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Sample records for effectiveness research accentuate

  1. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  2. Role of accentuation in the selection/rejection task framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    Procedure invariance is a basic assumption of rational theories of choice, however, it has been shown to be violated: Different response modes, or task frames, sometimes reveal opposite preferences. The current study focused on selection and rejection task frames, involving a unique type of problem with enriched and impoverished options, which has previously led to conflicting findings and theoretical explanations: the compatibility hypothesis (Shafir, 1993) and the accentuation hypothesis (Wedell, 1997). We examined the role of task frame by distinguishing these 2 hypotheses and evaluating the information-processing basis of the choices. Experiments conducted online (Experiments 1 and 3) and in-lab (Experiment 4 with eye-tracking technique) revealed a difference between the 2 task frames in the choice data (i.e., the task-framing effect) as a function of the relative attractiveness of the options. Also, this task-framing effect was not influenced by imposed time constraints (Experiments 5 and 6) and was similarly evident with a more direct measure for the option attractiveness (obtained in Experiment 7). Experiment 2, conducted in a lab setting with verbal-protocol requirements, yielded no task-framing effect, suggesting that a requirement to verbalize reasons for choice minimizes accentuation. With this exception, the choice data are in agreement with the accentuation hypothesis, and the combined findings in choice, decision time, task confusion, and eye-tracking data provide evidence of a basis in cognitive effort rather than motivation, as Wedell proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Accentuated Factors of Handheld Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Bo; Henningsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    and the mobile technology. In this chapter, we deductively, from previous research on aspects on mobility, synthesize a tentative analytical framework capturing factors accentuated in mobile IS design. We evaluate the framework based on criteria of completeness, distinctiveness and simplicity. Eventually...

  4. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    (-16)). Furthermore, obesity-related quantitative traits such as body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in A-allele carriers. An interaction between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and physical activity (P = 0.007) was found, where physically inactive...... homozygous risk A-allele carriers had a 1.95 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI compared with homozygous T-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate that variation in FTO is associated with type 2 diabetes when not adjusted for BMI and with an overall increase in body fat mass. Furthermore, low physical......OBJECTIVE: Three independent studies have shown that variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associates with BMI and obesity. In the present study, the effect of FTO variation on metabolic traits including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related quantitative phenotypes...

  5. Comparative effects of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition, statin or ezetimibe on lipid factors: The ACCENTUATE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen J; Ray, Kausik K; Ballantyne, Christie M; Beacham, Lauren A; Miller, Debra L; Ruotolo, Giacomo; Nissen, Steven E; Riesmeyer, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-01

    The optimal approaches to management of patients treated with moderate statin doses on lipid parameters are unknown. The ACCENTUATE study aimed to compare the effects of adding the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETP) evacetrapib, ezetimibe or increasing statin dose in atorvastatin-treated high-vascular risk patients on lipid parameters. 366 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and/or diabetes were treated with atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 28 days prior to randomization to atorvastatin 40 mg plus evacetrapib 130 mg, atorvastatin 80 mg, atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg or atorvastatin 40 mg plus placebo, daily for 90 days at 64 centers in the United States. Lipid parameters, safety and tolerability were measured. Addition of evacetrapib significantly reduced LDL-C (-33%) compared with ezetimibe (-27%, p=0.045), increasing statin dose (-6%) and statin alone (0%, pstatin dose (pstatin dose, and p=0.004 vs. statin alone). Addition of evacetrapib to atorvastatin produced an increase in hsCRP compared with ezetimibe (p=0.02). While evacetrapib improved traditional atherogenic and putative protective lipid measures compared with ezetimibe and increasing statin dose in patients with ASCVD and/or diabetes, it also adversely affected novel atherogenic risk factors. These findings may contribute to the lack of clinical benefit observed in the ACCELERATE trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term Beneficial Effects of 12 Sessions of Neurofeedback on Avoidant Personality Accentuation in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dalkner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human F.; Wood, Guilherme; Skliris, Dimitris; Holasek, Sandra J.; Gruzelier, John H.; Neuper, Christa

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on Clinical Personality Accentuations in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Twenty-five males were investigated using a pre-test/post-test design with a waiting-list control group. Participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (n = 13) receiving 12 sessions of neurofeedback twice a week as a treatment adjunct over a period of 6 weeks, or to a control group (n = 12) receiving treatment as usual. The Invento...

  7. Short-term Beneficial Effects of 12 Sessions of Neurofeedback on Avoidant Personality Accentuation in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dalkner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on Clinical Personality Accentuations in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Twenty-five males were investigated using a pre-test/post-test design with a waiting-list control group. Participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (n = 13 receiving 12 sessions of neurofeedback twice a week as a treatment adjunct over a period of 6 weeks, or to a control group (n = 12 receiving treatment as usual. The Inventory of Clinical Personality Accentuations and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory were applied at pre- and post-test. The neurofeedback protocol focused on enhancement of the EEG alpha (8–12 Hz and theta (4–7 Hz and used a visual feedback paradigm. Analyses of covariance showed improvements in Avoidant Personality Accentuation within the experimental group. Our data suggest that 12 sessions of this neurofeedback intervention might be effective in reducing avoidant and stress-related personality traits in patients with alcohol use disorder.

  8. Short-term Beneficial Effects of 12 Sessions of Neurofeedback on Avoidant Personality Accentuation in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human F; Wood, Guilherme; Skliris, Dimitris; Holasek, Sandra J; Gruzelier, John H; Neuper, Christa

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on Clinical Personality Accentuations in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Twenty-five males were investigated using a pre-test/post-test design with a waiting-list control group. Participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group ( n = 13) receiving 12 sessions of neurofeedback twice a week as a treatment adjunct over a period of 6 weeks, or to a control group ( n = 12) receiving treatment as usual. The Inventory of Clinical Personality Accentuations and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory were applied at pre- and post-test. The neurofeedback protocol focused on enhancement of the EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) and used a visual feedback paradigm. Analyses of covariance showed improvements in Avoidant Personality Accentuation within the experimental group. Our data suggest that 12 sessions of this neurofeedback intervention might be effective in reducing avoidant and stress-related personality traits in patients with alcohol use disorder.

  9. The Effect of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage After a Bout of Accentuated Eccentric Load Drop Jumps and the Repeated Bout Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Lee A; Gill, Nicholas D; Dulson, Deborah K; McGuigan, Michael R

    2017-02-01

    Bridgeman, LA, Gill, ND, Dulson, DK, and McGuigan, MR. The effect of exercise induced muscle damage after a bout of accentuated eccentric load drop jumps and the repeated bout effect. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 386-394, 2017-Although previous studies have investigated exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after a bout of unloaded drop jumps (DJs), none have investigated the effects of accentuated eccentric load (AEL) DJs on EIMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 30 and 50 AEL DJs on strength, jump performance, muscle soreness, and blood markers. Eight resistance trained athletes participated in this study. In week 1, baseline countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), concentric and eccentric peak force (PF), creatine kinase, and muscle soreness were assessed. Subjects then completed 30 AEL DJs and baseline measures were retested immediately postintervention, 1, 24, and 48 hours later. Two weeks later, the subjects completed the same protocol with an increase in AEL DJ volume (50). Subjects' SJ height was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 1, 24, and 48 hours later (ES = -0.34, -0.44, -0.38, and -0.40). Subjects' CMJ height was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 1, and 24 hours later (ES = -0.37, -0.29, and -0.39). Concentric PF was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention and 24 and 48 hours later (ES = -0.02, -0.23, and -0.32). Eccentric PF was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 24, and 48 hours later (ES = -0.24, -0.16, and -0.50). In this sample, 30 AEL DJs attenuated the effects of EIMD following which 50 AEL DJs completed 2 weeks later.

  10. A new principle of figure-ground segregation : The accentuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-01-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also

  11. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  12. The effect of different accentuated eccentric load levels in eccentric-concentric loading contractions on acute neuromuscular, growth hormone and blood lactate responses during a hypertrophic protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ojasto, Timo

    2007-01-01

    When accentuated load is applied during the eccentric (ECC) phase of eccentric-concentric (ECC-CON) contractions, it is defined as dynamic accentuated external resistance (DAER) exercise. This study monitored acute neuromuscular responses, growth hormone (GH) and blood lactate (La) concentrations to find out the most efficient ECC-CON loading strategy for muscle hypertrophy by employing various DAER resistances in the bench-press. Male subjects (age=32.4±4.3years, n=11) were assigned as subje...

  13. A new principle of figure-ground segregation: The accentuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-02-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also consider it autonomous as it can agree with or oppose them. We consider three dynamic aspects of the principle, namely: attraction, accentuation and assignment. Each creature needs to attract, fascinate, seduce, draw attention (e.g., a mate or a prey animal) or distract, refuse, dissuade, discourage, repulse (e.g., a predator). Similarly, each organism needs to accentuate, highlight, stress, underline, emphasize or distract from another. Thus, accentuation assigns meaning to a visual pattern such as a coat, a plumage or a flower. False eyes (ocelli) and dots (diematic patterns) demonstrate "deceiving camouflage by accentuation" that confuses predators/preys and hides or highlights vital body parts (butterflies/flowers). They also display the deceiving appearance and exhibition of biological fitness. The same accents may serve different or even opposite goals. We conclude that accentuation improves the adaptive fitness of organisms in multifarious ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing insulin resistance accentuates the effect of triglyceride-associated loci on serum triglycerides during 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Johanne M; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    Blood concentrations of triglycerides are influenced by genetic factors as well as a number of environmental factors, including adiposity and glucose homeostasis. The aim was to investigate the association between a serum triglyceride weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and changes in fasting serum...... triglyceride level over 5 years and to test whether the effect of the wGRS was modified by 5 year changes of adiposity, insulin resistance, and lifestyle factors. A total of 3,474 nondiabetic individuals from the Danish Inter99 cohort participated in both the baseline and 5 year follow-up physical examinations...... and had information on the wGRS comprising 39 genetic variants. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, and baseline serum triglyceride, the wGRS was associated with increased serum triglyceride levels over 5 years [per allele effect = 1.3% (1.0-1.6%); P = 1.0 × 10(-17)]. This triglyceride...

  15. Accentuation-suppression and scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of the visual short-term memory (VSTM) system have become an increasingly popular field of study. One line of inquiry has focused on the way attention selects objects for encoding into VSTM. Using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990 Psychological...... a scaling mechanism modulating the decision bias of the observer and also through an accentuation-suppression mechanism that modulates the degree of subjective relevance of objects, contracting attention around fewer, highly relevant objects while suppressing less relevant objects. These mechanisms may...

  16. Change of Direction Speed: Toward a Strength Training Approach with Accentuated Eccentric Muscle Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Prieske, Olaf; Negra, Yassine; Granacher, Urs

    2018-03-28

    There is growing evidence that eccentric strength training appears to have benefits over traditional strength training (i.e., strength training with combined concentric and eccentric muscle actions) from muscular, neuromuscular, tendinous, and metabolic perspectives. Eccentric muscle strength is particularly needed to decelerate and stabilize the body during the braking phase of a jump exercise or during rapid changes of direction (CoD) tasks. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to elucidate the effects of eccentric strength training or strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance. In this current opinion article, we present findings from cross-sectional studies on the relationship between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance. In addition, we summarize the few available studies on the effects of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletic populations. Finally, we propose strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions as a promising element in strength and conditioning programs of sports with high CoD speed demands. Our findings from five cross-sectional studies revealed statistically significant moderate- to large-sized correlations (r = 0.45-0.89) between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance in athletic populations. The identified three intervention studies were of limited methodological quality and reported small- to large-sized effects (d = 0.46-1.31) of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletes. With reference to the available but preliminary literature and from a performance-related point of view, we recommend strength and conditioning coaches to include strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions in training routines of sports with high CoD speed demands (e.g., soccer, handball, basketball, hockey) to

  17. GABAB Receptor Stimulation Accentuates the Locomotor Effects of Morphine in Mice Bred for Extreme Sensitivity to the Stimulant Effects of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Sarah E.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Mice selectively bred for divergent sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol (FAST and SLOW) also differ in their locomotor response to morphine. The GABAB receptor has been implicated in the mediation of locomotor stimulation to both ethanol and morphine, and a reduction in ethanol-induced stimulation has been found with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in FAST mice. We hypothesized that GABAB receptor activation would also attenuate the locomotor stimulant responses to m...

  18. Some Notes about Unit Accentuation in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Unit accentuation in Danish, e.g.:han ostod 'op (he got up) vs han 'stod 'op (he was standing)  is described as consisting of a stress loser (stod) and a stress keeper (op). A destinction is made between progressive stress loss, which is discontinous,  and regressive stress loss, which is not dis......Unit accentuation in Danish, e.g.:han ostod 'op (he got up) vs han 'stod 'op (he was standing)  is described as consisting of a stress loser (stod) and a stress keeper (op). A destinction is made between progressive stress loss, which is discontinous,  and regressive stress loss, which...

  19. Dihydroartemisinin Accentuates the Anti-Tumor Effects of Photodynamic Therapy via Inactivation of NF-κB in Eca109 and Ec9706 Esophageal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jing Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a new treatment for esophageal cancer which has been shown to be effective in the elimination of tumor. However, PDT could induce the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in many photosensitizers based PDT, which plays a negative role in PDT. In addition, our previous results have shown that dihydroartemisinin (DHA, which was the most potent one of artemisinin derivatives, has anticancer activity in esophageal cancer cells. Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTT analysis, and apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Nuclear extract was obtained for determining NF-κB DNA-binding activity, while total protein extract obtained for downstream gene expression by western blot. Results: We demonstrated DHA enhanced PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in both human esophageal cancer cell lines Eca109 and Ec9706 in vitro. The mechanism was at least partially due to DHA deactivated PDT-induced NF-κB activation, so as to decrease tremendously the expression of its target gene Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that DHA augments PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells, and that inactivation of NF-κB activity is a potential mechanism by which DHA sensitizes esophageal cancer cells to PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis.

  20. Accentuate or repeat? Brain signatures of developmental periods in infant word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Language acquisition has long been discussed as an interaction between biological preconditions and environmental input. This general interaction seems particularly salient in lexical acquisition, where infants are already able to detect unknown words in sentences at 7 months of age, guided by phonological and statistical information in the speech input. While this information results from the linguistic structure of a given language, infants also exploit situational information, such as speakers' additional word accentuation and word repetition. The current study investigated the developmental trajectory of infants' sensitivity to these two situational input cues in word recognition. Testing infants at 6, 9, and 12 months of age, we hypothesized that different age groups are differentially sensitive to accentuation and repetition. In a familiarization-test paradigm, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed age-related differences in infants' word recognition as a function of situational input cues: at 6 months infants only recognized previously accentuated words, at 9 months both accentuation and repetition played a role, while at 12 months only repetition was effective. These developmental changes are suggested to result from infants' advancing linguistic experience and parallel auditory cortex maturation. Our data indicate very narrow and specific input-sensitive periods in infant word recognition, with accentuation being effective prior to repetition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How and When Accentuation Influences Temporally Selective Attention and Subsequent Semantic Processing during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…

  2. Vertex Accentuation in Female Pattern Hair Loss in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavalit Supsrisunjai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common cause of hair loss seen in women is female pattern hair loss (FPHL, also known as female androgenetic alopecia. It affects the central part of the scalp, but spares the frontal hairline. Frontal accentuation was also described by Olsen. In Asian women, vertex thinning patterns are frequently developed, but there has been no report about vertex thinning pattern in female pattern hair loss. Objective: To find prevalence of vertex accentuation in female pattern hair loss (FPHL in Asian women. Methods: Scalp hair counting (n/cm2 were measured at 3 different areas; vertex, mid scalp and frontal area respectively by digital dermoscope (Dino digital AM-413T. Visual counting and photography were performed. Outcomes were evaluated by gross appearance of vertex thinning and/or hair density <120 /cm2 in any of 3 areas. Results: 143 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 45.54 years. Of the hair loss type, 36.4% were mid-scalp, 33.6% were vertex accentuation and 30.1% were frontal accentuation, respectively. Age was not significantly different among the 3 types of hair loss (P- value 0.859. Conclusion: Although the most common female pattern hair loss type is diffuse type (Ludwig type, vertex accentuation pattern is the second most common pattern in this study. This study is the first to mention “Vertex accentuation” to be another pattern for FPHL.

  3. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  4. How and when predictability interacts with accentuation in temporally selective attention during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Lu, Yong; Zhao, Haiyan

    2014-11-01

    The present study used EEG to investigate how and when top-down prediction interacts with bottom-up acoustic signals in temporally selective attention during speech comprehension. Mandarin Chinese spoken sentences were used as stimuli. We systematically manipulated the predictability and de/accentuation of the critical words in the sentence context. Meanwhile, a linguistic attention probe 'ba' was presented concurrently with the critical words or not. The results showed that, first, words with a linguistic attention probe elicited a larger N1 than those without a probe. The latency of this N1 effect was shortened for accented or lowly predictable words, indicating more attentional resources allocated to these words. Importantly, prediction and accentuation showed a complementary interplay on the latency of this N1 effect, demonstrating that when the words had already attracted attention due to low predictability or due to the presence of pitch accent, the other factor did not modulate attention allocation anymore. Second, relative to the lowly predictable words, the highly predictable words elicited a reduced N400 and enhanced gamma-band power increases, especially under the accented conditions; moreover, under the accented conditions, shorter N1 peak-latency was found to correlate with larger gamma-band power enhancement, which indicates that a close relationship might exist between early selective attention and later semantic integration. Finally, the interaction between top-down selective attention (driven by prediction) and bottom-up selective attention (driven by accentuation) occurred before lexical-semantic processing, namely before the N400 effect evoked by predictability, which was discussed with regard to the language comprehension models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. True-3D accentuating of grids and streets in urban topographic maps enhances human object location memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Edler

    Full Text Available Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids, provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000 further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy. It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information.

  6. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditionsThe Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for a...

  7. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lin, Ann JE; Ververis, Katherine; Chang, Lisa; Tang, Michelle M; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics and the expectation is that they will be most effective when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies, such as the anthracycline, doxorubicin. The dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin is severe cardiotoxicity and evaluation of the effects of combinations of the anthracycline with histone deacetylase inhibitors in relevant models is important. We used a well-established in vitro model of doxorubic...

  8. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, T.; Van Horen, F.; Hart, C.

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism).

  9. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Wildschut, T.; Van Horen, F.; Hart, C.

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner’s dil...

  10. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lin, Ann J E; Ververis, Katherine; Chang, Lisa; Tang, Michelle M; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-10-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics and the expectation is that they will be most effective when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies, such as the anthracycline, doxorubicin. The dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin is severe cardiotoxicity and evaluation of the effects of combinations of the anthracycline with histone deacetylase inhibitors in relevant models is important. We used a well-established in vitro model of doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy to examine the effects of the prototypical histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Our findings indicate that doxorubicin modulates the expression of the hypertrophy-associated genes, ventricular myosin light chain-2, the alpha isoform of myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide, an effect which is augmented by Trichostatin A. Furthermore, we show that Trichostatin A amplifies doxorubicin-induced DNA double strand breaks, as assessed by γH2AX formation. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of investigating potential side effects that may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer.

  11. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; van Horen, Femke; Hart, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner's dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual) interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior.

  12. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual—Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWildschut

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism. Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent. A prisoner’s dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior.

  13. Accentuate the Positive: Positive Sentiments and Status in Task Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Alison J.; Lancianese, Donna A.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the capacity of positive sentiments, those enduring affective states one achieves when one likes another, to impact status structures. Do positive sentiments combine with existing aspects of interaction to create status hierarchies and potentially change the social order, or do they moderate the effects of extant structure by dampening…

  14. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The last day of March 1978 marked the completion of the first 3 years of operation of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. RERF was established on 1 April 1975 as successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission which had been in continuous operation since 1947. This record of the first 3 years of operation consists of selected reports and other documents prepared in the course of conducting the business of RERF and includes a brief history, a late radiation effects that might be conducted at RERF. The wisdom and thought given to the research program and its operation by the Scientific Council and the Board of Directors is reflected in the minutes of their meetings which are included in the Appendix. (Mori, K.)

  15. Finland Has it All? Examining the Media Accentuation of "Finnish Education" in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita; Waldow, Florian; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the conceptual work of externalisation in comparative education and multi-accentual signs in cultural studies, this article examines how the print news media accentuate "Finnish education" in the process of inserting this external reference into the domestic political discourses around education reform in Australia, Germany…

  16. Natural biological variation of white matter microstructure is accentuated in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sarah; Crawford, Helen; Seunarine, Kiran; Leavitt, Blair; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Scahill, Rachael I; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Rees, Geraint; Langbehn, Douglas; Orth, Michael

    2018-04-22

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the Huntingtin gene. Presence of this expansion signifies certainty of disease onset, but only partly explains age at which onset occurs. Genome-wide association studies have shown that naturally occurring genetic variability influences HD pathogenesis and disease onset. Investigating the influence of biological traits in the normal population, such as variability in white matter properties, on HD pathogenesis could provide a complementary approach to understanding disease modification. We have previously shown that while white matter diffusivity patterns in the left sensorimotor network were similar in controls and HD gene-carriers, they were more extreme in the HD group. We hypothesized that the influence of natural variation in diffusivity on effects of HD pathogenesis on white matter is not limited to the sensorimotor network but extends to cognitive, limbic, and visual networks. Using tractography, we investigated 32 bilateral pathways within HD-related networks, including motor, cognitive, and limbic, and examined diffusivity metrics using principal components analysis. We identified three independent patterns of diffusivity common to controls and HD gene-carriers that predicted HD status. The first pattern involved almost all tracts, the second was limited to sensorimotor tracts, and the third encompassed cognitive network tracts. Each diffusivity pattern was associated with network specific performance. The consistency in diffusivity patterns across both groups coupled with their association with disease status and task performance indicates that naturally-occurring patterns of diffusivity can become accentuated in the presence of the HD gene mutation to influence clinical brain function. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Accentual mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olander, Thomas Kristoffer

    I baltiske og slaviske sprog findes i alle stammeklasser en type ord hvor accenten ligger på første stavelse i nogle former og på endelsen i andre, fx litausk nom. sg. galvà ‘hoved’, akk. gálva, gen. galvõs osv.; russisk nom. sg. golová ‘hoved’, akk. gólovu, gen. golový osv. Da de baltiske og sla...

  18. The accentuation principle of figure-ground segregation and the downbeat illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Sirigu, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Pinna and Sirigu (2011) demonstrated a new principle of grouping, called the accentuation principle, stating that, all else being equal, elements tend to group in the same oriented direction of the discontinuous element placed within a whole set of continuous/homogeneous components. The discontinuous element behaves like an accent, i.e. a visual emphasis within the wholeness of components as shown in the next section. In this work, the accentuation principle has been extended to new visual domains. In particular, it is shown how this principle affects shape perception. Moreover several visual object attributes are also highlighted, among which orientation, spatial position, inner dynamics and apparent motion that determine the so-called organic segmentation and furthermore tend to induce figure-ground segregation. On the basis of the results of experimental phenomenology, the accentuation can be considered as a complex principle ruling grouping, figure-ground segregation, shape and meaning formation. Through a new musical illusion of downbeat, it is also demonstrated that this principle influences perceptual organization not only in space but also in time and, thus, in both visual and musical domains. This illusion can be heard in eight measures of Pagodes, a solo piano music by Claude Debussy (1862-1918), where a strong physical-perceptual discrepancy in terms of upbeats and downbeats inversion is strongly perceived in both staves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  20. ACCENTUATION OF PERSONALITY TRAITS IN THE PATIENTS WITH GRANULOMATOUS LESIONS OF RESPIRATORY ORGANS IN CASE OF SARCOIDOSIS AND TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Chernikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 404 sarcoidosis and 404 tuberculosis patients were examined in order to detect correlations between clinical manifestations, psychological adaptation and accentuation of personality traits and granulomatous lesions of respiratory organs in case of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. All patients had subjective and objective examinations and answered the following questionnaires: Schmieschek questionnaire to identify accentuation of personality traits, clinical questionnaire to detect and evaluate neurotic disorders, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale to detect the level of anxiety. It has been found out that sarcoidosis patients are characterized both by asymptomatic course of the disease as well as diverse clinical manifestations: pain syndrome, nodal fever, intoxication with expressed general fatigue, respiratory insufficiency. It is combined with stuck, pedant, cycloid, exalted, emotive accentuations of personality traits, with psychological maladaptation as per the scores of autonomic imbalance, neurotic depression, asthenia, with average high level of anxiety. The following is typical of tuberculosis patients: syndrome of bronchial tree lesions and respiratory insufficiency; distymny, demonstrative, excitable, exalted, anxiety-hypochondriac accentuations of personality traits, with psychological maladaptation as per the scores of autonomic imbalance, obsessive-phobic disorders and hysteria; average high level of anxiety. The strong correlation has been found between the degree of symptoms expression, level of anxiety and psychological maladaptation and the type of patient's accentuation of personality traits.

  1. Alcohol consumption and accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cornelia; Ispas, Alexandru Teodor

    2016-10-27

    Alcohol consumption (AC) has negative social and economic consequences, affects health, and can create dependence. As dependence is particularly difficult to cure, prevention is important. This study aimed to identify the frequency, quantity, occasions, reasons, type of AC, and correlation with accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania. Participants were 1359 young adults aged 18-30 years (average age, 22.67 years; standard deviation [SD], 3.02 years) from urban environments including the main university centers. Several questionnaires covering issues such as health risk behavior (smoking, alcohol abuse, unprotected sex, sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy eating), aggression, personality, adaptability, cohesion, and communication were administered to participants between 2013 and 2014. Pearson's chi-square tests and z-tests were used for the analyses. Common reasons young adults first tried AC were curiosity (67.8 %), to be like peers (17.9 %), and adult influence (6.5 %). In terms of AC frequency, 72.5 % consumed alcohol only on special occasions/holidays, 19.4 % on weekends, 4.8 % three to four times per week, and 0.4 % on a daily basis. To overcome sexual/emotional inhibitions or for courage, 2.1 % of participants drank frequently and 23.5 % drank from time to time. AC most often occurred with a group of friends (62.3 %). For 9.7 % of participants, AC was a reason for poor concentration, or problems at work/school. At the time of interview, participants had consumed an average of 319.48 ml beer (SD, 1223.02 ml), 82.75 ml wine (SD, 385.39 ml) and 25.62 ml spirits (SD, 131.34 ml) in the previous week. AC was significantly higher in males (p aged 23-30 years (p socializing. AC also correlated with some accentuated personality traits. Therefore, public health education programs should be targeted for these categories.

  2. Cold stress accentuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction: role of TRPV1/AMPK-mediated autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Songhe; Xu, Dezhong

    2013-12-06

    Severe cold exposure and pressure overload are both known to prompt oxidative stress and pathological alterations in the heart although the interplay between the two remains elusive. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel activated in response to a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli including heat and capsaicin. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cold exposure on pressure overload-induced cardiac pathological changes and the mechanism involved. Adult male C57 mice were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) prior to exposure to cold temperature (4 °C) for 4 weeks. Cardiac geometry and function, levels of TRPV1, mitochondrial, and autophagy-associated proteins including AMPK, mTOR, LC3B, and P62 were evaluated. Sustained cold stress triggered cardiac hypertrophy, compromised depressed myocardial contractile capacity including lessened fractional shortening, peak shortening, and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, enhanced ROS production, and mitochondrial injury, the effects of which were negated by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Western blot analysis revealed upregulated TRPV1 level and AMPK phosphorylation, enhanced ratio of LC3II/LC3I, and downregulated P62 following cold exposure. Cold exposure significantly augmented AAC-induced changes in TRPV1, phosphorylation of AMPK, LC3 isoform switch, and p62, the effects of which were negated by SB366791. In summary, these data suggest that cold exposure accentuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile defect possibly through a TRPV1 and autophagy-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH.ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p. for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways were examined.Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O(2 (*-. Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-alpha, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF.Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis.

  4. Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-18

    Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O(2) (*-). Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-alpha, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis.

  5. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658

  6. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics.

  7. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research.

  8. Designing Effective Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, S.

    2010-12-01

    I present a model for designing student research internships that is informed by the best practices of the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program. The dual strands of the CfAO education program include: the preparation of early-career scientists and engineers in effective teaching; and changing the learning experiences of students (e.g., undergraduate interns) through inquiry-based "teaching laboratories." This paper will focus on the carry-over of these ideas into the design of laboratory research internships such as the CfAO Mainland internship program as well as NSF REU (Research Experiences for Undergraduates) and senior-thesis or "capstone" research programs. Key ideas in maximizing student learning outcomes and generating productive research during internships include: defining explicit content, scientific process, and attitudinal goals for the project; assessment of student prior knowledge and experience, then following up with formative assessment throughout the project; setting reasonable goals with timetables and addressing motivation; and giving students ownership of the research by implementing aspects of the inquiry process within the internship.

  9. Developing Effective Undergraduate Research Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael; Ilie, Carolina C.

    2011-03-01

    Undergraduate research is a valuable educational tool for students pursuing a degree in physics, but these experiences can become problematic and ineffective if not handled properly. Undergraduate research should be planned as an immersive learning experience in which the student has the opportunity to develop his/her skills in accordance with their interests. Effective undergraduate research experiences are marked by clear, measurable objectives and frequent student-professor collaboration. These objectives should reflect the long and short-term goals of the individual undergraduates, with a heightened focus on developing research skills for future use. 1. Seymour, E., Hunter, A.-B., Laursen, S. L. and DeAntoni, T. (2004), ``Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three-year study''. Science Education, 88: 493--534. 2. Behar-Horenstein, Linda S., Johnson, Melissa L. ``Enticing Students to Enter Into Undergraduate Research: The Instrumentality of an Undergraduate Course.'' Journal of College Science Teaching 39.3 (2010): 62-70.

  10. Accentuated Virchow-Robin spaces in the centrum semiovale in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Katherine H; Shaw, J Bryant; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A; Lane, David M; Hayman, L Anne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of abnormal Virchow-Robin (VR) spaces in children and adolescents with an autistic disorder (AD). An increased incidence of enlarged VR spaces in children has been reported in several developmental disorders. Sixteen children and adolescents (13 male, 3 female; mean age = 143.5 months; mean IQ = 95.1) with an AD, verified by use of standardized procedures (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Revised), received cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sixteen children and adolescents (13 male, 3 female; mean age = 160.7 months; mean IQ = 111.6) without AD, as determined using the same procedures, were scanned as a comparison group. The MR scans were performed using a 1.5-T scanner. Two T1-weighted spoiled GRASS sequences (0.7-mm coronal thin-slice, 0-mm gap; 1.5-mm sagittal, 0-mm gap) and a complementary T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence (1.5-mm, 0-mm gap) were obtained. A neuroradiologist and a neurobiologist without clinical information determined the incidence of normal, accentuated, and/or dilated VR spaces. Seven of 16 subjects with AD (approximately 44%) had dilated VR spaces in the centrum semiovale. No grossly abnormal spaces were present in the control subjects. Unusually large VR spaces are seen in at most 22% to 27% of MR scans in children with tension headaches and other psychiatric disorders, suggesting that the incidence of spaces of this type is greater in AD than in other abnormal populations. The origin and significance of this phenomenon remain unknown.

  11. Process-Product Research: A Cornerstone in Educational Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    This article links the contribution of process-product studies in developing the theoretical framework of educational effectiveness by pointing out the importance of teacher behavior in the classroom. The role that Jere Brophy played in this evolving research is described within the various phases of teacher effectiveness research. Process-product…

  12. Experience Effect in E-Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Xu, WenXia; Ge, Jun

    This study is a productivity review on the literature gleaned from SSCI, SCIE databases concerning experience in E-Learning research. The result indicates that the number of literature productions on experience effect in ELearning research is still growing from 2005. The main research development country is Croatia, and from the analysis of the publication year, the number of papers is increasing to the peaking in 2010. And the main source title is British Journal of Educational Technology. In addition the subject area concentrated on Education & Educational Research. Moreover the research focuses on are mainly survey research and empirical research, in order to explore experience effect in E-Learning research. Also the limitations and future research of these research were discussed, so that the direction for further research work can be exploited

  13. Effective Homework Assignments. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps more than any question other than "How much time should students spend doing homework?" parents and educators want to know, "What kinds of homework assignments are most effective?" Clearly, the answers to this question vary according to many factors, especially the developmental level of students and the topic area. Generally, answers are…

  14. Effective and Sustainable Health Research Partnerships : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC frequently supports collaborative Canada-South research on subjects of vital ... to structure and manage Canada-South research partnerships more effectively. ... Africa, Latin America and Canada leading to region-specific working papers on ... for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition.

  15. Overview of radiation effects research in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert C.; Cohn, Lewis M.; Taylor, Edward W.; Greenwell, Roger A.

    1995-05-01

    A brief overview of ongoing radiation effects research in photonics is presented focusing on integrated optic and acousto-optic components. A short summary of radiation-induced effects in electro-optic modulators, detector arrays, and other photonic technologies is presented along with extensive references. The coordinated radiation effects studies among researchers within the Tri-Service Organizations and international experimental teams are beginning to demonstrate consistent measurements of radiation-induced effects in photonic components and confirming earlier reported data. This paper will present an overview of these coordinated investigations and focus on key research being conducted with the AFMC Phillips Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, Defence Nuclear Agency, NATO Nuclear Effects Task Group, and the Tri-Service Photonics Coordinating Committee.

  16. Effective Teamwork Practical Lessons from Organizational Research

    CERN Document Server

    West, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Updated to reflect the latest research evidence, the third edition of Effective Teamwork provides business managers with the necessary guidance and tools to build and maintain effective teamwork strategies. A new edition of a bestselling book on teamwork from an acknowledged leader in the fieldOffers a unique integration of rigorous research with practical guidance to develop effective leadership teamsFeatures new chapters on virtual teams and top management teams, plus contemporary themes of ethics and valuesUtilizes research based on positive psychology techniques

  17. The dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor vildagliptin does not accentuate glibenclamide-induced hypoglycemia but reduces glucose-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Rehring, Erika; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 by vildagliptin enhances the concentrations of the active form of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). The present study asked whether vildagliptin accentuates glibenclamide-induced hy...

  18. Estrous cycle fluctuations in sex and ingestive behavior are accentuated by exercise or cold ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhay, Amir; Benton, Noah A; Klingerman, Candice M; Krishnamoorthy, Kaila; Brozek, Jeremy M; Schneider, Jill E

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". In female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), low circulating levels of ovarian steroids are associated with increased food hoarding and decreased sexual motivation, but these effects are exaggerated in food-restricted females. To determine whether cold ambient temperature has the same effects as food restriction, groups of hamsters were fed ad libitum while they were housed at either 5 °C or 22 °C, and then tested for behavior for 90 min on each day of the estrous cycle. In females housed at 22 °C, high levels of sexual motivation and low levels of food hoarding were seen every day of the estrous cycle. In females housed at 5 °C, high levels of sexual motivation were restricted to the periovulatory day. On the three nonestrous days, these females showed high levels of food hoarding, but not food intake. A separate cohort of females were provided with access to running wheels and housed at 22 °C. They showed high levels of sexual motivation restricted to the periovulatory day, similar to the pattern of sexual motivation seen in cold-housed females. Unlike cold-housed females, those with running wheels showed low levels of food hoarding and high levels of food intake. Food restriction, cold housing, and access to wheels had no significant effect on plasma estradiol or progesterone concentrations, but significantly decreased plasma leptin concentrations. All three energetic challenges unmask estrous cycle fluctuations in sexual motivation that are obscured in laboratory conditions, i.e., isolation in a small cage with an overabundance of food. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Domino Effects of Federal Research Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanahan, Lauren; Graddy-Reed, Alexandra; Feldman, Maryann P

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which federal investment in research crowds out or decreases incentives for investment from other funding sources remains an open question. Scholarship on research funding has focused on the relationship between federal and industry or, more comprehensively, non-federal funding without disentangling the other sources of research support that include nonprofit organizations and state and local governments. This paper extends our understanding of academic research support by considering the relationships between federal and non-federal funding sources provided by the National Science Foundation Higher Education Research and Development Survey. We examine whether federal research investment serves as a complement or substitute for state and local government, nonprofit, and industry research investment using the population of research-active academic science fields at U.S. doctoral granting institutions. We use a system of two equations that instruments with prior levels of both federal and non-federal funding sources and accounts for time-invariant academic institution-field effects through first differencing. We estimate that a 1% increase in federal research funding is associated with a 0.411% increase in nonprofit research funding, a 0.217% increase in state and local research funding, and a 0.468% increase in industry research funding, respectively. Results indicate that federal funding plays a fundamental role in inducing complementary investments from other funding sources, with impacts varying across academic division, research capacity, and institutional control.

  20. Litter size reduction accentuates maternal care and alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in rat adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes-Marques, Silvia; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2018-01-27

    Maternal behavior has a substantial impact on the behavioral, endocrine, and neural development of the pups. This study investigated the effect of altering the neonatal nutritional environment by modifying the litter size on maternal care and anxiety- and fear-like behaviors in rats during adulthood. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of three pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors were scored daily during lactation (PND2-21). The weight gain, food intake, adiposity, and biochemical landmarks of offspring rats were evaluated. On PND60, performances in the open field, elevated plus-maze (EPM), and fear conditioning test were measured. The reduction of the litter size enhanced maternal care in lactating rats, increasing the arched-back posture and licking pups. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain, hyperphagia, increased visceral fat mass, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia in adulthood. The SL offspring of both sexes showed an increase in the anti-thigmotactic effect in the open field, an intact anxious-phenotype in the EPM, and a decrease in the time spent freezing during the fear-conditioning test, compared to NL. The neonatal environment as determined by litter size plays a crucial role in programming the adult metabolic phenotype as well as behavioral responses to stressful stimuli, with an impact on anxiety-like and fear behaviors. These behavioral changes in offspring may be, at least in part, a result of increased maternal care.

  1. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  2. Does Pressure Accentuate General Relativistic Gravitational Collapse and Formation of Trapped Surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2013-04-01

    It is widely believed that though pressure resists gravitational collapse in Newtonian gravity, it aids the same in general relativity (GR) so that GR collapse should eventually be similar to the monotonous free fall case. But we show that, even in the context of radiationless adiabatic collapse of a perfect fluid, pressure tends to resist GR collapse in a manner which is more pronounced than the corresponding Newtonian case and formation of trapped surfaces is inhibited. In fact there are many works which show such collapse to rebound or become oscillatory implying a tug of war between attractive gravity and repulsive pressure gradient. Furthermore, for an imperfect fluid, the resistive effect of pressure could be significant due to likely dramatic increase of tangential pressure beyond the "photon sphere." Indeed, with inclusion of tangential pressure, in principle, there can be static objects with surface gravitational redshift z → ∞. Therefore, pressure can certainly oppose gravitational contraction in GR in a significant manner in contradiction to the idea of Roger Penrose that GR continued collapse must be unstoppable.

  3. Random effects models in clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In clinical trials a fixed effects research model assumes that the patients selected for a specific treatment have the same true quantitative effect and that the differences observed are residual error. If, however, we have reasons to believe that certain patients respond differently

  4. Research on Teaching and Educational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1986-01-01

    This report focuses on current attempts by researchers to examine teacher effectiveness through the "task hypothesis," which asserts that effective teachers accomplish a large and diverse set of tasks--or discrete, goal-oriented units of work--in their classroom. After an introductory critique of past efforts to assess teacher "traits" or…

  5. Preliminary Competencies for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Jodi B.; Kapoor, Wishwa; Carey, Timothy; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Murray, Michael D.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Schumock, Glen; Jonas, Daniel; Steinman, Michael; Weinberger, Morris; Filart, Rosemarie; Selker, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Workgroup for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Education, Training, and Workforce Development identified a need to delineate the competencies that practitioners and users of CER for patient centered outcomes research, should acquire. With input from CTSA representatives and collaborators, we began by describing the workforce. We recognize the workforce that conduct CER and the end users who use CER to improve the health of individual...

  6. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation was established in April, 1975, as a private nonprofit Japanese Foundation supported equally by the Government of Japan through the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Government of the United States through the National Academy of Sciences under contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. First, the messages from the chairman and the vice-chairman are described. In the annual report, the review of ABCC-RERF studies of atomic bomb survivors, the summary of research activities, the research projects, the technical report abstracts, the research papers published in Japanese and foreign journals, and the oral presentation and lectures, all from April 1, 1978, to March 31, 1979, are reported. Also the report from the Secretariat and the appendixes are given. The surveys and researches carried out in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have offered very valuable informations to the atomic bomb survivors. Many fears were eliminated, medical interests were given to the serious effects of the exposure to atomic bombs, and many things concerning the cancer induced by radiation were elucidated. The knowledges obtained will save many human lives in future by utilizing them for setting up the health and safety standard in the case of handling ionizing radiation. The progress in researches such as life span study, adult health study, pathology study, genetics program, special cancer program and so on is reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Does Impaired O2 Delivery During Exercise Accentuate Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Patients with Coexistent COPD-CHF?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayron F. Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment in oxygen (O2 delivery to the central nervous system (brain and skeletal locomotor muscle during exercise has been associated with central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue in healthy humans. From a clinical perspective, impaired tissue O2 transport is a key pathophysiological mechanism shared by cardiopulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic heart failure (CHF. In addition to arterial hypoxemic conditions in COPD, there is growing evidence that cerebral and muscle blood flow and oxygenation can be reduced during exercise in both isolated COPD and CHF. Compromised cardiac output due to impaired cardiopulmonary function/interactions and blood flow redistribution to the overloaded respiratory muscles (i.e., ↑work of breathing may underpin these abnormalities. Unfortunately, COPD and CHF coexist in almost a third of elderly patients making these mechanisms potentially more relevant to exercise intolerance. In this context, it remains unknown whether decreased O2 delivery accentuates neuromuscular manifestations of central and peripheral fatigue in coexistent COPD-CHF. If this holds true, it is conceivable that delivering a low-density gas mixture (heliox through non-invasive positive pressure ventilation could ameliorate cardiopulmonary function/interactions and reduce the work of breathing during exercise in these patients. The major consequence would be increased O2 delivery to the brain and active muscles with potential benefits to exercise capacity (i.e., ↓central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue, respectively. We therefore hypothesize that patients with coexistent COPD-CHF stop exercising prematurely due to impaired central motor drive and muscle contractility as the cardiorespiratory system fails to deliver sufficient O2 to simultaneously attend the metabolic demands of the brain and the active limb muscles.

  8. Order effects in research on paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Measures of paranormal belief and emotional intelligence were given a group of 72 college students using Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, and Dornheim's Emotional Intelligence Scale. Order effects indicated that participants who took the Paranormal Belief Scale first had lower emotional intelligence scores than those who took the Emotional Intelligence Scale first. The study demonstrates the importance of taking order effects into account when conducting research on paranormal belief.

  9. Comparative effectiveness research and medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D

    2010-12-01

    As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Books | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... lives and livelihoods by supporting research that addresses critical international development issues. ... Economic, linguistic, and cultural differences accentuate this division. ... Book cover Diversity, Globalization, and the Ways of Nature.

  11. Effective utilization and management of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Research and Isotopes

    1984-06-01

    The problem of utilizing a research reactor effectively is closely related to its management and therefore should not be considered separately. Too often, attention has been focused on specific techniques and methods rather than on the overall programme of utilization, with the result that skills and equipment have been acquired without any active continuing programme of applications and services. The seminar reported here provided a forum for reactor managers, users, and operators to discuss their experience. At the invitation of the Government of Malaysia, it was held at the Asia Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur, from 7 to 11 November 1983. It was attended by about 50 participants from 19 Member States; it is hoped that a report on the seminar, including papers presented, can be published and thus reach a wider audience. Thirty-one lectures and contributions were presented at a total of seven sessions: Research reactor management; Radiation exposure and safety; Research reactor utilization (two sessions); PUSPATI Research Reactor Project Development; Core conversion to low-enriched uranium, and safeguards; Research reactor technology. In addition, a panel discussed the causes and resolutions of the under-utilization of research reactors.

  12. Effective utilization and management of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, R.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of utilizing a research reactor effectively is closely related to its management and therefore should not be considered separately. Too often, attention has been focused on specific techniques and methods rather than on the overall programme of utilization, with the result that skills and equipment have been acquired without any active continuing programme of applications and services. The seminar reported here provided a forum for reactor managers, users, and operators to discuss their experience. At the invitation of the Government of Malaysia, it was held at the Asia Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur, from 7 to 11 November 1983. It was attended by about 50 participants from 19 Member States; it is hoped that a report on the seminar, including papers presented, can be published and thus reach a wider audience. Thirty-one lectures and contributions were presented at a total of seven sessions: Research reactor management; Radiation exposure and safety; Research reactor utilization (two sessions); PUSPATI Research Reactor Project Development; Core conversion to low-enriched uranium, and safeguards; Research reactor technology. In addition, a panel discussed the causes and resolutions of the under-utilization of research reactors

  13. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  14. Comparative effectiveness research: Challenges for medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovey David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER. In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

  15. Acute physiological and electrical accentuation of vagal tone has no effect on pain or gastrointestinal motility in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Brock, Christina; Olesen, Soren S.

    2017-01-01

    derived parameters of autonomic tone, quantitative sensory testing of bone and muscle pain pressure, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and assessments of gastroduodenal motility with ultrasound were performed. Results: In comparison to sham, t-VNS and DSB increased cardiac vagal tone (CVT) (P

  16. Intense Ion Pulses for Radiation Effects Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    induction linear accelerator that has been developed to deliver intense, up to 50 nC/pulse/mm2, sub-ns pulses of light ions with kinetic energy up to 1.2...II induction linear accelerator for intense ion beam pulses at Berkeley Lab. Figure 3. Helium current and integrated charge versus time at the...under contracts DE-AC02-205CH11231 and DE-AC52-07NA27344. JOURNAL OF RADIATION EFFECTS, Research and Engineering Vol. 35, No. 1, April 2017 158 INTENSE

  17. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  18. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy

  19. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  20. Research on climate effects. Effects of climate changes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Stein, G.

    1991-01-01

    Global changes affecting the earth are at the forefront of public interest, possibly caused by climate alterations amongst other things. The public expects appropriate measures from politics to successfully adapt to unavoidable climate changes. As well as an investigation into the causes of climatic changes and the corollaries between the different scientific phenomena, the effects on the economy and society must also be examined. The Federal Minister for Research and Technology aims to make a valuable German contribution to international Global Change Research with the focal point ''Effects of Climate Changes on the Ecological and Civil System''. The aim of the workshop was to give an outline of current scientific knowledge, sketch out research requirements and give recommendations on the focal point with regard to the BMFT. (orig.) [de

  1. Enhancing Organizational Effectiveness in Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafi, H.; Kojouri, N. Mataji; Sedghgooya, E.; Dabiri, J.; Ezzati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Bearing in mind even one simple definition of “organization” as a social unit of structured people working together in a managed manner to achieve some common goal which is the purpose of establishing that organization, we can understand the importance of the matter in achieving goals. Organization of the nuclear complex shall be considered, by all stakeholders not only in national scale but also in international relations and communities, as one of the most important pillars of the effective and reliable, safe and secure use of the nuclear technology. Effectiveness of the nuclear technology is obtained through a good, safe and secure technology, skilled and committed personnel who work well in interaction with technology and a good and established organization which conducts and regulates activities upon whole of the complex system via management and leadership in harmonised manner. Although, effectiveness of the nuclear complex is a complicate function of the above mentioned affecting factors, but a good organization besides solving its day to day business, can minimise the problems, resolve or eliminate unnecessary challenges and save resources and energies and help to identify issues and difficulties. Simply viewed, any organization has a theoretical base and consists of necessary elements. In order to be effective one organization first of all shall include good theoretical base, then armed with good instruments and then shall be run well. Enhancing the effectiveness of any organization can be achieved by enhancing any of the above mentioned elements individually or collectively in a harmonic way. For improving the Research Reactors effectiveness as a nuclear complex or facility in order to satisfactorily meet research and production needs, we must work in some different areas in parallel and simultaneously including technical, administrative, organizational and human resource issues. First we should identify and fix the real situation in all interested

  2. Accentuated lines in the enamel of primary incisors from skeletal remains: A contribution to the explanation of early childhood mortality in a medieval population from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław; Kurek, Marta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata

    2015-07-01

    Physiological disruptions resulting from an impoverished environment during the first years of life are of key importance for the health and biological status of individuals and populations. Studies of growth processes in archaeological populations point to the fact that the main causes of childhood mortality in the past are to be sought among extrinsic factors. Based on this assumption, one would expect random mortality of children, with the deceased individuals representing the entire subadult population. The purpose of this study is to explore whether differences in early childhood survival are reflected in differences in deciduous tooth enamel, which can provide an insight into the development of an individual during prenatal and perinatal ontogeny. Deciduous incisors were taken from 83 individuals aged 2.0-6.5 years from a medieval inhumation cemetery dated AD 1300-1600. Prenatal and postnatal enamel formation time, neonatal line width, and the number of accentuated lines were measured using an optical microscope. The significantly wider neonatal line and the higher frequency of accentuated lines in the enamel of the incisors of children who died at the age of 2-3 years suggest the occurrence of stronger or more frequent stress events in this group. These results indicate that in skeletal populations mortality was not exclusively determined by random external factors. Individuals predisposed by an unfavorable course of prenatal and perinatal growth were more likely to die in early childhood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Strategies to Mitigate the Negative and Accentuate the Positive Impacts of International Service-Learning on Host Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Galiardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available International service-learning can have a transformative effect on student participants, but little research has been done on the impact of these experiences on host communities. The authors make the case that an emphasis on intentional personal, cultural, and group preparation is imperative to have the best possible impact on both the student and host community. Overarching strategies include: 1 preparing students for their experience prior to departure from both an individual and group development perspective; 2 designing reflection activities and discussions that include members of the host community; 3 facilitating open conversations about equitable relationships, international perspectives of Americans, and potential negative effects the group could have on the host community; 4 providing opportunities for post-travel dialogue and personal action plans for re-engaging with the local community upon return. The authors draw from both theoretical frameworks and many years of experience traveling abroad with students to underpin the strategies outlined in this article. KEYWORDSservice-learning; group development; international

  4. Research perspective: Time-of-day effects on noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the complications encountered in researching time-of-day effects on noise annoyance are reported. A conceptual framework for further research is provided. Some of the implications for the research methods that should be used are suggested.

  5. Community Research Contributing to Effective Risk Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Neale; Forsstroem, Hans [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). DG Research

    2001-07-01

    Research in the field of risk assessment and management has had a prominent role in the Commission's nuclear research programme, especially in the area of radiation protection. In the 1980s, the research had a largely technical focus. Through the 1990s, this focus shifted and greater attention was given to broader, less technical, issues, in particular those concerned with risk perception and communication, risk governance and the role of public participation in the process. This trend will continue within the Commission's 6th Framework Programme (FP6) given the increasing recognition of the importance of these broader socio-economic issues for decision making related to both nuclear and other technologies. The paper summarises the main outcomes of Commission sponsored research in the above areas, how this has influenced research currently being carried out in the Sth Framework Programme (FP5) and that being considered for inclusion in FP6. Two aspects are given particular attention: firstly, research into risk governance (both in the nuclear field in general and the waste management area in particular), especially the importance of social trust and participation of all relevant stakeholders in terms of achieving efficient and acceptable decisions when addressing complex, contentious issues; secondly, research into the social and psychological factors that influenced the efficacy and acceptance of measures taken to mitigate the long term impact of areas in the Former Soviet Union contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. There are important lessons here for the management of any future accident that may affect Europe, especially the need for those affected locally to have a role in the decision process and to be able to exercise at least partial control over their own welfare. While this research was largely carried out in a 'nuclear' context, its findings are more generally applicable.

  6. Community Research Contributing to Effective Risk Governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Neale; Forsstroem, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Research in the field of risk assessment and management has had a prominent role in the Commission's nuclear research programme, especially in the area of radiation protection. In the 1980s, the research had a largely technical focus. Through the 1990s, this focus shifted and greater attention was given to broader, less technical, issues, in particular those concerned with risk perception and communication, risk governance and the role of public participation in the process. This trend will continue within the Commission's 6th Framework Programme (FP6) given the increasing recognition of the importance of these broader socio-economic issues for decision making related to both nuclear and other technologies. The paper summarises the main outcomes of Commission sponsored research in the above areas, how this has influenced research currently being carried out in the Sth Framework Programme (FP5) and that being considered for inclusion in FP6. Two aspects are given particular attention: firstly, research into risk governance (both in the nuclear field in general and the waste management area in particular), especially the importance of social trust and participation of all relevant stakeholders in terms of achieving efficient and acceptable decisions when addressing complex, contentious issues; secondly, research into the social and psychological factors that influenced the efficacy and acceptance of measures taken to mitigate the long term impact of areas in the Former Soviet Union contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. There are important lessons here for the management of any future accident that may affect Europe, especially the need for those affected locally to have a role in the decision process and to be able to exercise at least partial control over their own welfare. While this research was largely carried out in a 'nuclear' context, its findings are more generally applicable

  7. Effect Sizes in Gifted Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Marcia; Peters, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent calls for reporting and interpreting effect sizes have been numerous, with the 5th edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (2001) calling for the inclusion of effect sizes to interpret quantitative findings. Many top journals have required that effect sizes accompany claims of statistical significance.…

  8. Educator Effectiveness Research Alliance: Using Research and Data to Understand and Improve Educator Preparation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest, 2018

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that teachers affect student learning more than any other factor. The Educator Effectiveness Research Alliance, a collaborative partnership of educators, policymakers, and researchers, seeks to improve educator quality through research and analytic technical support. Initially focused on Texas, the alliance has expanded to include…

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  10. Researches on radioprotective effects of dendrobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Cui Fengmei

    2004-01-01

    Effects of Dendrobium on the LPO content in the mouse tissues, the white blood cells and platelets in the mouse peripheral blood after whole-body γ-ray irradiation exposure were studied. Besides, the 30-day survival rates of irradiated mice treated with three different doses of Dendrobium were observed. The results show that Dendrobium was effective in reducing the LPO contents in the tissues (p<0.01); and could increase the platelets in the peripheral blood of irradiated mice; and white blood cells had a tendency toward rising; different doses of Dendrobium could raise the survival rates of irradiated mice and prolong the survival duration. The above-mentioned findings suggest that Dendrobium has the radioprotective effect and its mechanism probably relates to scavenging of free radicals and restoration of haematopoiesis. (authors)

  11. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  12. The role of the CNEA like organization of scientific and technological support to accentuate the nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    nuclear use, without excluding the private sector from said activity. l) Developing materials and manufacturing processes for fuel elements used in advanced cycles. ll) Developing basic and applied research programs in basic science of nuclear technology. m) Establishing cooperation programs, through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship, with third countries for the above mentioned basic and applied research programs, and for fusion technology research and development programs. n) Fostering and developing other studies and scientific applications for nuclear transmutations and reactions. n-tilde) Continuously updating the technical information on nuclear power plants and their various stages, and ensuring its optimum use. o) Establishing direct relations with other foreign institutions that share similar goals

  13. The Effects of Research and Development (R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazgan Şekip

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to the empirical analysis by second generation panel data analysis of the effects of the R&D investment variables in different qualifications in OECD countries grouped as OECD-20 and OECD-9 based on the income levels of the economic growth for the period of 1996-2015. Within this context, the purpose of this study is to evaluate whether or not the economic growth performances of OECD-20 and OECD-9 countries have a sustainable structure that endogenizes the technological advancements and occurs by the increments in average factor productivity. At the end of the paper it is determined that all the R&D variables in different qualifications of the OECD-20 group have a higher income level in sample period and have positive and statistically significant effects on the economic growth. On the other hand, only the private sector, universities and the total R&D investments have positive and statistically significant effects on the economic growth of the OECD-9 group which has comparatively lower income level. However, it is specified that the size of the positive and statistically significant effects of the R&D investment variables in different qualifications is more than two times bigger in the OECD-20 group as opposed to the OECD-9 group. These results reveal that the economic performances of OECD-20 countries in the investigated period have a more substantial relation with the qualified and sustainable structure that endogenizes the technologic advancements and occurs by the increments in average factor productivity. All of this shows that the R&D investments also are substantially sufficient to change the long-term economic growth performances and income levels of the countries in OECD-20 and OECD-9 groups.

  14. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.

    1980-12-01

    Information about the past and present concentrations of CO 2 in the atmosphere and variations in climate can be obtained from measurements of stable isotopes in tree rings; specifically carbon-13, oxygen-18 and deuterium. The analysis of these stable isotopes in tree rings is a relatively new and rapidly developing field. This proceedings volume contains most of the papers presented at the meeting. The first paper gives an overview of the status of carbon-13 research. Papers relating to carbon-13 are in section I and grouped separately from the contributions on carbon-14. Although the meeting was primarily concerned with stable isotopes, all carbon isotopic analysis may be helpful in understanding the carbon-13 record in tree rings. The papers on hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies are in sections II and III respectively. The remaining sections contain papers that consider more than one isotope at a time, general topics related to isotopes, atmospheric changes and tree growth, and methods of isotopic analysis

  15. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-17

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken.

  16. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  17. Factors in the doctor-patient relationship that accentuate physicians' hurt feelings when patients terminate the relationship with them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareli, Shlomo; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Hermoni, Doron; Eidelman, Shmuel

    2007-07-01

    The present study explores the emotional effect of the injury experienced by physician's, as a consequence of a patient's termination of their relationship. A vignette study using different scenarios describing a patient who switched to another doctor was distributed to 119 family physicians. A three-way ANCOVA analysis was employed. Additionally, physicians' answered an open question asking of situations that elicited negative emotions. The quantitative results indicated that termination of the relationship by a "high status" patient and/or after a long duration is more emotionally hurtful than termination by a "lower status" patient after a brief relationship. The results of the open question provided an additional insight into the emotional impact of the doctor's hurt feelings on the doctor-patient relationship. The severity and consequences of the emotional injury experienced by physicians when patients decide to transfer to another physician are influenced by factors related to the patient, physician and the relationship between them. We discuss the implications of our results on the understanding of the emotional injury and consequent impaired function and possible "burn-out" in physicians and explore the possibility of educating doctors to heightened awareness and consequently enhanced ability to cope with such situations.

  18. Effect of information sharing on research and teaching activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Information sharing on research and teaching activities of Academic Scientists in Federal Universities in the North- East Nigeria. Investigation was done on the activities of information sharing and the effect of information sharing on teaching and research activities. Survey ...

  19. Five challenges for the future of media-effects research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed thousands of studies into the effects of media on children and adults. The effects sizes that are found in these studies are typically small to moderate, at best. In this article, we first compare the effect sizes found in media-effects research to those found

  20. Patterns of accentuated grey-white differentiation on diffusion-weighted imaging or the apparent diffusion coefficient maps in comatose survivors after global brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.; Sohn, C.-H.; Chang, K.-H.; Chang, H.-W.; Lee, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine what disease entities show accentuated grey-white differentiation of the cerebral hemisphere on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and whether there is a correlation between the different patterns and the cause of the brain injury. Methods and materials: The DWI and ADC maps of 19 patients with global brain injury were reviewed and evaluated to investigate whether there was a correlation between the different patterns seen on the DWI and ADC maps and the cause of global brain injury. The ADC values were measured for quantitative analysis. Results: There were three different patterns of ADC decrease: a predominant ADC decrease in only the cerebral cortex (n = 8; pattern I); an ADC decrease in both the cerebral cortex and white matter (WM) and a predominant decrease in the WM (n = 9; pattern II); and a predominant ADC decrease in only the WM (n = 3; pattern III). Conclusion: Pattern I is cerebral cortical injury, suggesting cortical laminar necrosis in hypoxic brain injury. Pattern II is cerebral cortical and WM injury, frequently seen in brain death, while pattern 3 is mainly WM injury, especially found in hypoglycaemic brain injury. It is likely that pattern I is decorticate injury and pattern II is decerebrate injury in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.Patterns I and II are found in severe hypoxic brain injury, and pattern II is frequently shown in brain death, whereas pattern III was found in severe hypoglycaemic injury.

  1. Is adaptation of the word accentuation test of premorbid intelligence necessary for use among older, Spanish-speaking immigrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Weintraub, Sandra; Navarro, Ellen

    2006-05-01

    Adaptations of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) for assessing premorbid intelligence in languages other than English requires (a) generating word-items that are rare and do not follow grapheme-to-phoneme mappings common in that language, and (b) subsequent validation against a cognitive battery normed on the population of interest. Such tests exist for Italy, France, Spain, and Argentina, all normed against national versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Given the varieties of Spanish spoken in the United States, the adaptation of the Spanish Word Accentuation Test (WAT) requires re-validating the original word list, plus possible new items, against a cognitive battery that has been normed on Spanish-speakers from many countries. This study reports the generation of 55 additional words and revalidation in a sample of 80 older, Spanish-dominant immigrants. The Batería Woodcock-Muñoz Revisada (BWM-R), normed on Spanish speakers from six countries and five U.S. states, was used to establish criterion validity. The original WAT word list accounted for 77% of the variance in the BWM-R and 58% of the variance in Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, suggesting that the unmodified list possesses adequate predictive validity as an indicator of intelligence. Regression equations are provided for estimating BWM-R and Ravens scores from WAT scores.

  2. The Audit of Principal Effectiveness: Instrumentation for Principalship Research. A Research Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Bowman, Michael L.

    Using the literature and research on principal effectiveness as a foundation, the Audit of Principal Effectiveness was developed. Initially, 162 items forming 12 theoretical factors describing effective principal behavior were identified and sorted into two documents. The documents, each containing 81 items, were mailed to a total of 3,660…

  3. Stimulation of Research in Biomedicine. Role of Effective Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, N V; Shkolnikova, M A; Dlin, V V; Yugay, M T

    Analysis of publication activity in the field of biomedicine shows insignificant input of Russia in the world scientific product. This is largely due to the lack of incentives for researchers. Article describes stimulation of researchers in Russia, compares it with foreign models, formulates main shortcomings of support and stimulation of research in Russia and introduces the concept of effective contract. Development of personnel motivation and stimulation of employees of scientific and research organizations in the field of health. As a successful experience the article describes the implementation of effective contract in Veltishev Research and Clinical Institute for Pediatrics where for years remuneration of researchers depended upon their positions without consideration of research results. Effective contract brought significant changes in the traditional system setting new performance and efficiency criteria. New evaluation system took into account publication activity, presentation activity, implementation of research results, raising scientific personnel, thesis work and income-generating activities. Introduction of effective contract already in the second year led to a rise in the number of foreign publications, publications in journals with impact factor of more than 2, the general increase in the number of articles in peer-reviewed journals with impact factor more than 0.3, the growth of the number of articles by 1 researcher, Hirsch index improving both by individual employees and the entire Institute, increase of grant activity and presentation activity at top-rated professional congresses. The growth of publication and presentation activities has been achieved at the reduction of research staff by 23%. From financial viewpoint effective contract resulted in the redistribution of resources in favour of more efficient researchers. The introduction of effective contract and increase of requirements for scientific output did not cause resistance of staff

  4. Accentuated Factors of Handheld Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Bo; Henningsson, Stefan

    The recent years of rapid development of mobile technologies creates opportunities for new user-groups in the mobile workforce to take advantage of in-formation systems (IS). However, to apprehend and harness these opportunities for mobile IS it is crucial to fully understand the user group and t......, these two steps develop the framework towards a theoretical contribution as theory for describing handheld computing from a designer’s perspective. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were made and the tentative framework was elaborated and confirmed....

  5. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2007-01-01

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  6. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  7. A call for action: comparative effectiveness research in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Schatz, Michael X.; Apter, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received considerable research attention in recent months, and efforts to promote CER are part of the newly enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In this paper, we define CER, how it complements traditional efficacy research in asthma, and discuss how CER can help provide the basis for rational decision-making about the care of individual patients with asthma and how best to deliver this care in real-world settings. We present informa...

  8. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  9. Research on Corporal Punishment Effectiveness: Contributions and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapkiewicz, Walter G.

    A review of research literature on corporal punishment reveals that the incidence of corporal punishment has increased over the last twenty years and that it is widely used in some local school districts. Because it is limited by ethical problems, research cannot answer many questions about the direct and indirect effects of corporal punishment.…

  10. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This issue is the bibliography of the publication by the staffs of the Radiation Effects Research Institute (RERF) in 1989. Titles in original and English language with author names are enumerated. Indexes by research areas and by author name are also attached. (J.P.N.) 62 refs

  11. Asian Partnership for Avian Influenza Research : Effectiveness of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam for collaboration on research and research capacity building in avian influenza prevention and control. This grant will allow APAIR to investigate the effectiveness of the measures employed by China, Thailand and Viet Nam and evaluate the factors contributing to their success or failure.

  12. Effects of aquaculture researchers' job characteristics on linkage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of researchers' job characteristics on linkage activities in Nigeria due to the fact that many fish farmers have not been properly reached with technologies and the problem of poor fish production has been attributed to the weak linkages existing between research, extension and fish farmers.

  13. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue is the bibliography of the publication by the staffs of the Radiation Effects Research Institute (RERF) in 1988. Titles in original and English language with author names are enumerated. Indeces by research areas and by author name are also attached. (J.P.N.) 99 refs

  14. Effect size, confidence intervals and statistical power in psychological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téllez A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative psychological research is focused on detecting the occurrence of certain population phenomena by analyzing data from a sample, and statistics is a particularly helpful mathematical tool that is used by researchers to evaluate hypotheses and make decisions to accept or reject such hypotheses. In this paper, the various statistical tools in psychological research are reviewed. The limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST and the advantages of using effect size and its respective confidence intervals are explained, as the latter two measurements can provide important information about the results of a study. These measurements also can facilitate data interpretation and easily detect trivial effects, enabling researchers to make decisions in a more clinically relevant fashion. Moreover, it is recommended to establish an appropriate sample size by calculating the optimum statistical power at the moment that the research is designed. Psychological journal editors are encouraged to follow APA recommendations strictly and ask authors of original research studies to report the effect size, its confidence intervals, statistical power and, when required, any measure of clinical significance. Additionally, we must account for the teaching of statistics at the graduate level. At that level, students do not receive sufficient information concerning the importance of using different types of effect sizes and their confidence intervals according to the different types of research designs; instead, most of the information is focused on the various tools of NHST.

  15. The research program coordinator: an example of effective management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Lisa; Gagnon, Anita J; Thomas, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Careers in clinical research management are increasingly common. Despite nurses' important role in clinical research, their status as research professionals is underrecognized. In this article, we describe the role of a "program coordinator" (PC) in the context of a complex research program on migration and reproductive health. The PC role expands beyond the usual role of a research coordinator because he or she is involved in all aspects of the program of research and his or her responsibilities include research, education, clinical, and administration components. He or she ensures optimal organization and continuity across several studies and ensures ethical and scientific standards are applied for each individual study. His or her clinical knowledge assures data are accurate and subjects are safe. In addition, he or she assists with applying for funding, the maintenance of research partnerships, and dissemination of research findings; he or she supports students' learning and completes all regulatory aspects related to the program of research. Key to the PC role is relationship building and the application of Good Clinical Practice principles. The advanced role of a PC also warrants opportunities for professional development and a competitive salary. A PC is an effective approach for research management and a natural role for professional nurse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Student Approaches to Learning and Studying. Research Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John B.

    A common thread in contemporary research in student learning refers to the ways in which students go about learning. A theory of learning is presented that accentuates the interaction between the person and the situation. Research evidence implies a form of meta-cognition called meta-learning, the awareness of students of their own learning…

  17. Effects of Disclosing Financial Interests on Attitudes Toward Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A.; Dinan, Michaela A.; DePuy, Venita; Friedman, Joëlle Y.; Allsbrook, Jennifer S.; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of disclosing financial interests to potential research participants are not well understood. Objective To examine the effects of financial interest disclosures on potential research participants’ attitudes toward clinical research. Design and Participants Computerized experiment conducted with 3,623 adults in the United States with either diabetes mellitus or asthma, grouped by lesser and greater severity. Respondents read a description of a hypothetical clinical trial relevant to their diagnosis that included a financial disclosure statement. Respondents received 1 of 5 disclosure statements. Measurements Willingness to participate in the hypothetical clinical trial, relative importance of information about the financial interest, change in trust after reading the disclosure statement, surprise regarding the financial interest, and perceived effect of the financial interest on the quality of the clinical trial. Results Willingness to participate in the hypothetical clinical trial did not differ substantially among the types of financial disclosures. Respondents viewed the disclosed information as less important than other factors in deciding to participate. Disclosures were associated with some respondents trusting the researchers less, although trust among some respondents increased. Most respondents were not surprised to learn of financial interests. Researchers owning equity were viewed as more troubling than researchers who were compensated for the costs of research through per capita payments. Conclusions Aside from a researcher holding an equity interest, the disclosure to potential research participants of financial interests in research, as recommended in recent policies, is unlikely to affect willingness to participate in research. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0590-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18386101

  18. Interpreting and Reporting Effect Sizes in Research Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E., II

    Since 1994, the American Psychological Association (APA) has advocated the inclusion of effect size indices in reporting research to elucidate the statistical significance of studies based on sample size. In 2001, the fifth edition of the APA "Publication Manual" stressed the importance of including an index of effect size to clarify…

  19. Bridging research and practice: community-researcher partnerships for replicating effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, M J; Rebchook, G M; Kelly, J A; Adams, J; Neumann, M S

    2000-01-01

    Long-term collaborations among researchers, staff and volunteers in community-based agencies, staff in institutional settings, and health advocates present challenges. Each group has different missions, procedures, attributes, and rewards. This article reviews areas of potential conflict and suggests strategies for coping with these challenges. During the replication of five effective HIV prevention interventions, strategies for maintaining mutually beneficial collaborations included selecting agencies with infrastructures that could support research-based interventions; obtaining letters of understanding that clarified roles, responsibilities, and time frames; and setting training schedules with opportunities for observing, practicing, becoming invested in, and repeatedly implementing the intervention. The process of implementing interventions highlighted educating funders of research and public health services about (a) the costs of disseminating interventions, (b) the need for innovation to new modalities and theories for delivering effective interventions, and (c) adopting strategies of marketing research and quality engineering when designing interventions.

  20. A CTSA Agenda to Advance Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell Jr., Frank E.; Meltzer, David O.; Montori, Victor M.; Shepard, Donald S.; Kent, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient‐centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients’ preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient‐centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient‐centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient‐centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 188–198 PMID:21707950

  1. Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D

    2007-05-01

    Research ethics committees - animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal-based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects - have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a model, 28 members of AECs at four universities in western Canada were interviewed. Committees were selected to represent variation in the number and type of protocols reviewed, and participants were selected to include different types of committee members. We found that a bias towards institutional or scientific interests may result from (1) a preponderance of institutional and scientist members, (2) an intimidating atmosphere for community members and other minority members, (3) recruitment of community members who are affiliated with the institution and (4) members joining for reasons other than to fulfil the committee mandate. Thoroughness of protocol review may be influenced by heavy workloads, type of review process and lack of full committee participation. These results, together with results from the literature on research ethics committees, suggested potential ways to improve the effectiveness of research ethics committees.

  2. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.

  3. Highly effective cystic fibrosis clinical research teams: critical success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsch-Bogart, George Z; Van Dalfsen, Jill M; Marshall, Bruce C; George, Cynthia; Pilewski, Joseph M; Nelson, Eugene C; Goss, Christopher H; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2014-08-01

    Bringing new therapies to patients with rare diseases depends in part on optimizing clinical trial conduct through efficient study start-up processes and rapid enrollment. Suboptimal execution of clinical trials in academic medical centers not only results in high cost to institutions and sponsors, but also delays the availability of new therapies. Addressing the factors that contribute to poor outcomes requires novel, systematic approaches tailored to the institution and disease under study. To use clinical trial performance metrics data analysis to select high-performing cystic fibrosis (CF) clinical research teams and then identify factors contributing to their success. Mixed-methods research, including semi-structured qualitative interviews of high-performing research teams. CF research teams at nine clinical centers from the CF Foundation Therapeutics Development Network. Survey of site characteristics, direct observation of team meetings and facilities, and semi-structured interviews with clinical research team members and institutional program managers and leaders in clinical research. Critical success factors noted at all nine high-performing centers were: 1) strong leadership, 2) established and effective communication within the research team and with the clinical care team, and 3) adequate staff. Other frequent characteristics included a mature culture of research, customer service orientation in interactions with study participants, shared efficient processes, continuous process improvement activities, and a businesslike approach to clinical research. Clinical research metrics allowed identification of high-performing clinical research teams. Site visits identified several critical factors leading to highly successful teams that may help other clinical research teams improve clinical trial performance.

  4. The Effect of Holding a Research Chair on Scientists’ Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnezami, S.R.; Beaudry, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the effect of holding Canada Research Chair (CRC) on a scientist’s number of citations as a measure of research impact, based on an econometric analysis with combined data on Quebec scientists’ funding and journal publication. Using Generalized Least Square (GLS) method for regression analysis, the results show that holding either tier-1 or tier- 2 of CRC significantly and positively results in conducting research with higher impact. This finding, however, does not necessarily imply that the others are the lesser scientists. (Author)

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATION TO NURSING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Su-Yeon Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This in-depth integrative literature review aimed to investigate comparative effectiveness research (CER methodologies applicable to nursing research and to propose a CER design relevant to nursing education. Integration and synthesis were conducted from August 20 to December 15, 2013 and from October 20 to December 05, 2015 using electronic databases and refereed published books. The key words were “comparative effectiveness research,” “education,” “patient outcomes,” “effectiveness,” “cost-effectiveness,” and “efficiency.” All selected literatures were initially scrutinized by the principal investigator in terms of scientific rigor and then synthesized on an ongoing basis. CER methodologies in nursing research were presented to be significant in terms of enabling the distinctiveness of the nursing profession to stand out. Three CER methodologies applicable to nursing research—a Pragmatic Clinical Trial, Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research and Cost Effectiveness Research—revealed each of their distinguishable strengths and weaknesses compared to the Randomized Controlled Trial. For ethical considerations, the importance of ensuring “equipoise” was identified. Lastly, in a head to head comparison of two nursing education programs, a single blind, randomized crossover study design was proposed as a type of Pragmatic Clinical Trial utilizing cost-utility analysis. A mixed method Analysis of Covariance and a Doubly Multivariate Repeated Analysis of Covariance were suggested as relevant statistical analyses. Considering that CER is still inchoate in nursing research and nurse scientists’ endeavors to address the gap are urgent, this study is compelling in that it proposed a rigorous CER design not only directly applicable to nursing education, but also to other disciplines in education.

  6. The effectiveness of domestic Scientific research on Iran development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ehsani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, research has growth Increasingly in Iran and, consequently, the country has risen dramatically in world rankings, based on the number of scientific documents. Meanwhile, research policy makers of different societies have concentrated, more and more, on "the effectiveness of researches" and today, their main concern is to ensure that researches are truly contributing to achieve development goals. The issue of "use of research to improve society" has also been emphasized by Iran high-ranking managers and consultants in superior governmental documents, implying their agreement on the importance and necessity of it. Experts' view about the necessity for science to play a fundamental role in the process of society improvement, research impact assessment specialists' models in which they directly emphasize on "promotion of development scale" as the research final expected effect, and the proven high correlation between scientific progress and economic development of societies, create a reasonable expectation that as a consequent of "remarkable progress in research", Iran has experienced a tangible improvement in other aspects and this improvement has been reflected in development indicators. This expectation leads to a question which has been the main reason for this study to be implemented. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Iran increasingly research growth in recent three decades on the country development. The study uses a Descriptive-Analytical method and valid secondary data have been the base of analyses. At first, the reliable development indicators for which data were available for a number of countries in an appropriate timeframe were selected. Next, the rank of Iran determined in any indicator among 215 countries (based on the number of countries in World Bank Web site. Then, the trend of Iran's research position was compared with the trend of Iran's position in terms of each development

  7. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Hayes, Tavis P.; Brehaut, Jamie C.; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Background To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. Methods We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Results Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial - randomised or otherwise – of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Discussion Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review. PMID:26225553

  8. Information technology for clinical, translational and comparative effectiveness research. Findings from the section clinical research informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Choquet, R

    2013-01-01

    To summarize advances of excellent current research in the new emerging field of Clinical Research Informatics. Synopsis of four key articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2013. The selection was performed by querying PubMed and Web of Science with predefined keywords. From the original set of 590 papers, a first subset of 461 articles which was in the scope of Clinical Research Informatics was refined into a second subset of 79 relevant articles from which 15 articles were retained for peer-review. The four selected articles exemplify current research efforts conducted in the areas of data representation and management in clinical trials, secondary use of EHR data for clinical research, information technology platforms for translational and comparative effectiveness research and implementation of privacy control. The selected articles not only illustrate how innovative information technology supports classically organized randomized controlled trials but also demonstrate that the long promised benefits of electronic health care data for research are becoming a reality through concrete platforms and projects.

  9. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stuart G; Hayes, Tavis P; Brehaut, Jamie C; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial--randomised or otherwise--of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review.

  10. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G Nicholls

    Full Text Available To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review.We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction.Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial--randomised or otherwise--of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review.Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review.

  11. Women in STEM: The Effect of Undergraduate Research on Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Jodi

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers constitutes a major issue in postsecondary science education. Perseverance of women in STEM is linked to a strong science identity. Experiential learning activities, such as undergraduate research, increase science identity and thus should help keep women in STEM. Most studies on research program development are from 4-year institutions, yet many women start at community colleges. The goal of this study was to fill this gap. Science identity and experiential learning theories provided the framework for this case study at a local institution (LECC). Semistructured interviews determined college science faculty and administrators perceptions of advantages and disadvantages of undergraduate research, the viability of developing a research program, and specific research options feasible for LECC. Transcripted data were analyzed through multiple rounds of coding yielding five themes: faculty perception of undergraduate research, authentic experiences, health technologies/nursing programs, LECC students career focus, and the unique culture at LECC. The most viable type of undergraduate research for LECC is course-based and of short timeframe. The project study advocates the use of citizen science (CS) studies in the classroom as they are relatively short-term and can take the place of lab sessions. The true benefit is that students perform authentic science by contributing to an actual scientific research project. CS projects can effect social change by developing science literate citizens, empowering faculty to create authentic learning experiences, and by sparking interest in science and directing women into STEM careers.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  13. The use of research results for effective aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.; Taylor, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the degradation of structures, components, and systems due to aging is an important ongoing area of research in the nuclear industry. Efforts by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the utility industry, through organizations such as the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have produced substantial research results that can be used by inspectors and operators to effectively understand and manage the aging of nuclear power plants. One of the primary objectives of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program is to determine how aging affects the safety of nuclear power plants. This program uses operating experience, testing, and engineering analysis to identify failures caused by age-related degradation. Useful information on aging has also resulted from research being performed by the industry to support plant-life extension (PLEX). The EPRI program, for instance, is directed toward the resolution of issues related to materials and components. Degradation of equipment and systems due to aging can occur which, if unmitigated, could result in reduction of the nuclear power plant safety margin as the plant ages. This paper describes how aging research results may be used by plant operating management to effectively address the aging issue and by inspectors responsible for monitoring plant activities and programs

  14. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  15. A Critical Analysis of Research on the Overjustification Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkay, Paul James

    This document examined studies of the overjustification effect. Many studies examining the phenomenon were conducted during the 1970s; findings appeared to be accepted without qualification. It is unclear whether researchers conducted the studies with the proper methodologies and interpreted results correctly. Such factors included the type of…

  16. The greenhouse effect: A summary of KEMA research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijgrok, W.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of current research at KEMA in the field of the greenhouse effect and climatic change is presented. Project information regarding motivation, aim, planning and results is given. The projects are carried out within the framework of the so-called 'Collectieve Opdracht' (joint assignment) of the Dutch electric power generating utilities

  17. Effects of Diet Soda on Gut Hormones in Youths With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rebecca J.; Walter, Mary; Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In patients with type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, abnormal secretion of incretins in response to oral nutrients has been described. In healthy youths, we recently reported accentuated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in response to a diet soda sweetened with sucralose and acesulfame-K. In this study, we examined the effect of diet soda on gut hormones in youths with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects aged 12?25 years with type 1 diabetes (n = 9) or type...

  18. The effectiveness of undergraduate researchers and the effect of undergraduate research on the student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Dwight D.

    Despite wisdom's long and rich history our understanding of what is implied by the term remains quite vague. One hundred males and eighty-three females, aged 24 to 83 years, were asked to complete the Social Belief Paradigm Inventory, which is a measure of beliefs about the social world (Kramer, Kahlbaugh, & Goldston, 1992), and rate the degree to which thirty wise statements, phrases, and quotations reflect their conceptions of wisdom. When the sample was categorized by gender, age, and educational levels, males were found to be slightly more mechanistic than females, and equally dialectical. Dialectical thinking was found to be associated more with educational level than with age. A large proportion of dialectical thinkers possessed at least a baccalaureate degree. Overall, most young, middle-aged, and older adults were dominant in the dialectical worldview. The results of a MANOVA, which tested the between-subjects effects of each of the independent variables, age, gender, and educational level on the dependent variable, worldview; and each of the four statement types, revealed a statistically non-significant effect of age, gender, or educational level on worldview. However, there were significant findings with respect to the relationship between age and relativistic thinking, and age and mechanistic thinking. Relativistic thinkers tended to be the youngest of the participants, while mechanistic thinkers tended to be the oldest. Also, a significant negative relationship was found between absolute thinking (formistic and mechanistic) and educational attainment. Wisdom items dealing with life experience, self-knowledge, the acceptance of the inevitability of change, and of the uncertainties of life, were rated highest. Postformal (dialectical) and absolute (formistic and mechanistic) thinkers differed slightly in their conceptions of wisdom. Dialectical thinkers preferred items implying uncertainty with respect to reality; such as doubting the knowledge one holds

  19. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Barbera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Incredible Years parenting interventions: current effectiveness research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty

    2017-06-01

    The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of Initial Conditions on Reproducibility of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ≤2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705

  2. Effective recruitment strategies in primary care research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngune, Irene; Jiwa, Moyez; Dadich, Ann; Lotriet, Jaco; Sriram, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Patient recruitment in primary care research is often a protracted and frustrating process, affecting project timeframes, budget and the dissemination of research findings. Yet, clear guidance on patient recruitment strategies in primary care research is limited. This paper addresses this issue through a systematic review. Articles were sourced from five academic databases - AustHealth, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Group, EMBASE and PubMed/Medline; grey literature was also sourced from an academic library and the Primary Healthcare Research & Information Service (PHCRIS) website. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) reported empirical research, (3) focused on interventions designed to increase patient recruitment in primary care settings, and (4) reported patient recruitment in primary care settings. Sixty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 23 specifically focused on recruitment strategies and included randomised trials (n = 7), systematic reviews (n = 8) and qualitative studies (n = 8). Of the remaining articles, 30 evaluated recruitment strategies, while 13 addressed the value of recruitment strategies using descriptive statistics and/or qualitative data. Among the 66 articles, primary care chiefly included general practice (n = 30); nursing and allied health services, multiple settings, as well as other community settings (n = 30); and pharmacy (n = 6). Effective recruitment strategies included the involvement of a discipline champion, simple patient eligibility criteria, patient incentives and organisational strategies that reduce practitioner workload. The most effective recruitment in primary care research requires practitioner involvement. The active participation of primary care practitioners in both the design and conduct of research helps to identify strategies that are congruent with the context in which patient care is delivered. This is reported to be the

  3. Health | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But for too long, ICT and health system researchers have worked in isolation from one ... la pauvreté et l'appartenance à une basse caste accentuent ces obstacles. Des chercheurs de l'Indian Institute of Management Bangalore s'intéressent à ...

  4. Research on the climatic effects of nuclear winter: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has undertaken a series of research efforts to develop and implement improvements to the Community Climate Model (CCM) needed to make the model more applicable to studies of the climatic effects of nuclear war. The development of the model improvements has reached a stage where implementation may proceed, and several of the developed routines are being incorporated into the next approved version of the CCM (CCM1). Formal documentation is being completed describing the specific model improvements that have been successfully implemented. This final report includes the series of annual proposals and progress reports that have guided the project

  5. Research on the climatic effects of nuclear winter: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R.E.

    1986-12-03

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has undertaken a series of research efforts to develop and implement improvements to the Community Climate Model (CCM) needed to make the model more applicable to studies of the climatic effects of nuclear war. The development of the model improvements has reached a stage where implementation may proceed, and several of the developed routines are being incorporated into the next approved version of the CCM (CCM1). Formal documentation is being completed describing the specific model improvements that have been successfully implemented. This final report includes the series of annual proposals and progress reports that have guided the project.

  6. Cost Effective Polymer Solar Cells Research and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing [Norfolk State Univ, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The technical or research objective of this project is to investigate and develop new polymers and polymer based optoelectronic devices for potentially cost effective (or cost competitive), durable, lightweight, flexible, and high efficiency solar energy conversion applications. The educational objective of this project includes training of future generation scientists, particularly young, under-represented minority scientists, working in the areas related to the emerging organic/polymer based solar energy technologies and related optoelectronic devices. Graduate and undergraduate students will be directly involved in scientific research addressing issues related to the development of polymer based solar cell technology.

  7. The policy debate over public investment in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Eugene C

    2009-06-01

    Policy makers across the political spectrum, as well as many clinicians and physician professional associations, have proposed that better information on comparative clinical effectiveness should be a key element of any solution to the US health-care cost crisis. This superficial consensus hides intense disagreements over critical issues essential to any new public effort to promote more comparative effectiveness research (CER). This article reviews the background for these disputes, summarizes the different perspectives represented by policy makers and advocates, and offers a framework to aid both practicing and academic internists in understanding the key elements of the emerging debate. Regarding the fundamental question of "what is CER," disagreements rage over whether value or cost effectiveness should be a consideration, and how specific patient perspectives should be reflected in the development and the use of such research. The question of how to pay for CER invokes controversies over the role of the market in producing such information and the private (e.g., insurers and employers) versus public responsibility for its production. The financing debate further highlights the high stakes of comparative effectiveness research, and the risks of stakeholder interests subverting any public process. Accordingly there are a range of proposals for the federal government's role in prioritization, development, and dissemination of CER. The internal medicine community, with its long history of commitment to scientific medical practice and its leadership in evidence-based medicine, should have a strong interest and play an active role in this debate.

  8. Stakeholder assessment of comparative effectiveness research needs for Medicaid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Farrell, Stephen F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Patients, providers and policy-makers rely heavily on comparative effectiveness research (CER) when making complex, real-world medical decisions. In particular, Medicaid providers and policy-makers face unique challenges in decision-making because their program cares for traditionally underserved populations, especially children, pregnant women and people with mental illness. Because these patient populations have generally been underrepresented in research discussions, CER questions for these groups may be understudied. To address this problem, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality commissioned our team to work with Medicaid Medical Directors and other stakeholders to identify relevant CER questions. Through an iterative process of topic identification and refinement, we developed relevant, feasible and actionable questions based on issues affecting Medicaid programs nationwide. We describe challenges and limitations and provide recommendations for future stakeholder engagement. PMID:26388438

  9. Perspectives of Egyptian research ethics committees regarding their effective functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Amal; Silverman, Henry

    2013-02-01

    The recent increase in research in the Middle East has been associated with the establishment of research ethics committees (RECs). Our aim was to obtain perspectives of RECs regarding the challenges that impede their effective functioning. We conducted in-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews to uncover major themes and subthemes. We identified the following themes: membership composition; training needs of members; availability of human and capital resources; role of the national government; concerns with the informed consent process; government scrutiny of research; investigator-related issues; and concerns with transfer of biological samples to other countries. Our interview study revealed several barriers that need to be considered by appropriate stakeholders to enhance adequate functioning of RECs.

  10. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  11. An overview of methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Weinberger, Morris; Chen, Ronald C; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a broad category of outcomes research encompassing many different methods employed by researchers and clinicians from numerous disciplines. The goal of cancer-focused CER is to generate new knowledge to assist cancer stakeholders in making informed decisions that will improve health care and outcomes of both individuals and populations. There are numerous CER methods that may be used to examine specific questions, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies, systematic literature reviews, and decision sciences modeling. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. To both inform and serve as a reference for readers of this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology as well as the broader oncology community, we describe CER and several of the more commonly used approaches and analytical methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Identifying research priorities for effective retention strategies in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Daykin, Anne; Shaw, Alison R G; Lane, Athene J; Blazeby, Jane M; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Gamble, Carrol

    2017-08-31

    The failure to retain patients or collect primary-outcome data is a common challenge for trials and reduces the statistical power and potentially introduces bias into the analysis. Identifying strategies to minimise missing data was the second highest methodological research priority in a Delphi survey of the Directors of UK Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and is important to minimise waste in research. Our aim was to assess the current retention practices within the UK and priorities for future research to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to reduce attrition. Seventy-five chief investigators of NIHR Health Technology Assessment (HTA)-funded trials starting between 2009 and 2012 were surveyed to elicit their awareness about causes of missing data within their trial and recommended practices for improving retention. Forty-seven CTUs registered within the UKCRC network were surveyed separately to identify approaches and strategies being used to mitigate missing data across trials. Responses from the current practice surveys were used to inform a subsequent two-round Delphi survey with registered CTUs. A consensus list of retention research strategies was produced and ranked by priority. Fifty out of seventy-five (67%) chief investigators and 33/47 (70%) registered CTUs completed the current practice surveys. Seventy-eight percent of trialists were aware of retention challenges and implemented strategies at trial design. Patient-initiated withdrawal was the most common cause of missing data. Registered CTUs routinely used newsletters, timeline of participant visits, and telephone reminders to mitigate missing data. Whilst 36 out of 59 strategies presented had been formally or informally evaluated, some frequently used strategies, such as site initiation training, have had no research to inform practice. Thirty-five registered CTUs (74%) participated in the Delphi survey. Research into the effectiveness of site initiation training, frequency of patient contact

  13. The Reincarnation of the Effective Schools Research: Rethinking the Literature on District Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the district effectiveness literature. It begins by summarizing the school effectiveness research, the correlates of effective schools, and the conceptual and methodological characteristics of this field. It then describes the findings from a review of 50 studies of district effectiveness, the most…

  14. The researches on the effects of low doses irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    All research conducted as part of 'Risc-Rad' and those conducted by actors in international programs on low doses allow progress in understanding mechanisms of carcinogenesis associated with irradiation. The data do not question the use in radiation protection, risk estimation models based on a linear increase of the risk with the dose of radiation. Nevertheless, they show that the nature of biological responses induced by low doses of radiation has differences with the responses induced by high doses of radiation. They also show the diversity of effects/dose relationships as the mechanism observed and the importance of genetic predisposition in the individual sensitivity to low doses of radiation. It is therefore essential to continue to bring new data to better understand the complex biological effects and their impact on the establishment of radiation protection standards. In addition, the results have often been at the cellular level. The diversity of responses induced by radiations is also a function of cell types observed, the aging of cells and tissue organization. It is essential to strengthen researches at the tissue and body level, involving in vitro and in vivo approaches while testing the hypothesis in epidemiology with a global approach to systems biology. Over the past four years, the collaboration between partners of 'Risc-Rad' using experimental biology approaches and those using mathematical modeling techniques aimed at developing a new model describing the carcinogenesis induced by low radiation doses. On an other hand, The High level expert group on European low dose risk research (H.L.E.G.) develop programmes in the area of low dose irradiation (Germany, Finland, France, Italy and United Kingdom). It proposed a structure of trans national government called M.E.L.O.D.I. ( multidisciplinary european low dose initiative). Its objective is to structure and integrate European research by gathering around a common programme of multidisciplinary

  15. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kueffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  16. The effectiveness of domestic Scientific research on Iran development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ehsani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, research has growth Increasingly in Iran and, consequently, the country has risen dramatically in world rankings, based on the number of scientific documents. The impressive growth of the number of Iran researches, research experts increasingly focus on "research impact", and repeated emphasize on the issue of "use of research to improve society" in Iran superior governmental documents, leaded some researchers to investigate "how much Iran researches are effective?" They showed that these researches have in general been ineffective. Therefore, their efficacy should be evaluated which is the main purpose of this study. In this regard, using the Descriptive-Analytical method and valid secondary data and statistics, the results of Citation Analysis of Iran research outcomes were compared with other countries. Central questions of this study were respectively about «the quality of Iran whole researches (1996-2014», «the quality of top researches (2005-2014», «comparing the quality of whole researches with quality of top researches», and «the quality of Iran's Persian (2011-2012 and English (2014 scientific journals». For this purpose, based on the reliable data from valid databases (Thomson Reuters, Scopus and ISC, the value and rank of Iran at different citation related indices were extracted or calculated. The results, including «few citations per paper (5/7 which is about half of the global average (10/3 and declining trend of Iran rank based on this index», «poor country rank based on the share of top papers in all documents (128», «small share of global citations (47.0%, despite a significant share in the world Scientific document (1/1%», «low h-index despite the large number of articles», «inappropriate position in the basis of self-citation (more than 50% in 2014 in addition to a declining trend», «few citations per paper (76/7 which is about half of the global average (144/9», «small share of global

  17. Designing Effective Serious Games: Opportunities and Challenges for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellotti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Serious Games represent an acknowledged potential for instruction, because they are able to strongly motivate learners. They can also provide immersive environments where advanced users can practice knowledge and skills, also exploiting multimodal interaction. They can combine the effectiveness of computer processing and data storage, with high levels of attractiveness. Our work has investigated the state of the art research on SGs, starting from the cognitive aspects, that are necessary in order to root technological development and applications in sound theoretical foundations. The paper discusses some key aspects about SG design and exploitation: choice of components-off-the-shelf or from-scratch design, tools and methodologies for development or adaptation, intelligent tutoring, virtual coaches and affective learning, living worlds, game mechanics, Human-Computer Interaction. While several SGs have been developed, still the literature stresses a lack of significant, extensive user tests. Further research is necessary to investigate in greater detail the real effectiveness of the various types of SGs. The paper proposes several research questions - that range from requirements elicitation to design and from deployment to use and evaluation - to be answered in order to avoid technology pushing and drive technological research according to the requirements of the end-users and stakeholders. We believe that deepening the analysis about these issues is key to strengthen the foundations of SG research, for which we identify four major directions: definition of metrics and learning progress evaluation tools; methodologies and tools for designing games from various topics and for various users; computing and communication architectures; technologies that can enhance the overall system performance.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maschke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic road traffic noise exposure were further examined in humans with the help of epidemiological studies. More epidemiological aircraft noise studies followed in the 1970s and thereafter. The sample size was increased, relevant confounding factors were taken into account, and the exposure and health outcomes were investigated objectively and with higher quality measures. To date, more than 20 German epidemiological traffic noise studies have focused on noise-induced health effects, mainly on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the newer German noise studies demonstrate a clear association between residential exposure to traffic noise (particularly night noise and cardiovascular outcomes. Nevertheless, additional research is needed, particularly on vulnerable groups and multiple noise exposures. The epidemiological findings have still not been fully considered in German regulations, particularly for aircraft noise. The findings, however, were taken into account in national recommendations. The Federal Environment Agency recommends noise rating levels of 65 dB(A for the day and 55 dB(A for the night, as a short-term goal. In the medium term, noise rating levels of 60 / 50 (day, night should be reached and noise rating levels of 55 / 45 in the long run.

  19. Falsification Testing of Instrumental Variables Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate how falsification tests can be used to evaluate instrumental variables methods applicable to a wide variety of comparative effectiveness research questions. Brief conceptual review of instrumental variables and falsification testing principles and techniques accompanied by an empirical application. Sample STATA code related to the empirical application is provided in the Appendix. Comparative long-term risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones for management of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes include mortality and hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition. Prescribing pattern variations are used as instrumental variables. Falsification testing is an easily computed and powerful way to evaluate the validity of the key assumption underlying instrumental variables analysis. If falsification tests are used, instrumental variables techniques can help answer a multitude of important clinical questions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Research program on the biological effects of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.T.

    1991-12-01

    A national research program on the biological effects of oil pollution (FOBO) was initiated by the Norwegian Ministry of Environment in October 1983 in the light of the increasing oil exploration and production activity in the North Sea and northern Norwegian waters. Ambitions were high and five main fields of research were suggested: Seabirds, fish (incl. salmon), marine mammals, the littoral zone and plankton. However, due to the lack of interest on the part of other potential financers, e.g. the Ministry of Fisheries and the oil companies, to participate, the four-year programme had to be limited to the following three topics: Seabirds around bruding colonies and at sea; Higher plants along the shoreline; The littoral zone. The program ran from the autumn of 1985 to the end of 1989 and this report summarizes the main results and conclusions of each project. 95 refs., 52 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Practical guide to understanding Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, J Gail; Sharon, Jeffrey D; Graboyes, Evan M; Paniello, Randal C; Nussenbaum, Brian; Grindler, David J; Dassopoulos, Themistocles

    2013-12-01

    "Comparative effectiveness research" (CER) is not a new concept; however, recently it has been popularized as a method to develop scientifically sound actionable data by which patients, physicians, payers, and policymakers may make informed health care decisions. Fundamental to CER is that the comparative data are derived from large diverse populations of patients assembled from point-of-care general primary care practices and that measured outcomes include patient value judgments. The challenge is to obtain scientifically valid data to be acted upon by decision-making stakeholders with potentially quite diversely different agenda. The process requires very thoughtful research designs modulated by complex statistical and analytic methods. This article is composed of a guiding narrative with an extensive set of tables outlining many of the details required in performing and understanding CER. It ends with short discussions of three example papers, limitations of the method, and how a practicing physician may view such reports.

  2. Environmental effects research. Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1983. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The Terrestrial Ecology group continued its involvement in the National Crop Loss Assessment Network, and studies of O 3 effects on winter wheat and soybeans were completed. Experiments on O 3 x SO 2 interactions on soybeans were also performed. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) project had its first full year of research and much information concerning acid rain impacts on soil-plant systems was collected. A study of the influence of temporal variations in rain acidity on soybean productivity was also initiated. The aquatic radiochemistry group continued measurements of the mobility of plutonium and americium at a disposal site at Los Alamos and initiated similar work at Hanford. Laboratory tracer experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive behavior of neptunium, the solubility limits of plutonium, and the influence of rare earth concentration on the sorption and redox behavior of plutonium. The soil-plant process group initiated several studies on the influence of mycorrhizae to host plants in disturbed and natural environments. Much of the past research has been concerned with understanding mycorrhizal fungi propagule dynamics as related to disturbances associated with energy extraction. Future research will be directed at understanding how below-ground symbiotic associations may increase the fitness of host plants. Emphasis is being placed on resource acquisition and compartmental strategies. Separate analytics have been indexed for EDB

  3. Environmental effects research. Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1983. Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    The Terrestrial Ecology group continued its involvement in the National Crop Loss Assessment Network, and studies of O/sub 3/ effects on winter wheat and soybeans were completed. Experiments on O/sub 3/ x SO/sub 2/ interactions on soybeans were also performed. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) project had its first full year of research and much information concerning acid rain impacts on soil-plant systems was collected. A study of the influence of temporal variations in rain acidity on soybean productivity was also initiated. The aquatic radiochemistry group continued measurements of the mobility of plutonium and americium at a disposal site at Los Alamos and initiated similar work at Hanford. Laboratory tracer experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive behavior of neptunium, the solubility limits of plutonium, and the influence of rare earth concentration on the sorption and redox behavior of plutonium. The soil-plant process group initiated several studies on the influence of mycorrhizae to host plants in disturbed and natural environments. Much of the past research has been concerned with understanding mycorrhizal fungi propagule dynamics as related to disturbances associated with energy extraction. Future research will be directed at understanding how below-ground symbiotic associations may increase the fitness of host plants. Emphasis is being placed on resource acquisition and compartmental strategies. Separate analytics have been indexed for EDB.

  4. Blast load effects research in dry and wet soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, R

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ahmed_2014_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 904 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ahmed_2014_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 South African Ballistics... Organisation Conference, Zebra Country Lodge, Gauteng, South Africa, 29 September – 1 October 2014 BLAST LOAD EFFECTS RESEARCH IN DRY AND WET SOIL R Ahmed and ME Miyambo Landward Sciences, Defence Peace Safety and Security, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria...

  5. Researches on bake effect on RF superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiankui; Zhao Kui; Zhu Feng

    2005-01-01

    The Q-slope at high gradient affects the performance of superconducting cavity greatly. Recent researches show that low temperature (100-150) degree C heat treatment (bake) has positive effects on the performance of superconducting cavities. A lot of cavity tests are analyzed based on bake treatment. The average gradient E acc,max and E acc at Q=1 x 10 10 are increased by more than 3.5 MV/m. Q at E acc,max is increased and the Q-slope is improved. Analysis on bake temperature shows that higher bake temperature leads to higher Q value. Comparison of BCP and EP cavities shows that at least 60-80 μm EP is needed for BCP surface. More than 10-15 μm removal of the surface by BCP will degrade the performance of an EP cavity. Oxygen diffusion model is used to illustrate bake effect. (authors)

  6. PUMPED STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DH. Fickeisen

    1979-09-01

    Pumped storage hydroelectric systems convert large quantities of electrical energy to a form that may be stored and efficiently reconverted to electricity. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low power demand. The stored water is then used to generate additional power when demand peaks. Since the basic requirements of the system are simple, the design of individual plants and their locations vary widely. These variations make assessment of the generic environmental impact of the pumped storage systems difficult. In addition, most studies have not examined the impacts of an operating plant comprehensively. Assessment of the environmental effects of development and operation of a pumped storage plant requires an extensive set of baseline information, which is deficient in several aspects at the present state of the art. Additional research is needed to: • identify species groups likely to survive and reproduce in pumped storage reservoirs, their relationships and habitat preferences, and the basis for their production; • characterize anticipated reservoir ecosystem community development and relate it to physical characteristics of pumped storage reservoirs; • define effects of plant design and operating parameters on transport of organisms through the pump/turbine facility, accounting for behavior of the organisms potentially impacted; • access the mortality rate of organisms likely to pass through pump-turbines; • identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of screening intake structures to prevent passage of large organisms through the plant; • assess the effects of currents and water withdrawal on migration and movement of aquatic species; • investigate the effects of fluctuating water levels on the littoral zone and riparian communities, effects of stranding on entrapment of fishes, and effects on fish spawning; and • review the applicability of water quality and ecosystem models to pumped storage

  7. Review of recent research on the climatic effect of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlock, T.P.; Kondratyev, K.; Prokofyev, M.

    1993-01-01

    A review of relatively recent research on the climatic effects of aerosols is presented. Most of the inferences of the climatic effects of aerosols have been obtained through assuming a certain aerosol model in conjunction with a particular climate model. The following radiative effects of aerosols are identified: The planetary albedo is generally increased due to the backscatter of solar radiation by aerosols, with the exception of aerosols situated above a highly reflecting surface. Solar radiation absorption by some aerosols can offset the cooling due to aerosol backscatter. Although aerosol effects dominate for short-wave radiation, absorption and emission of terrestrial radiation by aerosols produces a warming effect. Various climate models are used to assess the impact of aerosols on climate. A two-stream approximation to the radiation transfer equation is adequate for optically thin layers where single scattering is applicable. Improved models to include aerosol terrestrial radiation effects, important feedback mechanisms, and the prediction of globally and seasonally averaged surface and atmospheric temperatures are provided by the so-called radiative-convective models (RCM's). The basic structure of the RCM's, which is regarded as adequate for many aerosol climate applications, is described. The general circulation model (GCM) is also described briefly. A full-scale GCM incorporating realistic aerosol inputs is yet to be formulated to include regional variability of the aerosol. Moreover, detailed computer modeling associated with GCM climate models can often confuse the basic physics. Because volcanic aerosols injected into the stratosphere have long residence times, they provide a good case study of the climate response to a change in the atmospheric aerosol. The chapter gives a critique of modeling work done to establish climatic effects of stratospheric aerosols

  8. The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kempner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can political controversy have a "chilling effect" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Drawing on interview (n = 30 and survey data (n = 82, this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were "a waste of taxpayer money." The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.

  9. Gender effects in gaming research: a case for regression residuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland

    2011-10-01

    Numerous recent studies have examined the impact of video gaming on various dependent variables, including the players' affective reactions, positive as well as detrimental cognitive effects, and real-world aggression. These target variables are typically analyzed as a function of game characteristics and player attributes-especially gender. However, findings on the uneven distribution of gaming experience between males and females, on the one hand, and the effect of gaming experience on several target variables, on the other hand, point at a possible confound when gaming experiments are analyzed with a standard analysis of variance. This study uses simulated data to exemplify analysis of regression residuals as a potentially beneficial data analysis strategy for such datasets. As the actual impact of gaming experience on each of the various dependent variables differs, the ultimate benefits of analysis of regression residuals entirely depend on the research question, but it offers a powerful statistical approach to video game research whenever gaming experience is a confounding factor.

  10. Research on sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuan; He Jianzhong; Li Ruijun

    2005-01-01

    This paper researches the sprout inhibition effect by irradiation on refrigerated garlic. The results shows that, the garlic is still in the period of dormancy within 7 days after taken out from the refrigerated warehouse, and irradiation have a good sprout inhibition effect on it. The irradiation dose is 40-90 Gy, the same as that of the post harvest irradiation treatment on garlic. Refrigerate the Zhongmu Garlic (at -2 degree C-0 degree C) until the middle ten days of February the next year, place it at the room temperature (10 degree C-15 degree C) for 1-7 days after taking it out of the warehouse, then use 60 Co γ-ray to irradiate it until the absorbed dose reaches 40-90 Gy, the sprout inhibition effect can be realized. The test also indicates that the deposited time after taking out of the refrigerated warehouse is crucial to the sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation. (authors)

  11. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Biological effects of embedded depleted uranium (DU). Summary of Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, D.E.; Dalton, T.K.; Emond, C.A.; Hodge, S.J.; Kalinich, J.F.; Landauer, M.A.; Miller, A.C.; Stewart, M.D.; Villa, V.; Xu, J.; Benson, K.A.; Ejnik, J.; Pellmar, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War resulted in injuries of US Coalition personnel by fragments of depleted uranium (DU). Fragments not immediately threatening the health of the individuals were allowed to remain in place, based on long-standing treatment protocols designed for other kinds of metal shrapnel injuries. However, questions were soon raised as to whether this approach is appropriate for a metal with the unique radiological and toxicological properties of DU. The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is investigating health effects of embedded fragments of DU to determine whether current surgical fragment removal policies remain appropriate for this metal. These studies employ rodents implanted with DU pellets as well as cultured human cells exposed to DU compounds. Results indicate uranium from implanted DU fragments distributed to tissues far-removed from implantation sites, including bone, kidney, muscle, and liver. Despite levels of uranium in the kidney that were nephrotoxic after acute exposure, no histological or functional kidney toxicity was observed. However, results suggest the need for further studies of long-term health impact, since DU was found to be mutagenic, and it transformed human osteoblast cells to a tumorigenic phenotype. It also altered neurophysiological parameters in rat hippocampus, crossed the placental barrier, and entered fetal tissue. This report summarizes AFRRI's depleted uranium research to date

  13. Whole-ecosystem nitrogen effects research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    There has been an enormous increase during the past few years in the amount of research being conducted in Europe on the effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on aquatic, and especially terrestrial, ecosystems. Nitrogen deposition increases the emissions of N 2 O from forest soils and may decrease CH 4 uptake. Both increased N 2 O production and decreased CH 4 consumption would increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Thus there are important linkages between nitrogen deposition (and consequent ecosystem effects) and the release of greenhouse gases that have been implicated in potential global climate change. This paper summarises some of the European research that has been carried out in recent years. The experimental approach has shifted heavily into whole-ecosystem experimental manipulations, which are being conducted across gradients of atmospheric deposition and other environmental factors. Manipulations are focused primarily on coniferous forest ecosystems and involve increasing ambient deposition of sulfur and nitrogen; excluding ambient deposition via the construction of roofs over entire forested plots or catchments; and manipulating climatic factors, especially water availability. Experiments are designed to continue for long periods (i.e., 5-10 years) and are augmented by detailed, process-level studies at the manipulation sites. Results of the broad-scale and detailed studies are being used to build, test, and validate mathematical models that simulate nitrogen processing, nutrient cycling, and water regulation in coniferous forest ecosystems under varying depositional and climatic regimes. Ultimately, these models will be used to predict nitrogen saturation, estimate the critical loads of nitrogen for European forests, and specify emission controls needed to protect European forests and surface waters from the detrimental effects of excess nitrogen deposition. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 photos

  14. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lercher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.

  15. Activities and future plans of the radiation effects research foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) was established in 1975 as a binational research foundation supported by Japan and the United States. It continues the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) which was established in 1974. ABCC-RERF studies focus on several fixed cohorts of survivors and their children: the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort (120,000 survivors); the In-Utero cohort (3,300 people born within 9 months of the bombings); the F 1 cohort (88,000 people born between mid-1946 and 1984), and the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort (an ongoing clinical study of 17,000 LSS survivors and 1,100 people exposed in-utero). Epidemiological data have shown increased risks of leukemia and solid cancers by radiation exposure among the survivors. Excess leukemia risks, especially for children, were markedly elevated 5 to 10 years after exposure and have continued at reduced levels. Excess solid cancer rates became apparent within 10 years after exposure, increasing throughout life in rough proportion to background rates. For doses of interest in radiation protection excess leukemia risks exhibit an upward curving dose response pattern while the solid cancer excess appears to be linear by dose with no apparent threshold. In addition to malignancy, AHS data has shown dose-related increased risk for various non-malignant diseases; radiation cataracts, benign tumors of uterus, thyroid and parathyroid (hyperparathyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Persons exposed in-utero exhibit a broad range of dose-related effects including delayed growth and development and higher rates of microcephaly. Studies of birth defects, chromosome aberrations, childhood mortality, and genetic variants of serum or erythrocyte proteins have provided no indication of heritable mutations in the F 1 cohort. Continued follow-up of survivors exposed as children (90% are still alive) is essential to understanding the temporal pattern of excess risks and lifetime risks, and may

  16. Geoscience Education Research Project: Student Benefits and Effective Design of a Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortz, Karen M.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate research has been shown to be an effective practice for learning science. While this is a popular discussion topic, there are few full examples in the literature for introductory-level students. This paper describes the Geoscience Education Research Project, an innovative course-based research experience designed for…

  17. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, O.

    1959-01-01

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  18. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O

    1959-01-15

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  19. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The bibliography lists the titles of a total of 75 papers published by members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1986 (three of them published in 1985). The papers cover; 'The central nervous system and in utero exposure to ionizing radiation', 'Future directions for biostatistics and cancer epidemiology in Japan', 'Passive smoking and lung cancer among Japanese women', 'Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune response', 'Delayed effects of atomic bomb radiation to human cellular immune competence', 'Characterization of three electrophoretic variants of human erythrocyte triosephosphate isomerase found in Japanese', 'A follow-up study of clonal T-lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors', 'Comments on recent cytogenetic findings at RERF', 'Cytogenetic 'rogue' cells; What is their frequency, origin, and evolutionary sinificance?', 'A parallel analysis of cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy', 'Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands', 'Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors using monoclonal antibodies', 'Celluar immune competence of patients with lung cancer and other lung diseases. I. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets using monoclonal antibodies', etc. (N.K.) 75 refs

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  1. A tool for assessing the feasibility of comparative effectiveness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker AM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexander M Walker,1 Amanda R Patrick,2 Michael S Lauer,3 Mark C Hornbrook,4 Matthew G Marin,5 Richard Platt,6 Véronique L Roger,7 Paul Stang,8 Sebastian Schneeweiss21World Health Information Science Consultants, Newton, MA; 2Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; 3National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; 4The Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR; 5Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ; 6Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 7Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; 8Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USABackground: Comparative effectiveness research (CER provides actionable information for health care decision-making. Randomized clinical trials cannot provide the patients, time horizons, or practice settings needed for all required CER. The need for comparative assessments and the infeasibility of conducting randomized clinical trials in all relevant areas is leading researchers and policy makers to non-randomized, retrospective CER. Such studies are possible when rich data exist on large populations receiving alternative therapies that are used as-if interchangeably in clinical practice. This setting we call “empirical equipoise.”Objectives: This study sought to provide a method for the systematic identification of settings it in which it is empirical equipoise that offers promised non-randomized CER.Methods: We used a standardizing transformation of the propensity score called “preference” to assess pairs of common treatments for uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia and new-onset heart failure in a population of low-income elderly people in Pennsylvania, for whom we had access to de-identified insurance records. Treatment

  2. MOZART EFFECT AND MUSIC PSYCHOLOGY: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of Music Psychology has grown in the past 20 years, to emerge from being just a minor topic to one of mainstream interest within the brain sciences (Hallam, Cross, & Thaut, 2011. Despite the plethora of research attempts to examine the so-called hotly disputed “Mozart effect” which was first reported by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995, we still know little about it. This group of researchers were the first to support experimentally that visuospatial processing was enhanced in participants following exposure to Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D major (K.448. Although the first research attempts referred to the Mozart effect as an easy way of improving cognitive performance immediately after passive music listening to Mozart’s sonata K. 448 (Chabris, 1999, after which healthy young adult students could perform with enhanced spatial- temporal abilities in tasks such as the Paper Folding Task (PFT, nowadays there is a number of studies indicating that this specific music excerpt does not necessarily have this magical influence on all cognitive abilities (e.g. on the overall Intelligence Quotient in humans and on the behavior of animals (for a review see Giannouli, Tsolaki & Kargopoulos, 2010. In addition to that, questions arise whether listening to this ‘magic music excerpt’ does indeed have benefits that generalize across a wide range of cognitive performance, and if it can induce changes that are of importance for medical and therapeutic purposes in patients with neurological disorders (e.g. epilepsy or psychiatric disorders (e.g. dementia, depression (Verrusio et al., 2015.

  3. Qualitative Research and Community-Based Participatory Research: Considerations for Effective Dissemination in the Peer-Reviewed Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieb, Suzanne Dolwick; Eder, Milton Mickey; Smith, Katherine C; Calhoun, Karen; Tandon, Darius

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is appearing with increasing frequency in the public health and medical literature. Qualitative research in combination with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach can be powerful. However little guidance is available on how to present qualitative research within a CBPR framework for peer-review publications. This article provides a brief overview of how qualitative research can advance CBPR partnerships and outlines practical guidelines for writing for publication about qualitative research within a CBPR framework to (1) guide partners with little experience publishing in peer-reviewed journals and/or (2) facilitate effective preparation of manuscripts grounded in qualitative research for peer-reviewed journals. We provide information regarding the specific benefits of qualitative inquiry in CBPR, tips for organizing the manuscript, questions to consider in preparing the manuscript, common mistakes in the presentation of qualitative research, and examples of peer-reviewed manuscripts presenting qualitative research conducted within a CBPR framework. Qualitative research approaches have tremendous potential to integrate community and researcher perspectives to inform community health research findings. Effective dissemination of CBPR informed qualitative research findings is crucial to advancing health disparities research.

  4. Research on nonlinearity effect of secondary electron multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xingjian; Liao Junsheng; Deng Dachao; Yu Chunrong; Yuan Li

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinearity of secondary electron multiplier (SEM) of a thermal ionization mass spectrometer has been researched by using UTB-500 uranium isotope reference material and multi-collecting technique. The results show that the nonlinearity effect of SEM exists in the whole ion counting range, and there is an extreme point of the nonlinearity when the ion counting rate is about 20000 cps. The deviation between measured value of the extreme point and the reference value of the reference sample can be up to 3%, and the nonlinearity obeys logarithm linearity law on both sides of extreme point. A kind of mathematics model of nonlinearity calibration has been put forward. Using this model, the nonlinearity of SEM of TIMS can be calibrated. (authors)

  5. Data sources for heart failure comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H

    2013-01-01

    Existing data sources for heart failure research offer advantages and disadvantages for CER. Clinical registries collect detailed information about disease presentation, treatment, and outcomes on a large number of patients and provide the "real-world" population that is the hallmark of CER. Data are not collected longitudinally, however, and follow-up is often limited. Large administrative datasets provide the broadest population coverage with longitudinal outcomes follow-up but lack clinical detail. Linking clinical registries with other databases to assess longitudinal outcomes holds great promise. The Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research recommends further efforts on longitudinal linking of administrative or EHR-based databases, patient registries, private sector databases (particularly those with commercially insured populations that are not covered under federal and state databases), and other relevant data sources containing pharmacy, laboratory, adverse events, and mortality information. Advancing the infrastructure to provide robust, scientific data resources for patient-centered CER must remain a priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The results of research on the effectiveness of line management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Lapushkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the relevance of research concerning the management system effectiveness in the project company. It shows that the emergence of independent commercial enterprises in the electrical power sector led both to deterioration of continuous processes controllability and to serious failures in functioning of infrastructure processes (repairs, invoice, and receipt of monetary funds. But, at the same time, a number of processes showed an increase of operation efficiency due to decrease in expenses when functioning.Coordination of activities between holding and company showed that process to come up with the weighty arguments in favor of one or other management decisions was the most complicated.The objective of the article is worded as follows: to reveal the regularities for the management efficiency to depend both on the echelons of regulation to make a decision at various times of delay (time from the decision-making moment before impact on object/subject of management and on the abovementioned factors.The research was carried out using the model of the control loop. When conducting research, the model used only line (proportional link, as the most often encountered in the development of management systems in organizations. Line (proportional link is the link with the output value changing with time according to the same law, as the input value. In management the proportional link means that managerial decisions and the impact on employees is proportional to the rejection of planned and actual performances of company activities.To assess the quality of management at different stages of the regulation, principles of regulation and management structures the article suggests to use the indicators of management costs, the integrated indicator of management error, the coefficient of regulation quality, the ratio of discounted costs, and the efficiency of regulation. It also proposes to use the efficiency factor of regulation to show which

  7. Errors and Uncertainties in Dose Reconstruction for Radiation Effects Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2008-04-14

    Dose reconstruction for studies of the health effects of ionizing radiation have been carried out for many decades. Major studies have included Japanese bomb survivors, atomic veterans, downwinders of the Nevada Test Site and Hanford, underground uranium miners, and populations of nuclear workers. For such studies to be credible, significant effort must be put into applying the best science to reconstructing unbiased absorbed doses to tissues and organs as a function of time. In many cases, more and more sophisticated dose reconstruction methods have been developed as studies progressed. For the example of the Japanese bomb survivors, the dose surrogate “distance from the hypocenter” was replaced by slant range, and then by TD65 doses, DS86 doses, and more recently DS02 doses. Over the years, it has become increasingly clear that an equal level of effort must be expended on the quantitative assessment of uncertainty in such doses, and to reducing and managing uncertainty. In this context, this paper reviews difficulties in terminology, explores the nature of Berkson and classical uncertainties in dose reconstruction through examples, and proposes a path forward for Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Project 2.4 that requires a reasonably small level of effort for DOSES-2008.

  8. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The report lists the titles and authors of the reports of studies made under the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The list include 87 studies, which cover 'immunological diagnosis of lung cancer', 'electrophoretic variants of haptoglobin found in the children of atomic bomb survivors', 'rogue cells in the general human population', 'host variation of X-ray sensitivity among atomic bomb survivors with or without breast cancer', 'disorders in the endocrine gland and gonad of A-bomb survivors', 'incidence of vertebral compression fractures among atomic bomb survivors', 'measurement of the frequency of in vivo somatic mutation in atomic bomb survivors by T-cell cloning', 'mechanism of carcinogenesis in A-bomb survivors', 'effects of aging on blood pressure', 'expediting factors of blood sedimentation of heavily exposed survivors', 'record linkage between local cancer registry and tumor and tissue registries', 'reclassification of diagnosis and types of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima', 'cytogenetic study in utero exposed individuals', 'estimation of indoor and outdoor A-bomb gamma-ray doses by thermoluminescence measurement', and many other studies. (N.K.) 87 refs

  9. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  11. Critical Research for Cost-Effective Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liwei [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Deng, Xunming [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Abken, Anka [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Cao, Xinmin [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Du, Wenhui [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Vijh, Aarohi [Xunlight Corporation, Toledo, OH (United States); Ingler, William [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Chen, Changyong [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Fan, Qihua [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Collins, Robert [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Compaan, Alvin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Yan, Yanfa [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Giolando, Dean [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-10-29

    The objective of this project is to develop critical technologies required for cost-effective production of hydrogen from sunlight and water using a-Si triple junction solar cell based photo-electrodes. In this project, Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE) and its collaborating organizations utilize triple junction a-Si thin film solar cells as the core element to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. Triple junction a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe solar cell is an ideal material for making cost-effective PEC system which uses sun light to split water and generate hydrogen. It has the following key features: 1) It has an open circuit voltage (Voc ) of ~ 2.3V and has an operating voltage around 1.6V. This is ideal for water splitting. There is no need to add a bias voltage or to inter-connect more than one solar cell. 2) It is made by depositing a-Si/a-SiGe/aSi-Ge thin films on a conducting stainless steel substrate which can serve as an electrode. When we immerse the triple junction solar cells in an electrolyte and illuminate it under sunlight, the voltage is large enough to split the water, generating oxygen at the Si solar cell side (for SS/n-i-p/sunlight structure) and hydrogen at the back, which is stainless steel side. There is no need to use a counter electrode or to make any wire connection. 3) It is being produced in large rolls of 3ft wide and up to 5000 ft long stainless steel web in a 25MW roll-to-roll production machine. Therefore it can be produced at a very low cost. After several years of research with many different kinds of material, we have developed promising transparent, conducting and corrosion resistant (TCCR) coating material; we carried out extensive research on oxygen and hydrogen generation catalysts, developed methods to make PEC electrode from production-grade a-Si solar cells; we have designed and tested various PEC module cases and carried out extensive outdoor testing; we were able to obtain a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH

  12. Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: a correlational approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenthal, Robert; Rosnow, Ralph L; Rubin, Donald B

    2000-01-01

    .... Researchers, teachers of research methods, and graduate students will be familiar with the principles and procedures of contrast analysis but will also be introduced to a series of newly developed...

  13. Researching effects of prescribed fire in hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Tara Keyser; Susan C. Loeb; David L. Loftis; W. Henry McNab; Joy M. O' Keefe; Callie Jo Schweitzer; Martin Spetich

    2012-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management Research Work Unit (RWU 4157) is a group of research teams located across the South, strategically placed to conduct research in physiographic sub-regions of the upland hardwood ecosystems including the southern Appalachian Mountains, the Cumberland Plateau, the Boston Mountains, and the Missouri Plateau. Our RWU is one of 16...

  14. Reporting and Interpreting Effect Size in Quantitative Agricultural Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrlik, Joe W.; Williams, Heather A.; Jabor, M. Khata

    2011-01-01

    The Journal of Agricultural Education (JAE) requires authors to follow the guidelines stated in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association [APA] (2009) in preparing research manuscripts, and to utilize accepted research and statistical methods in conducting quantitative research studies. The APA recommends the reporting of…

  15. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Belojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the cardiovascular effects of noise in Serbia started in the year 2002, including experimental studies on humans and epidemiological studies on the adult and children population of Belgrade and Pancevo. Experimental exposure to noise [L eq = 89 dB (A] had a hypodynamic effect, significantly lowering the cardiac index, cardiac work, and pump performance (P 45 dB (A] and quiet areas [(L night , 8h ≤ 45 dB (A] were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for hypertension of the exposed group was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.03 - 2.42, P = 0.038, where men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. Associations between road traffic noise and blood pressure were also investigated in 328 preschool children in Belgrade. The systolic blood pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy residences and kindergartens, compared to children from both quiet environments (97.30 ± 8.15 and 92.33 ± 8.64 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01. As a continuation of the study on preschool children, investigations were also carried out on 856 school children, aged between seven and eleven years, in Belgrade. It was found that systolic pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy schools and quiet residences, compared to children from both quiet environments (102.1 ± 9,3 and 100.4 ± 10.4 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01.

  16. Research on Hippotherapy Effects in Children whith Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamfir MARCHIS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the interaction of children with special needs and horses, which attempts to demonstrate the effects of hipoterapy in helping children with disabilities. The research was conducted on a group of 20 children with disabilities who participated in this type of therapy for 8 months (January-August 2015 in Leorinţ Leisure Center and Riding Therapy, which owns 6 horses. This study was conducted by a psychologist pre- and post-evaluation and there were followed skills and cognitive function, motor skills, spatial-temporal orientation skills, sensory-perceptual organization, examining language and personality of children. In the first stage an initial assessment of children was made representing the starting point to see to what extent children are, what special needs they have and what gaps need to be recovered or what skills and qualities may be based in therapy. After 3 months of hippotherapy, in April 2015, there was made intermediar evaluation of beneficiaries to see if the intended results were achieved and where to optimise the therapy. The final evaluation was conducted in August 2015, after four months from the intermediar evaluation. Applying hippotherapy for children with various disabilities, it was found that children moving better, move better, speak more easily, communicate and become more careful. Besides outcomes of hippotherapy and results are measurable and easily to observe such as satisfaction to participate in hippotherapy sessions and getting  into contact with the horses.

  17. Facebook: an effective tool for participant retention in longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychasiuk, R; Benzies, K

    2012-09-01

    Facebook is currently one of the world's most visited websites, and home to millions of users who access their accounts on a regular basis. Owing to the website's ease of accessibility and free service, demographic characteristics of users span all domains. As such, Facebook may be a valuable tool for locating and communicating with participants in longitudinal research studies. This article outlines the benefit gained in a longitudinal follow-up study, of an intervention programme for at-risk families, through the use of Facebook as a search engine. Using Facebook as a resource, we were able to locate 19 participants that were otherwise 'lost' to follow-up, decreasing attrition in our study by 16%. Additionally, analysis indicated that hard-to-reach participants located with Facebook differed significantly on measures of receptive language and self-esteem when compared to their easier-to-locate counterparts. These results suggest that Facebook is an effective means of improving participant retention in a longitudinal intervention study and may help improve study validity by reaching participants that contribute differing results. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Confirmatory research program: effects of atmospheric contaminants on commercial charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.; Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO 2 , NO 2 , CO 2 , methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals

  19. Which research is needed to support clinical decision-making on integrative medicine?- Can comparative effectiveness research close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Huang, Wen-jing; Lao, Lixing; Bm, Berman

    2012-10-01

    In clinical research on complementary and integrative medicine, experts and scientists have often pursued a research agenda in spite of an incomplete understanding of the needs of end users. Consequently, the majority of previous clinical trials have mainly assessed the efficacy of interventions. Scant data is available on their effectiveness. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) promises to support decision makers by generating evidence that compares the benefits and harms of the best care options. This evidence, more generalizable than the evidence generated by traditional randomized controlled trials (RCTs), is better suited to inform real-world care decisions. An emphasis on CER supports the development of the evidence base for clinical and policy decision-making. Whereas in most areas of complementary and integrative medicine data on comparative effectiveness is scarce, available acupuncture research already contributes to CER evidence. This paper will introduce CER and make suggestions for future research.

  20. Application of Hierarchical Linear Models/Linear Mixed-Effects Models in School Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel data are very common in educational research. Hierarchical linear models/linear mixed-effects models (HLMs/LMEs) are often utilized to analyze multilevel data nowadays. This paper discusses the problems of utilizing ordinary regressions for modeling multilevel educational data, compare the data analytic results from three regression…

  1. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  2. The effect of excellence funding on academic research prac-tices: comparing 16 Dutch research groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Wout; Hessels, Laurens; van Drooge, L.

    2017-01-01

    In the last 25 years academic research in The Netherlands has seen a rise of excellence oriented research policy instruments. These excellence funding schemes aim to selectively support high-performing and high-potential individuals or organizations, in order to increase differentiation within the

  3. Guide to effective research-management collaboration at long-term environmental research sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson; Steve Eubanks; Mary Beth Adams; John C. Brissette

    2010-01-01

    The Forest Service system of experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) and other sites of long-term silvicultural, watershed, and ecological research have contributed to science and natural resource management for more than a century. An important aspect of the success of EFR programs is strong collaboration between the research and land manager communities. This guide...

  4. Towards Building a Bridge between Community Engagement in Research (CEnR) and Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed M; Nelson, David; Kissack, Anne; Franco, Zeno; Whittle, Jeff; Kotchen, Theodore; Meurer, John R; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Brandenburg, Terry

    2015-04-01

    A major national priority is establishing an effective infrastructure for translation of scientific discoveries into the community. Knowledge and practice continue to accelerate in health research yet healthcare recommendation adoption remains slow for practitioners, patients, and communities. Two areas of research placed in the later stages of the translational research spectrum, Community Engagement in Research and Comparative Effectiveness Research, are ideal for approaching this challenge collaboratively. The Clinical and Translational Science Institute of Southeastern Wisconsin convened academics and community-based organizations familiar with these fields of research in a 1-day workshop to establish an initial dialogue on similarities and differences with a goal of exploring ways to operationalize a collective effort. Participants represented four academic institutions and twelve other healthcare and community-based service organizations. Primary fields of study included community engaged research, comparative effectiveness research, psychology, clinical research, administration, nursing, public health, education, and other professionals. This initial report outlines the results of this diverse discussion and provides insights into the priorities, diverging issues, and areas for future examination and practice. Key discoveries reveal clear crosscutting issues, value in philosophical and provocative discussions among investigators, a need for practice and lessons learned, and bidirectional exchange with community representation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  8. Organizational Effectiveness = Corporate Performance? Why and How Two Research Traditions Need to be Merged

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glunk, U.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness and corporate performance research seem to deal with the same core construct: organizational effectiveness/performance.However, both research traditions have produced separate bodies of literature and have developed different strengths and weaknesses.Organizational

  9. Ultra-Short-Pulse Laser Effects Research and Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables research into advanced laser countermeasure techniques.DESCRIPTION: This laser facility has a capability to produce very high peak power levels of...

  10. Research, statistics and mathematics educators in Nigeria: effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over reliance on the perspective of a dichotomous reject or fail-to-reject outcome from a null hypothesis testing framework to answer research questions has become a worrisome issue to research methodologists and statistics experts. Thus, the Journals of Mathematical Association of Nigeria, Abacus (2013 & 2014) were ...

  11. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...

  12. Effective Science Instruction: What Does Research Tell Us? Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banilower, Eric; Cohen, Kim; Pasley, Joan; Weiss, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This brief distills the research on science learning to inform a common vision of science instruction and to describe the extent to which K-12 science education currently reflects this vision. A final section on implications for policy makers and science education practitioners describes actions that could integrate the findings from research into…

  13. Developing effective supervisors: Concepts of research | Lee | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The untrained Ph.D. supervisor will copy (or avoid copying) the way that they were supervised themselves. Current literature on Ph.D. supervision focuses either on lists of tasks that the supervisor must undertake or on conceptions of research. There is a need for a conceptual approach to research supervision.

  14. [Which research is needed to support clinical decision-making on integrative medicine? Can comparative effectiveness research close the gap?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Huang, Wen-jing; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M

    2013-08-01

    In clinical research on complementary and integrative medicine, experts and scientists have often pursued a research agenda in spite of an incomplete understanding of the needs of end users. Consequently, the majority of previous clinical trials have mainly assessed the efficacy of interventions. Scant data is available on their effectiveness. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) promises to support decision makers by generating evidence that compares the benefits and harms of best care options. This evidence, more generalizable than evidence generated by traditional randomized clinical trials (RCTs), is better suited to inform real-world care decisions. An emphasis on CER supports the development of the evidence base for clinical and policy decision-making. Whereas in most areas of complementary and integrative medicine data on CER is scarce, available acupuncture research already contributes to CER evidence. This paper will introduce CER and make suggestions for future research.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  20. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  2. Establishing the infrastructure to conduct comparative effectiveness research toward the elimination of disparities: a community-based participatory research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Danyell S; Dapic, Virna; Sultan, Dawood H; August, Euna M; Green, B Lee; Roetzheim, Richard; Rivers, Brian

    2013-11-01

    In Tampa, Florida, researchers have partnered with community- and faith-based organizations to create the Comparative Effectiveness Research for Eliminating Disparities (CERED) infrastructure. Grounded in community-based participatory research, CERED acts on multiple levels of society to enhance informed decision making (IDM) of prostate cancer screening among Black men. CERED investigators combined both comparative effectiveness research and community-based participatory research to design a trial examining the effectiveness of community health workers and a digitally enhanced patient decision aid to support IDM in community settings as compared with "usual care" for prostate cancer screening. In addition, CERED researchers synthesized evidence through the development of systematic literature reviews analyzing the effectiveness of community health workers in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of African American adults toward cancer prevention and education. An additional systematic review analyzed chemoprevention agents for prostate cancer as an emerging technique. Both of these reviews, and the comparative effectiveness trial supporting the IDM process, add to CERED's goal of providing evidence to eliminate cancer health disparities.

  3. Research in the real world: Social context and its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adeline G; Levine, Murray

    2014-03-01

    Although scientists are supposedly concerned only with the pursuit of scientific truth, it was recognized early on that they have personal and professional agendas and are subject to human fallibilities. Openness allowing the scientific community to oversee each member's work depends a great deal upon publication of scientific work. Research reports are cultural artifacts shaped by social forces. In most instances of theoretically oriented work, the roles making up the social context, the researchers, funding agencies, journal editors, publishers, critics, and consumers of research all tend to be scientists sharing common interests and assumptions. There are many actors in addition to scientists in the social context of evaluative research. The actors-sometimes called stakeholders-include people whose lives may change, politicians, government agencies, private foundations, businesspersons, taxpayers, the mass media, and advocates. These actors have varied interests in the research enterprise, are embedded in varied reference groups, and bring different assumptions and values to the task. Their interactions shape the research product at every step. In this genre of research, the contexts are diverse. To illustrate the generality of the influence of social context, the authors draw on three diverse examples spanning a century: the Love Canal industrial disaster of the late 1970s, the ultimately failed attempt in the early 1900s to transplant the Gary, Indiana, progressive school system to New York City (NYC); and some recent studies of charter school students' academic performance.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-22

    effective, preventive ... one of the most cost-effective health interventions in Ghana [14]. .... economic factors, health service factors, availability and accessibility .... of mothers/caregivers to differentiate between any mosquito net.

  5. Mediator and moderator effects in developmental and behavioral pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brigid M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Coakley, Rachael Millstein; Franks, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-01

    The terms mediation and moderation are defined and clarified with particular emphasis on the role of mediational and moderational analyses in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. The article highlights the applicability of mediational and moderational analyses to longitudinal, intervention, and risk and protective factor research, and it provides basic information about how these analyses might be conducted. Also included is a discussion of various ways that both mediator and moderator variables can be incorporated into a single model. The article concludes with extended examples of both types of analyses using a longitudinal pediatric study for illustration. The article provides recommendations for applying mediational and moderational research in clinical practice.

  6. Research of the radiation effects distributing rule for electron element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yanyin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of testing way for statistical distribution is researched, and using the irradiation date on trial, application of Shapiro-wilk and construct way to radiation reinforce element checking and accepting is explained and authenticated. (authors)

  7. Research on Health and Environmental Effects of Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has linked regulated air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, to lung, heart disease and other health problems. Further investigation is needed to understand the role poor air quality plays on health and disease

  8. Effective ways to communicate research using the poster format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous academic conferences feature multiple venues for presentation of academic research results. While numerous associations provide conference presenters with potential best practices for the generation and presentation of information, not all presenters follow the suggested guidelines. This st...

  9. The effective management of medical isotope production in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    During the 50-yr history of the use of radioisotopes for medical applications, research reactors have played a pivotal role in the production of many if not most of the key products. The marriage between research reactors and production operations is subject to significant challenges on two fronts. The medical applications of the radioisotope products impose some unique constraints and requirements on the production process. In addition, the mandates and priorities of a research reactor are not always congruent with the demands of a production environment. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of medical isotope production, identifies the unique challenges facing this endeavor, and discusses the management of the relationship between the isotope producer and the research reactor operator. Finally, the key elements of a successful relationship are identified

  10. Lessons in collaboration and effective field research from the Appalachian Headwaters Research Experience for Undergraduates Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. L.; Fox, J.; Wilder, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2009, the authors launched year one of a three-year National Science Foundation-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates entitled "Carbon Storage and Headwater Health in the Appalachian Headwaters." Eight undergraduates selected from a nationally competitive field of more than 60 applicants participated in the ten-week field- and laboratory-based program along with three middle- and high-school teachers. Each student developed and completed an independent research project related to coal mining’s impact on soil organic carbon and sediment transport processes. Specifically, they used isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signature of soils and sediments in the Appalachian headwater landscapes and first order streams of Kentucky's southeastern coalfields. Among the program's innovative features was its fundamentally collaborative nature--which was represented in several ways. First, the background of the three program leaders was very different: an environmental planner with an academic background in land use planning and administration (Jones); a civil engineer trained in biogeochemistry and watershed modeling (Fox); and an environmental educator experienced in both formal and nonformal educator training and certification (Wilder). The program was also a collaboration between a Carnegie 1 research-oriented institution and an undergraduate/ teaching -focused regional comprehensive university. Finally, the participants themselves represented a diversity of disciplines and institutional backgrounds--including biology, geology, chemistry, environmental science and civil engineering. The Research Experience for Teachers component was another innovative program element. The teachers participated in all field and laboratory research activities during the first six weeks, then developed a unit of study for their own classrooms to be implemented during the current school year. In addition to the six

  11. Market Research for Effective Competition in the Federal Procurement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Distribution Costs 5. Manufacturing Costs 6. Vendor Attitude 7. Vendor Sales Strategy 8. Countertrade Figure 4. Research on Vendors Source: Summarized by the...subjects would be lease or buy, purchase of source of supply, and countertrade with vendors. The general area of research may be the same at a Navy ICP and...anticipate the vendor’s actions and design a purchasing stategy to provide for continued supply of needed items at lowest cost. Countertrade . Locating

  12. Cutting-edge technology for public health workforce training in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Nash, Michelle C; Salemi, Jason L; Mbah, Alfred K; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2013-06-01

    A critical mass of public health practitioners with expertise in analytic techniques and best practices in comparative effectiveness research is needed to fuel informed decisions and improve the quality of health care. The purpose of this case study is to describe the development and formative evaluation of a technology-enhanced comparative effectiveness research learning curriculum and to assess its potential utility to improve core comparative effectiveness research competencies among the public health workforce. Selected public health experts formed a multidisciplinary research collaborative and participated in the development and evaluation of a blended 15-week comprehensive e-comparative effectiveness research training program, which incorporated an array of health informatics technologies. Results indicate that research-based organizations can use a systematic, flexible, and rapid means of instructing their workforce using technology-enhanced authoring tools, learning management systems, survey research software, online communities of practice, and mobile communication for effective and creative comparative effectiveness research training of the public health workforce.

  13. Testing Moderator and Mediator Effects in Counseling Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Patricia A.; Tix, Andrew P.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this article are to (a) describe differences between moderator and mediator effects; (b) provide nontechnical descriptions of how to examine each type of effect, including study design, analysis, and interpretation of results; (c) demonstrate how to analyze each type of effect; and (d) provide suggestions for further reading. The…

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expectations,[2] but provide little context for students to enable them to negotiate problems ... among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations'. SA's situation is somewhat unique, as most international literature on cultural ... be effective, for example, for an emigrant learning a foreign language, but.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... Cardiometabolic risk among HIV-Positive Ugandan adults: prevalence, predictors and effect of ... term HIV infection, lifestyle changes, aging and the toxic effects of. ART, are ... Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured using the Omron M6 ..... guidelines on the prevention and management of metabolic.

  9. The effect of research method type on stereotypes' content: A brief research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Bizo, Aurelian; Cimpean, Alina Ioana; Oltean, Horea; Cardos, Roxana; Soflau, Radu; Negut, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype Content Model (SCM) emphasizes the content rather than the underlying processes of the stereotypes and the content might be influenced by several cultural dimensions (e.g., individualism vs. collectivism). The main dimensions of SCM-namely warmth and competence-underlying various contents are assumed to be universal. However, from a cognitive science paradigm, we argue that different research methods (i.e., data collections and data analysis) might also yield different stereotype contents that might impact the universality versus specificity problem in the SCM. Indeed, using a sample from a collectivistic country (i.e., Romania), we found that using different methods in data collection (i.e., unstructured vs. semi-structured vs. structured interview) and different methods of data analysis (i.e., availability vs. accessibility scores) might be an important research strategy to counter artefacts and confusions in the universality versus specificity problem related to the SCM. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Neighbourhood effects research at a crossroads : Ten challenges for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ham, M.; Manley, D.

    2012-01-01

    Marie Curie programme under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / Career Integration Grant n. PCIG10-GA-2011-303728 (CIG Grant NBHCHOICE, Neighbourhood choice, neighbourhood sorting, and neighbourhood effects).

  11. Late radiation effects: status and needs of epidemiologic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of late radiation effects in man are reviewed, based on exposure to the atomic bomb, radiotherapy, diagnostic radiations, and occupational or accidental exposures. Areas studied include: genetic effects, fertility, immunology, cancer, congenital malformations, growth and development, aging, cataracts, psychiatric effects, interactions with drugs or viruses, host susceptibility, and radiation factors. Cancer areas discussed include leukemia; thyroid, lung, breast, bone, and liver cancers; lymphoma; salivary gland tumors; brain tumors; nonleukemia cancers; intrauterine exposures; and preconception irradiation and childhood cancers. (U.S.)

  12. The research progress of microdose effect in semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yihua; Fan Ruyu; Guo Xiaoqiang; Lin Dongsheng; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Fengqi; Chen Wei

    2012-01-01

    The localized dose deposited around the track of a heavy ion can be high enough to induce a permanent failure in the semiconductor devices, such as the stuck bit error or functional failure. In this paper, progresses in studies on microdose effect are reviewed. Two basic failure mechanisms, i.e. the localized total dose effect and the strong coulomb repulsive force effect, are discussed. Typical failure modes in several types of devices, and the main impact factors, are discussed, too. (authors)

  13. Community Schools as an Effective Strategy for Reform. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Julia; Snyder, Jon David

    2016-01-01

    Research literature finds that community school models offering various agreed-upon features provide an excellent social return on investment and significant promise for providing opportunities for learning and promoting well-being in students and communities. Community schools show significant promise for addressing barriers to learning and…

  14. The effects of paradigmatic orientations of education research and discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, John Lawrence

    This essay presents an examination of contemporary disputes over methodological and epistemological foundations underlying inquiry within the field of education research; investigating the obstacles to communication and understanding found in scholarly exchanges occurring across competing paradigmatic orientations. Terminological challenges to cross-paradigmatic communication are examined, identifying three specific terminological difficulties, referred to as homonym, contextual, and onti-stemic problems. Nicholas Burbules' model of dialogue, based upon characteristics of convergence, divergence, inclusive and critical traits, is adopted and applied to a sample of cross-paradigmatic exchanges found in recent educational research journals. Examination of those exchanges reveals certain strategies associated with cross-paradigmatic communication. These strategies, labeled as trivialization, caricaturization, and re-direction, are shown to be detrimental to the mutual understanding of the interlocutors. The model is then extended to address examples of paradigmatic orientations within methodological and epistemological contexts in order to consider the relationship between the various orientations represented in the literature of interest. Methodological and epistemological orientations are shown to be loosely coupled, with unexpected shifts in paradigmatic values found among researchers' methodological and epistemological commitments. Finally, the nature of the relationship between competing paradigmatic orientations is examined, with particular attention given to four types of incommensurability (ontological, linguistic, epistemological, and values incommensurability). I conclude that, though difficult, cross-paradigmatic communication is necessary in order to provide a multi-paradigmatic perspective that takes us beyond the fractured picture of educational phenomena available from current research approaches.

  15. The Effect of New Technologies on Sign Language Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ceil; Mirus, Gene; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Roessler, Nicholas James; Frost, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper first reviews the fairly established ways of collecting sign language data. It then discusses the new technologies available and their impact on sign language research, both in terms of how data is collected and what new kinds of data are emerging as a result of technology. New data collection methods and new kinds of data are…

  16. Graduate Student Library Research Skills: Is Online Instruction Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Graduate students are a significant segment in online instruction programs, yet little is known about how well they learn the necessary library research skills in this increasingly popular mode of distance learning. This pre- and posttest study and citation analysis examined learning and confidence among students in graduate education programs,…

  17. Practical and effective innovation and research: IDRC's sixth annual ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... ... leaders in their own countries, in government, science, and business,” he said. “This is good news in itself, and has also helped to build important ... the $124 million food-security research program known as CIFSRF, putting ...

  18. Effects of Text Illustrations: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levie, W. Howard; Lentz, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Reviews results of 55 experiments comparing learning from illustrated text and learning from text alone. Research in closely related fields--nonrepresentational pictures (maps, diagrams, graphic organizers), learner-produced drawings, mental imagery, and oral prose--is also examined, and guidelines for practice are offered. A 160-item reference…

  19. Intergenerational Practice: Outcomes and Effectiveness. LGA Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kerry; Springate, Iain; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This research looked at five intergenerational projects focusing on football, arts, knife crime, living history and personal and social education. Two projects ran in schools, one in a health centre, one in a youth drop-in centre and one at a football club. Each project had its own aims, but in addition to these, the projects aimed to improve…

  20. The Effect and Importance of Technology in the Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Ed

    2014-01-01

    From elementary schooling to doctoral-level education, technology has become an integral part of the learning process in and out of the classroom. With the implementation of the Common Core Learning Standards, the skills required for research are more valuable than ever, for they are required to succeed in a college setting, as well as in the…

  1. Teachers' Emotions and Classroom Effectiveness: Implications from Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rosemary E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognition, motivation, and emotions are recognized by psychologists as the three fundamental classes of mental operations, yet most research in educational psychology has focused on the first two classes. Educational psychology textbooks for preservice teachers contain chapters on learning, problem solving, assessment, and motivation, but not on…

  2. The Peter Effect in Early Experimental Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Traces the ways in which educational researchers referred to Ronald A. Fisher's analysis of variance (ANOVA) between 1932 and 1944 in the "Journal of Experimental Education" (JXE). Shows how the changes in citational practices served to separate the ANOVA from its affiliation with Fisher, essentially effacing the memory of its human…

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-10

    Mar 10, 2016 ... Introduction. Teenage sexual activity is increasing globally with a trend towards .... of EC including indication, time frame for use, and side effects like nausea ... hospitals. This was followed by the mass media (Television and.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-05-25

    May 25, 2012 ... investigate factors associated to late the diagnosis of cervical cancer in Morocco ..... Mohamed Berraho: Contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, ... Effect of tumor size on the prognosis of carcinoma of the.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... Furthermore, physiotherapists promote quality of life through ... Methods. .... Transcribed data were entered into NVivo 9 software (NVivo, USA) and ..... management,[31] but also integral for effective team collaboration and a.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... 1District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, PO Box 358, Iganga, Uganda, 2Division of Global Health, .... countries shows that culture, religion, pain, adverse effects and loss ..... the food we can even get from home.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-07-15

    Jul 15, 2013 ... community leadership because he would be considered a bad omen to the community. .... this population by this approach (over 26,800 turned up thus nearly ..... transmitted disease (STD) and behavioral effects in men,.

  8. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    Purpose: Intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects on risk factor, health and/or performance. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled laboratory environment. Effects may thus...

  9. 75 FR 41867 - Request for Information on Development of an Inventory of Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research, which defined CER as the: Conduct and... stakeholders; and assist in identifying priorities and gaps for future research. The goal is to routinize the... Comparative Effectiveness Research AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation...

  10. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, L.S.; Wiechers, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 selections. Some of the titles are: Late effects of Polio: Historical Perspectives; Sleep-Disordered Breathing as a Late Effect of Poliomyelitis; Clinical Subtypes, DNA Repair Efficiency, and Therapeutic Trials in the Post-Polio Syndromes; and Post-Polio Muscle Function.

  11. Flaws in Flynn Effect Research with the Wechsler Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lawrence G.; Gregoire, Jacques; Zhu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Many Flynn effect (FE) studies compare scores across different editions of Wechsler's IQ tests. When construct changes are introduced by the test developers in the new edition, however, the presumed generational effects are difficult to untangle from changes due to test content. To remove this confound, we use the same edition of Wechsler…

  12. Reasons for Testing Mediation in the Absence of an Intervention Effect: A Research Imperative in Prevention and Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Holly P; MacKinnon, David P

    2018-03-01

    Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant. This article discusses the conditions under which mediation may be present when an intervention effect does not have a statistically significant effect and why mediation should always be considered important. Mediation may be present in the following conditions: when the total and mediated effects are equal in value, when the mediated and direct effects have opposing signs, when mediated effects are equal across single and multiple-mediator models, and when specific mediated effects have opposing signs. Mediation should be conducted in every study because it provides the opportunity to test known and replicable mediators, to use mediators as an intervention manipulation check, and to address action and conceptual theory in intervention models. Mediators are central to intervention programs, and mediators should be investigated for the valuable information they provide about the success or failure of interventions.

  13. Using the QUAIT Model to Effectively Teach Research Methods Curriculum to Master's-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy J.; Gitchel, Dent

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To apply Slavin's model of effective instruction to teaching research methods to master's-level students. Methods: Barriers to the scientist-practitioner model (student research experience, confidence, and utility value pertaining to research methods as well as faculty research and pedagogical incompetencies) are discussed. Results: The…

  14. Improving Education through Research? From Effectiveness, Causality and Technology to Purpose, Complexity and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of research in the improvement of educational practice. I use the "10 Principles for Effective Pedagogy," which were formulated on the basis of research conducted in the UK's Teacher and Learning Research Programme as an example to highlight some common problems in the discussion about research and…

  15. Research on reducing the edge effect in magnetorheological finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2011-03-20

    The edge effect could not be avoided in most optical manufacturing methods based on the theory of computer controlled optical surfacing. The difference between the removal function at the workpiece edge and that inside it is also the primary cause for edge effect in magnetorheological finishing (MRF). The change of physical dimension and removal ratio of the removal function is investigated through experiments. The results demonstrate that the situation is different when MRF "spot" is at the leading edge or at the trailing edge. Two methods for reducing the edge effect are put into practice after analysis of the processing results. One is adopting a small removal function for dealing with the workpiece edge, and the other is utilizing the removal function compensation. The actual processing results show that these two ways are both effective on reducing the edge effect in MRF.

  16. Research and Education: Planning an Effective Outreach Program in Balance with a Research Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian

    2002-04-01

    As scientific scholars and educators we are in a position to make a difference in outreach efforts to elementary and high school students as well as the general public, in addition to mentoring undergraduate and doctoral students. Outreach is a major component of the CAREER grant, the Lederman fellowship, as well as the primary focus of the Young Physicists Outreach Panel (YPOP). As recipients of these awards, and participants in YPOP, we would like to share our insights with the audience. The talk will cover the topics of YPOP, the Lederman Fellowship, and the CAREER grant. The Lederman Fellowship is awarded in recognition of Leon Lederman's legacy as an educator, where the fellows participate in educational/outreach programs of their choice. The NSF makes the CAREER awards to junion faculty. Outreach is of fundamental importance in these grants, with a 40 percent weight attached to the outreach and education component of the proposal. The speakers, a graduate student, a post-doctoral research fellow, and an Assistant Professor, will describe the educational/outreach activities they have been involved in, and discuss how outreach can be integrated into a career in physics research.

  17. Core conversion effects on the safety analysis of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoussis, J.N.; Chrysochoides, N.G.; Papastergiou, C.N.

    1982-07-01

    The safety related parameters of the 5 MW Democritus research reactor that will be affected by the scheduled core conversion to use LEU instead of HEU are considered. The analysis of the safety related items involved in such a core conversion, mainly the consequences due to MCA, DBA, etc., is of a general nature and can, therefore, be applied to other similar pool type reactors as well. (T.A.)

  18. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  19. Asian Partnership for Avian Influenza Research : Effectiveness of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Effective measures are required to contain its spread and reduce levels of infection. Methods ... by disease surveillance, compensation programs and communication campaigns. ... China Agricultural University as represented by Ke Bingsheng.

  20. Effective and efficient implementation of alternative project delivery : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Alternative project delivery (APD) methods such as Design Build (DB) and Construction Manager at Risk (CMAR), are used by state departments of transportation to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of project delivery. The Maryland Department of ...

  1. Shielding effectiveness research of window panes in microwave frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Bilotas, Evaldas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate microwave shielding effectiveness (SE) of modern window panes. In addition, it will be made sure of what is the main mechanism behind the electromagnetic shielding by investigating three different glasses reflection coefficient. In order to achieve these goals, shielding effectiveness of window panes and their components will be measured in semi-anechoic and anechoic chambers. Furthermore, these measurements will be done in near and far field conditi...

  2. Building a Foundation for Effective Technology Transfer through Integration with the Research Process : a Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This primer aims to increase the effectiveness of T2 activity in transportation by describing how T2 practices can be successfully integrated into : the research process to capture the potential real-world benefits of our communitys research inves...

  3. About the Associate Director for Health of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Ronald Hines serves as Associate Director for Health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD).

  4. About the Director of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Wayne Cascio serves as Acting Director for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD).

  5. What makes it work? Mapping effective game mechanics for health game user research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Many research projects have assessed the possibility and effectiveness of implementing games as health interventions. Recent literature shows generally positive results in specific case studies. However we acknowledged that research projects in this field regularly seem to disregard the connection

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... sought to establish the effect of CS on infant vaccination Coverage (IVC) in Mwingi west sub-county; Kenya. ... health outcomes through immunization coverage, Kenya needs to fast-track ...... Development Plan; Planning for Sustainable Socio-Economic ... Screening mammography & breast cancer.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2-5] The prevalence of burnout among paramedics varies, but ... over years of experience to mitigate the effects of work stress and subsequent ... ding stress related to the educational environment, the inherently stressful ... workload and performance not only influences the development of .... reported for nursing students.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    25 mars 2016 ... Factors associated with cephalic load carriage in children in Benin: cross- ... de la Jeunesse, de l'Education Physique et du Sport (INJEPS), Université ..... Echarri JJ, Forriol F. Effect of axial load on the cervical spine: a study of ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be a formalised assessment of performance, with a corrective plan of action to address ... art of self-reflection (which should be a component of feedback) has been .... able by 64.8% of registrars, while 59.4% perceived that the effect of feedback ... in the honing of clinical skills, how to answer written examination questions.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    training.[7] Culturally competent and effective client-centred communication ... Different skills and clinical reasoning processes are required for physio- ... There is a scarcity of literature on HBR in the physiotherapy context, ..... Mann K. Theoretical perspectives in medical education: Past experience and future possibilities.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care for effective healthcare delivery.[6] The concept of appreciating .... 'I think the ICF … has its perks and its disadvantages but I think you need a person that's seen ..... technology students' perceptions across four countries. Br Dent J 2015 ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-05-31

    May 31, 2011 ... Pearson´s correlation between GBCI35 and GBCI40 (indirect ... of being safe, cheap, non invasive and does not make use of ionizing radiation. ..... A, & Blaszzcynska, M. Effect Cigraette smoking on Gallbladder Emptying and ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... ... motivation among health workers (62%), overwhelming workload (89%) and abuse of services by clients ... which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the ..... additional drugs and other supplies [12]. .... disruptive effects of user fee exemption policies on health.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-05

    Sep 5, 2017 ... HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years, who received either stavudine or zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens. Using systematic ... not last long on them due to new possible side effects [9]. Studies ... these limitations, designing strategies aimed at prolonging the use of the original ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    science curricula,[1-6] promoting cost-effectiveness of student ... much irrelevant information from a dental perspective. ... of the medical students only, which may lead to prejudice and marginalisation of dental students. .... [12] Adult learners mostly decide ... Firstly, the dental and medical curricula could take separate routes.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inter alia, in higher education (HE), and the demand for globally competent graduates who ... effect is evident in the increasing number of foreign students and academic staff who .... Fourie,[9] internationalisation in the context of HE is understood as the process of integrating an international/intercultural dimension into the.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assigned to a different rural community, with the purpose of working with ... Objective. To assess the students' self-reported perception and effectiveness of the precommunity placement LDP at MUST and its impact during ... change in the task accomplishment skills, interpersonal relationship skills and quality of leadership.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress and distress among medical students may lead to physical, psychological ... and 'economically disadvantaged' interchangeably and defined these terms as a student ... Conclusion. The basic, but novel, student transport service described in this article can have a dramatic effect in reducing medical student stress and,.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-11

    Nov 11, 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: Antimicrobial prophylaxis for urologic procedures is a major issue, as potential advantages of antibiotic administration should be carefully weighed against potential side effects, microbial resistance, and health care costs. This study aimed to review a six years trend of antibiotic use in ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-07

    Oct 7, 2015 ... due to biological factors and socio cultural factors that limit their sexual autonomy and power [1]. .... either PMTCT interventions or men's migratory career choices due to a paucity of chart data on these ... clinic would be necessary in order to better understand the effect of. PMTCT interventions on access to ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    8 août 2012 ... 2g/l, un taux de LDL-cholestérol < 1,6 g/l, un taux de triglycérides < 1,5g/l. .... Independent effects of income and education on the risk of obesity in the ... coronary heart disease risk factos and physical fitness in healthy adult.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... 1Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Department of Medicine 1443, King ... PO Box 22490, Riyadh 11426, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2Medical Officer, .... food of whom 6 implicated Aubergines as a precipitant Table 1. .... Figure 1: Effect of budesonide/formoterol on fev1 after reversibility.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... The most effective antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeroginosa were ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Meropenem shows excellent activity against Gram negative bacteria. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was susceptible to Vancomycin and Rifampicin in 97% and 85% cases. Conclusion: ...

  4. Are researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, effective in improving researcher behavior? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazmanian, Paul E; Coe, Antoinette B; Evans, Jessica A; Longo, Daniel R; Wright, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Academic institutions funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program of the National Institutes of Health were challenged recently by the Institute of Medicine to expand traditional mentoring of graduate and postdoctoral scholars to include training and continuing education for faculty, professional staff, and community partners. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, are effective in improving researcher behavior. PubMed, CINAHL, and Education Research Complete databases and select journals were searched for relevant articles published from January 2000 through October 2012. A total of 3,459 papers were identified, and 114 papers were retrieved for in-depth analysis. None included randomization. Twenty-two papers reported subjects with professional degrees, interventions, and outcomes. Interventions were meetings, outreach visits, colleague mediation, audit and feedback, and multifaceted interventions. Most studies reported multifaceted interventions (68.2%), often involving mentored learning experiences, and meetings. All studies reported a change in performance, including numbers of publications or grant applications. Nine studies reported changes in competence, including writing, presentation, or analytic skills, and performance in research practice (40.9%). Even as, the quality of evidence was weak to establish causal linkages between researcher development and improved researcher behavior, nearly all the projects (81.8%) received funding from governmental agencies, professional societies, or other organizations. Those who design researcher development activities and those who evaluate the programs are challenged to develop tools and conduct studies that measure the effectiveness, costs, and sustainability of researcher development in the CTSA Program.

  5. Research of pulse gamma ray radiation effect on microcontroller system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shanchao; Ma Qiang; Jin Xiaoming; Li Ruibin; Lin Dongsheng; Chen Wei; Liu Yan

    2012-01-01

    An experimental result of power chip LM7805 and microcontroller EE80C196KC20 based on the EE80C196KC20 testing system was presented. The pulse gamma ray radiation effect was investigated using 'Qiangguang-Ⅰ' accelerator. Latchup threshold of the microcontroller was obtained, and the relationship of supply current and I/O output with the transient dose rate was observed. The result shows that the restrainability of power chip on pulse gamma ray radiation induces microcontroller latchup effect. (authors)

  6. The Greenhouse effect: from research to political action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Charmant, A.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1992-01-01

    What would be the ecological and socio-economic consequences of the warming of the planet Earth. The greenhouse effect is better defined today, but evaluating the dangers is still a risky business which demands extreme caution. The study recapitulates the current state of knowledge, and the preventive measures under consideration, so as to encourage the examination of the question

  7. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  8. Original Research Effects of maternal hypertension on the neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high blood pressure itself, and the effects of the hypertension on different organs. .... the labour wards or theatre were placed in two groups: the case group, which ... risk factors for increase in maternal or foetal morbidity and mortality, such as ...

  9. Research Article Smoking modifies the effect of two independent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sky123.Org

    the effect of NPPA SNPs rs5063 and rs198358 on central obesity might be .... Blood samples were collected in the morning after at least 8 hours of fasting. ... Student's t-test for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables.

  10. Research progress on the anticancer effects of vitamin K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xv, Fan; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Li, Shuzhuang

    2018-06-01

    Despite the availability of multiple therapeutic methods for patients with cancer, the long-term prognosis is not satisfactory in a number of different cancer types. Vitamin K2 (VK2), which exerts anticancer effects on a number of cancer cell lines, is considered to be a prospective novel agent for the treatment of cancer. The present review aims to summarize the results of studies in which VK2 was administered either to patients with cancer or animals inoculated with cancerous cells, particularly investigating the inhibitory effects of VK2 on cancerous cells, primarily involving cell-cycle arrest, cell differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy and invasion. The present review summarizes evidence stating that treatment with VK2 could positively inhibit the growth of cancer cells, making it a potentially useful approach for the prevention and clinical treatment of cancer. Additionally, the combination treatment of VK2 and established chemotherapeutics may achieve better results, with fewer side effects. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the effects of micronutrients on tumors.

  11. From challenging assumptions to measuring effect: Researching the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the analysis of the voluntary uptake and use of the Nokia Mobile Mathematics service by 3,957 Grade 10 learners. It measures the effect of the service on the school Mathematics attainment of 1,950 of these learners over one academic year. The study reveals that 21% of Grade 10 Mathematics ...

  12. Radiation effects on integrated circuits used in high energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanofsky, A.S.; Yost, B.; Farr, W.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report here on radiation effects on two amplifiers used in high energy experiments. These are standard devices that are produced by LeCroy. They describe each of the devices and the experimental techniques. Finally, they present and discuss the results of the measurements. 5 figs

  13. Effectiveness of Mentoring Program Practices. Research in Action. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on mentoring program practices in relation to issues of effectiveness, while recognizing that implications for program quality conceptualized more broadly is a key concern in need of greater investigation. The author provides an overview of selected conceptual and methodological issues involved with identification of…

  14. Stakeholder participation in comparative effectiveness research: defining a framework for effective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverka, Patricia A; Lavallee, Danielle C; Desai, Priyanka J; Esmail, Laura C; Ramsey, Scott D; Veenstra, David L; Tunis, Sean R

    2012-03-01

    AIMS: Stakeholder engagement is fundamental to comparative effectiveness research (CER), but lacks consistent terminology. This paper aims to define stakeholder engagement and present a conceptual model for involving stakeholders in CER. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: The definitions and model were developed from a literature search, expert input and experience with the Center for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Cancer Genomics, a proof-of-concept platform for stakeholder involvement in priority setting and CER study design. RESULTS: Definitions for stakeholder and stakeholder engagement reflect the target constituencies and their role in CER. The 'analytic-deliberative' conceptual model for stakeholder engagement illustrates the inputs, methods and outputs relevant to CER. The model differentiates methods at each stage of the project; depicts the relationship between components; and identifies outcome measures for evaluation of the process. CONCLUSION: While the definitions and model require testing before being broadly adopted, they are an important foundational step and will be useful for investigators, funders and stakeholder groups interested in contributing to CER.

  15. 176: EVIDENCE-BASED AND EFFECTIVE RESEARCH SKILLS OF IRANIAN MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafaei, Helia; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Mostafaei, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Recently, digital research is very popular in schools. The capacity of students to do an effective search is unclear which can lead to utilization of unacceptable evidence in their research. Aims To evaluate middle school students' effective search skills. Methods This survey was done during the summer school of Farzanegan talented students middle school. The self-administrated questionnaire studied 30 items about effective search and digital research skills of students. O...

  16. Nuclear Weapon Effect Research at PSR (Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation) - 1983. Acute Radiation Effects on Individual Crewmember Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-31

    information and data from other IDP investigations. Along with the IDP Core Group, DNA staff members David L. Auton and Robert W. Young of Science and...Studies Cruier-Destroyer Group 8 ATTN: Dir of Libraries ATTN: Commander USA Military Academy David Taylor Naval Ship R&D Ctr ATTN: Doc Library ATTN: Code...ATIN: S. Shrier 2 cys ATTN: Security & Subnation Conflict Horizons Technology, Inc Rand Corp ATTN: J. Palmer ATTN: B. Bennett lIT Research Ins t itute

  17. Accentuate the positive: nursing's challenge for 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham

    2016-12-14

    Few of us will forget the momentous events of 2016 - a remarkable year on so many fronts. Brexit, a new prime minister and the election of Donald Trump as US president stand out as defining events, but there have also been less dramatic developments that will have a profound impact on the future of nursing.

  18. Japanese Suffixal Accentuation and Lexical Phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Natsuko

    A study examined the applicability of the Ordering Hypothesis to Japanese suffixes. The hypothesis, which claims that affixes that trigger phonological rules (cyclical affixes) do not appear external to affixes that do not, is found to be an inappropriate assumption in Japanese. Examples in English and Chamorro support this finding. It is…

  19. Accentuated hyperparathyroidism in type II Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Daniel; Gurevich, Evgenia; Sinai-Treiman, Levana; Shalev, Hannah

    2016-07-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) may be associated with different degrees of hypercalciuria, but marked parathyroid hormone (PTH) abnormalities have not been described. We compared clinical and laboratory data of patients with either ROMK-deficient type II BS (n = 14) or Barttin-deficient type IV BS (n = 20). Only BS-IV patients remained mildly hypokalemic in spite of a higher need for potassium supplementation. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was mildly decreased in only four BS-IV patients. Average PTH values were significantly higher in BS-II (160.6 ± 85.8 vs. 92.5 ± 48 pg/ml in BS-IV, p = 0.006). In both groups, there was a positive correlation between age and log(PTH). Levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were not different. Total serum calcium was lower (within normal limits) and age-related serum phosphate (Pi)-SDS was increased in BS-II (1.19 ± 0.71 vs. 0.01 ± 1.04 in BS-IV, p < 0.001). The GFR threshold for Pi reabsorption was higher in BS-II (5.63 ± 1.25 vs. 4.36 ± 0.98, p = 0.002). Spot urine calcium/creatinine ratio and nephrocalcinosis rate (100 vs. 16 %) were higher in the BS-II group. PTH, serum Pi levels, and urinary threshold for Pi reabsorption are significantly elevated in type II vs. type IV BS, suggesting a PTH resistance state. This may be a response to more severe long-standing hypercalciuria, leading to a higher rate of nephrocalcinosis in BS-II.

  20. Developing strategic plans for effective utilization of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridikas, Danas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Sciences and Applications

    2015-12-15

    Strategic plans are indispensable documents for research reactors (RRs) to ensure their efficient, optimized and well managed utilization. A strategic plan provides a framework for increasing utilization, while helping to create a positive safety culture, a motivated staff, a clear understanding of real costs and a balanced budget. A strategic plan should be seen as an essential tool for a responsible manager of any RR, from the smallest critical facility to the largest reactor. Results and lessons learned are shown from the IAEA efforts to help the RR facilities developing strategic plans, provide review and advise services, organize national and regional stakeholder/user workshops, prepare further guidance and recommendations, document and publish guidance documents and other supporting materials.

  1. Developing strategic plans for effective utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, Danas

    2015-01-01

    Strategic plans are indispensable documents for research reactors (RRs) to ensure their efficient, optimized and well managed utilization. A strategic plan provides a framework for increasing utilization, while helping to create a positive safety culture, a motivated staff, a clear understanding of real costs and a balanced budget. A strategic plan should be seen as an essential tool for a responsible manager of any RR, from the smallest critical facility to the largest reactor. Results and lessons learned are shown from the IAEA efforts to help the RR facilities developing strategic plans, provide review and advise services, organize national and regional stakeholder/user workshops, prepare further guidance and recommendations, document and publish guidance documents and other supporting materials.

  2. Biological effects from electromagnetic fields: Research progress and exposure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, F.; Lovisolo, G.A.; Raganella, L.

    1992-01-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that exposure to high levels of electromagnetic, micro- and radiofrequency waves produces harmful effects to the health of man, the formulation of exposure limits is still an open process and dependent upon the evolving level of knowledge in this field. This paper surveys the current level of knowledge gained through 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' radiological and epidemiological studies on different types of electromagnetic radiation derived effects - chromosomal, mutagenic, carcinogenic. It then reviews efforts by international organizations, e. g., the International Radiation Protection Association, to establish exposure limits for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Brief notes are given on the electromagnetic radiation monitoring campaign being performed by public health authorities in the Lazio Region of Italy

  3. Experimental research on transient ionizing radiation effects of CMOS microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaoming; Fan Ruyu; Chen Wei; Wang Guizhen; Lin Dongsheng; Yang Shanchao; Bai Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental test system of CMOS microcontroller EE80C196KC20. Based on this system, the transient ionizing radiation effects on microcontroller were investigated using 'Qiangguang-I' accelerator. The gamma pulse width was 20 ns and the dose rate (for the Si atom) was in the range of 6.7 x 10 6 to 2.0 x 10 8 Gy/s in the experimental study. The disturbance and latchup effects were observed at different dose rate levels. Latchup threshold of the microcontroller was obtained. Disturbance interval and the system power supply current have a relationship with the dose rate level. The transient ionizing radiation induces photocurrent in the PN junctions that are inherent in CMOS circuits. The photocurrent is responsible for the electrical and functional degradation. (authors)

  4. Research Notes ~ Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Brown

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing and developing e-learning materials is a costly and time consuming enterprise. This paper highlights the elements of effective design that we consider assist in the development of high quality materials in a cost efficient way. We introduce six elements of design and discuss each in some detail. These elements focus on paying attention to the provision of a rich learning activity, situating this activity within an interesting story line, providing meaningful opportunities for student reflection and third party criticism, considering appropriate technologies for delivery, ensuring that the design is suitable for the context in which it will be used, and bearing in mind the personal, social, and environmental impact of the designed activities. Along the way, we describe how these design elements can be effectively utilized by contextualizing them with examples from an e-learning initiative.

  5. Effect of two Howard Hughes Medical Institute research training programs for medical students on the likelihood of pursuing research careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di; Meyer, Roger E

    2003-12-01

    To assess the effect of Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) two one-year research training programs for medical students on the awardees' research careers. Awardees of the HHMI Cloister Program who graduated between 1987 and 1995 and awardees of the HHMI Medical Fellows Program who graduated between 1991 and 1995 were compared with unsuccessful applicants to the programs and MD-PhD students who graduated during the same periods. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess research career outcomes while controlling for academic and demographic variables that could affect selection to the programs. Participation in both HHMI programs increased the likelihood of receiving National Institutes of Health postdoctoral support. Participation in the Cloister Program also increased the likelihood of receiving a faculty appointment with research responsibility at a medical school. In addition, awardees of the Medical Fellows Program were not significantly less likely than Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) and non-MSTP MD-PhD program participants to receive a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award, and awardees of the Cloister Program were not significantly less likely than non-MSTP MD-PhD students to receive a faculty appointment with research responsibility. Women and underrepresented minority students were proportionally represented among awardees of the two HHMI programs whereas they were relatively underrepresented in MD-PhD programs. The one-year intensive research training supported by the HHMI training programs appears to provide an effective imprinting experience on medical students' research careers and to be an attractive strategy for training physician-scientists.

  6. Engineered nanomaterials: toward effective safety management in research laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Hofmann, Heinrich; Meyer, Thierry

    2016-03-15

    It is still unknown which types of nanomaterials and associated doses represent an actual danger to humans and environment. Meanwhile, there is consensus on applying the precautionary principle to these novel materials until more information is available. To deal with the rapid evolution of research, including the fast turnover of collaborators, a user-friendly and easy-to-apply risk assessment tool offering adequate preventive and protective measures has to be provided. Based on new information concerning the hazards of engineered nanomaterials, we improved a previously developed risk assessment tool by following a simple scheme to gain in efficiency. In the first step, using a logical decision tree, one of the three hazard levels, from H1 to H3, is assigned to the nanomaterial. Using a combination of decision trees and matrices, the second step links the hazard with the emission and exposure potential to assign one of the three nanorisk levels (Nano 3 highest risk; Nano 1 lowest risk) to the activity. These operations are repeated at each process step, leading to the laboratory classification. The third step provides detailed preventive and protective measures for the determined level of nanorisk. We developed an adapted simple and intuitive method for nanomaterial risk management in research laboratories. It allows classifying the nanoactivities into three levels, additionally proposing concrete preventive and protective measures and associated actions. This method is a valuable tool for all the participants in nanomaterial safety. The users experience an essential learning opportunity and increase their safety awareness. Laboratory managers have a reliable tool to obtain an overview of the operations involving nanomaterials in their laboratories; this is essential, as they are responsible for the employee safety, but are sometimes unaware of the works performed. Bringing this risk to a three-band scale (like other types of risks such as biological, radiation

  7. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  8. Effective time management: surgery, research, service, travel, fitness, and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, C Rees; Anderson, Michael R; Steele, Scott R

    2013-12-01

    Over 1,500 years ago, the St. Benedictine Monks used planning and strict schedules to increase their productivity. Since then, surgeons have developed several different strategies to manage our time effectively. Finding a balance among career, family, and hobbies is essential for maintaining satisfaction and optimizing productivity. Several recurring themes throughout the medical literature offer potential solutions to help maximize the little time surgeons possess. In this article, we will explore some of the methods and strategies available to help surgeons minimize waste and make the most of the most precious commodity we have-our time.

  9. Effect Sizes for Research Univariate and Multivariate Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grissom, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Noted for its comprehensive coverage, this greatly expanded new edition now covers the use of univariate and multivariate effect sizes. Many measures and estimators are reviewed along with their application, interpretation, and limitations. Noted for its practical approach, the book features numerous examples using real data for a variety of variables and designs, to help readers apply the material to their own data. Tips on the use of SPSS, SAS, R, and S-Plus are provided. The book's broad disciplinary appeal results from its inclusion of a variety of examples from psychology, medicine, educa

  10. Injurious effects of millimeter waves: current status of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zaifu; Qian Huanwen

    2005-01-01

    Millimeter waves refer to extremely high-frequency (30-300 GHz) electromagnetic oscillations. The wide application of millimeter techniques to military affairs and medicine, especially the success of non-lethal millimeter weapon gives rise to serious concern about millimeter wave damage and protection against it. Millimeter wave radiation can cause circulatory failure and subsequent death when irradiated systemically, while it can only cause direct injury to cornea and skin because of its poor penetrability (less than 1 mm into biological tissue). In this paper a brief review of cornea and skin damage and lethal effect caused by millimeter wave radiation is given. (authors)

  11. Research effects for the resolution of hydrogen risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Wan; Kim, Jong Tae; Kang, Hyung Seok; Na, Young Su; Song, Jin Ho [Division of Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    During the past 10 years, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has performed a study to control hydrogen gas in the containment of the nuclear power plants. Before the Fukushima accident, analytical activities for gas distribution analysis in experiments and plants were primarily conducted using a multidimensional code: the GASFLOW. After the Fukushima accident, the COM3D code, which can simulate a multidimensional hydrogen explosion, was introduced in 2013 to complete the multidimensional hydrogen analysis system. The code validation efforts of the multidimensional codes of the GASFLOW and the COM3D have continued to increase confidence in the use of codes using several international experimental data. The OpenFOAM has been preliminarily evaluated for APR1400 containment, based on experience from coded validation and the analysis of hydrogen distribution and explosion using the multidimensional codes, the GASFLOW and the COM3D. Hydrogen safety in nuclear power has become a much more important issue after the Fukushima event in which hydrogen explosions occurred. The KAERI is preparing a large-scale test that can be used to validate the performance of domestic passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) and can provide data for the validation of the severe accident code being developed in Korea.

  12. Research effects for the resolution of hydrogen risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Wan; Kim, Jong Tae; Kang, Hyung Seok; Na, Young Su; Song, Jin Ho

    2015-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has performed a study to control hydrogen gas in the containment of the nuclear power plants. Before the Fukushima accident, analytical activities for gas distribution analysis in experiments and plants were primarily conducted using a multidimensional code: the GASFLOW. After the Fukushima accident, the COM3D code, which can simulate a multidimensional hydrogen explosion, was introduced in 2013 to complete the multidimensional hydrogen analysis system. The code validation efforts of the multidimensional codes of the GASFLOW and the COM3D have continued to increase confidence in the use of codes using several international experimental data. The OpenFOAM has been preliminarily evaluated for APR1400 containment, based on experience from coded validation and the analysis of hydrogen distribution and explosion using the multidimensional codes, the GASFLOW and the COM3D. Hydrogen safety in nuclear power has become a much more important issue after the Fukushima event in which hydrogen explosions occurred. The KAERI is preparing a large-scale test that can be used to validate the performance of domestic passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) and can provide data for the validation of the severe accident code being developed in Korea.

  13. Research on the climatic effects of nuclear war: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittock, A.B.; Galbally, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The major thrust of this work has been to investigate the surface climatic effects of a thin layer of smoke thought likely to move over Australia following a major nuclear war in the Northern Hemisphere. It was found that daily average surface coolings would be in the range of 2-4 deg C, but that daily maximum temperature could cool by 5 deg C or more over large areas of Australia, especially in the dry season. The most important effect over Australia would be a large reduction in summer monsoonal and convective rainfall. A computer model of the rising fireball was constructed. Simulations with this model suggested that some past estimates of nitrogen oxide injections into the upper atmosphere from near-surface nuclear explosions may be overestimated. Recommendations are made that a wider study be undertaken, which would take into account increases in ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion, and various socio-economic factors such as loss of vital imports, loss of economic incentives for farmers, and a possible controlled or uncontrolled influx of refugees. 24 refs., 3 figs

  14. Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species and Implications for Management and Research (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species and Implications for Management and Research . This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines sta...

  15. Future Efforts in Flynn Effect Research: Balancing Reductionism with Holism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Mingroni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available After nearly thirty years of concerted effort by many investigators, the cause or causes of the secular gains in IQ test scores, known as the Flynn effect, remain elusive. In this target article, I offer six suggestions as to how we might proceed in our efforts to solve this intractable mystery. The suggestions are as follows: (1 compare parents to children; (2 consider other traits and conditions; (3 compare siblings; (4 conduct more and better intervention programs; (5 use subtest profile data in context; and (6 quantify the potential contribution of heterosis. This last section contains new simulations of the process of heterosis, which provide a plausible scenario whereby rapid secular changes in multiple genetically influenced traits are possible. If there is any theme to the present paper, it is that future study designs should be simpler and more highly focused, coordinating multiple studies on single populations.

  16. RESEARCH OF EFFECTIVENESS OF „PLAMOSTOP“ FIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik MITRENGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with testing of a water-miscible intumescent fire retardant. Experiments are conducted by thermal analysis (TG / DTG, DSC, cone calorimeter and non-standardized methods for monitoring weight loss when exposed to flame burning. Based on the experiment results and other information the most appropriate methods for testing fire retardants are reviewed. All methods by which experiments have been carried out are described. Our own method for testing fire retardants was created. It is also evaluated the effectiveness of a representative fire retardant of wood by all mentioned methods. The result of the experiment is to evaluate the suitability of each method for testing of fire retardants and evaluation fire retardant “Plamostop”.

  17. The application of computer modeling to health effect research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R.S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the United States, estimates show that more than 30,000 hazardous waste disposal sites exist, not including military installations, U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities, and hundreds and thousands of underground fuel storage tanks; these sites undoubtedly have their own respective hazardous waste chemical problems. When so many sites contain hazardous chemicals, how does one study the health effects of the chemicals at these sites? There could be many different answers, but none would be perfect. For an area as complex and difficult as the study of chemical mixtures associated with hazardous waste disposal sites, there are no perfect approaches and protocols. Human exposure to chemicals, be it environmental or occupational, is rarely, if ever, limited to a single chemical. Therefore, it is essential that we consider multiple chemical effects and interactions in our risk assessment process. Systematic toxicity testing of chemical mixtures in the environment or workplace that uses conventional toxicology methodologies is highly impractical because of the immense numbers of mixtures involved. For example, about 600,000 chemicals are being used in our society. Just considering binary chemical mixtures, this means that there could be 600,000 x 599,999/2 = 359,999,400,000 pairs of chemicals. Assuming that only one in a million of these pairs of chemicals acts synergistically or has other toxicologic interactions, there would still be 359,999 binary chemical mixtures possessing toxicologic interactions. Moreover, toxicologic interactions undoubtedly exist among chemical mixtures with three or more component chemicals; the number of possible combinations for these latter mixtures is almost infinite. These are astronomically large numbers with respect to systematic toxicity testing. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 75 FR 14131 - Effect on Propane Consumers of the Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market Changes and Federal Programs AGENCY... Education and Research Council (PERC), in conjunction with the cumulative effects of market changes and... requirements under the Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 that established PERC and requires the...

  19. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    To this effect, two basic research with these research ... In this area, Ho conducted a research on a topic “Effectiveness o .... questioning, making a list, clustering, preparing a scratch .... three data collection instruments by using quantitative and.

  20. A research related with tomato, carotenoids and factors effecting them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan SÖNMEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid increase of human population, the requirement for foodstuff also increases and new species with high yield are tried to be regenerated in order to fulfill this increasing demand. Apart from the regeneration studies aiming to increase efficiency, increase in demand of healthy, natural nutrition, additive free and higher quality products increase the regeneration studies in this field. Environmental pollution, urban living conditions and high amount of prepared foodstuffs, increased the interest of people towards natural and nutritive foodstuff in recent years. Today, fruits and vegetables are consumed not only for nutrition purpose but also in order to prevent from diseases and considering their therapeutic properties. Therefore fruits and vegetables are preferred due to their content. Functional foodstuff term entered our life as a result of these developments. Almost all of vegetables have protective and therapeutic effects on human health due to the materials in their content. Tomato is one of them. It is widely consumed as fresh in our country just like in other parts of the world as well as in sauce, ketchup and tomato paste forms. Finding high quality tomato in every season has become a normal standard for Turkey.

  1. Research on Effective Supply Mode of Rural Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of definition and classification of rural public goods, this paper analyses the status quo of public goods supply in vast rural areas of China, and it indicates that the electricity and communication facility in rural areas have not yet been popularized; the culture and education facility is critically backward; the medical care and social warfare institutions are short. It points out the rational supply model of public goods as follows: the government plays dominant role in the public goods supply with a large amount of investments, related to the quality of living and production of multitudinous farmers; small wieldy quasi-public goods that can be easily supplied and marginalized public goods can introduce multiplex supply main body under the framework of government guidance. According to this model, corresponding policy suggestions are put forward as follows: increase financial inputs, and perfect local financial system; actively encourage the majority of farmers in rural areas to participate in public goods supply mechanism, so that the supply has pertinence; vigorously develop multiplex supply system of rural public goods, to ensure effective supply.

  2. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT.

  3. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu

    2015-01-01

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT

  4. Statistical Power in Evaluations That Investigate Effects on Multiple Outcomes: A Guide for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.

    2016-01-01

    In education research and in many other fields, researchers are often interested in testing the effectiveness of an intervention on multiple outcomes, for multiple subgroups, at multiple points in time, or across multiple treatment groups. The resulting multiplicity of statistical hypothesis tests can lead to spurious findings of effects. Multiple…

  5. The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

  6. Progressing from programmatic to discovery research: a case example with the overjustification effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Roane, Henry S; Fisher, Wayne W; McDonough, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific research progresses along planned (programmatic research) and unplanned (discovery research) paths. In the current investigation, we attempted to conduct a single-case evaluation of the overjustification effect (i.e., programmatic research). Results of the initial analysis were contrary to the overjustification hypothesis in that removal of the reward contingency produced an increase in responding. Based on this unexpected finding, we conducted subsequent analyses to further evalua...

  7. Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: possible synergistic effect of stress hyperglycemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress on the renal tubules has been implicated as a mechanism of injury in both stress hyperglycemia and contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of these effects has a synergistic effect on accentuating renal tubular apoptosis and therefore increasing the risk of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

  8. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Hochhauser, Daniel; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H

    2018-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. Design RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Results Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1: Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2: Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3: Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4: Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5: Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6: Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7: Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8: Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9: Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10: Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11: Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12: Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13: Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14: Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15: Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Conclusion Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC

  9. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Halloran, Stephen P; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hull, Mark A; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Monahan, Kevin J; Näthke, Inke; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H; Tomlinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1 : Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2 : Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3 : Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4 : Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5 : Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6 : Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7 : Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8 : Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9 : Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10 : Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11 : Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12 : Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13 : Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14 : Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15 : Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC disease burden over

  10. Translational educational research: a necessity for effective health-care improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, S Barry; Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-11-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research.

  11. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1989 - March 31, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the research activities of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in the fiscal year, 1989. Outcome of the work is presented, covering epidemiology, Adult Health Survey Program, cytogenetics, genetic biochemical survey, immunology, cytobiology, and statistics. Symposium entitled 'update information on effects of radiation', held on October 8, 1989, and the final workshop on 'aging', held on March 29-31, 1990, are outlined, accompanied by the other scientific lectures and campus study seminars. The report also includes research abstracts published by the Research Foundation staff. Bibliography of papers, published in scientific journals and presented in scientific meetings, is provided. Appendices give the proceedings of the aforementioned workshop on 'aging', the continuing research issues, and the personal list of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. (N.K.)

  12. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1988 - March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the research activities of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in the fiscal year 1988. Outcome of the work is presented, covering the two major workshops for 'immunology' and for 'radiation-induced carcinogenesis' which were held in Hiroshima on November 28-29, 1988, and on March 16-18, 1989, respectively. Study meeting of 'medical radiation research program' and Japan-the U.S. joint meeting of 'DS 86' are reported, as well as the other scientific lectures and campus study seminars. Included are research abstracts published by the Research Foundation staff. The bibliography of papers, published in scientific journals and presented in scientific meetings, is provided. Appendices give the details of the aforementioned workshops, the continuing research issues, and the personnel list of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. (N.K.)

  13. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia MacNeill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants’ experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Methods Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants’ relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. Conclusion These

  14. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Virginia; Foley, Marian; Quirk, Alan; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-01-29

    The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants' experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption) and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants' relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. These participants described no dramatic impacts attributable to taking part in

  15. Addressing the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Treatments: Applying an Effectiveness Research Model to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite expansive improvements in both treatments and research, the majority of persons with autism use non-empirically supported interventions. One way to decrease the research-to-practice gap involves increasing the direct applicability of research findings to clinical settings. Effectiveness research achieves this goal by identifying treatments…

  16. Progressing from programmatic to discovery research: a case example with the overjustification effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Henry S; Fisher, Wayne W; McDonough, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific research progresses along planned (programmatic research) and unplanned (discovery research) paths. In the current investigation, we attempted to conduct a single-case evaluation of the overjustification effect (i.e., programmatic research). Results of the initial analysis were contrary to the overjustification hypothesis in that removal of the reward contingency produced an increase in responding. Based on this unexpected finding, we conducted subsequent analyses to further evaluate the mechanisms underlying these results (i.e., discovery research). Results of the additional analyses suggested that the reward contingency functioned as punishment (because the participant preferred the task to the rewards) and that withdrawal of the contingency produced punishment contrast.

  17. Actual knowledge about some plants with radioprotective effect and about the research of possibilities their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalka, J.

    2004-01-01

    Study was undertaken to refer to me importance of radiological protection of human and animal species, especially. After the crash of nuclear power station in Chernobyl, Ukraine, an enormous natural catastrophe. The world wide research programs are dedicated to vearch for plants with radioprotective effect. Apparently representing sea vegetation, brown algae, were considered to have a radioprotective effect just as a large amount of plants representing terrestrial flora. The direction of research programs in the world continues in identification of other unknown plants having radioprotective effect. We would like to direct our research interests in this direction and use enormous possibilities of our rich and various vegetation. (author)

  18. Old Wine in New Bottles? Researching Effective Schools in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines the current status of effective-schools research in the developing world and identifies underlying concerns, including effects of World Bank structural-adjustment policies. Posits a contextually related view of school effectiveness--the need to eschew "objective" checklists and gather different stakeholders' perceptions about…

  19. Beyond a good story: from Hawthorne Effect to reactivity in health professions education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Elise; Sutkin, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Observational research is increasingly being used in health professions education (HPE) research, yet it is often criticised for being prone to observer effects (also known as the Hawthorne Effect), defined as a research participant's altered behaviour in response to being observed. This article explores this concern. First, this article briefly reviews the initial Hawthorne studies and the original formulation of the Hawthorne Effect, before turning to contemporary studies of the Hawthorne Effect in HPE and beyond. Second, using data from two observational studies (in the operating theatre and in the intensive care unit), this article investigates the Hawthorne Effect in HPE. Evidence of a Hawthorne Effect is scant, and amounts to little more than a good story. This is surprising given the foundational nature of the Hawthorne Studies in the social sciences and the prevalence of our concern with observer effects in HPE research. Moreover, the multiple and inconsistent uses of the Hawthorne Effect have left researchers without a coherent and helpful understanding of research participants' responses to observation. The authors' HPE research illustrates the complexity of observer effects in HPE, suggests that significant alteration of behaviour is unlikely in many research contexts, and shows how sustained contact with participants over time improves the quality of data collection. This article thus concludes with three recommendations: that researchers, editors and reviewers in the HPE community use the phrase 'participant reactivity' when considering the participant, observer and research question triad; that researchers invest in interpersonal relationships at their study site to mitigate the effects of altered behaviour; and that researchers use theory to make sense of participants' altered behaviour and use it as a window into the social world. The term 'participant reactivity' better reflects current scientific understandings of the research process and

  20. The application of microbeam in the research on radiation-induced bystander effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Han Ling

    2002-01-01

    There has been more and more attention to the phenomenon known as radiation-induced bystander effects, which will have a tremendous effect on the research in low -dose radiation biological effects. However, due to the stochastic nature of energy deposition and the random position of tracts, direct evidence for bystander effects and exact results of single particle interacts with a cell cannot be provided by using conventional broad-field irradiation. The availability of microbeam, especially the single particle microbeam in the world, whereby individual cells or precise location of cells can be irradiated with either a single or an exact number of particles provides a useful tool for the research on radiation-induced bystander effects. The author describes the radiation -induced bystander effect and the application of microbeam in the research on it

  1. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature

    OpenAIRE

    Boaz, Annette; Baeza, Juan; Fraser, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. Findings A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing...

  2. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  3. Supporting effective delivery: CSIR research on and advocacy of infrastructure management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available sets out issues of concern that arise when infrastructure management policies and practices do not meet acceptable standards, and it describes the research results. Finally, it summarises the plan and programme necessary to support effective delivery...

  4. 75 FR 990 - HHS Intent To Publish Grant and Contract Solicitations for Comparative Effectiveness Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, (2) 100 Institute of Medicine topic... Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research (FCC), and the Institute of Medicine Report on CER...

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Lecture Capture: Lessons Learned from an Undergraduate Political Research Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a 4-year quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of lecture capture in an undergraduate political research class. Students self-enrolled in either a traditional in-class lecture-discussion section or a fully online section of a required political research course. The class sessions from the in-class…

  6. Linking Research and Practice: Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jihyun

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a pivotal role in the ESL classroom. Whereas a considerable amount of research has examined effective ESL vocabulary teaching and learning, missing are studies that provide examples of how to put various research findings into practice: that is, apply them to real texts including target vocabulary items. In order to close the gap…

  7. Values Education as Holistic Development for All Sectors: Researching for Effective Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that values education has moved from being associated most heavily with the religious agenda of faith schools to being central to updated research insights into effective pedagogy. As such, it represents a vital approach to education in any school setting. The paper draws on an array of values education research and practice in…

  8. 76 FR 77670 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-AV88 Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... final rule for the establishment of a research area within the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary on...

  9. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  10. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effe......Introduction: Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory...... of the literature revealed lack of or poor consideration of effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. We present a method that has been developed over the course of several years parallel to intervention studies in healthcare. Material and methods: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3...... sources. Conclusion: The EMA method seems to offer a feasible procedure to obtain significant knowledge on potential effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. However, further development and validation is suggested....

  11. Efficacy and effectiveness of online cognitive behavioral treatment : a decade of interapy research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Schrieken, Bart; Emmelkamp, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Since 1996, researchers of the Interapy research group of the University of Amsterdam have been examining the effects of online cognitive behavioral treatment (online CBT). Over the years, the group conducted nine controlled trials of online CBT for a variety of mental health disorders, among a

  12. Educational Effectiveness Research (EER): A State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David; Sammons, Pam; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; Townsend, Tony; Teddlie, Charles; Stringfield, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Research and scholarship into educational effectiveness research (EER) is comprehensively reviewed from the UK, The Netherlands, the US, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, France, Germany, New Zealand, Australia, and other societies, dating from the field's origins in the 1970s. Issues include its history, methodological and theoretical advances, scientific…

  13. The Effect Of Beryllium Interaction With Fast Neutrons On the Reactivity Of ETRR-2 Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; El Messiry, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of beryllium interactions with fast neutrons is studied for Etrr 2 research reactors. Isotope build up inside beryllium blocks is calculated under different irradiation times. a new model for the Etrr 2 research reactor is designed using MCNP code to calculate the reactivity and flux change of the reactor due to beryllium poison

  14. The Advances in Research on the Pharmacological Effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunting Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructus Ligustri Lucidi is a well-known invigorator in Chinese materia medica with hepatoprotective effect, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, and so on. And oleanolic acids are the major pharmacologically active components in Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. So it has great value in medical health, and may be developed to a complementary and alternative medicine through further research. In this paper, the advances in research on pharmacological effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi were summarized by reviewing the recent related literature.

  15. Research Paper: Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Nesayan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.

  16. Causality in Statistical Power: Isomorphic Properties of Measurement, Research Design, Effect Size, and Sample Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eric Heidel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical power is the ability to detect a significant effect, given that the effect actually exists in a population. Like most statistical concepts, statistical power tends to induce cognitive dissonance in hepatology researchers. However, planning for statistical power by an a priori sample size calculation is of paramount importance when designing a research study. There are five specific empirical components that make up an a priori sample size calculation: the scale of measurement of the outcome, the research design, the magnitude of the effect size, the variance of the effect size, and the sample size. A framework grounded in the phenomenon of isomorphism, or interdependencies amongst different constructs with similar forms, will be presented to understand the isomorphic effects of decisions made on each of the five aforementioned components of statistical power.

  17. Effect size calculation in meta-analyses of psychotherapy outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William T; Del Re, A C

    2018-05-01

    Meta-analysis of psychotherapy intervention research normally examines differences between treatment groups and some form of comparison group (e.g., wait list control; alternative treatment group). The effect of treatment is normally quantified as a standardized mean difference (SMD). We describe procedures for computing unbiased estimates of the population SMD from sample data (e.g., group Ms and SDs), and provide guidance about a number of complications that may arise related to effect size computation. These complications include (a) incomplete data in research reports; (b) use of baseline data in computing SMDs and estimating the population standard deviation (σ); (c) combining effect size data from studies using different research designs; and (d) appropriate techniques for analysis of data from studies providing multiple estimates of the effect of interest (i.e., dependent effect sizes). Clinical or Methodological Significance of this article: Meta-analysis is a set of techniques for producing valid summaries of existing research. The initial computational step for meta-analyses of research on intervention outcomes involves computing an effect size quantifying the change attributable to the intervention. We discuss common issues in the computation of effect sizes and provide recommended procedures to address them.

  18. A systematic review of stakeholder engagement in comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, Thomas W; Fuster, Melissa; Saunders, Tully; Patel, Kamal; Wong, John B; Leslie, Laurel K; Lau, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a review of the peer-reviewed literature since 2003 to catalogue reported methods of stakeholder engagement in comparative effectiveness research and patient-centered outcomes research. We worked with stakeholders before, during and after the review was conducted to: define the primary and key research questions; conduct the literature search; screen titles, abstracts and articles; abstract data from the articles; and analyze the data. The literature search yielded 2,062 abstracts. The review was conducted on 70 articles that reported on stakeholder engagement in individual research projects or programs. Reports of stakeholder engagement are highly variable in content and quality. We found frequent engagement with patients, modestly frequent engagement with clinicians, and infrequent engagement with stakeholders in other key decision-making groups across the healthcare system. Stakeholder engagement was more common in earlier (prioritization) than in later (implementation and dissemination) stages of research. The roles and activities of stakeholders were highly variable across research and program reports. To improve on the quality and content of reporting, we developed a 7-Item Stakeholder Engagement Reporting Questionnaire. We recommend three directions for future research: 1) descriptive research on stakeholder-engagement in research; 2) evaluative research on the impact of stakeholder engagement on the relevance, transparency and adoption of research; and 3) development and validation of tools that can be used to support stakeholder engagement in future work.

  19. [Advance in researches on the effect of forest on hydrological process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhao, Yutao; Qin, Yongsheng

    2003-01-01

    According to the effects of forest on hydrological process, forest hydrology can be divided into three related aspects: experimental research on the effects of forest changing on hydrological process quantity and water quality; mechanism study on the effects of forest changing on hydrological cycle, and establishing and exploitating physical-based distributed forest hydrological model for resource management and engineering construction. Orientation experiment research can not only support the first-hand data for forest hydrological model, but also make clear the precipitation-runoff mechanisms. Research on runoff mechanisms can be valuable for the exploitation and improvement of physical based hydrological models. Moreover, the model can also improve the experimental and runoff mechanism researches. A review of above three aspects are summarized in this paper.

  20. Effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs: combining elements of clinical effectiveness and implementation research to enhance public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Geoffrey M; Bauer, Mark; Mittman, Brian; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Stetler, Cheryl

    2012-03-01

    This study proposes methods for blending design components of clinical effectiveness and implementation research. Such blending can provide benefits over pursuing these lines of research independently; for example, more rapid translational gains, more effective implementation strategies, and more useful information for decision makers. This study proposes a "hybrid effectiveness-implementation" typology, describes a rationale for their use, outlines the design decisions that must be faced, and provides several real-world examples. An effectiveness-implementation hybrid design is one that takes a dual focus a priori in assessing clinical effectiveness and implementation. We propose 3 hybrid types: (1) testing effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes while observing and gathering information on implementation; (2) dual testing of clinical and implementation interventions/strategies; and (3) testing of an implementation strategy while observing and gathering information on the clinical intervention's impact on relevant outcomes. The hybrid typology proposed herein must be considered a construct still in evolution. Although traditional clinical effectiveness and implementation trials are likely to remain the most common approach to moving a clinical intervention through from efficacy research to public health impact, judicious use of the proposed hybrid designs could speed the translation of research findings into routine practice.

  1. A descriptive study of effect-size reporting in research reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Judith A

    2017-06-01

    To describe effect-size reporting in research reviews completed in support of evidence-based practice in nursing. Many research reviews report nurses' critical appraisal of level, quality and overall strength of evidence available to address clinical questions. Several studies of research-review quality suggest effect-size information would be useful to include in these reviews, but none focused on reviewers' attention to effect sizes. Descriptive. One hundred and four reviews indexed in CINAHL as systematic reviews and published from July 2012-February 2014 were examined. Papers were required to be peer-reviewed, written in English, contain an abstract and have at least one nurse author. Reviews were excluded if they did not use critical appraisal methods to address evidence of correlation, prediction or effectiveness. Data from remaining papers (N = 73) were extracted by three or more independent coders using a structured coding form and detailed codebook. Data were stored, viewed and analysed using Microsoft Office Excel ® spreadsheet functions. Sixteen percent (n = 12) of the sample contained effect-size information. Of the 12, six included all the effect-size information recommended by APA guidelines. Independent of completeness of reporting, seven contained discussion of effect sizes in the paper, but none included effect-size information in abstracts. Research reviews available to practicing nurses often fail to include information needed to accurately assess how much improvement may result from implementation of evidence-based policies, programs, protocols or practices. Manuscript reviewers are urged to hold authors to APA standards for reporting/discussing effect-size information in both primary research reports and research reviews. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Statistical Power in Evaluations That Investigate Effects on Multiple Outcomes: A Guide for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are often interested in testing the effectiveness of an intervention on multiple outcomes, for multiple subgroups, at multiple points in time, or across multiple treatment groups. The resulting multiplicity of statistical hypothesis tests can lead to spurious findings of effects. Multiple testing procedures (MTPs) are statistical…

  3. The Effect of the Research Assessment Exercise on Organisational Culture in English Universities: Collegiality versus Managerialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify the effect of the research assessment exercise (RAE) on the balance between collegiality and managerialism in English universities. The article examines the institutional strategies for the 2001 RAE and its effect on organisational culture, identifying change in governance, management and leadership in…

  4. Assessment of Teaching Effectiveness: Lack of Alignment between Instructors, Institutions, and Research Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra; Dancy, Melissa; Chapman, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    Ideally, instructors and their institutions would have a shared set of metrics by which they determine teaching effectiveness. And, ideally, these metrics would overlap with research findings on measuring teaching effectiveness. Unfortunately, the current situation at most institutions is far from this ideal. As part of a larger interview study,…

  5. Long-Run Effects of Public-Private Research Joint Ventures:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz

    Subsidized research joint ventures (RJVs) between public research institutions and industry have become increasingly popular in Europe and the US. We study the long-run effects of such a support scheme that has been maintained by the Danish government since 1995. To cope with identification...... problems we apply nearest neighbor caliper matching and conditional difference-in-difference estimation methods. Our main findings are that (i) program participation effects are instant for annual patent applications and last for three years, (ii) employment effects materialize first after one year...

  6. Long-Run Effects of Public–Private Research Joint Ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Subsidized research joint ventures (RJVs) between public research institutions and industry have become increasingly popular in Europe and the US. We study the long-run effects of such a support scheme that has been maintained by the Danish government since 1995. To cope with identification...... problems we apply nearest neighbor matching and conditional difference-in-difference estimation methods. Our main findings are that (i) program participation effects are instant for annual patent applications and last for three years, (ii) employment effects materialize first after one year and (iii...

  7. Helping fluid teams work: A research agenda for effective team adaptation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Wendy L; Ramsay, P Scott; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Although membership changes within teams are a common practice, research into this phenomenon is relatively nascent (Summers et al.; Acad Manag J 55:314-338, 2012). The small literature base, however, does provide insight into skills required for effective adaptation. The purpose of this effort is to provide a brief research synopsis, leading to research hypotheses about medical team training. By generalizing previous scientific findings regarding skills required for effective membership adaptation in different kinds of teams, we posit mechanisms whereby teamwork training might also support adaptation among medical teams (Burke et al.; Qual & Saf Health Care 13:i96-i104, 2004 and Salas et al.; Theor Issues Ergon Sci 8:381-394, 2007). We provide an overview of the membership change literature. Drawing upon literature from both within and outside of the medical domain, we suggest a framework and research propositions to aid in research efforts designed to determine the best content for helping to create adaptable medical teams through team training efforts. For effective adaptation, we suggest ad hoc teams should be trained on generalizable teamwork skills, to share just "enough" and the "right" information, to engage in shared leadership, and to shift from explicit to implicit coordination. Our overarching goal was to present what is known from the general research literature on successful team adaptation to membership changes, and to propose a research agenda to evaluate whether findings generalize to member changes in medical teams.

  8. Effects of Emotional Experience for Abstract Words in the Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Knol, Nathan; Pexman, Penny M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of emotional experience, a relatively new dimension of emotional knowledge that gauges the ease with which words evoke emotional experience, on abstract word processing in the Stroop task. In order to test the context-dependency of these effects, we accentuated the saliency of this dimension in Experiment 1A…

  9. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1993 - March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The circumstances that the move of the Hiroshima facilities is in the state of reservation due to the budget reduction of USA government are reported. As to the investigation and research activities, international cooperation has increased remarkably. The council resolved to request United Nations that it designates the Radiation Effects Research Foundation to the organ for inquiring about the effect of radiation on health and gives aid. The change of directors is reported. The research works in fiscal 1993 in Departments of Epidemiology, Pathological Epidemiology, Statistics, Clinical Research (in Hiroshima and Nagasaki), Genetic Biochemical Laboratory and Cell Genetics Laboratory of Genetics Department, Radiation Biology, Radiation Biology (in Nagasaki) are reported. The trend of the research works in fiscal 1994 in respective Departments is described. As to the plan of Research Information Center in fiscal 1994, the abolishment of large computer, the extension of PC network, data base management and the computer processing of office works are described. As to the plan of Research Information Center in fiscal 1995, the completion of the network connection of all computers, the expansion of the data base to input major source data sets, and the introduction of software so as to utilize and retrieve data easily are expected. The abstracts of new research plan papers and the manuscripts contributed to scientific journals are collected. (K.I.)

  10. Operational effectiveness of blended e-learning program for nursing research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kap-Chul; Shin, Gisoo

    2014-06-01

    Since 2006, the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, and the National Research Foundation of Korea have taken the lead in developing an institutional guideline for research ethics. The purpose was to identify the effectiveness of the Good Research Practice program, developed on a fund granted by the National Research Foundation of Korea, for nurses and nursing students whose knowledge and perception of research ethics were compared before and after the implementation of the Good Research Practice program. This study was conducted to compare the levels of knowledge and perception of research ethics in the participants before and after the program was implemented. The participants included 45 nurses and 69 nursing students from hospitals, colleges of nursing, and the Korean Nurses Association, located in Seoul, Korea. This study was approved by the Institutional Research Board in Korea. Based on the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation model, the Good Research Practice program was made up of a total of 30 h of the blended learning both online and off-line. The results of this study showed that there were statistically significant differences in both knowledge and perception of research ethics in nursing students and nurses before and after the program had been implemented. The concepts of professional nursing ethics, moral issues, and bioethics were often confused with one another and not clearly defined. Therefore, the concept and scope of bioethics, moral judgment, and overall nursing ethics should be well defined and conceptualized in the future. This study suggested integrating research ethics education in the nursing curriculum as a required course of study for nursing students and as part of the in-service training program for nurses in order to improve research ethics in nursing research in Korea. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. An overview of current research on EU ETS: Evidence from its operating mechanism and economic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is supposed to be an important mechanism for addressing climate change. Up to now, the theoretical foundation of EU ETS has been widely acknowledged, but empirical research on its current situation has only been published recently or is forthcoming. Therefore, this paper is aimed to summarize the main arguments of empirical studies on the EU ETS, in terms of two aspects, i.e., the operating mechanism and economic effect of the EU ETS, which are two crucial topics and have been attached much attention. Based on the shortcomings of current research and future requirements of the EU ETS evolution, finally, we also present some further directions of the EU ETS research. Overall, the research overview here may be helpful to recognize the features of the EU ETS and its effect on others. (author)

  12. Research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation somatic effects II: non-cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Somatic effects of radiation can be considered in two categories: low and high level effects. In the low level exposure region (defined here arbitrarily as a single dose of the order of 10 rads or less, or higher doses at very low dose rates), the only somatic effects other than cancer known definitely at present to have health significance are those on fertiltiy and on the developing individual from conception to near birth. Knowledge of these effects is inadequate at present, and the bulk of this report will be devoted to discussing the types of additional investigations required. With respect to non-cancer somatic effects of radiation at intermediate to high doses and dose rates, enough is known to describe in general the course of early (over the first days to perhaps six weeks) effects, following different doses of external radiation. In particular, the non-cancer late effects of intermediate to high doses of internal and external radiation need better definition. The distinction between non-cancer and cancer-related somatic effects is blurred, at least at high dose levels

  13. Experimental research of the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahman Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental research on the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation. This research was performed in order to determine those materials that may be used for electric field mitigation in cases where the reference level is exceeded. Using measured results, the value of the shielding factor has been calculated for all tested shields and the most efficient shields were determined.

  14. Research progress in mutational effects of aerospace on crop and ground simulation on aerospace environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Wang Jing; Zhao Linshu; Guo Huijun; Zhao Shirong; Zheng Qicheng; Yang Juncheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the current status of aerospace botany research in aboard was briefly introduced. The research progress of mutational effects of aerospace on crop seed and its application in germplasm enhancement and new variety development by using recoverable satellite techniques in China has been reviewed. The approaches and its experimental advances of ground simulation on aerospace environmental factors were analyzed at different angles of particle biology, physical field biology and gravity biology

  15. Introduction to the AJA research forum on aging and hearing: mechanisms and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Grandori, Ferdinando

    2013-12-01

    PURPOSE This Research Forum, "Aging and Hearing: Mechanisms and Effects," highlights 6 contributions presented at the 2nd International Conference on Adult Hearing Screening (AHS 2012), held in Cernobbio (Lake Como, Italy) in June 2012. Overall, the articles in this Research Forum give insight into the causes, mechanisms, and consequences of auditory dysfunctions in adults, with particular focus on their implications for screening, assessment, and intervention.

  16. Measuring societal effects of transdisciplinary research projects: design and application of an evaluation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alexander I; Helgenberger, Sebastian; Wiek, Arnim; Scholz, Roland W

    2007-11-01

    Most Transdisciplinary Research (TdR) projects combine scientific research with the building of decision making capacity for the involved stakeholders. These projects usually deal with complex, societally relevant, real-world problems. This paper focuses on TdR projects, which integrate the knowledge of researchers and stakeholders in a collaborative transdisciplinary process through structured methods of mutual learning. Previous research on the evaluation of TdR has insufficiently explored the intended effects of transdisciplinary processes on the real world (societal effects). We developed an evaluation framework for assessing the societal effects of transdisciplinary processes. Outputs (measured as procedural and product-related involvement of the stakeholders), impacts (intermediate effects connecting outputs and outcomes) and outcomes (enhanced decision making capacity) are distinguished as three types of societal effects. Our model links outputs and outcomes of transdisciplinary processes via the impacts using a mediating variables approach. We applied this model in an ex post evaluation of a transdisciplinary process. 84 out of 188 agents participated in a survey. The results show significant mediation effects of the two impacts "network building" and "transformation knowledge". These results indicate an influence of a transdisciplinary process on the decision making capacity of stakeholders, especially through social network building and the generation of knowledge relevant for action.

  17. Contextual effects and psychological features influencing decoy options: A review and research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop future research proposals aiming to contribute the extant theory which explains decoy effects.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, a review of the existing literature about decoy options and its interactions with contextual effects that could affect their performance is presented. Next, two research proposals are presented: the introduction of a double decoy choice set and the evaluation of decoy effect under different levels of cognitive effort in a purchasing process.Findings and Originality/value: For the research proposal concerning double decoy choice sets, different hypothesis are introduced based on the different theories aiming to explain the effect of simple decoy choice sets. This hypothesis predict different outcomes for the same experimental design, fact that could provide further support for at least one of the current explanations for decoy effects. Regarding the effect of decoy options under different levels of cognitive effort, implications for experimental design for sequential purchasing process are expected. Especially for those designed with complex options, with many steps or high number of options.Originality/value: Two new research proposal approaches are presented in order enhance the current theory. Moreover, both have managerial implications concerning the real usage of decoy options in reduced choice sets as well as in sequential purchasing processes.

  18. A method for analysing secondary economic effects generated by big research centres.

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi-Streit, M.; Budde, R.; Reitz, H.; Sagnell, B.; Schmied, H.; Schorr, B.

    Research activities in the natural sciences, and especially those in the field of pure research work as opposed to applied research, are being financially supported for various reasons, probably the least of which is the hope for a quick economic return. It has, nevertheless, been realised for a number of years that benefits of one sort or another may appear in various and sometimes unexpected ways, where these be— nefits are not the direct consequence of the applica— tion of a research result. They are rather to be com— pared with the well—known ”spin—off” effects obtained while pursuing the research work. An example may help to illustrate what is meant.

  19. Effect of short-term research training programs on medical students' attitudes toward aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Avanzino, Julie; Depp, Colin A; Gawronska, Maja; Tu, Xin; Sewell, Daniel D; Huege, Steven F

    2018-01-01

    Strategies to build a larger workforce of physicians dedicated to research on aging are needed. One method to address this shortage of physician scientists in geriatrics is short-term training in aging research for early-stage medical students. The authors examined the effects of two summer research training programs, funded by the National Institutes of Health, on medical students' attitudes toward aging, using the Carolina Opinions on Care of Older Adults (COCOA). The programs combined mentored research, didactics, and some clinical exposure. In a sample of 134 participants, COCOA scores improved significantly after completion of the research training program. There was a significant interaction of gender, such that female students had higher baseline scores than males, but this gender difference in COCOA scores was attenuated following the program. Four of the six COCOA subscales showed significant improvement from baseline: early interest in geriatrics, empathy/compassion, attitudes toward geriatrics careers, and ageism.

  20. [Research progress of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of total glucosides of peony in hepatoprotective effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi-Yan; Zhan, Shu-Yu; Huang, Xuan; Ding, Bao-Yue; Liu, Yu-Qian; Ruan, Yu-Er; Jiang, Ning-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), containing the effective components of paeoniflorin (Pae), albiflorin (Alb) and so on, are effective parts of Radix Paeoniae Alba. And it possesses extensive pharmacological actions, one of which is hepatoprotective effect. In recent years, abundant of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics research of TGP in hepatoprotective effects have been performed. However, the relative medicine of TGP in hepatoprotective effect has not been developed for clinical application. In order to provide reference for the development and rational clinical application of TGP, the research progresses of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TGP in hepatoprotective effect were summarized in this paper. Pharmacokinetics research has clarified the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of TGP in vivo, and liver injury disease can significantly influence its metabolic processes. Pharmacodynamics studies suggested that TGP can protect against acute liver injury, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), chronic liver fibrosis and liver cancer. However, the action mechanism and in vivo process about hepatoprotective effects of TGP have not been clearly revealed. How liver injury influences the metabolism of TGP and its integrated regulation through multiple targets need to be further studied. The combined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies should be performed in favour of medicine development and clinical application of TGP in hepatoprotective effects. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Perspectives and opportunities for research in radiation effects on materials in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    Needs for research in radiation effects on materials span a broad range, from investigations of fundamental mechanisms to requirements on irradiation parameters suitable for technological studies in no less than a dozen reactor systems and subsystems. In the 1970's, 1980's and again in 1990, workshops were convened to refocus attention on progress and needs in these areas. Critical review papers and smaller meetings have also considered more specialized questions and identified important needs. In the present report, one author's view of current status and desirable avenues for radiation effects research are presented. Issues are discussed covering point defect production and availability, considerations peculiar to widely different classes of materials and radiation effects phenomena, and irradiation conditions needed for current and planned reactor systems. Research recommendations cannot be made independently of the availability of experimental facilities. Needs in the latter area are reflected in the paper

  2. Measuring macro-level effects of the global economic recession on university-industry research cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azagra-Caro, J.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Yegros-Yegros, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 2007/2008 financial crisis, and ensuing economic recession, had a direct negative effect on university-industry research cooperation in the OECD countries and other economies – it diminished the number of university-industry co-authored research publications (UICs) during the period 2008-13 by 7%. It also changed the relationship between national business expenditure on R&D and UIC output levels. Before the recession the relationship was negative, but became positive during the years 2008-2013. The few countries where business expenditure on R&D increased during recession saw UIC numbers rise. This moderating effect of the recession applies only to ‘domestic UICs’, where universities cooperated with business companies located in the same country. Micro-level research is needed to assess the contributing effects on large university-industry R&D consortia on both domestic and international collaboration patterns. (Author)

  3. Building a Strategic Framework for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Witt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of chronic diseases presents not only challenges to the knowledge and expertise of the professional medical community, but also highlights the need to improve the quality and relevance of clinical research in this domain. Many patients now turn to complementary and integrative medicine (CIM to treat their chronic illnesses; however, there is very little evidence to guide their decision-making in usual care. The following research recommendations were derived from a CIM Stakeholder Symposium on Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER: (1 CER studies should be made a priority in this field; (2 stakeholders should be engaged at every stage of the research; (3 CER study designs should highlight effectiveness over efficacy; (4 research questions should be well defined to enable the selection of an appropriate CER study design; (5 the CIM community should cultivate widely shared understandings, discourse, tools, and technologies to support the use and validity of CER methods; (6 Effectiveness Guidance Documents on methodological standards should be developed to shape future CER studies. CER is an emerging field and its development and impact must be reflected in future research strategies within CIM. This stakeholder symposium was a first step in providing systematic guidance for future CER in this field.

  4. Effective Governance and Hospital Boards Revisited: Reflections on 25 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cathleen O; Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Livingston, Avery C; Dias, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This study reviews and synthesizes empirical research literature focusing on the relationship between boards of directors and organizational effectiveness of U.S. hospitals. The study examines literature published in scholarly journals during the period of 1991-2017. Fifty-one empirical articles were identified that met the study's inclusion criteria. A framework from the corporate governance and nonprofit governance literature is used to classify the articles according to level of analysis (individual actors, governing bodies, organizations, and networks, alliances and multiorganizational initiatives) and focus of research (formal structure and behavioral dynamics-including informal structures and processes). Results are discussed, emerging trends are identified, and recommendations are made for future research.

  5. Study on interaction of swift cluster ion beam with matter and irradiation effect (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuichi; Shibata, Hiromi

    2010-07-01

    This review covers results of the 'Study of interaction on swift cluster ion beam with matter and irradiation effect' supported by the Interorganization Atomic Energy Research Program from 2006FY to 2008FY. It is composed of a research abstract for each sub-group with viewgraphs which were presented at the group meeting held on March 2009 or 'Meeting of High LET radiation -From fundamental study among physics, chemistry and biology to medical applications-' sponsored by Japan Society of Radiation Chemistry, cosponsored by this research group. (author)

  6. Effects of marital conflict on children: recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T

    2002-01-01

    The effects of marital conflict on children's adjustment are well documented. For the past decade research has increasingly focused on advancing a process-level understanding of these effects, that is, accounting for the particular responses and patterns embedded within specific contexts, histories, and developmental periods that account for children's outcomes over time. As a vehicle for presenting an update, this review follows the framework for process-oriented research initially proposed by Cummings and Cummings (1988), concentrating on recent research developments, and also considering new and emerging themes in this area of research. In this regard, areas of advancement include (a) greater articulation of the effects of specific context/stimulus characteristics of marital conflict, (b) progress in identifying the psychological response processes in children (e.g., cognitive, emotional, social, physiological) that are affected and their possible role in accounting for relations between marital conflict and child outcomes, (c) greater understanding of the role of child characteristics, family history, and other contextual factors, including effects on children due to interrelations between marital conflict and parenting, and (d) advances in the conceptualization of children's outcomes, including that effects may be more productively viewed as dynamic processes of functioning rather than simply clinical diagnoses. Understanding of the impact of marital conflict on children as a function of time-related processes remains a gap in a process-oriented conceptualization of effects. Based on this review, a revised model for a process-oriented approach on the effects of marital discord on children is proposed and suggestions are made for future research directions.

  7. Does Interdisciplinary Research Lead to Higher Citation Impact? The Different Effect of Proximal and Distal Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegros-Yegros, Alfredo; Rafols, Ismael; D’Este, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the effect of degree of interdisciplinarity on the citation impact of individual publications for four different scientific fields. We operationalise interdisciplinarity as disciplinary diversity in the references of a publication, and rather than treating interdisciplinarity as a monodimensional property, we investigate the separate effect of different aspects of diversity on citation impact: i.e. variety, balance and disparity. We use a Tobit regression model to examine the effect of these properties of interdisciplinarity on citation impact, controlling for a range of variables associated with the characteristics of publications. We find that variety has a positive effect on impact, whereas balance and disparity have a negative effect. Our results further qualify the separate effect of these three aspects of diversity by pointing out that all three dimensions of interdisciplinarity display a curvilinear (inverted U-shape) relationship with citation impact. These findings can be interpreted in two different ways. On the one hand, they are consistent with the view that, while combining multiple fields has a positive effect in knowledge creation, successful research is better achieved through research efforts that draw on a relatively proximal range of fields, as distal interdisciplinary research might be too risky and more likely to fail. On the other hand, these results may be interpreted as suggesting that scientific audiences are reluctant to cite heterodox papers that mix highly disparate bodies of knowledge—thus giving less credit to publications that are too groundbreaking or challenging. PMID:26266805

  8. Effect of R&D Collaboration with Research Organizations on Innovation: The Mediation Effect of Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Jea Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of corporate environmental performance by linking its antecedents and consequences. This study examined how collaboration with research organizations, as a proactive strategic decision, influences the environmental performance of firms, which in turn leads to innovation performance. Using the data collected from 597 Korean firms representing a cross-section of industries, we found that a firm’s collaboration with research organizations positively affected the firm’s environmental performance, which positively influenced its innovation performance. Furthermore, the results indicated a full mediation effect of environmental performance on the relationship between collaboration with research organizations and innovation performance. This study offers a more comprehensive understanding of corporate environmental performance and discusses implications for innovation performance. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.

  9. A Delphi study to establish national cost-effectiveness research priorities for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Glenn; Milne, Ruairidh

    1999-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the key cost-effectiveness research questions relating to positron emission tomography (PET) in the UK. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to establish the existing knowledge base relating to the cost-effectiveness of PET in the various conditions for which it has been proposed. A three-round postal Delphi study of relevant individuals was used to determine the key cost-effectiveness research questions relating to PET in the UK. The content and structure of the Delphi study was informed by the results of the literature review. Results: The most important cost-effectiveness research priorities for the National Health Service (NHS) relating to PET were in the clinical areas of lung cancer, breast cancer and the assessment of myocardial viability. Gamma camera PET using coincidence imaging was highlighted as a modality whose clinical role needed to be determined urgently. Conclusion: Underlying the cost-effectiveness research priorities which were established is the need for evidence that the use of the various PET modalities as a diagnostic technique will alter patient management as compared to existing diagnostic strategies. The findings of the project provide a contemporary overview of the potential role for PET in the NHS and will be relevant to other countries

  10. Coupling and corona effects research plan for transmission lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, J E; Formanek, V C

    1976-06-01

    Concern has arisen over the possible effects of electric and magnetic fields produced by EHV-UHV transmission lines. Past and ongoing research concerning the electric and magnetic field effects from EHV-UHV transmission lines was reviewed as it pertains to the following areas: (1) electromagnetic interference, (2) acoustic noise, (3) generation of gaseous effluents, and (4) safety considerations of induced voltages and currents. The intent of this review was to identify the short and long range research projects required to address these areas. The research plan identifies and gives priority to twenty programs in corona and coupling effects. In the case of the corona effects, a number of programs were recommended for acoustic noise and electromagnetic interference to delineate improved power line design criteria in terms of social, meteorological, geographical and cost constraints. Only one project is recommended in the case of ozone generation, because the results of comprehensive analyses, laboratory studies and field measurements have demonstrated that power lines do not contribute significant quantities of ozone. In the case of the coupling effects, a number of programs are recommended for HVAC transmission lines to improve the theoretically developed design guidelines by considering practical constraints. For HVDC transmission lines, programs are suggested to engender a better theoretical understanding and practical measurements capability for the coupling mechanisms of the dc electric and magnetic field with nearby objects. The interrelationship of the programs and their role in a long-term research plan is also discussed.

  11. 176: EVIDENCE-BASED AND EFFECTIVE RESEARCH SKILLS OF IRANIAN MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, Helia; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Mostafaei, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Recently, digital research is very popular in schools. The capacity of students to do an effective search is unclear which can lead to utilization of unacceptable evidence in their research. Aims To evaluate middle school students' effective search skills. Methods This survey was done during the summer school of Farzanegan talented students middle school. The self-administrated questionnaire studied 30 items about effective search and digital research skills of students. One hundred questionnaires were distributed in this summer school and students in the 7th and 8th grades filled the questionnaires. The administration of the questionnaire was counted as their concept. All data was analyzed at Excel 2013. Results Eighty percent of students including 67.5% of the seventh and 32.5% of the eighth grade students responded to the questionnaires respectively. Shockingly, 96.2% of students only googled and most of them (73.7%) type the topic of their research in Persian to start their research strategy. More than half of them (52.5) believed the result of their search is mostly or always correct and 66.2% of them copy-pasted their findings without any assessment. Surprisingly, only 27.5% of them have proposed that they had problem with appraising the evidence. The best sources of the students for finding the answer of their questions were: Wikipedia, telegram, TV, books, E-Books, YouTube, classmates, Facebook and student information websites, and EBSCO, accordingly. 76.2% acknowledged that internet has turned students into copy machines. Only 31.2% agreed their teachers taught them how to do effective research. Conclusion Most of the students were not familiar with valid sources of research evidence. Language barrier may limit their access to best evidence. Most students were not used to retrieving the evidence.

  12. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Alec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. Findings A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing 313 primary studies were included. Four strategy types are identified: audit and feedback; computerised decision support; opinion leaders; and multifaceted interventions. Nine of the reviews reported on multifaceted interventions. This review highlights the small effects of single interventions such as audit and feedback, computerised decision support and opinion leaders. Systematic reviews of multifaceted interventions claim an improvement in effectiveness over single interventions, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. This review found that a number of published systematic reviews fail to state whether the recommended practice change is based on the best available research evidence. Conclusions This overview of systematic reviews updates the body of knowledge relating to the effectiveness of key mechanisms for improving clinical practice and service development. Multifaceted interventions are more likely to improve practice than single interventions such as audit and feedback. This review identified a small literature focusing explicitly on getting research evidence into clinical practice. It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that primary studies and systematic reviews are precise about the extent to which the reported interventions focus on changing practice based on research evidence (as opposed to other information codified in guidelines and education materials.

  13. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Annette; Baeza, Juan; Fraser, Alec

    2011-06-22

    The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing 313 primary studies were included. Four strategy types are identified: audit and feedback; computerised decision support; opinion leaders; and multifaceted interventions. Nine of the reviews reported on multifaceted interventions. This review highlights the small effects of single interventions such as audit and feedback, computerised decision support and opinion leaders. Systematic reviews of multifaceted interventions claim an improvement in effectiveness over single interventions, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. This review found that a number of published systematic reviews fail to state whether the recommended practice change is based on the best available research evidence. This overview of systematic reviews updates the body of knowledge relating to the effectiveness of key mechanisms for improving clinical practice and service development. Multifaceted interventions are more likely to improve practice than single interventions such as audit and feedback. This review identified a small literature focusing explicitly on getting research evidence into clinical practice. It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that primary studies and systematic reviews are precise about the extent to which the reported interventions focus on changing practice based on research evidence (as opposed to other information codified in guidelines and education materials).

  14. Global comparative healthcare effectiveness research: Evaluating sustainable programmes in low & middle resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Balkrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to focus healthcare expenditures on innovative and sustainable health systems that efficiently use existing effective therapies are the major drivers stimulating Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER across the globe. Lack of adequate access and high cost of essential medicines and technologies in many countries increases morbidity and mortality and cost of care that forces people and families into poverty due to disability and out-of-pocket expenses. This review illustrates the potential of value-added global health care comparative effectiveness research in shaping health systems and health care delivery paradigms in the "global south". Enabling the development of effective CER systems globally paves the way for tangible local and regional definitions of equity in health care because CER fosters the sharing of critical assets, resources, skills, and capabilities and the development of collaborative of multi-sectorial frameworks to improve health outcomes and metrics globally.

  15. History of bystander effects research 1905-present; what is in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Rusin, Andrej; Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Seymour, Colin

    2017-11-29

    This review, which arose from a Radiation Research Society History symposium, traces the history of 'bystander effects' or 'indirect effects'(also known as 'abscopal effects', 'clastogenic effects' and more recently 'the secretosome'). In 1905, Murphy first drew attention to effects caused by the injection of irradiated cells into animals. In the present day, bystander effects are seen as part of the secretosome, where they coordinate responses to stressors at the tissue, organism, and population level. The review considers the history and also the reasons why this process of information exchange/communication appears to have been discovered and forgotten several times. The review then considers the evolution of our understanding of the mechanisms and what relevance these effects may have in radiation protection and radiotherapy. The authors conclude that the phenomenon currently described as a 'bystander effect' has been described under a variety of different names since 1905. However recent advances in biology have made it possible to investigate mechanisms and potential impacts more fully. This has led to the current upsurge in research into this effect of radiation.

  16. ISRIA statement: ten-point guidelines for an effective process of research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Paula; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Grant, Jonathan; Graham, Kathryn E A; Boukhris, Omar F; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Balling, Gert V; Christensen, Rikke N; Pollitt, Alexandra; Taylor, Mark; Sued, Omar; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Chorzempa, Heidi

    2018-02-08

    As governments, funding agencies and research organisations worldwide seek to maximise both the financial and non-financial returns on investment in research, the way the research process is organised and funded is becoming increasingly under scrutiny. There are growing demands and aspirations to measure research impact (beyond academic publications), to understand how science works, and to optimise its societal and economic impact. In response, a multidisciplinary practice called research impact assessment is rapidly developing. Given that the practice is still in its formative stage, systematised recommendations or accepted standards for practitioners (such as funders and those responsible for managing research projects) across countries or disciplines to guide research impact assessment are not yet available.In this statement, we propose initial guidelines for a rigorous and effective process of research impact assessment applicable to all research disciplines and oriented towards practice. This statement systematises expert knowledge and practitioner experience from designing and delivering the International School on Research Impact Assessment (ISRIA). It brings together insights from over 450 experts and practitioners from 34 countries, who participated in the school during its 5-year run (from 2013 to 2017) and shares a set of core values from the school's learning programme. These insights are distilled into ten-point guidelines, which relate to (1) context, (2) purpose, (3) stakeholders' needs, (4) stakeholder engagement, (5) conceptual frameworks, (6) methods and data sources, (7) indicators and metrics, (8) ethics and conflicts of interest, (9) communication, and (10) community of practice.The guidelines can help practitioners improve and standardise the process of research impact assessment, but they are by no means exhaustive and require evaluation and continuous improvement. The prima facie effectiveness of the guidelines is based on the systematised

  17. RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING CHANNELS AT VIITAMAA CARAVAN OY

    OpenAIRE

    Huumonen, Anna-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this study is the effectiveness of advertising channels.The topic was chosen by the request of Viitamaa Caravan Oy. The company wants this study to give more information about the effectiveness of different advertising channels in their own advertising. Viitamaa Caravan Oy also wanted some insight into the fact how much money in the budget should be reserved for each channel. The research problem can be defined as: Which of the advertising channels already used in Viitamaa Carav...

  18. Uniform Effects?: Schools Cite Benefits of Student Uniforms, but Researchers See Little Evidence of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the effectiveness of school uniform policies. At Stephen Decatur Middle School, it is the school's policy that all students wear the standard school attire consisting of khaki pants with polo shirts in white, burgundy, or navy blue. Some of the shirts also sport an embroidered Decatur eagle, an optional embellishment.…

  19. Stakeholder engagement in comparative effectiveness research: how will we measure success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Danielle C; Williams, Carla J; Tambor, Ellen S; Deverka, Patricia A

    2012-09-01

    Stakeholder engagement in comparative effectiveness research continues to gain national attention. While various methods are used to gather stakeholder expertise and form recommendations, evaluation of the stakeholder experience is often missing. The lack of evaluation prohibits assessing how effective and meaningful engagement practices are for enhancing research efforts and limits the ability to identify areas for future improvement. We propose that an evaluation plan of engagement processes be developed before stakeholder involvement begins and be required as part of a request for proposal or research grant where stakeholder input is being sought. Furthermore, we recommend the inclusion of six meta-criteria that represent normative goals of multiple studies: respect, trust, legitimacy, fairness, competence and accountability. To aid in the development of future evaluations, we have developed definitions for and matched specific examples of measuring each meta-criterion to serve a guide for others in the field.

  20. Are EM's communication tools effective? Evaluation research of two EM publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, Evelyn; Gardner, Gene; Harvey, Tony

    1992-01-01

    As a reflection of its growing culture of openness, and in response to the public's need for accurate information about its activities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has increased the amount of information available to the public through communication tools such as brochures, fact sheets, and a travelling exhibit with an interactive computer display. Our involvement with this effort has been to design, develop, and critique booklets, brochures, fact sheets and other communication tools for EM. This paper presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of two communication tools we developed: the EM Booklet and the EM Fact Sheets. We measured effectiveness using non-parametric testing. This paper describes DOE's culture change, EM's communication tools and their context within DOE'S new open culture, our research, test methods and results, the significance of our research, and our plans for future research. (author)

  1. The Effect of Peer Review on Student Learning Outcomes in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jessica A.; Silva, Tony; Ceresola, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we test the effect of in-class student peer review on student learning outcomes using a quasiexperimental design. We provide an assessment of peer review in a quantitative research methods course, which is a traditionally difficult and technical course. Data were collected from 170 students enrolled in four sections of a…

  2. Assessing the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems: a scientific agenda for research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson; Robert E. Keane; James M. Lenihan; Donald McKenzie; David R. Weise; David V. Sandberg

    1999-01-01

    A team of fire scientists and resource managers convened 17-19 April 1996 in Seattle, Washington, to assess the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems. Objectives of this workshop were to develop scientific recommendations for future fire research and management activities. These recommendations included a series of numerically ranked scientific and managerial...

  3. The Effects of Ability Grouping: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Theresa Koontz; Taylor, Bob L.

    The study reported in this paper quantitatively integrated the recent research findings on ability grouping in order to generalize about these effects on student achievement and student self-concept. Meta-analysis was used to statistically integrate the empirical data. The relationships among various experimental variables including grade level,…

  4. Emergent Characteristics of Effective Cross-Cultural Research: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Christopher; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies characteristics of effective research done in cross-cultural environments; reviews the literature in the years following the publication of Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) seminal article, challenging the basis for the description of cultures as individualistic or collectivistic; and summarizes major issues…

  5. From Multidisciplinary to Interdisciplinary Research: Effects of Information Systems on Formal Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Paul A.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to help build and bridge between total overviews of the fields of information science and empirical research. This is done by building a model for linking multidisciplinary approaches into a relevant and effective whole, and for deriving testable propositions from this new framework. (63 references) (Author/KE)

  6. Identifying Effective Methods of Instruction for Adult Emergent Readers through Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…

  7. Good Research and Faculty Buy-in: 2 Keys to Effective Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    Effective marketing requires more than a sleek new logo. This article presents excerpts of an online discussion on the dos and don'ts of college marketing with Mary R. Stagaman, associate vice president for external relations at the University of Cincinnati. In this discussion, she noted that good research and faculty buy-in are the two keys to…

  8. Effective Online Interaction: Mapping Course Design to Bridge from Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative research of a case study course confirmed that the course achieved a highly interactive learning experience, associated with more effective student support and high student retention. Computer conferencing achieved high participation from the beginning and evidence of dialogue and argumentation within online tutor…

  9. Course Level and the Relationship between Research Productivity and Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the relationship between research productivity and teaching effectiveness using data from the Erasmus School of Economics. The initial findings indicate a positive overall relationship between the variables. A more detailed analysis reveals a sharp reversal in the nature of the relationship. Although the relationship is…

  10. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  11. Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-01-01

    in process and clinical care. Results will be integrated with living systematic reviews in a process of knowledge transfer. The study initiation was from October to December 2014, and the recruitment period was for 18 to 24 months. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research...

  12. Demonstrating the Effectiveness of an Integrated and Intensive Research Methods and Statistics Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; Caldwell, Tracy L.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We developed a two-semester series of intensive (six-contact hours per week) behavioral research methods courses with an integrated statistics curriculum. Our approach includes the use of team-based learning, authentic projects, and Excel and SPSS. We assessed the effectiveness of our approach by examining our students' content area scores on the…

  13. Action Research for Improving the Effectiveness of Technology Integration in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring how the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework can be used to improve the effectiveness of integrating IDEA '04 and Research for Inclusive Settings (IRIS) modules in preservice teacher education. The purposes of this study were to maximize the potential of TPACK at the college and university…

  14. Research on the Effects of Rewards: Implications for Annual Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Richard R.

    Some research suggests reduced cooperation and collaboration among college faculty may result when annual pay increments are based on merit evaluations. Various theories and principles have been put forward to explain these effects. The overjustification theory suggests that extrinsically presented rewards become more salient than one's intrinsic…

  15. Effects of care farms: Scientific research on the benefits of care farms for clients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last years, the number of care farms has grown rapidly in Europe and beyond. Research was implemented to study how for example young people with behavioural problems or older people with dementia benefit from their stay on a care farm. And what are the effects of working or living on a care

  16. Effects of Self-Efficacy on Social Entrepreneurship in Education: A Correlational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakll, Tugba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effects of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy on their social entrepreneurship characteristics. The population of this study consisted of 220 randomly selected pre-service teachers in Kocaeli University Faculty of Education in Turkey. General Self Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form and Pre-service Teachers'…

  17. Strategic Renewal and Development Implications of Organisational Effectiveness Research in Higher Education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, Art

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that organizational effectiveness research has made considerable progress in empirically deriving a systematic framework of theoretical and practical utility in Australian higher education. Offers a taxonomy based on the competing values framework and discusses use of inter-organizational comparisons and profiles for diagnosis in…

  18. Increasing the Effectiveness of Inservice Training for Desegregation: A Synthesis of Current Research. Reference & Resource Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Mark A.; Hawley, Willis D.

    This report reviews recent research on strategies that have been found to promote useful and effective inservice training programs in desegregated schools. The first section presents approaches for planning and implementing inservice training for desegregation. The second section describes inservice desegregation training programs that focus on:…

  19. Not Quite "Deja Vu All over Again": "No Child Left Behind" Meets Effective Schools Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas V.; Roberson, Thelma J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the connections between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Effective Schools Research Movement. Using historical methodology, the authors argue that although both were premised on building capacity, over time the reform that became NCLB evolved to focus on accountability. This shift disconnected the reform from its research…

  20. Effect of reduced enrichment on the fuel cycle for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new fuels developed by the RERTR Program and by other international programs for application in research reactors with reduced uranium enrichment (<20% EU) are discussed. It is shown that these fuels, combined with proper fuel-element design and fuel-management strategies, can provide at least the same core residence time as high-enrichment fuels in current use, and can frequently significantly extend it. The effect of enrichment reduction on other components of the research reactor fuel cycle, such as uranium and enrichment requirements, fuel fabrication, fuel shipment, and reprocessing are also briefly discussed with their economic implications. From a systematic comparison of HEU and LEU cores for the same reference research reactor, it is concluded that the new fuels have a potential for reducing the research reactor fuel cycle costs while reducing, at the same time, the uranium enrichment of the fuel

  1. Lessons from comparative effectiveness research methods development projects funded under the Recovery Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovac, Jelena; Esposito, Dominick

    2014-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) directed nearly US$29.2 million to comparative effectiveness research (CER) methods development. To help inform future CER methods investments, we describe the ARRA CER methods projects, identify barriers to this research and discuss the alignment of topics with published methods development priorities. We used several existing resources and held discussions with ARRA CER methods investigators. Although funded projects explored many identified priority topics, investigators noted that much work remains. For example, given the considerable investments in CER data infrastructure, the methods development field can benefit from additional efforts to educate researchers about the availability of new data sources and about how best to apply methods to match their research questions and data.

  2. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an annual report concerning research activities and achievement in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan during the period April 1, 1992-March 31, 1993. Twenty-nine reports, including integrated report on the incidence of solid tumors (surveyed during the period 1958-1987) and the report on the incidence of leukemia (surveyed during the period 1950-1987), were approved in the fiscal year 1992. The present report deals with scientific achievement of each division of RERF; various activities including international cooperation programs, disease monitoring workshop, lectures, and in-house seminars; abstracts of new research topics, achievement reports, and review reports; a list of publications and presentations by staff members in academic meetings; and RERF organization affairs including activities, financial aspects, and a list of visitors to RERF. An Appendix gives the proceedings; a brief summary of disease monitoring workshop; ongoing and completed research topics; and a list of RERF personnel. (N.K.)

  3. Views of potential research participants on financial conflicts of interest: barriers and opportunities for effective disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfurt, Kevin P; Friedman, Joëlle Y; Allsbrook, Jennifer S; Dinan, Michaela A; Hall, Mark A; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2006-09-01

    There is little guidance regarding how to disclose researchers' financial interests to potential research participants. To determine what potential research participants want to know about financial interests, their capacity to understand disclosed information and its implications, and the reactions of potential research participants to a proposed disclosure statement. Sixteen focus groups in 3 cities, including 6 groups of healthy adults, 6 groups of adults with mild chronic illness, 1 group of parents of healthy children, 1 group of parents of children with leukemia or brain tumor, 1 group of adults with heart failure, and 1 group of adults with cancer. Focus group discussions covered a range of topics including financial relationships in clinical research, whether people should be told about them, and how they should be told. Audio-recordings of focus groups were transcribed, verified, and coded for analysis. Participants wanted to know about financial interests, whether or not those interests would affect their participation. However, they varied in their desire and ability to understand the nature and implications of financial interests. Whether disclosure was deemed important depended upon the risk of the research. Trust in clinicians was also related to views regarding disclosure. If given the opportunity to ask questions during the consent process, some participants would not have known what to ask; however, after the focus group sessions, participants could identify information they would want to know. Financial interests are important to potential research participants, but obstacles to effective disclosure exist.

  4. Determination of effective university-industry joint research for photovoltaic technology transfer (UIJRPTT) in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhavanija, Pornpimol; Sukchai, Sukruedee; Ketjoy, Nipon; Klongboonjit, Sakol

    2011-01-01

    Most of the literatures related to university-industry (U-I) and technology transfer assume that the collaboration particularly the U-I joint research is beneficial to both university and industry which as a result underpins the sustainable development of economics and living standards of developed and developing countries. The U-I joint research for photovoltaic technology transfer in a developing country like Thailand should have been increased considering the fact that (i) the government implemented various strategies to support the renewable energy research and market development, (ii) the university aimed to be ''research-based university and (iii) the Thai photovoltaic industry struggle for competitiveness and survival in the global market. However, evidence revealed that the university and industry conducted little number of U-I joint projects. In this paper, we investigate the factors influencing the effective U-I joint research for photovoltaic technology transfer (UIJRPTT). In an attempt to better understand the influence of the factors, the path model with factors related to characteristics and perspectives of the university and the industry as well as joint research mechanism and their linkages to higher growth and improved economic and quality performance of the U-I joint research is developed and validated. The developed model empirically explains interaction between the factors and the outcome factors and can assist the government, the university and the industry to devise target strategies to improve the growth and performance of UIJRPTT. (author)

  5. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health. PMID:25774609

  6. THE EFFECT OF POWERPOINT PREFERENCES OF STUDENTS ON THEIR PERFORMANCE: A Research In Anadolu University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Kardes SELIMOGLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to research the effect of the preferences of the students concerning PowerPoint presentations in financial accounting courses on their final scores. The data was collected from questionnaires that were applied to 77 students taking Financial Accounting I course in Anadolu University. According to the results of the study; The preference of the students about PowerPoint presentations have no significant effect on their final scores. However when the preferences about PowerPoint presentations are combined with an appropriate study environment, this effect positively increases the final score.

  7. Composite scores in comparative effectiveness research: counterbalancing parsimony and dimensionality in patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Patrick, Donald L

    2014-07-01

    When planning a comparative effectiveness study comparing disease-modifying treatments, competing demands influence choice of outcomes. Current practice emphasizes parsimony, although understanding multidimensional treatment impact can help to personalize medical decision-making. We discuss both sides of this 'tug of war'. We discuss the assumptions, advantages and drawbacks of composite scores and multidimensional outcomes. We describe possible solutions to the multiple comparison problem, including conceptual hierarchy distinctions, statistical approaches, 'real-world' benchmarks of effectiveness and subgroup analysis. We conclude that comparative effectiveness research should consider multiple outcome dimensions and compare different approaches that fit the individual context of study objectives.

  8. Facilitating comparative effectiveness research in cancer genomics: evaluating stakeholder perceptions of the engagement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverka, Patricia A; Lavallee, Danielle C; Desai, Priyanka J; Armstrong, Joanne; Gorman, Mark; Hole-Curry, Leah; O'Leary, James; Ruffner, B W; Watkins, John; Veenstra, David L; Baker, Laurence H; Unger, Joseph M; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-07-01

    The Center for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Cancer Genomics completed a 2-year stakeholder-guided process for the prioritization of genomic tests for comparative effectiveness research studies. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of engagement procedures in achieving project goals and to identify opportunities for future improvements. The evaluation included an online questionnaire, one-on-one telephone interviews and facilitated discussion. Responses to the online questionnaire were tabulated for descriptive purposes, while transcripts from key informant interviews were analyzed using a directed content analysis approach. A total of 11 out of 13 stakeholders completed both the online questionnaire and interview process, while nine participated in the facilitated discussion. Eighty-nine percent of questionnaire items received overall ratings of agree or strongly agree; 11% of responses were rated as neutral with the exception of a single rating of disagreement with an item regarding the clarity of how stakeholder input was incorporated into project decisions. Recommendations for future improvement included developing standard recruitment practices, role descriptions and processes for improved communication with clinical and comparative effectiveness research investigators. Evaluation of the stakeholder engagement process provided constructive feedback for future improvements and should be routinely conducted to ensure maximal effectiveness of stakeholder involvement.

  9. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  10. Assessing the Development of Educational Research Literacy: The Effect of Courses on Research Methods in Studies of Educational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß Ophoff, Jana; Schladitz, Sandra; Leuders, Juliane; Leuders, Timo; Wirtz, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to purposefully access, reflect, and use evidence from educational research (Educational Research Literacy) is expected of future professionals in educational practice. Based on the presented conceptual framework, a test instrument was developed to assess the different competency aspects: Information Literacy, Statistical Literacy, and…

  11. Deepening Our Understanding of Academic Inbreeding Effects on Research Information Exchange and Scientific Output: New Insights for Academic Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…

  12. Differences among consumer segments with regard to perceptions of comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sunyna S; Frost, Sloane L

    2014-11-01

    To examine differences among health-related decision-making consumer segments with regard to knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors pertinent to comparative effectiveness research. Data were collected via an online survey from 603 adults with chronic conditions. Consumer segment was determined using a two-item tool. Active consumers (high skills and motivation) reported the highest levels of engagement in various behaviors. Passive consumers (low skills and motivation) reported the lowest levels of engagement in various behaviors. High-effort consumers (low skills, high motivation) reported more positive attitudes and opinions and more engagement in various behaviors than did complacent consumers (high skills, low motivation). Effective translation and dissemination of comparative effectiveness research will require the development of approaches tailored to consumers with varying levels of skills and motivation.

  13. Exploring risk communication - results of a research project focussed on effectiveness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Mostert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The need for effective science communication and outreach efforts is widely acknowledged in the academic community. In the field of Disaster Risk Reduction, the importance of communication is clearly stressed, e.g. in the newly adopted Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (under the 1st priority of action: understanding disaster risk). Consequently, we see increasing risk communication activities. However, the effectiveness of these activities is rarely evaluated. To address this gap, several research activities were conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "Changes", the results of which we will present and discuss. First, results of a literature review show, among others, that research on effectiveness is mainly focussed on the assessment of users' needs and their ability to understand the content, rather than on the final impact of the risk communication efforts. Moreover, lab-environment research is more often undertaken than assessment of real communication efforts. Second, a comparison between perceptions of risk managers and the general public of risk communication in a French Alps Valley highlighted a gap between the two groups in terms of amount of information needed (who wants more), the important topics to address (what) and the media to use (how). Third, interviews with developers of smartphone applications for disseminating avalanche risk information showed a variety of current practices and the absence of measurements of real their effectiveness. However, our analysis allowed identifying good practices that can be an inspiration for risk communication related to other hazards. Fourth, an exhibition has been set up following a collaborative approached based on stakeholder engagement. Using a pre/post-test design, the immediate impact of the exhibition, which aimed at increasing the risk awareness of the population (Ubaye Valley, France), was measured. The data obtained suggests that visiting the exhibition

  14. From Brand Image Research to Teaching Assessment: Using a Projective Technique Borrowed from Marketing Research to Aid an Understanding of Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Clive Roland

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a simple qualitative market research technique using a projective device called a bubble drawing can be used as a useful feedback device to gain an understanding of students' views of the teaching effectiveness of a market research lecture. Comparisons are made with feedback gained from teaching observations and insights…

  15. Research Experiences in Teacher Preparation: Effectiveness of the Green Bank preservice teacher enhancement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemler, Debra A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the preservice teacher component of the Research Experiences in Teacher Preparation (RETP) project aimed at enhancing teacher perceptions of the nature of science, science research, and science teaching. Data was collected for three preservice teacher groups during the three phases of the program: (I) a one week institute held at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia where teachers performed astronomy research using a 40 foot diameter radio telescope; (II) a secondary science methods course; and (III) student teaching placements. Four Likert-type instruments were developed and administered pre and post-institute to assess changes in perceptions of science, attitudes toward research, concerns about implementing research in the classroom, and evaluation of the institute. Instruments were re-administered following the methods course and student teaching. Observations of classroom students conducting research were completed for seven preservice teacher participants in their student teaching placements. Analysis, using t-tests, showed a significant increase in preservice teachers perceptions of their ability to do research. Preservice teachers were not concerned about implementing research in their placements. No significant change was measured in their understanding of the nature of science and science teaching. Concept maps demonstrated a significant increase in radio astronomy content knowledge. Participants responded that the value of institute components, quality of the research elements, and preparation for implementing research in the classroom were "good" to "excellent". Following the methods course (Phase II) no significant change in their understanding of the nature of science or concerns about implementing projects in the classroom were measured. Of the 7 preservice teachers who were observed implementing research projects, 5 projects were consistent with the Green

  16. Family and physician influence on asthma research participation decisions for adolescents: the effects of adolescent gender and research risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Janet L; Scherer, David G; Annett, Robert D; Turner, Charles; Dalen, Jeanne

    2006-08-01

    There is considerable ethical and legal ambiguity surrounding the role of adolescents in the decision-making process for research participation. Depending on the nature of the study and the regulations involved, adolescents may have independent responsibility for providing informed consent, they may be asked to provide their assent, or they may be completely excluded from the decision-making process. This study examined parent and adolescent perceptions of decision-making authority and sources of influence on adolescent research participation decisions, and examined whether perceptions of influence differed based on adolescent gender and level of research risk. Adolescents (n = 36) with asthma and their parents reviewed 9 pediatric research protocols, decided whether they would choose to participate, rated the extent they would be responsible for the actual decision, and indicated the ability of family and physician to influence their decisions. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences in perceptions of decision-making authority and sources of influence on the decisions. Adolescents were less willing to cede decision making authority to parents than parents anticipated. Parents and adolescents acknowledged a greater openness to influence from physicians than from family for above minimal risk studies. Parents were more willing to consider opinions from male adolescents. Adolescents desire responsibility for research participation decisions, though parents may not share these views. Physicians' views on research participation are important to families, especially for above minimal risk studies. Parents may grant more decision-making autonomy to adolescent males than to females. Researchers, physicians, and institutions play a key role in facilitating the ethical enrollment of adolescents into biomedical research. Educational, policy, and oversight processes that support both adolescent autonomy and parental responsibility for research

  17. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, S A S A; Tromp, K; Bunnik, E M; Milne, R J; Badger, S; Brayne, C; Schermer, M H; Richard, E

    2016-11-10

    Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosure are. This systematic review therefore examines the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing genetic and nongenetic AD-related biomarkers to cognitively healthy research participants. We performed a systematic literature search in eight scientific databases. Three independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant articles. Results extracted from the included articles were aggregated and presented per effect group. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data synthesis. None of the identified studies examined the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers. All studies but one concerned the disclosure of APOE genotype and were conducted in the USA. Study populations consisted largely of cognitively healthy first-degree relatives of AD patients. In this group, disclosure of an increased risk was not associated with anxiety, depression or changes in perceived risk in relation to family history. Disclosure of an increased risk did lead to an increase in specific test-related distress levels, health-related behavior changes and long-term care insurance uptake and possibly diminished memory functioning. In cognitively healthy research participants with a first-degree relative with AD, disclosure of APOE ε4-positivity does not lead to elevated anxiety and depression levels, but does increase test-related distress and results in behavior changes concerning insurance and health. We did not find studies reporting the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers and only one study included people without a family history of AD. Empirical studies on the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers

  18. Stakeholder priorities for comparative effectiveness research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Jerry A; Lindenauer, Peter K; Au, David H; Carson, Shannon S; Lee, Todd A; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Naureckas, Edward T; Vollmer, William M; Mularski, Richard A

    2013-02-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is intended to address the expressed needs of patients, clinicians, and other stakeholders. Representatives of 54 stakeholder groups with an interest in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in workshops convened by the COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness and Research Translation (CONCERT) over a 2-year period. Year 1 focused on chronic care and care coordination. Year 2 focused on acute care and transitions in care between healthcare settings. Discussions and provisional voting were conducted via teleconferences and e-mail exchanges before the workshop. Final prioritization votes occurred after in-person discussions at the workshop. We used a modified Delphi approach to facilitate discussions and consensus building. To more easily quantify preferences and to evaluate the internal consistency of rankings, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was incorporated in Year 2. Results of preworkshop and final workshop voting often differed, suggesting that prioritization efforts relying solely on requests for topics from stakeholder groups without in-person discussion may provide different research priorities. Research priorities varied across stakeholder groups, but generally focused on studies to evaluate different approaches to healthcare delivery (e.g., spirometry for diagnosis and treatment, integrated healthcare strategies during transitions in care) rather than head-to-head comparisons of medications. This research agenda may help to inform groups intending to respond to CER funding opportunities in COPD. The methodologies used, detailed in the online supplement, may also help to inform prioritization efforts for CER in other health conditions.

  19. Employment of Questionnaire as Tool for Effective Business Research Outcome: Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADENIYI AKINGBADE WAIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaire has to do with questions designed to gather information or data for analysis. Questionnaire has to be adequate, simple, focused and related to the subject which the research is set to achieve and to test the hypotheses and questions that are formulated for the study. But many questionnaires are constructed and administered without following proper guideline which hinders there end result. This paper assesses some of the guides for constructing questionnaire as well as it uses and the extent to which it enhanced manager’s access to reliable data and information. Descriptive method is employed for the study. Findings revealed that poor or badly prepared questionnaire produce questionnaire that does not provide effective results. Managers and researchers that use such questionnaire hardly achieve their organisational and research objectives. The need for good, well prepared and adequate questionnaire is exemplified by its being the primary tool for analytical research. The study recommends that questionnaire be properly prepared for effective research outcome.

  20. Stakeholder Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenauer, Peter K.; Au, David H.; Carson, Shannon S.; Lee, Todd A.; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Naureckas, Edward T.; Vollmer, William M.; Mularski, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is intended to address the expressed needs of patients, clinicians, and other stakeholders. Representatives of 54 stakeholder groups with an interest in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in workshops convened by the COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness and Research Translation (CONCERT) over a 2-year period. Year 1 focused on chronic care and care coordination. Year 2 focused on acute care and transitions in care between healthcare settings. Discussions and provisional voting were conducted via teleconferences and e-mail exchanges before the workshop. Final prioritization votes occurred after in-person discussions at the workshop. We used a modified Delphi approach to facilitate discussions and consensus building. To more easily quantify preferences and to evaluate the internal consistency of rankings, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was incorporated in Year 2. Results of preworkshop and final workshop voting often differed, suggesting that prioritization efforts relying solely on requests for topics from stakeholder groups without in-person discussion may provide different research priorities. Research priorities varied across stakeholder groups, but generally focused on studies to evaluate different approaches to healthcare delivery (e.g., spirometry for diagnosis and treatment, integrated healthcare strategies during transitions in care) rather than head-to-head comparisons of medications. This research agenda may help to inform groups intending to respond to CER funding opportunities in COPD. The methodologies used, detailed in the online supplement, may also help to inform prioritization efforts for CER in other health conditions. PMID:23155144

  1. Recent progress in the field of non-auditory health effects of noise. Trends and research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Matsui, T.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim to identify recent research achievements, current trends in research, remaining gaps of knowledge and priority areas of future research in the field of non-auditory health effects of noise, recent research progress was reviewed. A search was performed in PubMed (search terms “noise AND

  2. Lessons learned in research: an attempt to study the effects of magnetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szor, Judy K; Holewinski, Paul

    2002-02-01

    Difficulties related to chronic wound healing research are frequently discussed, but results of less-than-perfect studies commonly are not published. A 16-week, randomized controlled double-blind study attempted to investigate the effect of static magnetic therapy on the healing of diabetic foot ulcers. Of 56 subjects, 37 completed the study. Because of the small sample size, randomization did not control for differences between the two groups, and the data could not be analyzed in any meaningful way. The challenges of performing magnetic therapy research are discussed and considerations for future studies are noted.

  3. Representative benthic bioindicator organisms for use in radiation effects research: Culture of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Polychaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comprehensive synthesis of information pertaining to the selection and maintenance of bioindicator organisms for use in radiation-effects research. The focus of this report is on the benthic polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, a species that has been used successfully at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other institutions to define the impacts of radiation and chemical toxicants on aquatic organisms. In this document, the authors provide a rationale for the selection of this organism, a description of its reproductive biology, and a description of the conditions that are required for the maintenance and rearing of the organism for use in toxicological research

  4. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  5. CROSERF: Toward a standardization of oil spill cleanup agent ecological effects research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Aurand, D.; Clark, J.; Sergy, G.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment in 1994 of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF) for the development of standardization of protocols used in ecological research of oil spills and remediation efforts was described. Background and the need for such an organization was discussed. Discussions at the two meetings of the forum to date (generation of scientific data for decision making in August 1994 at the University of California at Santa Cruz, and toxicity testing of the water-accommodated fraction of the oil in March 1995 at the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office in Baton Rouge) were summarized. A list of the organizations represented at the meetings was given. 5 refs

  6. Untold stories: biases and selection effects in research with victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunovskis, Anette; Surtees, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Recent discussions of trafficking research have included calls for more innovative studies and new methodologies in order to move beyond the current trafficking narrative, which is often based on unrepresentative samples and overly simplified images. While new methods can potentially play a role in expanding the knowledge base on trafficking, this article argues that the solution is not entirely about applying new methods, but as much about using current methods to greater effect and with careful attention to their limitations and ethical constraints. Drawing on the authors' experience in researching trafficking issues in a number of projects over the past decade, the article outlines and exemplifies some of the methodological and ethical issues to be considered and accommodated when conducting research with trafficked persons -- including unrepresentative samples; access to respondents; selection biases by "gatekeepers" and self selection by potential respondents. Such considerations should inform not only how research is undertaken but also how this information is read and understood. Moreover, many of these considerations equally apply when considering the application of new methods within this field. The article maintains that a better understanding of how these issues come into play and inform trafficking research will translate into tools for conducting improved research in this field and, by implication, new perspectives on human trafficking.

  7. A Blind Spot in Research on Foreign Language Effects in Judgment and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonioli, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    One of the most fascinating topics of current investigation in the literature on judgment and decision-making concerns the exploration of foreign language effects (henceforth, FLE). Specifically, recent research suggests that presenting information in a foreign language helps reasoners make better choices. However, this piece aims at making scholars aware of a blind spot in this stream of research. In particular, research on FLE has imported only one view of judgment and decision-making, in which the heuristics that people use are seen as conducive to biases and, in turn, to costly mistakes. But heuristics are not necessarily a liability, and this article indicates two routes to push forward research on FLE in judgment and decision-making. First, research on FLE should be expanded to explore also classes of fast and frugal heuristics, which have been shown to lead to accurate predictions in several contexts characterized by uncertainty. Second, research on FLE should be open to challenge the interpretations given to previous FLE findings, since alternative accounts are plausible and not ruled out by evidence. PMID:29662457

  8. Ethics and Regulatory Challenges and Opportunities in Patient-Centered Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act includes provisions for the conduct of large-scale, patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. Such efforts aim toward the laudable moral goal of having evidence to improve health care decision making. Nevertheless, these pragmatic clinical research efforts that typically pose minimal incremental risk and are enmeshed in routine care settings perhaps surprisingly encounter an array of ethics and regulatory challenges and opportunities for academic health centers. An emphasis on patient-centeredness forces an examination of the appropriateness of traditional methods used to protect the rights, interests, and welfare of participants. At the same time, meaningful collaboration with patients throughout the research process also necessitates ensuring that novel approaches to research (including recruitment and consent) entail necessary protections regarding such issues as privacy. As the scientific and logistical aspects of this research are being developed, substantial attention is being focused on the accompanying ethics and regulatory issues that have emerged, which should help to facilitate ethically appropriate research in a variety of contexts.

  9. A Blind Spot in Research on Foreign Language Effects in Judgment and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polonioli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most fascinating topics of current investigation in the literature on judgment and decision-making concerns the exploration of foreign language effects (henceforth, FLE. Specifically, recent research suggests that presenting information in a foreign language helps reasoners make better choices. However, this piece aims at making scholars aware of a blind spot in this stream of research. In particular, research on FLE has imported only one view of judgment and decision-making, in which the heuristics that people use are seen as conducive to biases and, in turn, to costly mistakes. But heuristics are not necessarily a liability, and this article indicates two routes to push forward research on FLE in judgment and decision-making. First, research on FLE should be expanded to explore also classes of fast and frugal heuristics, which have been shown to lead to accurate predictions in several contexts characterized by uncertainty. Second, research on FLE should be open to challenge the interpretations given to previous FLE findings, since alternative accounts are plausible and not ruled out by evidence.

  10. A Blind Spot in Research on Foreign Language Effects in Judgment and Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonioli, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    One of the most fascinating topics of current investigation in the literature on judgment and decision-making concerns the exploration of foreign language effects (henceforth, FLE). Specifically, recent research suggests that presenting information in a foreign language helps reasoners make better choices. However, this piece aims at making scholars aware of a blind spot in this stream of research. In particular, research on FLE has imported only one view of judgment and decision-making, in which the heuristics that people use are seen as conducive to biases and, in turn, to costly mistakes. But heuristics are not necessarily a liability, and this article indicates two routes to push forward research on FLE in judgment and decision-making. First, research on FLE should be expanded to explore also classes of fast and frugal heuristics, which have been shown to lead to accurate predictions in several contexts characterized by uncertainty. Second, research on FLE should be open to challenge the interpretations given to previous FLE findings, since alternative accounts are plausible and not ruled out by evidence.

  11. Fouling research and cleaning effect by sponge ball on condencer tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S; Sano, A [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Minamoto, K; Mimura, K; Kyohara, S

    1978-07-01

    Systematic research has been performed to investigate the cleaning effect on condensers cooled by sea water. The test has been done for a year using the test condenser at the Kainan Power Station, Kansai Electric Power Company. The main purpose of this research was to see the effect of cleaning inner walls of condenser tubes with sponge balls on the prevention of adhesion of marine creatures such as barnacles and other shellfishes. As the test tubes, the aluminum-brass and titanium tubes with 25.4 mm diameter, 1.245 mm thickness and 170 mm length were used. Frequency of cleaning and flow rate were chosen as the variable parameters. The effect of seasons was also investigated. Major conclusions drawn from this research were as follows. (1) More adhesion of barnacles was observed at slower flow speed and in titanium tubes rather than aluminum brass tubes. (2) At the flow speed of 1 m/sec. cleaning frequency of more than twice a week was necessary to perfectly avoid the adhesion. (3) In summer, the adhesion was most intensive, whereas in winter, it was the least. (4) Barnacles were the most predominant organism. (5) Cleaning with sponge balls was effective.

  12. Fouling research and cleaning effect by sponge ball on condencer tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Seizo; Sano, Akira; Minamoto, Kenju; Mimura, Keisuke; Kyohara, Shigeru.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic research has been performed to investigate the cleaning effect on condensers cooled by sea water. The test has been done for a year using the test condenser at the Kainan Power Station, Kansai Electric Power Company. The main purpose of this research was to see the effect of cleaning inner walls of condenser tubes with sponge balls on the prevention of adhesion of marine creatures such as barnacles and other shellfishes. As the test tubes, the aluminum-brass and titanium tubes with 25.4 mm diameter, 1.245 mm thickness and 170 mm length were used. Frequency of cleaning and flow rate were chosen as the variable parameters. The effect of seasons was also investigated. Major conclusions drawn from this research were as follows. (1) More adhesion of barnacles was observed at slower flow speed and in titanium tubes rather than aluminum brass tubes. (2) At the flow speed of 1 m/sec. cleaning frequency of more than twice a week was necessary to perfectly avoid the adhesion. (3) In summer, the adhesion was most intensive, whereas in winter, it was the least. (4) Barnacles were the most predominant organism. (5) Cleaning with sponge balls was effective. (Aoki, K.)

  13. Effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime of Tehran research reactor mixed-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkari, A.; Khalafi, H.; Kazeminejad, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Kinetic parameters of Tehran research reactor mixed-core have been calculated. ► Burn-up effect on TRR kinetics parameters has been studied. ► Replacement of LEU-CFE with HEU-CFE in the TRR core has been investigated. ► Results of each mixed core were compared to the reference core. ► Calculation of kinetic parameters are necessary for reactivity and power excursion transient analysis. - Abstract: In this work, kinetic parameters of Tehran research reactor (TRR) mixed cores have been calculated. The mixed core configurations are made by replacement of the low enriched uranium control fuel elements with highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core. The MTR P C package, a nuclear reactor analysis tool, is used to perform the analysis. Simulations were carried out to compute effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime. Calculation of kinetic parameters is necessary for reactivity and power excursion transient analysis. The results of this research show that effective delayed neutron fraction decreases and prompt neutron lifetime increases with the fuels burn-up. Also, by increasing the number of highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core, the prompt neutron lifetime increases, but effective delayed neutron fraction does not show any considerable change

  14. NITARP: An Example of Effective Data-Based Research in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Laura; Rowe, Jamie L.; Lineberger, Howard; Duranko, Gary; Gorjian, Varoujan

    2018-01-01

    The use of data in the classroom is a core component of both project based learning and STEM based education. Authentic student driven research using real-world data is a primary focus of both teaching strategies. To make the educational outcome effective and long lasting, the type and quality of data used in the lessons is important. The NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP) program encapsulates this in very meaningful ways by providing both teachers and students the opportunity to ask deep meaningful questions, collaborate with peers, and arrive at meaningful conclusions. Teachers trained in the use of scientific archives and the application of those archives for authentic research is critical for this type of learning to be successful.In this study we use the NITARP program as an example of effective STEM project based learning using archived scientific data. We explore the components of the program that are most effective, the effects on teacher competency and ease of use with students, and use in the classroom. For each area we also explore alternate sources of teacher support, data archives, and techniques for implementation in classrooms for various topics and skill levels.

  15. Evaluating the effects that existing instruction on responsible conduct of research has on ethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Alison L; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D; Brown, Ryan P; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D

    2010-03-01

    To examine the effects that existing courses on the responsible conduct of research (RCR) have on ethical decision making by assessing the ethicality of decisions made in response to ethical problems and the underlying processes involved in ethical decision making. These processes included how an individual thinks through ethical problems (i.e., meta-cognitive reasoning strategies) and the emphasis placed on social dimensions of ethical problems (i.e., social-behavioral responses). In 2005-2007, recruitment announcements were made, stating that a nationwide, online study was being conducted to examine the impact of RCR instruction on the ethical decision making of scientists. Recruitment yielded contacts with over 200 RCR faculty at 21 research universities and medical schools; 40 (20%) RCR instructors enrolled their courses in the current study. From those courses, 173 participants completed an ethical decision-making measure. A mixed pattern of effects emerged. The ethicality of decisions did not improve as a result of RCR instruction and even decreased for decisions pertaining to business aspects of research, such as contract bidding. Course participants improved on some meta-cognitive reasoning strategies, such as awareness of the situation and consideration of personal motivations, but declined for seeking help and considering others' perspectives. Participants also increased their endorsement of detrimental social-behavioral responses, such as deception, retaliation, and avoidance of personal responsibility. These findings indicated that RCR instruction may not be as effective as intended and, in fact, may even be harmful. Harmful effects might result if instruction leads students to overstress avoidance of ethical problems, be overconfident in their ability to handle ethical problems, or overemphasize their ethical nature. Future research must examine these and other possible obstacles to effective RCR instruction.

  16. Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

    2014-07-01

    To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF STRATEGIES FOR OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATION, LABORATORY TO FIELD (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several important additional research efforts were identified during the development of test systems and protocols for assessing the effectiveness and environmental safety of oil spill commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs). Research that examined CBA efficacy issues included: (...

  18. A Pilot Study on the effects of Music Therapy on Frontotemporal Dementia - developing a research protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Wigram, Tony; Ottesen, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    , and pharmacological treatment of the psychiatric symptoms is difficult, requiring specialist proficiency in the field. Pilot study: As there is not yet sufficient research that examines the effects of non-pharmacologic treatment with this group there is a need to develop valid and reliable research protocols....... As an example of a non-pharmacologic treatment procedure music therapy was investigated. With the focus to develop a research protocol for a future larger population study a pilot study was carried out. In two case studies a combination of data collection methods were examined with the overall goal to document...... changes in intersubjectivity. In this pilot testing there was a specific interest in selecting a relevant and manageable dementia specific instrument for measuring quality of life and relating it with other instruments. Following three instruments were tested: the Altzheimers Disease-Related Quality...

  19. Record of the first meeting of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This conference was held July 27--28, 1994 in Moscow. The main purpose of the meeting was to implement an agreement between the Russian Federation and the US to facilitate cooperative research on health and environmental effects of radiation. It was hoped that the exchange of information would provide a good basis for employing new scientific knowledge to implement practical measures to facilitate the rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated areas and to treat radiation illnesses. The Russian Federation suggested five main scientific areas for cooperative research. They will prepare proposals on 4--5 projects within the scope of the scientific areas discussed and forward them to the US delegation for consideration of the possibility to facilitate joint research

  20. An Attempt to Improve Students' Presentation Skills via Course of Graduation Research and its Educational Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kenji; Ohtuka, Sigeru; Morita, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Itaru; Yakabe, Masaki; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Ohtuka, Kouichi

    The importance of presentation skills rapidly increases in engineering education in Japan. The authors have applied various teaching-method of presentation skills to the course of graduation research for the fifth-grade students of the mechanical engineering program in Yonago National College of Technology. The lectures including teachers' demonstration and basic skills in presentation have resulted in improvement of students' skills. The meeting for announcing the results of graduation research has been opened to the public in cooperation with the Yonago Chamber of Commerce and Industry to give the students incentives to graduation research as well as presentation. The students have mutually evaluated their presentation to get good opportunities for even self-evaluation. This paper discusses the effects and problems of our educational practice.

  1. Research with School Students: Four Innovative Methods Used to Explore Effective Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Faye Heal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines four research methods we’ve employed to enhance how students from low-income backgrounds engage in research exploring effective teaching. It firstly outlines the need to be innovative, drawing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and then moves on to explain two methods that scaffold a semi-structured interview, one child-led classroom tour and finally a creative ‘draw and tell’ approach. It argues that these methods are successful because they disrupt the researcher-participant power imbalance using the following techniques: Familiarity to the student, empowering the student to be an expert, and giving the student choice.

  2. School effectiveness research: a review of criticisms and some proposals to address them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sandoval-Hernandez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on this analysis the paper concludes that, in terms of Lakatos, a movement towards a new research programme is needed in order to ensure that the main objectives originally set for SER can be eventually reached.

  3. Learning to Be a More Effective Research Mentor for Your Trainees: Undergraduates to Post-docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric; Mathieu, R.; Pfund, C.; Branchaw, J.; UW-Madison Research Mentor Training Development Team

    2010-01-01

    How do you effectively mentor individuals at different stages of their careers? Can you learn to become a more effective mentor through training? Does one size fit all? Are you ready to address the NSF's new requirement about mentoring post-docs in your next proposal? For many academics, typical answers to these questions include, "I try to make adjustments based on the trainee, but I don't have a specific plan” "Yeah, I'd better start thinking about that” and "There's training?” Scientists often are not trained for their crucial role of mentoring the next generation. The University of Wisconsin-Madison has developed, field tested, and publically released research mentor training materials for several STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) disciplines, including astronomy, to help fill this gap and improve the educational experience and ultimate success of research trainees at several career stages, from high school students to post-doctoral scholars. While initially aimed at the mentoring of undergraduate researchers at research extensive institutions, the topics are broad enough (e.g., expectations, communication, understanding, diversity, ethics, independence) to be applicable to mentoring in a wide range of project-based educational activities. Indeed, these materials have been modified, only modestly, to prepare graduate students and undergraduates to mentor high school students. In this session, we will describe the UW-Madison research mentor training seminar and illustrate how the training can be adapted and implemented. We will introduce an interactive "shopping cart” style website which allows users to obtain the materials and instructions on how to run the program at their institution. Most of the session will be devoted to an interactive implementation of elements of research mentor training using small discussion groups. Participants will experience the training seminar in practice, come face-to-face with some common mentoring

  4. Becoming a More Effective Research Mentor for Your Trainees: Undergraduates to Post-docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric J.; Mathieu, R.; Pfund, C.; Branchaw, J.; UW-Madison Research Mentor Training Development Team

    2010-05-01

    How do you effectively mentor individuals at different stages of their careers? Can you learn to become a more effective mentor through training? Does one size fit all? Are you ready to address the NSF's new requirement about mentoring post-docs in your next proposal? For many academics, typical answers to these questions include, "I try to make adjustments based on the trainee, but I don't have a specific plan” "Yeah, I'd better start thinking about that” and "There's training?” Scientists often are not trained for their crucial role of mentoring the next generation. The University of Wisconsin-Madison has developed, field tested, and publicly released research mentor training materials for several STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) disciplines, including astronomy, to help fill this gap and improve the educational experience and ultimate success of research trainees at several career stages, from high school students to post-doctoral scholars. While initially aimed at the mentoring of undergraduate researchers at research extensive institutions, the topics are broad enough (e.g., expectations, communication, understanding, diversity, ethics, independence) to be applicable to mentoring in a wide range of project-based educational activities. Indeed, these materials have been modified, only modestly, to prepare graduate students and undergraduates to mentor high school students. In this session, we will describe the UW-Madison research mentor training seminar and illustrate how the training can be adapted and implemented. We will introduce an interactive "shopping cart” style website which allows users to obtain the materials and instructions on how to run the program at their institution. Most of the session will be devoted to an interactive implementation of elements of research mentor training using small discussion groups. Participants will experience the training seminar in practice, come face-to-face with some common mentoring

  5. Climate change effects on human health in a gender perspective: some trends in Arctic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia, Kukarenko

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women's and men's well-being and health. To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The main purpose of this article is not to give a full review but to draw attention to the gaps in knowledge and challenges in the Arctic research trends on climate change, human health and gender. A broad literature search was undertaken using a variety of sources from natural, medical, social science and humanities. The focus was on the keywords. Despite the evidence provided by many researchers on differentiating effects of climate change on well-being and health of women and men, gender perspective remains of marginal interest in climate change, environmental and health studies. At the same time, social sciences and humanities, and gender studies in particular, show little interest towards climate change impacts on human health in the Arctic. As a result, we still observe the division of labour between disciplines, the disciplinary-bound pictures of human development in the Arctic and terminology confusion. Efforts to bring in a gender perspective in the Arctic research will be successful only when different disciplines would work together. Multidisciplinary research is a way to challenge academic/disciplinary homogeneity and their boundaries, to take advantage of the diversity of approaches and methods in production of new integrated knowledge. Cooperation and dialogue across disciplines will help to develop adequate indicators for monitoring human health and elaborating efficient policies and strategies to the benefit of both women and men in the Arctic. Global Health Action 2011. © 2011 Kukarenko

  6. Increased scientific rigor will improve reliability of research and effectiveness of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Sarah N.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Barker, Kristin J.; Forshee, Shannon C.; Keever, Allison; Goerz, James W.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Rigorous science that produces reliable knowledge is critical to wildlife management because it increases accurate understanding of the natural world and informs management decisions effectively. Application of a rigorous scientific method based on hypothesis testing minimizes unreliable knowledge produced by research. To evaluate the prevalence of scientific rigor in wildlife research, we examined 24 issues of the Journal of Wildlife Management from August 2013 through July 2016. We found 43.9% of studies did not state or imply a priori hypotheses, which are necessary to produce reliable knowledge. We posit that this is due, at least in part, to a lack of common understanding of what rigorous science entails, how it produces more reliable knowledge than other forms of interpreting observations, and how research should be designed to maximize inferential strength and usefulness of application. Current primary literature does not provide succinct explanations of the logic behind a rigorous scientific method or readily applicable guidance for employing it, particularly in wildlife biology; we therefore synthesized an overview of the history, philosophy, and logic that define scientific rigor for biological studies. A rigorous scientific method includes 1) generating a research question from theory and prior observations, 2) developing hypotheses (i.e., plausible biological answers to the question), 3) formulating predictions (i.e., facts that must be true if the hypothesis is true), 4) designing and implementing research to collect data potentially consistent with predictions, 5) evaluating whether predictions are consistent with collected data, and 6) drawing inferences based on the evaluation. Explicitly testing a priori hypotheses reduces overall uncertainty by reducing the number of plausible biological explanations to only those that are logically well supported. Such research also draws inferences that are robust to idiosyncratic observations and

  7. [Research advances in the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of Aurelia spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Aurelia spp. is a cosmopolitan coastal species, and also, one dominant species of large jellyfish in the coastal waters of China. In recent years, Aurelia spp. bloom events occur frequently in the world, causing severe damage to marine ecosystems, coastal economy, and society development. Aurelia spp. has a complicated life history comprising a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp generation and a sexually-reproducing medusa generation, and various vegetative reproduction (budding, strobilation, and podocyst production) and sexual reproduction. Surrounding physical and biological factors affect each growth stage of Aurelia spp., especially the juvenile stage of planktonic-benthic life cycle, which has major effect on the population dynamics of Aurelia spp. This paper reviewed the research advances in the effects of environmental factors on Aurelia spp. at its different growth and development stages, and discussed some problems worthy of further study, aimed to provide useful reference for the research of the key factors controlling the jellyfish blooms in coastal waters of China.

  8. The research on the health effects of low-level radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Professor Don Luckey identified the phenomenon of 'radiation hormesis' and he described it in a paper in the Health Physics Society Journal, in 1982. (He also authored two books on this subject.) CRIEPI initiated a research program on radiation hormesis following this publication to confirm, 'Is it true or not?' After nearly ten years of research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many universities, we are realizing the scientific truth of bio-positive effects caused by low-level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in the following five groups: rejuvenation of cells, such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability; moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes; suppression and therapy of adult diseases, e.g., diabetes and hypertension; suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems, such as lymphocytes; suppression of cancer and radio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. (author)

  9. The effect of recent amblyopia research on current practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham, D

    2010-10-01

    Several studies have recently provided insights into how amblyopia may be most effectively managed. Despite the new evidence, a US study reported that a recent randomised controlled trial had made little influence on clinical practice. The aims of this research are to assess current practice of amblyopia management in the UK and to determine the comparability with the evidence-based recommendations. A questionnaire was constructed to assess current amblyopia management practice, particularly in relation to areas investigated by recent research and emailed to every head orthoptist within the UK. There was a great deal of variability in the amount of occlusion that was prescribed for moderate and severe amblyopia. Sixty per cent of clinicians indicated that the maximum they would prescribe was in excess of the 6 h recommended by research. Atropine was rarely recommended as a first-line treatment, with occlusion generally being considered to be more effective. Despite recommendations regarding education as a means of reducing non-compliance, only 39% of clinicians always gave written information, although various other methods of enhancing compliance were used. A period of refractive adaptation was allowed by most clinicians but often far less than recommended. The uptake of recent research evidence into clinical practice is sporadic and incomplete with one-third of respondents indicating that following the studies, they had made no changes whatsoever to their practice. This is similar to other areas of medicine; the reasons are likely to be varied, and is an area that would benefit from greater attention.

  10. CYberinfrastructure for COmparative effectiveness REsearch (CYCORE): improving data from cancer clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Kevin; Wolszon, Laura; Basen-Engquist, Karen M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Prokhorov, Alex V; Barrera, Stephanie; Baru, Chaitan; Farcas, Emilia; Krueger, Ingolf; Palmer, Doug; Raab, Fred; Rios, Phil; Ziftci, Celal; Peterson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Improved approaches and methodologies are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) in oncology. While cancer therapies continue to emerge at a rapid pace, the review, synthesis, and dissemination of evidence-based interventions across clinical trials lag in comparison. Rigorous and systematic testing of competing therapies has been clouded by age-old problems: poor patient adherence, inability to objectively measure the environmental influences on health, lack of kn...

  11. Experimental research for γ-ray interference threshold effect of high electromagnetic pulse sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Chen Xiangyue; Nie Xin; Xiang Hui; Guo Xiaoqiang; Mao Congguang; Cheng Jianping; Ni Jianping

    2007-01-01

    The high electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensor using optical-fiber to transmit signal can restrain electromagnetic interference. The Compton electrons scattered by γ-ray irradiated from nuclear explosion or nuclear explosion simulator can generate high EMP, γ-ray can penetrate the shielding box and irradiate the integrated circuit directly. The γ-ray irradiation effect includes interference, latch up and burn out, these will make the measurement result unbelievable. In this paper, the experimental method researching the γ-ray irradiation effect of high electromagnetic pulse sensor on Qiangguang-I accelerator is introduced. The γ-ray dose rate interference threshold is 2 x 10 6 Gy/s. (authors)

  12. Restriction of Variance Interaction Effects and Their Importance for International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortina, Jose M.; Köhler, Tine; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A recent Journal of International Business Studies editorial on interaction effects within and across levels highlighted the importance of and difficulty associated with justifying and reporting of such interaction effects. The purpose of this editorial is to describe a type of interaction...... hypothesis that is very common in international business (IB) research: the restricted variance (RV) hypothesis. Specifically, we describe the nature of an RV interaction and its evidentiary requirements. We also offer several IB examples involving interactions that could have been supported with RV...

  13. Effects on the surrounding population of postulated major accidents at the AAEC Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.C.E.; Carruthers, E.; Cook, J.E.; Crancher, D.W.; Davy, D.R.

    1972-11-01

    The consequences of accidents in specific facilities at the Research Establishment are examined in terms of possible exposure of persons living around Lucas Heights to release airborne radioactive and toxic materials. In the case of radioactive materials, both individual and population doses are estimated, the latter over a range of meteorological conditions. Using currently available data on the risk of development of adverse effects in irradiated populations further estimates are made of the possible number of cases of such effects in the local population. 43 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs

  14. The Effects of Research & Development Funding on Scientific Productivity: Academic Chemistry, 1990-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L Rosenbloom

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between Research & Development (R&D funding and the production of knowledge by academic chemists. Using articles published, either raw counts or adjusted for quality, we find a strong, positive causal effect of funding on knowledge production. This effect is similar across subsets of universities, suggesting a relatively efficient allocation of R&D funds. Finally, we document a rapid acceleration in the rate at which chemical knowledge was produced in the late 1990s and early 2000s relative to the financial and human resources devoted to its production.

  15. Research on effect of China’s energy saving policy of phase-out incandescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin; Liang, Xiuying; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    China’s energy saving policy of phase-out of incandescent lamps have been introduced and a comprehensive evaluation framework has been put forward. The impact of the implementation of the policy on manufacturing enterprises and places of sale, lighting industry and domestic and foreign markets, as well as the effect of energy conservation and emission reduction have been analyzed from micro, meso and macro layers. The research results show that, under the guidance of the policy, the orderly product mix transformation has been seen in incandescent lamp manufacturing enterprises, incandescent lamps gradually exit the Chinese mainstream lighting product market, and the energy conservation and emission reduction effect is remarkable.

  16. Research frontiers in climate change: Effects of extreme meteorological events on ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentsch, A.; Jentsch, A.; Beierkuhnlein, C.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change will increase the recurrence of extreme weather events such as drought and heavy rainfall. Evidence suggests that modifications in extreme weather events pose stronger threats to ecosystem functioning than global trends and shifts in average conditions. As ecosystem functioning is connected with ecological services, this has far-reaching effects on societies in the 21. century. Here, we: (i) present the rationale for the increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events in the near future; (ii) discuss recent findings on meteorological extremes and summarize their effects on ecosystems and (iii) identify gaps in current ecological climate change research. (authors)

  17. Cumulative effects assessment in Canada: an agenda for action and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E.B.; Chan, Y.-H.; Peterson, N.M.; Constable, G.A.; Caton, R.B.; Davis, C.S.; Wallace, R.R.; Yarranton, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This review of cumulative environmental effects assessment in Canada identified 13 sets of issues that are considered to be of particular significance to Canadians over the next decade or two. They are: long-range transport of air pollutants; urban air quality and airshed saturation, mobilization of persistent or bioaccumulated substances, climatic modification, land occupation by man-made features, habitat alienation and fragmentation, soil losses, effects of agricultural chemicals, groundwater supply reduction and contamination, increased sediment, chemical and thermal loading of freshwater and marine habitats, accelerating rates of renewable resource harvesting, and long-term containment and disposal of toxic wastes. There is a diverse set of examples in which cumulative effects have been recognized and brought under control and management, and the scientific and institutional factors that promoted a successful approach are summarized. It was confirmed that there are well-defined limitations in the degree to which project referrals and project-specific environmental impact assessments can be adapted to manage cumulative effects successfully. In general, this review confirmed the hypothesis that current approaches for both scientific analyses and institutional arrangements to manage cumulative effects remain inadequately developed in Canada. To address this weakness, action is required on improving links between ecosystems, research, and management. Recommendations are made and a research agenda is presented. 171 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Knowledge management and informatics considerations for comparative effectiveness research: a case-driven exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embi, Peter J; Hebert, Courtney; Gordillo, Gayle; Kelleher, Kelly; Payne, Philip R O

    2013-08-01

    As clinical data are increasingly collected and stored electronically, their potential use for comparative effectiveness research (CER) grows. Despite this promise, challenges face those wishing to leverage such data. In this paper we aim to enumerate some of the knowledge management and informatics issues common to such data reuse. After reviewing the current state of knowledge regarding biomedical informatics challenges and best practices related to CER, we then present 2 research projects at our institution. We analyze these and highlight several common themes and challenges related to the conduct of CER studies. Finally, we represent these emergent themes. The informatics challenges commonly encountered by those conducting CER studies include issues related to data information and knowledge management (eg, data reuse, data preparation) as well as those related to people and organizational issues (eg, sociotechnical factors and organizational factors). Examples of these are described in further detail and a formal framework for describing these findings is presented. Significant challenges face researchers attempting to use often diverse and heterogeneous datasets for CER. These challenges must be understood in order to be dealt with successfully and can often be overcome with the appropriate use of informatics best practices. Many research and policy questions remain to be answered in order to realize the full potential of the increasingly electronic clinical data available for such research.

  19. The Electronic Data Methods (EDM) forum for comparative effectiveness research (CER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Erin; Segal, Courtney; Lopez, Marianne Hamilton; Rein, Alison; Johnson, Beth H

    2012-07-01

    AcademyHealth convened the Electronic Data Methods (EDM) Forum to collect, synthesize, and share lessons from eleven projects that are building infrastructure and using electronic clinical data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) and patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). This paper provides a brief review of participating projects and provides a framework of common challenges. EDM Forum staff conducted a text review of relevant grant programs' funding opportunity announcements; projects' research plans; and available information on projects' websites. Additional information was obtained from presentations provided by each project; phone calls with project principal investigators, affiliated partners, and staff from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); and six site visits. Projects participating in the EDM Forum are building infrastructure and developing innovative strategies to address a set of methodological, and data and informatics challenges, here identified in a common framework. The eleven networks represent more than 20 states and include a range of partnership models. Projects vary substantially in size, from 11,000 to more than 7.5 million individuals. Nearly all of the AHRQ priority populations and conditions are addressed. In partnership with the projects, the EDM Forum is focused on identifying and sharing lessons learned to advance the national dialogue on the use of electronic clinical data to conduct CER and PCOR. These efforts have the shared goal of addressing challenges in traditional research studies and data sources, and aim to build infrastructure and generate evidence to support a learning health care system that can improve patient outcomes.

  20. The long-term effects of undertaking a research course on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Rangeley; Joyce, Arthurs

    2004-03-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine the students perceptions of the long-term effectiveness of the English National Board (ENB) 870 course (Understanding and Application of Research). Method. Both quantitative and qualitative strategies examined four objectives focusing on: research utilisation, usefulness of the course in the "real world", factors affecting research use and student support. A total sample comprised all 315 students from 1995 to 1998. Data were collected by postal questionnaires and by two focus group interviews. The responding sample of nurses, midwives and health visitors, all with a minimum of one years practice since completing the course totaled 145, achieving a response rate of 45%. Results. Evidence identified that practitioners were using research at a variety of levels to inform everyday practice. The skills developed in the course had transferred well to real life practice and a critical, confident, proactive approach within and across professional boundaries was demonstrated. A generally supportive culture was identified in the workplace but a lack of time and staff had prevented optimum utilisation of the new skills. A much more positive approach to research-based care was reported and many respondents stated that they had become more autonomous, accountable and better practitioners.