussion of library anxiety in theoretical dimension within the scope of Turkish Librarianship and furthermore some proposals which are aimed to prevent and eliminate the formation of library anxiety in the users during the application (operation of the library are given place.

  13. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  14. Effectiveness of unit-based pricing of waste in the Netherlands: applying a general equilibrium model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukering, van P.J.H.; Bartelings, H.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Differential and variable rates (DVR) in waste collection charging give a price incentive to households to reduce their waste and increase recycling. International empirical evidence confirms the effectiveness of DVR schemes, with limited unwanted side effects. In the Netherlands, currently some 20%

  15. Effects of Decision-Making Styles of School Administrators on General Procrastination Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celai Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Lack of habits such as effective time management, determination of priorities, and effective and productive use of time is one of several reasons for procrastination behaviors. Personality traits along with incorrect cognitive loads about the self and the environment are other reasons for procrastination behaviors. At this…

  16. General self-efficacy and the effect of hospital workplace violence on doctors’ stress and job satisfaction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcheng Yao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims at exploring associations of general self-efficacy (GSE, workplace violence and doctors' work-related attitudes. Material and Methods: In this study a cross-sectional survey design was applied. Questionnaires were administrated to 758 doctors working in 9 hospitals of Zhengzhou, Henan province, China, between June and October 2010. General information on age, gender, and years of working was collected, and the doctors' experience and witnessing workplace violence, job satisfaction, job initiative, occupational stress as well as GSE were measured. General linear regression analysis was performed in association analyses. Results: Both experiencing and witnessing workplace violence were significantly positively correlated with the level of occupational stress but significantly negatively correlated with job satisfaction, job initiative, and GSE. General self-efficacy significantly modified relationships between both experiencing and witnessing workplace violence with occupational stress (β = 0.49 for experiencing violence; β = 0.43 for witnessing violence; p 0.05. The levels of occupational stress declined significantly with the increase of GSE, while job satisfaction increased significantly along with its increase. The effects of GSE on occupational stress and job satisfaction weakened as the frequency of violence increased. Conclusions: The findings suggest that GSE can modify effects of workplace violence on health care workers' stress and job satisfaction. Enhancing GSE in combination with stress reduction may lead to facilitating health care workers' recovery from workplace violence, and thereby improving their work-related attitudes.

  17. Do general relativistic effects limit experiments to test the universality of free fall and the weak equivalence principle?

    CERN Document Server

    Nobili, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    The Universality of Free Fall and the Weak Equivalence Principle, which are at the basis of General Relativity, have been confirmed to 1 part in 10^13. Space experiments with macroscopic test masses of different composition orbiting the Earth inside a low altitude satellite aim at improving this precision by two orders of magnitude (with the Microscope satellite, launched on 25 April 2016) and up to four orders of magnitude (with the 'Galileo Galilei' - GG satellite). At such a high precision many tiny effects must be taken into account in order to be ruled out as the source of a spurious violation signal. In this work we investigate the general relativistic effects, including those which involve the rotation of both the source body and the test masses, and show that they are by far too small to be considered even in the most challenging experiment.

  18. Generalized parton distributions: confining potential effects within AdS/QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traini, Marco [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Universita degli Studi di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trento (Italy); INFN-TIFPA, Trento (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Generalized parton distributions are investigated within a holographic approach where the string modes in the fifth dimension describe the nucleon in a bottom-up or AdS/QCD framework. The aim is to bring the AdS/QCD results in the realm of phenomenology in order to extract consequences and previsions. Two main aspects are studied: (i) the role of the confining potential needed for breaking conformal invariance and introducing confinement (both: classic soft-wall and recent infra-red potentials are investigated); (ii) the extension of the predicted GPDs to the entire range of off-forward kinematics by means of double distributions. Higher Fock states are included describing the nucleon as a superposition of three valence quarks and quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. (orig.)

  19. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Effect of the General Data Protection Regulation on Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, John Mark Michael; Pierscionek, Barbara

    2017-02-24

    The enactment of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will impact on European data science. Particular concerns relating to consent requirements that would severely restrict medical data research have been raised. Our objective is to explain the changes in data protection laws that apply to medical research and to discuss their potential impact. Analysis of ethicolegal requirements imposed by the GDPR. The GDPR makes the classification of pseudonymised data as personal data clearer, although it has not been entirely resolved. Biomedical research on personal data where consent has not been obtained must be of substantial public interest. The GDPR introduces protections for data subjects that aim for consistency across the EU. The proposed changes will make little impact on biomedical data research.

  1. Communicative skills of general practitioners augment the effectiveness of guideline-based depression treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, TWDP; van den Brink, RHS; Tiemens, BG; Jenner, JA; van der Meer, K; Ormel, J

    Background: Although good physician communication is associated with positive patient outcomes. it does not figure in current depression treatment guidelines. We examined the effect of depression treatment. communicative skills and their interaction on patient outcomes for depression in primary

  2. Nonlocal modification and quantum optical generalization of effective-medium theory for metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Yan, Wei; Amooghorban, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    A well-known challenge for fabricating metamaterials is to make unit cells significantly smaller than the operating wavelength of light, so one can be sure that effective-medium theories apply. But do they apply? Here we show that nonlocal response in the metal constituents of the metamaterial...... leads to modified effective parameters for strongly subwavelength unit cells. For infinite hyperbolic metamaterials, nonlocal response gives a very large finite upper bound to the optical density of states that otherwise would diverge. Moreover, for finite hyperbolic metamaterials we show that nonlocal...... response affects their operation as superlenses, and interestingly that sometimes nonlocal theory predicts the better imaging. Finally, we discuss how to describe metamaterials effectively in quantum optics. Media with loss or gain have associated quantum noise, and the question is whether the effective...

  3. Effective general practice: audit and feedback for the primary series of immunisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gary; Timo, Mareta; Dev, Anjileena; Poole, Tracey; Turner, Nikki

    2014-03-01

    General practice immunisation audits do not always match the national rates recorded on the New Zealand (NZ) National Immunisation Register (NIR). To complete audits at one general practice for infants requiring the primary series of immunisations (6-week, 3-month and 5-month vaccines) over a 12-month period and compare findings with the NIR audit. A manual and electronic practice management system (PMS) audit were compared with identical NIR audit parameters for completion of the 5-month vaccination from 1 February 2011 to 1 February 2012. All three results were then combined with further sub-audits of the total practice newborn population to produce a multifaceted audit, identifying further eligible patients. The NIR database query tool was used to corroborate data on partially immunised and unimmunised patients identified. All three initial audits produced different results for vaccinated and eligible patients: NIR 31/36; PMS audit 39/43; manual audit 41/48. The multifaceted audit identified 48 eligible infants. All 48 (100%) started their primary series-95.8% (46 of 48) fully immunised; 4.2% (2 of 48) partially immunised, missing only one injection. None were unimmunised, contrary to initial audits. Lower levels of timeliness of delivery were confirmed for this practice, with 52.1% (25 of 48) immunised on time. Results show 9.7% higher levels of immunisation than reported by NIR statistics for this practice (95.8% vs 86.1%), above current NZ government and World Health Organization targets. The multifaceted audit produced the best estimate of eligible patients and identified deficiencies in vaccine delivery.

  4. Evaluation of scaling and root planing effect in generalized chronic periodontitis by fractal and multifractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvu, A E; Ţălu, Ş; Crăciun, C; Alb, S F

    2014-04-01

    Fractal and multifractal analysis are useful additional non-invasive methods for quantitative description of complex morphological features. However, the quantitative and qualitative assessment of morphologic changes within human gingival cells and tissues are still unexplored. The aim of this work is to assess the structural gingival changes in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP), before and after scaling and root planing (SRP) by using fractal and multifractal analysis. Twelve adults with untreated chronic periodontitis were treated only by SRP. At baseline and after SRP, gingivomucosal biopsies were collected for histopathological examination. Fractal and multifractal analysis of digital images of the granular, spinous and basal and conjunctive layers structure, using the standard box-counting method was performed. The fractal dimension was determined for cell membrane, nuclear membrane of cell and nucleolus membrane of cell. In GCP a higher fractal dimension corresponds to a higher geometric complexity of cells contour, as its values increase when the contour irregularities increase. The generalized fractal dimensions were determined for the conjunctive layer structure of patients with GCP and patients with GCP and SRP. The fractal and multifractal analysis of gingival biopsies confirmed earlier findings that SRP reduces gingival injury in patients with GCP. It has been shown that fractal and multifractal analysis of tissue images as a non-invasive technique could be used to measure contrasting morphologic changes within human gingival cells and tissues and can provide detailed information for investigation of healthy and diseased gingival mucosa from patients with GCP. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of educational outreach on general practice prescribing of antibiotics and antidepressants: A two-year randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-puga, Andres; Baker, Richard; Paul, Sanjoy; Villoro-Valdes, Renata

    2009-01-01

    Objective Prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics and antidepressants in general practice often does not accord with guidelines. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of educational outreach in improving the prescribing of selected antibiotics and antidepressants, and whether the effect is sustained for two years. Design Single blind randomized trial. Setting Twenty-eight general practices in Leicestershire, England. Intervention Educational outreach visits were undertaken, tailored to barriers to change, 14 practices receiving visits for reducing selected antibiotics and 14 for improving antidepressant prescribing. Main outcome measures Number of items prescribed per 1000 registered patients for amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) and quinolone antibiotics, and average daily quantities per 1000 patients for lofepramine and fluoxetine antidepressants, measured at the practice level for six-month periods over two years. Results There was no effect on the prescribing of co-amoxiclav, quinolones, or fluoxetine, but prescribing of lofepramine increased in accordance with the guidelines. The increase persisted throughout two years of follow-up. Conclusion A simple, group-level educational outreach intervention, designed to take account of identified barriers to change, can have a modest but sustained effect on prescribing levels. However, outreach is not always effective. The context in which change in prescribing practice is being sought, the views of prescribers concerning the value of the drug, or other unrecognised barriers to change may influence the effectiveness of outreach. PMID:19958063

  6. The Effect of Generalized Compliments, Sex of Server, and Size of Dining Party on Tipping Behavior in Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Seiter, John S.; Weger, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of food servers' sex, the use of generalized compliments, and the size of the dining party on tipping behavior in restaurants. Four food servers (2 males, 2 females) waited on 360 parties eating dinner, and either complimented or did not compliment the parties on their dinner selections. Results indicated that food servers received significantly higher tips when complimenting their parties than when not complimenting them, although as the size of the party incr...

  7. The Effect of TrainingIndividuals with Mild Intellectual Disability in Scaffolding Strategiesand Computer softwareon Their Generalization Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Jalloul; Badrie ELDaou

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the effect of scaffolding strategies as thinking out loud and verbalization of instructions strategies on the generalization skills of language-related concepts in mildly intellectual disabled students. Twenty-seven subjects in three treatments were trained in solving a pattern of the Thurston letter series task. Group1 students received language concepts through training in verbal instructions and thinking out loud strategy. Group 2 students received languag...

  8. Effect of general relativity on a near-Earth satellite in the geocentric and barycentric reference frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, J.C.; Huang, C.; Watkins, M.M.

    1988-08-22

    Whether one uses a solar-system barycentric frame or a geocentric frame when including the general theory of relativity in orbit determination for near-Earth satellites, the results should be equivalent to some limiting accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effects of relativity in each frame and to demonstrate their equivalence through the analysis of real laser tracking data. A correction to the conventional barycentric equations of motion is shown to be required.

  9. Effect of general relativity on a near-Earth satellite in the geocentric and barycentric reference frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. C.; Huang, C.; Watkins, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    Whether one uses a solar-system barycentric frame or a geocentric frame when including the general theory of relativity in orbit determinations for near-Earth satellites, the results should be equivalent to some limiting accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effects of relativity in each frame and to demonstrate their equivalence through the analysis of real laser-tracking data. A correction to the conventional barycentric equations of motion is shown to be required.

  10. Effectiveness of workers? general health examination in Korea by health examination period and compliance: retrospective cohort study using nationwide data

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Huisu; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Eun-A; Choi, Bohwa; Park, Soon Woo; Kang, Young Joong

    2017-01-01

    Background Our study evaluated the effectiveness of the Workers? General Health Examination by health examination period and compliance. Methods A retrospective cohort of the health examination participants in 2006 (baseline year: N?=?6,527,045) was used. We identified newly occurring cardio-cerebrovascular disease over 7?years (from 2007 to 2013). After stratification by age, sex, and national health insurance type, we identified 7?years? cumulative incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular diseas...

  11. Is pelvic floor muscle training effective when taught in a general fitness class in pregnancy? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene Anette Hagen

    2011-09-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) following vaginal assessment of correct contraction can prevent and treat urinary incontinence in the peripartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PFMT instructed in a general fitness class for pregnant women. Single-blind randomised controlled trial. University-conducted primary care study. One hundred and five sedentary primiparous women randomised to a general fitness class including PFMT (n=52) or a control group (n=53). Ten and 11 women were lost to follow-up in the exercise and control groups, respectively. Twelve weeks of training comprising twice-weekly 1-hour fitness classes including three sets of eight to 12 maximal pelvic floor muscle contractions. The control group received usual care. Number of women reporting urinary, flatus or anal incontinence. No significant differences were found in the number of women reporting urinary, flatus or anal incontinence between the exercise group and the control group during pregnancy or at 6 weeks post partum. No effect of PFMT was found when the exercises were taught in a general fitness class for pregnant women without individual instruction of correct PFM contraction. Low adherence and the small sample size may have contributed to the negative results. Further studies are warranted to assess the effect of population-based PFMT in the prevention of urinary and fecal incontinence. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of nasal midazolam premedication on parents-child separation and recovery time in dental procedures under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarian, T; Arabzade Moghadam, S; Reza Ghaemi, S; Bayani, M

    2015-06-01

    For many children medical and dental procedures, unfamiliar dental staff and treatment places are disturbing and stressful. Stress in children often makes them uncooperative. General anaesthesia is indicated for anxious uncooperative children or those who are disabled, immature or too young to undergo dental treatment by other means. Moreover parents' separation while entering the operative room is a traumatic experience for children. Thus premedication such as midazolam is recommended to decrease child's stress. In these situations the increased recovery time was considered as one of the midazolam side effects. There is no study that evaluated the effect of midazolam both in parents-child separation and recovery time in long dental procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nasal midazolam premedication with placebo on parents-child separation and recovery times in uncooperative paediatric patients undergoing long-lasting general anaesthesia for dental procedures. This randomised, double-blind study was done on 60 uncooperative patients (ASA physical status I or II) aged 2-4 years who were scheduled for general anaesthesia for dental treatment. Group A received 0.2 mg/kg intranasal midazolam as premedication, and group B received the same volume of intranasal placebo 20 minutes before entering the operating room for general anaesthesia. General anaesthesia was done with the same method for all patients, then parent-child separation and recovery times were compared between the two groups. Statical significance was set at P≤0.05. Statically analysis was performed using SPSS version17.Chi-squared and student t-tests were applied to analyse the data. We found significant differences in parents- child separation assessment between two groups. Nasal midazolam premedication had a positive effect on parents-child separation; but there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of recovery time. Premedication of nasal midazolam

  13. Communicative skills of general practitioners augment the effectiveness of guideline-based depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Titus W D P; van den Brink, Rob H S; Tiemens, Bea G; Jenner, Jack A; van der Meer, Klaas; Ormel, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Although good physician communication is associated with positive patient outcomes, it does not figure in current depression treatment guidelines. We examined the effect of depression treatment, communicative skills and their interaction on patient outcomes for depression in primary care. In a cohort of 348 patients with ICD-10 depression in primary care, patient outcomes were studied over 3- and 12-month follow-ups. The association of these outcomes with both depression-specific process of care variables and a nonspecific variable-communicative skillfulness of GP-was examined. Patient outcomes consisted of change from baseline in symptomatology, disability, activity limitation days, and duration of the depressive episode. In accordance with treatment guidelines, some main effects of depression treatment were found, in particular on symptomatology, but these remained small (effect sizeskills. In contrast to the main effects, these interactions were seen on disability and activity limitation days, not on symptomatology. The study is observational and does not permit firm conclusions about causal relationships. Communicative skillfulness of the GP was assessed by patient report only. Neither depression-specific interventions nor good GP communication skills seem to be sufficient for optimal patient improvement. Only the combination of treatments according to guidelines and good communication skills results in an effective antidepressive treatment.

  14. The effects of cigarette smoking behavior and psychosis history on general and social cognition in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Luz H; Russo, Manuela; Nitzburg, George M; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes M; Mcgrath, Meaghan; Levine, Hannah; Mulaimovic, Sandra; Burdick, Katherine E

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have documented the prevalence and effects of cigarette smoking on cognition in psychotic disorders; fewer have focused on bipolar disorder (BD). Cognitive and social dysfunction are common in BD, and the severity of these deficits may be related both to illness features (e.g., current symptoms, psychosis history) and health-related behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). The current study assessed the influence of cigarette smoking on general and social cognition in a BD cohort, accounting for illness features with a focus on psychosis history. We assessed smoking status in 105 euthymic patients with BD, who completed a comprehensive battery including social (facial affect recognition, emotional problem-solving, and theory of mind) and general (the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and executive functioning) cognitive measures. We compared smokers vs nonsmokers on cognitive performance and tested for the effects of psychosis history, premorbid intellectual functioning, substance use, and current affective symptoms. Within the nonpsychotic subgroup with BD (n=45), smokers generally outperformed nonsmokers; by contrast, for subjects with BD with a history of psychosis (n=41), nonsmokers outperformed smokers. This pattern was noted more globally using a general composite cognitive score and on social/affective measures assessing patients' ability to identify emotions of facial stimuli and solve emotional problems. Cigarette smoking differentially affects performance on both general and social cognition in patients with BD as a function of psychosis history. These results suggest that there may be at least partially divergent underlying neurobiological causes for cognitive dysfunction in patients with BD with and without psychosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Investigation of radiation effects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using a general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates coupling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.; Slater, C.O.

    1990-05-01

    A general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates radiation transport coupling procedure has been created to study effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. The forward two-dimensional free-field air-over-ground flux is coupled with an adjoint Monte Carlo calculation. The size, orientation, or translation of the Monte Carlo geometry is unrestricted. The radiation effects calculated are the dose in the interior of a large concrete building in Nagasaki and the activation production of Co-60 and P-32 in Hiroshima. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effect of Surgeon and Hospital Volume on Emergency General Surgery Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ambar; Efron, David T; Canner, Joseph K; Dultz, Linda; Xu, Tim; Jones, Christian; Haut, Elliott R; Higgins, Robert S D; Sakran, Joseph V

    2017-11-01

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) contributes to half of all surgical mortality nationwide, is associated with a 50% complication rate, and has a 15% readmission rate within 30 days. We assessed associations between surgeon and hospital EGS volume with these outcomes. Using Maryland's Health Services Cost Review Commission database, we identified nontrauma EGS procedures performed by general surgeons among patients 20 years or older, who were admitted urgently or emergently, from July 2012 to September 2014. We created surgeon and hospital volume categories, stratified EGS procedures into simple (mortality ≤ 0.5%) and complex (>0.5%) procedures, and assessed postoperative mortality, complications, and 30-day readmissions. Multivariable logistic regressions both adjusted for clinical factors and accounted for clustering by individual surgeons. We identified 14,753 procedures (61.5% simple EGS, 38.5% complex EGS) by 252 (73.3%) low-volume surgeons (≤25 total EGS procedures/year), 63 (18.3%) medium-volume surgeons (26 to 50/year), and 29 (8.4%) high-volume surgeons (>50/year). Low-volume surgeons operated on one-third (33.1%) of all patients. For simple procedures, the very low rate of death (0.2%) prevented a meaningful regression with mortality; however, there were no associations between low-volume surgeons and complications (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.07; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.41) or 30-day readmissions (aOR 0.80; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.01) relative to high-volume surgeons. Among complex procedures, low-volume surgeons were associated with greater mortality (aOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.12 to 2.41) relative to high-volume surgeons, but not complications (aOR 1.06; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.32) or 30-day readmission (aOR 0.99; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.22). Low-volume hospitals (≤125 total EGS procedures/year) relative to high-volume hospitals (>250/year) were not associated with mortality, complications, or 30-day readmissions for simple or complex procedures. We found evidence that surgeon EGS

  17. Practical and effective management of libraries integrating case studies, general management theory and self-understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Moniz, Jr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at library science students and librarians with newly assigned administrative duties the book is about improving one's thinking and decision making in a role as a library manager. Most librarians get very little exposure to management issues prior to finding themselves in a management role. Furthermore, most library science students do not expect that they will need to understand management yet they quickly find that there is a need to understand this perspective to be effective at almost any library job. Effective library management is about having some tools to make decisions (such as

  18. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun; Tong, Peiqing

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.

  19. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.

  20. Effect of protected research time on ABSITE scores during general surgery residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Bruce A; Poirier, Jennifer; Kowal-Vern, Areta; Chan, Edie; Ohara, Karen; Mendoza, Brian

    2017-11-03

    Objective - To determine whether residents with one or more years of dedicated research time (Research Residents, RR) improved their ABSITE scores compared to those without (Non-Research Residents, N-RR). A retrospective review of general surgery residents' ABSITE scores from 1995 to 2016 was performed. RR were compared to N-RR. Additional analysis of At Risk (AR) v Not At Risk residents (NAR) (35th percentile as PGY1-2) was also performed. Cohort - 147 residents (34 RR and 113 N-RR). There were no differences in initial ABSITE scores (p = 0.47). By definition, the AR group had lower scores than NAR. Overall, post-research RR v PGY-4 N-RR scores did not differ (p = 0.84). Only the AR residents improved their scores (p = 0.0009 v NAR p = 0.42), regardless of research group (p = 0.70). Protected research time did not improve residents' ABSITE scores, regardless of initial scores. At Risk residents improved regardless of research group status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of a Peer Tutoring Program on Math Fact Recall and Generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasko, Sharla Nichols

    This study used a multiple-baseline-across-subjects design to assess the effectiveness of a peer tutoring intervention for fluency in basic math facts. Specifically, this study assessed the rate of recall of multiplication facts throughout the intervention period and determined whether the progress was matched by improvement in actual classwork.…

  2. Presentation of a general algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning. II Terrestrial food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; Slooff W; Canton JH

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier report, a simple algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals was presented. This algorithm (MAR = NOEC/BCF) was drawn up by analyzing an aquatic food chain. In the present study it was tested whether this algorithm can be used equally well for

  3. Unambiguous Generalization Effects after Treatment of Non-Canonical Sentence Production in German Agrammatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadie, Nicole; Schroder, Astrid; Postler, Jenny; Lorenz, Antje; Swoboda-Moll, Maria; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria

    2008-01-01

    Agrammatism is--among others, characterized by a deficit in producing grammatical structures. Of specific difficulty is the utilization of complex, non-canonical sentence structures (e.g. object-questions, passives, object-clefts). Several studies have documented positive effects when applying a specific treatment protocol in terms of increasingly…

  4. Resource effects of training general practitioners in risk communication skills and shared decision making competences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Longo, M.F.; Hood, K.; Edwards, A.; Elwyn, G.

    2004-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Involving patients more in decisions about their own care requires doctors to be trained in effective ways of communicating information and in developing competences to negotiate levels of patient involvement which are most appropriate for each case. The aim of this

  5. Sim;- jxi Tobacco is known to exert adverse effect on general and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reflects the roles of tobacco in predisposing users to erect categories of periodontal diseases. Tobacco-induced alterations in microbial and host factors are major conuibutor to the deleterious periodontal effects.26 e lower report of tooth mobility. 1:2..21 dentinal sensitivity 2: tobacco users may appear inconsistent with the.

  6. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice: a cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, N.J.; Langelaan, M.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagner, C.; Zwart, D.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim: To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting: A three-arm cluster randomised trial

  7. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice: a cluster randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, N.J.; Langelaan, M.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagner, C.; Zwart, D.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting A three-arm cluster randomised trial was

  8. Effect of essential oil jasmine inhalation on physiological index of laparotomy patients in general surgery department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad yadegary

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The physiologic parameters were markedly improved in intervention group after Jasmine essential oil inhalation compared to the control group, which prevented sudden and severe changes in patients waiting for surgery. Therefore, Jasmine essential oil inhalation may be an effective factor in reducing the anxiety and avoiding extreme changes in physiological parameters in patients which could be recommended in clinical situations.

  9. Effect of biofilm formation on virulence factor secretion via the general secretory pathway in Streptococcus mutans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, M.; Meng, L.; Fan, M.; Hu, P.; Bian, Z.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of SecA in protein secretion, and to evaluate the effect of biofilm formation on protein secretion in Streptococcus mutans. DESIGN: S. mutans strains UA159 and GS-5 were used in this study. Cells grown in biofilm and planktonic conditions were observed using

  10. General-Equilibrium Effects of Privatisation : The Missing Piece in Social Security Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groezen, B.J.A.M.; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security in a closed economy that consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.It is shown that if old agents mainly demand labour intensive services, a modest decrease of the pay-as-you-go pension scheme still raises long-run

  11. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Spa treatment for fibromyalgia: general health improvement is not for free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, T.R.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of an adjuvant treatment course of spa treatment compared with usual care only in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). - Methods: 134 patients with FM, selected from a rheumatology outpatient department and from members of the Dutch FM patient

  13. Concentration addition, independent action and generalized concentration addition models for mixture effect prediction of sex hormone synthesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael; Nellemann, Christine; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and generalized concentration addition (GCA) models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthesis in H295R cells. Then single chemical data were applied to the models; predictions of mixture effects were calculated and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast, antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone and estradiol, some chemicals were having stimulatory effects whereas others had inhibitory effects. The three models were not applicable in this situation and no predictions could be performed. Finally, the expected contributions of single chemicals to the mixture effects were calculated. Prochloraz was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects, for which the models could not be applied, was identified. In addition, the data indicate that in non-potency adjusted mixtures the effects cannot always be

  14. Concentration addition, independent action and generalized concentration addition models for mixture effect prediction of sex hormone synthesis in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hadrup

    Full Text Available Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA, independent action (IA and generalized concentration addition (GCA models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthesis in H295R cells. Then single chemical data were applied to the models; predictions of mixture effects were calculated and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast, antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone and estradiol, some chemicals were having stimulatory effects whereas others had inhibitory effects. The three models were not applicable in this situation and no predictions could be performed. Finally, the expected contributions of single chemicals to the mixture effects were calculated. Prochloraz was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects, for which the models could not be applied, was identified. In addition, the data indicate that in non-potency adjusted mixtures the effects cannot

  15. Effectiveness of social work intervention with a systematic approach to improve general health in opioid addicts in addiction treatment centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheb G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ghoncheh Raheb,1,2 Esmat Khaleghi,1 Amir Moghanibashi-Mansourieh,1 Ali Farhoudian,2 Robab Teymouri3 1Department of Social Work, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran Purpose: This study takes a systematic approach to investigate the effect of social work intervention aimed at increasing general health among opioid addicts in addiction treatment centers. Patients and methods: This is an experimental plan (pretest to posttest with a control group; the study sample included 60 patients with drug dependencies undergoing treatment in addiction treatment centers. These patients were randomly assigned as case (30 and control (30 groups. The case group was subjected to intervention over ten sessions, whereas the control group received no intervention. Both groups then passed through a posttest, while a follow-up was conducted after 4 months. Data were obtained via a General Health Questionnaire. Results: A covariance analysis test and independent and dependent t-test results indicated that a social work intervention adopting systematic approach was effective in increasing the general health of drug-addicted patients under treatment. Conclusion: Thus, the nature of the presence of social workers in addiction treatment centers has been effective and can have a significant influence by reducing anxiety and insomnia and somatic symptoms, improving patients’ self-understanding and self-recognition, and enhancing social functioning. Keywords: social work, intervention, systematic approach, general health, opioid addicts

  16. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A general approach-avoidance hypothesis of oxytocin: accounting for social and non-social effects of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari-Dahan, Osnat; Bernstein, Amit

    2014-11-01

    We critically reexamine extant theory and empirical study of Oxytocin. We question whether OT is, in fact, a "social neuropeptide" as argued in dominant theories of OT. We critically review human and animal research on the social and non-social effects of Oxytocin, including behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and neuroimaging studies. We find that extant (social) theories of Oxytocin do not account for well-documented non-social effects of Oxytocin. Furthermore, we find a range of evidence that social and non-social effects of Oxytocin may be mediated by core approach-avoidance motivational processes. We propose a General Approach-avoidance Hypothesis of Oxytocin (GAAO). We argue that the GAAO may provide a parsimonious account of established social and non-social effects of Oxytocin. We thus re-conceptualize the basic function(s) and mechanism(s) of action of Oxytocin. Finally, we highlight implications of the GAAO for basic and clinical research in humans

  18. Interpersonal sensitivity mediates the effects of child abuse and affective temperaments on depressive symptoms in the general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ayano; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Masuya, Jiro; Ichiki, Masahiko; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that multiple factors interact with the onset and prognosis of major depressive disorders. In this study, we investigated how child abuse, affective temperaments, and interpersonal sensitivity are interrelated, and how they affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods A total of 415 volunteers from the general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, which are all self-administered questionnaires. Data were subjected to structural equation modeling (Mplus), and single and multiple regression analyses. Results The effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity and 4 affective temperaments, including depressive, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments. In addition, the effect of these temperaments on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity, indicating the indirect enhancement of depressive symptoms. In contrast to these 4 temperaments, the hyperthymic temperament did not mediate the effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms; its effect was not mediated by interpersonal sensitivity. However, a greater hyperthymic temperament predicted decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal sensitivity, independent of any mediation effect. Limitations Because this is a cross-sectional study, long-term prospective studies are necessary to confirm its findings. Therefore, recall bias should be considered when interpreting the results. As the subjects were adults from the general population, the results may not be generalizable towards all patients with major depression. Conclusion This study suggests that child abuse and affective temperaments affect depressive symptoms partly through interpersonal sensitivity. Interpersonal sensitivity may

  19. Effect of corticosteroid injection for trochanter pain syndrome: design of a randomised clinical trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaar Jan AN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional pain in the hip in adults is a common cause of a general practitioner visit. A considerable part of patients suffer from (greater trochanteric pain syndrome or trochanteric bursitis. Local corticosteroid injections is one of the treatment options. Although clear evidence is lacking, small observational studies suggest that this treatment is effective in the short-term follow-up. So far, there are no randomised controlled trials available evaluating the efficacy of injection therapy. This study will investigate the efficacy of local corticosteroid injections in the trochanter syndrome in the general practice, using a randomised controlled trial design. The cost effectiveness of the corticosteroid injection therapy will also be assessed. Secondly, the role of co-morbidity in relation to the efficacy of local corticosteroid injections will be investigated. Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic, open label randomised trial. A total of 150 patients (age 18–80 years visiting the general practitioner with complaints suggestive of trochanteric pain syndrome will be allocated to receive local corticosteroid injections or to receive usual care. Usual care consists of analgesics as needed. The randomisation is stratified for yes or no co-morbidity of low back pain, osteoarthritis of the hip, or both. The treatment will be evaluated by means of questionnaires at several time points within one year, with the 3 month and 1 year evaluation of pain and recovery as primary outcome. Analyses of primary and secondary outcomes will be made according to the intention-to-treat principle. Direct and indirect costs will be assessed by questionnaires. The cost effectiveness will be estimated using the following ratio: CE ratio = (cost of injection therapy minus cost of usual care/(effect of injection therapy minus effect of usual care. Discussion This study design is appropriate to estimate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the

  20. The Effectiveness of Transdiagnostic Therapy on Anxiety, Depression, Cognitive Strategies of Emotional Regulation, and General Performance in Women with Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farzaneh Hooman; Mahnaz Mehrabizadeh Honarmand; Yadolah Zargar; Iran Davodi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives: The purpose of the current study was investigation the effectiveness of group transdiagnostic therapy on anxiety, depression, cognitive strategies of emotional regulation, and general performance...

  1. Effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine compared with oral midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium in pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Laura S; Pierce, Stephanie; Badeaux, Jennifer; FitzSimons, James J

    2016-08-01

    This review aims to identify the effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine compared with oral midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium in pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia.

  2. Reactions to sonic booms: a report of two studies and a general evaluation of startle effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, R I; Touchstone, R M; Bailey, J P

    1975-04-01

    Two separate studies are reported. The first attempted to determine a sonic boom level below which startle would not occurr. Subjects were exposed indoors to six simulated sonic booms having outside overpressures of 50, 30, and 16 N/m-2 (inside levels of 74, 71, and 65 dBA). Approximately 20% of the subjects gave small arm-hand responses to the two higher exposure levels, while none responded to the lowest level. In the second study, subjects were exposed indoors to a series of 12 simulated booms in order to assess habituation effects. Outside overpressures were 130 and 50 N/m-2 (indoor levels of 81 and 72 dBA). Significant, but not complete, habituation occurred to booms of both levels. Autonomic and eyeblink responses, as well as ratings of annoyance, were obtained in both studies. The final section summarizes the expected behavioral, autonomic, and subjective effects of exposure to various levels of sonic booms.

  3. Effect of psychological treatment on cognitive bias in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A; Mogg, K; Kentish, J; Eysenck, M

    1995-03-01

    Measures of attention and implicit memory for threatening words were obtained from anxious patients before and after psychological treatment, and compared with data from non-anxious control Ss collected over the same period. Findings confirmed the expectation that the presence of threatening distractors would be associated with greater interference with the performance of anxious patients than with that of controls, in both color-naming and attentional search tasks, but failed to confirm the previous finding of related differences in priming on a word completion task. Treatment significantly reduced selective interference effects in anxious patients, and abolished evidence of differences between the treated patients and controls. It is suggested that cognitive bias effects in anxiety may either depend on state factors alone, or may represent a more enduring individual difference that becomes apparent only when vulnerable individuals are primed by mood state or stressful events.

  4. Prevalence of insomnia symptoms in a general population sample of young children and preadolescents: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2014-01-01

    Our population-based study examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and its sociodemographic, subjective, and polysomnographic (PSG) sleep risk factors in young and preadolescent children. We performed a cross-sectional study of 700 children, ages 5-12 years who underwent a 9-h PSG and parent-completed sleep and development questionnaires (Penn State Child Cohort). Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling or staying asleep and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as an apnea hypopnea index of ≥1. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 19.3% and did not significantly change (20.2%) when children with SDB were excluded. A significant interaction between gender and age revealed that the prevalence of insomnia symptoms was highest in girls ages 11 to 12 years (30.6%). This gender difference was not associated with significant differences between girls and boys ages 11-12 years in anxiety and depressive symptoms. In contrast girls ages 11-12 years with insomnia symptoms, but not boys of the same group, demonstrated clinically significant PSG sleep disturbances compared to those without insomnia symptoms. These data suggest that one out of five young children and preadolescents of the general population have insomnia symptoms. Importantly, the prevalence of insomnia symptoms peaks in girls ages 11 to 12 years and is associated with objective sleep disturbances which may be related to hormonal changes associated with the onset of puberty rather than anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MODERN CONCEPTIONS OF THE EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS: GENERAL AND SPECIAL

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Ksenofontova

    2017-01-01

    Whatever people do in large or small social groups, the question always arises: what factors determine the effectiveness of these groups and what are specific features of group management? While studying in largely the same, researchers from different scientific schools and various sciences put attention to different objects and use different terminology: some say the leadership styles, some speak about the managerial style, other – about the particularities of leadership, and the third about...

  6. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients’ depression, sleep, and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervent...

  7. Effectiveness of unit-based pricing of waste in the Netherlands: applying a general equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beukering, Pieter J H; Bartelings, Heleen; Linderhof, Vincent G M; Oosterhuis, Frans H

    2009-11-01

    Differential and variable rates (DVR) in waste collection charging give a price incentive to households to reduce their waste and increase recycling. International empirical evidence confirms the effectiveness of DVR schemes, with limited unwanted side effects. In the Netherlands, currently some 20% of the population is charged at DVR. This is less than in several other countries. Taking into account differences between types of households and dwellings, this study analyses various scenarios for extended use of DVR in the Netherlands. The analysis shows that further penetration of DVR is a cost-effective instrument for waste reduction and more recycling. Moreover, DVR can itself be seen as a necessary condition for the successful implementation of other economic instruments, such as waste taxes. It is therefore recommended to stimulate municipalities to adopt DVR schemes in the Netherlands, accompanied by the provision of adequate facilities for waste separation by households. Before introducing DVR in 'very strongly urbanized' municipalities (i.e. the 12 largest cities in the Netherlands) a pilot experiment in one of them might be useful to test the behavioral response in this category.

  8. The Effect of General Statistical Fiber Misalignment on Predicted Damage Initiation in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    A micromechanical method is employed for the prediction of unidirectional composites in which the fiber orientation can possess various statistical misalignment distributions. The method relies on the probability-weighted averaging of the appropriate concentration tensor, which is established by the micromechanical procedure. This approach provides access to the local field quantities throughout the constituents, from which initiation of damage in the composite can be predicted. In contrast, a typical macromechanical procedure can determine the effective composite elastic properties in the presence of statistical fiber misalignment, but cannot provide the local fields. Fully random fiber distribution is presented as a special case using the proposed micromechanical method. Results are given that illustrate the effects of various amounts of fiber misalignment in terms of the standard deviations of in-plane and out-of-plane misalignment angles, where normal distributions have been employed. Damage initiation envelopes, local fields, effective moduli, and strengths are predicted for polymer and ceramic matrix composites with given normal distributions of misalignment angles, as well as fully random fiber orientation.

  9. Effects of health education for migrant females with psychosomatic complaints treated by general practitioners. A randomised controlled evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; Zwanenburg, Evelien Joosten-van; de Hoop, Tine

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of use of migrant health educators in the general practitioners' care for female migrants with psychosomatic problems was evaluated to contribute to the improvement of the care for these patients. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) design was used. A total of 104 patients (75%) agreed to take part in the intervention study. The patients were from Turkish and Moroccan immigrant groups living in The Netherlands. The intervention group received counselling and education from the migrant health educators as adjuncts to the GPs' care. Special attention was given to the patient's cultural background, supporting the communication between GP and patient. The control group received regular treatment from their GPs. A significant improvement of perceived general health, psychological health and reported ability to cope with pain was observed among the intervention group. No effects were found for social support and the perceived burden of stressful life-events. The patients' perceived health and coping abilities improved through the intervention as a whole. Not all outcome measures had been affected due to among others the diversity of physical and psychological complaints the patients suffered from, non-compliance and a perceived decrease of disability over time. The intervention methods should be integrated in the patient care delivery for migrants in general practice. Further development of intervention methods to address the patients' social support is recommended.

  10. A generalized mixed effects model of abundance for mark-resight data when sampling is without replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, B.T.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.; Pryde, M.A.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the mark-resight method for estimating abundance when the number of marked individuals is known has become increasingly popular. By using field-readable bands that may be resighted from a distance, these techniques can be applied to many species, and are particularly useful for relatively small, closed populations. However, due to the different assumptions and general rigidity of the available estimators, researchers must often commit to a particular model without rigorous quantitative justification for model selection based on the data. Here we introduce a nonlinear logit-normal mixed effects model addressing this need for a more generalized framework. Similar to models available for mark-recapture studies, the estimator allows a wide variety of sampling conditions to be parameterized efficiently under a robust sampling design. Resighting rates may be modeled simply or with more complexity by including fixed temporal and random individual heterogeneity effects. Using information theory, the model(s) best supported by the data may be selected from the candidate models proposed. Under this generalized framework, we hope the uncertainty associated with mark-resight model selection will be reduced substantially. We compare our model to other mark-resight abundance estimators when applied to mainland New Zealand robin (Petroica australis) data recently collected in Eglinton Valley, Fiordland National Park and summarize its performance in simulation experiments.

  11. Effect of day of the week on short- and long-term mortality after emergency general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, M A; Lone, N I; Pearse, R M; Haddow, C; Smyth, L; Parks, R W; Walsh, T S; Harrison, E M

    2017-06-01

    The effect of day of the week on outcome after surgery is the subject of debate. The aim was to determine whether day of the week of emergency general surgery alters short- and long-term mortality. This was an observational study of all patients undergoing emergency general surgery in Scotland between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2007, followed to 2012. Multilevel logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess the effect of day of the week of surgery on outcome after adjustment for case mix and risk factors. The primary outcome was perioperative mortality; the secondary outcome was overall survival. A total of 50 844 patients were identified, of whom 31 499 had an emergency procedure on Monday to Thursday and 19 345 on Friday to Sunday. Patients undergoing surgery at the weekend were younger (mean 45·9 versus 47·5 years; P surgery at the weekend were more likely to have been operated on sooner than those who had weekday surgery (mean time from admission to operation 1·2 versus 1·6 days; P surgery was performed at the weekend. There was no difference in overall survival after surgery undertaken on any particular day compared with Wednesday; a borderline reduction in perioperative mortality was seen on Tuesday. There was no difference in short- or long-term mortality following emergency general surgery at the weekend, compared with mid-week. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Identification of the contrast full vowel-schwa: training effects and generalization to a new perceptual context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Gómez Lacabex

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2008n55p173 This study examines the ability to identify the English phonological contrast full vowel-schwa by Spanish learners of English after two different types of training: auditory and articulatory. Perceptual performance was measured in isolated words in order to investigate the effect of training and in sentences to study the robustness of acquisition in generalizing to a context which was not used during training. Subjects were divided into three groups: two experimental groups, one undergoing perceptual training and one undergoing production based training, and a control group. Both experimental groups' perception of the reduced vowel improved significantly after training. Results indicated that students were able to generalize their reduced vowel identification abilities to the new context. The control group did not show any significant improvement. Our findings agree with studies that have demonstrated positive effects of phonetic training (Derwing. Munro & Wiebe, 1998; Rochet, 1995; Cenoz & García Lecumberri, 1995, 1999. Interestingly, the results also support the facilitating view between perception and production since production training proved beneficial in the development of perceptual abilities (Catford & Pisoni, 1970; Mathews, 1997. Finally, our data showed that training resulted in robust learning, since students were able generalize their improved perceptual abilities to a new context.

  13. Identification of the contrast full vowel-schwa: training effects and generalization to a new perceptual context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Gómez Lacabex

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the ability to identify the English phonological contrast full vowel-schwa by Spanish learners of English after two different types of training: auditory and articulatory. Perceptual performance was measured in isolated words in order to investigate the effect of training and in sentences to study the robustness of acquisition in generalizing to a context which was not used during training. Subjects were divided into three groups: two experimental groups, one undergoing perceptual training and one undergoing production based training, and a control group. Both experimental groups' perception of the reduced vowel improved significantly after training. Results indicated that students were able to generalize their reduced vowel identification abilities to the new context. The control group did not show any significant improvement. Our findings agree with studies that have demonstrated positive effects of phonetic training (Derwing. Munro & Wiebe, 1998; Rochet, 1995; Cenoz & García Lecumberri, 1995, 1999. Interestingly, the results also support the facilitating view between perception and production since production training proved beneficial in the development of perceptual abilities (Catford & Pisoni, 1970; Mathews, 1997. Finally, our data showed that training resulted in robust learning, since students were able generalize their improved perceptual abilities to a new context.

  14. Regional and Global Climate Effects of US Anthropogenic Aerosols: A Sensitivity Study with a General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, L. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Jacob, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    To improve air quality and reduce acid deposition, United States policymakers are actively reducing the precursor emissions of sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols. Since aerosols are thought to have a net cooling effect, their removal may have unintended consequences for regional and global-scale climate. Using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model 3, we simulate the direct effect of aerosol removal over the United States. We carry out two 16-year simulations, from 2010 to 2025, following the A1B emissions scenario for the well-mixed greenhouse gases. In our control simulation, aerosol optical depths are fixed at present-day levels, while in our sensitivity simulation, aerosol optical depths over the United States are set to zero. We find that reduction of aerosol optical depths over the United States results in an annually averaged warming over the eastern U.S. of 0.3-1.0° C. This warming is especially pronounced in the winter (1.0-1.5° C) when it is accompanied by a 10-40% increase in precipitation. We also find that removing these pollutants, which are generally only considered as a local problem due to their short lifetimes, has hemispheric-scale effects due to a stronger and northward-shifted Atlantic storm track. In winter, these effects include a cooling of 1.0-2.0° C in the Arctic and northern Canada and a warming of 1.0° C in southeastern Siberia and northern China.

  15. A randomised controlled trial to improve the role of the general practitioner in cancer rehabilitation: effect on patients’ satisfaction with their general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Stinne Holm; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether a complex intervention facilitating early cancer rehabilitation by involvement of the general practitioner (GP) soon after diagnosis improves patients' satisfaction with their GPs. DESIGN: A cluster randomised controlled trial. All general practices in Denmark were...... randomised to an intervention or a control group before the start of the study. Patients included those with cancer who were subsequently allocated to either group based on the randomisation status of their GP. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with cancer treated for incident cancer at the public regional...... hospital (Vejle Hospital, Denmark) were included between May 2008 and February 2009. A total of 955 patients registered with 323 practices were included, of which 486 patients were allocated to the intervention group and 469 to the control group. INTERVENTION: The intervention included a patient interview...

  16. The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil respiratory burst during induction of general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Swanton, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory burst is an essential component of the neutrophil\\'s biocidal function. In vitro, sodium thiopental, isoflurane and lidocaine each inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the effect of a standard clinical induction\\/tracheal intubation sequence on neutrophil respiratory burst and (b) to determine the effect of intravenous lidocaine administration during induction of anaesthesia on neutrophil respiratory burst. METHODS: Twenty ASA I and II patients, aged 18-60 years, undergoing elective surgery were studied. After induction of anaesthesia [fentanyl (2 microg kg-1), thiopental (4-6 mg kg-1), isoflurane (end-tidal concentration 0.5-1.5%) in nitrous oxide (66%) and oxygen], patients randomly received either lidocaine 1.5 mg kg-1 (group L) or 0.9% saline (group S) prior to tracheal intubation. Neutrophil respiratory burst was measured immediately prior to induction of anaesthesia, immediately before and 1 and 5 min after lidocaine\\/saline. RESULTS: Neutrophil respiratory burst decreased significantly after induction of anaesthesia in both groups [87.4 +\\/- 8.2% (group L) and 88.5 +\\/- 13.4% (group S) of preinduction level (P < 0.01 both groups)]. After intravenous lidocaine (but not saline) administration, neutrophil respiratory burst returned towards preinduction levels, both before (97.1 +\\/- 23.6%) and after (94.4 +\\/- 16.6%) tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation using thiopentone and isoflurane, inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. This effect may be diminished by the administration of lidocaine.

  17. Effects of dark energy perturbations on cosmological tests of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Jason N.; Ishak, Mustapha

    2013-11-01

    Cosmological tests to distinguish between dark energy (DE) and modifications to gravity are a promising route to obtain clues on the origin of cosmic acceleration. We study here the robustness of these tests to the presence of DE density, velocity, and anisotropic stress perturbations. We find that the dispersion in the growth index parameter remains small enough to distinguish between extreme cases of DE models and some commonly used modified gravity models. The sign of the slope parameter for a redshift-dependent growth index was found to be inconsistent as an additional test in extreme cases of DE models with perturbations. Next, we studied the effect of DE perturbations on the modified growth (MG) parameters that enter the perturbed Einstein equations. We find that while the dark energy perturbations affect the MG parameters, the deviations remain smaller than those due to modified gravity models. Additionally, the deviations due to DE perturbations with a nonzero effective sound speed occur at scale ranges that are completely different than those due to some modified gravity models such as the f(R) models. In the case of modified gravity models with zero anisotropic stress at late times, the simultaneous determination of the effective dark energy equation of state and the MG parameters can provide the distinction between these models and DE. The growth index test was found to be the most robust to these perturbations. The scale dependence of the MG parameters in some cases of modified gravity constitutes a clear-cut discriminant regardless of any DE perturbations. In summary, we find that the currently proposed cosmological tests to distinguish between DE and modified gravity are robust to DE perturbations even for extreme cases. This is certainly the case even for DE models with equations of state of DE that fall well outside of current cosmological constraints.

  18. Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, Ingrid K; Bruerberg, Simon Gustafson; Ma, Zuheng; Scholz, Hanne; Björklund, Anneli; Grill, Valdemar

    2015-01-01

    To provide novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. Insulin-producing INS-1 832/13 cells were exposed to 18 hours of hypoxia followed by 20-22 hours re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry in both intact and permeabilized cells, in the latter after establishing three functional substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols. Concomitant measurements included proteins of mitochondrial complexes (Western blotting), ATP and insulin secretion. Intact cells exhibited a high degree of intrinsic uncoupling, comprising about 50% of oxygen consumption in the basal respiratory state. Hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation increased maximal overall respiration. Exploratory experiments in peremabilized cells could not show induction of respiration by malate or pyruvate as reducing substrates, thus glutamate and succinate were used as mitochondrial substrates in SUIT protocols. Permeabilized cells displayed a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in relation to maximum capacity of electron transfer. Previous hypoxia decreased phosphorylation control of complex I-linked respiration, but not in complex II-linked respiration. Coupling control ratios showed increased coupling efficiency for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in hypoxia-exposed cells. Respiratory rates overall were increased. Also previous hypoxia increased proteins of mitochondrial complexes I and II (Western blotting) in INS-1 cells as well as in rat and human islets. Mitochondrial effects were accompanied by unchanged levels of ATP, increased basal and preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion. Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to hypoxia, followed by a re-oxygenation period increases substrate-stimulated respiratory capacity and coupling efficiency. Such effects are accompanied by up-regulation of mitochondrial complexes also in pancreatic islets

  19. Frequency-Specific Functional Connectivity Density as an Effective Biomarker for Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several neuropsychiatric diseases have been found to influence the frequency-specific spontaneous functional brain organization (SFBO in resting state, demonstrating that the abnormal brain activities of different frequency bands are associated with various physiological and psychological dysfunctions. However, little is known about the frequency specificities of SFBO in adolescent generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. Here, a novel complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise method was applied to decompose the time series of each voxel across all participants (31 adolescent patients with GAD and 28 matched healthy controls; HCs into four frequency-specific bands with distinct intrinsic oscillation. The functional connectivity density (FCD of different scales (short-range and long-range was calculated to quantify the SFBO changes related to GAD within each above frequency-specific band and the conventional frequency band (0.01–0.08 Hz. Support vector machine classifier was further used to examine the discriminative ability of the frequency-specific FCD values. The results showed that adolescent GAD patients exhibited abnormal alterations of both short-range and long-range FCD (S-FCD and L-FCD in widespread brain regions across three frequency-specific bands. Positive correlation between the State Anxiety Inventory (SAI score and increased L-FCD in the fusiform gyrus in the conventional frequency band was found in adolescents with GAD. Both S-FCD and L-FCD in the insula in the lower frequency band (0.02–0.036 Hz had the highest classification performance compared to all other brain regions with inter-group difference. Furthermore, a satisfactory classification performance was achieved by combining the discrepant S-FCD and L-FCD values in all frequency bands, with the area under the curve (AUC value of 0.9414 and the corresponding sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 87.15, 92.92, and 89.83%, respectively. This study

  20. Effect of educational intervention on adoption of new endodontic technology by general dental practitioners: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M; Eriksson, H G; Axelsson, S; Tegelberg, A

    2009-04-01

    To survey the clinical endodontic protocols of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in public dental clinics and to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the adoption of a nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary system. General dental practitioners in a Swedish Intervention County (IC), underwent an educational programme in endodontics. A follow-up questionnaire was posted to 98 GDPs in the IC and to 97 GDPs in a Control County (CC), where no specific training had been provided. The questionnaire concerned demographics, clinical endodontic protocols and instrumentation techniques. The response rate to the questionnaire was 87%. More than 90% of all GDPs reported they always or generally used rubber dam, determined working length, used the canal irrigant 0.5% buffered NaOCl and calcium hydroxide as an interappointment dressing. Two of three GDPs reported, they generally or always informed the patient of the prognosis. Every second GDP reported routines for postoperative recall and follow-up. The Ni-Ti rotary technique was reported to be completely adopted by 77% of the GDPs in the IC, significantly higher than in the CC (6%), P < 0.001. In the IC 79% of the GDPs reported they completed instrumentation in one treatment session, compared with only 32% in the CC, P < 0.001. The 'single-cone' mode of canal filling was reported to be significantly more frequent amongst GDPs in the IC, P < 0.001. General dental practitioners in both counties reported using contemporary clinical endodontic protocols. GDPs who had undergone an educational programme in Ni-Ti rotary instrumentation reported they had successfully integrated the technique into daily clinical practice.

  1. [Effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation combined with general anesthesia on changes of gastric dynamics in controlled hypotension dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Le-Le; Shao, Xiao-Mei; Lian, Lin-Li; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Dong, Zhen-Hua; Mo, Ya-Di

    2011-12-01

    To observe the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) combined with general anesthesia on gastric dynamics in controlled hypotension dogs, so as to provide experimental evidence for compound acupuncture anesthesia. Eighteen male beagle dogs were randomly divided into general anesthesia group (GA group, n = 6), general anesthesia + controlled hypotension group (GA + OHT group, n = 6) and general anesthesia combined with TEAS + controlled hypotension group (TEAS group, n = 6). The latter two groups were administered with the same anesthetics [isofluane inhalation and intravenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] for inducing controlled hypotension (being the 40% of the baseline level). Beagles of the GA group were not treated with controlled hypotension (the initial concentration of SNP = 1 microg/kg x min(-1), and with an increase rate of 1 microg/kg x min(-1) until the controlled hypotension phase). In the TEAS group, TEAS [2 Hz/100 Hz, (4 +/- 1) mA]was applied to "Quchi" (LI 11) , "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Hegu" (LI 4), and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) from the beginning of the stable physiological condition phase to the end of the controlled-low mean arterial pressure (MAP) phase. Electrogastrogram (EGG) was recorded, and serum gastrin (GAS) and motilin (MTL) contents were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with the basic level, the amplitude value of EGG at 60 mm after controlled hypotension in the GA + CHT group was significantly lower (P 0.05), and serum GAS level at the time-point of 2 h after MAP recovery in the TEAS group was considerably higher than those in the GA and GA + CHT groups (P 0.05). TEAS combining with general anesthesia for controlled hypotension can improve the amplitude of EGG, and serum MTL and GAS contents, favoring the recovery of gastric dynamics and the functional protection of stomach.

  2. General-Equilibrium Effects of Privatisation: The Missing Piece in Social Security Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Groezen, B.J.A.M. van; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security in a closed economy that consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.It is shown that if old agents mainly demand labour intensive services, a modest decrease of the pay-as-you-go pension scheme still raises long-run utility as long as the economy is dynamically efficient.However, entirely privatising the social security system will sooner lead to dynamic inefficiency than in the conventional one-sector model, leadin...

  3. A general model for effects of temperature on ectotherm ontogenetic growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenyun; Moses, Melanie E; West, Geoffrey B; Hou, Chen; Brown, James H

    2012-05-07

    The temperature size rule (TSR) is the tendency for ectotherms to develop faster but mature at smaller body sizes at higher temperatures. It can be explained by a simple model in which the rate of growth or biomass accumulation and the rate of development have different temperature dependence. The model accounts for both TSR and the less frequently observed reverse-TSR, predicts the fraction of energy allocated to maintenance and synthesis over the course of development, and also predicts that less total energy is expended when developing at warmer temperatures for TSR and vice versa for reverse-TSR. It has important implications for effects of climate change on ectothermic animals.

  4. An effective nonlinear susceptibility model for general three-wave mixing in quasi-phase-matching structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chen-Yang; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2017-03-01

    We develop an effective nonlinear susceptibility model (ENSM) to solve analytically the general three-wave mixing nonlinear optical interaction problem under the quasi-phase-matching (QPM) scheme. The nonlinear processes including sum-frequency generation, difference-frequency generation and second harmonic generation are discussed in both periodic poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and chirped PPLN (CPPLN) structures. The analytical ENSM results show great consistency with rigorous numerical simulation based on direct solution of the nonlinear coupled-wave equations. This indicates that the ENSM is a brief, convenient, accurate, and efficient theoretical tool to quantitatively evaluate the performance of various three-wave mixing interactions in general QPM structures such as PPLN and CPPLN and to design and optimize the QPM structures for many specific functionalities of nonlinear frequency conversion.

  5. Effects of HD-tDCS on memory and metamemory for general knowledge questions that vary by difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Elizabeth F; Ahmed, Rifat; Garcia, Sandry M

    The ability to monitor one's own memory is an important feature of normal memory and is an aspect of 'metamemory'. Lesion studies have shown dissociations between memory and metamemory, but only single dissociations have been shown using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). One potential reason that only single dissociations have been shown is that tDCS effects may be moderated by task difficulty. We used high definition (HD) tDCS to test for dissociable roles of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic long-term memory and metamemory tasks. We also tested whether general knowledge question difficulty moderated the effects of HD-tDCS. Across 3 sessions, participants received active HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC or left ATL, or sham HD-tDCS during general knowledge recall and recognition tests, and a 'feeling-of-knowing' metamemory task. General knowledge questions were blocked by difficulty. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine the effects of HD-tDCS on memory and metamemory tasks by memory question difficulty. HD-tDCS over the ATL led to improved recall compared to DLPFC and sham HD-tDCS, and this occurred only for medium difficulty questions. In contrast, for non-recalled questions, HD-tDCS over the DLPFC led to improved recognition accuracy and improved feeling-of-knowing accuracy compared to ATL and sham HD-tDCS, and this was not moderated by memory question difficulty. HD-tDCS can be used to dissociate the roles of the ATL and DLPFC in different memory and 'metamemory' tasks. The effects of HD-tDCS on task may be moderated by task difficulty, depending on the nature of the task and site of stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electroresponsive Nanoparticles Improve Antiseizure Effect of Phenytoin in Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ying, Xiaoying; Chen, Liying; Liu, Yao; Wang, Ying; Liang, Jiao; Xu, Cenglin; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Hu, Weiwei; Du, Yongzhong; Chen, Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we developed electroresponsive hydrogel nanoparticles (ERHNPs) modified with angiopep-2 (ANG) to facilitate the delivery of the antiseizure drug phenytoin sodium (PHT). However, the electroresponsive characteristics were not verified directly in epileptic mice and the optimal preparation formula for electroresponsive ability is still unclear. Here, we further synthesized PHT-loaded ANG-ERHNPs (ANG-PHT-HNPs) and PHT-loaded nonelectroresponsive hydrogel nanoparticles (ANG-PHT-HNPs) by changing the content of sodium 4-vinylbenzene sulfonate in the preparation formulae. In vivo microdialysis analysis showed that ANG-PHT-ERHNPs not only have the characteristics of a higher distribution in the central nervous system, but also have electroresponsive ability, which resulted in a strong release of nonprotein-bound PHT during seizures. In both electrical- (maximal electrical shock) and chemical-induced (pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine) seizure models, ANG-PHT-ERHNPs lowered the effective therapeutic doses of PHT and demonstrated the improved antiseizure effects compared with ANG-PHT-HNPs or PHT solution. These results demonstrate that ANG-ERHNPs are able to transport PHT into the brain efficiently and release them when epileptiform activity occurred, which is due to the content of sodium 4-vinylbenzene sulfonate in formula. This may change the therapeutic paradigm of existing drug treatment for epilepsy into a type of on-demand control for epilepsy in the future.

  7. Ill effects of smoking on general and oral health: Awareness among college going students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This cross-sectional study assessed smoking-related behaviors, experiences, beliefs, knowledge, and prevalence among a sample of college going students. It helped to inform them about the different nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs available for the cessation of the habit. Materials and Methods: After gaining informed consent, 500 college going students (18-25 years age group of Swami Devi Dyal Group of Colleges, who are smokers and also willing to participate in the study were surveyed regarding their awareness about and prevalence of ill effects of smoking. The survey was conducted by employing a uniform questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed about the tobacco use, no of cigarettes they smokes every day, what form of smoking do they prefer, early smoking experiences and sensations, factors that might motivate a quit attempt, ill effects of smoking on oral health, other psychosocial variables associated with adolescent smoking and about the different NRTs available. The feedback hence obtained was condensed in the form of objective results, which were analyzed to arrive at meaningful conclusions. Results and Conclusion: According to the study as many as about 90% of the students have reasonably good chances of succeeding in quitting smoking. However, the overwhelming majority (96% had no idea about different NRTs. This shows a stark lack of awareness as to the means that can help them quit the habit. Thus, we get a clear vision as to the direction of our efforts and feel optimistic as to the outcome too.

  8. Finite-sample corrected generalized estimating equation of population average treatment effects in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, JoAnna M; deCamp, Allan; Juraska, Michal; Fay, Michael P; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-04-01

    Stepped wedge designs are increasingly commonplace and advantageous for cluster randomized trials when it is both unethical to assign placebo, and it is logistically difficult to allocate an intervention simultaneously to many clusters. We study marginal mean models fit with generalized estimating equations for assessing treatment effectiveness in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials. This approach has advantages over the more commonly used mixed models that (1) the population-average parameters have an important interpretation for public health applications and (2) they avoid untestable assumptions on latent variable distributions and avoid parametric assumptions about error distributions, therefore, providing more robust evidence on treatment effects. However, cluster randomized trials typically have a small number of clusters, rendering the standard generalized estimating equation sandwich variance estimator biased and highly variable and hence yielding incorrect inferences. We study the usual asymptotic generalized estimating equation inferences (i.e., using sandwich variance estimators and asymptotic normality) and four small-sample corrections to generalized estimating equation for stepped wedge cluster randomized trials and for parallel cluster randomized trials as a comparison. We show by simulation that the small-sample corrections provide improvement, with one correction appearing to provide at least nominal coverage even with only 10 clusters per group. These results demonstrate the viability of the marginal mean approach for both stepped wedge and parallel cluster randomized trials. We also study the comparative performance of the corrected methods for stepped wedge and parallel designs, and describe how the methods can accommodate interval censoring of individual failure times and incorporate semiparametric efficient estimators.

  9. Brain Activation Patterns Associated with the Effects of Emotional Distracters during Working Memory Maintenance in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Yang, Jong-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the neural mechanisms of the effects of emotion on cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. In this functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated the effects of emotional interference on working memory (WM) maintenance in GAD patients. Fifteen patients with GAD participated in this study. Event-related fMRI data were obtained while the participants performed a WM task (face recognition) with neutral and anxiety-provoking distracters. The GAD patients showed impaired performance in WM task during emotional distracters and showed greater activation on brain regions such as DLPFC, VLPFC, amygdala, hippocampus which are responsible for the active maintenance of goal relevant information in WM and emotional processing. Although our results are not conclusive, our finding cautiously suggests the cognitive-affective interaction in GAD patients which shown interfering effect of emotional distracters on WM maintenance.

  10. General relativistic electromagnetic and massive vector field effects with gamma-ray burst production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Fabrizio; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Amati, Lorenzo; Thidé, Bo

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new energy extraction mechanism from the rotational energy of a Kerr-Newman black hole by a gravitating massive photon field generated by electromagnetic and gravitational field coupling effects. Numerical studies show that this mechanism that depends on the black hole rotation parameter, a , shows a clear dependence on the black hole mass, M , and charge, Q , and can extract energies up to 1 054 erg for a black hole of the solar mass size. With this mechanism we can set a lower bound on the coupling ξ ˜10-38 between electromagnetic and gravitational fields that might be used to explain the hypothetical extremely high energy release, >1053 erg, suggested by the observations of some gamma-ray bursts in the controversial "energy crisis" problem if and when gamma-ray bursts seem not to show evidence for collimated emission.

  11. A cell model for homogenization of fiber-reinforced composites: General theory and nonlinear elasticity effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.

    1995-11-01

    The theoretical basis of the homogenization technique developed by Aboudi is presented and assessed. Given the constitutive relations of the constituents, this technique provides an equivalent, homogeneous, constitutive model of unidirectional, continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. The expressions that comprise the first-order version of the technique are given special attention as this treatment has considerable practical value. Nonlinear elasticity effects are added to it. This extension increases the accuracy of numerical simulations of high strain-rate loadings. It is particularly important for any dynamic loading in which shock waves might be produced, including crash safety, armor, and munitions applications. Examples illustrate that elastic nonlinearity can make substantial contributions at strains of only a few per cent. These contributions are greatest during post-yield inelastic deformation. The micromechanics-based homogenization technique is shown to facilitate use of an efficient approximate treatment of elastic nonlinearity in composites with isotropic matrix materials.

  12. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...... times over a five year period. All participants with an unhealthy lifestyle had individually tailored lifestyle counselling at all visits (at baseline and after one and three years); those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease, according to predefined criteria, were furthermore offered six sessions...... OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the intervention group compared with the control group. Secondary outcome measures were stroke, combined events (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, or both), and mortality. RESULTS: 6091 (52.4%) people...

  13. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...... to four times over a five year period. All participants with an unhealthy lifestyle had individually tailored lifestyle counselling at all visits (at baseline and after one and three years); those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease, according to predefined criteria, were furthermore offered six....... MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the intervention group compared with the control group. Secondary outcome measures were stroke, combined events (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, or both), and mortality. RESULTS: 6091 (52.4%) people...

  14. Effect of initial bulk density on high-solids anaerobic digestion of MSW: General mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Luis M; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; De Clercq, Djavan; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Sai; Ni, Zhe

    2017-06-01

    Initial bulk density (IBD) is an important variable in anaerobic digestion since it defines and optimizes the treatment capacity of a system. This study reveals the mechanism on how IBD might affect anaerobic digestion of waste. Four different IBD values: D1 (500-700kgm-3), D2 (900-1000kgm-3), D3 (1100-1200kgm-3) and D4 (1200-1400kgm-3) were set and tested over a period of 90days in simulated landfill reactors. The main variables affected by the IBD are the methane generation, saturation degree, extraction of organic matter, and the total population of methanogens. The study identified that IBD >1000kgm-3 may have significant effect on methane generation, either prolonging the lag time or completely inhibiting the process. This study provides a new understanding of the anaerobic digestion process in saturated high-solids systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How general are the effects of trait anxiety and depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2012-10-01

    A total of 3,781 healthy adults between 18 and 97 years of age completed trait anxiety and depressive symptoms inventories and also performed a battery of cognitive tests. Consistent with recent research on cognitive abilities, the cognitive variables could be organized into a hierarchical structure, with 5 first-order abilities and a single g-factor representing the variance common to the first-order abilities at the top of the hierarchy. Analyses were conducted to determine where in this hierarchy effects associated with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms were operating. The results indicated that trait anxiety and depressive symptoms had significant relations at the highest level in the hierarchy of cognitive abilities, but few relations of either characteristic were evident on the cognitive abilities, or on measures of working memory, after controlling influences at the g-factor level.

  16. The General Relativistic Two Body Problem and the Effective One Body Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical approach to the motion and radiation of (comparable mass) binary systems has been introduced in 1999 under the name of Effective One Body (EOB) formalism. We review the basic elements of this formalism, and discuss some of its recent developments. Several recent comparisons between EOB predictions and Numerical Relativity (NR) simulations have shown the aptitude of the EOB formalism to provide accurate descriptions of the dynamics and radiation of various binary systems (comprising black holes or neutron stars) in regimes that are inaccessible to other analytical approaches (such as the last orbits and the merger of comparable mass black holes). In synergy with NR simulations, post-Newtonian (PN) theory and Gravitational Self-Force (GSF) computations, the EOB formalism is likely to provide an efficient way of computing the very many accurate template waveforms that are needed for Gravitational Wave (GW) data analysis purposes.

  17. Prevalence of habit of tobacco and its deleterious effects in general population of Jaipur District, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Desai

    2012-01-01

    Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.

  18. Antiplatelet Drugs and Its Gastrointestinal Side Effects among Ischemic Stroke Patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthakrishnan A/L Rajendram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiplatelet drugs with known side effects are given in long term therapies to prevent secondary ischemic stroke. Gastrointestinal side effect is the most prevalent issue. The aim of this study was to identify which antiplatelet drugs have the most gastrointestinal side effects and the duration of administration. Methods: Seven hundred twenty six medical records were obtained from the Medical Record Department of Dr.Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from August to December 2011. Inclusion criteria were >18 years old and treated by long term antiplatelet drugs with complete medical records. Data analyzed descriptively consist of antiplatelet type, gastrointestinal effects, and drug administration duration. Results: Of 726 medical records only 246 were enrolled this study. Aspirin 80 mg was the most frequent drug given to ischemic stroke patients (65.9%. Gastrointestinal (GI bleeding and nausea were the two side effects mostly found in aspirin >80 mg group (90%; 95% respectively. The side effects was found after less than 3 months in the aspirin >80 mg group, while it took longer to appear in clopidogrel 75 mg group. Conclusions: Aspirin (>80 mg presents the most frequent gastrointestinal side effect compared to low dose aspirin 80 mg , clopidogrel, and combination of clopidogrel and aspirin.

  19. The Effects of Life Domains, Constraints, and Motivations on Academic Dishonesty: A Partial Test and Extension of Agnew's General Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, John K

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.

  20. A general theory of effect size, and its consequences for defining the benchmark response (BMR) for continuous endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slob, Wout

    2017-04-01

    A general theory on effect size for continuous data predicts a relationship between maximum response and within-group variation of biological parameters, which is empirically confirmed by results from dose-response analyses of 27 different biological parameters. The theory shows how effect sizes observed in distinct biological parameters can be compared and provides a basis for a generic definition of small, intermediate and large effects. While the theory is useful for experimental science in general, it has specific consequences for risk assessment: it solves the current debate on the appropriate metric for the Benchmark response in continuous data. The theory shows that scaling the BMR expressed as a percent change in means to the maximum response (in the way specified) automatically takes "natural variability" into account. Thus, the theory supports the underlying rationale of the BMR 1 SD. For various reasons, it is, however, recommended to use a BMR in terms of a percent change that is scaled to maximum response and/or within group variation (averaged over studies), as a single harmonized approach.

  1. General health status and late effects among adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Shuichi; Ishida, Yasushi; Honda, Misato; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Sakamoto, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo

    2014-10-01

    We sought to investigate general health status and late effects among adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, using self-rated questionnaires on current and past health problems. Questionnaires were provided to childhood cancer survivors, a comparison group of siblings and a general population control group that was recruited online. χ(2) tests were used to compare responses to the 72 survey items. The final sample included 185 childhood cancer survivors (72% response rate), 72 siblings and 1000 general population controls. In the childhood cancer survivors group, the median age of diagnosis was 8 years and the median age at survey was 23 years. According to the physicians' reports, 56% of the childhood cancer survivors experienced at least one late effect. In descending order of prevalence, the current symptoms in the childhood cancer survivors group were (i) impaired visual acuity (45%), (ii) dizziness (36%) and (iii) any allergy (34%). The three most common symptoms had similar prevalence rates in each of the groups. As compared with the control group, the following physical symptoms were significantly more common in the childhood cancer survivors group: mental retardation (odds ratio: 48.6, P < 0.01); cataract (odds ratio: 29.7); suspected infertility (odds ratio: 25.1); delayed puberty (odds ratio 24.9); growth hormone deficiency (odds ratio: 23.0); and other audiovisual, urinary, endocrine, infertility, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, spinal, extremity and neuromuscular problems. Many adolescent/young adult childhood cancer survivors could be suffering from ongoing late effects that stem from cancer and its treatment. Overall health monitoring for childhood cancer survivors can provide indispensable benefits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Quantitation of the enflurane-sparing effect of alfentanil during general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammisto, T; Olkkola, K T; Tigerstedt, I

    1995-05-01

    The authors quantitated the enflurane-sparing effect of alfentanil during N2O/O2 anaesthesia in 50 patients undergoing body surface surgery and in 50 patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Patients were assigned to one of five treatment regimens (10 patients each group, double-blind administration) as follows: placebo bolus followed by placebo infusion (group I); or alfentanil bolus (30 micrograms kg-1) followed by infusion of placebo (group II) or alfentanil, at the rate of 10 (group III), 20 (group IV), or 40 (group V) micrograms kg-1 h-1. Anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone and vecuronium, and neuromuscular block was kept at 85-90% by continuous infusion of vecuronium. Increases in spontaneous electromyographic activity of neck muscles (NEMG) and in systolic blood pressure (SBP) served as criteria of inadequate anaesthesia. When such increases occurred, enflurane was given in 0.2% steps (end-tidal concentration) of 5 min each, until the increases were suppressed. The relationship between increases in NEMG and increases in SBP was inconsistent: only 10% of the increases occurred simultaneously. With alfentanil, the consumption of enflurane decreased by as much as 70% (P < 0.001) during superficial surgery and 50% (P < 0.05) during abdominal surgery.

  3. Are vaccination models suitable to determine whether probiotics have beneficial health effects in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicholas P; Cripps, Allan W

    2013-03-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has indicated that stimulation of protective antibody titers from vaccination could be used to substantiate a supplement or food health claim on the function of the immune system related to defense against pathogens in healthy individuals. Vaccination allows exposure of the immune system to controlled quantities of antigen and also for assessment of median antibody responses and percentage of responders/non-responders, which provides indication of an integrated immune response to challenge. Probiotic vaccination studies have shown enhanced antibody titers, lower percentages of non-seroconverters and greater percentages reaching minimum cut-off titer values in healthy adults, elderly and children. These results indicate that probiotics are a good candidate to stimulate responses to vaccines and thus, according to EFSA, enhance the function of the immune system related to defense against infection. However, animal research has recently indicated that Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells, recognized suppressors of immune activity, were paradoxically associated with reduced respiratory viral morbidity without compromising viral clearance. These effects conflict with vaccine research findings, which suggest a depletion of Foxp3+ T-regs enhances the immune response. Many probiotics exert anti-inflammatory influence on the immune system and induce T-regs. Given this, caution regarding the applicability of the vaccination model as indicated by EFSA must be exercised. Induction of T-cell immune modulatory pathways may also explain the reduced duration of respiratory illness observed in probiotic clinical studies.

  4. The effect of general anesthesia and abdominal surgery upon plasma thromboxane B concentrations in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, Dinko; Andonova, Maria

    2004-04-01

    To compare the effect of anesthesia alone with anesthesia and abdominal surgery on plasma thromboxane B(2) concentrations in horses. Non-randomized experimental study. Six male mixed-bred horses (5-12 years, 350 +/- 18 kg). All horses were anesthetized for 2.5 hours using halothane, and a month later abdominal surgery was performed using the same anesthetic technique with a similar duration. The schedule of anesthesia included pre-medication with diazepam (0.1 mg kg(-1) IM), followed by xylazine (2.2 mg kg(-1) IV), and 10 minutes later anesthesia was induced with ketamine hydrochloride (2.2 mg kg(-1) IV). After orotracheal intubation, anesthesia was maintained with halothane. Blood samples for the determination of thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) were obtained before, at induction, at 60 minutes after halothane was first inspired, and at recovery from anesthesia as well as at the corresponding stages of the experimental abdominal surgery (before induction, prior to laparotomy, enterectomy, enteroanastomosis, abdominal wall closure). Baseline value for the anesthesia group was 76 +/- 12 pg mL(-1) and increased (p surgical intervention suggested that the anesthetic technique caused a significant increase in thromboxane B(2) and that surgery did not appear to contribute to this response.

  5. Effect of AMOC collapse on ENSO in a high resolution general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark S.; Collins, Mat; Drijfhout, Sybren S.; Kahana, Ron; Mecking, Jennifer V.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-06-01

    We look at changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in a high-resolution eddy-permitting climate model experiment in which the Atlantic Meridional Circulation (AMOC) is switched off using freshwater hosing. The ENSO mode is shifted eastward and its period becomes longer and more regular when the AMOC is off. The eastward shift can be attributed to an anomalous eastern Ekman transport in the mean equatorial Pacific ocean state. Convergence of this transport deepens the thermocline in the eastern tropical Pacific and increases the temperature anomaly relaxation time, causing increased ENSO period. The anomalous Ekman transport is caused by a surface northerly wind anomaly in response to the meridional sea surface temperature dipole that results from switching the AMOC off. In contrast to a previous study with an earlier version of the model, which showed an increase in ENSO amplitude in an AMOC off experiment, here the amplitude remains the same as in the AMOC on control state. We attribute this difference to variations in the response of decreased stochastic forcing in the different models, which competes with the reduced damping of temperature anomalies. In the new high-resolution model, these effects approximately cancel resulting in no change in amplitude.

  6. Duration of sexual harassment and generalized harassment in the workplace over ten years: effects on deleterious drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Although harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a 10-year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2,265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking.

  7. Duration of Sexual Harassment and Generalized Harassment in the Workplace Over Ten Years: Effects on Deleterious Drinking Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking. PMID:21745045

  8. The effect of listening to Vaghe\\'a Surah and its translation on the state and trait anxiety before general surgeries: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Alireza Mirsane; Davood Kheirkhah; Shima Shafagh; Neda Mirbagher Ajorpaz; Javad Aminpour

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Patients experience moderate to high level of anxiety before general surgery. There are differences in studies on the effect of listening Quran to decrease anxiety in general surgery patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vaghe'a Surah and its translation on the state - trait anxiety before general surgeries. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial study, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to the ex...

  9. Investigating the effectiveness of implementing the Science Writing Heuristic on student performance in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poock, Jason Ray

    This research investigated the effectiveness at how the Science Writing Heuristic in the freshman chemistry laboratory for science and engineering majors at Iowa State University during the fall and spring semesters of the 2002--2003 academic year, was implemented. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) consists of two components, writing to learn strategies and conducting the laboratory session in a student-centered, guided-inquiry fashion. The writing component replaced the standard laboratory report with a series of questions that guided the students' critical thinking along the lines of scientific investigation. The writing process helped students construct knowledge. Also critical to the successful implementation of the SWH was conducting the laboratory experiments in a student-centered, guided-inquiry fashion. Through the SWH the students became engaged in meaningful scientific dialogue that promoted knowledge construction. For the SWH to be properly implemented, a classroom dynamic between the teacher and the students should be established. The teacher provides the framework within which the laboratory experiment is conducted and the students respond to that guidance by becoming engaged in the learning process. Results of the study showed that student scores improved when the teacher properly implemented the SWH, when the students responded positively to the implementation of the SWH, and when there was a proper classroom dynamic created between the teacher and the students. This study revealed that successful implementation of the SWH was beneficial to females and low ability students. This research also demonstrated a connection between the implementation of a learning strategy in the laboratory component of a course and the subsequent benefit in student performance in the lecture component of the course.

  10. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Khriplovich, I. B

    2005-01-01

    This book offers an alternative to other textbooks on the subject, providing a more specific discussion of numerous general relativistic effects for readers who have knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including special relativity. Coverage includes gravitational lensing, signal retardation in the gravitational field of the Sun, the Reissner-Nordström solution, selected spin effects, the resonance transformation of an electromagnetic wave into a gravitational one, and the entropy and temperature of black holes. The book includes numerous problems at various levels of difficulty, making it ideal also for independent study by a broad readership of advanced students and researchers. I.B. Khriplovich is Chief Researcher, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, and Chair of Theoretical Physics at Novosibirsk University. Dr. Khriplovich is a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded the Dirac Medal ``For the advancement of theoretical physics'' by Univ...

  11. Using mixed methods research to explore the effect of an adaptation exercise on general population valuations of health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart-Cowan, Helen M; O'Cathain, Alicia; Tsuchiya, Aki; Brazier, John E

    2012-04-01

    To understand the effect of an adaptation exercise (AE) on general population values for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) states. A sequential mixed methods design was employed: an analysis of a dataset to develop RA states for valuing in later phases of the study; a qualitative interview study with members of the general population to identify how an AE affected valuing of the RA states and to help design a questionnaire for the final phase; and a quantitative quasi-experimental study to identify factors that influence change in values after being informed about adaptation. Three RA states were developed using Rasch and cluster analyses. Participants in the qualitative phase identified a range of ways in which information about adaptation affected their values. For example, they realized they could adapt to RA because their family and friends who had RA, or similar conditions, could cope. A 25-item questionnaire was developed and used during the final phase to identify that younger and healthier individuals were more likely to increase their values after being informed about disease adaptation. The qualitative findings were revisited and found to support the quantitative results. This approach facilitated understanding of whether and how an AE affected valuing of health states. Each phase affected the next phase of the study, leading to the conclusion that general population respondents who have little experience of disease will likely increase their health state values after being informed about adaptation because they understand that they could cope with the disease.

  12. [Observation on therapeutic effect of acupoint catgut-embedding combined western medicine for epilepsy of generalized seizures type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhong-nan; Gao, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guang-wu; Wang, Shi-biao

    2011-06-01

    To compare the efficacy differences between acupoint catgut-embedding combined western medicine (ACCWM) and simple western medicine (WM) for treatment of epilepsy of generalized seizures type. Fifty-two patients with epilepsy of generalized seizures type were randomly divided into an ACCWM group (n=30) and a WM group (n=22). Dazhui (GV 14), Yaoshu (GV 2), Jiuwei (CV 15), Qihai (CV 6) were selected in the ACCWM group as the main acupoints combined with routine antiepileptic drugs, Valpromide was taken orally, 2.0 g/d for adult, 50 mg/kg x d for child. The WM group was treated with routine antiepileptic drugs. The epilepsy score and the attack frequency one year before the treatment and one year during treatment were observed and the therapeutic effects in the two groups were compared. The epilepsy score and the attack frequency were both decreased in the two groups (Pepilepsy score in the ACCWM group decreased significantly (6.57 +/- 3.29 vs 10.73 +/- 2.54, Pepilepsy of generalized seizures type. It can improve significantly the attack symptoms so as to enhance life quality of the patients with epilepsy.

  13. Effect of Low-Dose (Single-Dose Magnesium Sulfate on Postoperative Analgesia in Hysterectomy Patients Receiving Balanced General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Taheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Aparallel, randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial study was designed to assess the efficacy of single low dose of intravenous magnesium sulfate on post-total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH pain relief under balanced general anesthesia. Subject and Methods. Forty women undergoing TAH surgery were assigned to two magnesium sulfate (N=20 and normal saline (N=20 groups randomly. The magnesium group received magnesium sulfate 50 mg·kg−1 in 100 mL of normal saline solution i.v as single-dose, just 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia whereas patients in control group received 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution at the same time. The same balanced general anesthesia was induced for two groups. Pethidine consumption was recorded over 24 hours precisely as postoperative analgesic. Pain score was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours after the surgeries. Results. Postoperative pain score was lower in magnesium group at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the operations significantly (P<0.05. Pethidine requirement was significantly lower in magnesium group throughout 24 hours after the surgeries (P=0.0001. Conclusion. Single dose of magnesium sulfate during balanced general anesthesia could be considered as effective and safe method to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption after TAH.

  14. MODERN CONCEPTIONS OF THE EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS: GENERAL AND SPECIAL

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    E. G. Ksenofontova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whatever people do in large or small social groups, the question always arises: what factors determine the effectiveness of these groups and what are specific features of group management? While studying in largely the same, researchers from different scientific schools and various sciences put attention to different objects and use different terminology: some say the leadership styles, some speak about the managerial style, other – about the particularities of leadership, and the third about self-managed teams. The main leadership factors, distinguished by researchers, form the model subject of study or complement and clarify the “basic” model of relevant scientific schools. In the first case the model is often expressed schematically, while the second it is more often described verbally. The difficulty of comparing models of different schools, usually lead to either the conceptual rejection of their bases, or disregard to many significant models because of their anticipated heterogeneity. So the task of this article is to overcome the apparent incompatibility of the different authors’ approaches, it allows “not multiply entities” and seek deep similarity of ideas developed over many decades by different researchers. Using the schematic pairwise comparison of numerous models of management and leadership, the author reveals the conceptual validity of some components and possible redundancy (from a historical perspective of others. When this is considered in detail the transition from 1D to 2D, and then to 3D models of leadership-management and related models: Lajkert’s continuum, managerial grid of Blake-Mouton, model of Aristotle, styles by Lewin, Tannenbaum-Schmidt and Hersey-Blanchard, two theories of McGregor, model of managerial competencies and levels of Covey leadership development, strategies in conflict of Thomas-Kilmann and cubic cultural-values model of leadership from Zankovsky. Particular attention is paid to the

  15. Synergistic effect of low K and D vitamin status on arterial stiffness in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Otto; Seidlerová, Jitka; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Filipovský, Jan; Cífková, Renata; Černá, Václava; Kučerová, Alena; Pešta, Martin; Fuchsová, Radka; Topolčan, Ondřej; Jardon, Kelly M C; Drummen, Nadja E A; Vermeer, Cees

    2017-08-01

    Both vitamins K and D are nutrients with pleiotropic functions in human tissues. The metabolic role of these vitamins overlaps considerably in calcium homeostasis. We analyzed their potential synergetic effect on arterial stiffness. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) in 1023 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix γ-carboxyglutamate protein (dp-ucMGP), a biomarker of vitamin K status, was measured by sandwich ELISA and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) by a commercial immunochemical assay. In a subsample of 431 subjects without chronic disease or pharmacotherapy, we detected rs2228570 polymorphism for the vitamin D receptor. After adjustment for confounders, aPWV was independently associated with both factors: dp-ucMGP [β-coefficient(S.E.M.)=13.91(4.87); P=.004] and 25-OH-D3 [0.624(0.28); P=.027]. In a further analysis, we divided subjects according to dp-ucMGP and 25-OH-D3 quartiles, resulting in 16 subgroups. The highest aPWV had subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP plus bottom quartile of 25-OH-D3 (i.e., in those with insufficient status of both vitamin K and vitamin D), while the lowest aPVW had subjects in the bottom quartile of dp-ucMGP plus top quartile of 25-OH-D3 [9.8 (SD2.6) versus 6.6 (SD1.6) m/s; Pvitamin K and D status, the adjusted odds ratio for aPWV≥9.3 m/s was 6.83 (95% CI:1.95-20.9). The aPWV was also significantly higher among subjects bearing the GG genotype of rs2228570, but only in those with a concomitantly poor vitamin K status. In conclusion, we confirmed substantial interaction of insufficient K and D vitamin status in terms of increased aortic stiffness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Women's knowledge of taking oral contraceptive pills correctly and of emergency contraception: effect of providing information leaflets in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L F; Whitfield, M J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. About one third of all pregnancies are unplanned and 20% of all pregnancies end in abortion. More than 170,000 legal abortions are performed in the United Kingdom annually. Nearly all general practitioners provide contraceptive advice; the most commonly used form of reversible contraception is the oral contraceptive pill. AIM. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with women's knowledge of taking the contraceptive pill correctly and of emergency contraception, and to investigate if their knowledge could be improved in general practice by providing women with Family Planning Association information leaflets. METHOD. An uncontrolled intervention study was performed in one rural and one urban English general practice, using a self-completion questionnaire that was initially administered to women attending their general practitioner for oral contraception over six months from 1 October 1992. The questionnaire asked for: sociodemographic information; knowledge of how late women can be taking an oral contraceptive pill and still be protected against unplanned pregnancy; for how many days after being late with a pill they need to use other precautions; sources and methods of emergency contraception; and for how long the methods are effective after the primary contraceptive failure. After completing the questionnaire women were given two leaflets: one about how to take their prescribed contraceptive pill correctly and one about emergency contraception. Three to 12 months later the same questionnaire was administered in the same manner. RESULTS. Of 449 women completing the first questionnaire, 233 (52%) completed the second questionnaire. Initially 71% of 406 women taking an oestrogen/progestogen combined pill knew about the '12-hour rule' and 17% knew about the 'seven-day rule'; giving women information about the pill they were taking increased the extent of knowledge about these rules among 212 respondents to 82% (P emergency contraception

  17. General and Central Obesity in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran: Effect of the Neighborhood Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that neighborhood characteristics can have direct and indirect effects on the weight status of the residents. To assess the relationship between general and central obesity and the neighborhood environment in two ethnic groups (Azeri Turks and Kurds) living in Urmia city, Northwestern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20 - 64 years from two ethnic groups (Azeri Turks, n = 445; Kurds, n = 278) were selected from 38 neighborhoods using a combination of cluster, random, and systematic sampling methods. Neighborhood characteristics were obtained by a validated 22-item neighborhood and a health observational checklist. General and central obesity were measured and evaluated using standard methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define the dominant neighborhood environment. The association of neighborhood characteristics with general and central obesity was analyzed by a logistic regression model. Three common neighborhood environments were identified: 1) modern-affluent, 2) central-high access and 3) marginal. These three factors explained 73.2% of the total variance. Overall, the participants living in a higher tertile of the central-high access neighborhoods had an increased chance of central obesity (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.34). Azeri Turks living in the highest tertile of the modern-affluent neighborhoods had a significantly higher likelihood of having general obesity (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.37 - 4.01). Adjustment for age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status (SES), energy intake, and physical activity did not change the results. However, after adjustment for educational level, the association was not significant. The findings point to a relationship between neighborhood characteristics and obesity only in the Azeri Turks. However, educational level was more important than neighborhood quality in predicting the risk of obesity.

  18. Interpersonal sensitivity mediates the effects of child abuse and affective temperaments on depressive symptoms in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ayano Otsuka,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Mitsuhiko Sato,1 Jiro Masuya,1 Masahiko Ichiki,1 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that multiple factors interact with the onset and prognosis of major depressive disorders. In this study, we investigated how child abuse, affective temperaments, and interpersonal sensitivity are interrelated, and how they affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 415 volunteers from the general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, which are all self-administered questionnaires. Data were subjected to structural equation modeling (Mplus, and single and multiple regression analyses. Results: The effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity and 4 affective temperaments, including depressive, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments. In addition, the effect of these temperaments on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity, indicating the indirect enhancement of depressive symptoms. In contrast to these 4 temperaments, the hyperthymic temperament did not mediate the effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms; its effect was not mediated by interpersonal sensitivity. However, a greater hyperthymic temperament predicted decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal sensitivity, independent of any mediation effect. Limitations: Because this is a cross-sectional study, long-term prospective studies are necessary to confirm its findings. Therefore, recall bias should be considered when interpreting the results. As the subjects were

  19. The Effects of Coping Therapy on General Health of Pregnant Women with High Risk of Genetics Abnormalities in their Fetus

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    F Nazmiye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physiological changes in pregnancy lead to the psychological pressures. Therefore, there is a need for applying cognitive behavioral and emotional confronting to encounter these problems. The present research investigated the effect of coping therapy on general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Methods: The present study was a semi experimental research. Pre and post tests were used to investigate coping therapy between 30 pregnant women who were referred to Khatomolanbia Genetic Clinic, Yazd, Iran. All the women had pregnancy screening test with high risk of genetics abnormalities in their fetus. They were divided randomly into two groups of case and controls. The test of GHQ was performed in both groups, then the case groups went under 8 sessions of teaching coping therapy each lasting 120 min. After finishing the sessions, post test was performed and analyzing the data using descriptive statistical index and covariance analysis test. Results: Teaching coping therapy to case group caused improvement in their GHQ mark, and this change was significantly different from the change in the GHQ mark of control group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and physical signs and an improvement of social function in case group compare to the control group. Discussion: Teaching coping therapy can improve the general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Therefore, presenting educational courses to the women can improve their general health indices in addition to preventing the probable effects of stress on fetus.

  20. Vocational and General Education of Girls and Boys in Tunisia: The Effects of Income and Parental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Tunisia, basic education is compulsory. Children are required to enroll for at least 9 years from age 6. This paper examines gender differences in education choice of upper basic education of youths aged 15–24 in Tunisia. To investigate the factors that influence an individual’s choice between vocational education, general education (secondary and high education and leaving school, the paper estimates a multinomial probit model of education choice. We focus on the impact of household income, parental education, sector of economic activity of father, household size, urban location and region of residence on investments in children. These issues are addressed using data from the 2010 National PopulationEmployment Survey that provided information on educational attainment and vocational training of more than 55,000 youths aged 15-24. The findings of this paper suggest that there are gender differences in education choice. Increases in permanent income contribute more to the probabilities of the two types of education of girls than of boys. Parental education has a positive significant effect on their attitudes towards children education and the impact of mother’s higher education was more important for the education of boys than of girls. While, father’s coefficient estimates show the relative benefit to girls general education. Children whose fathers work in agriculture are at disadvantage. The negative effect on girls’ education was larger than on boys’ at the two streams of education. The coefficient estimates on the manufacturing sector increase the probabilities of receiving general education and decrease the probabilities of undertaking vocational education for both girls and boys.

  1. Effect of Correlation Structure in Generalized Estimating Equation and Quasi Least Square: An Application in Type 2 Diabetes Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip C Nath

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Quasi-Least Squares (QLS is useful for different correlation structure with attachment of Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE. The purpose of this work is to compare the regression parameter in the presence of different correlation structure with respect to GEE and QLS method. The comparison of estimated regression parameter has been performed in clinical trial data set; studying the effect of drug treatment (metformin with pioglitazone Vs (gliclazide with pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients. In case of QLS, the correlation coefficient of post-parandinal blood sugar (PPBS under tridiagonal correlation is 0.008 while it failed to produce by GEE. It has been found that the combination of metformin with pioglitazone is more effective as compared to the combination of gliclazide with pioglitazone.

  2. Effect of Correlation Structure in Generalized Estimating Equation and Quasi Least Square: An Application in Type 2 Diabetes Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip C Nath

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quasi-Least Squares (QLS is useful for different correlation structure with attachment of Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE. The purpose of this work is to compare the regression parameter in the presence of different correlation structure with respect to GEE and QLS method. The comparison of estimated regression parameter has been performed in clinical trial data set; studying the effect of drug treatment (metformin with pioglitazone Vs (gliclazide with pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients. In case of QLS, the correlation coefficient of post-parandinal blood sugar (PPBS under tridiagonal correlation is 0.008 while it failed to produce by GEE. It has been found that the combination of metformin with pioglitazone is more effective as compared to the combination of gliclazide with pioglitazone.

  3. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of Sn and Nb on generalized stacking fault energy surfaces in zirconium and gamma hydride habit planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Tsuru, Tomohito; Abe, Hiroaki; Sekimura, Naoto

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated the effects of Sn and Nb on dislocation properties in a Zr lattice to elucidate the role of these alloying elements in hydride nucleation processes. According to experimental observations, γ-hydride habit planes are close to the prismatic plane in pure Zr and close to the basal plane in Zircaloy. Dislocation loops are observed around hydride precipitates, implying they play a part in hydride formation. Our ab initio generalized stacking-fault energy calculations showed remarkable effects of Sn on unstable-stacking energy and stacking-fault energy: these parameters for basal slip were considerably reduced while those for prismatic slip were increased in the presence of Sn. These results suggest selective stabilization and enhancement of dislocation spreading in the basal plane, promoting possible elementary processes of hydride precipitation with basal habit plane, i.e. screw-dislocation spreading and edge-dislocation emission in the basal plane.

  5. Effects of cavity–cavity interaction on the entanglement dynamics of a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Mahasweta; Das, Sreetama; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-02-01

    We consider a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model consisting of two isolated two-level atoms, each contained in a lossless cavity that interact with each other through a controlled photon-hopping mechanism. We analytically show that at low values of such a mediated cavity–cavity interaction, the temporal evolution of entanglement between the atoms, under the effects of cavity perturbation, exhibits the well-known phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD). Interestingly, for moderately large interaction values, a complete preclusion of ESD is achieved, irrespective of its value in the initial atomic state. Our results provide a model to sustain entanglement between two atomic qubits, under the adverse effect of cavity induced perturbation, by introducing a non-intrusive inter-cavity photon exchange that can be physically realized through cavity-QED setups in contemporary experiments.

  6. Anticonvulsant effects of mefloquine on generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by two acute models in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pérez, Javier; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, Paola; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Joaquín

    2015-03-01

    Mefloquine can cross the blood-brain barrier and block the gap junction intercellular communication in the brain. Enhanced electrical coupling mediated by gap junctions is an underlying mechanism involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the systemic administration of mefloquine on tonic-clonic seizures induced by two acute models such as pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. All the control rats presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures after the administration of pentylenetetrazole. However, the incidence of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole significantly decreased in the groups administered systematically with 40 and 80 mg/kg of mefloquine. In the control group, none of the rats survived after the generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, but survival was improved by mefloquine. Besides, mefloquine significantly modified the total spectral power as well as the duration, amplitude and frequency of the epileptiform activity induced by pentylenetetrazole. For the maximal electroshock model, mefloquine did not change the occurrence of tonic hindlimb extension. However, this gap junction blocker significantly decreased the duration of the tonic hindlimb extension induced by the acute electroshock. These data suggest that mefloquine at low doses might be eliciting some anticonvulsant effects when is systemically administered to rats.

  7. The Effect of Shoulder Muscle Fatigue on Acromiohumeral Distance and Scapular Dyskinesis in Women With Generalized Joint Hypermobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibazi, Razie J; Moghadam, Afsun Nodehi; Cools, Ann M; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Ahari, Alireza Aziz

    2017-12-01

    Muscle fatigue is considered to be one cause of shoulder pain, and subjects with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) are affected more by shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle fatigue on acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and scapular dyskinesis in women with GJH. Thirty-six asymptomatic participants were assigned to either a GJH (n = 20) or control group (n = 16) using the Beighton scale. Before and after elevation fatigue trials, AHD was measured with ultrasonography at rest and when the arm was in 90° active elevation. A scapular dyskinesis test was used to visually observe alterations in scapular movement. Our results showed that in both groups, the fatigue reduced AHD in the 90° elevation position and increased the presence of scapular dyskinesis; however, no differences were found between the two groups. Although GJH has been identified as a factor for developing musculoskeletal disorders, generalized joint hypermobility did not result in changes to scapular dyskinesis or AHD, even after an elevation fatigue task. More studies are needed to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue in subjects with GJH and a history of shoulder instability.

  8. Generalized SAMPLE SIZE Determination Formulas for Investigating Contextual Effects by a Three-Level Random Intercept Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological researchers have shown strong interests in investigating contextual effects (i.e., the influences of combinations of individual- and group-level predictors on individual-level outcomes). The present research provides generalized formulas for determining the sample size needed in investigating contextual effects according to the desired level of statistical power as well as width of confidence interval. These formulas are derived within a three-level random intercept model that includes one predictor/contextual variable at each level to simultaneously cover various kinds of contextual effects that researchers can show interest. The relative influences of indices included in the formulas on the standard errors of contextual effects estimates are investigated with the aim of further simplifying sample size determination procedures. In addition, simulation studies are performed to investigate finite sample behavior of calculated statistical power, showing that estimated sample sizes based on derived formulas can be both positively and negatively biased due to complex effects of unreliability of contextual variables, multicollinearity, and violation of assumption regarding the known variances. Thus, it is advisable to compare estimated sample sizes under various specifications of indices and to evaluate its potential bias, as illustrated in the example.

  9. Generalized spike and waves: effect of discharge duration on brain networks as revealed by BOLD fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugnaghi, Matteo; Carmichael, David W; Vaudano, Anna E; Chaudhary, Umair J; Benuzzi, Francesca; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Anna T; Rodionov, Roman; Walker, Matthew C; Duncan, John S; Meletti, Stefano; Lemieux, Louis

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, the possibility of combining recordings of EEG and functional MRI (EEG-fMRI), has brought a new insight into the brain network underlying generalized spike wave discharges (GSWD). Nevertheless, how GSWD duration influences this network is not fully understood. In this study we aim to investigate whether GSWD duration had a threshold (non-linear) and/or a linear effect on the amplitude of the associated BOLD changes in any brain regions. This could help in elucidating if there is an hemodynamic background supporting the differentiation between interictal and ictal events. We studied a population of 42 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) who underwent resting-state EEG-fMRI recordings in three centres (London, UK; Modena, Italy; Rome, Italy), applying a parametric analysis of the GSWD duration. Patients were classified as having Childhood Absence epilepsy, Juvenile Absence Epilepsy, or Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy. At the population level linear GSWD duration-related BOLD signal changes were found in a network of brain regions: mainly BOLD increase in thalami and cerebral ventricles, and BOLD decrease in posterior cingulate, precuneus and bilateral parietal regions. No region of significant BOLD change was found in the group analysis for the non-linear effect of GSWD duration. To explore the possible effect of both the different IGE sub-syndromes and the different protocols and scanning equipment used in the study, a full-factorial ANOVA design was performed revealing no significant differences. These findings support the idea that the amplitude of the BOLD changes is linearly related to the GSWD duration with no universal threshold effect of spike and wave duration on the brain network supporting this activity.

  10. Effect of Yoga Exercise on General Health Status (GHS and Sense of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Najafi doulatabad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a type of progressing and degenerating disease of myelin membrane of nervous cells in the Central Nervous System (CNS which could cause the incidence of many signs and complications in patients. The disease could affect different aspects of an individual’s life and disturb his/her normal life. This study was carried out in order to survey the effect of yoga exercise on general health status (GHS and sense of life in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials & Methods: This research was a clinical trial study carried out at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences on 60 female patients with multiple sclerosis from Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province in 2009.The data collecting tool consisted was MSQoL-54 questionnaire contained demographic information of patients. Patients were randomly divided into two control and case groups (30 persons in each group. Then, the general health status (GHS and sense of life of the subjects were evaluated. Yoga therapy was done in the case group for three months and each month included eight sessions of 1-1.5 hours while no intervention was carried out on the control group. One month after Yoga therapy, the general health status (GHS and sense of life for both groups were evaluated and compared with each other. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive tests, statistical independent t-test and paired t-test by the SPSS software. Results: The mean age of samples was 31.6±8.0 with the range of 18-45 years. Forty two (70% of the subjects were married and 18 (30% were single. Forty four (73.3% had high school education and 16 (26.6% had a university degree. Regarding occupation, most of them (63.3% were housewives. Results of the study showed that after Yoga therapy, the mean rate of general health status (GHS and sense of life as a whole had significant statistical difference between two groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: Yoga has improved the general health status

  11. Factors affecting the intention of providers to deliver more effective continuing medical education to general practitioners: a pilot study

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    Higginbotham Nick

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of continuing medical education (CME for GPs, there has been little research into how providers decide what types of CME to deliver to GPs. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the intention of providers to provide more effective types of CME; and to design a survey instrument which can be used to test the applicability of Triandis' model of social behaviour to the provision of CME to general practitioners. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 11 Australian providers of CME for interviews and a random sample of 25 providers for the pilot test. Open-ended interviews structured on Triandis' theory were performed with key informants who provide CME to GPs. These were used to develop a pilot survey instrument to measure the factors affecting intention, resulting in a revised instrument for use in further research. Results There was a broad range of factors affecting providers' intention to deliver more effective forms of CME identified, and these were classifiable in a manner which was consistent with Triandis' model. Key factors affecting providers' intention were the attitude toward CME within organisations and the time and extra work involved. Conclusions We identified a range of potential factors influencing the intention of providers to provide more effective forms of CME, in all categories of Triandis model. Those interested in increasing the choice of more effective CME activities available to GPs may need to broaden the methods used in working with providers to influence them to use more effective CME techniques. The interview material and questionnaire analysis of the pilot survey support the use of Triandis model. Further research is needed to validate Triandis'model for the intention to deliver more effective forms of CME. Such research will inform future strategies aimed at increasing the amount and choice of effective CME activities available for GPs.

  12. What's the effect of the implementation of general practitioner cooperatives on caseload? Prospective intervention study on primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Hilde; Remmen, Roy; Van Royen, Paul; Teblick, Marc; Geudens, Leo; Bronckaers, Marc; Meeuwis, Herman

    2010-07-30

    Out-of-hours care in the primary care setting is rapidly changing and evolving towards general practitioner 'cooperatives' (GPC). GPCs already exist in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, all countries with strong general practice, including gatekeepers' role. This intervention study reports the use and caseload of out-of-hours care before and after implementation of a GPC in a well subscribed region in a country with an open access health care system and no gatekeepers' role for general practice. We used a prospective before/after interventional study design. The intervention was the implementation of a GPC. One year after the implementation of a GPC, the number of patient contacts in the intervention region significantly increased at the GPC (OR: 1.645; 95% CI: 1.439-1.880), while there were no significant changes in patient contacts at the Emergency Department (ED) or in other regions where a simultaneous registration was performed. Although home visits decreased in all general practitioner registrations, the difference was more pronounced in the intervention region (intervention region: OR: 0.515; 95% CI: 0.411-0.646, other regions: OR: 0.743; 95% CI: 0.608-0.908). At the ED we observed a decrease in the number of trauma cases (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.648-0.960) and of patients who came to hospital by ambulance (OR: 0.687; 95% CI: 0.565-0.836). One year after its implementation more people seek help at the GPC, while the number of contacts at the ED remains the same. The most prominent changes in caseload are found in the trauma cases. Establishing a GPC in an open health care system, might redirect some patients with particular medical problems to primary care. This could lead to a lowering of costs or a more cost-effective out of hours care, but further research should focus on effective usage to divert patient flows and on quality and outcome of care.

  13. What's the effect of the implementation of general practitioner cooperatives on caseload? Prospective intervention study on primary and secondary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geudens Leo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hours care in the primary care setting is rapidly changing and evolving towards general practitioner 'cooperatives' (GPC. GPCs already exist in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, all countries with strong general practice, including gatekeepers' role. This intervention study reports the use and caseload of out-of-hours care before and after implementation of a GPC in a well subscribed region in a country with an open access health care system and no gatekeepers' role for general practice. Methods We used a prospective before/after interventional study design. The intervention was the implementation of a GPC. Results One year after the implementation of a GPC, the number of patient contacts in the intervention region significantly increased at the GPC (OR: 1.645; 95% CI: 1.439-1.880, while there were no significant changes in patient contacts at the Emergency Department (ED or in other regions where a simultaneous registration was performed. Although home visits decreased in all general practitioner registrations, the difference was more pronounced in the intervention region (intervention region: OR: 0.515; 95% CI: 0.411-0.646, other regions: OR: 0.743; 95% CI: 0.608-0.908. At the ED we observed a decrease in the number of trauma cases (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.648-0.960 and of patients who came to hospital by ambulance (OR: 0.687; 95% CI: 0.565-0.836. Conclusions One year after its implementation more people seek help at the GPC, while the number of contacts at the ED remains the same. The most prominent changes in caseload are found in the trauma cases. Establishing a GPC in an open health care system, might redirect some patients with particular medical problems to primary care. This could lead to a lowering of costs or a more cost-effective out of hours care, but further research should focus on effective usage to divert patient flows and on quality and outcome of care.

  14. The Effect of TrainingIndividuals with Mild Intellectual Disability in Scaffolding Strategiesand Computer softwareon Their Generalization Skills

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    Farah Jalloul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the effect of scaffolding strategies as thinking out loud and verbalization of instructions strategies on the generalization skills of language-related concepts in mildly intellectual disabled students. Twenty-seven subjects in three treatments were trained in solving a pattern of the Thurston letter series task. Group1 students received language concepts through training in verbal instructions and thinking out loud strategy. Group 2 students received language concepts training through computers. Group 3 students received training in language concepts through thinking out loud, verbal instructions and computer software. Pre-training measures to subjects’ chronological age, Verbal Analogies Test and training trials were collected. Training measures pertaining to acquisition, maintenance and generalization of pattern completion tasks were collected. Mean scores and standard deviations were obtained for each dependent measure. The treatment effect was studied by a series of one way ANOVAS and a tukey post hoc test, which revealed that there was a significant difference between group1 and group 2, since the difference between the means (m1- m3 = -2.556 and p= 0.000. Also, the difference is shown between group 2 and group 3 since the difference between the means (m2- m3 = -2.333 and p= 0.000 and in both cases p is less than 0.05. Moreover, group 3 had a higher mean (M= 3.89 than group2 (M= 1.56 and group1 (M= 1.33. Group 3 had the ability to become self –regulated by solving the untrained letter patterns. Thus, we can conclude that training in scaffolding strategies, such as thinking out loud and verbalization of instruction strategies, helped individuals with an intellectual disability to acquire metacognitive strategies. This enabled them to generalize the learning experience and become self-regulated and better problem solvers. Also, using a computer program promoted the use of metacognitive strategies. Once

  15. General Relativity Theory Explains the Shnoll Effect and Makes Possible Forecasting Earthquakes and Weather Cataclysms (Letters to Progress in Physics

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    Rabounski D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Shnoll effect manifests itself in the fine structure of the noise registered in very sta- ble processes, where the magnitude of signal and the average noise remain unchanged. It is found in the periodic fluctuation of the fine structure of the noise according to the cosmic cycles connected with stars, the Sun, and the Moon. Th e Shnoll effect is ex- plained herein, employing the framework of General Relativity, as the twin / entangled synchronization states of the observer’s reference frame. The states are repeated while the observer travels, in common with the Earth, through the c osmic grid of the geodesic synchronization paths that connect his local reference fra me with the reference frames of other cosmic bodies. These synchronization periods matc h the periods that are man- ifested due to the Shnoll e ff ect, regardless of which process produces the noise. These synchronization periods are expected to exist in the noise o f natural processes of any type (physics, biology, social, etc. as well as in such arti ficial processes as computer- software random-number generation. This conclusion accor ds with what was registered according the Shnoll effect. The theory not only explains the Shnoll effect but also al- lows for forecasting fluctuations in the stock exchange mark et, fluctuations of weather, earthquakes, and other cataclysms.

  16. Estimating the palliative effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in an observational registry using principal stratification and generalized propensity scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra-Kalyani, Pallavi S.; Johnson, Brent A.; Glass, Jonathan D.; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Clinical disease registries offer a rich collection of valuable patient information but also pose challenges that require special care and attention in statistical analyses. The goal of this paper is to propose a statistical framework that allows for estimating the effect of surgical insertion of a percutaneous endogastrostomy (PEG) tube for patients living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using data from a clinical registry. Although all ALS patients are informed about PEG, only some patients agree to the procedure which, leads to the potential for selection bias. Assessing the effect of PEG is further complicated by the aggressively fatal disease, such that time to death competes directly with both the opportunity to receive PEG and clinical outcome measurements. Our proposed methodology handles the “censoring by death” phenomenon through principal stratification and selection bias for PEG treatment through generalized propensity scores. We develop a fully Bayesian modeling approach to estimate the survivor average causal effect (SACE) of PEG on BMI, a surrogate outcome measure of nutrition and quality of life. The use of propensity score methods within the principal stratification framework demonstrates a significant and positive effect of PEG treatment, particularly when time of treatment is included in the treatment definition.

  17. Effects of Six Functional SNPs on the Urinary 8-Isoprostane Level in a General Japanese Population; Shimane COHRE Study

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    Yoji Suyama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although a variety of genetic factors are assumed to contribute to the regulation of oxidative stress, evidence in human populations is insufficient. In this study, we therefore evaluated the effects of six functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on the oxidative stress under a cross-sectional study design. Participants of the health examination in two neighboring counties were recruited in a mountainous region of Shimane prefeture, Japan (n = 1092. As a marker for the oxidative stress, the urinary 8-isoprostane (IsoP was measured by ELISA. The six SNPs were genotyped using the Taqman method. None of the SNPs showed a significant effect on the IsoP level. However, the Generalized Multiple Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR method identified that the combination of the two SNPs, MTHFR C677T and eNOS T-786C, showed a significant effect on the IsoP level in this population. The linear regression analysis confirmed that the high risk genotype identified in the GMDR was an independent factor influencing the IsoP even after adjustment of confounding factors. This result suggested that GMDR analysis might be useful to identify concealed effects of combined SNPs.

  18. A general circulation model study of the climatic effect of observed stratospheric ozone depletion between 1980 and 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Michael P.; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Li, Zhu

    1994-01-01

    The total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) measurements show a significant reduction in the stratospheric ozone over the middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres between the years 1979 and 1991 (WMO, 1992). This change in ozone will effect both the solar and longwave radiation with climate implications. However, recent studies (Ramaswamy et al., 1992; WMO, 1992) indicate that the net effect depends not only on latitudes and seasons, but also on the response of the lower stratospheric temperature. In this study we use a general circulation model (GCM) to calculate the climatic effect due to stratospheric ozone depletion and compare the effect with that due to observed increases of trace gases CO2, CH4, N2O, and CFC's for the period 1980-1990. In the simulations, we use the observed changes in ozone derived from the TOMS data. The GCM used is a version of the NCAR community climate model referenced in Wang et al. (1991). For the present study we run the model in perpetual January and perpetual July modes in which the incoming solar radiation and climatological sea surface temperatures are held constant.

  19. The Effect of EMDR and CBT on Low Self-esteem in a General Psychiatric Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Brecht T; van der Vegt, Anna A; de Groot, Izaäk W; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Although low self-esteem has been found to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, surprisingly little is known about its treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), regarding their capacities in enhancing self-esteem in a general psychiatric secondary health care population. A randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated to either 10 weekly sessions of EMDR (n = 15) or CBT (n = 15). They were assessed pre-treatment, after each session, post treatment and at 3 months follow-up on self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Credibility of Core Beliefs), psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory), social anxiety, and social interaction (Inventory of Interpersonal Situations) (IIS). The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for the complete cases (n = 19) and intention-to-treat (n = 30) to examine differences over time and between conditions. Both groups, EMDR as well as CBT, showed significant improvements on self-esteem, increasing two standard deviations on the main parameter (RSES). Furthermore, the results showed significant reductions in general psychiatric symptoms. The effects were maintained at 3 months follow-up. No between-group differences could be detected. Although the small sample requires to exercise caution in the interpretation of the findings, the results suggest that, when offering an adequate number of sessions, both EMDR and CBT have the potential to be effective treatments for patients with low self-esteem and a wide range of comorbid psychiatric conditions. This study was registered at www.trialregister.nl with identifier NTR4611.

  20. Dose effects and predictors of outcome in a randomized trial of transdermal nicotine patches in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, J A; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Wiseman, S M; Gustavsson, G; Sawe, U; Wiseman, D

    1995-01-01

    The transdermal nicotine patch has proved an effective aid to smoking cessation. The ease of securing good compliance gives it a potential advantage over nicotine gum as an adjunct to brief advice and support in primary care settings where the major public health impact is obtained. In a preliminary report of half the sample of a randomized placebo controlled trial, we showed the patch to be effective in a general practice setting. We report here the definitive results of the full sample, including dose effects, predictors of outcome and other issues of theoretical and practical interest. A total of 1200 heavy smokers (> or = 15 per day), attending 30 general practices in 15 English counties received brief GP advice, a booklet and 16 hours per day patch treatment for 18 weeks. Dose increase and abrupt vs. gradual reduction of patch dosage were also randomized and follow-ups conducted at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Outcome was measured by self-reported complete abstinence from week 3 to 52 with biochemical validation at all follow-up points. Nicotine patch treatment doubled the rate of continuous abstinence up to 1 year (nicotine 9.6%, placebo 4.8%, p better at preventing relapse than abrupt withdrawal of patches after week 12. Whether relapse would have increased by ending treatment at some point between weeks 3 and 12 was not tested. Although pre-treatment dependence on cigarettes was prognostic of failure, the patches were equally helpful to both highly and less dependent smokers. Patches were particularly helpful to smokers with pre-treatment subclinical dysthymic symptoms. All but one of the 96 subjects eventually achieving long-term abstinence in the study quit during the first week of cessation.

  1. The Effect of EMDR and CBT on Low Self-esteem in a General Psychiatric Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht T. Griffioen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although low self-esteem has been found to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, surprisingly little is known about its treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT, regarding their capacities in enhancing self-esteem in a general psychiatric secondary health care population. A randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated to either 10 weekly sessions of EMDR (n = 15 or CBT (n = 15. They were assessed pre-treatment, after each session, post treatment and at 3 months follow-up on self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Credibility of Core Beliefs, psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory, social anxiety, and social interaction (Inventory of Interpersonal Situations (IIS. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for the complete cases (n = 19 and intention-to-treat (n = 30 to examine differences over time and between conditions. Both groups, EMDR as well as CBT, showed significant improvements on self-esteem, increasing two standard deviations on the main parameter (RSES. Furthermore, the results showed significant reductions in general psychiatric symptoms. The effects were maintained at 3 months follow-up. No between-group differences could be detected. Although the small sample requires to exercise caution in the interpretation of the findings, the results suggest that, when offering an adequate number of sessions, both EMDR and CBT have the potential to be effective treatments for patients with low self-esteem and a wide range of comorbid psychiatric conditions. This study was registered at www.trialregister.nl with identifier NTR4611.

  2. The Effect of EMDR and CBT on Low Self-esteem in a General Psychiatric Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Brecht T.; van der Vegt, Anna A.; de Groot, Izaäk W.; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Although low self-esteem has been found to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, surprisingly little is known about its treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), regarding their capacities in enhancing self-esteem in a general psychiatric secondary health care population. A randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated to either 10 weekly sessions of EMDR (n = 15) or CBT (n = 15). They were assessed pre-treatment, after each session, post treatment and at 3 months follow-up on self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Credibility of Core Beliefs), psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory), social anxiety, and social interaction (Inventory of Interpersonal Situations) (IIS). The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for the complete cases (n = 19) and intention-to-treat (n = 30) to examine differences over time and between conditions. Both groups, EMDR as well as CBT, showed significant improvements on self-esteem, increasing two standard deviations on the main parameter (RSES). Furthermore, the results showed significant reductions in general psychiatric symptoms. The effects were maintained at 3 months follow-up. No between-group differences could be detected. Although the small sample requires to exercise caution in the interpretation of the findings, the results suggest that, when offering an adequate number of sessions, both EMDR and CBT have the potential to be effective treatments for patients with low self-esteem and a wide range of comorbid psychiatric conditions. This study was registered at www.trialregister.nl with identifier NTR4611. PMID:29167649

  3. The effectiveness of national strategic guidelines at a local level: a case study of the UK general aviation industry

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    Lober, Terence

    The thesis is concerned with the prospects for reducing strategic-local tensions in the British planning process. It examines the conflicts surrounding small general aviation aerodromes as a means of understanding these tensions, why they have evolved, and if they might be reconciled through planning reform. The only prior academic research to have touched upon this issue through general aviation has been an ESRC funded project undertaken by Gallent and colleagues (1999), who found aerodromes provided a microcosm of planning's issues. Building on this work, the thesis develops what is meant by strategic-local tensions, which in broad terms are described as differences between national and regional guidance/plans and what actually takes place locally. Moving from a basic research question it develops a wide planning perspective based on the literature by discussing the meaning of planning, its history and issues for example, how conflicts in planning might be influenced by the broader socio-political environment. The thesis then arrives at three hypotheses which question the effectiveness of the existing strategic guideline implementation process, develops a local planning authority framework and addresses issues of reflectivity and bias. Results from three national surveys of pilots, aerodromes and manufacturers, plus longitudinal analysis of government and other datasets, are then used to detail a comprehensive and unique description of general aviation, which includes a costing based account of the direct expenditure of flying activity. This provides a substantive foundation for a local planning authority survey which both extends previous boundaries and enables the process of implementing strategic objectives to be disaggregated and evaluated. Field visits to twenty six aerodromes and five local authorities are subsequently used to explore gaps within the strategic implementation process and to develop conclusions, within the wider landscape of planning, about

  4. Effect of intraoperative analgesia on children's pain perception during recovery after painful dental procedures performed under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Batawi, H Y

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the possible effect of intraoperative analgesia, namely diclofenac sodium compared to acetaminophen on post-recovery pain perception in children undergoing painful dental procedures under general anaesthesia. A double-blind randomised clinical trial. A sample of 180 consecutive cases of children undergoing full dental rehabilitation under general anaesthesia in a private hospital in Saudi Arabia during 2013 was divided into three groups (60 children each) according to the analgesic used prior to extubation. Group A, children had diclofenac sodium suppository. Group B, children received acetaminophen suppository and Group C, the control group. Using an authenticated Arabic version of the Wong and Baker faces Pain assessment Scale, patients were asked to choose the face that suits best the pain he/she is suffering. Data were collected and recorded for statistical analysis. Student's t test was used for comparison of sample means. A preliminary F test to compare sample variances was carried out to determine the appropriate t test variant to be used. A "p" value less than 0.05 was considered significant. More than 93% of children had post-operative pain in varying degrees. High statistical significance was observed between children in groups A and B compared to control group C with the later scoring high pain perception. Diclofenac showed higher potency in multiple painful procedures, while the statistical difference was not significant in children with three or less painful dental procedures. Diclophenac sodium is more potent than acetaminophen, especially for multiple pain-provoking or traumatic procedures. A timely use of NSAID analgesia just before extubation helps provide adequate coverage during recovery. Peri-operative analgesia is to be recommended as an essential treatment adjunct for child dental rehabilitation under general anaesthesia.

  5. Effectiveness of heat moisture exchangers (hmes) in preventing perioperative hypothermia among adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general endotracheal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaegbu, Nc; Olatosi, Oj; Tobi, Ku

    2013-01-01

    Heat Moisture Exchangers (HMEs) conserve heat and moisture during expiration and make this available to inspired gases during subsequent inspiration. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of HMEs in the prevention of perioperative hypothermia in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia relaxant technique with endotrachael intubation (GART.) Lagos University Teaching Hospital, in Modular theatre, Anaesthesia unit. The study was a randomized, controlled, longitudinal, interventional study Methods: 100 ASA I, II and III patients aged 18 to 65 years scheduled for abdominal surgery under GART were randomly assigned to 2 groups, groups H and C. Group H had HMEs, while group C served as controls. Core temperature measured using tympanic probe was every 10 minutes till end of anaesthesia Data from total 99 patients, 49 in group H and 50 in group C were eventually analysed. Although patients in both groups developed hypothermia in the course of anaesthesia, core temperature was significantly lower pHeat Moisture Exchangers, General endotracheal anaesthesia, Hypothermia, abdominal surgery.

  6. Association between the Five Factor personality traits and perceived stress: is the effect mediated by general self-efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Pisinger, Charlotta; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-07-01

    Ill-health resulting from chronic stress is influenced by personality traits leading to different ways of appraising and coping with life's daily hassles. Using a large population sample the study aimed to investigate possible associations between perceived stress and the personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and to explore the role of general self-efficacy (GSE). A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Denmark, in 2006-2008. Men and women (N=3471) aged 18-69, were randomly sampled in the suburbs of Copenhagen. We used the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Negative associations were found between perceived stress and extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness - the latter initially non-significant - whilst neuroticism had a positive association. The associations with agreeableness and openness became positive and significant, respectively, when GSE was included. All five personality-stress models were mediated by GSE, with extroversion and conscientiousness having the strongest mediating effect. The strongest stress-association was found for neuroticism. GSE was shown to change the impact and interpretation of the personality dimensions on perceived stress. These results indicate that GSE is an important factor to consider in the link between personality and perceived stress.

  7. Effect of Uterine Fundal Pressure on Maternal Intraocular Pressure in Cesarean Delivery: Comparison of Regional and General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtay, Aysun; Ozayar, Esra; Gulec, Handan; Yildiz, Gokhan; Turkyilmaz, Esra; Yildiz, Zennure; Horasanli, Eyup

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) changes accompanying fundal pressure during a cesarean-section procedure under both regional and general anesthesia. In total, 60 women scheduled for elective cesarean section, none of them diagnosed with ocular problems, were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent cesarean section under either general (group G, n=30) or regional anesthesia (group S, n=30) according to their choice. IOP was measured with a Tono-Pen before (T1) and after (T2) application of anesthesia, during fundal pressure (T3), and after the birth of the baby (T4). Heart rate as well as systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were recorded during the procedure. There was no significant difference in IOP between the groups (P>0.05). In group S, IOP at T3 was significantly higher than at all other timepoints (Ppressure was significantly lower in group S at all timepoints except T1. In conclusion, fundal pressure may significantly increase the IOP, but the choice of anesthetic technique may not have any effect on IOP.

  8. Mediators of the resistance and aerobic exercise intervention effect on physical and general health in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffart, Laurien M; Galvão, Daniel A; Chinapaw, Mai J; Brug, Johannes; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Newton, Robert U

    2014-01-15

    The objective of the current study was to identify mediators of the effects of a combined resistance and aerobic exercise program on perceived physical and general health in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. In total, 57 patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of resistance and aerobic exercise or usual care. The outcome measures of physical and general health were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Linear regression analyses were conducted on the residual change scores of the variables. The mediating effects of fatigue, muscle strength, and functional performance on the intervention's effect on physical and general health were examined using the product of coefficients method. Bootstrapping was used to calculate the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The exercise intervention was found to significantly improve physical (beta, 5.03; 95% CI, 1.01-9.04) and general health (beta, 12.89; 95% CI, 2.24-23.54). Upper body muscle strength and walking speed significantly mediated the intervention effect on physical health (beta, 2.65; 95% CI, 0.64-5.54), accounting for 53% of the total effect. Walking speed and fatigue were found to be mediators in the intervention effect on general health (beta, 7.52; 95% CI, 2.16-16.92), accounting for 51% of the total effect. The intervention effects on physical and general health were explained by different mediating mechanisms. Walking speed mediated the intervention effect on both physical and general health. The intervention effect on physical health was further mediated by upper body strength, whereas the effect on general health was mediated by fatigue. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  9. Effect of Systematic Follow-Up by General Practitioners after Deliberate Self-Poisoning: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine K Grimholt

    Full Text Available To assess whether systematic follow-up by general practitioners (GPs of cases of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP by their patients decreases psychiatric symptoms and suicidal behaviour compared with current practice.Randomised clinical trial with two parallel groups.General practices in Oslo and the eastern part of Akershus County.Patients aged 18-75 years admitted to hospital for DSP. We excluded patients diagnosed with psychoses, without a known GP, those not able to complete a questionnaire, and patients admitted to psychiatric in-patient care or other institutions where their GP could not follow them immediately after discharge.The GPs received a written guideline, contacted the patients and scheduled a consultation within one week after discharge, and then provided regular consultations for six months. We randomised the patients to either intervention (n = 78 or treatment as usual (n = 98.Primary outcome measure was the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI. Secondary outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, self-reported further self-harm and treatment for DSP in a general hospital or an emergency medical agency (EMA. We assessed patients on entry to the trial and at three and six months. We collected data from interviews, self-report questionnaires, and hospital and EMA medical records.There were no significant differences between the groups in SSI, BDI, or BHS mean scores or change from baseline to three or six months. During follow-up, self-reported DSP was 39.5% in the intervention group vs. 15.8% in controls (P = 0.009. Readmissions to general hospitals were similar (13% in both groups (P = 0.963, while DSP episodes treated at EMAs were 17% in the intervention group and 7% in the control group (P = 0.103.Structured follow-up by GPs after an episode of DSP had no significant effect on suicide ideation, depression or hopelessness. There was no significant difference in repeated episodes of DSP in

  10. The effective and ethical use of voluntary induction of psychogenic drop attacks in a patient with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, Asher; Keezer, Mark R; Andermann, Frederick

    2010-04-01

    A woman known to have never fully controlled idiopathic generalized epilepsy presented at 47 years of age with a new onset of drop attacks. After clinical investigations, including prolonged video/EEG telemetry, tilt-table testing, and multiple sleep latency tests, the etiology of her drop attacks remained elusive. Subsequently we were able to demonstrate that her drop attacks may be provoked by her voluntary recollection of memories of past sexual abuse. This case study highlights the need to consider psychological factors when evaluating otherwise unexplained drop attacks. In addition, we propose a seizure-provoking technique that may be used both effectively and ethically in the diagnosis of psychogenic drop attacks as well as nonepileptic seizures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. E-mail invitations to general practitioners were as effective as postal invitations and were more efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Barnett, Karen; Maclennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Eccles, Martin P; Francis, Jill J; Jones, Claire; Pitts, Nigel B; Ricketts, Ian W; Weal, Mark; Sullivan, Frank

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate which of two invitation methods, e-mail or post, was most effective at recruiting general practitioners (GPs) to an online trial. Randomized controlled trial. Participants were GPs in Scotland, United Kingdom. Two hundred and seventy GPs were recruited. Using e-mail did not improve recruitment (risk difference=0.7% [95% confidence interval -2.7% to 4.1%]). E-mail was, however, simpler to use and cheaper, costing £3.20 per recruit compared with £15.69 for postal invitations. Reminders increased recruitment by around 4% for each reminder sent for both invitation methods. In the Scottish context, inviting GPs to take part in an online trial by e-mail does not adversely affect recruitment and is logistically easier and cheaper than using postal invitations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Hurricane Katrina and Other Adverse Life Events on Adolescent Female Offenders: A Test of General Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela R; Stein, Judith A; Schaefer-Rohleder, Lacey

    2010-11-01

    This study tested Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) by examining the roles of anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping in mediating the relationship between strain and three outcomes (serious delinquency, minor delinquency, and continued involvement in the juvenile justice system) among adolescent female offenders (N = 261). Strains consisted of adverse life events and exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Greater exposure to Hurricane Katrina was directly related to serious delinquency and maladaptive coping. Hurricane Katrina also had an indirect effect on minor delinquency and Post-Katrina juvenile justice involvement mediated through maladaptive coping. Adverse life events were associated with increased anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping. Anger mediated the relationship between adverse life events and serious delinquency. Anxiety mediated the relationship between adverse life events and minor delinquency. Maladaptive coping strategies were associated with minor delinquency and juvenile justice involvement. Findings lend support to GST.

  13. Application of the Infinite Relational Model combined with the Bayesian Model of Generalization for Effective Cross-Cultural Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) [Kemp 2006], a novel unsupervised machine learning method, is effectively applied to loosely-structured datasets consisting of concepts and features for the purpose of mapping Culturally Specific Concepts (CSCs) in a multi......, three strategies are tested in our experiments: 1) applying the IRM directly to two CSC-feature matrices, respectively representing the educational domain knowledge in Japan and Denmark for first categorizing them into categorical classes that are to be subsequently compared and aligned; 2) applying...... the IRM directly to a matrix where the two CSC-feature matrices respectively representing the Danish- and Japanese educational domain knowledge are merged; and 3) applying the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG) [Tenenbaum 2001] to directly compute similarity relations between CSCs in the two cultures...

  14. Application of the Infinite Relational Model combined with the Bayesian Model of Generalization for Effective Cross-Cultural Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Mørup, Morten

    This paper investigates how the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) [Kemp 2006], a novel unsupervised machine learning method, is effectively applied to loosely-structured datasets consisting of concepts and features for the purpose of mapping Culturally Specific Concepts (CSCs) in a multi......, three strategies are tested in our experiments: 1) applying the IRM directly to two CSC-feature matrices, respectively representing the educational domain knowledge in Japan and Denmark for first categorizing them into categorical classes that are to be subsequently compared and aligned; 2) applying...... the IRM directly to a matrix where the two CSC-feature matrices respectively representing the Danish- and Japanese educational domain knowledge are merged; and 3) applying the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG) [Tenenbaum 2001] to directly compute similarity relations between CSCs in the two cultures...

  15. Effects of language experience on pre-categorical perception: Distinguishing general from specialized processes in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Paul; Wagner, Anita; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Cross-language differences in speech perception have traditionally been linked to phonological categories, but it has become increasingly clear that language experience has effects beginning at early stages of perception, which blurs the accepted distinctions between general and speech-specific processing. The present experiments explored this distinction by playing stimuli to English and Japanese speakers that manipulated the acoustic form of English /r/ and /l/, in order to determine how acoustically natural and phonologically identifiable a stimulus must be for cross-language discrimination differences to emerge. Discrimination differences were found for stimuli that did not sound subjectively like speech or /r/ and /l/, but overall they were strongly linked to phonological categorization. The results thus support the view that phonological categories are an important source of cross-language differences, but also show that these differences can extend to stimuli that do not clearly sound like speech.

  16. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Ramaswamy, V.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Russell, Lynn M.

    2005-11-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmosphere general circulation model, with its new cloud scheme, is employed to study the indirect radiative effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol during the industrial period. The preindustrial and present-day monthly mean aerosol climatologies are generated from running the Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART) chemistry-transport model. The respective global annual mean sulfate burdens are 0.22 and 0.81 Tg S. Cloud droplet number concentrations are related to sulfate mass concentrations using an empirical relationship (Boucher and Lohmann, 1995). A distinction is made between "forcing" and flux change at the top of the atmosphere in this study. The simulations, performed with prescribed sea surface temperature, show that the first indirect "forcing" ("Twomey" effect) amounts to an annual mean of -1.5 W m-2, concentrated largely over the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The annual mean flux change owing to the response of the model to the first indirect effect is -1.4 W m-2, similar to the annual mean forcing. However, the model's response causes a rearrangement of cloud distribution as well as changes in longwave flux (smaller than solar flux changes). There is thus a differing geographical nature of the radiation field than for the forcing even though the global means are similar. The second indirect effect, which is necessarily an estimate made in terms of the model's response, amounts to -0.9 W m-2, but the statistical significance of the simulated geographical distribution of this effect is relatively low owing to the model's natural variability. Both the first and second effects are approximately linearly additive, giving rise to a combined annual mean flux change of -2.3 W m-2, with the NH responsible for 77% of the total flux change. Statistically significant model responses are obtained for the zonal mean total indirect effect in the entire NH and in the Southern Hemisphere low

  17. New approach to assess bioequivalence parameters using generalized gamma mixed-effect model (model-based asymptotic bioequivalence test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen

    2014-02-28

    In the pharmacokinetic (PK) study under a 2x2 crossover design that involves both the test and reference drugs, we propose a mixed-effects model for the drug concentration-time profiles obtained from subjects who receive different drugs at different periods. In the proposed model, the drug concentrations repeatedly measured from the same subject at different time points are distributed according to a multivariate generalized gamma distribution, and the drug concentration-time profiles are described by a compartmental PK model with between-subject and within-subject variations. We then suggest a bioequivalence test based on the estimated bioavailability parameters in the proposed mixed-effects model. The results of a Monte Carlo study further show that the proposed model-based bioequivalence test is not only better on maintaining its level but also more powerful for detecting the bioequivalence of the two drugs than the conventional bioequivalence test based on a non-compartmental analysis or the one based on a mixed-effects model with a normal error variable. The application of the proposed model and test is finally illustrated by using data sets in two PK studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. No effects of psychosocial stress on memory retrieval in non-treated young students with Generalized Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Laura; Marquina, Mónica; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is a common anxiety disorder that produces clear social life disruptions. There is no consensus on the specific processes involved in its development, but the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested. This study analyzed the effects of the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the memory retrieval of pictures with different emotional valences in 45 non-treated young students with GSP and 50 non-anxious (NA) subjects (mean=19.35years, SD=0.18). No differences were found in the cortisol response of GSP and NA subjects to the TSST and control sessions. In addition, psychosocial stress impaired memory retrieval in both the GSP and NA groups, with no differences between them. Regarding the sex factor, no effects were found in the cortisol response to the TSST. However, during the encoding session, GSP men had higher cortisol levels than GSP women and NA subjects. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stress exposure on memory retrieval. Women recognized more unpleasant and neutral pictures than men; however, under stress, the women's advantage disappeared, and the men's performance improved. Sex also interacted with social phobia on positive mood, with GSP women exposed to the TSST showing the lowest positive mood. These results suggest that GSP subjects do not present an HPA axis sensitization to psychosocial stress, and they emphasize the importance of Sex in understanding stress effects on memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of workers' general health examination in Korea by health examination period and compliance: retrospective cohort study using nationwide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Huisu; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Eun-A; Choi, Bohwa; Park, Soon Woo; Kang, Young Joong

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the effectiveness of the Workers' General Health Examination by health examination period and compliance. A retrospective cohort of the health examination participants in 2006 (baseline year: N = 6,527,045) was used. We identified newly occurring cardio-cerebrovascular disease over 7 years (from 2007 to 2013). After stratification by age, sex, and national health insurance type, we identified 7 years' cumulative incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular disease by health examination compliance and estimated its relative risk by health examination period and compliance. The compliant group presented a lower cumulative incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular disease than the non-compliant group; this result was consistent across sex, working age (40s and 50s), and workplace policyholder. Relative risk of cardio-cerebrovascular disease by health examination period (1 and 2 years) showed statistically significant results in ischemic heart disease for male participants. Of men in their 40s, office workers (over a 2-year period) presented statistically higher relative risk of ischemic heart disease than non-office workers (over a 1-year period: 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.03). However, there were no consistent results in ischemic cerebrovascular disease and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease for men or cardio-cerebrovascular disease for women. A 1-year period of Workers' General Health Examinations in non-office workers had a more significant prevention effect on ischemic heart disease than a 2-year period in office workers among working age (40s-50s) men. It is, however, necessary to consider that prevention of cardio-cerebrovascular disease can be partially explained by their occupational characteristics rather than by health examination period.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of exercise on prescription with telephone support among women in general practice over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elley, C Raina; Garrett, Sue; Rose, Sally B; O'Dea, Des; Lawton, Beverley A; Moyes, Simon A; Dowell, Anthony C

    2011-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of exercise on prescription with ongoing support in general practice. Prospective cost-effectiveness study undertaken as part of the 2-year Women's lifestyle study randomised controlled trial involving 1089 'less-active' women aged 40-74. The 'enhanced Green Prescription' intervention included written exercise prescription and brief advice from a primary care nurse, face-to-face follow-up at 6 months, and 9 months of telephone support. The primary outcome was incremental cost of moving one 'less-active' person into the 'active' category over 24 months. Direct costs of programme delivery were recorded. Other (indirect) costs covered in the analyses included participant costs of exercise, costs of primary and secondary healthcare utilisation, allied health therapies and time off work (lost productivity). Cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated with and without including indirect costs. Follow-up rates were 93% at 12 months and 89% at 24 months. Significant improvements in physical activity were found at 12 and 24 months (pexercise programme cost was New Zealand dollars (NZ$) 93.68 (€45.90) per participant. There was no significant difference in indirect costs over the course of the trial between the two groups (rate ratios: 0.99 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.2) at 12 months and 1.01 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.23) at 24 months, p=0.9). Cost-effectiveness ratios using programme costs were NZ$687 (€331) per person made 'active' and sustained at 12 months and NZ$1407 (€678) per person made 'active' and sustained at 24 months. This nurse-delivered programme with ongoing support is very cost-effective and compares favourably with other primary care and community-based physical activity interventions internationally.

  1. Effects of a complex intervention on fall risk in the general practitioner setting: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiberger E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ellen Freiberger,1 Wolfgang A Blank,2 Johannes Salb,1 Barbara Geilhof,3 Christian Hentschke,1 Peter Landendoerfer,2 Martin Halle,3 Monika Siegrist31Institute of Sport Science and Sport Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nuremberg, Germany; 2Institute of General Practice, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich, GermanyPurpose: To study the feasibility of first, reaching functionally declined, but still independent older persons at risk of falls through their general practitioner (GP and second, to reduce their physiological and psychological fall risk factors with a complex exercise intervention. We investigated the effects of a 16-week exercise intervention on physiological (function, strength, and balance and psychological (fear of falling outcomes in community-dwelling older persons in comparison with usual care. In addition, we obtained data on adherence of the participants to the exercise program.Methods: Tests on physical and psychological fall risk were conducted at study inclusion, and after the 16-week intervention period in the GP office setting. The 16-week intervention included progressive and challenging balance, gait, and strength exercise as well as changes to behavioral aspects. To account for the hierarchical structure in the chosen study design, with patients nested in GPs and measurements nested in patients, a three-level linear mixed effects model was determined for analysis.Results: In total, 33 GPs recruited 378 participants (75.4% females. The mean age of the participants was 78.1 years (standard deviation 5.9 years. Patients in the intervention group showed an improvement in the Timed-Up-and-Go-test (TUG that was 1.5 seconds greater than that showed by the control group, equivalent to a small to moderate effect. For balance, a relative improvement of 0.8 seconds was accomplished, and anxiety about falls was

  2. The Combined Effects of Social Script Training and Peer Buddies on Generalized Peer Interaction of Children with ASD in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Joel; Rowe, Sarah; Harrison, Erin

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges in supporting young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in inclusive classrooms is the generalization of improved social behaviors. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, this study examined the generalized effects of social script training alone and combined with peer buddies on the interactive play…

  3. Costs and Cost-effectiveness of Epidural Steroids for Acute Lumbosacral Radicular Syndrome in General Practice An Economic Evaluation Alongside a Pragmatic Randomized Control Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker-Huiges, Antje; Vermeulen, Karin; Winters, Jan C.; van Wijhe, Marten; van der Meer, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A pragmatic, randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial in Dutch general practice. Objective. Assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of adding segmental epidural steroid injections to care as usual in radiculopathy in general practice. Summary of Background Data. Lumbosacral

  4. The Effects of Modified Classwide Peer Tutoring Procedures on the Generalization of Spelling Skills of Urban Third-Grade Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kazunari; Utley, Cheryl A.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Pitchlyn, Carol L.

    2007-01-01

    A single-subject reversal design with counterbalanced phases across two classrooms was used to measure the effects of peer tutoring on the retention and generalization of spelling words in two third-grade general education classrooms. The results revealed that the mean pretest-posttest gain scores during all the peer tutoring phases of the two…

  5. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouten Jan P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For individual exposures, effect modification by atopy or smoking has been reported on the occurrence of occupational airway disease. It is unclear if effect modification can be studied in a general population by an aggregated exposure measure. Assess relationship between airway obstruction and occupational exposure using a job-exposure-matrix (JEM classifying jobs into 3 broad types of exposure, and test for effect modification by atopy, and smoking. Methods Data from 1,906 subjects were analyzed, all participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Job titles were categorized by an a priori constructed job exposure matrix into three classes of exposure to respectively organic dust, mineral dust, and gases/ fumes. Relationships were assessed for 'current wheeze', bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, 'current asthma' (wheeze+BHR, and 'chronic bronchitis' (morning phlegm or morning cough, and lung function. Results Subjects with organic dust exposure in their work environment more frequently had 'current asthma' (OR 1.48, 95% C.I. 0.95;2.30, and a lower FEV1 (-59 mL, 95% C.I. -114;-4. The relationship was only present in asthmatic workers, and their risk was four-fold greater than in subjects with either atopy or exposure alone. Mineral dust exposure was associated with 'chronic bronchitis' (OR 2.22, 95% C.I. 1.16;4.23 and a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (-1.1%, 95% C.I. -1.8;-0.3. We observed an excess risk in smokers, greater than the separate effects of smoking or mineral dust exposure together. Conclusion Occupational exposure to organic dust is associated with an increased risk of asthma, particularly in atopics. Chronic bronchitis occurs more frequently among individuals exposed to mineral dust, and smoking doubles this risk.

  6. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meer, Gea; Kerkhof, Marjan; Kromhout, Hans; Schouten, Jan P; Heederik, Dick

    2004-06-02

    For individual exposures, effect modification by atopy or smoking has been reported on the occurrence of occupational airway disease. It is unclear if effect modification can be studied in a general population by an aggregated exposure measure. Assess relationship between airway obstruction and occupational exposure using a job-exposure-matrix (JEM) classifying jobs into 3 broad types of exposure, and test for effect modification by atopy, and smoking. Data from 1,906 subjects were analyzed, all participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Job titles were categorized by an a priori constructed job exposure matrix into three classes of exposure to respectively organic dust, mineral dust, and gases/ fumes. Relationships were assessed for 'current wheeze', bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), 'current asthma' (wheeze+BHR), and 'chronic bronchitis' (morning phlegm or morning cough), and lung function. Subjects with organic dust exposure in their work environment more frequently had 'current asthma' (OR 1.48, 95% C.I. 0.95;2.30), and a lower FEV1 (-59 mL, 95% C.I. -114;-4). The relationship was only present in asthmatic workers, and their risk was four-fold greater than in subjects with either atopy or exposure alone. Mineral dust exposure was associated with 'chronic bronchitis' (OR 2.22, 95% C.I. 1.16;4.23) and a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (-1.1%, 95% C.I. -1.8;-0.3). We observed an excess risk in smokers, greater than the separate effects of smoking or mineral dust exposure together. Occupational exposure to organic dust is associated with an increased risk of asthma, particularly in atopics. Chronic bronchitis occurs more frequently among individuals exposed to mineral dust, and smoking doubles this risk.

  7. Effect of esmolol infusion on myocardial oxygen consumption during extubation and quality of recovery in elderly patients undergoing general anesthesia: randomized, double blinded, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif A. ELokda

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Esmolol is a safe, effective and well-tolerated drug that can be used in elderly patients undergoing general anesthesia to reduce the myocardial oxygen consumption and improve the quality of recovery.

  8. Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, O. van de; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, W.A. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Groot, L.C. de

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. PARTICIPANTS:

  9. Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.; Staveren, van W.A.; Olderikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Groot, de L.C.P.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. PARTICIPANTS:

  10. Maternal and neonatal effects of nalbuphine given immediately before induction of general anesthesia for elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry M Amin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although nalbuphine was studied extensively in labour analgesia and was proved to be acceptable analgesics during delivery, its use as premedication before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section is not studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nalbuphine given before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section on quality of general anesthesia, maternal stress response, and neonatal outcome. Methods: Sixty full term pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean section, randomly classified into two equal groups, group N received nalbuphine 0.2 mg/kg diluted in 10 ml of normal saline (n=30, and group C placebo (n=30 received 10 ml of normal saline 1 min before the induction of general anesthesia. Maternal heart rate and blood pressure were measured before, after induction, during surgery, and after recovery. Neonates were assisted by using APGAR0 scores, time to sustained respiration, and umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Result: Maternal heart rate showed significant increase in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (88.2±4.47 versus 80.1±4.23, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (90.8±2.39 versus 82.6±2.60, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. MABP increased in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (100.55±6.29 versus 88.75±6.09, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (98.50±2.01 versus 90.50±2.01, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. APGAR score was significantly low at one minute in nalbuphine group than control group (6.75±2.3, 8.5±0.74, respectively, P=0.0002 (27% of nalbuphine group APGAR score ranged between 4-6, while 7% in control group APGAR score ranged between 4-6 at one minute. All neonates at five minutes showed APGAR score ranged between 9-10. Time to sustained respiration was significantly longer in nalbuphine group than control group (81.8

  11. Higher iridescent-to-pigment optical effect in flowers facilitates learning, memory and generalization in foraging bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Premorel, Géraud; Giurfa, Martin; Andraud, Christine; Gomez, Doris

    2017-10-25

    Iridescence-change of colour with changes in the angle of view or of illumination-is widespread in the living world, but its functions remain poorly understood. The presence of iridescence has been suggested in flowers where diffraction gratings generate iridescent colours. Such colours have been suggested to serve plant-pollinator communication. Here we tested whether a higher iridescence relative to corolla pigmentation would facilitate discrimination, learning and retention of iridescent visual targets. We conditioned bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) to discriminate iridescent from non-iridescent artificial flowers and we varied iridescence detectability by varying target iridescent relative to pigment optical effect. We show that bees rewarded on targets with higher iridescent relative to pigment effect required fewer choices to complete learning, showed faster generalization to novel targets exhibiting the same iridescence-to-pigment level and had better long-term memory retention. Along with optical measurements, behavioural results thus demonstrate that bees can learn iridescence-related cues as bona fide signals for flower reward. They also suggest that floral advertising may be shaped by competition between iridescence and corolla pigmentation, a fact that has important evolutionary implications for pollinators. Optical measurements narrow down the type of cues that bees may have used for learning. Beyond pollinator-plant communication, our experiments help understanding how receivers influence the evolution of iridescence signals generated by gratings. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Group metacognitive therapy for repetitive negative thinking in primary and non-primary generalized anxiety disorder: an effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Erceg-Hurn, David M; Anderson, Rebecca A; Campbell, Bruce N C; Swan, Amanda; Saulsman, Lisa M; Summers, Mark; Nathan, Paula R

    2015-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common and highly comorbid anxiety disorder characterized by repetitive negative thinking (RNT). Treatment trials tend to exclude individuals with non-primary GAD, despite this being a common presentation in real world clinics. RNT is also associated with multiple emotional disorders, suggesting that it should be targeted regardless of the primary disorder. This study evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of brief group metacognitive therapy (MCT) for primary or non-primary GAD within a community clinic. Patients referred to a specialist community clinic attended six, two-hour weekly sessions plus a one-month follow-up (N=52). Measures of metacognitive beliefs, RNT, symptoms, positive and negative affect, and quality of life were completed at the first, last, and follow-up sessions. Attrition was low and large intent-to-treat effects were observed on most outcomes, particularly for negative metacognitive beliefs and RNT. Treatment gains increased further to follow-up. Benchmarking comparisons demonstrated that outcomes compared favorably to longer disorder-specific protocols for primary GAD. No control group or independent assessment of protocol adherence. Brief metacognitive therapy is an acceptable and powerful treatment for patients with primary or non-primary GAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of general anesthesia versus intravenous sedation on diagnostic yield and success in electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Mark R; Kohan, Matthew W; Walker, Paul; Efird, Jimmy; Ben Or, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Navigational bronchoscopy is utilized to guide biopsies of peripheral lung nodules and place fiducial markers for treatment of limited stage lung cancer with stereotactic body radiotherapy. The type of sedation used for this procedure remains controversial. We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the differences of diagnostic yield and overall success of the procedure based on anesthesia type. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy was performed using the superDimension software system. Once the targeted lesion was within reach, multiple tissue samples were obtained. Statistical analysis was used to correlate the yield with the type of sedation among other factors. A successful procedure was defined if a diagnosis was made or a fiducial marker was adequately placed. Navigational bronchoscopy was performed on a total of 120 targeted lesions. The overall complication rate of the procedure was 4.1%. The diagnostic yield and success of the procedure was 74% and 87%, respectively. Duration of the procedure was the only significant difference between the general anesthesia and IV sedation groups (mean, 58 vs. 43 min, P=0.0005). A larger tumor size was associated with a higher diagnostic yield (P=0.032). All other variables in terms of effect on diagnostic yield and an unsuccessful procedure did not meet statistical significance. Navigational bronchoscopy is a safe and effective pulmonary diagnostic tool with relatively low complication rate. The diagnostic yield and overall success of the procedure does not seem to be affected by the type of sedation used.

  14. Solar System constraints on Renormalization Group extended General Relativity: The PPN and Laplace-Runge-Lenz analyses with the external potential effect

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Davi C; de Almeida, Álefe O F

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity extensions based on Renormalization Group effects are motivated by a known physical principle and constitute a class of extended gravity theories that have some unexplored unique aspects. In this work we develop in detail the Newtonian and post Newtonian limits of a realisation called Renormalization Group extended General Relativity (RGGR). Special attention is taken to the external potential effect, which constitutes a type of screening mechanism typical of RGGR. In the Solar System, RGGR depends on a single dimensionless parameter $\\bar \

  15. Effect of bispectral index versus end-tidal anesthetic gas concentration-guided protocol on time to tracheal extubation for halothane-based general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Neena; Mathur, Pooja Rawat; Khan, Shoyeb; Khare, Arvind; Mathur, Veena; Sethi, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Early extubation is a desirable goal after general anesthesia. Very few studies have compared the effect of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring versus standard end-tidal anesthetic gas (ETAG) concentration monitoring on tracheal extubation time for halothane-based anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of BIS versus ETAG-guided anesthesia on time to tracheal extubation for halothane-based anesthesia in general surgical setting. Methods: This was a rando...

  16. The effects of rotator cuff tears, including shoulders without pain, on activities of daily living in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Osawa, Toshihisa; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Takasawa, Eiji; Takagishi, Kenji

    2012-03-01

    Few reports have so far evaluated the possible restrictions of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with asymptomatic rotator cuff tears (RCTs). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of RCTs, including shoulders without pain, on ADL in the general population. We performed medical checkups on 462 individuals (924 shoulders). All participants completed a questionnaire regarding their background and medical history. We then assessed their shoulder functions with the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and performed US (US) examinations of both shoulders to diagnose RCTs. We divided participants into tear and nontear groups and performed statistical analysis to compare total SST scores and each SST item between groups. Furthermore, we performed the same examinations for participants identified as having shoulders without pain. Among participants, those in the tear group showed significantly lower total SST scores than those in the nontear group. After examining each SST item, a significant difference was observed regarding the ability to sleep comfortably and to lift 3.6 kg to shoulder level. In shoulders without pain, the tear group showed significantly lower total SST scores than the nontear group. A significant difference was observed only regarding the ability to lift 3.6 kg to shoulder level. In the general population, ADL were restricted in participants with RCTs; they experienced night pain in the shoulder and muscle weakness during shoulder elevation. Furthermore, participants with RCTs, even if the condition itself did not induce any pain, tended to experience muscle weakness during shoulder elevation, thus resulting in restrictions of ADL.

  17. [Effects of mechanical ventilation and controlled spontaneous respiration on pulmonary function during short duration of general anesthesia with tracheal intubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Jin, San-Qing; Lin, Shi-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Pu; Chen, Xi-Hui

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of mechanical ventilation on pulmonary function during short duration of general anesthesia with tracheal intubation, and assess the safety of controlled spontaneous respiration during general anesthesia. Fifty-three adult patients (aged 18-55 years, ASA physical status I-II) scheduled for elective unilateral tympanoplasty were randomly assigned into mechanical ventilation group (group M, n=28) and spontaneous respiration group (group S, n=25). Anesthesia induction was performed in group M with intravenous propofol (2 mg/kg), fentanyl (3 microgmechanical ventilation began with VT 8 mlcontrol MAC between 1.2-1.3. During the surgery, BIS values were controlled between 40-60, and propofol was administered when necessary. Vecuronium (1-2 mg) was given intermittently to maintain muscle relaxation and neostigmine (1 mg) with atropine 0.5 mg was administered intravenously before extubation in group M. No relaxant was used in group S. The parameters including heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MAP), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), and thoracic fluid content (TFC) were recorded before the induction and at 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min after intubation. Arterial blood was drawn immediately and 150 min after intubation for blood gases analysis and Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (P(A-a)DO(2)), and the respiratory index (RI) and dead volume/tidal volume (VD/VT) were calculated. The incidences of moving, bucking, swallowing, and status of awareness during surgery procedures were also recorded. A total of 43 patients (group M, n=23; group S, n=20) were included in the study with 10 dropouts due to failed attempt to obtain arterial blood samples (8 patients) or severe bucking during intubation (2 patients). No significant differences were found in HR and MAP between the two groups (P>0.05). The pH and SpO(2) [ (97.9-/+1.00)% at the lowest] and PaO(2) in group S were significantly lower and the PaCO(2) was higher than those in group M (P

  18. General and Food-Specific Inhibitory Control As Moderators of the Effects of the Impulsive Systems on Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs. Automatic attention was measured using “the EyeLink 1000,” which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs, automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.

  19. Microbiological findings in burn patients treated in a general versus a designated intensive care unit: Effect on length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issler-Fisher, Andrea C; Fakin, Richard M; Fisher, Oliver M; McKew, Genevieve; Gazzola, Riccardo; Rauch, Ann-Kathrin; Gottlieb, Thomas; Haertsch, Peter; Guggenheim, Merlin; Giovanoli, Pietro; Maitz, Peter K M

    2016-12-01

    Infection is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in burn patients. The incidence and frequency of microbiological micro-organisms are known to vary across different models of intensive care units. To date, no study has attempted to describe the different findings in burn patients treated in an open, general intensive care unit (GICU) versus a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU). Only limited data is available on the effect of these microbiological micro-organisms on patients' length of stay. To characterize and compare the microbiological flora and antibiotic resistance patterns encountered in two different models of burn intensive care and to determine the effect of specific microbiological types on length of intensive care unit (ICU) and overall stay. A retrospective case-control study of 209 burn patients treated in two highly specialized, Western burn referral centres between September 2009 and March 2014. 9710 culture results were analysed, of which 2590 (26.7%) yielded positive results (1537 in the GICU and 1050 in the BICU). Gram-positive cultures were more frequently found in the GICU, whereas Gram-negative and yeast cultures were more prevalent in the BICU. The most frequently encountered micro-organisms in both units were similar and included Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Candida albicans. Significantly more resistant bacteria were detected in the BICU. Testing positive across all types of microbiological isolates, as well as for both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria significantly prolonged patient length of stay. This effect was even more pronounced if the micro-organisms were resistant to antimicrobial therapy. There are notable differences in the microbiological isolate and antibiotic resistance patterns between burn patients treated in a GICU compared to a designated BICU. In both units, testing positive for resistant microbiological micro-organisms is

  20. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.