WorldWideScience

Sample records for effectively mitigate environmental

  1. 15 CFR 970.702 - Monitoring and mitigation of environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental effects. 970.702 Section 970.702 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.702 Monitoring and mitigation of environmental effects. (a) Monitoring. If an...

  2. The effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in environmental impact studies on marine ecosystems: A case study in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Céline, E-mail: celine.jacob@cefe.cnrs.fr [CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, Route de Mende 34 199 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); CREOCEAN, Les Belvédères, Bâtiment B, 128, Avenue de Fès, 34080 Montpellier (France); Pioch, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.pioch@gmail.com [CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, Route de Mende 34 199 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Thorin, Sébastien, E-mail: thorin@creocean.fr [CREOCEAN, Les Belvédères, Bâtiment B, 128, Avenue de Fès, 34080 Montpellier (France)

    2016-09-15

    While the development of maritime economic activity is increasingly encouraged, the consideration of its impacts constitutes a real challenge. The limitations of the implementation of the mitigation hierarchy have been widely discussed in scientific literature, yet data on marine biodiversity offset practices remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the use of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) as suitable instruments to achieve the No Net Loss objective. Drawing on a French approach developed for the initial assessment of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive, we examined the pressures and impacts related to various marine development projects and the effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in limiting these. An analysis of 55 recent French environmental impact studies showed that only 7% of the proposed measures had the aim of offsetting predicted degradation of sites of remarkable biodiversity. This can be partly explained by the lack of a clear definition of ‘significant impact’, which varies greatly depending on what is impacted, in turn allowing socio-economic activities to benefit more easily from offset. Furthermore, offsetting does not always constitute the final step of the mitigation hierarchy, highlighting the need to reinforce avoidance and reduction steps. Although we acknowledge the role of EIA in mitigating the negative impacts of development projects, synergies with other European marine environmental policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Maritime Spatial Planning directive (MSP) should be developed in order to improve current practices. - Highlights: • Avoidance measures were not well represented in the Environmental Impact Assessments studied. • Few significant residual impacts and measures to offset these were described. • Common biodiversity did not benefit from offset measures. • The equivalency of proposed marine offsets is questionable.

  3. The effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in environmental impact studies on marine ecosystems: A case study in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Céline; Pioch, Sylvain; Thorin, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    While the development of maritime economic activity is increasingly encouraged, the consideration of its impacts constitutes a real challenge. The limitations of the implementation of the mitigation hierarchy have been widely discussed in scientific literature, yet data on marine biodiversity offset practices remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the use of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) as suitable instruments to achieve the No Net Loss objective. Drawing on a French approach developed for the initial assessment of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive, we examined the pressures and impacts related to various marine development projects and the effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in limiting these. An analysis of 55 recent French environmental impact studies showed that only 7% of the proposed measures had the aim of offsetting predicted degradation of sites of remarkable biodiversity. This can be partly explained by the lack of a clear definition of ‘significant impact’, which varies greatly depending on what is impacted, in turn allowing socio-economic activities to benefit more easily from offset. Furthermore, offsetting does not always constitute the final step of the mitigation hierarchy, highlighting the need to reinforce avoidance and reduction steps. Although we acknowledge the role of EIA in mitigating the negative impacts of development projects, synergies with other European marine environmental policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Maritime Spatial Planning directive (MSP) should be developed in order to improve current practices. - Highlights: • Avoidance measures were not well represented in the Environmental Impact Assessments studied. • Few significant residual impacts and measures to offset these were described. • Common biodiversity did not benefit from offset measures. • The equivalency of proposed marine offsets is questionable.

  4. 23 CFR 710.513 - Environmental mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental mitigation. 710.513 Section 710.513 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.513 Environmental mitigation. (a) The...

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating air pollutant emissions from poultry houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 560 million broilers are produced on the Delmarva Peninsula each year. However, emissions from poultry houses have come under intense scrutiny due to the potential human and environmental effects of the released particulate matter (PM), ammonia, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ammonia an...

  6. Economic instruments for environmental mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A joint International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/World Energy Council (WEC) Working Group has been studying a range of policy instruments which are being used or considered for use to address the question of ever increasing energy demand versus environmental protection, and pollution reduction. Economic instruments for such environmental protection include direct regulation, market-based instruments, and voluntary approaches. No single policy or device was likely to suffice in addressing the diversity of environmental problems currently faced. Altering energy prices must be seen in a social context, but some direct regulation may also be inevitable. Generally economic instruments of change were preferred as these were viewed as more flexible and cost-effective. (UK)

  7. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures.

  8. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  9. Choosing organic pesticides over synthetic pesticides may not effectively mitigate environmental risk in soybeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Bahlai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selection of pesticides with small ecological footprints is a key factor in developing sustainable agricultural systems. Policy guiding the selection of pesticides often emphasizes natural products and organic-certified pesticides to increase sustainability, because of the prevailing public opinion that natural products are uniformly safer, and thus more environmentally friendly, than synthetic chemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the results of a study examining the environmental impact of several new synthetic and certified organic insecticides under consideration as reduced-risk insecticides for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines control, using established and novel methodologies to directly quantify pesticide impact in terms of biocontrol services. We found that in addition to reduced efficacy against aphids compared to novel synthetic insecticides, organic approved insecticides had a similar or even greater negative impact on several natural enemy species in lab studies, were more detrimental to biological control organisms in field experiments, and had higher Environmental Impact Quotients at field use rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data bring into caution the widely held assumption that organic pesticides are more environmentally benign than synthetic ones. All pesticides must be evaluated using an empirically-based risk assessment, because generalizations based on chemical origin do not hold true in all cases.

  10. The delusion of decoupling, and policy options for mitigating the rebound effect and the environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    reduce, or at least limit, ‘P’ and ‘A’, including their rebound growth from the ‘T’ decrease. The paper suggest this to be achievable in affluent countries, by letting ‘P’ decline through low birth rates, and encouraging ‘A’ to decline in exchange for lowering labor input to the economy, partly......When analyzing environmental problems, it is useful to apply the following simple equation for the environmental impact ‘I’, (here representing energy consumption): I = P·A·T, With ‘P’ representing population, ‘A’ affluence per capita, and ‘T’ resource intensity, i.e. energy per affluence unit ‘A......’. All three factors are through the equation coupled to ‘I’, and in general we should avoid using the misleading terminology of decoupling environmental impact (energy consumption) from the economy, represented by ‘P·A’. So far essentially all policies towards lowering ‘I’ has been devoted towards...

  11. Experimental and computational approaches to evaluate the environmental mitigation effect in narrow spaces by noble metal chemical addition (NMCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ota, Nobuyuki; Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Ishida, Kazushige; Wada, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    The environmental mitigation effect of NMCA in a narrow space was evaluated by experimental and computational approaches. In the experiment at 8 MPa and 553K, T-tube whose branched line had a narrow space was prepared, and the Zr electrodes were set in the branched line at certain intervals, which were 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15 and 29 cm from the opening section of the branched line. Electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) at the tip of the branched narrow space varied in response to the water chemistry in the main line which was at right angle with the branched line. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis reproduced the experimental results. It was also confirmed by CFD analysis that the ingress of water from the main line into the narrow space was accelerated by cavity flow and thermal convection. By CFD analysis in a thermal sleeve of actual plant condition, which had a narrow space, the concentration of dissolved oxygen at a tip of the thermal sleeve reached at 250 ppb within 300 sec, which was the same concentration of the main line. Noble metal deposition on the surface of the thermal sleeve was evaluated by mass transfer model. Noble metal deposition was the largest near the opening section of the branched line, and gradually decreased toward the tip section. In light of the consumption of dissolved oxygen in the branched line, noble metal deposition in the thermal sleeve was sufficient to reduce the ECP. It was expected that NMCA could mitigate the corrosion environment in the thermal sleeve. (author)

  12. International aspects of the mitigation of the environmental effects of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    It is hard to draw a boundary between those impacts on the environment which are specifically related to energy and those which are a general consequence of the concentration of human activities. This survey of international activities on energy and the environment will be restricted to those effects which commonly operate across international boundaries and will not include such problems as the airborne chemical problems at Bhopal, the Rhine spill at Basel or the ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons. The major international energy-related concerns are: (1) carbon dioxide and the possible warming of the earth; (2) sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and photochemical oxidant effects on lakes, streams, forests, and structures; (3) nuclear radioactive releases from weapons testing and power plants as they affect human health; and (4) the disposal of radioactive waste as a possible threat for the future ground water supplies or oceans

  13. Wildlife mitigation program. Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  14. Wildlife mitigation program final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and improvement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative, i.e., not to establish program-wide standards. Five standardizing (action) alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  15. Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, A.; Greene, B.; Dussich, J.; Sorkin, A.; Olsen, W.

    2017-01-01

    The Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) Principal Center and its predecessor organization the Acquisition Pollution Prevention Program (AP2) supported the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in identifying technology solutions to risks and costs to NASA programs driven by environmental regulations and requirements. TEERM researched the commercial and government marketplace to locate viable and available technologies that met NASAs needs. TEERM focused on addressing environmentally-driven risks of direct concern to NASA programs and facilities, including hazardous materials in NASA operations and materials that became obsolescent because of environmental regulations. TEERM projects aimed to reduce cost; ensure the health and safety of people, assets, and the environment; promote efficiency; and minimize duplication. Major TEERM and AP2 projects focused on waste minimization and hazardous waste treatment, recycling, corrosion prevention and control, solvent and ozone depleting substances substitution, and aqueous based cleaners. In 2017, NASA made the decision to terminate the TEERM Principal Center. This Compendium Report documents TEERM and AP2 project successes. The Compendium Report traces the evolution of TEERM based on evolving risks and requirements for NASA and its relationship to the Space Shuttle Program, the United States Department of Defense, the European Space Agency, and other public and private stakeholders. This Compendium Report also documents project details from Project Summaries and Joint Test Plans and describes project stakeholders and collaborative effort results.

  16. Tomographic Environmental Sections for Environmental Mitigation Devices in Historical Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cocci Grifoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat waves and the overall growing trend in the annual global temperature underline the importance of urban/architectural resilience and the need to reduce energy consumption. By designing urban voids, it is possible to create thermodynamic buffers, i.e., bubbles of controlled atmosphere that act as mediators between the natural and built environments, between the human body and the surrounding air, between meteorology and physiology (meteorological architecture. Multiple small actions in the urban fabric’s open spaces, such as replacing dark pavements or inserting vegetation and green spaces, are intended to improve outdoor comfort conditions and therefore the resilience of the city itself. This not only benefits the place’s quality, which is intrinsic to the new project, but also the insulating capacity of buildings, which are relieved of an external heat load. The design emphasis therefore changes from solid structures to the climate and weather conditions, which are invisible but perceivable. To design and control these constructed atmopheres, tomographic sections processed with computational fluid dynamics software (tomographic environmental section, TENS becomes necessary. It allows the effects of an extreme event on an outdoor environment to be evaluated in order to establish the appropriate (adaptive climate mitigation devices, especially in historical centers where energy retrofits are often discouraged. By fixing boundary conditions after a local intervention, the virtual environment can be simulated and then "sliced" to analyze initial values and verify the design improvements.

  17. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    BPA proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Project is intended to mitigate for wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs. The Project would allow the sponsors to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat improvement and long-term management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0940) evaluating the potential environmental effects of the proposed Project (Alternative B) and No Action (Alternative A). Protection and re-establishment of riparian and upland habitat on the Colville Indian Reservation, under Alternative B, would not have a significant adverse environmental impact because: (1) there would be only limited, mostly short-term adverse impacts on soils, water quality, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife (including no effect on endangered species); and (2) there would be no adverse effect on water quantity, cultural resources, or land use. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  18. Cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Krewski, D.; Zielinski, J.M.; McGregor, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the cost effectiveness of comprehensive strategies for reducing exposure to radon gas in indoor air in Canadian homes. The analysis is conducted within the context of a general framework for risk management programme evaluation which includes well-known evaluation techniques such as cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses as special cases. Based on this analysis, it is clear that any comprehensive programme to reduce exposure to environmental radon will be extremely expensive, and may not be justifiable in terms of health impact, particularly when considered in relation to other public health programmes. Testing of homes at the point of sale and installing sub-slab suction equipment to reduce exposure to indoor radon where necessary appears to be a relatively cost-effective radon mitigation strategy. In general, radon mitigation was found to be most cost effective in cities with relatively high levels of radon. (author)

  19. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  20. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  1. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife mitigation project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs

  2. EO2HEAVEN: mitigating environmental health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Rouw, Wouter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EO2HEAVEN has the primary objective to contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationships between environmental changes and their impact on human health. To achieve this, the project followed a multidisciplinary and user...

  3. Mitigating Dam Impacts Using Environmental Flow Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ecologically disruptive impacts of dams is their alteration of natural river flow variability. Opportunities exist for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. This presentation will highlight a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the suggested strategies for dam re-operation are predicated on changes in the end-use of the water, such as reductions in urban or agricultural water use during droughts, a systemic perspective of entire water management systems will be required to attain the fullest possible

  4. Environmental monitoring and mitigation plan for site characterization: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the EMMP is: to identify, in consultation with the affected states and Indian tribes, potentially significant adverse environmental impacts that could result from site characterization activities, to describe data collection methods that will be used to monitor any such identified impacts, and procedures for mitigating them. Chapter 2 of the EMMP provides an overview of the background and scope of the document. Chapter 3 of the EMMP provides a description of site characterization phase activities planned to assess the geologic condition of the site and construct the exploratory shafts and surface support facilities. The rationale for developing environmental monitoring studies is presented in Chapeter 4. Chapter 5 contains descriptions of the environmental monitoring and mitigation procedures whenever they are applicable. Additionally, in Chapter 6, the EMMP includes a procedure for modifying the monitoring and mitigation program and an approach for reporting monitoring results to interested parties. 21 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Occupational and environmental exposures to radon: A perspective for mitigators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, D.C.; Messing, M.; Saum, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares normal environmental and occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products for the occupational group, including radon mitigators and diagnosticians. Occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products and the associated high incidence of radiation-induced lung cancer form the basis for current concern for limiting exposures to radon. While it is now known that radon is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and estimates exist as to what this means in terms of cancer risk to the general population, similar estimates are not available for radon mitigators and diagnosticians

  6. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bromenshenk, Jerry [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO2 into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO2-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO2 leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  7. Northeast Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin has had far-reaching effects on many species of wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the Federal portion of this system, as allocated to the purpose of power production. BPA needs to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat in the Snake River Subbasin

  8. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  9. Develop an asset management tool for collecting and tracking commitments on selected environmental mitigation features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Wisconsin has constructed many environmental mitigation projects in conjunction with transportation projects that have been implemented according : to the National Environmental Policy Act. Other mitigation projects have been constructed pursuant to ...

  10. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  11. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II; William Bogan

    2004-01-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed. The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible. Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

  12. GIS as a vital tool for Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehbaghi, Koorosh; Scott-Young, Christina

    2018-03-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a course of action which provides information to various stakeholders such as planners and relevant authorities about the planned development and its subsequent effects of the environment and the immediate ambiances. Furthermore, the EIA and mitigation are the inclusive process of collecting, analyzing information and the determination of the application for development or construction approval, which could be accessible by the concerned communities and organizations. Although the set regulations of EIA and mitigation vary from jurisdictions, they are, however, very precise and need to be integrated with the specific geographical data. In addition, the Geographical Information System (GIS) is a software intended to encapsulate and present all types of physical, biological, environmental, ecological and geological information. Conversely, GIS is the integration of statistical analysis and information technology, and can also be further broken down into two different categories of; Topological Modelling and Map overlay. To ensure that the EIA and mitigation are receptive the GIS will provide the decisive apparatus. Using GIS not only improves the overall EIA and mitigation process, but also provides valuable mapping strategies, including holistic environmental system approach. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to discuss the importance of the GIS and Environmental Data integration progression, to further enhance the overall EIA and Mitigation processes.

  13. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, A.; Williams, I.D.; Pant, D.C.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages – first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated – mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH 3 , CH 4 and N 2 O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution. - Highlights: • In situ air pollution assessment of land applied digestate is performed. • Environmental burden minimisation scenarios for digestate bio fertiliser presented. • Food-based digestate show high ammonia volatilisation potential. • Soil incorporated digestate effectively reduces NH 3 but elevates N 2 O emissions. • Managing digestate emissions mitigate both climate change and air pollution. - In situ monitoring and analyses demonstrate the role of post-processing in greenhouse gases and air pollution mitigation from food-based digestate use as bio fertiliser

  14. The “New” Environmental Policy of the European Union: A Path to Development of a Circular Economy and Mitigation of the Negative Effects of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the evolution of the new environmental policy of the European Union in the context of the efforts undertaken to moderate the negative effects of climate change. It describes all the activities in the European Union designed to implement new tools of the EU environmental policy, such as low carbon economy technologies, tools that improve the efficiency of managing the limited natural resources, the environmentally friendly transport package, etc. All of them are aimed at laying the foundations of the circular economy, which may also be referred to as a closed-loop economy, i.e., an economy that does not generate excessive waste and whereby any waste becomes a resource.

  15. Combined acoustical and visual performance of noise barriers in mitigating the environmental impact of motorways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Like; Kang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the overall performance of noise barriers in mitigating environmental impact of motorways, taking into consideration their effects on reducing noise and visual intrusions of moving traffic, but also potentially inducing visual impact themselves. A laboratory experiment was carried out, using computer-visualised video scenes and motorway traffic noise recordings to present experimental scenarios covering two traffic levels, two distances of receiver to road, two types of background landscape, and five barrier conditions including motorway only, motorway with tree belt, motorways with 3 m timber barrier, 5m timber barrier, and 5m transparent barrier. Responses from 30 participants of university students were gathered and perceived barrier performance analysed. The results show that noise barriers were always beneficial in mitigating environmental impact of motorways, or made no significant changes in environmental quality when the impact of motorways was low. Overall, barriers only offered similar mitigation effect as compared to tree belt, but showed some potential to be more advantageous when traffic level went high. 5m timber barrier tended to perform better than the 3m one at the distance of 300 m but not at 100 m possibly due to its negative visual effect when getting closer. The transparent barrier did not perform much differently from the timber barriers but tended to be the least effective in most scenarios. Some low positive correlations were found between aesthetic preference for barriers and environmental impact reduction by the barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cuba: mitigation policies and the Environmental Kuznets curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimit Betancourt-Alayón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine whether there is for Cuba a growing non-monotonic relationship, known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, between emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2 in relation to income levels as a measure of the degree of development a basic model from 1970 to 2010. In addition to exploring an extended model involving product structure and trade on emissions. These gases by the importance of the intensification of global warming and therefore in strengthening the climate change are studied. A positive relationship of emissions of the three gases with GDP, although with evidence of an emerging virtuous development path of emissions is obtained, in any case it is possible without a comprehensive development policy which is prioritized design mitigation options.

  17. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  18. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Today's notice announces BPA's proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA's obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  19. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Deficits after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xixia; Qiu, Jianhua; Alcon, Sasha; Hashim, Jumana; Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah

    2017-08-15

    Although environmental enrichment has been shown to improve functional and histologic outcomes in pre-clinical moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), there are a paucity of pre-clinical data regarding enrichment strategies in the setting of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI). Given the vast numbers of athletes and those in the military who sustain rmTBI, the mounting evidence of the long-term and progressive sequelae of rmTBI, and the lack of targeted therapies to mitigate these sequelae, successful enrichment interventions in rmTBI could have large public health significance. Here, we evaluated enrichment strategies in an established pre-clinical rmTBI model. Seventy-one male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to two different housing conditions, environmental enrichment (EE) or normal condition (NC), then subjected to rmTBI injury (seven injuries in 9 days) or sham injury (anesthesia only). Functional outcomes in all four groups (NC-TBI, EE-TBI, NC-sham, and EE-sham) were assessed by motor, exploratory/anxiety, and mnemonic behavioral tests. At the synaptic level, N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression of phosphorylated glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and calpain were evaluated by western blot. Compared to injured NC-TBI mice, EE-TBI mice had improved memory and decreased anxiety and exploratory activity post-injury. Treatment with enrichment also corresponded to normal NMDAR subunit expression, decreased GluR1 phosphorylation, decreased phosphorylated CaMKII, and normal calpain expression post-rmTBI. These data suggest that enrichment strategies may improve functional outcomes and mitigate synaptic changes post-rmTBI. Given that enrichment strategies are feasible in the clinical setting, particularly for athletes and soldiers for whom the risk of repetitive injury is greatest, these data suggest that clinical trials may be warranted.

  20. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  1. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2017-02-21

    Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air pollution and traffic noise are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air pollution and noise. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Shelf life extension as solution for environmental impact mitigation: A case study for bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Cavaliere, Alessia; Falcone, Giacomo; Giovenzana, Valentina; Banterle, Alessandro; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2018-06-15

    Over the last years, increasing attention has been paid to environmental concerns related to food production and potential solutions to this issue. Among the different strategies being considered to reduce the impact food production has on the environment, only moderate has been paid to the extension of shelf life; a longer shelf life can reduce food losses as well as the economic and environmental impacts of the distribution logistics. The aim of this study is to assess the environmental performance of whole-wheat breadsticks with extended shelf lives and to evaluate whether the shelf-life extension is an effective mitigation solution from an environmental point of view. To this purpose, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied from a "cradle-to-grave" perspective. Rosmarinic acid was used as an antioxidant to extend the shelf life. To test the robustness of the results and to investigate the influence of the choices made in the modelling phase, a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were carried out. The achieved results highlighted how, for 10 of the 12 evaluated impact categories, the shelf-life extension is a proper mitigation solution, and its effectiveness depends on the magnitude of product loss reduction that is achieved. The shelf-life extension doesn't allow for the reduction of environmental impact in the categories of human toxicity, cancer effects and freshwater eutrophication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitigation of the effects of sulphur pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, B.; Wilson, R.

    1976-07-05

    As an introduction to the discussion of mitigation of the effects of SO/sub 2/, its health effect on man and the use of sulfates as indicators of the health hazard are first considered. The use of tall chimney stacks and intermittent control and other schemes to reduce the SO/sub 2/ release to the atmosphere are discussed. The problems of administration and forecasting are analyzed and legal problems associated with SO/sub 2/ control are reviewed. In an appendix an analysis of federal jurisdiction over interstate pollution and possible avenues of litigation open to the states is presented. (JSR)

  4. Short Review: Mitigation of Current Environmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol has become a widely used and globally distributed product. Methanol is very important due to the current depletion of fossil fuels. Industrially, methanol produced from the catalytic reaction of synthetic gas composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Methanol production has brought great attention due to carbon dioxide as the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Combined of reducing CO2 emissions and supplying an alternative fuel source has created the idea of a carbon neutral cycle called “the methanol economy”. The best catalyst for the methanol economy would show a high CO2 conversion and high selectivity for methanol production. This paper investigates research focused on catalyst development for efficient methanol synthesis from hydrogenation of carbon dioxide through added various supports and additives such as silica, zirconium, and palladium. Catalysts that displayed the highest activity included a zirconia and silicon-titanium oxide promoted Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. Alternative method of catalyst preparation, include the oxalate-gel, solid-state reaction, co-precipitation and combustion method also investigated.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th October 2012; Revised: 7th February 2012; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Young, A., Lesmana, D., Dai, D.J., Wu, H.S. (2013. Short Review: Mitigation of Current En-vironmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 1-13. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13] | View in  |

  5. Cost-effectiveness in the mitigation of green house gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness in the mitigation of green house gases from solar, eolic and nuclear energy sources, concluding that nuclear is, not doubt, the mos efficient. On the other hand, nuclear is the unique source that can be installed without limit in magnitude and in the proximity of the demand, and is for all these reasons that several environmental referents in the world have changed their perception on this source and defend it as the unique actual alternative to fight against the emission of green house gases. (author) [es

  6. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  7. Washington wildlife mitigation projects. Final programmatic environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities

  8. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  9. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Sediment processes modelling below hydraulic mining: towards environmental impact mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalov, Sergey R.

    2010-05-01

    Placer mining sites are located in the river valleys so the rivers are influenced by mining operations. Frequently the existing mining sites are characterized by low contribution to the environmental technologies. Therefore hydraulic mining alters stream hydrology and sediment processes and increases water turbidity. The most serious environmental sequences of the sediment yield increase occur in the rivers populated by salmon fish community because salmon species prefer clean water with low turbidity. For instance, the placer mining in Kamchatka peninsula (Far East of Russia) which is regarded to be the last global gene pool of wild salmon Oncorhynchus threatens the rivers ecosystems. System of man-made impact mitigation could be done through the exact recognition of the human role in hydrological processes and sediment transport especially. Sediment budget of rivers below mining sites is transformed according to the appearance of the man-made non-point and point sediment sources. Non-point source pollution occurs due to soil erosion on the exposed hillsides and erosion in the channel diversions. Slope wash on the hillsides is absent during summer days without rainfalls and is many times increased during rainfalls and snow melting. The nearness of the sources of material and the rivers leads to the small time of suspended load increase after rainfalls. The average time of material intake from exposed hillsides to the rivers is less than 1 hour. The main reason of the incision in the channel diversion is river-channel straightening. The increase of channel slopes and transport capacity leads to the intensive incision of flow. Point source pollution is performed by effluents both from mining site (mainly brief effluents) and from settling ponds (permanent effluents), groundwater seepage from tailing pits or from quarries. High rate of groundwater runoff is the main reason of the technological ponds overfilling. Intensive filtration from channel to ponds because of

  11. Permanent Injury and the Disability-Mitigating Effects of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Cater; Sohee Kang; Byron Lew; Marco Pollanen

    2013-01-01

    Using data from Ontario, we study the extent to which education mitigates the realized work-disabling effects of permanent occupational injury. Focusing first on the rates of post-injury employment, our results suggest that education has a strong disability-mitigating effect in cases of knee and shoulder injuries, but a smaller effect where workers have experienced permanent back or wrist/finger injuries. A comparison of pre- and post-injury occupations then reveals that education mitigates d...

  12. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J LeMonte

    Full Text Available Polymer coated urea (PCU is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3 and aqueous (NO3(- N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in sand and loam soils. Each study compared 0 kg N ha(-1 (control to 200 kg N ha(-1 applied as either urea or PCU (Duration 45CR®. Application of urea resulted in 127-476% more evolution of measured N2O into the atmosphere, whereas PCU was similar to background emission levels from the control. Compared to urea, PCU reduced NH3 emissions by 41-49% and N2O emissions by 45-73%, while improving growth and verdure compared to the control. Differences in leachate NO3(- among urea, PCU and control were inconclusive. This improvement in N management to ameliorate atmospheric losses of N using PCU will contribute to conserving natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts of N fertilization in turfgrass.

  13. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  14. Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Plan for site characterization:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE is committed to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner, and will comply with the letter and the spirit of applicable environmental statues and regulations. This document - the NNWSI Project's Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan (ERCP) - is one means of implementing the policy. The ERCP describes the plan by which the NNWSI Project Office will comply with applicable environmental statutes and regulations. The ERCP also discusses how DOE will address State and local environmental statues and regulations. To achieve the goals of DOE, the ERCP will be developed in phases. This version of the ERCP is the first phase in this development. It represents the NNWSI Project's understanding of environmental regulatory requirements for site characterization of Yucca Mountain. After consultation with appropriate Federal and State agencies, the ERCP will be updated to reflect the results of these consultations. 29 figs., 1 tab

  15. Betweenness-Based Method to Identify Critical Transmission Sectors for Supply Chain Environmental Pressure Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-02

    To develop industry-specific policies for mitigating environmental pressures, previous studies primarily focus on identifying sectors that directly generate large amounts of environmental pressures (a.k.a. production-based method) or indirectly drive large amounts of environmental pressures through supply chains (e.g., consumption-based method). In addition to those sectors as important environmental pressure producers or drivers, there exist sectors that are also important to environmental pressure mitigation as transmission centers. Economy-wide environmental pressure mitigation might be achieved by improving production efficiency of these key transmission sectors, that is, using less upstream inputs to produce unitary output. We develop a betweenness-based method to measure the importance of transmission sectors, borrowing the betweenness concept from network analysis. We quantify the betweenness of sectors by examining supply chain paths extracted from structural path analysis that pass through a particular sector. We take China as an example and find that those critical transmission sectors identified by betweenness-based method are not always identifiable by existing methods. This indicates that betweenness-based method can provide additional insights that cannot be obtained with existing methods on the roles individual sectors play in generating economy-wide environmental pressures. Betweenness-based method proposed here can therefore complement existing methods for guiding sector-level environmental pressure mitigation strategies.

  16. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitigating Reptile Road Mortality: Fence Failures Compromise Ecopassage Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Lesbarrères, David; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures). Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively evaluate road

  18. Mitigating reptile road mortality: fence failures compromise ecopassage effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Baxter-Gilbert

    Full Text Available Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures. Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively

  19. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuki Iwaoka; Tetsuo Ishikawa; Hidenori Yonehara; Shinji Tokonami

    2013-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the f p increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  20. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO 2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO 2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO 2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO 2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  1. Mitigating the Risk of Environmental Hazards in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    wildfires.9 Infectious hazards in Mexico pose an intermediate risk of disease and include food or waterborne illness, hepatitis, dengue fever , Valley Fever ...the type of health threat that is posed. 12 Nanotechnology: Within the Latin American region , Brazil , Argentina and Mexico are leaders in...07/25/ dengue -on-the-loose/ (accessed 11 October 2011). 41. Environmental Protection Agency, State of the Border Region Indicators Report 2005, EPA

  2. Forest and Water Management for Mitigating the effects of Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Forest and Water Management for Mitigating the effects of Climate Change in the ... forest, agriculture and water management strategies play in both adaptation to and ... IDRC joins more than 800 international delegates at the Resilient Cities ...

  3. Forest and Water Management for Mitigating the effects of Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Forest and Water Management for Mitigating the effects of Climate Change in the ... Internet as a gateway in expanding choices for building adaptive capacity : a case ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, ...

  4. The Environmental Mitigation Potential of Photovoltaic-Powered Irrigation in the Production of South African Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wettstein

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is under pressure to reduce its environmental impact. The use of renewable energy sources has potential to decrease these impacts. Maize is one of the most significant crops in South Africa and approximately 241,000 hectares are irrigated. This irrigation is most commonly powered by grid electricity generated using coal. However, South Africa has high solar irradiation, which could be used to generate photovoltaic electricity. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental mitigation potential of replacing grid-powered irrigation in South African maize production with photovoltaic irrigation systems using Life Cycle Assessment. The study included the value chain of maize production from cultivation to storage. Replacing grid electricity with photovoltaic-generated electricity leads to a 34% reduction in the global warming potential of maize produced under irrigation, and—applied at a national level—could potentially reduce South Africa’s greenhouse gas emissions by 536,000 t CO2-eq. per year. Non-renewable energy demand, freshwater eutrophication, acidification, and particulate matter emissions are also significantly lowered. Replacing grid electricity with renewable energy in irrigation has been shown to be an effective means of reducing the environmental impacts associated with South African maize production.

  5. Proposals for the mitigation of the environmental impact of clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph B; Badrick, Tony

    2012-03-24

    Laboratories should be aware of the carbon footprint resulting from their activities and take steps to mitigate it as part of their societal responsibilities. Once committed to a mitigation programme, they should announce an environmental policy, secure the support of senior management, initiate documentation, institute a staff training programme, schedule environmental audits and appoint an environmental manager. Laboratories may aspire to be accredited to one of the standards for environmental management, such as the ISO 14000. As environmental and quality issues are linked, the improvement in the environmental management of an organisation will ultimately lead to improved quality system performance. Indeed, environmental management could conceivably come under overall quality management. Although there will be initial costs, good environmental practices can bring savings. Environmental improvement should be based on the 3R concept to reduce, reuse and recycle. Several policy initiatives may be introduced. These include a green purchasing policy for equipment, laboratory furniture and reagents as well as the management of packaging wastes. There are several ways to reduce energy, water usage and wastage. A reduction of test numbers and collection tubes should be attempted. Paper management involves all aspects of 3R. The recycling of solvents and general wastes should be practised where feasible. The construction new laboratories or renovations to existing ones are opportunities to make them more environmentally-friendly. The advocacy of policies to associates and the inclusion of environmentally-friendly conditions on contractors are integral parts of the programme.

  6. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Countries are implementing CO 2 emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 °C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO 2 reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: ► Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. ► SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. ► SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. ► Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  7. Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odada, Eric O; Olago, Daniel O; Kulindwa, Kassim; Ntiba, Micheni; Wandiga, Shem

    2004-02-01

    Lake Victoria is an international waterbody that offers the riparian communities a large number of extremely important environmental services. Over the past three decades or so, the lake has come under increasing and considerable pressure from a variety of interlinked human activities such as overfishing, species introductions, industrial pollution, eutrophication, and sedimentation. In this paper we examine the root causes for overfishing and pollution in Lake Victoria and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the environmental degradation.

  8. Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, N.; Mertens, B.; Jansen, R.; van de Runstraat, A.; Stietz, F.; Wedowski, M.; Meiling, H.; Klein, R.; Gottwald, A.; Scholze, F.; Visser, M.; Kurt, R.; Zalm, P.; E. Louis,; Yakshin, A.

    2002-01-01

    EUVL tools operate under vacuum conditions to avoid absorption losses. Under these conditions, the MoSi multilayer mirrors are contaminated, resulting in reduced reflection and thus throughput. We report on experiments on MoSi mirrors exposed to EUV radiation from a synchrotron. To mimic the effects

  9. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Saipan (PACBAR) Radar Mitigation Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-31

    with the forest background. DISPOSITION 1. Ref: Paint chips. 2. Gutters, down spouts, and doors: avocado . 3. Exterior walls: Light brown. 4... avocado . • Exterior walls: light brown. • Ref: SHT A-14 Ext. Color Schedule. 2. The buildings were painted to minimize visual effect. The color, a light...prior to being loaded onto a low boy or low truck at the Tumon Yard for movement to the Port of Guam for export shall be visually inspected by the duly

  10. Conforth Ranch (Wanaket) Wildlife Mitigation Project. Draft Management Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects, including McNary dam. The proposed wildlife mitigation project involves wildlife conservation on 1140 hectares (ha)(2817 acres) of land (including water rights) in Umatilla County, Oregon. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA)(DOE/EA- 1016) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  11. Environmental enrichment mitigates the impact of ancestral stress on motor skill and corticospinal tract plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, J Keiko; Erickson, Zachary T; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-10-06

    An adverse fetal environment in utero has been associated with long-term alterations in brain structure and function, and a higher risk of neurological disorders in later life. A common consequence of early adverse experience is impaired motor system function. A causal relationship for stress-associated impairments and a suitable therapy, however, have not been determined yet. To investigate the impact of ancestral stress on corticospinal tract (CST) morphology and fine motor performance in rats, and to determine if adverse programming by ancestral stress can be mitigated by environmental enrichment therapy in rats. The study examined F3 offspring generated by three lineages; one with prenatal stress only in the F1 generation, one with compounding effects of multigenerational prenatal stress, and a non-stress control lineage. F3 offspring from each lineage were injected with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the motor cortex for anterograde tracing of the CST. Examination of the CST revealed reduced axonal density in the ancestrally stressed lineages. These anatomical changes were associated with significant impairments in skilled walking, as indicated by reduced foot placement accuracy and disturbed inter-limb coordination. Therapeutic intervention by environmental enrichment reduced the neuromorphological consequences of ancestral stress and restored skilled walking ability. The data suggest a causal relationship between stress-induced abnormal CST function and loss of fine motor performance. Thus, ancestral stress may be a determinant of motor system development and motor skill. Environmental enrichment may represent an effective intervention for the adverse programming by ancestral stress and trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reservoir management and environmental protection: The mitigation of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    It is widely accepted that human activities which produce greenhouse gases have had a discernible effect upon global mean temperatures over the last 50 years. A number of gases entering the atmosphere as a result of human activities can act as greenhouse gases. The most important is carbon dioxide the atmospheric concentration of which has risen by about 30% compared to pre-industrial concentrations. Energy related emissions arising from the use of fossil fuels account for more than 80% of the CO 2 released to the atmosphere each year with these fuels accounting for around 90% of the world's commercial energy production. The provisions of the 1997 Kyoto protocol go some way to promote reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases and are an important first step. However, according to this presentation, current energy production and consumption patterns violate principles of sustainability. As a result the world is committed to warming as a result of emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of these fuels. Pragmatically, one should limit the use of fossil fuels and eventually replace them by renewable energy sources.and efforts to increase the overall energy efficiency. Given this, proposals to sequester and dump/store carbon dioxide are an unsustainable solution in their own right, but also perpetuate unsustainable energy use based on fossil fuels. Probably attempts to limit the impacts of climate change by the capture and disposal of CO 2 will result in undesirable and unanticipated impacts. The presentation recommends that resources currently deployed in investigating disposal schemes for CO 2 should rather go to the development of renewable energy generation and energy efficiency

  13. The Effects of Saltwater Intrusion to Flood Mitigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azida Abu Bakar, Azinoor; Khairudin Khalil, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of saltwater intrusion to flood mitigation project located in the flood plains in the district of Muar, Johor. Based on the studies and designs carried out, one of the effective flood mitigation options identified is the Kampung Tanjung Olak bypass and Kampung Belemang bypass at the lower reaches of Sungai Muar. But, the construction of the Kampung Belemang and Tanjung Olak bypass, while speeding up flood discharges, may also increase saltwater intrusion during drought low flows. Establishing the dynamics of flooding, including replicating the existing situation and the performance with prospective flood mitigation interventions, is most effectively accomplished using computer-based modelling tools. The finding of this study shows that to overcome the problem, a barrage should be constructed at Sungai Muar to solve the saltwater intrusion and low yield problem of the river.

  14. Multiple-pollutant cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas mitigation measures in the UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eory, Vera; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Moran, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curves can inform integrated environmental policy. ► We incorporated the co-effects on NH 3 , NO 3 − , P and sediment, as monetary values, into the UK GHG MACC. ► Adding co-effects modifies the GHG MACC, though with little impact unless using high damage values. ► Further research is needed on the co-effects of GHG mitigation measures and on damage values. ► Analysis should focus on the co-effects of measures that are slightly above or below the threshold. -- Abstract: This paper develops multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curve analysis to identify an optimal set of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures considering the trade-offs and synergies with other environmental pollutants. The analysis is applied to UK agriculture, a sector expected to make a contribution to the national GHG mitigation effort. Previous analyses using marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) have determined the sector's GHG abatement potential based on the cost-effectiveness of a variety of technically feasible mitigation measures. Most of these measures have external effects on other pollution loads arising from agricultural activities. Here the monetary values of four of the most important impacts to water and air (specifically ammonia, nitrate, phosphorous and sediment) are included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. The resulting multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curve (MP MACC) informs the design of sustainable climate change policies by showing how the MP MACC for the UK agriculture can differ from the GHG MACC. The analysis also highlights research gaps, and suggests a need to understand the wider environmental effects of GHG mitigation options and to reduce the uncertainty in pollutant damage cost estimates

  15. Modeling the mitigation effect of coastal forests on tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kh'ng, Xin Yi; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2017-08-01

    As we have learned from the 26 Dec 2004 mega Andaman tsunami that killed 250, 000 lives worldwide, tsunami is a devastating natural disaster that can cause severe impacts including immense loss of human lives and extensive destruction of properties. The wave energy can be dissipated by the presence of coastal mangrove forests, which provide some degree of protection against tsunami waves. On the other hand, costly artificial structures such as reinforced walls can substantially diminish the aesthetic value and may cause environmental problems. To quantify the effectiveness of coastal forests in mitigating tsunami waves, an in-house 2-D model TUNA-RP is developed and used to quantify the reduction in wave heights and velocities due to the presence of coastal forests. The degree of reduction varies significantly depending on forest flow-resistant properties such as vegetation characteristics, forest density and forest width. The ability of coastal forest in reducing tsunami wave heights along the west coast of Penang Island is quantified by means of model simulations. Comparison between measured tsunami wave heights for the 2004 Andaman tsunami and 2-D TUNA-RP model simulated values demonstrated good agreement.

  16. Efficiency of parks in mitigating urban heat island effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Dons, Klaus; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure can to a certain extent mitigate urban warming. However, the cooling effect of plants varies with space, time and plant-specific properties. To contribute to our understanding of the cooling effect of vegetation on urban surface and air temperature, 21 parks in Addis...... and spatial design of green spaces in cooling the environment....

  17. Combating Desertification and Mitigating the Effects of Drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuondo, C.O

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the effects of desertification and drought on the well-being of humankind and therefore it important for them to be combated and mitigated. Desertification is the process that turns fertile lands into desert; drought is defined as lack of sufficient precipitation to sustain plant and human life. In an effort to discuss how to combat desertification, the author has subdivided the paper into five sections namely; introduction, ecological crisis, strategies for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought and finally the conclusion

  18. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, John S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  19. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  20. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Tornberg, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump technology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  1. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Selvaraj, Uthra [Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Kumar, Vadivel Vinod [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip, E-mail: philip@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich [Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Raman, Thiagarajan, E-mail: raman@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH){sub 2} without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd{sup 2+} ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd{sup 2+} ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd{sup 2+} from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights:

  2. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao; Selvaraj, Uthra; Kumar, Vadivel Vinod; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip; Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael; Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich; Raman, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH) 2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd 2+ ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd 2+ ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd 2+ from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights: • Toxicity of Cd

  3. Technostress : negative effect on performance and possible mitigations

    OpenAIRE

    Tarafdar, Monideepa; Pullins, Ellen; Ragu-Nathan, T. S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of conditions that create technostress, on technology-enabled innovation, technology-enabled performance and overall performance. We further look at the role of technology self-efficacy, organizational mechanisms that inhibit technostress and technology competence as possible mitigations to the effects of technostress creators. Our findings show a negative association between technostress creators and performance. We find that, while traditional effort-based mechanis...

  4. Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly (α0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  5. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada: Mitigation action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The DOE Notice of Availability for this environmental impact statement was published in the Federal Register on Friday, October 18, 1996 (61 FR 54437). The final environmental impact statement identifies potential adverse effects resulting from the four use alternatives evaluated and discusses measures that DOE considered for the mitigation of these potential adverse effects. The Secretary of Energy signed the Record of Decision on the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site and other DOE sites in the state of Nevada on December 9, 1996. These decisions will result in the continuation of the multipurpose, multi-program use of the Nevada Test Site, under which DOE will pursue a further diversification of interagency, private industry, and public-education uses while meeting its Defense Program, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration mission requirements at the Nevada Test Site and other Nevada sites, including the Tonopah Test Range, the Project Shoal Site, the Central Nevada Test Area, and on the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. The Record of Decision also identifies specific mitigation actions beyond the routine day-to-day physical and administrative controls needed for implementation of the decisions. These specific mitigation actions are focused on the transportation of waste and on groundwater availability. This Mitigation Action Plan elaborates on these mitigation commitments

  6. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines

  7. Evaluation of strategies for promoting effective radon mitigation. Risk communication and economic research series. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, J.K.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Locke, P.A.; Elliott, S.R.

    1990-03-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that as many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to exposure to radon gas. The report evaluates alternative strategies for motivating people to test for radon gas in their homes and to mitigate if necessary. Specifically, two separate radon information and awareness programs were evaluated, one targeted to the general population in the Washington, D.C. area and the other to home buyers in the Boulder, Colorado area. The results suggest that a home buyer program is likely to be far more effective in terms of effective remediation to reduce home radon levels than a program aimed at the general population. The report discusses the empirical findings and develops a recommendation for increasing the effectiveness of radon awareness and mitigation programs

  8. SLICEIT and TAHMO Partnerships: Students Local and International Collaboration for Climate and Environmental Monitoring, Technology Development, Education, Adaptation and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishlin, P. S.; Selker, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change understanding and impacts vary by community, yet the global nature of climate change requires international collaboration to address education, monitoring, adaptation and mitigation needs. We propose that effective climate change monitoring and education can be accomplished via student-led local and international community partnerships. By empowering students as community leaders in climate-environmental monitoring and education, as well as exploration of adaptation/mitigation needs, well-informed communities and young leadership are developed to support climate change science moving forward. Piloted 2013-2015, the SLICEIT1 program partnered with TAHMO2 to connect student leaders in North America, Europe and Africa. At the international level, schools in the U.S.A and Netherlands were partnered with schools in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda for science and cultural exchange. Each school was equipped with a climate or other environmental sensing system, real-time data publication and curricula for both formal and informal science, technology, engineering and math education and skill development. African counterparts in TAHMO's School-2-School program collect critically important data for enhanced on-the-ground monitoring of weather conditions in data-scarce regions of Africa. In Idaho, student designed, constructed and installed weather stations provide real time data for classroom and community use. Student-designed formal educational activities are disseminated to project partners, increasing hands-on technology education and peer-based learning. At the local level, schools are partnered with a local agency, research institute, nonprofit organization, industry and/or community partner that supplies a climate science expert mentor to SLICEIT program leaders and teachers. Mentor engagement is facilitated and secured by program components that directly benefit the mentor's organization and local community via climate/environment monitoring, student workforce

  9. Mitigating the Urban Heat Island Effect in Megacity Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Sodoudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities demonstrate higher nocturnal temperatures than surrounding rural areas, which is called “urban heat island” (UHI effect. Climate change projections also indicate increase in the frequency and intensity of heat waves, which will intensify the UHI effect. As megacity Tehran is affected by severe heatwaves in summer, this study investigates its UHI characteristics and suggests some feasible mitigation strategies in order to reduce the air temperature and save energy. Temperature monitoring in Tehran shows clear evidence of the occurrence of the UHI effect, with a peak in July, where the urban area is circa 6 K warmer than the surrounding areas. The mobile measurements show a park cool island of 6-7 K in 2 central parks, which is also confirmed by satellite images. The effectiveness of three UHI mitigation strategies high albedo material (HAM, greenery on the surface and on the roofs (VEG, and a combination of them (HYBRID has been studied using simulation with the microscale model ENVI-met. All three strategies show higher cooling effect in the daytime. The average nocturnal cooling effect of VEG and HYBRID (0.92, 1.10 K is much higher than HAM (0.16 K, although high-density trees show a negative effect on nocturnal cooling.

  10. NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, James

    2013-01-01

    NASA is committed to finding solutions to agency cleanup problems that are better, cheaper, and more effective than the status quo. Unfortunately, some potential solutions involve innovative technologies for which NASA remediation managers may not have a high level of understanding or confidence. Since 2004, NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) in Mississippi has been pumping groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOC) from their cleanup location designated "Area G" through extraction wells to an aboveground treatment system. Over time, however, the effectiveness of this treatment strategy has diminished and an alternative approach is needed. In 2012, professionals from NASA's Principal Center for Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) introduced SSC managers to an innovative technology for enhancing the performance of SSC's existing pump and treat system. The technology, generally referred to as in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), involves slowly and continuously injecting a strong but safe chemical oxidant into the groundwater. Treatment is enhanced by a "surfactant-type effect" which causes residual contamination from saturated soil to be released into the dissolved-phase where it can be readily oxidized. Any dissolved-phase contamination that was not oxidized can be collected by the extraction well network and treated aboveground. SSC was not familiar with the technology so to increase their confidence, TEERM identified a contractor who was willing to demonstrate their product and process at a significantly reduced price. An initial, small-scale demonstration of ISCO began at sse in March 2012 and completed in August 2012. This successful demonstration was followed by three larger-scale ISCO demonstrations between August and December 2012. The contractor's innovative Continuous Injection System (CIS) incorporated "green" and sustainable technologies and practices. A slow

  11. Cooperative binding mitigates the high-dose hook effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ranjita Dutta; Rosenmund, Christian; Stefan, Melanie I

    2017-08-14

    The high-dose hook effect (also called prozone effect) refers to the observation that if a multivalent protein acts as a linker between two parts of a protein complex, then increasing the amount of linker protein in the mixture does not always increase the amount of fully formed complex. On the contrary, at a high enough concentration range the amount of fully formed complex actually decreases. It has been observed that allosterically regulated proteins seem less susceptible to this effect. The aim of this study was two-fold: First, to investigate the mathematical basis of how allostery mitigates the prozone effect. And second, to explore the consequences of allostery and the high-dose hook effect using the example of calmodulin, a calcium-sensing protein that regulates the switch between long-term potentiation and long-term depression in neurons. We use a combinatorial model of a "perfect linker protein" (with infinite binding affinity) to mathematically describe the hook effect and its behaviour under allosteric conditions. We show that allosteric regulation does indeed mitigate the high-dose hook effect. We then turn to calmodulin as a real-life example of an allosteric protein. Using kinetic simulations, we show that calmodulin is indeed subject to a hook effect. We also show that this effect is stronger in the presence of the allosteric activator Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), because it reduces the overall cooperativity of the calcium-calmodulin system. It follows that, surprisingly, there are conditions where increased amounts of allosteric activator actually decrease the activity of a protein. We show that cooperative binding can indeed act as a protective mechanism against the hook effect. This will have implications in vivo where the extent of cooperativity of a protein can be modulated, for instance, by allosteric activators or inhibitors. This can result in counterintuitive effects of decreased activity with increased concentrations of

  12. Energy and environmental policies relating to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions mitigation and energy conservation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.T.

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are becoming significant energy and environmental issues relating to energy consumption in Taiwan. The nation, although not a party to the Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol, has diligently strived to mitigate the emissions and phase out use of the responsible materials. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are now mostly used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, are the main GHGs associated with strong global warming potential. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the industrial/commercial uses of HFCs in Taiwan. Because of their high impacts on climate change, the description is then centered on estimating the potential emissions of HFCs according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and the governmental organizations responses to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The regulatory systems relating to HFCs mitigation and energy conservation and energy policies and promotion measures for providing technological assistances and financial incentives in the energy management, resource recovery and HFCs reduction/recycling technologies are also addressed in the paper

  13. Bio-prospectus of cadmium bioadsorption by lactic acid bacteria to mitigate health and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kumari, Vandna; Ram, Chand; Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Foodstuffs and water are the key sources of cadmium biomagnifiaction. The available strategies to mitigate this problem are unproductive and expensive for practical large-scale use. Biological decontamination of metals through environmental microbes has been known since long time, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been extensively studied for this purpose. The LAB are known for maintaining homeostasis and suppression of pathogens in humans and animals. They also play a vital role in bioremediation of certain heavy metals. Recently in-vivo research findings strongly complement the in-vitro results in relation to decreased total body cadmium burden in animal model. This review summarizes the currently available information on impact of toxic metal (Cd) on human and animal health as well as cadmium sequestration through microbes placed broadly, whereas preeminent attention grabbed on LAB-cadmium interaction to explore their possible role in bioremediation of cadmium from foods and environment to safeguard human as well as environment health.

  14. Risk Mitigation Measures: An Important Aspect of the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Liebig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within EU marketing authorization procedures of human and veterinary medicinal products (HMP and VMP, an environmental risk assessment (ERA has to be performed. In the event that an unacceptable environmental risk is identified, risk mitigation measures (RMM shall be applied in order to reduce environmental exposure to the pharmaceutical. Within the authorization procedures of HMP, no RMM have been applied so far, except for specific precautions for the disposal of the unused medicinal product or waste materials. For VMP, a limited number of RMM do exist. The aim of this study was to develop consistent and efficient RMM. Therefore, existing RMM were compiled from a summary of product characteristics of authorized pharmaceuticals, and new RMM were developed and evaluated. Based on the results, appropriate RMM were applied within the authorization procedures of medicinal products. For HMP, except for the existing precautions for disposal, no further reasonable measures could be developed. For VMP, two specific precautions for disposal and 17 specific precautions for use in animals were proposed as RMM.

  15. A TN adaptive ray effect mitigation for Styx 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    Ray effect (RE) is a non-physical flaw of discrete ordinate methods characterized by spurious rays becoming sharper when small bright neutron sources radiate through low scattering media. While this effect has low impact on integral parameters (α and K eff ), it can ruin simulations of diagnostic problem in terms of neutron dose received by a detector. 3 cumulative factors may affect the RE intensity: the source size, the scattering cross-sections, and the mesh size. We introduce an adaptive Ray Effect Mitigation (REM) aimed at locally improving the angular accuracy of the 3 dimension AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) deterministic neutron transport code Styx. Promising preliminary results have been obtained using a recursively refined octahedron based sphere tessellation in place of the standard S N quadrature. This angular mesh, referred to as T N , has valuable features for local refinement

  16. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  17. Effects of road mortality and mitigation measures on amphibian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebee, Trevor J C

    2013-08-01

    Road mortality is a widely recognized but rarely quantified threat to the viability of amphibian populations. The global extent of the problem is substantial and factors affecting the number of animals killed on highways include life-history traits and landscape features. Secondary effects include genetic isolation due to roads acting as barriers to migration. Long-term effects of roads on population dynamics are often severe and mitigation methods include volunteer rescues and under-road tunnels. Despite the development of methods that reduce road kill in specific locations, especially under-road tunnels and culverts, there is scant evidence that such measures will protect populations over the long term. There also seems little likelihood that funding will be forthcoming to ameliorate the problem at the scale necessary to prevent further population declines. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. A demonstration of mitigation of environmentally-assisted cracking by the application of a tensile overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in high-temperature aqueous environments typical of those employed in light-water reactor (LWR) systems has been a subject of considerable interest since the pioneering work of Kondo et al demonstrated significantly higher fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates in water than would be expected in an air environment under similar conditions. Here, environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments is readily observed in many laboratory experiments conducted in autoclaves, yet the observation of EAC in actual components operating in the same environments is quite rare. Mass transport of sulfides from the crack enclave by diffusion and convection occurring in operating components provides one plausible explanation to this apparent paradox. Another contribution to EAC mitigation may also arise from the non-constant stress amplitudes typical for many operating components. This paper provides a demonstration of how a single tensile overload to 40% above a steady-state maximum fatigue stress can retard subsequent crack growth at the steady-state level for a sufficient period of time that diffusion mass transport can reduce the crack-tip sulfide concentration to a level below that necessary to sustain EAC

  19. A demonstration of mitigation of environmentally-assisted cracking by the application of a tensile overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    Environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in high-temperature aqueous environments typical of those employed in light-water reactor (LWR) systems has been a subject of considerable interest since the pioneering work of Kondo et al demonstrated significantly higher fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates in water than would be expected in an air environment under similar conditions. Here, environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments is readily observed in many laboratory experiments conducted in autoclaves, yet the observation of EAC in actual components operating in the same environments is quite rare. Mass transport of sulfides from the crack enclave by diffusion and convection occurring in operating components provides one plausible explanation to this apparent paradox. Another contribution to EAC mitigation may also arise from the non-constant stress amplitudes typical for many operating components. This paper provides a demonstration of how a single tensile overload to 40% above a steady-state maximum fatigue stress can retard subsequent crack growth at the steady-state level for a sufficient period of time that diffusion mass transport can reduce the crack-tip sulfide concentration to a level below that necessary to sustain EAC.

  20. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  1. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  2. Mitigating costs and the preemptive effect of federal rate orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darr, F.P.

    1992-01-01

    The role of federalism in the regulation of energy production is a long-standing problem. This article is divided into five parts. Following a summary of the case 'New Orleans Public Service, Inc. v. Council of New Orleans' (NOPSI) in Part I the article addresses the statutory and interpretive foundations of the filed rate doctrine described in Part II. Part III discusses the Supreme Court's extension of the doctrine into greater federal management of retail rates and introduces the reaction of the lower courts to the Supreme Court's decisions. Part IV analyzes the NOPSI exception requiring a utility to mitigate the effects of a FERC order in light of the policy distinctions inherent in the filed rate doctrine and the recognized eceptions. Part V addresses a related policy issue of the appropriate venue for challenging state orders to deny costs arising from federal orders. 153 refs

  3. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  4. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  5. Mitigation of social and environmental impacts resulting from final closure of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriani, Moacir

    2002-11-01

    This thesis focus on the impact of uranium mines in Brazil. It is recent, in the order of the Brazilian mining, the concern with the impact of mining activities. The Federal Constitution of 1988 compels the miner to rehabilitate the degraded environment, in accordance with the technical solution demanded by the competent public agency, which makes use of a system of environmental norms conditioning the mining activity. However, the concern with the closure of mines is in an early stage, for whose achievement the public power still lacks of norms and regulations. The closure of the first uranium mining in Brazil assumes special meaning, because the possible environmental problems related to uranium mines are considered to be serious and the uranium industry is state owned. This thesis is divided in two sections. The first one describes the state of the art of the uranium industry and the rules and management practices regarding the final closure of uranium mining in Brazil and countries like Australia, Canada, USA and France, that have been selected on the basis of the following criteria: production, exportation, control of reserves and final consumption of uranium. In the second part, a case study of Pocos de Caldas mine is presented, with description of historical production, plant waste and the chemical treatment of the ore. This part also presents the research carried out since the beginning of the operations aiming to remedial actions, including the dismantling of surface structures, tailings reclamation, and ground-water restoration, following CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission) rules, as well as a survey of local press coverage of the impact of the industry. A final recommendation is made regarding a management model and strategies to mitigate social and environmental impacts resulting from final closure of the CIPC. (author)

  6. Decarbonising electricity supply: Is climate change mitigation going to be carried out at the expense of other environmental impacts?

    OpenAIRE

    Kouloumpis, Victor; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2015-01-01

    As nations face the need to decarbonise their energy supply, there is a risk that attention will be focused solely on carbon and climate change, potentially at the expense of other environmental impacts. To explore the trade-offs between climate change mitigation and other environmental impacts, this work focuses on electricity and considers a number of scenarios up to 2070 in a UK context with different carbon reduction targets and electricity demand to estimate the related life cycle enviro...

  7. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  8. Feasibility of mitigating the effects of windfarms on primary radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.M.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the feasibility of modifying civil and military radars to mitigate the effects from wind turbines, to provide costings for implementing changes to the radar and to produce guidelines for planning wind farms in the vicinity of radars. The effect of wind turbines on radar signals, assessed through computer modelling, is summarised. The key aspects of turbine design that can be modified to minimise these effects are described. A key issue is the fact that no two radar installations are alike, with settings being customised for local requirements. As a consequence, a detailed understanding of the design and features of each individual radar would be required in order to assess the impact of a wind farm proposal. The costs of a programme of modifications to the civil ATC (air traffic control) radar base will depend on many factors. An estimate of costs is provided, based on the assumption that only 30 of the UK radars would need modification and that a range of modifications from very simple to very complex will be required. A number of other approaches, outside of modification of the radar system, may require investigation during a windfarm planning application, such as layout and location of the wind farm or changing air traffic routes in the vicinity of the wind farm.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss agriculture since 1990: implications for environmental policies to mitigate global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifeld, Jens [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jens.leifeld@fal.admin.ch; Fuhrer, Juerg [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-08-01

    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute significantly to global warming, and environmental protection strategies have thus to integrate emission reduction measures from this source. In Switzerland, legislation together with monetary incentives has forced primarily integrated, and to a lesser extend organic farming, both covering nowadays more than 95% of the agriculturally useful area. Though reducing greenhouse gas emissions was not a primary intention of this reorganisation, the measures were successful in reducing the overall emissions of nitrous oxide and methane by 10% relative to 1990. A reduction of the animal herd, namely of dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle and swine, and decreasing inputs of mineral N are the main contributors to the achieved emission reduction. Crop productivity was not negatively affected and milk productivity even increased, referring to the ecological potential of agricultural reorganisation that has been tapped. Total meat production declined proportional to the animal herd. Stabilised animal numbers and fertiliser use during the last 4 years refer to an exhaustion of future reduction potentials without further legislative action because this stabilisation is most likely due to the adaptation to the production guidelines. A comparison of emission trends and carbon sequestration potentials in the broader context of the EU15 reveals that nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) have been reduced more efficiently most probably due to the measures taken, but that sequestration potentials are smaller than in the EU15 mainly because of differences in the agricultural structure. The change from an intensified towards a more environmental sound integrated production has a significant reduction potential, but in any case, agriculture will remain a net GHG source in spite of emission mitigation and carbon sequestration.

  10. Is carbon farming an effective climate mitigation option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikova, T. J.; Funk, J.; Deich, N.; Amador, G.; Jacobson, R.

    2017-12-01

    "Carbon farming" refers to agricultural and land management practices that store carbon in soils and biomass. Carbon-farming techniques can include crop rotation, cover crops, no-till practices, and the application of compost to build up soil organic matter. Carbon farming also improves agricultural production and sustainability, while mitigating climate change. Despite well-documented benefits of carbon farming, these practices continue to be underutilized outside of experimental settings. One barrier to the widespread use of carbon farming is the challenge of fitting these practices into ongoing commercial operations, while managing the consequent market uncertainties across the value chain. To help address this barrier, we are working with landowners and local groups to establish demonstration "test beds" that can build experience among land managers and help resolve market uncertainties. We specifically focus on demonstrating the commercial viability of management practices that can enhance soil health, catalyzing economic and environmental synergies that come from healthy soils. Each test bed has a commercial agricultural operation at its center, and we bring together researchers, local groups, corporate partners, and key policymakers who can support wider adoption of these agricultural techniques. Early challenges have included finding commercial farms willing to shift their practices and face uncertain outcomes. A transition to new practices usually involves changes in equipment, scheduling, activities, and monitoring that have implications for the entire farm operation, its resources, and its bottom line. At the same time, practitioners have difficulty quantifying the carbon benefits they provide, due to persistent uncertainties, even with the benefit of decades of experimental research. We are building a network of farmers who are implementing carbon farming practices and addressing these challenges, step by step. We envision our test beds becoming hubs

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  12. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Mitigation of systematic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, P.; Ashdown, M.; Banerji, R.; Borrill, J.; Buzzelli, A.; de Gasperis, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Hivon, E.; Molinari, D.; Patanchon, G.; Polastri, L.; Tomasi, M.; Bouchet, F. R.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hoang, D. T.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Lindholm, V.; McCarthy, D.; Piacentini, F.; Perdereau, O.; Polenta, G.; Tristram, M.; Achucarro, A.; Ade, P.; Allison, R.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Bartlett, J.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Baumann, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonato, M.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C.-S.; Castellano, M. G.; Challinor, A.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; D'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; De Zotti, G.; Di Valentino, E.; Diego, J.-M.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Genova-Santos, R.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Gruppuso, A.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Hervías-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Keihänen, E.; Kitching, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Martinez-González, E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Migliaccio, M.; Monfardini, A.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Pagano, L.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Roman, M.; Rossi, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.-A.; Salvati, L.; Signorelli, G.; Tartari, A.; Tramonte, D.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Valiviita, J.; Van de Weijgaert, R.; van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Wallis, C.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of the main systematic effects that could impact the measurement of CMB polarization with the proposed CORE space mission. We employ timeline-to-map simulations to verify that the CORE instrumental set-up and scanning strategy allow us to measure sky polarization to a level of accuracy adequate to the mission science goals. We also show how the CORE observations can be processed to mitigate the level of contamination by potentially worrying systematics, including intensity-to-polarization leakage due to bandpass mismatch, asymmetric main beams, pointing errors and correlated noise. We use analysis techniques that are well validated on data from current missions such as Planck to demonstrate how the residual contamination of the measurements by these effects can be brought to a level low enough not to hamper the scientific capability of the mission, nor significantly increase the overall error budget. We also present a prototype of the CORE photometric calibration pipeline, based on that used for Planck, and discuss its robustness to systematics, showing how CORE can achieve its calibration requirements. While a fine-grained assessment of the impact of systematics requires a level of knowledge of the system that can only be achieved in a future study phase, the analysis presented here strongly suggests that the main areas of concern for the CORE mission can be addressed using existing knowledge, techniques and algorithms.

  13. Evaluating the environmental criticality of massive objects in LEO for debris mitigation and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 95% of the mass in Earth orbit is currently concentrated in about 6700 intact objects, of which nearly 80% are abandoned and more than 90% cannot be maneuvered. The intact objects abandoned in low Earth orbit (LEO) above 650 km, i.e. with an average residual lifetime of more than 25 years, represent the main potential mass reservoir for the generation of new detrimental orbital debris in case of mutual collisions with the existing debris environment, taking into account that an 800 g impactor may be sufficient, in principle, to shatter a 1000 kg spacecraft or rocket stage. Since the 1980's, several mitigation measures were promoted and agreed at the international level in order to prevent the occurrence of new breakups in space and put under control the accumulation of mass abandoned in orbit, but unfortunately the level of compliance with such guidelines, requirements or standards is still far from satisfactory. Moreover, the appearance on the scene of space activity of new private and government actors from a growing number of countries makes the proper management of the circumterrestrial space a task of increasing complexity, taking also into account the rapid emerging of new potential applications, disrupting technologies and operational approaches quite different from the past. In this rapidly evolving environment, it might be useful to have a simple and flexible instrument for evaluating the potential criticality for the environment of massive objects placed or abandoned in LEO. With this goal, in the last few years, a particular effort was devoted to the development of various "criticality indexes", then applied for evaluating many families of rocket bodies and selected spacecraft. In this paper, with the underlining ambition to be simple, intuitive and relevant, from an environmental point of view, a couple of the most complete indexes were coherently applied in order to assess the potential criticality of the most massive objects abandoned in

  14. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  15. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  16. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua.

    In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one.

    Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection.

    In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress

  17. Mitigating cyanobacterial blooms: how effective are 'effective microorganisms'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Tolman, Y.; Euwe, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 'Effective Microorganisms (EM)' on the growth of cyanobacteria, and their ability to terminate cyanobacterial blooms. The EM was tested in the form of 'mudballs' or 'Bokashi-balls', and as a suspension (EM-A) in laboratory experiments. No growth inhibition was

  18. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to

  19. Modeling Effectiveness of Gradual Increases in Source Level to Mitigate Effects of Sonar on Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the

  20. Water quality management and climate change mitigation: cost-effectiveness of joint implementation in the Baltic Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainggolan, Doan; Hasler, Berit; Andersen, Hans Estrup

    2018-01-01

    of contrasting strategies: single environmental objective management versus joint implementation strategy. The results show that implementing land-based measures with a sole focus on water quality (to meet the HELCOM's 2013 Baltic Sea Action Plan nutrient abatement targets) can produce climate change mitigation......This paper explores the scope for simultaneously managing nutrient abatement and climate change mitigation in the Baltic Sea (BS) region through the implementation of a selection of measures. The analysis is undertaken using a cost-minimisation model for the entire BS region, the BALTCOST model....... In the present research, the model has been extended to include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effects, enabling us to analyse the tradeoffs between cost-effective GHG and nutrient load reductions. We run the model for four different scenarios in order to compare the environmental and economic consequences...

  1. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  2. Detection and mitigation of aging effects of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachner, J.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes the general principles of the methods for timely detection and mitigation of aging effects. These methods include condition monitoring, failure trending, system reliability monitoring, predictive maintenance and scheduled maintenance. In addition, developments of existing detection and mitigation methods needed to improve the capability for effective managing of nuclear power plant aging are discussed

  3. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  4. Automation bias: a systematic review of frequency, effect mediators, and mitigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2012-01-01

    Automation bias (AB)--the tendency to over-rely on automation--has been studied in various academic fields. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) aim to benefit the clinical decision-making process. Although most research shows overall improved performance with use, there is often a failure to recognize the new errors that CDSS can introduce. With a focus on healthcare, a systematic review of the literature from a variety of research fields has been carried out, assessing the frequency and severity of AB, the effect mediators, and interventions potentially mitigating this effect. This is discussed alongside automation-induced complacency, or insufficient monitoring of automation output. A mix of subject specific and freetext terms around the themes of automation, human-automation interaction, and task performance and error were used to search article databases. Of 13 821 retrieved papers, 74 met the inclusion criteria. User factors such as cognitive style, decision support systems (DSS), and task specific experience mediated AB, as did attitudinal driving factors such as trust and confidence. Environmental mediators included workload, task complexity, and time constraint, which pressurized cognitive resources. Mitigators of AB included implementation factors such as training and emphasizing user accountability, and DSS design factors such as the position of advice on the screen, updated confidence levels attached to DSS output, and the provision of information versus recommendation. By uncovering the mechanisms by which AB operates, this review aims to help optimize the clinical decision-making process for CDSS developers and healthcare practitioners.

  5. Mitigation of environmental impacts: a study of the companies that compose the Camaçari Industrial Center (PIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria da Silva Gomes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to map the environmental impacts of mitigation actions demonstrated in the sustainability reporting and financial statements of companies that compose the Camaçari Industrial Center (PIC from 2007 to 2013. Data from the Industrial Development Committee of Camaçari was used to survey the companies. The final sample consisted of 14 companies. Content analysis was used to identify the information contained in these reports, based on the model proposed by Nossa (2002 for measuring environmental impacts. The results showed that the subcategory most mentioned in the sustainability reports was wastefulness. It was found in 430 instances, followed by Recycling (157, CO² (129, Contamination and Land Restoration (122, and Conservation of Natural Resources (108. The wastefulness subcategory was also more present in the financial statements, with 77 instances, followed by Contamination and Land Restoration (49 and Recycling (29. There was also a growing trend of disclosure of environmental liabilities. The evidence indicates that the companies are concerned primarily with the treatment and disposal of their waste (solid, liquid and gaseous. The results are restricted to the period and sample investigated. Further research is suggested to broaden the sample and investigate the relationship between disclosure of environmental mitigation actions related to environmental impacts and the financial performance of companies. Additionally, studies could investigate which factors influence the adoption and dissemination of these actions, in the perception of managers of Brazilian companies.

  6. Measuring the effectiveness of SDN mitigations against cyber attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.; de Graaff, B.; Meijer, R.; de Laat, C.; Grosso, P.

    2017-01-01

    To address increasing problems caused by cyber attacks, we leverage Software Defined networks and Network Function Virtualisation governed by a SARNET-agent to enable autonomous response and attack mitigation. A Secure Autonomous Response Network (SARNET) uses a control loop to constantly assess the

  7. Assessing District-Heating Sustainability. Case Studies of CO{sub 2} Mitigation Strategies and Environmental Cost Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Elsa

    2012-11-01

    District heating (DH) may play an important role in achieving the EU goal of a secure, competitive and sustainable energy supply. Integrated energy solutions based on technologies, such as biomass gasification for transport fuel, electricity and heat production and heat-driven absorption cooling, create new optimisation possibilities through the linkage between heat, power, cooling and transport fuel markets which may reduce the global warming contribution of the energy sector. With increasing focus on climate change impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, the environmental effects of other air pollutants should not be neglected. To achieve both a competitive and a sustainable energy supply, it is necessary to integrate environmental considerations into economic policies. Through accounting for external costs of air pollution in energy system modelling and analysis, sustainability aspects may be integrated into DH assessments. The aim of this thesis is to develop, apply and evaluate methodologies for assessing conventional and new technology solutions in a DH system; the assessments are made from a DH perspective with respect to two factors - cost-effectiveness and environmental impacts - which are either assessed separately or integrated through external cost accounting. Various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies are evaluated with regard to the robustness of the DH system in meeting future developments of energy market prices and policies. The studies are performed using a systems approach by using the simulating DH supply model MARTES as applied to the DH system Sweden. This thesis concludes that the integration of biomass gasification technology and absorption cooling technology in DH systems has the potential for cost-effective CO{sub 2} emission reduction, in line with other EU goals to increase the share of renewable sources in energy use and to increase energy efficiency. Accounting for external costs of not only climate change but also other environmental

  8. Global Warming Mitigation through the Local Action of Environmental Education in the Plantation Area of Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Badriyah Rushayati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is a strategic mainstay product with a crucial role in the national economy, and it can also be carbon sink to mitigate the negative impact of global warming when managed in environmentally friendly manner. Therefore, management and surrounding community need to have an understanding of the environment, and pro-environmental attitude and behaviour. Action research, which aimed at mitigating global warming through the local action of environmental education (EE, was conducted toward oil palm plantation employee and surrounding community. The EE programme was expected to be able to shape understanding and pro-environmental attitude and behaviour in the target group.  Rapid observation and interview were carried out in collecting data for EE programme development.  A needs assessment was conducted in developing the EE subject; based on local environmental problems and gap of target group’s perception of the problems.  Global warming-related environmental problems found in the location included air temperature increase, drought and difficulty in determining planting season.  Spatial analysis based on 1989 and 2014 satellite imagery showed a decrease of the water body, tree vegetated land and open areas, and an increase in non-tree vegetated land and built land, accompanied by an increase in areas with higher temperature range.  Both employees and the community had a good knowledge of the environment, but less in conservation. The environmental education provided for them had been able to increase their perception on environmental conservation. However, repetition and intensive assistance are still needed to strengthen the perception

  9. Mitigating Climate Change at the Carbon Water Nexus: A Call to Action for the Environmental Engineering Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarens, Andres F; Peters, Catherine A

    2016-10-01

    Environmental engineers have played a critical role in improving human and ecosystem health over the past several decades. These contributions have focused on providing clean water and air as well as managing waste streams and remediating polluted sites. As environmental problems have become more global in scale and more deeply entrenched in sociotechnical systems, the discipline of environmental engineering must grow to be ready to respond to the challenges of the coming decades. Here we make the case that environmental engineers should play a leadership role in the development of climate change mitigation technologies at the carbon-water nexus (CWN). Climate change, driven largely by unfettered emissions of fossil carbon into the atmosphere, is a far-reaching and enormously complex environmental risk with the potential to negatively affect food security, human health, infrastructure, and other systems. Solving this problem will require a massive mobilization of existing and innovative new technology. The environmental engineering community is uniquely positioned to do pioneering work at the CWN using a skillset that has been honed, solving related problems. The focus of this special issue, on "The science and innovation of emerging subsurface energy technologies," provides one example domain within which environmental engineers and related disciplines are beginning to make important contributions at the CWN. In this article, we define the CWN and describe how environmental engineers can bring their considerable expertise to bear in this area. Then we review some of the topics that appear in this special issue, for example, mitigating the impacts of hydraulic fracturing and geologic carbon storage, and we provide perspective on emergent research directions, for example, enhanced geothermal energy, energy storage in sedimentary formations, and others.

  10. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  11. Application of Clean Water (CWA) Section 404 compensatory wetland mitigation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.J.; Straub, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), activities resulting in the discharge of dredge or fill material into waters of the US, including wetlands, require permit authorization from the US Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE). As part of the Section 404 permitting process, compensatory wetland mitigation in the form of wetland enhancement, restoration, or construction may be required to off-set impacts sustained under a Section 404 permit. Under normal circumstances, compensatory mitigation is a relatively straight forward process; however, issues associated with mitigation become more complex at sites undergoing remediation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), because on-site response/remedial actions involving dredged and fill material are not subject to the formal Section 404 permitting process. These actions are conducted in accordance with the substantive permitting requirements of the ACOE's Nationwide and individual permitting programs. Wetland mitigatory requirements are determined through application of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) 040(b) (1) Guidelines promulgated in 40 CFR Part 230 and are implemented through compliance with substantive permitting requirements during the conduct of response/remedial actions. A programmatic approach for implementing wetland mitigatory requirements is being developed at a former US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium refinery undergoing CERCLA remediation in southwestern Ohio. The approach is designed to define the regulatory mechanism that will be used to integrate CWA driven wetland mitigatory requirements into the CERCLA process

  12. Environmental Health Assessment for Pyrotechnic Perchlorate Elimination/Mitigation Program for M118/M119 Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-11

    17% Potassium Chlorate 3811-04-9 67% 80% Potassium Nitrate 7757-79-1 81% 13% 70% 70% Red Gum 9000-20-8 3% 3% Silicon 7440-21-3 6% Sulfur 7704-34-9 8... potassium perchlorate from the flash composition of the formulations for the Ml18 and Ml19 simulators. These simulators are used in training to produce...simulators that are more efficient, are life-cycle cost effective, and more conducive to human health and environmental quality. b. Potassium perchlorate

  13. Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Warg Næss

    Full Text Available Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of around 200 million households in the face of climate change. This study investigated the efficiency of herd accumulation as a buffer strategy by analysing changes in livestock holdings during an environmental crisis in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway. We found a positive relationship between: (1 pre- and post-collapse herd size; and (2 pre-collapse herd size and the number of animals lost during the collapse, indicating that herd accumulation is an effective but costly strategy. Policies that fail to incorporate the risk-beneficial aspect of herd accumulation will have a limited effect and may indeed fail entirely. In the context of climate change, official policies that incorporate pastoral risk management strategies may be the only solution for ensuring their continued existence.

  14. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 30639 - Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact; Giant Miscanthus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... education. The education component, to be held twice annually for active producers with an orientation... the basis for the mitigation measures and monitoring activities that will occur within each project... disease treatment, and eradication. New producer orientation to discuss production methods; management...

  16. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  17. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental problems associated with floods due to abundant rains in the Veguita People's Council: Proposal for a mitigation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alianna Corona-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to elaborate a strategy of prevention-mitigation-preparation in the floods caused by the overflow of the River Buey due to the occurrence of intensive rains in the municipality Yara (Granma province. The methodologies used were based on the historical-trend analysis of the main elements of the study area, systematic and participatory scientific observation, statistical analysis, and the evaluation of risk, vulnerability and hazard studies. These elements served as a basis for designing a strategy based on forestry, land use and environmental education guidelines, mainly aimed at the conservation of non-structural means affected by floods.

  19. THEORETICAL ASPECTS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPENDITURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLT ALINA GEORGIANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air and water quality are vital for human life and our societies devote large sums of money to reduce pollution and conserve a healthy environment. Much of the financial resources mobilized to finance environmental protection come from private sources - entrepreneurs pay to eliminate environmentally harmful waste safely, or to mitigate the effects of polluting production processes. But while technology standards, environmental permits, pollution taxes play an important role in correcting the behavior of society, public expenditure presents also a very important variable in efforts to support the environment.

  20. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, Christopher P.; Sutphin, Andrew L.; Bond, Laura S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Maechtle, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush Artemisia spp. habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species — including the greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5-km2 area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success.

  1. Combating the effects of climatic change on forests by mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests occur across diverse biomes, each of which shows a specific composition of plant communities associated with the particular climate regimes. Predicted future climate change will have impacts on the vulnerability and productivity of forests; in some regions higher temperatures will extend the growing season and thus improve forest productivity, while changed annual precipitation patterns may show disadvantageous effects in areas, where water availability is restricted. While adaptation of forests to predicted future climate scenarios has been intensively studied, less attention was paid to mitigation strategies such as the introduction of tree species well adapted to changing environmental conditions. Results We simulated the development of managed forest ecosystems in Germany for the time period between 2000 and 2100 under different forest management regimes and climate change scenarios. The management regimes reflect different rotation periods, harvesting intensities and species selection for reforestations. The climate change scenarios were taken from the IPCC's Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. We used the scenarios A1B (rapid and successful economic development and B1 (high level of environmental and social consciousness combined with a globally coherent approach to a more sustainable development. Our results indicate that the effects of different climate change scenarios on the future productivity and species composition of German forests are minor compared to the effects of forest management. Conclusions The inherent natural adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions is limited by the long life time of trees. Planting of adapted species and forest management will reduce the impact of predicted future climate change on forests.

  2. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental ExposuresSherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington,DC) The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...

  3. Microbial mitigation-exacerbation continuum: a novel framework for microbiome effects on hosts in the face of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron S; Thapa-Magar, Khum B; Afkhami, Michelle E

    2018-03-01

    A key challenge to understanding microbiomes and their role in ecological processes is contextualizing their effects on host organisms, particularly when faced with environmental stress. One influential theory, the Stress Gradient Hypothesis, might predict that the frequency of positive interactions increases with stressful conditions such that microbial taxa would mitigate harmful effects on host performance. Yet, equally plausible is that microbial taxa could exacerbate these effects. Here, we introduce the Mitigation-Exacerbation Continuum as a novel framework to conceptualize microbial mediation of stress. We (1) use this continuum to quantify microbial mediation of stress for six plant species and (2) test the association between these continuum values and natural species' abundance. We factorially manipulated a common stress (allelopathy) and the presence of soil microbes to quantify microbial effects in benign and stressed environments for two critical early life-history metrics, seed germination and seedling biomass. Although we found evidence of both mitigation and exacerbation among the six species, exacerbation was more common. Across species, the degree of microbial-mediated effects on germination explained >80% of the variation of natural field abundances. Our results suggest a critical role of soil microbes in mediating plant stress responses, and a potential microbial mechanism underlying species abundance. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Moon, H.J.; Kim, T.I.; Kim, H.W.; Han, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. -- Highlights: •Urban extensive green roof systems have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff. •These systems are improve runoff mitigation and decentralized urban water management. •These systems have a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. •The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52. -- Extensive green-roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to mitigate urban runoff

  5. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these...

  6. Experimental research of the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahman Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental research on the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation. This research was performed in order to determine those materials that may be used for electric field mitigation in cases where the reference level is exceeded. Using measured results, the value of the shielding factor has been calculated for all tested shields and the most efficient shields were determined.

  7. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log K ow ) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log K ow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Mitigation Measures on Flood Damage Prevention in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Son

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise the hypotheses. An analysis was conducted using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA time series methodology, Korean socioeconomic data, and damage characteristics of major flood events. The effects of flood damage mitigation measures on the extent of flood damages were assessed using an intervention time series model. The major findings were that the intervention effects of structural and non-structural measures were statistically significant from 1958 to 2013 (a period of 55 years and that while the former were ineffective at mitigating flood damages, the latter were successful in doing so. Based on the above findings, policy suggestions for future flood damage mitigation measures in Korea were offered. For structural measures, the government should manage its existing facilities, recover ecosystems of damaged rivers, and devise mitigation measures for urban areas. For non-structural measures, the government should enhance its flood forecasting capacity, revise laws related to flood control and prevention, and update and rationalize land-use plans.

  9. Mitigating Cost and Schedule Risk from Environmental Litigation Over DOD Projects in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    and Michael Mortimer published the paper titled Exploring National Environmental Policy Act Process across Federal Land Management Agencies (Mortimer...dissatisfied with policy decisions made by governing bodies.” and “The environmental laws were neither meant to be used as a crutch for chronic fault

  10. OEM Emergency Prevention and Mitigation Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management maintains information relevant to preventing emergencies before they occur, and/or mitigating the effects of emergency when they...

  11. Mitigating environmental pollution and impacts from fossil fuels: The role of alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, S.Y.; Li, J.B.; Huang, Y.F. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    In order to meet the rising global demand for energy, rapid development of conventional fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) have been experienced by many nations, bringing dramatic economic benefit and prosperity to fossil-fuel industries as well as well being of human society. However, various fossil-fuel related activities emit huge quantities of gaseous, liquid, and solid waste materials, posing a variety of impacts, risks, and liabilities to the environment. Therefore, on the one hand, control measures are desired for effectively managing pollution issues; on the other hand, it becomes extremely critical to invest efforts in finding promising alternative energy sources as solutions to the possible energy shortage crisis in future. This article focuses on both aspects through: (1) a discussion of waste materials generated from fossil-fuel industries and waste management measures; and (2) an exploration of some well-recognized alternative fuels in terms of their nature, availability, production, handling, environmental performances, and current and future applications. The conclusion restates the urgency of finding replaceable long-term alternatives to the conventional fuels.

  12. Compensatory mechanisms mitigate the effect of warming and drought on wood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Lorena; Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Rossi, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Because of global warming, high-latitude ecosystems are expected to experience increases in temperature and drought events. Wood formation will have to adjust to these new climatic constraints to maintain tree mechanical stability and long-distance water transport. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamic processes involved in wood formation under warming and drought. Xylogenesis, gas exchange, water relations and wood anatomy of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] saplings were monitored during a greenhouse experiment where temperature was increased during daytime or night-time (+6 °C) combined with a drought period. The kinetics of tracheid development expressed as rate and duration of the xylogenesis sub-processes were quantified using generalized additive models. Drought and warming had a strong influence on cell production, but little effect on wood anatomy. The increase in cell production rate under warmer temperatures, and especially during the night-time warming at the end of the growing season, resulted in wider tree-rings. However, the strong compensation between rates and durations of cell differentiation processes mitigates warming and drought effects on tree-ring structure. Our results allowed quantification of how wood formation kinetics is regulated when water and heat stress increase, allowing trees to adapt to future environmental conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  14. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Rytwinski

    Full Text Available Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill. For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we

  15. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  16. Impact of environmental conditions on biomass yield, quality, and bio-mitigation capacity of Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Environmental factors determine the yield and quality of the cultivated seaweed biomass and, in return, the seaweed aquaculture affects the marine environment by nutrient assimilation. Consequently, site selection is critical for obtaining optimal biomass yield...... environmental conditions and cultivation success. The biomass yields fluctuated 10-fold between sites due to local variations in light and nutrient availability.Yields were generally low, i.e. up to 510 g fresh weight (FW) per meter seeded line; however, the dry matter contents of protein and high...

  17. The mitigation effect of configuration and context optimization of urban holdings on heat island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y P; Yu, D Y; Xun, B

    2014-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon has become a serious problem in recent years. It is necessary to study the mitigation methods and quantify their effects on UHI. In this paper, based on the remote sensed data, an empirical model was established as a negative function of land surface temperature (LST) to vegetation coverage. Urban heat island intensity (UHII) was estimated by a robust statistic algorithm. Compared with the current condition (vegetation coverage equaling to 0%), five high vegetation coverage building scenarios (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) were designed to explore mitigation effects on UHI separately. The results showed that the mean LST increase by about 0.5°C when vegetation coverage decrease by 0.1. UHII has a considerable decrease when the scenarios of vegetation coverage equaling to 20% and 40%, respectively. The reasonable vegetation configuration is the effective UHI mitigation

  18. Increasing the Environmental Sustainability of Sewage Treatment by Mitigating Pollutant Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The current centralized systems for sewage treatment are highly efficient with respect to the removal of COD and nutrients and the production of an effluent that can be discharged on surface water. However, from an environmental point of view the sewage treatment process is still far from being

  19. Mitigation and Adaptation: Critical Perspectives toward Digital Technologies in Place-Conscious Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, David A.; Hougham, R. Justin

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the tension for educators between the proliferation of mobile, digital technologies, and the widely held belief that environmental learning is best nurtured through place-based approaches that emphasize direct experience. We begin by offering a general critique of technology in culture and education, emphasizing what is at…

  20. Bloom Dynamics of Cyanobacteria and Their Toxins: Environmental Health Impacts and Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh P.; Madamwar, Datta; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically one of the most prolific groups of phototrophic prokaryotes in both marine and freshwater habitats. Both the beneficial and detrimental aspects of cyanobacteria are of considerable significance. They are important primary producers as well as an immense source of several secondary products, including an array of toxic compounds known as cyanotoxins. Abundant growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems due to increased anthropogenic eutrophication and global climate change has created serious concern toward harmful bloom formation and surface water contamination all over the world. Cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of several cyanotoxins in water bodies pose severe ecological consequences with high risk to aquatic organisms and global public health. The proper management for mitigating the worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is crucial for maintenance and sustainable development of functional ecosystems. Here, we emphasize the emerging information on the cyanobacterial bloom dynamics, toxicology of major groups of cyanotoxins, as well as a perspective and integrative approach to their management. PMID:26635737

  1. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  2. Place Effects on Environmental Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Colocousis, Chris R.; Duncan, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    How people respond to questions involving the environment depends partly on individual characteristics. Characteristics such as age, gender, education, and ideology constitute the well-studied "social bases of environmental concern," which have been explained in terms of cohort effects or of cognitive and cultural factors related to social…

  3. Interventions to Mitigate the Psychological Effects of Media Violence on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes and evaluates attempts to mitigate effect that watching television violence has on young children. Most relevant studies have been laboratory experiments, and there is no reported evidence that any intervention has been effective over long-term. Concludes that interventions combining cognitive and behavioral approaches have most promise,…

  4. The effect of bright lines in environmental risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.N.; Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, K.V.; Payne, J.

    1993-01-01

    Bright lines in environmental risk communication refer to the specific levels at which an environmental risk becomes a serious health threat and action should be taken to mitigate its effects. This study examined the effect of ''bright lines'' in risk communication by emphasizing the radon exposure threshold level of 4 picocuries per liter. Specifically, the authors developed a computer-assisted interview containing bright-line versions of risk information. The bright-line version contained a range of possible radon levels, the corresponding number of estimated lung cancer cases, the relative health risk from radon compared to other health risks, and the EPA guidelines for mitigating levels above 4 picocuries in the home. The non-bright line version was identical to the bright-line version, except it did not include the EPA's mitigation recommendations. Effect measures included respondents' change in perceived risk after reading their materials, intended testing behavior, and advice to their neighbor for a specified radon level either above or below the 4 picocury threshold level. This paper discusses broader policy implications for designing effective risk communication programs

  5. Biomass opportunities in the United States to mitigate the effects of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The increased interest in the global warming threat has caused a great deal of attention to be paid to the value of forests as a mitigating strategy. This paper is a preliminary report on efforts by a number of investigators to document the opportunities for improving the forests of the United States, and the effect that those improvements might have on global warming. In the process, major interest is on the amount of biomass that can be produced - particularly opportunities to increase the amount of biomass that can be produced annually in relatively stable forms - woody plant structures, woody roots, soil carbon, and long-lived wood products - or burned as a substitute for fossil fuels. While it is readily recognized that growing additional forest products is not a way out of avoiding other issues such as energy conservation and reduction of industrial emissions, forestry opportunities provide an excellent bridging strategy that may buy a few decades of time on the problem of carbon dioxide buildup in the atmosphere, while at the same time providing a host of other economic and environmental benefits. In other words, at reasonable levels, implementing forestry opportunities is a global warming strategy that does not cost, it pays. The current state of the study leads us to believe that those opportunities can offset somewhere in the neighborhood of half of the current net fossil fuel carbon emissions produced by the United States, with changes that are economically sound for other reasons - mainly in terms of forest products produced, or energy expenditures avoided. In the process, there are substantial collateral environmental benefits that will be realized. It seems clear, however, that we can increase forest acreage, and forest productivity, more than current markets for forest products can absorb. Thus, new markets will need to be established. 36 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Environmental effects of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Brinch, Anna

    This report presents ecotoxicological data and Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for nine selected nanomaterials which are considered to be environmentally relevant due to high usage or how they are used. These data will together with data from other reports/projects be used in an overall...... assessment of the environmental risk of nanomaterials in Denmark. The nine investigated nanomaterials are: Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Silver, Carbon Nanotubes, Copper Oxide, Nano Zero Valent Iron, Cerium Dioxide, Quantum Dots and Carbon Black. To support the assessment of the data found in the peer...

  7. Environmental radioactivity and mitigation of radiological impact at legacy uranium sites in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium legacy sites in the country contain large amounts of milling tailings, mining waste, old infrastructures and acid mine drainage with high radioactivity concentrations. Radioactivity surveillance of these sites has been maintained for many years and institutional control kept beyond cessation of Portuguese uranium mining in 2001. A research programme (2003-2006) requested by the government to assess environmental contamination and public health risks in these regions advised implementing environmental remediation measures. A national programme was approved for remediation of abandoned mine sites, including radioactive and non-radioactive mines, that started in 2005 and since has completed significant remediation works in several old uranium mines. One amongst these sites, the Urgeiriça mine and milling site, was re-engineered, tailings were covered, the mine was closed, the area of mine and milling facilities cleaned, and an automated contaminated water treatment plant installed. Environmental radioactivity surveys carried out in this region showed reduced ambient radiation doses, lower radon concentrations in surface air, return to background radioactivity in surface air aerosols, and decrease of radionuclide concentrations in the river receiving water discharges from the mine site, resulting in a reduced radiation exposure to members of the public. Other legacy uranium mines without milling tailings, were mainly remediated for landscape engineering and the adopted solutions included, for example, preservation of non-contaminated ponds for public leisure. Although not completed yet in many sites, the remediation works implemented contributed already to a significant abatement of radiation exposure allowing for safer implementation of activities, such as agriculture and cattle grazing, in the surroundings of legacy sites. Environmental remediation and abatement of radiation exposure contributed to revitalize socio-economic activities of the region and

  8. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  9. climate change: causes, effects and mitigation measures-a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Both natural and human causes of climate change including the earth's orbital changes, solar variations .... analysis supported by climate models have revealed that cloud ... clouds could actually exert a small cooling effect as temperature ...

  10. The urban heat island effect, its causes, and mitigation, with reference to the thermal properties of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Bakaric, Jason; Jeffrey-Bailey, Tristan

    2017-07-15

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a phenomenon that affects many millions of people worldwide. The higher temperatures experienced in urban areas compared to the surrounding countryside has enormous consequences for the health and wellbeing of people living in cities. The increased use of manmade materials and increased anthropogenic heat production are the main causes of the UHI. This has led to the understanding that increased urbanisation is the primary cause of the urban heat island. The UHI effect also leads to increased energy needs that further contribute to the heating of our urban landscape, and the associated environmental and public health consequences. Pavements and roofs dominate the urban surface exposed to solar irradiation. This review article outlines the contribution that pavements make to the UHI effect and analyses localized and citywide mitigation strategies against the UHI. Asphalt Concrete (AC) is one of the most common pavement surfacing materials and is a significant contributor to the UHI. Densely graded AC has low albedo and high volumetric heat capacity, which results in surface temperatures reaching upwards of 60 °C on hot summer days. Cooling the surface of a pavement by utilizing cool pavements has been a consistent theme in recent literature. Cool pavements can be reflective or evaporative. However, the urban geometry and local atmospheric conditions should dictate whether or not these mitigation strategies should be used. Otherwise both of these pavements can actually increase the UHI effect. Increasing the prevalence of green spaces through the installation of street trees, city parks and rooftop gardens has consistently demonstrated a reduction in the UHI effect. Green spaces also increase the cooling effect derived from water and wind sources. This literature review demonstrates that UHI mitigation techniques are best used in combination with each other. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the current mitigation

  11. Environmental and human health challenges of industrial livestock and poultry farming in China and their mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2017-10-01

    Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks. Gaseous pollutants and bioaerosols are emitted directly from CAFOs, which have health implications on animal producers and neighboring communities. A range of pollutants are excreted with the animal waste, including nutrients, pathogens, natural and synthetic hormones, veterinary antimicrobials, and heavy metals, which can enter local farmland soils, surface water, and groundwater, during the storage and disposal of animal waste, and pose direct and indirect human health risks. The extensive use of antimicrobials in CAFOs also contributes to the global public health concern of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Efforts on treating the large volumes of manure generated in CAFOs should be enhanced (e.g., by biogas digesters and integrated farm systems) to minimize their impacts on the environment and human health. Furthermore, the use of veterinary drugs and feed additives in industrial livestock and poultry farming should be controlled, which will not only make the animal food products much safer to the consumers, but also render the manure more benign for treatment and disposal on farmlands. While improving the sustainability of animal farming, China also needs to promote healthy food consumption, which not only improves public health from avoiding high-meat diets, but also slows down the expansion of industrial animal farming, and thus reduces the associated environmental and public health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The environmental tax reforms in Europe: mitigation, compensation, and CO2-stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Speck, S.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbon-energy taxes would need to be increased to a level of 20-30 ?/tonne CO2 in 2020 in order to accomplish a stabilisation target for greenhouse gas concentrations. While increases of carbon-energy taxes inevitably raise questions about the negative impacts on economic...... growth and competitiveness, the European experience shows that governments as part of already agreed environmental tax reforms (ETR) have in fact implicit carbon-energy taxes with a nominal level that in many cases exceeds this level. Still, European governments have exempt especially the energy...

  13. A conceptual framework to analyze and mitigate aging effects of a system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual framework is developed to analyze, characterize, and mitigate the degradation of a system in a nuclear power plant due to aging. The system is evaluated, based on an aging-specific system decision model, to understand and implement decisions pertaining to surveillance, maintenance, and replacement. Decisions on other corrective measures to mitigate the effects of aging of a number of equipment items, interconnections (relationships with other systems), and interfaces (relationships within the system) can also be made based on the proposed approach

  14. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  15. The effectiveness of energy service demand reduction: A scenario analysis of global climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, S.; Kainuma, M.; Masui, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Dai, H.

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of energy service demand is a climate mitigation option, but its effectiveness has never been quantified. We quantify the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction in the building, transport, and industry sectors using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model for the period 2015–2050 under various scenarios. There were two major findings. First, a 25% energy service demand reduction in the building, transport, and basic material industry sectors would reduce the GDP loss induced by climate mitigation from 4.0% to 3.0% and from 1.2% to 0.7% in 2050 under the 450 ppm and 550 ppm CO 2 equivalent concentration stabilization scenarios, respectively. Second, the effectiveness of a reduction in the building sector's energy service demand would be higher than those of the other sectors at the same rate of the energy service demand reduction. Furthermore, we also conducted a sensitivity analysis of different socioeconomic conditions, and the climate mitigation target was found to be a key determinant of the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction measures. Therefore, more certain climate mitigation targets would be useful for the decision makers who design energy service demand reduction measures. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of a reduction in energy service demand is quantified. • A 25% reduction in energy service demand would be equivalent to 1% of GDP in 2050. • Stringent mitigation increases the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction. • Effectiveness of a reduction in energy demand service is higher in the building sector

  16. The Effect of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on Drought Impacts in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing the economic benefits in the U.S. of changes in drought frequency and severity due to global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. We construct reduced-form models of the effect of drought on agriculture and reservoir recreation i...

  17. Implementation and effectiveness of sound mitigation measures on Texas highways (HB 790) : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The 84th Texas Legislature passed House Bill (HB) 790 directing the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) to perform a study on the implementation and effectiveness of sound mitigation measures on the state highway system and certain toll roads an...

  18. Resolving Environmental Effects of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; May, Roel [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research; Bennet, Finlay [Marine Scotland Science; Warnas, Marijke [Rijkswaterstaat; Perron, Muriel [nateco AG; Elmqvist, Asa [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    2018-04-25

    Concerns for potential wildlife impacts resulting from land-based and offshore wind energy have created challenges for wind project development. Research is not always adequately supported, results are neither always readily accessible nor are they satisfactorily disseminated, and so decisions are often made based on the best available information, which may be missing key findings. The potential for high impacts to avian and bat species and marine mammals have been used by wind project opponents to stop, downsize, or severely delay project development. The global nature of the wind industry - combined with the understanding that many affected species cross-national boundaries, and in many cases migrate between continents - also points to the need to collaborate on an international level. The International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Technology Collaborative Programs facilitates coordination on key research issues. IEA Wind Task 34 - WREN: Working Together to Resolve Environmental Effects of Wind Energy-is a collaborative forum to share lessons gained from field research and modeling, including management methods, wildlife monitoring methods, best practices, study results, and successful approaches to mitigating impacts and addressing the cumulative effects of wind energy on wildlife.

  19. Resonant nuclear battery may aid in mitigating the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new process for the direct conversion of radioactive decay energy directly into electricity of a usable form is currently being developed by Peripheral Systems, Inc. of Portland, Oregon. United States Patent 4,835,433 was issued May 30, 1989 to protect this Resonant Nuclear Power Supply. When developed, this system promises cheap, reliable power from a package small and light enough to be mobile and an energy density great enough for use as a space-based power supply. One of the potential domestic applications could be to power electric automobiles. Use in highly populated areas would have a tremendous beneficial effect on the ecology. The principle of operation for the resonant nuclear power supply is an LCR (inductance capacitance resistance) resonant tank circuit oscillating at its self-resonant frequency (at resonance, the inductive reactance and the capacitive reactance cancel to leave the ohmic resistance of the circuit as the only major loss of energy). A means for absorbing the natural radioactive decay energy emitted from an alpha or beta source is provided in the primary tank circuit and contributes an amount of energy, by means of the beta voltaic effect, in excess of the energy required to sustain the oscillation of the LCR primary tank. A transformer is impedance matched to this oscillating primary circuit for efficient energy transfer of the excess energy to a secondary output circuit, which yields net electrical power in a high-frequency usable form to drive a load

  20. Socio-demographic predictors of health and environmental co-benefit behaviours for climate change mitigation in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Wang, Susan Shuxin; Ho, Janice Ying-En; Huang, Zhe; Liu, Sida; Guo, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the patterns and socio-demographic predictors of health and environmental co-benefit behaviours that support climate change mitigation in a densely populated Asian metropolis-Hong Kong. A population-based, stratified and cross-sectional random digit dialling telephone survey study was conducted between January and February 2016, among the Cantonese-speaking population aged 15 and above in Hong Kong. Socio-demographic data and the self-reported practice of 10 different co-benefit behaviours were solicited. Ethics approval and participant's verbal consent were sought. The study sample consisted of 1,017 respondents (response rate: 63.6%) were comparable to the age, gender and geographical distributions of the Hong Kong population found in the latest 2011 Hong Kong Population Census. Among the co-benefit behaviours, using less packaging and disposable shopping bags were practiced in the highest frequency (70.1%). However, four behaviours were found to have never been practiced by more than half of the respondents, including bringing personal eating utensils when dining in restaurants or small eateries, showering less than five minutes, having one vegetarian meal a week, and buying more organic food. Results of multivariable logistic regression showed that frequency of practicing co-benefit behaviours were consistently associated with gender and age. Urban residents in Hong Kong do not engage in the practice of co-benefit behaviours in a uniform way. In general, females and older people are more likely to adopt co-benefit behaviours in their daily lives. Further research to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the population towards these co-benefit behaviours will provide support to relevant climate change mitigation policies and education programmes.

  1. Mitigating effects of Jambul against lead induced toxicity in epididymis and vas deferens of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Abbas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precious fruits like jambul are neglected and wasted while environmental pollutants like lead intake remain overlooked. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Jambul pulp extract on lead detrimental effects in pseudostratified epithelium and the stereocilia of mice epididymis and vas deferens. Materials and Methods: Thirty young males mice (Mus musculus were distributed randomly in 3 groups (n= 10 called control, Pb (Lead and Pb-J (Lead-Jambul. The Pb and Pb-J were provided 50ppm Pb in drinking water ad libitum for 15 days and Pb free water for the next 5 days. The Pb-J group received 0.2ml jambul pulp extract on 12 hourly bases. Control group was not given any treatment. Organs (epididymis and vas deference were recovered on 21st day after euthanasia. The organs were finally processed for histological and micrometric studies. Results: Marked histologic and micrometric changes in both organs were noted in Pb group. These include significant (P ≤ 0.05 decrease in cross sectional area of caput and cauda epididymis folding tubing along with evident alterations of their endothelial thickness. Prominent signs of apoptosis (vacuolations in the corpus pseudostratified endothelium and the destruction of stereocilia of the epididymis and vas deferens in Pb compared to control group were observed. Evident signs of recovery, in both organs, such as proliferation and rearrangements in pseudostratified endothelium and the stereocilia along with convincing recovery in micrometric parameters were observed in Pb-J group. Conclusion: The results indicate that epididymis and vas deferens are highly sensitive to Pb exposure while Jambul pulp extract has shown rich mitigating potentials against such histopathologies.

  2. Environmental Assessment of Bus Transport in the Trondheim Region - Evaluation of Relevant Bus and Fuel Technologies and their Potential for Mitigating Emissions from Passenger Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Buø, Tonje

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to assess the carbon footprint of transport by bus in the Trondheim region. Bus transportation is promoted as a strategy both to combat local pollution problems in urban areas and to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions from passenger transport. Still, the environmental impacts of bus transport have received fairly limited attention in research. The environmental impacts of bus transport are calculated through life cycle assessment. A model is develo...

  3. The effects of alternative carbon mitigation policies on Japanese industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Makoto; Arimura, Toshi H.; Morgenstern, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    To address the climate change issue, developed nations have considered introducing carbon pricing mechanisms in the form of a carbon tax or an emissions trading scheme (ETS). Despite the small number of programmes actually in operation, these mechanisms remain under active discussion in a number of countries, including Japan. Using an input–output model of the Japanese economy, this article analyses the effects of carbon pricing on Japan′s industrial sector. We also examine the impact of a rebate programme of the type proposed for energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries in U.S. legislation, the Waxman–Markey Bill (H.R. 2454), and in the European Union′s ETS. We find that a carbon pricing scheme would impose a disproportionate burden on a limited number of sectors – namely, pig iron, crude steel (converters), cement and other EITE industries. Out of 401 industries, 23 would be eligible for rebates according to the Waxman–Markey-type programme, whereas 122 industries would be eligible for rebates according to the E.U.-type programme, if adopted in Japan. Overall, despite the differences in coverage, we find that the Waxman–Markey and E.U. rebate programmes have roughly similar impacts in reducing the average burden on EITE industries. - Highlights: • Energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries suffer the most due to carbon pricing policies. • Twenty-three industries will be eligible under a Waxman–Markey (WM)-type rebate programme. • The E.U. emissions trading scheme (ETS)-type programme identifies 122 industries. • Both WM- and E.U.-type programmes will lower the cost of production to similar levels. • Industries eligible for rebates must be determined carefully

  4. Can re-regulation reservoirs and batteries cost-effectively mitigate sub-daily hydropeaking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Nowak, W.; Anindito, Y.; Olivares, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    To compensate for mismatches between generation and load, hydropower plants frequently operate in strong hydropeaking schemes, which is harmful to the downstream ecosystem. Furthermore, new power market structures and variable renewable systems may exacerbate this behavior. Ecological constraints (minimum flows, maximum ramps) are frequently used to mitigate hydropeaking, but these stand in direct tradeoff with the operational flexibility required for integrating renewable technologies. Fortunately, there are also physical methods (i.e. re-regulation reservoirs and batteries) but to date, there are no studies about their cost-effectiveness for hydropeaking mitigation. This study aims to fill that gap. For this, we formulate an hourly mixed-integer linear optimization model to plan the weekly operation of a hydro-thermal-renewable power system from southern Chile. The opportunity cost of water (needed for this weekly scheduling) is obtained from a mid-term programming solved with dynamic programming. We compare the current (unconstrained) hydropower operation with an ecologically constrained operation. The resulting cost increase is then contrasted with the annual payments necessary for the physical hydropeaking mitigation options. For highly constrained operations, both re-regulation reservoirs and batteries show to be economically attractive for hydropeaking mitigation. For intermediate constrained scenarios, re-regulation reservoirs are still economic, whereas batteries can be a viable solution only if they become cheaper in future. Given current cost projections, their break-even point (for hydropeaking mitigation) is expected within the next ten years. Finally, less stringent hydropeaking constraints do not justify physical mitigation measures, as the necessary flexibility can be provided by other power plants of the system.

  5. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  6. Environmental effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmeyer, K.H.; Fortak, H.; Knoepp, H.; Lindackers, K.H.; Schafhausen, F.; Schoedel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of energy conversion systems by the ''Council of Environmental Experts'' in order to correct the erroneous assumption that small energy conversion systems will also be small-scale and negligible emitters of pollutants. The additional pollution caused by Neurath power plant is considered to be low, at least in its immediate vicinity, owing to the implementation of the most recent technical developments. The environmental effects of energy conversion processes are discussed, including the waste heat problem and processes for water-cooling of power plants. General aspects of a new concept of energy taxation are discussed which is to reduce energy consumption. The problem of radioactive waste is discussed from spent fuel storage and reprocessing to the decommissioning of older power plants. The author points out that also new fossil-fuel technologies will pollute the environment. (orig.) [de

  7. Reduction of Environmental Temperature Mitigates Local Anesthetic Cytotoxicity in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Onur, Alexis Dang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess whether reducing environmental temperature will lead to increased chondrocyte viability following injury from a single-dose of local anesthetic treatment. Bovine articular chondrocytes from weight bearing portions of femoral condyles were harvested and cultured. 96-well plates were seeded with 15,000 chondrocytes per well. Chondrocytes were treated with one of the following conditions: ITS Media, 1x PBS, 2% lidocaine, 0.5% bupivacaine, or 0.5% ropivacaine. Each plate was then incubated at 37°C, 23°C, or 4°C for one hour and then returned to media at 37°C. Chondrocyte viability was assessed 24 hours after treatment. Chondrocyte viability is presented as a ratio of the fluorescence of the treatment group over the average of the media group at that temperature (ratio ± SEM. At 37°C, lidocaine (0.35 ± 0.04 and bupivacaine (0.30 ± 0.05 treated chondrocytes show low cell viability when compared to the media (1.00 ± 0.03 control group (p < 0.001. Lidocaine treated chondrocytes were significantly more viable at 23°C (0.84 ± 0.08 and 4°C (0.86±0.085 than at 37°C (p < 0.001. Bupivacaine treated chondrocytes were significantly more viable at 4°C (0.660 ± 0.073 than at 37°C or 23°C (0.330 ± 0.069 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002 respectively. Reducing the temperature from 37°C to 23°C during treatment with lidocaine increases chondrocyte viability following injury. Chondrocytes treated with bupivacaine can be rescued by reducing the temperature to 4°C.

  8. The Effect of Mitigation Policy on Regional Climate Impacts on the U.S. Electric Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. M.; Sun, Y.; Strzepek, K.; McFarland, J.; Boehlert, B.; Fant, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can influence the U.S. electricity sector in many ways, the nature of which can be shaped by energy and environmental policy choices. Changing temperatures affect electricity demand largely through heating and cooling needs, and temperatures also affect generation and transmission system performance. Altered precipitation patterns affect the regional and seasonal distribution of surface water runoff, which changes hydropower operation and thermal cooling water availability. The extent to which these stimuli influence U.S. power sector operation and planning will depend to some extent on whether or not proactive policies are enacted to mitigate these impacts. Mitigation policies such as CO2 emissions limits or technology restrictions can change the makeup of the electricity system while reducing the extent of climate change itself. We use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS), a U.S. electric sector capacity expansion model, to explore electric sector evolution through 2050 under alternative climate and policy assumptions. The model endogenously represents climate impacts on load, power system performance, cooling water availability, and hydropower, allowing internally consistent system responses to climate change along with projected technology, market, and policy conditions. We compare climate impacts across 5 global circulation models for a 8.5 W/m2 representative concentration pathway (RCP) without a climate mitigation policy and a 4.5 W/m2 RCP with climate mitigation. Climate drivers affect the capacity and generation mix at the national and regional levels, with relative growth of wind, solar, and natural gas-based technologies depending on local electricity system characteristics. These differences affect regional economic impacts, measured here as changes to electricity price and system costs. Mitigation policy reduces the economic and system impacts of climate change largely by moderating

  9. Bullwhip effect phenomenon and mitigation in logistic firm's supply chain: Adaptive approach by Transborder Agency, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Faizan, Riffat; Haque, Adnan ul

    2015-01-01

    This case study explores the bullwhip effect phenomenon and mitigation in supply chain process at Transborder Logistic Canada. Despite being one of the largest logistic chains of Canada, for two years it was facing challenges and problem in shape of bullwhip effects. The theoretical framework for present case study is based on the theory of Lee (1977) to overcome the problems in the supply chain process. "Realism" is the research philosophy undertaken to develop a cross-sectional research...

  10. Are environmental scanning units effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbart, C

    1982-06-01

    Many authorities have urged companies to set up environmental scanning to assist corporate planning. Some advocates have recommended a unit at corporate level. This would give breadth of view and penetration into the future. It would arm decision makers with accurate forecasts. The information would be broad in scope and future directed. It could provide also assumptions for long-range planning. The Fahey and King study produced a model of corporate scanning types. The data showed that environmental information was built into the plan. Though the political environment was important, scanning was inadequate. The best location for scanning was not at corporate level and most firms used irregular methods. The Thomas study concluded that effective environmental scanning was permanent and multi level and that 'best practice' was continuous scanning. In 1978 the sample organizations were revisited. Five of the twelve have not changed their practice. The factors which encouraged a continuous model were the attitudes of academics and business media, demonstrated success of the units, the right kind of personnel. Contrary influences were changes in top management, decentralization moves, resource cuts, defining the environment and its significance, the availability of scanning competent personnel, surprise itself, and the availability of alternatives e.g. external forecasts.

  11. Environmental effects from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Since 1969 several meetings have been convened to study the possibility of using high-level radiation in waste treatment. It was agreed that ionizing radiation offered some compromise as a feasible technology for a certain unique purpose, but economic considerations mitigated any overwhelming enthusiasm for early industrial realization. Recently a significant change has taken place in the world energy supply picture, and the expanded projection of nuclear power generation affects the analysis of comparative economic feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment of wastes. In addition, increased consideration of environmental quality not only calls for the re-evaluation of conventional waste treatment technologies, but also the development of more effective means where conventional methods might be unsatisfactory. As a result of several allied considerations, it was thought necessary and timely to review the status of research and development in the application of ionizing radiation to waste treatment and to consider the environmental implication of the proposed technology. Accordingly, the Symposium on the Use of High-Level Radiation in Waste Treatment - Status and Prospects was convened by the IAEA, in co-operation with the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau. Forty-eight papers were presented in eight sessions covering the current technology of waste-water treatment and re-use, radiosensitivity of micro-organisms, disinfection and microbiological control, physical and chemical modification of aqueous pollutants, technological and economic considerations, pilot-plant design and operating experiences, and radiation treatment of gaseous and solid wastes

  12. Mir Environmental Effects Payload and Returned Mir Solar Panel Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Kinard, William H.

    2000-01-01

    The MIR Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP) was attached to the Docking Module of the MIR space station for 18 months during calendar years 1996 and 1997 (March 1996, STS 76 to October 1997, STS 86). A solar panel array with more than 10 years space exposure was removed from the MIR core module in November 1997, and returned to Earth in January, 1998, STS 89. MEEP and the returned solar array are part of the International Space Station (ISS) Risk Mitigation Program. This space flight hardware has been inspected and studied by teams of space environmental effects (SEE) investigators for micrometeoroid and space debris effects, space exposure effects on materials, and electrical performance. This paper reports changes in cleanliness of parts of MEEP and the solar array due to the space exposures. Special attention is given to the extensive water soluble residues deposited on some of the flight hardware surfaces. Directionality of deposition and chemistry of these residues are discussed.

  13. Parental care mitigates carry-over effects of poor early conditions on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Poor developmental conditions can have long-lasting negative effects on offspring phenotypes, but impacts often differ among species. Contrasting responses may reflect disparities in experimental protocols among single-species studies or inherent differences among species in their sensitivity to early conditions and/or ability to mitigate negative impacts. We used a common experimental protocol to assess and compare the role of parental care in mitigating effects of poor early conditions on offspring among 4 sympatric bird species in the wild. We experimentally induced low incubation temperatures and examined effects on embryonic developmental rates, hatching success, nestling growth rates, and parental responses. We examined the generality of these effects across 4 species that differ in their phylogenetic history, breeding ecology, and life histories. We found that cooling led to delayed hatching in all species, but carry-over effects on offspring differed among species. Parents of some but not all species increased their offspring provisioning rates in response to experimental cooling with critical benefits for offspring growth rates. Our study shows for the first time that species exhibit clear differences in the degree to which they are affected by poor early conditions. Observed differences among species demonstrate that parental care is a critical mechanism for mitigating potential negative effects on offspring and suggest that parental responses may be constrained to varying degrees by ecology and life histories.

  14. Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields. [USA - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Agronomy)

    1992-01-01

    Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn ([ital Zea mays] L.) and soybean ([ital Glycine max] L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly ([alpha]0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of soil bioengineering interventions for watershed management, disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Alessandro; Preti, Federico

    2013-04-01

    In recent decades the institutions responsible for land management and civil protection have showed a great interest in relation to the use of more environmentally friendly techniques to mitigate the risk of landslides and floods. Soil bioengineering has responded to this need and several research groups are carrying out experimentations using the techniques of this discipline in the countries in the developing world. The Deistaf from University of Florence has concentrated its activities in this area over the past decade promoting the use of the techniques of Soil bioengineering in Latin America through the implementation of training and experimentation programmes. Numerous works have been completed both in riverbanks and on slopes in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Colombia. It was decided to make a census of interventions in Latin America from different institutions that may be related to Soil bioengineering in order to obtain an overview of the state of the art in the specific context taking into account also environmental and socio-economic issues. Taking advantage of its network of contacts, DEISTAF has collected dozens of sheets that describe interventions. These sheets describe, among other fields focused on the environment in which the work has been carried out, the materials and techniques used, and the impact of the intervention. In the sheets we present also the monitoring that has been realized for some of these works in the months of October and November 2012; we include the identification of the current condition and functionality of the intervention and, in the case of the presence of some damages, the formulation of instructions to fix them as well as the economic quantification of the repairs to be carried out.

  17. Parents' experience of unintended childbearing: A qualitative study of factors that mitigate or exacerbate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan L; Kost, Kathryn; Frohwirth, Lori; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Gor, Vivian

    2017-02-01

    Births resulting from an unintended pregnancy affect individuals differentially, and some may experience more negative consequences than others. In this study, we sought to describe the mechanisms through which the severity of effects may be mitigated or exacerbated. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 women and 30 men, all with a youngest child born resulting from an unintended pregnancy, in two urban sites in the United States. Respondents described both negative and positive effects of the child's birth in the areas of school; work and finances; partner relationships; personal health and outlook on life trajectories. Mechanisms through which unintended pregnancies mitigated or exacerbated certain effects fell at the individual (e.g. lifestyle modification), interpersonal (e.g. partner support) and structural (e.g. workplace flexibility) levels. These qualitative findings deepen understanding of the impact of unintended childbearing on the lives of women, men and families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of environmental impacts caused by hydroelectric power plants in native forest areas and mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Cyro Pinheiro

    1992-01-01

    The following work has the intention of demonstrating the importance of native forest to the human life, not only through its inherent qualities as something to preserve, but also as a source of great resources, and in particular hydroelectric resource that, by today's necessities are bounded to be explored. The negative effects caused by the implementation of a hydroelectric plant are shown together with the necessity of adoption of measures that would soften the environment impact of it. For the adoption of those measures, many forest studies were proposed in the search for its complete characterization. Each of these studies are duly defined and presented in their general and specific goals. The most adequate methodology is finally recommended. (author). 14 refs

  19. Cost-effective and robust mitigation of space debris in low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Martin, C.

    It is predicted that the space debris population in low Earth orbit (LEO) will continue to grow and in an exponential manner in the long-term due to an increasing rate of collisions between large objects, unless internationally-accepted space debris mitigation measures are adopted soon. Such measures are aimed at avoiding the future generation of space debris objects and primarily need to be effective in preventing significant long-term growth in the debris population, even in the potential scenario of an increase in future space activity. It is also important that mitigation measures can limit future debris population levels, and therefore the underlying collision risk to space missions, to the lowest extent possible. However, for their wide acceptance, the cost of implementation associated with mitigation measures needs to be minimised as far as possible. Generally, a lower collision risk will cost more to achieve and vice versa, so it is necessary to strike a balance between cost and risk in order to find a cost-effective set of mitigation measures. In this paper, clear criteria are established in order to assess the cost-effectiveness of space debris mitigation measures. A full cost-risk-benefit trade-off analysis of numerous mitigation scenarios is presented. These scenarios consider explosion prevention and post-mission disposal of space systems, including de-orbiting to limited lifetime orbits and re-orbiting above the LEO region. The ESA DELTA model is used to provide long-term debris environment projections for these scenarios as input to the benefit and risk parts of the trade-off analysis. Manoeuvre requirements for the different post-mission disposal scenarios were also calculated in order to define the cost-related element. A 25-year post-mission lifetime de-orbit policy, combined with explosion prevention and mission-related object limitation, was found to be the most cost-effective solution to the space debris problem in LEO. This package would also

  20. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 2009 review of the Deep Panuke Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Oceans, Habitat and Species at Risk branch of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada requested an update to the Environmental Management Plan for the construction of the Deep Panuke Project. Specifically, it requested expert advice on the 2009-2010 Drilling Environmental Protection Plan/Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan (EPP/EEMP), which outlines the measures that EnCana proposes take to avoid or minimize the effects of drilling in the marine environment. Although the proposed approach was deemed to be sufficient, the EPP/EEMP did not make reference to the potential effects of noise on marine species. The jack-up rig mobile offshore production unit that is proposed for well drilling and well re-entries was considered to produce lower noise levels than drillships and semi submersibles. It was concluded that jack up drilling at Deep Panuke would not likely require special noise mitigation measures, but more extensive measurement and documentation of acoustic noise levels around active rigs is recommended. The risk of well blowout or collapse was deemed low. Should such an event occur, the impact of the released hydrocarbon condensate would depend on the rate and duration of the release. Under typical conditions, the proponent's models reasonably show the blowout discharge drifting away from Sable Island. However, there is a very low risk that certain weather conditions would result in an oil spill reaching Sable Island. The EPP/EEMP does not address species at risk in any way, and mitigation measures are required and should be detailed in the monitoring plan. It was concluded that the proposed EPP/EEMP is sufficient in many areas, but since most mitigation measures are based on theoretical considerations alone, a plan for field monitoring at the drilling site is needed. 3 refs.

  2. Butterfly effect: understanding and mitigating the local consequences of climate change impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The Butterfly Effect is the notion that tiny differences in initial conditions are amplified in the evolution of a dynamic system and directly affect the eventual outcome. In 1963 mathematician and meteorologist Edward Lorenz proposed that the flapping of a butterfly's wing would cause a disturbance that becomes exponentially amplified so as to eventually affect large-scale atmospheric motion. This was to illustrate the 'sensitive dependence on initial conditions'; sensitivity also true in affecting the extent of damages experienced as a result of climate change. In a climate change context, The Butterfly Effect suggests the local consequences of climate change impacts will depend on their interaction with the economic, environmental, institutional, technological and demographic attributes unique to a city or region. It is this mix of factors that will determine the extent, both positively and negatively, to which climate change will be experienced locally. For a truly effective climate change response, it is imperative that regional risk assessments and adaptation strategies take into account not only the projected impacts but the full range of flow-on implications of those impacts and their sensitivity factors. Understanding of the sensitivity factors that will amplify or mitigate climate change impacts and implications enables government and business leaders to calculate the likely extent of localised damages if no adaptation is undertaken. This allows industries and communities to evaluate the likely significance of a particular impact and to consider how to adjust or counter the sensitivity factor to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. Thus, it also assists in the local prioritisation of issues and responses. Such a strategic response can also mean the required adaptation measures may be less extensive and thereby require less cost and time to implement. This paper discusses the flow-on implications of Australia's projected climate change

  3. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  4. Detection and mitigation of aging and service wear effects of nuclear power plant components in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachner, J.

    1987-07-01

    In Canada, the operational safety management of nuclear power plants employs methods which are intended to prevent, detect, correct and mitigate system and component failures from any cause, including the effects of aging and service wear degradation. The paper gives an overview of the application of these methods in the detection and mitigation of aging effects before they impact on plant safety and production reliability. Regulatory audits of these methods, to ensure that an acceptable level of plant safety is maintained by the nuclear power plant licensees, are also described. The methods are: a preventive maintenance program, Significant Event Reporting system, and a reliability based assessment of performance of safety related systems. The above methods are discussed and illustrated by examples. The soundness of the approach has been proven by the results achieved in 163 reactor-years of operation. Present and future developments include reviews of current monitoring, testing and inspection methods to ensure that appropriate time variant parameters (capable of revealing aging degradation before loss of functional capability) are monitored, and reviews of the effectiveness of existing maintenance programs and methods in mitigating aging and service wear effects

  5. Source-to-sink sediment transfers, environmental engineering and hazard mitigation in the steep Var River catchment, French Riviera, southeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Julian, Maurice

    1999-12-01

    Steep coastal margins are potentially subject to mass wasting processes involving notable landslide activity and sediment evacuation downstream by steep-gradient streams. Sediment transfer from short source-to-sink segments, coupled with mountain hydrological regimes, regulate patterns of river channel aggradation and coastal sediment supply in such geomorphic settings. On the steep French Riviera margin, sediment transfers from existing landslides or from various minor mass wasting processes to stream channels may result following bursts of heavy, concentrated rainfall. High-magnitude flooding and massive sediment transport downstream are generally related to unpredictable extreme rainfalls. Both mass movements and channel sediment storage pose serious hazards to downvalley settlements and infrastructure. A consideration of channel sediment storage patterns in the Var River catchment, the most important catchment in this area, highlights two important shortcomings relative to environmental engineering and hazard mitigation practices. In the first place, the appreciation of geomorphic processes is rather poor. This is illustrated by the undersized nature of engineering works constructed to mitigate hazards in the upstream bedload-dominated channels, and by the unforeseen effects that ten rock dams, constructed in the early 1970s, have had on downstream and coastal sediment storage and on sediment dispersal patterns and, consequently, valley flooding. Secondly, planners and environmental engineers have lacked foresight in valley and coastal management issues on this steep setting, notably as regards the reclaimed areas of the lower Var channel and delta liable to flooding. Urbanization and transport and environmental engineering works have progressively affected patterns of storage and transport of fine-grained sediments in the lower Var channel and delta. Meanwhile the problems raised by these changes have not been adequately addressed in terms of scientific

  6. Method of approximating the effects of blast mitigation materials on particulate-containing clouds formed by explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyckes, G.W.

    1983-09-01

    A numerical model was developed for predicting the effect of blast mitigation materials on the rise and entrainment rate of explosively driven buoyant clouds containing radiotoxic particles. Model predictions for clouds from unmitigated explosions agree with published observations. More experimental data are needed to assess the validity of predictions for clouds from mitigated explosions

  7. A tale of two fires: The relative effectiveness of past wildfires in mitigating wildfire behavior and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Gray; Susan J. Prichard

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of large, costly landscape-scale fires in western North America is increasing. To combat these fires, researchers and managers have expressed increased interest in investigating the effectiveness of past, stand-replacing wildfires as bottom-up controls on fire spread and severity. Specifically, how effective are past wildfires in mitigating the behavior...

  8. Vulnerability Factors and Effectiveness of Disaster Mitigation Measures in the Bangladesh Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify the vulnerability factors and examine the effectiveness of disaster mitigation measures undertaken by individuals, government and non-government organisations to mitigate the impacts of cyclones in the Bangladesh coast experiencing from Cyclone Aila. The primary data were collected from two villages of southwestern coastal areas of Bangladesh using questionnaire survey and interviews of the key informants. The data were analysed using the descriptive and inferential statistics. This paper reveals that the disaster management measures have a significant role to lessen the impacts of the cyclonic event, especially in pre-disaster preparedness, cyclone warning message dissemination, evacuation and post-disaster rehabilitation. The households, who have access to shelter, find weather forecast regularly and adopted pre-disaster awareness measures are relatively less susceptible to hazard's impacts. The disaster management measures undertaken by individuals and GOs and NGOs help coastal people to save their lives and property from the negative impacts of cyclones. The analysis shows that the NGOs' role is more effective and efficient than the GOs in cyclone disaster management. This paper identifies distance to shelter, participation in disaster training, efficient warning, etc. as the influential factors of vulnerability cyclones. The analysis finds the households as less affected who have adopted disaster preparedness measures. However, this paper concludes that the effective and proper disaster management and mitigation measures are very crucial to shield the lives and properties of the Bangladeshi coastal people.

  9. Vulnerability Factors and Effectiveness of Disaster Mitigation Measures in the Bangladesh Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify the vulnerability factors and examine the effectiveness of disaster mitigation measures undertaken by individuals, government and non-government organisations to mitigate the impacts of cyclones in the Bangladesh coast experiencing from Cyclone Aila. The primary data were collected from two villages of southwestern coastal areas of Bangladesh using questionnaire survey and interviews of the key informants. The data were analysed using the descriptive and inferential statistics. This paper reveals that the disaster management measures have a significant role to lessen the impacts of the cyclonic event, especially in pre-disaster preparedness, cyclone warning message dissemination, evacuation and post-disaster rehabilitation. The households, who have access to shelter, find weather forecast regularly and adopted pre-disaster awareness measures are relatively less susceptible to hazard's impacts. The disaster management measures undertaken by individuals and GOs and NGOs help coastal people to save their lives and property from the negative impacts of cyclones. The analysis shows that the NGOs' role is more effective and efficient than the GOs in cyclone disaster management. This paper identifies distance to shelter, participation in disaster training, efficient warning, etc. as the influential factors of vulnerability cyclones. The analysis finds the households as less affected who have adopted disaster preparedness measures. However, this paper concludes that the effective and proper disaster management and mitigation measures are very crucial to shield the lives and properties of the Bangladeshi coastal people.

  10. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of mitigation effect of the upland field on the regional environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuge, K.; Oohira, Y.; Hao, A.; Nakano, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of the mitigation effect of the upland field on the regional intrinsic environment, considering the crop growth stages. FAO Penman-Monteith method is introduced for calculation of the reference evapotranspiration. The crop transpiration and the soil surface evaporation in the upland fields are separately estimated using the crop coefficients, considering the crop growth stages. The ratios of the crop transpiration and the soil surface evaporation in the water consumption change drastically with the crop growth stages. To evaluate the mitigation, effect of the upland field, the latent heat fluxes in the sugar cane field and bare field are estimated during the crop growth period. The deference of the latent heat fluxes in the sugar cane field and the bare field is not marked in the initial crop growth stages. However, in the sugar cane field, the latent heat flux increases drastically, with the sugar cane growing. In the mid-season stage, the latent heat flux is larger than the net radiation. These results indicate that the crop field has the large mitigation effect on the environment, and the efficiency changes with the various factors, including the crop types, the crop growth stages, the cultivation condition, and so on

  12. Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Shannon G.

    2017-04-08

    Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O and assimilate CO and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for noncalcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp.) under reduced O (~2.09 mg/L) and pH (~ 7.63) scenarios in a full-factorial experiment. Host fitness was characterized as asexual reproduction and their ability to regulate internal pH and Symbiodinium performance characterized by maximum photochemical efficiency, chla content and cell density. Acidification alone resulted in 58% more asexual reproduction of symbiotic polyps than aposymbiotic polyps (and enhanced Symbiodinium cell density) suggesting Cassiopea sp. fitness was enhanced by CO-stimulated Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity. Indeed, greater CO drawdown (elevated pH) was observed within host tissues of symbiotic polyps under acidification regardless of O conditions. Hypoxia alone produced 22% fewer polyps than ambient conditions regardless of acidification and symbiont status, suggesting Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity did not mitigate its effects. Combined hypoxia and acidification, however, produced similar numbers of symbiotic polyps compared with aposymbiotic kept under ambient conditions, demonstrating that the presence of Symbiodinium was key for mitigating the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on asexual reproduction. We hypothesize that this mitigation occurred because of reduced photorespiration under elevated CO conditions where increased net O production ameliorates oxygen debt. We show that Symbiodinium play an important role in facilitating enhanced fitness of Cassiopea sp. polyps, and

  13. 15 CFR 971.406 - Environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 971.406 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Issuance/Transfer....406 Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring a commercial recovery permit, the...

  14. The Effect of Urban Green Infrastructure on Disaster Mitigation in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yoon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing precipitation by climate change and the growing number of impervious areas present greater risk of disaster damage in urban areas. Urban green infrastructure can be an effective mitigation alternative in highly developed and concentrated area. This study investigates the effect of various types of urban green infrastructure on mitigating disaster damage in Korea. Tobit model is used to analyze the factors that determine disaster damage. Damage variation is predicted with scenarios of RCP 8.5 and urban green spaces. Seventy-four districts and counties in seven metropolitan areas are defined as the unit and the period from 2005 to 2013 is considered in the analysis. The results indicate that higher urban green ratio, sewer length, financial independence rate, and local government’s budget are relating to lower disaster damage. Based on a precipitation level of RCP 8.5 scenario in 2050, an increase in economic damage is expected to range from 262 to 1086%. However, with an increase in urban green ratio by 10%, increased economic damage is only expected to range from 217 to 1013%. The results suggest that green spaces play important role to mitigate precipitation related disasters. Highly concentrated urban areas need to consider various types of urban green infrastructure to prepare for an increase in precipitation due to climate change.

  15. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera, was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1 weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid, amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid, and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose. ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense.

  16. Potential and economic efficiency of using reduced tillage to mitigate climate effects in Danish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Sisse Liv; Nainggolan, Doan

    2016-01-01

    , research also suggests that soil carbon stocks are declining. The scope of Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) approaches to effectively and efficiently address climate regulation will depend on the spatial distribution of the carbon assimilation capacity, current land use, the value of avoided emissions...... and compare these to the marginal abatement costs curve used in Danish climate policy. The cost effectiveness of reduced tillage as a climate mitigation PES scheme critically depends on the current debate on the net effects of carbon sequestration in reduced tillage practices. Based on existing IPCC...

  17. A decision model to allocate protective safety barriers and mitigate domino effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Jochen; Talarico, Luca; Reniers, Genserik; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model to support decision-makers about where to locate safety barriers and mitigate the consequences of an accident triggering domino effects. Based on the features of an industrial area that may be affected by domino accidents, and knowing the characteristics of the safety barriers that can be installed to stall the fire propagation between installations, the decision model can help practitioners in their decision-making. The model can be effectively used to decide how to allocate a limited budget in terms of safety barriers. The goal is to maximize the time-to-failure of a chemical installation ensuring a worst case scenario approach. The model is mathematically stated and a flexible and effective solution approach, based on metaheuristics, is developed and tested on an illustrative case study representing a tank storage area of a chemical company. We show that a myopic optimization approach, which does not take into account knock-on effects possibly triggered by an accident, can lead to a distribution of safety barriers that are not effective in mitigating the consequences of a domino accident. Moreover, the optimal allocation of safety barriers, when domino effects are considered, may depend on the so-called cardinality of the domino effects. - Highlights: • A model to allocate safety barriers and mitigate domino effects is proposed. • The goal is to maximize the escalation time of the worst case scenario. • The model provides useful recommendations for decision makers. • A fast metaheuristic approach is proposed to solve such a complex problem. • Numerical simulations on a realistic case study are shown

  18. Climate change impacts and greenhouse gas mitigation effects on U.S. hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlert, Brent; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Swanson, Richard; McCluskey, Alyssa; Neumann, James E.; McFarland, James; Martinich, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze contiguous U.S. hydropower generation under various emissions scenarios. • Employ systems model that allocates water to competing uses in 2119 river basins. • Average U.S. generation increases under climate change, but falls under low flows. • Mitigation benefits are $2-$4 billion/year due to high values of carbon-free energy. - Abstract: Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues and consumer expenditures. We analyze the physical and economic effects of changes in hydropower generation for the contiguous U.S. in futures with and without global-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, and across patterns from 18 General Circulation Models. Using a monthly water resources systems model of 2119 river basins that routes simulated river runoff through reservoirs, and allocates water to potentially conflicting and climate dependent demands, we provide a first-order estimate of the impacts of various projected emissions outcomes on hydropower generation, and monetize these impacts using outputs from an electric sector planning model for over 500 of the largest U.S. hydropower facilities. We find that, due to generally increasing river runoff under higher emissions scenarios in the Pacific Northwest, climate change tends to increase overall hydropower generation in the contiguous U.S. During low flow months, generation tends to fall with increasing emissions, potentially threatening the estimated low flow, firm energy from hydropower. Although global GHG mitigation slows the growth in hydropower generation, the higher value placed on carbon-free hydropower leads to annual economic benefits ranging from $1.8 billion to $4.3 billion. The present value of these benefits to the U.S. from global greenhouse gas

  19. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR

  20. Environmental effects of information and communications technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Eric

    2011-11-16

    The digital revolution affects the environment on several levels. Most directly, information and communications technology (ICT) has environmental impacts through the manufacturing, operation and disposal of devices and network equipment, but it also provides ways to mitigate energy use, for example through smart buildings and teleworking. At a broader system level, ICTs influence economic growth and bring about technological and societal change. Managing the direct impacts of ICTs is more complex than just producing efficient devices, owing to the energetically expensive manufacturing process, and the increasing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  1. The effectiveness of cool and green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect at the city-scale is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in conjunction with the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM). Specifically, the cooling impacts of green roof and cool (white/high-albedo) roof strategies over the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area during a heat wave period (7 June–10 June 2008) are assessed using the optimal set-up of WRF-PUCM described in the companion paper by Li and Bou-Zeid (2014). Results indicate that the surface UHI effect (defined based on the urban–rural surface temperature difference) is reduced significantly more than the near-surface UHI effect (defined based on urban–rural 2 m air temperature difference) when these mitigation strategies are adopted. In addition, as the green and cool roof fractions increase, the surface and near-surface UHIs are reduced almost linearly. Green roofs with relatively abundant soil moisture have comparable effect in reducing the surface and near-surface UHIs to cool roofs with an albedo value of 0.7. Significant indirect effects are also observed for both green and cool roof strategies; mainly, the low-level advection of atmospheric moisture from rural areas into urban terrain is enhanced when the fraction of these roofs increases, thus increasing the humidity in urban areas. The additional benefits or penalties associated with modifications of the main physical determinants of green or cool roof performance are also investigated. For green roofs, when the soil moisture is increased by irrigation, additional cooling effect is obtained, especially when the ‘unmanaged’ soil moisture is low. The effects of changing the albedo of cool roofs are also substantial. These results also underline the capabilities of the WRF-PUCM framework to support detailed analysis and diagnosis of the UHI phenomenon, and of its different mitigation strategies. (letter)

  2. Spray drift of pesticides and stream macroinvertebrates: Experimental evidence of impacts and effectiveness of mitigation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, Lorraine [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.maltby@sheffield.ac.uk; Hills, Louise [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Impoverished stream communities in agricultural landscapes have been associated with pesticide contamination, but conclusive evidence of causality is rare. We address this deficiency by adopting an experimental approach to investigate the effects of the insecticides cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos on benthic macroinvertebrates. Three treatments were established and a combination of biomarker, bioassay and biomonitoring approaches was employed to investigate, individual, population and community-level effects. Animals deployed during pesticide application had altered enzyme activity, depressed feeding rate and reduced survival, but these effects were only observed where pesticide was sprayed to the stream edge. There were no clear pesticide-related effects on macroinvertebrate community structure or on the population densities of individual species. Hence, short-term pesticide exposure did cause individual-level effects in stream macroinvertebrates, but these were not translated to effects at the population or community-level and were effectively mitigated by the adoption of a no-spray buffer zone. - Pulsed pesticide exposures via spray drift adversely affected stream invertebrates but did not cause population or community-level effects and were mitigated by no-spray buffer zones.

  3. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E.; Law, Beverly E.

    2013-01-01

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a

  4. Strategies, Protections and Mitigations for Electric Grid from Electromagnetic Pulse Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Rita Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frickey, Steven Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The mission of DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electricity delivery system, enhance the security and reliability of America’s energy infrastructure and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. One of the threats OE is concerned about is a high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse (HEMP) from a nuclear explosion and eletro-magnetic pulse (EMP) or E1 pulse can be generated by EMP weapons. DOE-OE provides federal leadership and technical guidance in addressing electric grid issues. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was chosen to conduct the EMP study for DOE-OE due to its capabilities and experience in setting up EMP experiments on the electric grid and conducting vulnerability assessments and developing innovative technology to increase infrastructure resiliency. This report identifies known impacts to EMP threats, known mitigations and effectiveness of mitigations, potential cost of mitigation, areas for government and private partnerships in protecting the electric grid to EMP, and identifying gaps in our knowledge and protection strategies.

  5. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper.

  6. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, more than 40 schools in Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were visited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). School characteristics that potentially influence radon entry and impact mitigation system design and performance were identified. Mitigation systems that had proven successful in house mitigation were then installed in several of these schools. Many of the systems were installed by school personnel with some assistance from EPA and an experienced radon diagnostician. This article presents the diagnostic measurements made in the schools and it discusses in detail the specific mitigation systems that were installed in four Maryland schools by the EPA

  7. Radon mitigation in crawl-space houses in Nashville, Tennessee. Report for October 1987-July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyle, B.E.; Williamson, A.D.; Fowler, C.S.; Belzer, F.E.; Osborne, M.C.

    1988-05-01

    Approximately 15% of existing U.S. houses are built over dirt crawl spaces, and little or no data exist relative to radon mitigation techniques for this style of house construction. This paper discusses and Environmental Protection Agency radon mitigation demonstration. A variety of techniques were evaluated to determine the most-effective and least-costly method of radon mitigation

  8. A perspective multidisciplinary geological approach for mitigation of effects due to the asbestos hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, Gianluca; Rossetti, Federico; Belardi, Girolamo; Billi, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    during rock fragmentation). Accordingly, we are confident that definition of an analytical protocol based on the geological attributes of the asbestos-bearing rocks may constitute a propaedeutical tool to evaluate the asbestos hazard in natural environments. This approach may have important implications for mitigation effects of the asbestos hazard from the medical field to the engineering operations.

  9. Irradiation effects and mitigation. Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The IAEA Specialists Meeting on Irradiation Effects and Mitigation organised in co-operation with the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' was held at Vladimir, Russian Federation from 15 to 19 September 1997. Topics of the Meeting covered a number of problems including mechanisms of radiation damage, results of surveillance programmes and their analysis, effects of operating parameters, fracture mechanics tests and evaluation, annealing and optimisation of the process and reembrittlement after annealing. Specialists from 17 countries presented 31 paper, published in this proceedings each with a separate abstract

  10. First and second collision source for mitigating ray effects in discrete ordinate calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.T.; Stevens, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    This work revisits the problem of ray effects in discrete ordinates calculations that frequently occurs in two- and three-dimensional systems which contain isolated sources within a highly absorbing medium. The effectiveness of using a first collision source or a second collision source are analyzed as possible remedies to mitigate this problem. The first collision and second collision sources are generated by three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations that enables its application to a variety of source configurations, and the results can be coupled to a two- or three-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code. (author)

  11. Nitrous Oxide Abatement Coupled with Biopolymer Production As a Model GHG Biorefinery for Cost-Effective Climate Change Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Osvaldo D; Cortes, Irene; Cantera, Sara; Arnaiz, Esther; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2017-06-06

    N 2 O represents ∼6% of the global greenhouse gas emission inventory and the most important O 3 -depleting substance emitted in this 21st century. Despite its environmental relevance, little attention has been given to cost-effective and environmentally friendly N 2 O abatement methods. Here we examined, the potential of a bubble column (BCR) and an internal loop airlift (ALR) bioreactors of 2.3 L for the abatement of N 2 O from a nitric acid plant emission. The process was based on the biological reduction of N 2 O by Paracoccus denitrificans using methanol as a carbon/electron source. Two nitrogen limiting strategies were also tested for the coproduction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) coupled with N 2 O reduction. High N 2 O removal efficiencies (REs) (≈87%) together with a low PHBV cell accumulation were observed in both bioreactors in excess of nitrogen. However, PHBV contents of 38-64% were recorded under N limiting conditions along with N 2 O-REs of ≈57% and ≈84% in the ALR and BCR, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that P. denitrificans was dominant (>50%) after 6 months of experimentation. The successful abatement of N 2 O concomitant with PHBV accumulation confirmed the potential of integrating biorefinery concepts into biological gas treatment for a cost-effective GHG mitigation.

  12. Modeling the Heterogeneous Effects of GHG Mitigation Policies on Global Agriculture and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, A.; Henderson, B.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.; Sohngen, B.

    2010-12-01

    agriculture and timber products. We analyze regional changes in land use, output, competitiveness, and food consumption under climate change mitigation policy regimes which differ by participation/exclusion of agricultural sectors and non-Annex I countries, as well as policy instruments. While responsible for only a third of global GHG emissions, under the global carbon tax the land using sectors could contribute half of all economically efficient mitigation in the near term, at modest carbon prices. The imposition of a carbon tax in agriculture, however, has adverse effects on food consumption, especially in developing countries. These effects are much smaller if an agricultural producer subsidy is introduced to compensate for carbon tax the producers pay. The global forest carbon sequestration subsidy effectively controls emission leakage when the carbon tax is imposed only in Annex I regions, since the sequestration subsidy bids land away from agriculture in non-Annex I regions. Though the sequestration subsidy yields GHG abatement benefit, the policy may adversely affect food security and agricultural development in developing countries.

  13. IAEA Regional Workshop on Development and Validation of EOP/AMG for Effective Prevention/Mitigation of Severe Core Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Workshop contain 24 presented lectures. Authors deal with development and validation of emergency operating procedures as well as with accident management guidelines (EOP/AMG) for effective prevention and mitigation of severe core damage

  14. Mitigation Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  15. Submerged Macrophytes Mitigate Direct and Indirect Insecticide Effects in Freshwater Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R.; Relyea, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses) have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm) crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses) on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades). However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern. Our findings

  16. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Brogan

    Full Text Available Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades. However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern

  17. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses) have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm) crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses) on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades). However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern. Our findings

  18. Cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation by alternative household wastewater management technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Hawkins, Troy; Xue, Xiaobo; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Garland, Jay

    2015-03-01

    Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain uncertain. This paper addresses two key questions: (1) what are the total costs, nitrogen mitigation potential, and cost-effectiveness of a range of conventional and alternative municipal wastewater treatment technologies, and (2) what uncertainties influence these outcomes and how can we improve our understanding of these technologies? We estimate a household nitrogen mass balance for various household wastewater treatment systems and combine this mass balance with life cycle cost assessment to calculate the cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation, which we define as nitrogen removed from the local watershed. We apply our methods to Falmouth, MA, where failing septic systems have caused heightened eutrophication in local receiving water bodies. We find that flushing and dry (composting) urine-diversion toilets paired with conventional septic systems for greywater management demonstrate the lowest life cycle cost and highest cost-effectiveness (dollars per kilogram of nitrogen removed from the watershed). Composting toilets are also attractive options in some cases, particularly best-case nitrogen mitigation. Innovative/advanced septic systems designed for high-level nitrogen removal are cost-competitive options for newly constructed homes, except at their most expensive. A centralized wastewater treatment plant is the most expensive and least cost-effective option in all cases. Using a greywater recycling system with any treatment technology increases the cost without adding any nitrogen removal benefits. Sensitivity analysis shows that these results are robust considering a range of cases and uncertainties. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of water release as mitigation for hydroelectric impacts to fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, A.F.; Mitchell, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    Utility companies release water to mitigate the effects of hydroelectric projects on fish habitats. Utility companies, government agencies, and research communities in Canada, the US, Europe, New Zealand, and Australia were surveyed as part of a Canadian Electrical Association study to evaluate the effectiveness of water release as a mitigation. Respondents identified only 28 projects in which water was released specifically to protect fish habitats. Fewer than half of these projects (12) were judged as being effective. Six case histories with preimpact assessment and postimpact monitoring were reviewed. In four cases fish habitat or fish populations or both were maintained; in two cases they were not. The effectiveness of water release differed among rivers and fish species, and was greatest when designed to meet the habitat requirements of each life-history stage. A review of the literature did not support the theory that a particular fraction of the mean annual flow provides the bet fish habitat. Although smaller changes in the flow regime had smaller effects, increasing minimum flows above those historically observed did not necessarily increase fish production

  20. Mitigation Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

  1. 15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 970.506 Section... Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring an exploration license, the Administrator must find that... adverse effect on the quality of the environment, taking into account the analyses and information in any...

  2. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-01-01

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  3. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Robert M. Scheller

    2011-01-01

    We investigated questions about the ability of broad silvicultural strategies to achieve multiple objectives (reduce disturbance losses, maintain the abundance of preferred species, mitigate fragmentation and loss of age-class diversity, and sequester aboveground carbon) under future climate conditions in Siberia. We conducted a factorial experiment using the LANDIS-II...

  4. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m -2 yr -1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling climate change effects on Atlantic salmon: Implications for mitigation in regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundt-Hansen, L E; Hedger, R D; Ugedal, O; Diserud, O H; Finstad, A G; Sauterleute, J F; Tøfte, L; Alfredsen, K; Forseth, T

    2018-08-01

    Climate change is expected to alter future temperature and discharge regimes of rivers. These regimes have a strong influence on the life history of most aquatic river species, and are key variables controlling the growth and survival of Atlantic salmon. This study explores how the future abundance of Atlantic salmon may be influenced by climate-induced changes in water temperature and discharge in a regulated river, and investigates how negative impacts in the future can be mitigated by applying different regulated discharge regimes during critical periods for salmon survival. A spatially explicit individual-based model was used to predict juvenile Atlantic salmon population abundance in a regulated river under a range of future water temperature and discharge scenarios (derived from climate data predicted by the Hadley Centre's Global Climate Model (GCM) HadAm3H and the Max Plank Institute's GCM ECHAM4), which were then compared with populations predicted under control scenarios representing past conditions. Parr abundance decreased in all future scenarios compared to the control scenarios due to reduced wetted areas (with the effect depending on climate scenario, GCM, and GCM spatial domain). To examine the potential for mitigation of climate change-induced reductions in wetted area, simulations were run with specific minimum discharge regimes. An increase in abundance of both parr and smolt occurred with an increase in the limit of minimum permitted discharge for three of the four GCM/GCM spatial domains examined. This study shows that, in regulated rivers with upstream storage capacity, negative effects of climate change on Atlantic salmon populations can potentially be mitigated by release of water from reservoirs during critical periods for juvenile salmon. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of flood damage mitigation measures by the application of Propensity Score Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, P.G.M.B.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Kreibich, H.; Bubeck, P.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The employment of damage mitigation measures (DMMs) by individuals is an important component of integrated flood risk management. In order to promote efficient damage mitigation measures, accurate estimates of their damage mitigation potential are required. That is, for correctly assessing the

  7. Prosocial Behavior Mitigates the Negative Effects of Stress in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Laws, Holly B; Ansell, Emily B

    2016-07-01

    Recent theories of stress reactivity posit that, when stressed, individuals tend to seek out opportunities to affiliate with and nurture others in order to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of stress. However, few studies have tested empirically the role of prosocial behavior in reducing negative emotional responses to stress. The current analyses used daily diary data to investigate whether engaging in prosocial behavior buffered the negative effects of naturally-occurring stressors on emotional well-being. Results showed that on a given day, prosocial behavior moderated the effects of stress on positive affect, negative affect, and overall mental health. Findings suggest that affiliative behavior may be an important component of coping with stress, and indicate that engaging in prosocial behavior might be an effective strategy for reducing the impact of stress on emotional functioning.

  8. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  9. Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWolfe, V.G.; Santi, P.M.; Ey, J.; Gartner, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire, erosion control measures such as construction of check dams, installation of log erosion barriers (LEBs), and spreading of straw mulch and seed are common practice. After the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire in southwest Colorado, these measures were implemented at Knight Canyon above Lemon Dam to protect the intake structures of the dam from being filled with sediment. Hillslope erosion protection measures included LEBs at concentrations of 220-620/ha (200-600% of typical densities), straw mulch was hand spread at concentrations up to 5.6??metric tons/hectare (125% of typical densities), and seeds were hand spread at 67-84??kg/ha (150% of typical values). The mulch was carefully crimped into the soil to keep it in place. In addition, 13 check dams and 3 debris racks were installed in the main drainage channel of the basin. The technical literature shows that each mitigation method working alone, or improperly constructed or applied, was inconsistent in its ability to reduce erosion and sedimentation. At Lemon Dam, however, these methods were effective in virtually eliminating sedimentation into the reservoir, which can be attributed to a number of factors: the density of application of each mitigation method, the enhancement of methods working in concert, the quality of installation, and rehabilitation of mitigation features to extend their useful life. The check dams effectively trapped the sediment mobilized during rainstorms, and only a few cubic meters of debris traveled downchannel, where it was intercepted by debris racks. Using a debris volume-prediction model developed for use in burned basins in the Western U.S., recorded rainfall events following the Missionary Ridge Fire should have produced a debris flow of approximately 10,000??m3 at Knight Canyon. The mitigation measures, therefore, reduced the debris volume by several orders of magnitude. For comparison, rainstorm

  10. Jensen's Inequality Predicts Effects of Environmental Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan J. Ruel; Matthew P. Ayres

    1999-01-01

    Many biologists now recognize that environmental variance can exert important effects on patterns and processes in nature that are independent of average conditions. Jenson's inequality is a mathematical proof that is seldom mentioned in the ecological literature but which provides a powerful tool for predicting some direct effects of environmental variance in...

  11. Mitigation of multipath effect in GNSS short baseline positioning by the multipath hemispherical map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D.; Wang, M.; Chen, W.; Zeng, Z.; Song, L.; Zhang, Q.; Cai, M.; Cheng, Y.; Lv, J.

    2016-03-01

    Multipath is one major error source in high-accuracy GNSS positioning. Various hardware and software approaches are developed to mitigate the multipath effect. Among them the MHM (multipath hemispherical map) and sidereal filtering (SF)/advanced SF (ASF) approaches utilize the spatiotemporal repeatability of multipath effect under static environment, hence they can be implemented to generate multipath correction model for real-time GNSS data processing. We focus on the spatial-temporal repeatability-based MHM and SF/ASF approaches and compare their performances for multipath reduction. Comparisons indicate that both MHM and ASF approaches perform well with residual variance reduction (50 %) for short span (next 5 days) and maintains roughly 45 % reduction level for longer span (next 6-25 days). The ASF model is more suitable for high frequency multipath reduction, such as high-rate GNSS applications. The MHM model is easier to implement for real-time multipath mitigation when the overall multipath regime is medium to low frequency.

  12. Interrogation and mitigation of polarization effects for standard and birefringent FBGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Van Roosbroeck, Jan; O'Dowd, John A.; Van Hoe, Bram; Lindner, Eric; Vlekken, Johan; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-05-01

    Optical sensors based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are used in several applications and industries. Several inscription techniques and type of fibers can be used. However, depending on the writing process, type of fiber used and the packaging of the sensor a Polarization Dependent Frequency Shift (PDFS) can often be observed with polarized tunable laser based optical interrogators. Here we study the PDFS of the FBG peak for the different FBG types. A PDFS of 20pm was observed across the FBGs. To mitigate and reduce this effect we propose a polarization mitigation technique which relies on a synchronous polarization switch to reduce the effect typically by a factor greater than 4. In other scenarios the sensor itself is designed to be birefringent (Bi-FBG) to allow pressure and/or simultaneous temperature and strain measurements. Using the same polarization switch we demonstrate how we can interrogate the Bi-FBGs with high accuracy to enable high performance of such sensors to be achievable.

  13. Mitigation of ground motion effects in linear accelerators via feed-forward control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pfingstner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground motion is a severe problem for many particle accelerators, since it excites beam oscillations, which decrease the beam quality and create beam-beam offset (at colliders. Orbit feedback systems can only compensate ground motion effects at frequencies significantly smaller than the beam repetition rate. In linear colliders, where the repetition rate is low, additional counter measures have to be put in place. For this reason, a ground motion mitigation method based on feed-forward control is presented in this paper. It has several advantages compared to other techniques (stabilization systems and intratrain feedback systems such as cost reduction and potential performance improvement. An analytical model is presented that allows the derivation of hardware specification and performance estimates for a specific accelerator and ground motion model. At the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF2, ground motion sensors have been installed to verify the feasibility of important parts of the mitigation strategy. In experimental studies, it has been shown that beam excitations due to ground motion can be predicted from ground motion measurements on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Correlations of up to 80% between the estimated and measured orbit jitter have been observed. Additionally, an orbit jitter source was identified and has been removed, which halved the orbit jitter power at ATF2 and shows that the feed-forward scheme is also very useful for the detection of installation issues. We believe that the presented mitigation method has the potential to reduce costs and improve the performance of linear colliders and potentially other linear accelerators.

  14. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  15. Preirradiation of host (monkey) cells mitigates the effects of UV upon simian virus 40 DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaria, A.; Edenberg, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of preirradiation of host (monkey) cells upon the replication of UV-damaged SV40. Control cells and cells preirradiated with low fluences of UV were infected with undamaged SV40, and the immediate effects of a subsequent irradiation were determined. UV inhibited total SV40 DNA synthesis in both preirradiated and control cells, but the extent of inhibition was less in the preirradiated cells. A test fluence of 60 J/m 2 to SV40 replicating in preirradiated cells reduced synthesis only as much as a test fluence of 25 J/m 2 in control cells. The fraction of recently replicated SV40 molecules that re-entered the replication pool and subsequently completed one round of replication in the first 2 h after UV was also decreased less in the preirradiated cells. Thus preirradiation of the host cell mitigates the immediate inhibitory effects of a subsequent UV exposure upon SV40 replication. (Auth.)

  16. Use of cost-effective construction technologies in India to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, N. [Forum of Scientists, Engineers and Technologists, Kolkata (India)

    2008-01-10

    Concentration of greenhouse gases plays a major role in raising the earth's temperature. Carbon dioxide, produced from burning of fossil fuels, is the principle greenhouse gas and efforts are being made at international level to reduce its emission through adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1992 made a significant development in this field by initiating the discussion on sustainable development under the Agenda 21. Cost-effective construction technologies can bring down the embodied energy level associated with production of building materials by lowering use of energy-consuming materials. This embodied energy is a crucial factor for sustainable construction practices and effective reduction of the same would contribute in mitigating global warming. The cost-effective construction technologies would emerge as the most acceptable case of sustainable technologies in India both in terms of cost and environment.

  17. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.; Lu, Y. F.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0-10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm2. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  18. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F., E-mail: ylu2@unl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Jiang, L. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Silvain, J.-F. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB-CNRS) 87, Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France)

    2015-10-21

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm{sup 2}. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  19. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm 2 . The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films

  20. A T{sub N} adaptive ray effect mitigation for Styx 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aussourd, Ch. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2003-07-01

    Ray effect (RE) is a non-physical flaw of discrete ordinate methods characterized by spurious rays becoming sharper when small bright neutron sources radiate through low scattering media. While this effect has low impact on integral parameters ({alpha} and K{sub eff}), it can ruin simulations of diagnostic problem in terms of neutron dose received by a detector. 3 cumulative factors may affect the RE intensity: the source size, the scattering cross-sections, and the mesh size. We introduce an adaptive Ray Effect Mitigation (REM) aimed at locally improving the angular accuracy of the 3 dimension AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) deterministic neutron transport code Styx. Promising preliminary results have been obtained using a recursively refined octahedron based sphere tessellation in place of the standard S{sub N} quadrature. This angular mesh, referred to as T{sub N}, has valuable features for local refinement.

  1. Step and shoot IMRT to mobile targets and techniques to mitigate the interplay effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, Eric D; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate a method to mitigate temporal dose variation due to the interplay effect as well as investigate the effect of randomly varying motion patterns. The multi-leaf collimator (MLC) settings from 5, 9 and 11 field step and shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment plans with tumor motion of 1.53, 1.03 and 1.95 cm, respectively, were used. Static planar dose distributions were determined for each treatment field using the Planar Dose Module in the Pinnacle 3 treatment planning system. The MotionSIM XY/4D robotic diode array was used to recreate the tumor motion orthogonal to each treatment beam. Dose rate modulation was investigated as a method to mitigate temporal dose variation due to the interplay effect. Computer simulation was able to identify individual fields where interplay effects are greatest. Computer simulation and physical measurement have shown that temporal dose variation can be mitigated by the selection of the dose rate or by selective dose rate modulation within a given IMRT treatment field. Selective dose rate modulation within a given IMRT treatment field reduced temporal dose variation to levels comparable to whole field dose rate reduction, while also producing shorter radiation delivery times in six of the seven cases investigated. For the cases considered, the interplay effect did not appear to have a greater effect on hypofractionation compared to traditional fractionation even though fewer fractions were delivered. Randomized motion kernel variation was also considered. For this portion of the study, a nine field step and shoot IMRT configuration was considered with a 1.03 cm tumor motion rather than the five field case. In general, if the extent of the variant motion pattern was mostly contained within the target volume, limited impact on the temporal dose variation was observed. In cases where the variant motion kernels increasingly exceeded the

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of night warming on physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yajun; Wu, Songlin; Sun, Yuqing; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Caiyan; Lin, Ge; Chen, Baodong

    2015-02-01

    Elevated night temperature, one of the main climate warming scenarios, can have profound effects on plant growth and metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to the potential role of mycorrhizal associations in plant responses to night warming, although it is well known that symbiotic fungi can protect host plants against various environmental stresses. In the present study, physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L. in association with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis were investigated under simulated night warming. A constant increase in night temperature of 1.53 °C significantly reduced plant shoot and root biomass, flower and seed number, leaf sugar concentration, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. However, the AM association essentially mitigated these negative effects of night warming by improving plant growth, especially through increased root biomass, root to shoot ratio, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. A significant interaction was observed between R. irregularis inoculation and night warming in influencing both root sucrose concentration and expression of sucrose synthase (SusS) genes, suggesting that AM symbiosis and increased night temperature jointly regulated plant sugar metabolism. Night warming stimulated AM fungal colonization but did not influence arbuscule abundance, symbiosis-related plant or fungal gene expression, or growth of extraradical mycelium, indicating little effect of night warming on the development or functioning of AM symbiosis. These findings highlight the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis in assisting plant resilience to climate warming.

  3. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  4. Crosstalk effect and its mitigation in Aqua MODIS middle wave infrared bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wang, Menghua

    2017-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. A follow on MODIS was launched on an afternoon orbit in 2002 and is aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Both MODIS instruments are very akin, has 36 bands, among which bands 20 to 25 are Middle Wave Infrared (MWIR) bands covering a wavelength range from approximately 3.750 μm to 4.515 μm. It was found that there was severe contamination in these bands early in mission but the effect has not been characterized and mitigated at the time. The crosstalk effect induces strong striping in the Earth View (EV) images and causes significant retrieval errors in the EV Brightness Temperature (BT) in these bands. An algorithm using a linear approximation derived from on-orbit lunar observations has been developed to correct the crosstalk effect and successfully applied to mitigate the effect in both Terra and Aqua MODIS Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Photovoltaic (PV) bands. In this paper, the crosstalk effect in the Aqua MWIR bands is investigated and characterized by deriving the crosstalk coefficients using the scheduled Aqua MODIS lunar observations for the MWIR bands. It is shown that there are strong crosstalk contaminations among the five MWIR bands and they also have significant crosstalk contaminations from Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands. The crosstalk correction algorithm previously developed is applied to correct the crosstalk effect in these bands. It is demonstrated that the crosstalk correction successfully reduces the striping in the EV images and improves the accuracy of the EV BT in the five bands as was done similarly for LWIR PV bands. The crosstalk correction algorithm should thus be applied to improve both the image quality and radiometric accuracy of the Aqua MODIS MWIR bands Level 1B (L1B) products.

  5. Pesticide mixtures in the Swedish streams: Environmental risks, contributions of individual compounds and consequences of single-substance oriented risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Mikael; Kreuger, Jenny; Bundschuh, Mirco; Backhaus, Thomas

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents the ecotoxicological assessment and environmental risk evaluation of complex pesticide mixtures occurring in freshwater ecosystems in southern Sweden. The evaluation is based on exposure data collected between 2002 and 2013 by the Swedish pesticide monitoring program and includes 1308 individual samples, detecting mixtures of up to 53 pesticides (modal=8). Pesticide mixture risks were evaluated using three different scenarios for non-detects (best-case, worst-case and using the Kaplan-Meier method). The risk of each scenario was analyzed using Swedish Water Quality Objectives (WQO) and trophic-level specific environmental thresholds. Using the Kaplan-Meier method the environmental risk of 73% of the samples exceeded acceptable levels, based on an assessment using Concentration-Addition and WQOs for the individual pesticides. Algae were the most sensitive organism group. However, analytical detection limits, especially for insecticides, were insufficient to analyze concentrations at or near their WQO's. Thus, the risk of the analyzed pesticide mixtures to crustaceans and fish is systematically underestimated. Treating non-detects as being present at their individual limit of detection increased the estimated risk by a factor 100 or more, compared to the best-case or the Kaplan-Meier scenario. Pesticide mixture risks are often driven by only 1-3 compounds. However, the risk-drivers (i.e., individual pesticides explaining the largest share of potential effects) differ substantially between sites and samples, and 83 of the 141 monitored pesticides need to be included in the assessment to account for 95% of the risk at all sites and years. Single-substance oriented risk mitigation measures that would ensure that each individual pesticide is present at a maximum of 95% of its individual WQO, would also reduce the mixture risk, but only from a median risk quotient of 2.1 to a median risk quotient of 1.8. Also, acceptable total risk levels would still

  6. Environmental effects monitoring at Cat Arm Hydraulic Development, Newfoundland, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Cat Arm Dam is located on a plateau of the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's Great Northern Peninsula, and the 127 MW unit uses a 387 m head to produce an average of 676 GWh annually. Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro is conducting an environmental effects monitoring program in Cat Arm Reservoir to evaluate environmental impacts of the project. In the addendum to the Environmental Impact Statement of 1981, the utility agreed to a number of actions to mitigate the impacts of construction on fish populations, and to monitor the effects of reservoir creation, including the following. The mercury content of fish flesh, sediments and water would be monitored, and sampling would be undertaken prior to flooding to obtain baseline data, and for at least five years after flooding. The brook trout population would be monitored at various stages in the life of the reservoir in order to detect negative changes for which mitigative strategies could be applied. Alternative spawning habitat would be provided by removing barriers on streams or creating spawning beds if the monitoring program showed that recruitment was falling, and if these methods were ineffective, a compensatory stocking program would be considered. Extensive monitoring would be undertaken of the littoral zones, primary production in the reservoir, and of a number of limnological parameters to document long term changes in the reservoir. Although of academic interest, certain unusual characteristics of the Cat Arm reservoir, such as its low pH and dark colour, reduce its utility as a predictor of changes due to reservoir formation elsewhere in Newfoundland. 15 refs., 1 fig

  7. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM CONVENTIONAL SOURCES AND MEASURES TO MITIGATE THE PRODUCED IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL CALANTER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electricity sector represents the sector with the greatest impact in terms of producing climate change, mainly due to the greenhouse gas emissions generated through the burning of fossil fuels. It is not however the only negative aspect associated to the classic technologies of electricity production. This paper aims to assess the economic and environmental aspects associated to the technologies for the electricity production from conventional sources and as a conclusion of the research it will also propose certain specific measures designed to mitigate their impacts. Therefore, the analysis will focus on economic issues, such as limited resources of fuels and the significant fluctuation in fuel prices, low energy efficiency, environmental protection expenditures and health issues as a result of the pollution generated by the electricity production and environmental aspects related primarily to the burning of fossil fuels, but also to extraction, transport and storage, aspects concerning the management of waste generated by the energy sector or to the risks associated with the process of producing electricity. In the final part of the paper a few measures will be proposed to mitigate the impact on the environment and economic development of such technologies, as well as increasing energy efficiency, promoting renewable sources of energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, limiting deforestation, afforestation or the prevention of accidents in the energy sector.

  8. Does aerobic exercise mitigate the effects of cigarette smoking on arterial stiffness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wonil; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2014-09-01

    The largest percentage of mortality from tobacco smoking is cardiovascular-related. It is not known whether regular participation in exercise mitigates the adverse influence of smoking on vasculature. Accordingly, the authors determined whether regular aerobic exercise is associated with reduced arterial stiffness in men who smoke cigarettes. Using a cross-sectional study design, 78 young men were studied, including sedentary nonsmokers (n=20), sedentary smokers (n=12), physically active nonsmokers (n=21), and physically active smokers (n=25). Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). There were no group differences in height, body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As expected, both physically active groups demonstrated greater maximal oxygen consumption and lower heart rate at rest than their sedentary peers. The sedentary smokers demonstrated greater baPWV than the sedentary nonsmokers (11.8±1 m/s vs 10.6±1 m/s, P=.036). baPWV values were not different between the physically active nonsmokers and the physically active smokers (10.8±1 m/s vs 10.7±1 m/s). Chronic smoking is associated with arterial stiffening in sedentary men but a significant smoking-induced increase in arterial stiffness was not observed in physically active adults. These results are consistent with the idea that regular participation in physical activity may mitigate the adverse effects of smoking on the vasculature. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  10. Effect of soil biochar concentration on the mitigation of emerging organic contaminant uptake in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Cañameras, Núria; Domínguez, Carmen; Price, Gordon W; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2017-02-05

    Although crop uptake of emerging organic contaminants (EOC) from irrigation water and soils has been previously reported, successful mitigation strategies have not yet been established. In this study, soil was amended with a wood-based biochar (BC) at two rates (0, 2.5 and 5% w/w) to evaluate the effect on mitigation of EOC uptake (i.e. bisphenol A, caffeine, carbamazepine, clofibric acid, furosemide, ibuprofen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, triclosan, and tonalide) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). After 28 days of irrigation with water containing EOCs at 15μgL -1 , the average EOC concentration in roots and leaves decreased by 20-76% in biochar amended soil relative to non BC-amended soil. In addition, the enantiomeric fractions (EF) of ibuprofen (IBU) in biochar amended soils (EF=0.58) and unamended soils (EF=0.76) suggest that the IBU sorbed fraction in BC is more recalcitrant to its biodegradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Public Health Impacts of Heatwaves for Brookline, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh Fard, B.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Studies on urban areas show a significant increase in frequency and intensity of heatwaves over the past decades, and predict the same trend for future. Since heatwaves have been responsible for a large number of life losses, urgent adaptation and mitigation strategies are required in the policy and decision making level for a sustainable urban planning. The Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory at Northeastern University, under the aegis of Thriving Earth Exchange of AGU, is working with the town of Brookline to understand the potential public health impacts of anticipated heatwaves. We consider the most important social and physical factors to obtain vulnerability and exposure parameters for each census block group of the town. Utilizing remote sensing data, we locate Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) during a recent heatwave event, as the hazard parameter. We then create priority risk map using the risk framework. Our analyses show spatial correlations between the UHIs and social factors such as poverty, and physical factors such as land cover variations. Furthermore, we investigate the future heatwave frequency and intensity increases by analyzing the climate models predictions. For future changes of UHIs, land cover changes are investigated using available predictive data. Also, socioeconomic predictions are carried out to complete the futuristic models of heatwave risks. Considering plausible scenarios for Brookline, we develop different risk maps based on the vulnerability, exposure and hazard parameters. Eventually, we suggest guidelines for Heatwave Action Plans for prioritizing effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in urban planning for the town of Brookline.

  12. Solar Array Sails: Possible Space Plasma Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Willie R.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of the interactions between proposed "solar sail" propulsion systems with photovoltaic energy generation capabilities and the space plasma environments. Major areas of interactions ere: Acting from high voltage arrays, ram and wake effects, V and B current loops and EMI. Preliminary analysis indicates that arcing will be a major risk factor for voltages greater than 300V. Electron temperature enhancement in the wake will be produce noise that can be transmitted via the wake echo process. In addition, V and B induced potential will generate sheath voltages with potential tether like breakage effects in the thin film sails. Advocacy of further attention to these processes is emphasized so that plasma environmental mitigation will be instituted in photovoltaic sail design.

  13. An evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental policy in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Yacoub Shamaileh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the environmental policy in Jordan. The article reviews laws, measures, instruments and the implementation process and evaluates their effectiveness in banning, removing and/or reducing negative externalities in Jordan. Data was collected by administration of questionnaires distributed to all key enforcement officials working in the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, and Health. Additional sources were laws, regulations, official documents and reports issued by the government, international organizations, NGOs and media. The study shows that Jordan’s environmental policy relies solely on the command and control approach to mitigate negative externalities, while completely overlooking price-based and rights -based instruments. Such instruments are widely and increasingly employed in developed countries and have proved their efficiency and effectiveness in protecting the environment. The results of the study reveal that command and control measures are insufficient to achieve effective environmental policy and consequently are incapable of internalizing negative externalities in Jordan. The results may motivate government regulators to endorse price-based and rights-based measures, in addition to command and control measures.

  14. Coordination Polymer Modified Separator for Mitigating Polysulfide Shuttle Effect in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi

    2017-11-19

    The development of the new cathode and anode materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs) with high energy density and outstanding electrochemical performance is of substantial technological importance due to the ever-increasing demand for economic and efficient energy storage system. Because of the abundance of element sulfur and high theoretical energy density, Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries have become one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation energy storage system. However, the shuttling effect of electrolyte-soluble polysulfides severely impedes the cell performance and commercialization of Li-S batteries, and significant progress have been made to mitigate this shuttle effect in the past two decades. Coordination polymers (CPs) or Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) have been attracted much attention by virtue of their controllable porosity, nanometer cavity sizes and high surface areas, which supposed to be an available material in suppressing polysulfide migration. In this thesis, we investigate different mechanisms of mitigating polysulfide diffusion by applying a layer of MOFs (including Y-FTZB, ZIF-7, ZIF-8, and HKUST-1) on a separator. We also fabricate a new free-standing 2D coordination polymer Zn2(Benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 with rich hydroxyl (OH-) groups by using a simple, scalable and low cost method at air/water surface. Our results suggest that the chemical stability, the cluster morphology and the surface function groups of MOFs shows a greater impact on minimizing the shuttling effect in Li-S batteries, other than the internal cavity size in MOFs. Meanwhile, the new design of 2D coordination polymer efficiently mitigate the shuttling effect in Li-S battery resulting in a largely promotion of the battery capacity to 1407 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and excellent cycling performance (capacity retention of 98% after 200 cycles at 0.25C). Such excellent cell performance is mainly owing to the fancying physical and chemical structure controllability

  15. The mitigation effect of sheared axial flow on the rayleigh-taylor instability in Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang

    2005-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic formulation is derived to investigate the mitigation effects of the sheared axial flow on the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in Z-pinch plasma. The dispersion relation of the compressible model is given. The mitigation effects of sheared axial flow on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of Z-pinch plasma in the compressible and incompressible models are compared respectively, and the effect of compressible on the instability of system with sheared axial flow is discussed. It is found that, compressibility effects can stabilize the Rayleigh-Taylor/Kelvin-Helmholtz (RT/KH) instability, and this allows the sheared axial flow mitigate the RT instability far more effectively. The authors also find that, at the early stage of the implosion, if the temperature of the plasma is not very high, the compressible model is much more suitable to describing the state of system than the incompressible one. (author)

  16. Effectiveness of Different Urban Heat Island Mitigation Methods and Their Regional Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.

    2017-12-01

    Cool roofs and green roofs are two popular methods to mitigate urban heat island and improve urban climate. The effectiveness of different urban heat island mitigation strategies in the summer of 2013 in the Yangtze River Delta, China is investigated using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model coupled with a physically based urban canopy model. The modifications to the roof surface changed the urban surface radiation balance and then modified the local surface energy budget. Both cool roofs and green roofs led to lower surface skin temperature and near-surface air temperature. Increasing the roof albedo to 0.5 caused a similar effectiveness as covering 25% of urban roofs with vegetation; increasing roof albedo to 0.7 caused a similar near-surface air temperature decrease as 75% green roof coverage. The near-surface relative humidity increased in both cool roof and green roof experiments because of the combination of the impacts of increases in specific humidity and decreases in air temperature. The regional impacts of cool roofs and green roofs were evaluated using the regional effect index. The regional effect could be found in both near-surface air temperature and surface specific/relative humidity when the percentage of roofs covered with high albedo materials or green roofs reached a higher fraction (greater than 50%). The changes in the vertical profiles of temperature cause a more stable atmospheric boundary layer over the urban area; at the same time, the crossover phenomena occurred above the boundary layer due to the decrease in vertical wind speed.

  17. To mitigate or not to mitigate: Regulatory treatment of emissions trading and its effect on marketplace incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (hereafter CAAA) have created a market-based mechanism that is designed to employ a profit-oriented incentive to enable electric utilities to reduce SO 2 emissions at the least cost. One of the most important challenges facing state regulatory utility commissions in the next decade is the integration of this marker-based profit-incentive process into the traditional rate-base, rate-of-return, profit-control approach to regulation. How the struggle to meld two potentially contradictory control and incentive programs will be resolved remains to be seen. As of now, it is an open question. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify some of the issues that need to be addressed and to offer some policy recommendations that will allow regulators to employ the effectiveness of market forces while they still retain overall control of the evolution of the regulated electric supply market

  18. Development of a harmonized risk mitigation toolbox dedicated to environmental risks of pesticides in farmland in Europe: outcome of the MAgPIE workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix, A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk mitigation measures are a key component in designing conditions of use of pesticides in crop protection. A 2-step workshop was organized under the auspices of SETAC and the European Commission and gathered risk assessors and risk managers of 21 European countries, industry, academia and agronomical advisors/extension services, in order to provide European regulatory authorities with a toolbox of risk mitigation measures designed to reduce environmental risks of pesticides used in agriculture, and thus contribute to a better harmonization within Europe in the area. The workshop gathered an inventory of the risk mitigation tools for pesticides being implemented or in development in European countries. The inventory was discussed in order to identify the most promising tools for a harmonized toolbox in the European area. The discussions concerned the level of confidence in the technical data on which the tools identified rely, possible regulatory hurdles, expectations as regards the implementation of these tools by farmers and links with risk assessment. Finally, this workshop was a first step towards a network gathering all stakeholders, i.e. experts from national authorities, research sector, industry and farmers, to share information and further develop this toolbox. This paper presents an outline of the content of the toolbox with an emphasis on spray drift reducing techniques, in line with the discussions ongoing in the SPISE workshop.

  19. Risk management of energy system for identifying optimal power mix with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, S.; Li, Y.P.; Liu, J.; Huang, Charley Z.

    2017-01-01

    An interval-stochastic risk management (ISRM) method is launched to control the variability of the recourse cost as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The ISRM method can examine various policy scenarios that are associated with economic penalties under uncertainties presented as probability distributions and interval values. An ISRM model is then formulated to identify the optimal power mix for the Beijing's energy system. Tradeoffs between risk and cost are evaluated, indicating any change in targeted cost and risk level would yield different expected costs. Results reveal that the inherent uncertainty of system components and risk attitude of decision makers have significant effects on the city's energy-supply and electricity-generation schemes as well as system cost and probabilistic penalty. Results also disclose that import electricity as a recourse action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced. The import electricity would increase with a reduced risk level; under every risk level, more electricity would be imported with an increased demand. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired strategies for the city's energy planning and management in association with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation. - Highlights: • Interval-stochastic risk management method is launched to identify optimal power mix. • It is advantageous in capturing the notion of risk in stochastic programming. • Results reveal that risk attitudes can affect optimal power mix and financial cost. • Developing renewable energies would enhance the sustainability of energy management. • Import electricity as an action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced.

  20. Strategies to mitigate dissociative and psychotomimetic effects of ketamine in the treatment of major depressive episodes: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew D; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Cha, Danielle S; Lee, Yena; Kakar, Ron; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-09-01

    Objectives Replicated evidence has demonstrated that ketamine exerts rapid-acting and potent antidepressant effects. Notwithstanding, its promise to mitigate depressive symptoms and suicidality in antidepressant-resistant populations, several limitations and safety concerns accompany ketamine including, but not limited to, the potential for abuse and psychotomimetic/dissociative experiences. The focus of the current narrative review is to synthesise available evidence of strategies that may mitigate and fully prevent treatment-emergent psychotomimetic and dissociative effects associated with ketamine administration. Methods PubMed, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for relevant articles. Results Potential avenues investigated to minimise psychotomimetic effects associated with ketamine administration include the following: (1) altering dosing and infusion rates; (2) route of administration; (3) enantiomer choice; (4) co-administration with mood stabilisers of antipsychotics; and (5) use of alternative N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-modulating agents. Emerging evidence indicates that dissociative experiences can be significantly mitigated by using an intranasal route of administration, lower dosages, or use of alternative NMDA-modulating agents, namely lanicemine (AZD6765) and GLYX-13. Conclusions Currently, intranasal administration presents as the most promising strategy to mitigate dissociative and psychotomimetic effects; however, studies of strategies to mitigate the adverse events of ketamine are limited in number and quality and thus further investigation is still needed.

  1. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  2. Incentives for mitigation investment and more effective risk management: the need for public-private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunreuther, H

    2001-09-14

    A key question facing both well-developed industrial countries and emerging economies is how to reduce future disaster losses while still providing financial protection to victims from these events. This paper proposes a strategy for the use of cost-effective risk mitigation measures coupled with insurance and/or new capital market instruments to achieve these objectives. The mix of these measures will depend on the governance structure and the institutional arrangements in the particular country. There will always be a need for a combination of policy tools and the interaction among key interested parties from both the private and public sectors in developing a disaster management strategy. Two examples, one from US and the other from Honduras, illustrate differences between strategies that countries can adopt.

  3. What land covers are effective in mitigating a heat island in urban building rooftop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ryu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 20th century, due to the rapid urbanization many urban environment problems have got blossomed and above all heat island has been recognized as an important issue. There are several causes of urban heat island, but land cover change occupies the largest portion of them. Owing to urban expansion, vegetation is changed into asphalt pavements and concrete buildings, which reduces latent heat flux. To mitigate the problems, people enlarge vegetation covers such as planting street trees, making rooftop gardens and constructing parks or install white roofs that feature high albedo on a building. While the white roofs reflect about 70% of solar radiation and absorb less radiation, vegetation has low albedo but cools the air through transpiration and fixes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. There are some studies concerning which one is more effective to mitigate heat island between the green roof and white roof. This study compares the green roof and white roof and additionally considers carbon fixation that has not been treated in other studies. Furthermore, this study ascertains an efficiency of solar-cell panel that is used for building roof recently. The panel produces electric power but has low albedo which could warm the air. The experiment is conducted at the rooftop in Seoul, Korea and compares green roof (grass), white roof (painted cover), black roof (solar panel) and normal painted roof. Surface temperature and albedo are observed for the four roof types and incoming shortwave, outgoing longwave and carbon flux are measured in green roof solely. In the case of solar panels, the electricity generation is calculated from the incoming radiation. We compute global warming potentials for the four roof types and test which roof type is most effective in reducing global warming potential.

  4. Assessing and mitigating the effects of windblown soil on rare and common vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Sean M; Faucette, Dave T; Toyofuku, Mai M; Torres, Carlos A; Bagley, Calvin F

    2007-12-01

    Acting under the auspices of the US Endangered Species Act, we quantified wind erosion and its effects on rare and common plant species on a semi-arid military installation in Hawaii. Our goal was to develop management strategies, based on local data, to aid the conservation of rare and common indigenous plants and their habitats. We collected windblown soil coming off of roads and other disturbed soils to assess likely impacts to plants occurring at certain heights and distances from disturbed surfaces. We then subjected plants in a glasshouse to windblown dust treatments, designed from our field data to simulate erosion events, and evaluated the effect of these treatments on photosynthesis and survival. We also designed several field experiments to examine the in-situ effects of windblown soil and soil substrate on germination, growth rate, and survival of indigenous and nonindigenous plants. We conclude from these experiments that most direct effects of windblown soil to plants can be effectively mitigated by locating roads and training areas at least 40 m from sensitive plant habitats and through vegetation management to maintain at least 11% aerial cover on disturbed surfaces. Effects of soil type on germination, growth, and survival was species-specific, emphasizing the importance of species trials prior to, or during, rehabilitation efforts.

  5. Health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly reviews previous WHO work on the health consequences of nuclear war and concentrates on current information about the effects of nuclear weapons on health, and related environmental problems. 15 refs

  6. Nuclear energy: biological effects and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonefaes, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the large development of nuclear power plants and the recent nuclear catastrophe which has made clear how the hazards resulting from radioactivity affect public health and the environment. Environmental effects of nuclear power plants operating in normal conditions are small, but to obtain nuclear power plants of reduced radioactivity, optimization of their design, construction, operation and waste processing plays a decisive role. Biological effects of ionizing radiations and environmental impacts of Nuclear Power plants are developed [fr

  7. Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Jinlong; Long, Enshen [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Hokao, Kazunori [Department of Civil Engineering, Saga University, Saga, 840-8502 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The current efforts and technologies on energy efficiency seem unable to hold back the increasing momentum of the household energy consumption per unit of China, which has been on the increase since 2000. Usually, this phenomenon is simply attributed to the demand for more comfortable household lifestyle due to the current rapid economic development of China. However, the latent cause - rebound effect has long been ignored in the household energy efficiency of China, while it has been analyzed deeply and recognized widely all over the world. This article studies the rebound effect in the household energy efficiency of China and its related negative influence on the energy demand. A high rebound effect of at least 30% in the household energy efficiency of China is presumed by reference to the rebound effects of other countries. Finally, five feasible ways are summarized to mitigate the rebound effect and their values are analyzed respectively: (1) develop renewable energy resources, (2) increase energy prices, (3) improve energy efficiency, (4) build rational energy prices system, and (5) improve consumer behavior. (author)

  8. Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Jinlong; Long, Enshen; Hokao, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    The current efforts and technologies on energy efficiency seem unable to hold back the increasing momentum of the household energy consumption per unit of China, which has been on the increase since 2000. Usually, this phenomenon is simply attributed to the demand for more comfortable household lifestyle due to the current rapid economic development of China. However, the latent cause-rebound effect has long been ignored in the household energy efficiency of China, while it has been analyzed deeply and recognized widely all over the world. This article studies the rebound effect in the household energy efficiency of China and its related negative influence on the energy demand. A high rebound effect of at least 30% in the household energy efficiency of China is presumed by reference to the rebound effects of other countries. Finally, five feasible ways are summarized to mitigate the rebound effect and their values are analyzed respectively: (1) develop renewable energy resources, (2) increase energy prices, (3) improve energy efficiency, (4) build rational energy prices system, and (5) improve consumer behavior.

  9. Cost-effective strategy to mitigate transportation disruptions in supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertzeth, G.; Pujawan, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    Supply chain disruptions have gained significant attention by scholars. But, even though transportation plays a central role in supply chain, only few studies address transportation disruptions. This research demonstrates a real case of an order delivery process from a focal company (FC) to a single distributor, where transportation disruptions stochastically occurs. Considering the possibility of sales loss during the disruption duration, we proposed a redundant stock, flexible route, and combined flexibility-redundancy (ReFlex) as mitigation strategies and a base case as a risk acceptance strategy. The objective is to find out the best strategy that promotes cost-effectiveness against transportation disruptions. To fulfill this objective, we use simulation modeling and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) as our research method. We simulate the delivery process of 5 brands using each strategy to produce two different responses: loss of sales percentage and the incurred costs. Next, using these responses, we evaluate and compare the cost-effectiveness ratio of each strategy using CEA. We found that redundant stock gave the best effectiveness on all brands, ReFlex as the second best, while flexible route gave the least effectiveness. Finally, we recommend which strategy should be applied based on the decision maker willingness to pay.

  10. Large-scale assessment of flood risk and the effects of mitigation measures along the Elbe River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, Jean-Luc; Grossmann, M.

    2010-01-01

    The downstream effects of flood risk mitigation measures and the necessity to develop flood risk management strategies that are effective on a basin scale call for a flood risk assessment methodology that can be applied at the scale of a large river. We present an example of a rapid flood risk

  11. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the

  12. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  13. Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations

  14. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m −2 yr −1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. - Highlights: • Urban core is the hotspot of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. • Neglecting BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces leads to a 62% underestimation of the related health damage. • BVOCs contribute significantly to ozone pollution while make limited contribution to PM 2.5 pollution. • BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces will triple by 2050, and 61% of these emissions can be reduced through management. - Although BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces make limited contribution to regional emissions, their health impacts could be significant in urban areas.

  15. DAC to Mitigate the Effect of Periodic Disturbances on Drive Train using Collective Pitch for Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    scheme to mitigate the effect of 3p flicker on drive train. 5MW wind turbine of the National Renewable Laboratories (NREL) is used as research object and results are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. We designed the controller based on linearized model of the wind turbine generated for above rated wind speed...... and then tested its performance on the nonlinear model of wind turbine. We have shown a comparison of the results for proportional-integral(PI) and proposed DAC controller tested on nonlinear model of wind turbine. Result shows that our proposed controller shows better mitigation of flicker generated due to 3p......DAC is a linear control technique used to mitigate the effect of disturbance on the plant. It is a superposition of full state feedback and disturbance feedback. This paper presents a control technique based on Disturbance Accommodation Control (DAC) to reduce fatigue on drive train generated...

  16. Afforestation to mitigate climate change: impacts on food prices under consideration of albedo effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Humpenöder, Florian; Stevanović, Miodrag; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Kriegler, Elmar; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Ambitious climate targets, such as the 2 °C target, are likely to require the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Afforestation is one such mitigation option but could, through the competition for land, also lead to food prices hikes. In addition, afforestation often decreases land-surface albedo and the amount of short-wave radiation reflected back to space, which results in a warming effect. In particular in the boreal zone, such biophysical warming effects following from afforestation are estimated to offset the cooling effect from carbon sequestration. We assessed the food price response of afforestation, and considered the albedo effect with scenarios in which afforestation was restricted to certain latitudinal zones. In our study, afforestation was incentivized by a globally uniform reward for carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere. This resulted in large-scale afforestation (2580 Mha globally) and substantial carbon sequestration (860 GtCO2) up to the end of the century. However, it was also associated with an increase in food prices of about 80% by 2050 and a more than fourfold increase by 2100. When afforestation was restricted to the tropics the food price response was substantially reduced, while still almost 60% cumulative carbon sequestration was achieved. In the medium term, the increase in prices was then lower than the increase in income underlying our scenario projections. Moreover, our results indicate that more liberalised trade in agricultural commodities could buffer the food price increases following from afforestation in tropical regions.

  17. Is the deleterious effect of cryotherapy on proprioception mitigated by exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F; Moreira, S; Neto, J; Oliveira, J

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the acute effects of cryotherapy on knee position sense and to determine the time period necessary to normalize joint position sense when exercising after cryotherapy. 12 subjects visited the laboratory twice, once for cryotherapy followed by 30 min of exercise on a cycloergometer and once for cryotherapy followed by 30 min of rest. Sessions were randomly determined and separated by 48 h. Cryotherapy was applied in the form of ice bag, filled with 1 kg of crushed ice, for 20 min. Knee position sense was measured at baseline, after cryotherapy and every 5 min after cryotherapy removal until a total of 30 min. The main effect of cryotherapy was significant showing an increase in absolute (F7,154=43.76, pcryotherapy. The intervention after cryotherapy (rest vs. exercise) revealed a significant main effect only for absolute error (F7,154=4.05, pcryotherapy, the proprioceptive acuity reached the baseline values faster (10 min vs. 15 min). Our results indicated that the deleterious effect of cryotherapy on proprioception is mitigated by low intensity exercise, being the time necessary to normalize knee position sense reduced from 15 to 10 min. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Estradiol Therapy After Menopause Mitigates Effects of Stress on Cortisol and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alexandra Ycaza; Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Mather, Mara

    2017-12-01

    Postmenopausal estradiol therapy (ET) can reduce the stress response. However, it remains unclear whether such reductions can mitigate effects of stress on cognition. Investigate effects of ET on cortisol response to a physical stressor, cold pressor test (CPT), and whether ET attenuates stress effects on working memory. Women completed the CPT or control condition across two sessions and subsequently completed a sentence span task. General community: Participants were recruited from the Early vs Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE). ELITE participants (mean age = 66, standard deviation age = 6.8) in this study did not suffer from any major chronic illness or use medications known to affect the stress response or cognition. Participants had received a median of randomized 4.7 years of estradiol (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) treatment at time of participation in this study. Salivary cortisol and sentence span task performance. Women assigned to estradiol exhibited blunted cortisol responses to CPT compared with placebo (P = 0.017) and lesser negative effects of stress on working memory (P = 0.048). We present evidence suggesting ET may protect certain types of cognition in the presence of stress. Such estrogenic protection against stress hormone exposure may prove beneficial to both cognition and the neural circuitry that maintains and propagates cognitive faculties. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  19. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (∼$4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (∼$7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO 2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices. (letter)

  20. Experiment in democracy: The citizen oversight council as a means of mitigating environmental impacts of terminal and tanker operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, P.; Sterling, S.; Gottehrer, S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, a handful of people from the small fishing community of Cordova, Alaska, coalesced around concern over the risks of oil-related pollution and oil spills in Prince William Sound posed by the trans-Alaska pipeline terminal and tanker operations in neighboring Valdez. The Cordova group sent an emissary to Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which operates the Valdez Marine Terminal on behalf of its seven oil company owners. The emissary asked Alyeska to consider forming a citizen group to advise Alyeska on environmental issues of local or regional concern. Alyeska listened but rejected the idea. In March 1989, the Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef. Alyeska's owners, acting principally at the behest of majority owner, British Petroleum, soon effected sweeping change in Alyeska's management. The change in management, with Jim Hermiller as president, produced a change in Alyeska's attitude toward the citizen advisory group proposal, and not long afterward Alyeska formed the Alyeska Citizen Advisory Committee. Over the next year that group evolved into what is now called the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, or RCAC. The Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council is a national experiment in providing citizens a voice in corporate decisions that affect them and their communities. This paper recounts the story of RCAC's formation and evolution, the group's mission under both federal law and its contract with Alyeska, and the hallmarks of its achievements and challenges to date

  1. Environmental Effects Of Ecotourism In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Butarbutar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecotourism is global issues who most talked lately in Indonesia, it is one of the activities special tourist interest which low impacts on natural tourism.The presence of ecotourism in the era of sustainable and tourism development mission should be minimum negative impacts, both on the environment resources and on socio-cultural local values.  Ecotourism activities were more oriented on the utilization of natural resources, the natural ecosystems and have not been polluted yet.  However, when all of tourism development can not be separated from the negative impacts, such as ecosystem distress in ecotourism object when visited by large number of tourists, there are many conflicts of interest between the ecotourism management with local communities, especially regarding the benefits sharing and its accessibilities.  The purpose of this paper is to identify the environmental impacts arising as a result of ecotourism activities and to find out alternative efforts in mitigating the environmental impact of ecotourism activities. Carrying capacity of ecotourism is not just limited to the number of visits, but also covers other aspects, such as: (1 ecological capacity that is ability of natural environment in providing the needs of tourists, (2 physical capacity, that is ability of facilities and infrastructure in providing the needs of tourists,  (3 social capacity, that is ability to absorb tourism activities without the negative impacts on the local communities, (4 the economic capacity, that is ability to absorb destination commercial efforts and accommodateany interests of the local economy. Keywords: Ecotourism, environmental impacts, carrying capacity.

  2. Interventions to mitigate the effects of poverty and inequality on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Cresswell-Smith, Johanna; Haaramo, Peija; Parkkonen, Johannes

    2017-05-01

    To review psychosocial and policy interventions which mitigate the effects of poverty and inequality on mental health. Systematic reviews, controlled trials and realist evaluations of the last 10 years are reviewed, without age or geographical restrictions. Effective psychosocial interventions on individual and family level, such as parenting support programmes, exist. The evidence for mental health impact of broader community-based interventions, e.g. community outreach workers, or service-based interventions, e.g. social prescribing and debt advice is scarce. Likewise, the availability of evidence for the mental health impact of policy level interventions, such as poverty alleviation or youth guarantee, is quite restricted. The social, economic, and physical environments in which people live shape mental health and many common mental disorders. There are effective early interventions to promote mental health in vulnerable groups, but it is necessary to both initiate and facilitate a cross-sectoral approach, and to form partnerships between different government departments, civic society organisations and other stakeholders. This approach is referred to as Mental Health in All Policies and it can be applied to all public policy levels from local policies to supranational.

  3. Effects of decarbonising international shipping and aviation on climate mitigation and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessens, Olivier; Anger, Annela; Barker, Terry; Pyle, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A global emissions trading scheme is applied to international aviation and shipping. • We couple an energy–environment–economy model with an atmospheric model. • 65% reduction on CO 2 emissions in 2050 reduces other pollutants emissions. • Climate effects are reduced and air quality is improved by the scheme. - Abstract: This paper assesses the effects of a global emissions trading scheme (GETS) for international aviation and shipping as a way of reducing emissions of both greenhouse gases (GHG) and other atmospheric emissions that lead to air pollution. A prior assessment of such integration requires the coupling of energy–environment–economy (E3) global modelling of mitigation policies with the atmospheric modelling of pollution sources, mixing and deposition. We report the methodology and results of coupling of the E3MG model and the global atmospheric model, p-TOMCAT. We assess the effects of GETS on the concentrations of atmospheric gases and on the radiative forcing, comparing a GETS scenario to a reference BASE scenario with higher use of fossil fuels. The paper assesses the outcome of GETS for atmospheric composition and radiative forcing for 2050. GETS on international shipping and aviation reduces their CO 2 and non-CO 2 emissions up to 65%. As a consequence atmospheric concentrations are modified and the radiative forcing due to international transport is reduced by different amounts as a function of the pollutant studied (15% for CO 2 , 35% for methane and up to 50% for ozone)

  4. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  5. Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI): risk mitigation or trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch

    2009-01-01

    nanoparticles, in part due to extensive and fundamental uncertainties. These data may provide a starting point to more thoroughly investigate the potential risks of nZVI and ultimately help scientists, engineers, and decision makers make better informed decisions regarding the use of nZVI for environmental...... dimensions. While the use and further development of nZVI is understandably heralded as an environmentally-beneficial technology, the potentials risks of introducing these nanoparticles into the environment also needs to be considered. To date most research has focused on the potential benefits of n...... of substantial concentrations. In this study, we provide a brief synopsis of the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of nZVI, particularly focusing on its environmental fate and behavior and potential role as contaminant carrier. These are some areas of primary concern for risk assessors...

  6. Distributional Effects of Environmental Taxes in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Poltimäe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the distributional effects of Estonian environmental taxes in 2000-2007 and recent reforms in 2008 using Estonian Household Budget Survey data and a microsimulation model. The results show that the share of environmental taxes in consumption expenditures is about 1-1.5%. Environmental taxes in 2000- 2007 were progressive due to the progressivity of motor fuel excises, which was the largest component of the environmental taxes until 2007. Since 2008, the taxes are less progressive, because of the new electricity excise and increased taxes on gas and other inputs used for distance domestic heating. To minimize the disproportionate effect of future ecological tax reform on low-income households, close monitoring of tax developments is required and necessary compensatory policies need to be implemented

  7. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvesen, Anders, E-mail: anders.arvesen@ntnu.no [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: > We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. > Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. > Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  8. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvesen, Anders; Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: → We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. → Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. → Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  9. Community Environmental Education as a Model for Effective Environmental Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Morag

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of community environmental education outlined in environmental education literature are supported by the findings and implications of a research study undertaken in New Zealand. Evidence from a two-case case study suggests that environmental programmes guided by the key principles and practices of community environmental education,…

  10. Elevated CO2 did not mitigate the effect of a short-term drought on biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Phillips, Susan L.; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are critical components of arid and semi-arid ecosystems that contribute significantly to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fixation, water retention, soil stability, and seedling recruitment. While dry-land ecosystems face a number of environmental changes, our understanding of how biocrusts may respond to such perturbation remains notably poor. To determine the effect that elevated CO2 may have on biocrust composition, cover, and function, we measured percent soil surface cover, effective quantum yield, and pigment concentrations of naturally occurring biocrusts growing in ambient and elevated CO2 at the desert study site in Nevada, USA, from spring 2005 through spring 2007. During the experiment, a year-long drought allowed us to explore the interacting effects that elevated CO2 and water availability may have on biocrust cover and function. We found that, regardless of CO2 treatment, precipitation was the major regulator of biocrust cover. Drought reduced moss and lichen cover to near-zero in both ambient and elevated CO2 plots, suggesting that elevated CO2 did not alleviate water stress or increase C fixation to levels sufficient to mitigate drought-induced reduction in cover. In line with this result, lichen quantum yield and soil cyanobacteria pigment concentrations appeared more strongly dependent upon recent precipitation than CO2 treatment, although we did find evidence that, when hydrated, elevated CO2 increased lichen C fixation potential. Thus, an increase in atmospheric CO2 may only benefit biocrusts if overall climate patterns shift to create a wetter soil environment.

  11. Environmental Effect on Egress Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Giese, Andrew; Amato, Nancy M.; Zarrinmehr, Saied; Al-Douri, Firas; Clayton, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Evacuation and egress simulations can be a useful tool for studying the effect of design decisions on the flow of agent movement. This type of simulation can be used to determine before hand the effect of design decisions and enable exploration of potential improvements. In this work, we study at how agent egress is affected by the environment in real world and large scale virtual environments and investigate metrics to analyze the flow. Our work differs from many evacuation systems in that we support grouping restrictions between agents (e.g., families or other social groups traveling together), and model scenarios with multiple modes of transportation with physically realistic dynamics (e.g., individuals walk from a building to their own cars and leave only when all people in the group arrive).

  12. Environmental dosimetry and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specific assessment of the potential effects on wild organisms of increased radiation exposure arising from the authorized disposal of radioactive wastes to the environment requires two interrelated sets of information. First, an estimate is required of the incremental radiation exposure; and second, dose rate-response relationships are necessary to predict the potential impact of the estimated incremental exposure. Each of these aspects will be discussed in detail. (author)

  13. The effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies without compromising yield by early-season drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Syed Faiz-Ul; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation...... only. A combination of (short or long) ED drainage and one MD drainage episode was found to be the most effective in mitigating CH4 emissions without negatively affecting yield. In particular, compared with CF, the long early-season drainage treatments LE+SM and LE+LM significantly (p

  14. Modeling skin temperature to assess the effect of air velocity to mitigate heat stress among growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Pedersen, Poul; Morsing, Svend

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that increased air velocity can help to mitigate heat stress in livestock housing, however, it is not fully clear how much it helps and significant uncertainties exists when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. This study aims to develop a skin...... temperature model to generated data for determining the potential effect of air velocity to mitigate heat stress among growing pigs housed in warm environment. The model calculates the skin temperature as function of body temperature, air temperature and the resistances for heat transfer from the body...

  15. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs

  16. Equal Graph Partitioning on Estimated Infection Network as an Effective Epidemic Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2011-01-01

    Controlling severe outbreaks remains the most important problem in infectious disease area. With time, this problem will only become more severe as population density in urban centers grows. Social interactions play a very important role in determining how infectious diseases spread, and organization of people along social lines gives rise to non-spatial networks in which the infections spread. Infection networks are different for diseases with different transmission modes, but are likely to be identical or highly similar for diseases that spread the same way. Hence, infection networks estimated from common infections can be useful to contain epidemics of a more severe disease with the same transmission mode. Here we present a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the effectiveness of epidemic mitigation based on such estimated infection networks. We first generate artificial social networks of different sizes and average degrees, but with roughly the same clustering characteristic. We then start SIR epidemics on these networks, censor the simulated incidences, and use them to reconstruct the infection network. We then efficiently fragment the estimated network by removing the smallest number of nodes identified by a graph partitioning algorithm. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this targeted strategy, by comparing it against traditional untargeted strategies, in slowing down and reducing the size of advancing epidemics. PMID:21799777

  17. Mitigation of sensitisation effects in unstabilised 12%Cr ferritic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmelo, Martin van; Nolan, David; Norrish, John

    2007-01-01

    Sensitisation in the heat-affected zones of ferritic stainless steel welds is typically prevented by stabilisation of the parent material with titanium or niobium, and suitable design of the overall composition to produce a suitably high ferrite factor. However, such alloy modification has proven to be economically unviable for thick gauge (>10 mm) plate products and therefore unstabilised 12%Cr (3CR12) material is still currently being used for heavy gauge structural applications in many parts of the world. The aim of the current work was to review the mechanisms responsible for sensitisation in these unstabilised ferritic stainless steels, and to characterise the sensitisation effects arising from multipass welding procedures. The objective was to determine the influence of welding parameters, and thereby to recommend mitigating strategies. Two particular sensitisation modes were found to occur in the current work, although only one was predominant and considered problematic from a practical perspective. It was found that with proper positioning of weld capping runs and control of weld overlap, it is possible to ensure that sensitising isotherms remain buried beneath the parent surface, and so reduce harmful corrosion effects

  18. Effect of L-asparaginase on acrylamide mitigation in a fried-dough pastry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukurová, Kristína; Morales, Francisco J; Bednáriková, Alena; Ciesarová, Zuzana

    2009-12-01

    A dough resembling traditional Spanish rosquillas was used as a model to represent classical fried-dough pastry to investigate the effects of asparaginase and heat treatment on amino acid levels and acrylamide mitigation. Wheat-based dough was deep fried at 180 and 200 degrees C for 4, 6, and 8 min. Two recipes were formulated by addition of different asparaginase levels (100 and 500 U/kg flour) to the dough. The temperature/time profile of the frying process, moisture, sugars, amino acids, acrylamide, and some indicators of the Maillard reaction (hydroxymethylfurfural, color, free fluorescence compounds, and browning) were determined to investigate the extent of the reaction and the effect on reactants. At the both levels of asparaginase used, 96-97% of the asparagine present was converted to aspartic acid, and consequently the acrylamide level was very efficiently reduced (up to 90%). The asparaginase also affected the content of glutamine and glutamic acid in dough, resulting in a 37% increase in glutamic acid compared with the untreated sample. Concerning color, browning and Maillard reaction parameters, no significant changes between untreated and enzymatically treated samples were observed, pointing out the potential industrial and domestic enzyme application.

  19. Soil components mitigate the antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles towards a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calder, Alyssa J. [Department of Biological Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Dimkpa, Christian O. [Department of Biological Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); McLean, Joan E. [Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Britt, David W. [Department of Biological Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Johnson, William [Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Anderson, Anne J., E-mail: anne.anderson@usu.edu [Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used for their antimicrobial activity and consequently the particles will become environmental contaminants. This study evaluated in sand and soil matrices the toxicity of 10 nm spherical Ag NPs (1 and 3 mg Ag/L) toward a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. In sand, both NP doses resulted in loss in bacterial culturability whereas in a loam soil, no cell death was observed. Amendments of sand with clays (30% v/v kaolinite or bentonite) did not protect the bacterium when challenged with Ag NPs. However, culturability of the bacterium was maintained when the Ag NP-amended sand was mixed with soil pore water or humic acid. Imaging by atomic force microscopy revealed aggregation of single nanoparticles in water, and their embedding into background material when suspended in pore water and humic acids. Zeta potential measurements supported aggregation and surface charge modifications with pore water and humic acids. Measurement of soluble Ag in the microcosms and geochemical modeling to deduce the free ion concentration revealed bacterial culturability was governed by the predicted free Ag ion concentrations. Our study confirmed the importance of Ag NPs as a source of ions and illustrated that processes accounting for protection in soil against Ag NPs involved distinct NP- and ion-effects. Processes affecting NP bioactivity involved surface charge changes due to sorption of Ca{sup 2+} from the pore water leading to agglomeration and coating of the NPs with humic acid and other organic materials. Removal of bioactive ions included the formation of soluble Ag complexes with dissolved organic carbon and precipitation of Ag ions with chloride in pore water. We conclude that mitigation of toxicity of Ag NPs in soils towards a soil bacterium resides in several interactions that differentially involve protection from the Ag NPs or the ions they produce. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver nanoparticles

  20. Soil components mitigate the antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles towards a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, Alyssa J.; Dimkpa, Christian O.; McLean, Joan E.; Britt, David W.; Johnson, William; Anderson, Anne J.

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used for their antimicrobial activity and consequently the particles will become environmental contaminants. This study evaluated in sand and soil matrices the toxicity of 10 nm spherical Ag NPs (1 and 3 mg Ag/L) toward a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. In sand, both NP doses resulted in loss in bacterial culturability whereas in a loam soil, no cell death was observed. Amendments of sand with clays (30% v/v kaolinite or bentonite) did not protect the bacterium when challenged with Ag NPs. However, culturability of the bacterium was maintained when the Ag NP-amended sand was mixed with soil pore water or humic acid. Imaging by atomic force microscopy revealed aggregation of single nanoparticles in water, and their embedding into background material when suspended in pore water and humic acids. Zeta potential measurements supported aggregation and surface charge modifications with pore water and humic acids. Measurement of soluble Ag in the microcosms and geochemical modeling to deduce the free ion concentration revealed bacterial culturability was governed by the predicted free Ag ion concentrations. Our study confirmed the importance of Ag NPs as a source of ions and illustrated that processes accounting for protection in soil against Ag NPs involved distinct NP- and ion-effects. Processes affecting NP bioactivity involved surface charge changes due to sorption of Ca 2+ from the pore water leading to agglomeration and coating of the NPs with humic acid and other organic materials. Removal of bioactive ions included the formation of soluble Ag complexes with dissolved organic carbon and precipitation of Ag ions with chloride in pore water. We conclude that mitigation of toxicity of Ag NPs in soils towards a soil bacterium resides in several interactions that differentially involve protection from the Ag NPs or the ions they produce. - Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used for

  1. Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Columbia River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.T.; Wood, A.W.; Hamlet, A.F.; Palmer, R.N.; Lettenmaier, D.P. [Department of Civil Engineering, 164 Wilcox Hall, P.O. Box 352700, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2700 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Columbia River Basin (CRB) were evaluated using simulations from the U.S. Department of Energy and National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (DOE/NCAR PCM). This study focuses on three climate projections for the 21st century based on a 'business as usual' (BAU) global emissions scenario, evaluated with respect to a control climate scenario based on static 1995 emissions. Time-varying monthly PCM temperature and precipitation changes were statistically downscaled and temporally disaggregated to produce daily forcings that drove a macro-scale hydrologic simulation model of the Columbia River basin at 1/4-degree spatial resolution. For comparison with the direct statistical downscaling approach, a dynamical downscaling approach using a regional climate model (RCM) was also used to derive hydrologic model forcings for 20-year subsets from the PCM control climate (1995-2015) scenario and from the three BAU climate (2040-2060) projections. The statistically downscaled PCM scenario results were assessed for three analysis periods (denoted Periods 1-3: 2010-2039, 2040-2069, 2070-2098) in which changes in annual average temperature were +0.5, +1.3 and +2.1C, respectively, while critical winter season precipitation changes were -3, +5 and +1 percent. For RCM, the predicted temperature change for the 2040-2060 period was +1.2C and the average winter precipitation change was -3 percent, relative to the RCM control climate. Due to the modest changes in winter precipitation, temperature changes dominated the simulated hydrologic effects by reducing winter snow accumulation, thus shifting summer streamflow to the winter. The hydrologic changes caused increased competition for reservoir storage between firm hydropower and instream flow targets developed pursuant to the Endangered Species Act listing of Columbia River salmonids. We examined several alternative

  2. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources

  3. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  4. Mitigating the effects of in-vehicle distractions through use of the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Daryl L; Jamson, Samantha L; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2013-01-01

    Modern driving involves frequent and potentially detrimental interactions with distracting in-vehicle tasks. Distraction has been shown to slow brake reaction time and decrease lateral and longitudinal vehicle control. It is likely that these negative effects will become more prevalent in the future as advances are made in the functionality, availability, and number of in-vehicle systems. This paper addresses this problem by considering ways to manage in-vehicle task presentation to mitigate their distracting effects. A driving simulator experiment using 48 participants was performed to investigate the existence of the Psychological Refractory Period in the driving context and its effect on braking performance. Drivers were exposed to lead vehicle braking events in isolation (single-task) and with a preceding surrogate in-vehicle task (dual-task). In dual-task scenarios, the time interval between the in-vehicle and braking tasks was manipulated. Brake reaction time increased when drivers were distracted. The in-vehicle task interfered with the performance of the braking task in a manner that was dependent on the interval between the two tasks, with slower reactions following a shorter inter-task interval. This is the Psychological Refractory Period effect. These results have implications for driver safety during in-vehicle distraction. The findings are used to develop recommendations regarding the timing of in-vehicle task presentation so as to reduce their potentially damaging effects on braking performance. In future, these guidelines could be incorporated into a driver workload management system to minimise the opportunity for a driver to be distracted from the ongoing driving task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The social dilemma structure of climate change mitigation: individual responses and effects on action

    OpenAIRE

    Bӧgelein, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Climate change mitigation constitutes a social dilemma, a conflict between personal and collective outcomes. Behaviours that result in personal benefits (e.g. travelling quickly, conveniently and cheaply by plane) also result in a collective cost in the form of climate change. Behavioural theories and evidence suggest this social dilemma structure significantly influences behaviour. This thesis aims to understand how the social dilemma structure of climate change mitigation affect...

  6. Environmental effects of cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1974 Thermal Discharges at Nuclear Power Stations (Technical Reports Series No.155), much progress has been made in the understanding of phenomena related to thermal discharges. Many studies have been performed in Member States and from 1973 to 1978 the IAEA sponsored a co-ordinated research programme on 'Physical and Biological Effects on the Environment of Cooling Systems and Thermal Discharges from Nuclear Power Stations'. Seven laboratories from Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, India and the United States of America were involved in this programme, and a lot of new information has been obtained during the five years' collaboration. The progress of the work was discussed at annual co-ordination meetings and the results are presented in the present report. It complements the previous report mentioned above as it deals with several questions that were not answered in 1974. With the conclusion of this co-ordinated programme, it is obvious that some problems have not yet been resolved and that more work is necessary to assess completely the impact of cooling systems on the environment. It is felt, however, that the data gathered here will bring a substantial contribution to the understanding of the subject

  7. Effects of intake interruptions on dune infiltration systems in the Netherlands, their quantification and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J; van der Schans, Martin L

    2018-07-15

    In the coastal dunes of the Western Netherlands, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is applied for drinking water supply since 1957. The MAR systems belong to the Aquifer Transfer Recovery (ATR) type, because recharge and recovery are operated without interruption. This makes these systems very vulnerable to intake interruptions, which are expected to increase in frequency and duration due to climate change. Such interruptions are problematic, because: (i) groundwater recovery from dunes needs to continue to supply fresh drinking water to the Western Netherlands; (ii) risks of salt water intrusion are high, and (iii) MAR bordering wet dune slacks with an EU Natura 2000 status cannot survive for long without MAR. In this paper, effects of intake stops are discussed and quantified. The hydrological effects consist of the decline of water tables, disappearance of flow-through dune lakes, reservoir depletion, salt water intrusion, disruption of rainwater lenses, and entrapped air hampering a rapid refill of the groundwater reservoir. Water quality effects include changes in (i) redox environment of the flushed aquifer, impacting the behavior of nutrients, calcium, sulfate and organic micro-pollutants, and (ii) the mixing ratio of water types. The main ecological impacts comprise the dying of organisms in recharge ponds and dune lakes, and a decline of biodiversity. Effects of very long intake interruptions (years) are predicted via historical observations during the long overexploitation period (1900-1957) prior to MAR. A closed form analytical solution for safe yield of a semiconfined aquifer is proposed, together with a related upconing risk index. Both also apply to the pumping from any fresh water lens without MAR. Some mitigation strategies are discussed, such as a dual intake, raising the storage capacity, earlier mud removal, and accelerated refilling of the reservoir. A magnitude scale for intake stops (MIS) is proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Moderate Exercise Mitigates the Detrimental Effects of Aging on Tendon Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C

    2015-01-01

    Aging is known to cause tendon degeneration whereas moderate exercise imparts beneficial effects on tendons. Since stem cells play a vital role in maintaining tissue integrity, in this study we aimed to define the effects of aging and moderate exercise on tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) using in vitro and in vivo models. TSCs derived from aging mice (9 and 24 months) proliferated significantly slower than TSCs obtained from young mice (2.5 and 5 months). In addition, expression of the stem cell markers Oct-4, nucleostemin (NS), Sca-1 and SSEA-1 in TSCs decreased in an age-dependent manner. Interestingly, moderate mechanical stretching (4%) of aging TSCs in vitro significantly increased the expression of the stem cell marker, NS, but 8% stretching decreased NS expression. Similarly, 4% mechanical stretching increased the expression of Nanog, another stem cell marker, and the tenocyte-related genes, collagen I and tenomodulin. However, 8% stretching increased expression of the non-tenocyte-related genes, LPL, Sox-9 and Runx-2, while 4% stretching had minimal effects on the expression of these genes. In the in vivo study, moderate treadmill running (MTR) of aging mice (9 months) resulted in the increased proliferation rate of aging TSCs in culture, decreased lipid deposition, proteoglycan accumulation and calcification, and increased the expression of NS in the patellar tendons. These findings indicate that while aging impairs the proliferative ability of TSCs and reduces their stemness, moderate exercise can mitigate the deleterious effects of aging on TSCs and therefore may be responsible for decreased aging-induced tendon degeneration.

  9. Groundwater Engineering in an Environmentally Sensitive Urban Area: Assessment, Landuse Change/Infrastructure Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Yihdego

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A rise in the shallow unconfined groundwater at a site in Australia is causing water logging of the underground facility in the affected area. Realizing this problem, a study was conducted to identify the source of water that is causing the rise and to develop an implementation and operation plan of the mitigation (dewatering system. Modelling was undertaken using MODFLOW-SURFACT code, within the framework of Visual MODFLOW, to assess the spatial and temporal groundwater level at the site. The study undertaken incorporates compilation and assessment of available data, including a list of factual information reviewed, development of a conceptual groundwater model for the site and modelling of the pre and post development conditions. The outcomes of the assessment indicate water level rises due to the construction of the embankment are likely less than 0.12 m and changes in land, such as affected area burial, may change aquifer characteristics more significantly than the embankment. It is concluded that the elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are most likely a result of above average rainfall since 2007 and long term cumulative land use changes. The embankment construction is just one of many land use changes that have occurred both within and surrounding the affected area and likely only a minor contributor to the elevated water levels. Greater contribution may be attributed to re-direction of the natural flow paths the railway culvert weir reducing the overland flow gradient and ongoing changes (burial within the affected area and including the embankment. The model findings gives answers on what factors may be/are causing/contributing to, the higher than usual groundwater levels in the study area. A combination of drainage and/or pumping (dewatering system is suggested as a solution to overcome the problem of rising groundwater levels at the site. Further, the model output can aid in assessing mitigation options, including

  10. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  11. Application of a bus seat buffer to mitigate frontal crash effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisławek, Sebastian; Dziewulski, Paweł; Sławiński, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of coach occupant safety during crash events. The authors present a simple low-cost seat buffer concept which may mitigate the effects of frontal impact. The method of computer simulation was chosen to solve the problem efficiently. The Finite Element Method (FEM) implemented in the LS-DYNA commercial code was used. The testing procedure was based on European Commission regulations, under which vehicles move at a defined speed. Simulations have shown that seat occupants suffer serious trauma during a crash, with the head experiencing relatively high acceleration, thus resulting in an HIC36 of 1490. The installation of a protective buffer mounted on the upper part of the seat reduced the HIC36 to only 510. However, in its current form it does not meet the requirements of the regulations. Further modifications to the overlay shape and structure are essential in order to better improve the deceleration of passengers' bodies. Moreover, a detailed model of seats and their anchorage should be taken into account. A more flexible structure should provide more positive and more accurate results.

  12. Impression Management in the Job Interview: An Effective Way of Mitigating Discrimination against Older Applicants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioaba, Irina; Krings, Franciska

    2017-01-01

    The increasingly aging population in most industrialized societies, coupled with the rather age-diverse current workforce makes discrimination against older employees a prevalent issue, especially in employment contexts. This renders research on ways for reducing this type of discrimination a particularly pressing concern. Drawing on theories of social identity and impression management, our research examines the role of impression management, aimed at refuting common older worker stereotypes, in diminishing bias against older job applicants during the job interview. The study consisted in an experimental hiring simulation conducted on a sample of 515 undergraduate students. Results show that older applicants who used impression management to contradict common older worker stereotypes were perceived as more hirable than those who did not. However, despite this positive effect, discrimination persisted: older applicants were consistently rated as less hirable than their younger counterparts when displaying the same IM behavior. Taken together, this research demonstrates that older job seekers can indeed ameliorate biased interview outcomes by engaging in impression management targeting common age stereotypes; however, it also shows that this strategy is insufficient for overcoming age discrimination entirely. The current study has important implications for theory, by expanding research on the use of impression management in mitigating age discrimination, as well as for practice, by offering older employees a hands-on strategy to reduce bias and stereotyping against them.

  13. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  14. The health benefits and cost effectiveness of the radon mitigation programme in NHS properties in Northamptonshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Parkinson, S.; Barker, S.P.; Phillips, P.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive radon remediation programme in Nahs properties in Northamptonshire, where 11 100 staff are employed working on 83 separate sites, has been in progress since 1992, and has resulted in many locations with raised radon levels being identified and re mediated. This paper considers the dose saving achieved and costs of the remediation to derive a value for the cost-effectiveness of the programme. A value of 84 000 per Man-Sievert of annual dose reduction was obtained, which is around half the figure calculated by the NRPB in its recent initiative to reduce patient doses from dental x-rays in the UK, based on cost-benefit analysis. Thus similar comprehensive radon remediation programmes in any workplace in Radon Affected Areas can be justified. The cost of this workplace programme is, however, a factor of about 4 times more expensive than the theoretical estimates for domestic radon mitigation programmes found in the literature, and the reasons for this difference are considered. (author)

  15. Impression Management in the Job Interview: An Effective Way of Mitigating Discrimination against Older Applicants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gioaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly aging population in most industrialized societies, coupled with the rather age-diverse current workforce makes discrimination against older employees a prevalent issue, especially in employment contexts. This renders research on ways for reducing this type of discrimination a particularly pressing concern. Drawing on theories of social identity and impression management, our research examines the role of impression management, aimed at refuting common older worker stereotypes, in diminishing bias against older job applicants during the job interview. The study consisted in an experimental hiring simulation conducted on a sample of 515 undergraduate students. Results show that older applicants who used impression management to contradict common older worker stereotypes were perceived as more hirable than those who did not. However, despite this positive effect, discrimination persisted: older applicants were consistently rated as less hirable than their younger counterparts when displaying the same IM behavior. Taken together, this research demonstrates that older job seekers can indeed ameliorate biased interview outcomes by engaging in impression management targeting common age stereotypes; however, it also shows that this strategy is insufficient for overcoming age discrimination entirely. The current study has important implications for theory, by expanding research on the use of impression management in mitigating age discrimination, as well as for practice, by offering older employees a hands-on strategy to reduce bias and stereotyping against them.

  16. Microtremor Study of Site Effect for Disaster Mitigation and Geotechnical Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Sabrianto; Altin Massinai, Muh.; Syamsuddin

    2018-03-01

    Makassar city have relatively lower earthquake vulnerability compared to other regions in Indonesia, however detailed mapping related to seismic wave amplification needs to be done in the interest of geotechnical, regional planning and disaster mitigation. It is generally known that the magnitude of the damage during the occurrence of earthquakes or tremor occur periodically is influenced by the dynamic characteristics of the building as a function of seismic wave amplification. The degree of seismic wave amplification depends on several factors, including the thickness of the sediment layer, the level of compaction and the geological age factor. The purpose of this research is to investigate seismic vulnerability in Makassar by using spectral comparison through microtremor measurement. There are several of the approaches that can be done and microtremor is the easiest and cheapest method to understand these dynamic characteristics without causing damage effects. Spectra comparison technique used was popular by Nakamura, which is comparison technique of horizontal component noise spectra and the vertical component in sediment areas (H/V spectra). Results from seismic vulnerability index (SVI) distribution maps show values ranging from 0, 14 - 158, 31. In general, the eastern part of the city of Makassar near from coastal areas is more vulnerable to damage especially earthquakes or periodic earth tremor with certain dominant frequency compared with the western part of Makassar City.

  17. The environmental effects of taxes on packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroten, A.; Nelissen, D.; Bergsma, G.C.; Blom, M.J.

    2010-08-01

    The results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts of taxes for packages are presented, differentiated for greenhouse gas emissions. The evaluation used a qualitative analysis of information from eighteen depth-interviews with experts in the packaging market, foreign experiences, relevant price elasticities and 'expert guesses'. It appears that tax package so far had a limited effect on the packaging market. For the longer term (ten years) larger, but probably also limited, effects are expected. The environmental impact of packaging tax can be increased if the taxes are substantially increased. [nl

  18. Environmental effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.L.; Robinson, A.B.; Robinson, Z.W.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th century have produced no deleterious effects upon global climate or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates as inferred from numerous laboratory and field experiments. There is no clear evidence, nor unique attribution, of the global effects of anthropogenic CO 2 on climate. Meaningful integrated assessments of the environmental impacts of anthropogenic CO 2 are not yet possible because model estimates of global and regional climate changes on interannual, decadal and centennial timescales remain highly uncertain.(author)

  19. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas mitigation in transport: A review of methodological approaches and their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Robert; Annema, Jan Anne; Wee, Bert van

    2011-01-01

    A review is given of methodological practices for ex ante cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures, e.g. fuel economy and CO 2 standards for road vehicles in the US and EU. Besides the fundamental differences between different types of policies and abatement options which inherently result in different CEA outcomes, differences in methodological choices and assumptions are another important source of variation in CEA outcomes. Fourteen methodological issues clustered into six groups are identified on which thirty-three selected studies are systematically reviewed. The potential variation between lower and upper cost-effectiveness estimates for GHG mitigation measures in transport, resulting from different methodological choices and assumptions, lies in the order of $400 per tonne CO 2 -eq. The practise of using CEA for policy-making could improve considerably by clearly indicating the specific purpose of the CEA and its strengths and limitations for policy decisions. Another improvement is related to the dominant approach in transport GHG mitigation studies: the bottom-up financial technical approach which assesses isolated effects, implying considerable limitations for policy-making. A shift to welfare-economic approaches using a hybrid model has the potential to establish an improved assessment of transport GHG mitigation measures based on realistic market responses and behavioural change. - Highlights: ► We identify fourteen important methodological issues clustered into six groups. ► We systematically review thirty-three selected transport GHG mitigation studies. ► Methodological choices can lead to a difference by up to $400 per tonne CO 2 -eq. ► The dominant bottom-up approach has limitations for policy-making. ► Welfare-economic approaches could improve cost-effectiveness analysis.

  20. Possible environmental effects of increased coal use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    If coal is to be utilized in California it must be made compatible with the state's drive toward restoring environmental quality. The impacts resulting from coal's mining and transportation, or from water consumption, water quality degradation and electric transmission line routing can probably be adequately mitigated through strong and early planning efforts, the use of improved control and process technologies, and sincere utility commitment. The socioeconomic impacts may prove somewhat more difficult to satisfactorily mitigate. Of greatest concern is adequate control of generated air pollutants and disposal of solid and liquid wastes since acceptable technologies or handling techniques have yet to be conclusively demonstrated.

  1. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitigation win-win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  3. Defense Health Care: DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    information on the types of illnesses that may result from an exposure. VBA officials told us that they have access to unclassified POEMS through a MESL...Environmental Monitoring Summaries USARCENT U.S. Army Central VA Department of Veterans Affairs VBA Veterans Benefits Administration VHA...Administration ( VBA ) and the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify the ways in which OEHS data is being used, including its use in

  4. Extrapolating effects of conservation tillage on yield, soil moisture and dry spell mitigation using simulation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoga, Z. J.; Tumbo, S. D.; Kihupi, N.; Semoka, J.

    /ha) ( P < 0.05). Results also indicated a probability of 0.5 of getting higher yield in conservation than in conventional tillage practice. The conservation tillage treatment had the ability to even-out the acute and long intra-seasonal dry spells. For example a 36-days agricultural dry spell which occurred between 85th and 130th day after planting in the 1989/1990 season (in the CT treatment) was mitigated to zero days in the RR treatment by maintaining soil moisture above the critical point. Critical soil moisture for maize was measured at 0.55 of maximum soil moisture that can be depleted crop (0.55 D). It is concluded that conservation tillage practice where ripping and surface crop residues is used is much more effective in mitigating dry spells and increase productivity in a seasonal rainfall range of between 460 and 770 mm. It is recommended that farmers in the area adopt that type of conservation tillage because rainfall was in this range (460-770 mm) in 12 out of the past 24 years, indicating possibility of yield losses once in every 2 years.

  5. Mitigating Adverse Effects of a Human Mission on Possible Martian Indigenous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2000-07-01

    Although human beings are, by most standards, the most capable agents to search for and detect extraterrestrial life, we are also potentially the most harmful. While there has been substantial work regarding forward contamination with respect to robotic missions, the issue of potential adverse effects on possible indigenous Martian ecosystems, such as biological contamination, due to a human mission has remained relatively unexplored and may require our attention now as this presentation will try to demonstrate by exploring some of the relevant scientific questions, mission planning challenges, and policy issues. An informal, high-level mission planning decision tree will be discussed and is included as the next page of this abstract. Some of the questions to be considered are: (1) To what extent could contamination due to a human presence compromise possible indigenous life forms? (2) To what extent can we control contamination? For example, will it be local or global? (3) What are the criteria for assessing the biological status of Mars, both regionally and globally? For example, can we adequately extrapolate from a few strategic missions such as sample return missions? (4) What should our policies be regarding our mission planning and possible interaction with what are likely to be microbial forms of extraterrestrial life? (5) Central to the science and mission planning issues is the role and applicability of terrestrial analogs, such as Lake Vostok for assessing drilling issues, and modeling techniques. Central to many of the policy aspects are scientific value, international law, public concern, and ethics. Exploring this overall issue responsibly requires an examination of all these aspects and how they interrelate. A chart is included, titled 'Mission Planning Decision Tree for Mitigating Adverse Effects to Possible Indigenous Martian Ecosystems due to a Human Mission'. It outlines what questions scientists should ask and answer before sending humans to Mars.

  6. Mitigating the effect of optical back-scatter in multispectral underwater imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Halleh; Oakley, John P; Barkat, Braham

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a very useful technique for extracting information from the underwater world. However, optical back-scatter changes the intensity value in each spectral band and this distorts the estimated spectrum. In this work, a filter is used to detect the level of optical back-scatter in each spectral band from a set of multispectral images. Extraction of underwater object spectra can be done by subtracting the estimated level of optical back-scatter and scaling the remainder in each spectral band from the captured image in the corresponding band. An experiment has been designed to show the performance of the proposed filter for correcting the set of multispectral underwater images and recovering the pixel spectra. The multispectral images are captured by a B/W CCD digital camera with a fast tunable liquid-crystal filter in 33 narrow spectral bands in clear and different levels of turbid water. Reference estimates for the optical back-scatter spectra are found by comparing a clear and a degraded set of multispectral images. The accuracy and consistency of the proposed method, the extended Oakley–Bu cost function, is examined by comparing the estimated values with the reference level of an optical back-scatter spectrum. The same comparison is made for the simple estimation approach. The results show that the simple method is not reliable and fail to estimate the level of optical back-scatter spectrum accurately. The results from processing experimental images in turbid water show that the effect of optical back-scatter can be mitigated in the image of each spectral band and, as a result, the spectra of the object can be recovered. However, for a very high level of turbid water the recovery is limited because of the effect of extinction. (paper)

  7. Pleistocene Park: the restoration of steppes as a tool to mitigate climate change through albedo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, N.; Loranty, M. M.; Edgar, C.; Kropp, H.; Zimov, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene, the world largest ecosystem was the mammoth steppe. It stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to Canada and from the New Siberian Islands to China. It was a highly productive steppe ecosystem with numerous predators and herbivores that maintained the dominance of grasslands. With the end of the Pleistocene, the climate warmed and humans entered Siberia and the Americas. The introduction of humans as predators in these regions led to the extinction of most large animals, and the further degradation of the steppes. Mosses, shrubs and larch forest soon replaced grasses and herbs. Pleistocene Park is an experiment conducted in the far north of Siberia; its main goal is to revive the extinct steppe ecosystem in the Arctic. This would increase the richness of the northern ecosystems and, bioproductivity, and through a series of ecological mechanisms help to mitigate climate change. To conduct the experiment, was fenced 2000 hectares of land, and continue the ongoing process of introducing animals that either lived on this territory in the past or that can adapt to the modern northern environment. Through grazing, animals slowly transform the vegetation, replacing mosses, shrubs, and trees with grasses and herbs. Here we present the effects grazing animals have on the albedo of the landscape. Several years of year-round measurement of albedo and incoming and reflected radiation conducted in the grasslands in the park indicate substantially higher albedo compared with most modern ecosystems like larch forest and shrublands. Since grasses are lighter than forest, they reflect a higher portion of energy back to space. Results indicate the most dramatic difference in reflected solar radiation is in April and early May. Grasslands covered with snow reflect most of the sun's energy, while dark stems of forests and shrubs absorb that energy and promote warming. We argue that large-scale promotion of highly productive steppes in the Arctic will

  8. Mitigation and control of the overcuring effect in mask projection micro-stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul F.; Kent, Nigel; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-10-01

    Mask Projection micro-Stereolithography (MPμSL) is an additive manufacturing technique capable of producing solid parts with micron-scale resolution from a vat of photocurable liquid polymer resin. Although the physical mechanism remains the same, the process differs from traditional laser-galvanometer based stereolithography (SL) in its use of a dynamic mask UV projector, or digital light processor (DLP), which cures each location within each 3D layer at the same time. One area where MPµSL has garnered considerable attention is in the field of microfluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip, where complex multistep microfabrication techniques adopted from the semiconductor industry are still widely used, and where MPµSL offers the ability to fabricate completely encapsulated fluidic channels in a single step and at low cost [1-3]. However, a significant obstacle exists in the prevention of channel blockage due to overcuring of the polymer resin [4, 5]. Overcuring can be attributed to the so-called `back side effect' [2] which occurs during the build process as light from successive layers penetrates into the resin to a depth greater than the layer thickness. This effect is most prevalent in channels or features oriented horizontally (in a parallel plane to that of the build platform). Currently there are two main approaches in controlling the cure depth; 1. the chemical approach, which involves doping the resin material with a chemical light absorber [6-8]; and 2. by improving the system's hardware and optical elements to improve the homogeneity of the light dosage and control the cure depth [9]. Here we investigate a third approach through modification of the 3D CAD file prior to printing to mitigate for UV light leakage from successive build layers. Although used here in conjunction with the MPμSL technique, this approach can be applied to a range of SL techniques to improve printer resolution and enable production of internal features with higher dimensional accuracy.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mitigates nacl induced adverse effects on solanum lycopersicum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of AMF on the growth and physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activities, plant growth regulators and inorganic nutrients in tomato grown under salt stress condition. Tomato plants were exposed to different concentrations of NaCl alone (0, 50 and 150 mM) and in combination with AMF (0mM+AMF, 50mM+AMF and 150mM+AMF). Spore population and colonization, growth and biomass yield, pigments, membrane stability index and malondialdehyde were negatively affected. Exposure of plants to combination of NaCl and AMF showed positive impact on the above parameters. Proline and antioxidant enzyme activity increased with increasing concentration of NaCl and further increase was observed in plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF. Acid and alkaline phosphatase, hydrolytic enzymes and pectinase are also affected with increasing concentration of salt. However plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF balances the above enzymatic activity. Salt stress decreases the auxin concentration in plants but application of AMF has been shown to restore the auxin content. ABA increases with salt concentration but less accumulation of ABA have been found in plants treated with AMF. Regarding the nutrient uptake, Na+ and Na;K ratio increased and P, K, Mg and Ca decreases with increasing concentration of NaCl. Enhanced accumulation of P, K, Mg, Ca and K:N ratio and less uptake of Na+ was observed in presence of AMF. The results confirm that NaCl imposes threat to the survival of tomato plants and application of AMF mitigates the negative effect to an appreciable level. (author)

  10. Spatial Characteristics of Small Green Spaces' Mitigating Effects on Microscopic Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.; Kim, J. H.; Huh, K. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to find small greens' disposition, types and sizes to reduce air temperature effectively in urban blocks. The research sites were six high developed blocks in Seoul, Korea. Air temperature was measured with mobile loggers in clear daytime during summer, from August to September, at screen level. Also the measurement repeated over three times a day during three days by walking and circulating around the experimental blocks and the control blocks at the same time. By analyzing spatial characteristics, the averaged air temperatures were classified with three spaces, sunny spaces, building-shaded spaces and small green spaces by using Kruskal-Wallis Test; and small green spaces in 6 blocks were classified into their outward forms, polygonal or linear and single or mixed. The polygonal and mixed types of small green spaces mitigated averaged air temperature of each block which they belonged with a simple linear regression model with adjusted R2 = 0.90**. As the area and volume of these types increased, the effect of air temperature reduction (ΔT; Air temperature difference between sunny space and green space in a block) also increased in a linear relationship. The experimental range of this research is 100m2 ~ 2,000m2 of area, and 1,000m3 ~ 10,000m3 of volume of small green space. As a result, more than 300m2 and 2,300m3 of polygonal green spaces with mixed vegetation is required to lower 1°C; 650m2 and 5,000m3 of them to lower 2°C; about 2,000m2 and about 10,000m3 of them to lower 4°C air temperature reduction in an urban block.

  11. The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynes, Seth; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2017-07-01

    Current anthropogenic climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, based on 148 scenarios from 39 sources. We recommend four widely applicable high-impact (i.e. low emissions) actions with the potential to contribute to systemic change and substantially reduce annual personal emissions: having one fewer child (an average for developed countries of 58.6 tonnes CO2-equivalent (tCO2e) emission reductions per year), living car-free (2.4 tCO2e saved per year), avoiding airplane travel (1.6 tCO2e saved per roundtrip transatlantic flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.8 tCO2e saved per year). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like comprehensive recycling (four times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing household lightbulbs (eight times less). Though adolescents poised to establish lifelong patterns are an important target group for promoting high-impact actions, we find that ten high school science textbooks from Canada largely fail to mention these actions (they account for 4% of their recommended actions), instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential emissions reductions. Government resources on climate change from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia also focus recommendations on lower-impact actions. We conclude that there are opportunities to improve existing educational and communication structures to promote the most effective emission-reduction strategies and close this mitigation gap.

  12. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock due to anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. The disease when neglected is lethal and untreated ...

  13. An evaluation of environmental effects of the DOE HLW repository siting and characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, M.F.; Ulland, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) environmental investigations in progress on the environmental effects of past and proposed activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Yucca Mountain repository. The environmental investigations refer to those studies specifically related to resource evaluation, impact assessment and mitigation planning for the repository program; it is defined to exclude consideration of technical suitability determinations, socioeconomics and transportation. This paper addresses the question of what are the disturbances created by past and proposed DOE activities related to repository siting and characterization at Yucca Mountain. It discusses considerations in linking disturbance to the potential for significant adverse environmental impacts

  14. Mitigation of ground motion effects via feedback systems in the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen; Schmickler, Hermann; Schulte, Daniel

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a future multi-TeV electron positron collider, which is currently being designed at CERN. To achieve its ambitious goals, CLIC has to produce particle beams of the highest quality, which makes the accelerator very sensitive to ground motion. Four mitigation methods have been foreseen by the CLIC design group to cope with the feasibility issue of ground motion. This thesis is concerned with the design of one of these mitigation methods, named linac feedback (L-FB), but also with the simultaneous simulation and validation of all mitigation methods. Additionally, a technique to improve the quality of the indispensable system knowledge has been developed. The L-FB suppresses beam oscillations along the accelerator. Its design is based on the decoupling of the overall accelerator system into independent channels. For each channel an individual compensator is found with the help of a semi- automatic control synthesis procedure. This technique allows the designer to incorporate ...

  15. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 971.602 Significant adverse environmental effects. (a) Determination of significant adverse environmental effects. The Administrator will determine the potential for or the occurrence of any significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106...

  16. The 'Environmental Manual for Power Development': a tool for GHG mitigation and cost analysis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Liptow, Holger

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Manual for Power Development (EM) is a computerised tool to include environmental and cost data into the decision-making for energy projects in developing countries. The EM is sponsored by German BMZ (Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development), Dutch DGIS (Directorate General for International Co-operation), British DfID (Department for International Development), and the World Bank. The EM was developed by GTZ with scientific support from Oeko-Institut (Institute for applied ecology). The EM tracks down the emissions and costs of e.g. the existing power supply system in a country, region, or of a specific energy project, and compares those to alternative options to deliver the same energy service, e.g. electricity, or process heat, or transport services. To do so, the EM maintains a comprehensive database on environmental and cost impacts of energy technologies, and determines environmental impacts for life-cycles: All impacts from mining, transport, conversion etc. can be accounted for. To consistently handle all life-cycles, the EM database offers a variety of pre-defined fuel-and life-cycles to work with. The Em database covers generic energy technologies in developing countries, especially fossil-fueled electricity and heating systems, cogeneration, renewable energies, selected energy efficiency technologies, nuclear power systems, as well as data for upstream activities like mining, fuel benefication, transport, and emission control technologies like flue-gas desulfurisation, low-NO x burners, etc. The EM analyses and compares airborne and greenhouse gas emissions, solid wastes, and land use, as well as internal and external costs associated with investment and operation of energy technologies, including their life-cycle (upstream fuel-cycles, materials). The Em helps to check the compliance of energy processes with given emission standards - its database offers such standard for various countries and regions, and users can test if

  17. Fermentation products as feed additives mitigate some ill-effects of heat stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Bass, B E; Bandrick, M; Loving, C L; Brockmeier, S L; Looft, T; Trachsel, J; Madson, D M; Thomas, M; Casey, T A; Frank, J W; Stanton, T B; Allen, H K

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen). After 4 wk of dietary acclimation, half of the pigs in each dietary group (1 room/dietary treatment) were exposed to repeated heat stress conditions (RHS; daily cycles of 19 h at 25°C and 5 h at 40°C, repeated for 9 d), and the remaining pigs were housed at constant thermal neutral temperature (25°C, [NHS]). Pigs subjected to RHS had elevated skin surface temperature ( treatment. Independent of diet, RHS pigs had significantly shorter ( stress resulted in decreased villus height to crypt depth ratio (V:C) in pigs fed with control diet with no added feed additive (NON) and CBX diets at d 3, whereas the pigs fed diets containing XPC or SGX showed no decrease. Transcriptional expression of genes involved in cellular stress (, , , ), tight junction integrity (, , ), and immune response (, , and ) were measured in the ileum mucosa. Pigs in all dietary treatments subjected to RHS had significantly higher ( natural killer () cell numbers or NK cell lytic activity. In conclusion, pigs subjected to RHS had decreased performance, and supplementation with fermentation products in the feed (XPC and SGX) protected pigs from injury to the jejunum mucosa.

  18. Assessment of Environmental Effects of Noise Pollution in Auchi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyati E.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that we are living in a noise-polluted environment. This pollution has been linked to a number of health related ailments such as depression, anger, weak concentration and hearing defects. Growing global population, increase in technological advancement and some human activities are major causes of this noise-related pollution. This study investigates environmental effects of noise pollution on man for possible mitigation strategies. Sound level meter (SLM was used to obtain the level of noise pollution in decibel (dB. Selected noisegenerating centres were used such as mosques, churches, markets, schools and household appliance-loudspeakers. Noise pollution variables (NPV were mathematically-modelled and analysed using statistical metrics. Sound powers (SP, total power level (SPL and total sound pressure level (SPL were computed using empirical relationship. Reference power (RF and pressure (RFP values of 10 -12 watt and 2.0 * 10 -5 N/M 2 were computed. 230.65dB and 106.3 dB values of SWL were obtained. These values indicate serious health hazard because it is far above acceptable standard. The output of the resultant mathematical iterations indicates that the impact of noise pollution is a cumulative function of population increase, human activity and technological advancement at 1% and 5% level of significance. Generally, obtained results showed that the impacts noise pollution on man and his entire environment are obviously on the negative side. Hence, possible mitigation measures such as noise pollution regulatory policy enactment and design of noise absorbing structures are strongly recommended.

  19. A report from the second US/Japan workshop on global change research: Environmental response technologies (mitigation and adaptation). United States-Japan Science and Technology Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgerton, S. [comp.] [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States). Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences; Mizuno, Tateki [comp.] [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, MITI (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The Second US - Japan Workshop on Global Change: Environmental Response Technologies for Global Change was hosted by the Program on Resources at the East-West Center, in Honolulu, Hawaii on February 1--3, 1993, on behalf of the United States Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). This workshop brought together over fifty leading scientists from the two countries to review existing technologies and to identify needed research on the development of new technologies for mitigation and adaptation of global change. The Workshop was organized around three areas of research: (1) capture, fixation/utilization, and disposal of CO{sub 2} (e.g. CO{sub 2}, separation and capture technologies, ocean and land disposal of CO{sub 2}; (2) energy production and conservation technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. combustion efficiency, non-carbon based energy technologies, energy conservation technologies); and (3) adaptation technologies and practices related to global climate change (e.g., adaptation responses of crops to climate change, adapting urban infrastructure for climate change). Priorities for joint research in each of these areas were discussed. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Environmental effects of geothermal energy exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Japan

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects of geothermal power generation which cause air and water pollution and destruction of natural areas are reviewed. The production of steam and hot water affect existing hot springs sources and can cause ground subsidence. Harmful gas can be released onto the atmosphere from fumarolic gas and hot springs. Hydrothermal geothermal fields occasionally contain harmful substances such as arsenic in the hot water. Serious environmental effects can result from geothermal exploitation activities such as the felling of trees for road construction, well drilling, and plant construction. Once geothermal power generation has begun, the release of H/sub 2/S into the atmosphere and the reinjection of hot water are conducted continuously and sufficient countermeasures can be taken. One problem is the effects of plant construction and operation on natural parks. It is important to reach a compromise between development and protection of natural senic areas. Two figures, two tables, and 13 references are provided.

  1. Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation

  2. Goals, obstacles and effective strategies of wildfire mitigation programs in the Wildland-Urban Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret A. Reams; Terry K. Haines; Cheryl R. Renner; Michael W. Wascom; Harish Kingre

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic expansion into the Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) places property, natural assets, and human life at risk from wildfire destruction. The U.S. National Fire Plan encourages communities to implement laws and outreach programs for pre-fire planning to mitigate the risk to area residents. Starting in 2003, we surveyed the administrators of regulatory and...

  3. Modeling the effectiveness of tree planting to mitigate habitat loss in blue oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; Douglas McCreary; William Frost

    2002-01-01

    Many local conservation policies have attempted to mitigate the loss of oak woodland habitat resulting from conversion to urban or intensive agricultural land uses through tree planting. This paper models the development of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) stand structure attributes over 50 years after planting. The model uses a single tree, distance...

  4. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners,

  5. Black swan risk management : The moderation effect of risk mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q; Krikke, H.R.; Caniels, M.C.J.; Pawar, K.S.; Rogers, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many scholars have discussed supply chain risk mitigation on operational risks, but less on rare, highly influential, and retrospective predictable risks, such as natural disasters, epidemics, and socio-political crises. They are Black Swan risks (Taleb, 2007). More than disrupting supply chains,

  6. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  7. Oceanographic, Air-sea Interaction, and Environmental Aspects of Artificial Upwelling Produced by Wave-Inertia Pumps for Potential Hurricane Intensity Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A.; Dean, C.

    2017-12-01

    The artificial upwelling system consisting of the wave-inertia pumps driven by surface waves can produce flow of cold deep water to the surface. One of the recently proposed potential applications of the artificial upwelling system is the hurricane intensity mitigation. Even relatively small reduction of intensity may provide significant benefits. The ocean heat content (OHC) is the "fuel" for hurricanes. The OHC can be reduced by mixing of the surface layer with the cold water produced by wave-inertia pumps. Implementation of this system for hurricane mitigation has several oceanographic and air-sea interaction aspects. The cold water brought to the surface from a deeper layer has higher density than the surface water and, therefore, tends to sink back down. The mixing of the cold water produced by artificial upwelling depends on environmental conditions such as stratification, regional ocean circulation, and vertical shear. Another aspect is that as the sea surface temperature drops below the air temperature, the stable stratification develops in the atmospheric boundary layer. The stable atmospheric stratification suppresses sensible and latent heat air-sea fluxes and reduces the net longwave irradiance from the sea surface. As a result, the artificial upwelling may start increasing the OHC (though still reducing the sea surface temperature). In this work, the fate of the cold water in the stratified environment with vertical shear has been studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. A 3D large eddy simulation model is initialized with observational temperature, salinity, and current velocity data from a sample location in the Straits of Florida. A periodic boundary condition is set along the direction of the current, which allows us to simulate infinite fetch. The model results indicate that the cold water brought to the sea surface by a wave-inertia pump forms a convective jet. This jet plunges into the upper ocean mixed layer and penetrates the

  8. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment

  9. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment.

  10. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  11. The effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies without compromising yield by early-season drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Syed Faiz-Ul; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2018-01-15

    Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation in rice production. Whereas several studies have focused on mid-season drainage (MD) to mitigate GHG emissions, early-season drainage (ED) varying in timing and duration has not been extensively studied. However, such ED periods could potentially be very effective since initial available C levels (and thereby the potential for methanogenesis) can be very high in paddy systems with rice straw incorporation. This study tested the effectiveness of seven drainage regimes varying in their timing and duration (combinations of ED and MD) to mitigate CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in a 101-day growth chamber experiment. Emissions were considerably reduced by early-season drainage compared to both conventional continuous flooding (CF) and the MD drainage regime. The results suggest that ED+MD drainage may have the potential to reduce CH 4 emissions and yield-scaled GWP by 85-90% compared to CF and by 75-77% compared to MD only. A combination of (short or long) ED drainage and one MD drainage episode was found to be the most effective in mitigating CH 4 emissions without negatively affecting yield. In particular, compared with CF, the long early-season drainage treatments LE+SM and LE+LM significantly (pemissions were small and not significantly affected by ED. It is concluded that ED+MD drainage might be an effective low-tech option for small-scale farmers to reduce GHG emissions and save water while maintaining yield. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitigating effects of the home environment on inattention and overactivity in children adopted from Romanian orphanages: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Audet, Karyn Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the potential mitigating effects of the adoptive home environment on inattention and overactivity (I/O) in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Three groups were studied: (1) Children who experienced at least 8 months of deprivation in an orphanage prior to being adopted to British Columbia (RO group), (2) Children adopted to British Columbia from Romanian orphanages prior to 4-months-of-age (EA group), and (3) Canadian born non-adopted children (CB grou...

  13. Forestry for mitigating the greenhouse effect : an ecological and economic assessment of the potential of land use to mitigate CO2 emissions in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de B.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The present study intends to answer some of the important questions that arise when translating projects that have an ecological potential to mitigate carbon excesses, into actual implementation of these projects in a farmer-dominated landscape. Farm and community forestry projects for

  14. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  15. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Gustafson; Anatoly Shvidenko; Robert Scheller; Brian. Sturtevant

    2011-01-01

    Siberian forest ecosystems are experiencing multiple global changes. Climate change produces direct (temperature and precipitation) and indirect (altered fire regimes and increase in cold-limited insect outbreaks) effects. Although much of Siberia has not yet been subject to timber harvest, the frontier of timber cutting is advancing steadily across the region. We...

  16. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronglan Zhao

    Full Text Available Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU. Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs, T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  17. Environmental effects in titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental effects on titanium aluminide alloys are potentially of great importance for engineering applications of these materials, although little has been published to date on such effects. The primary emphasis in this paper is on hydrogen effects, with a brief reference to oxygen effects. Hydrogen is readily absorbed at elevated temperature into all the titanium aluminide compositions studied to date, in amounts as large as 10 at.%, and on cooling virtually all this hydrogen is precipitated as a hydride phase or phases. The presence of these precipitated hydride plates affects mechanical properties in ways similar to what is observed in other hydride forming materials, although effects per unit volume of hydride are not particularly severe in the titanium aluminides. Microstructure, and thus thermal and mechanical history, plays a major role in controlling the severity of hydrogen effects

  18. Environmental pollution-effects on national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahyuddin bin Ramli; Mohd Fadzil bin Mohd Idris

    1994-01-01

    Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

  19. Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Development. Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, R. Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halvorsen, Michele B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duberstein, Corey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matzner, Shari [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whiting, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blake, Kara M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stavole, Jessica [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy projects are not well understood, and regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. To examine the environmental risks associated with OSW developments in the U.S. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) focused on the following four priority research areas in FY 2012: • Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) - Followed project developments on the two OSW projects that PNNL screened in FY 2011 for environmental consequence: Fishermen’s Energy off the coast of Atlantic City, NJ and LEEDCo. near Cleveland, OH in Lake Erie. • Tethys - Developed a smart knowledge base which houses environmental research, data and information pertaining to OSW energy: • Technical Assessment - Produced a new software to create an automated process of identifying and differentiating between flying organism such as birds and bats by using thermal imagery; and • North Atlantic Right Whales - Developed an environmental risk management system to mitigate the impacts on North Atlantic Right Whales (NARW) during installation and piledriving stages of OSW developments. By identifying and addressing the highest priority environmental risks for OSW devices and associated installations the ERES process assists project proponents, regulators, and stakeholders to engage in the most efficient and effective siting and permitting pathways.

  20. Retirement and mental health: does social participation mitigate the association? A fixed-effects longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Shiba

    2017-05-01

    . Encouraging recreational social participation may mitigate the adverse effects of retirement on mental health of Japanese older men.

  1. Development of a Severe Accident Mitigation Support with Speediness and Credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Sup; Park, Jae Chang; Choi, Jong Gyun; Kim, Jung Taek; Kim, Chang Hwoi

    2014-01-01

    This study suggests a methodology of severe accident mitigation support with speediness and credibility. Using this methodology, the severe accident is automatically identified based on the information credibility check. And then, proper mitigation function, available mitigation routes, and an optimal mitigation path are automatically suggested. The basic logic of the information credibility is based on environmental evaluation, historical evaluation and some conventional methods such as redundancy and diversity comparison of instruments. To identify the available mitigation routes, availability of paths and components, source status, process limitation, expected adverse effect, and mitigation capability of the path are automatically were evaluated. Among the available routes, the optimal mitigation path was finally suggested based on the path priority criteria and physical relationship

  2. Effects of drain-wall in mitigating N-hit single event transient via 45 nm CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X Y; Tang, M H; Xiao, Y G; Yan, S A; Zhang, W L; Li, Z; Xiong, Y; Zhao, W; Guo, H X

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation in a novel layout technique for N-hit single event transient (SET) mitigation based on drain-wall layout technique is proposed. Numerical simulations of both single-device and mixed-mode show that the proposed layout technique designed with 45 nm CMOS process can efficiently reduce not only charge collection but also SET pulse widths (W SET ). What is more, simulations show that impacts caused by part of ion-incidents can be shielded with this novel layout technique. When compared with conventional layout technique and guard drain layout technique, we find that the proposed novel layout technique can provide the best benefit of SET mitigation with a small sacrifice in effective area. (paper)

  3. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality

  4. A Health-Based Metric for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Noise Barrier Mitigation Associated With Transport Infrastructure Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey P Prendergast

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study examines the use of the number of night-time sleep disturbances as a health-based metric to assess the cost effectiveness of rail noise mitigation strategies for situations, wherein high-intensity noises dominate such as freight train pass-bys and wheel squeal. Materials and Methods: Twenty residential properties adjacent to the existing and proposed rail tracks in a noise catchment area of the Epping to Thornleigh Third Track project were used as a case study. Awakening probabilities were calculated for individual’s awakening 1, 3 and 5 times a night when subjected to 10 independent freight train pass-by noise events using internal maximum sound pressure levels (LAFmax. Results: Awakenings were predicted using a random intercept multivariate logistic regression model. With source mitigation in place, the majority of the residents were still predicted to be awoken at least once per night (median 88.0%, although substantial reductions in the median probabilities of awakening three and five times per night from 50.9 to 29.4% and 9.2 to 2.7%, respectively, were predicted. This resulted in a cost-effective estimate of 7.6–8.8 less people being awoken at least three times per night per A$1 million spent on noise barriers. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that an easily understood metric can be readily used to assist making decisions related to noise mitigation for large-scale transport projects.

  5. Effect of Wind Farm Noise on Local Residents' Decision to Adopt Mitigation Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Anabela; Arezes, Pedro; Bernardo, Carlos; Dias, Hernâni; Pinto, Lígia M Costa

    2017-07-11

    Wind turbines' noise is frequently pointed out as the reason for local communities' objection to the installation of wind farms. The literature suggests that local residents feel annoyed by such noise and that, in many instances, this is significant enough to make them adopt noise-abatement interventions on their homes. Aiming at characterizing the relationship between wind turbine noise, annoyance, and mitigating actions, we propose a novel conceptual framework. The proposed framework posits that actual sound pressure levels of wind turbines determine individual homes' noise-abatement decisions; in addition, the framework analyzes the role that self-reported annoyance, and perception of noise levels, plays on the relationship between actual noise pressure levels and those decisions. The application of this framework to a particular case study shows that noise perception and annoyance constitutes a link between the two. Importantly, however, noise also directly affects people's decision to adopt mitigating measures, independently of the reported annoyance.

  6. Effect of Wind Farm Noise on Local Residents’ Decision to Adopt Mitigation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Anabela; Bernardo, Carlos; Dias, Hernâni; Pinto, Lígia M. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbines’ noise is frequently pointed out as the reason for local communities’ objection to the installation of wind farms. The literature suggests that local residents feel annoyed by such noise and that, in many instances, this is significant enough to make them adopt noise-abatement interventions on their homes. Aiming at characterizing the relationship between wind turbine noise, annoyance, and mitigating actions, we propose a novel conceptual framework. The proposed framework posits that actual sound pressure levels of wind turbines determine individual homes’ noise-abatement decisions; in addition, the framework analyzes the role that self-reported annoyance, and perception of noise levels, plays on the relationship between actual noise pressure levels and those decisions. The application of this framework to a particular case study shows that noise perception and annoyance constitutes a link between the two. Importantly, however, noise also directly affects people’s decision to adopt mitigating measures, independently of the reported annoyance. PMID:28696404

  7. The effects of economic and policy incentives on carbon mitigation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, Richard G.; Jaffe, Adam B.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to estimate the likely effects of potential climate change policies on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requires an improved understanding of the relationship between different policy alternatives and energy-saving and GHG-reducing changes in technology. A particularly important and understudied aspect of this set of issues is the conceptual and empirical modeling of how the various stages of technological change are interrelated, how they unfold over time in response to market forces, and the differential impact of various policies (for example, R and D subsidies, environmental taxes, information programs). We summarize several contributions to this literature and suggest promising areas for continued research on empirical analysis and modeling of induced technological change

  8. Lead toxicity in rice: effects, mechanisms, and mitigation strategies--a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Umair; Kanu, Adam Sheka; Mo, Zhaowen; Hussain, Saddam; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Khan, Imran; Abbas, Rana Nadeem; Tang, Xiangru

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a major environmental pollutant that affects plant morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes. Its higher levels in the environment are not only toxic to human beings but also harmful for plants and soil microbes. We have reviewed the uptake, translocation, and accumulation mechanisms of Pb and its toxic effects on germination, growth, yield, nutrient relation, photosynthesis, respiration, oxidative damage, and antioxidant defense system of rice. Lead toxicity hampers rice germination, root/shoot length, growth, and final yield. It reduces nutrient uptake through roots, disrupts chloroplastic ultrastructure and cell membrane permeability, induces alterations in leaves respiratory activities, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), and triggers some enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidants (as defense to oxidative damage). In the end, biochar amendments and phytoremediation technologies have been proposed as soil remediation approaches for Pb tainted soils.

  9. Assessing the Effects of Information About Global Population Growth on Risk Perceptions and Support for Mitigation and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ian G J

    2018-05-16

    The human population is forecast to increase by 3-4 billion people during this century and many scientists have expressed concerns that this could increase the likelihood of certain adverse events (e.g., climate change and resource shortages). Recent research shows that these concerns are mirrored in public risk perceptions and that these perceptions correlate with a willingness to adopt mitigation behaviors (e.g., reduce resource consumption) and preventative actions (e.g., support actions to limit growth). However, little research has assessed the factors that influence risk perceptions of global population growth (GPG). To contribute to this important goal, this article presents three studies that examined how risk perceptions of GPG might be influenced by textual-visual representations (like those in media and Internet articles) of the potential effects of GPG. Study 1 found that a textual narrative that highlighted the potential negative (cf. positive) consequences of GPG led to higher perceived risk and greater willingness to adopt mitigation behaviors, but not to support preventative actions. Notably, the influence of the narratives on perceived risk was largely moderated by the participant's prior knowledge and perceptions of GPG. Contrary to expectations, studies 2 and 3 revealed, respectively, that photographs depicting GPG-related imagery and graphs depicting GPG rates had no significant effect on the perceived risk of GPG or the willingness to embrace mitigation or preventative actions. However, study 3 found that individuals with higher "graph literacy" perceived GPG as a higher risk and were more willing to adopt mitigation behaviors and support preventative actions. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Current-use pesticides in stream water and suspended particles following runoff: exposure, effects, and mitigation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereswill, Renja; Streloke, Martin; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    The European Union's directive for sustainable use of pesticides requires implementing risk mitigation measures at streams threatened by pesticide entries. The need for mitigation measures was investigated at 10 stream sites within an intensively used arable region in central Germany by characterizing pesticide exposure following edge-of-field runoff and effects on the aquatic macroinvertebrates. Moreover, the influence of riparian buffer strip width (as a mitigation measure) at the sampling sites was considered. Generally, invertebrate fauna was dominated by pesticide-tolerant species, suggesting a high pesticide exposure at almost all sites. This result is also reflected by the elevated levels of suspended particle contamination in terms of toxic units (logTUMax  > -2), corresponding to one-hundredth of the median lethal concentration (LC50) to Daphnia magna. At two sites that received high aqueous-phase entries of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (logTUMax  > -0.6), the abundance and number of sensitive species in terms of the species at risk index decreased during the pesticide application period. In contrast, no acute significant negative effects on macroinvertebrates were observed at sites characterised by low water-phase toxicity (logTUMax  < -3.5). An influence of riparian buffer strip width on pesticide exposure was not observed, supposedly because of the presence of erosion rills and ephemeral ditches. In conclusion, results show that mitigation measures (such as the improvement of currently present riparian buffer strips) are needed in the study area. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  11. Impact mitigation in EIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Alan; Cashmore, Matthew; Cobb, Dick; Tinker, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This study analysed 40 planning applications in the East of England to investigate the practice of translating paper recommendations in the environmental statement (ES) into legal conditions and obligations. A high proportion (50%) of suggested mitigation measures were not translated into planning conditions or obligations. However, a significant number of additional conditions or obligations, not directly based on the ES, were imposed on developers. The research su...

  12. Formulation of economical microbial feed using degraded chicken feathers by a novel Streptomyces sp: mitigation of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayapradha Ramakrishnan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new Streptomyces sp. IF 5 was isolated from the feather dumped soil and found to have a tremendous keratinase activity. The strain enabled the degradation of the chicken feathers very effectively in 60 h. The 16S rRNA sequence of 1474 bp long was submitted to the National centre for Biotechnological information. The keratinolytic activity in the culture medium was 1181 U/ml. The release and analyses of sulphydryl groups in the culture medium evident the degradation activity by the Streptomyces sp. IF 5. The idea of the present study was to use the degraded chicken feathers as the substrate for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms. We have designed a very economical culture medium that includes the usage of some basal salts alone and degraded chicken feathers (10 g/l. The results of the specific growth rate of the tested microbes confirm the usage of the new designed medium for microbial culturing.

  13. Integrating environmental monitoring with cumulative effects management and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronmiller, Joshua G; Noble, Bram F

    2018-05-01

    Cumulative effects (CE) monitoring is foundational to emerging regional and watershed CE management frameworks, yet monitoring is often poorly integrated with CE management and decision-making processes. The challenges are largely institutional and organizational, more so than scientific or technical. Calls for improved integration of monitoring with CE management and decision making are not new, but there has been limited research on how best to integrate environmental monitoring programs to ensure credible CE science and to deliver results that respond to the more immediate questions and needs of regulatory decision makers. This paper examines options for the integration of environmental monitoring with CE frameworks. Based on semistructured interviews with practitioners, regulators, and other experts in the Lower Athabasca, Alberta, Canada, 3 approaches to monitoring system design are presented. First, a distributed monitoring system, reflecting the current approach in the Lower Athabasca, where monitoring is delegated to different external programs and organizations; second, a 1-window system in which monitoring is undertaken by a single, in-house agency for the purpose of informing management and regulatory decision making; third, an independent system driven primarily by CE science and understanding causal relationships, with knowledge adopted for decision support where relevant to specific management questions. The strengths and limitations of each approach are presented. A hybrid approach may be optimal-an independent, nongovernment, 1-window model for CE science, monitoring, and information delivery-capitalizing on the strengths of distributed, 1-window, and independent monitoring systems while mitigating their weaknesses. If governments are committed to solving CE problems, they must invest in the long-term science needed to do so; at the same time, if science-based monitoring programs are to be sustainable over the long term, they must be responsive to

  14. Mitigation Atmospheric Effects in Interferogram with Using Integrated Meris/modis Data and a Case Study Over Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zhang, P.; Sun, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar(InSAR), as a space geodetictechnology, had been testified a high potential means of earth observation providing a method fordigital elevation model (DEM) and surface deformation monitoring of high precision. However, the accuracy of the interferometric synthetic aperture radar is mainly limited by the effects of atmospheric water vapor. In order to effectively measure topography or surface deformations by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), it is necessary to mitigate the effects of atmospheric water vapor on the interferometric signals. This paper analyzed the atmospheric effects on the interferogram quantitatively, and described a result of estimating Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) from the the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the ground-based GPS, compared the MERIS/MODIS PWV with the GPS PWV. Finally, a case study for mitigating atmospheric effects in interferogramusing with using the integration of MERIS and MODIS PWV overSouthern California is given. The result showed that such integration approach benefits removing or reducing the atmospheric phase contribution from the corresponding interferogram, the integrated Zenith Path Delay Difference Maps (ZPDDM) of MERIS and MODIS helps reduce the water vapor effects efficiently, the standard deviation (STD) of interferogram is improved by 23 % after the water vapor correction than the original interferogram.

  15. Does supportive parenting mitigate the longitudinal effects of peer victimization on depressive thoughts and symptoms in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Cole, David A; Dukewich, Tammy L; Martin, Nina C; Sinclair, Keneisha R; Tran, Cong V; Roeder, Kathryn M; Felton, Julia W; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Weitlauf, Amy S; Maxwell, Melissa A

    2013-05-01

    Cohen and Wills (Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A., 1985, Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357) described two broad models whereby social support could mitigate the deleterious effects of stress on health: a main effect model and stress-buffering model. A specific application of these models was tested in a three-wave, multimethod study of 1888 children to assess ways parental support (social support) mitigates the effects of peer victimization (stress) on children's depressive symptoms and depression-related cognitions (health-related outcomes). Results revealed that (a) both supportive parenting and peer victimization had main effects on depressive symptoms and cognitions; (b) supportive parenting and peer victimization did not interact in the prediction of depressive thoughts and symptoms; (c) these results generalized across age and gender; and (d) increases in depressive symptoms were related to later reduction of supportive parenting and later increase in peer victimization. Although supportive parenting did not moderate the adverse outcomes associated with peer victimization, results show that its main effect can counterbalance or offset these effects to some degree. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  16. Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution: Transportation Means Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report serves as a background report for the project "Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution". It contains a systematic overview of physical characteristics of the typical technologies, including energy and environmental effects....

  17. Program and abstracts of the offshore oil and gas environmental effects monitoring workshop : approaches and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The offshore petroleum industry in eastern Canada has expanded rapidly, with exploration and production activities taking place over a wide range of oceanographic conditions. This workshop, hosted by Canada's largest marine research institute, was held to advance the understanding of environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activity. In particular, it examined how information derived from environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs contribute to improved drilling and production operations, mitigation measures, and the revision of regulations for waste treatment. The workshop examined if EEM programs are providing valuable information, and how they can be improved. The themes of the 3 sessions which focused on ways to carry out EEM were: (1) EEM and environmental management, (2) EEM methodologies and lessons learned, and (3) EEM methodologies and technologies. Participants form around the world identified priority research needs and coordinated collaborative research efforts. Approximately 70 papers and posters were presented at the workshop, of which 19 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database (Author)

  18. New prospective 4D-CT for mitigating the effects of irregular respiratory motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tinsu; Martin, Rachael M.; Luo, Dershan

    2017-08-01

    Artifact caused by irregular respiration is a major source of error in 4D-CT imaging. We propose a new prospective 4D-CT to mitigate this source of error without new hardware, software or off-line data-processing on the GE CT scanner. We utilize the cine CT scan in the design of the new prospective 4D-CT. The cine CT scan at each position can be stopped by the operator when an irregular respiration occurs, and resumed when the respiration becomes regular. This process can be repeated at one or multiple scan positions. After the scan, a retrospective reconstruction is initiated on the CT console to reconstruct only the images corresponding to the regular respiratory cycles. The end result is a 4D-CT free of irregular respiration. To prove feasibility, we conducted a phantom and six patient studies. The artifacts associated with the irregular respiratory cycles could be removed from both the phantom and patient studies. A new prospective 4D-CT scanning and processing technique to mitigate the impact of irregular respiration in 4D-CT has been demonstrated. This technique can save radiation dose because the repeat scans are only at the scan positions where an irregular respiration occurs. Current practice is to repeat the scans at all positions. There is no cost to apply this technique because it is applicable on the GE CT scanner without new hardware, software or off-line data-processing.

  19. Environmental effects monitoring for exploration drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Cook, J.A.; Mathieu, A.

    2003-01-01

    Strategies for monitoring the environmental effects of single exploratory offshore wells on the east coast of Canada were evaluated. The report was compiled from consultations with scientists, regulators and stakeholders as well as a review of regulatory regimes and toxicity results. The aim of the report was to develop a decision tree for determining when to conduct environmental effects monitoring (EEM). Respondents evinced lower levels of concern for single exploratory wells than for production developments. A number of scientists argued for full statistical treatment of all data, and many people argued that more assurance was needed that the marine environment was not being unduly harmed. Respondents also considered that biological effects should be a primary focus, rather than the occurrence of trace chemical signals, and that seabirds and mammals should be monitored. Concern was expressed over the value of data collected from monitoring the effects of exploratory drilling activities. It was suggested that local and site-specific issues should be considered in the design of EEM programs. Respondents expressed strong concern about potential cumulative effects with other industrial activities, and suggested that test cases should be established and monitored to develop a scientific rationale for the inclusion or exclusion of specific variables in future EEM programs. A decision tree was developed based on 3 scenarios: (1) compliance monitoring only in well known areas with no sensitive issues; opportunistic EEM surveys of sediments, benthos, seabirds and marine mammals in shallow or deep areas with no known sensitive issues; and (3) custom EEM surveys for sensitive areas. Currently, there are EEM requirements for drilling exploratory wells offshore Canada's east coast. 58 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Minerals Policy Statement 2: controlling and mitigating the environmental effects of minerals extraction in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    Minerals Policy Statement 2 (MPS2) sets out the policies and considerations that the UK Government expects Mineral Planning Authorities to follow when preparing development plans and in considering application for minerals development. This supercedes Minerals Policy Guidance 11 (MPG 11). Annex 1: Dust to MPS2 sets out the policy considerations in relation to dust from mineral workings and associated operations, and how they should be dealt with in local development plans and in considering individual applications. Annex 2: Noise to MPS2 addresses policy in relation to noise from mineral workings. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database. 58 refs., 2 apps.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Environmental Gases: Health Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; IBrahim, M.S.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive radon gas is widely considered to be a health hazard by environmental agencies in the United States and in Europe. Yet despite the warnings of these agencies, thousands of people annually expose themselves to radon for therapeutic purposes, in facilities ranging from rustic old mines, to upscale spas and clinics. The inert natural radioactive gas radon has been used since the beginning of the century in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In many places in the world, radon is used for therapeutic purposes for various diseases. Radon inhalation is applied in a thermal gallery with atmospheric radon concentrations up to 100 kBq/m3, elevated temperature up to 41 EC , and humidity close to 100%, or in the form of radon baths where Rn is emanated from water with high natural Rn activity. Frequently, a combination of both treatment procedures is applied. Evidence from empirical experience and from clinical observational studies suggests that radon has analgesic, anti inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects. Ozone is one of nature's most powerful oxidants. It increases the effectiveness of the antioxidant enzyme system, which scavenge excess free radicals in the body. It is used in water purification and sewage treatment and is now being applied medically to treat many diseases from wounds and colitis to cancer, stroke and AIDS. According to the dosage and concentration range, medical ozone is a pharmaceutical agent that exerts specific properties and a well-defined range of efficacy. This paper describes the medical application of environmental gases: radon and ozone

  2. Effect of spray on performance of the hydrogen mitigation system during LB-LOCA for CPR1000 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.G.; Yang, Y.H.; Cheng, X.; Al-Hawshabi, N.H.A.; Casey, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper presents the spray effect on HMS during LB-LOCA by using GASFLOW. → The positive and negative effects of spray are summarized. → And the combination of DIS and PAR system is suggested as reasonable countermeasures. → This research is an important work aimed at the study of spray and hydrogen mitigation. → The contents of this paper should become a required part of the safety analysis of Chinese NPPs. - Abstract: During the course of the hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LB-LOCA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP), hydrogen is generated by a reaction between steam and the fuel-cladding inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is then ejected from the break into the containment along with a large amount of steam. Management of hydrogen safety and prevention of over-pressurization could be implemented through a hydrogen mitigation system (HMS) and spray system in CPR1000 NPP. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code GASFLOW is utilized in this study to analyze the spray effect on the performance of HMS during LB-LOCA. Results show that as a kind of HMS, deliberate igniter system (DIS) could initiate hydrogen combustion immediately after the flammability limit of the gas mixture has been reached. However, it will increase the temperature and pressure drastically. Operating the DIS under spray condition could result in hydrogen combustion being suppressed by suspended droplets inside the containment. Furthermore, the droplets could also mitigate local the temperature rise. Operation of a PAR system, another kind of HMS, consumes hydrogen steadily with a lower recombination rate which is not affected noticeably by the spray system. Numerical results indicate that the dual concept, namely the integrated application of DIS and PAR systems, is a constructive improvement for hydrogen safety under spray condition during LB-LOCA.

  3. Mitigating effects of pollen during paraquat exposure on gene expression and pathogen prevalence in Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Igor Medici; Soares, Ademilson E E; Tarpy, David R

    2018-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations have been experiencing notable mortality in Europe and North America. No single cause has been identified for these dramatic losses, but rather multiple interacting factors are likely responsible (such as pesticides, malnutrition, habitat loss, and pathogens). Paraquat is one of the most widely used non-selective herbicides, especially in developing countries. This herbicide is considered slightly toxic to honey bees, despite being reported as a highly effective inducer of oxidative stress in a wide range of living systems. Here, we test the effects of paraquat on the expression of detoxification and antioxidant-related genes, as well as on the dynamics of pathogen titers. Moreover, we tested the effects of pollen as mitigating factor to paraquat exposure. Our results show significant changes in the expression of several antioxidant-related and detoxification-related genes in the presence of paraquat, as well as an increase of pathogens titers. Finally, we demonstrate a mitigating effect of pollen through the up-regulation of specific genes and improvement of survival of bees exposed to paraquat. The presence of pollen in the diet was also correlated with a reduced prevalence of Nosema and viral pathogens. We discuss the importance of honey bees' nutrition, especially the availability of pollen, on colony losses chronically reported in the USA and Europe.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povellato, Andrea; Bosello, Francesco; Giupponi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation

  5. Spectroscopic studies of the physical origin of environmental aging effects on doped graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.-K.; Hsu, C.-C.; Liu, S.-Y.; Wu, C.-I.; Gharib, M.; Yeh, N.-C.

    2016-01-01

    The environmental aging effect of doped graphene is investigated as a function of the organic doping species, humidity, and the number of graphene layers adjacent to the dopant by studies of the Raman spectroscopy, x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. It is found that higher humidity and structural defects induce faster degradation in doped graphene. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data suggest that the physical origin of the aging effect is associated with the continuing reaction of H_2O molecules with the hygroscopic organic dopants, which leads to formation of excess chemical bonds, reduction in the doped graphene carrier density, and proliferation of damages from the graphene grain boundaries. These environmental aging effects are further shown to be significantly mitigated by added graphene layers.

  6. Environmental effects and large space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    When planning large scale operations in space, environmental impact must be considered in addition to radiation, spacecraft charging, contamination, high power and size. Pollution of the atmosphere and space is caused by rocket effluents and by photoelectrons generated by sunlight falling on satellite surfaces even light pollution may result (the SPS may reflect so much light as to be a nuisance to astronomers). Large (100 Km 2) structures also will absorb the high energy particles that impinge on them. Altogether, these effects may drastically alter the Earth's magnetosphere. It is not clear if these alterations will in any way affect the Earth's surface climate. Large structures will also generate large plasma wakes and waves which may cause interference with communications to the vehicle. A high energy, microwave beam from the SPS will cause ionospheric turbulence, affecting UHF and VHF communications. Although none of these effects may ultimately prove critical, they must be considered in the design of large structures.

  7. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance: (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb; (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve; and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters.

  8. Environmental effects of the electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez Ocon, C.

    1991-01-01

    Every manner to generate electricity has effects on environment and on the way of life of human society. Nevertheless electricity is a way of secondary energy handy and clean and is also frequently the more efficient, and for its reason its use is growing in countries with a rate superior to the increase in national gross product. This is particularly remarkable in Mexico where still exist population sectors without electricity services and where the demand per capita is left behind with respect to other economic indicators. In the last years, preoccupation for environmental effects in human activities, especially that related with the production and use of energy, has been increasing. 'Acid rain', air and water pollution, destruction of stratospheric ozone layer, global heating, radioactive wastes storage, land use, destruction of tropical forest, inundation of archaeological ruins, extintion of animal and vegetable species, are examples of problems daily expound to society (Author)

  9. Experimentation of several mitigation methods in Tasiujaq Airport to minimize the effects caused by the melting of permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Doré, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s an important increase in the mean annual air temperatures has been recorded in Nunavik, Québec, Canada. This has lead to the degradation of permafrost, which is threatening the stability of airport and road embankments in the region. In the summer of 2007 a test......-site was established at Tasiujaq Airport to study the effect of three different mitigations methods: heat drain, air convection embankment, and gentle slope (8:1). The methods were constructed in the shoulder of the runway embankment, each method over a distance of 50 m. In each section thermistors were installed...

  10. Simulation study of HEMT structures with HfO2 cap layer for mitigating inverse piezoelectric effect related device failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Nagulapally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Inverse Piezoelectric Effect (IPE is thought to contribute to possible device failure of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. Here we focus on a simulation study to probe the possible mitigation of the IPE by reducing the internal electric fields and related elastic energy through the use of high-k materials. Inclusion of a HfO2 “cap layer” above the AlGaN barrier particularly with a partial mesa structure is shown to have potential advantages. Simulations reveal even greater reductions in the internal electric fields by using “field plates” in concert with high-k oxides.

  11. Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors - the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals - and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, “firewalls” and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy. (paper)

  12. Lucky Mc Uranium Mill. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Environmental Impact Statement addressed the following: the existing environment; operations; environmental impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs and other mitigating measures; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relationship between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; alternatives; and NRC benefit-cost summary for the Lucky Mc Mill

  13. Targeting the Renin–Angiotensin System Combined With an Antioxidant Is Highly Effective in Mitigating Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Javed [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jelveh, Salomeh [Radiation Medicine Program, STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zaidi, Asif [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Doctrow, Susan R. [Pulmonary Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Medhora, Meetha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Hill, Richard P., E-mail: hill@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of suppression of the renin angiotensin system using captopril combined with an antioxidant (Eukarion [EUK]-207) for mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage in rats. Methods and Materials: The thoracic cavity of female Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated with a single dose of 11 Gy. Treatment with captopril at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d in drinking water and EUK-207 given by subcutaneous injection (8 mg/kg daily) was started 1 week after irradiation (PI) and continuing until 14 weeks PI. Breathing rate was monitored until the rats were killed at 32 weeks PI, when lung fibrosis was assessed by lung hydroxyproline content. Lung levels of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 and macrophage activation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed by 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels, and lipid peroxidation was measured by a T-BARS assay. Results: The increase in breathing rate in the irradiated rats was significantly reduced by the drug treatments. The drug treatment also significantly decreased the hydroxyproline content, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde levels, and levels of activated macrophages and the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 at 32 weeks. Almost complete mitigation of these radiation effects was observed by combining captopril and EUK-207. Conclusion: Captopril and EUK-207 can provide mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage out to at least 32 weeks PI after treatment given 1-14 weeks PI. Overall the combination of captopril and EUK-207 was more effective than the individual drugs used alone.

  14. Estimation of an effect of nuclear power use for mitigate an outflow of national wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odani, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake, nuclear power stations have been suspended to restart except for 2 reactors, with a spreading nuclear crisis and related issues such as radiation fears. As a result, Japan's trade balance in FY 2011 hits record high loss of 4.4 trillion yen, because of increased demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and crude import. This paper presents how nuclear power generation has played an important role in holding down the outflow of national wealth in Japan. More precisely, I was calculated an additional fossil fuel requirement and its import cost to substitute the power generation from nuclear power plant since its first operation in 1965. With this estimation, I had figure out how much loss of national wealth was mitigated by utilizing nuclear energy. (author)

  15. Methodologies of environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroll, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction covering the objectives of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and sustainable development, before going on to describe the screening procedure to define the environmental and socio-economic impacts of projects. The EIA procedure outlined encompasses a description of the project, examination of all environmental effects (scoping), identification of existing and predicted environmental conditions and impacts, alternative measures and mitigating measures, co-ordination, with environmental regulations, public participation, and monitoring and approval of the EIA. (UK)

  16. By 2050 the Mitigation Effects of EU Forests Could Nearly Double through Climate Smart Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Nabuurs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In July 2016, the European Commission (EC published a legislative proposal for incorporating greenhouse gas emissions and removals due to Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF into its 2030 Climate and Energy Framework. The Climate and Energy Framework aims at a total emission reduction of 40% by 2030 for all sectors together as part of the Paris Agreement. The LULUCF proposal regulates a “no debit” target for LULUCF (Forests and Agricultural soils, and regulates the accounting of any additional mitigation potential that might be expected of it. We find that the forest share of the LULUCF sector can achieve much more than what is in the regulation now. We elaborate a strategy for unlocking European Union (EU forests and forest sector potential based on the concept of “climate smart forestry” (CSF. We find that to-date, European policy has not firmly integrated forest potential into the EU climate policy framework. Nor have climate objectives been firmly integrated into those of the forest and forest sector at either the EU or national level. Yet a wide range of measures can be applied to provide positive incentives for more firmly integrating these climate objectives into the forest and forest sector framework. With the right set of incentives in place at EU and Member States levels, we find the current literature supports the view that the EU has the potential to achieve an additional combined mitigation impact through CSF of 441 Mt CO2/year by 2050. In addition, CSF, through reducing and/or removing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting and building forest resilience, and sustainably increasing forest productivity and incomes, tackles multiple policy goals.

  17. Terra Nova Environmental effects monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, U.; Murdoch, M.

    2000-01-01

    Elements of the environmental effects monitoring program in the Terra Nova oil field, about 350 km east-southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland, are described. This oilfield is being developed using a floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) facility. A total of 24 wells are expected to be drilled through seven subsea templates located in four glory holes to protect them from icebergs. Subsea installations will be linked to the FPSO by trenched flowlines connected to flexible risers. The FPSO will offload to shuttle tankers. First oil is expected in 2001. The environmental effects monitoring program will be conducted annually for the first two years beginning in 2000. Subsequent scheduling will be determined after a review of monitoring data collected during the first three years. Input to the design of the monitoring program was provided by all stakeholders, i. e. owners, local public, government agencies and regional and international experts. A model was developed linking project discharges and possible effects to the environment, including marine resources in the area, and the information derived from these activities was used to generate a set of predictions and hypotheses to be tested in the monitoring program. The monitoring program will use two spatial models: a regression or gradient design and a control-impact design. The gradient design will monitor water column and sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity and benthic invertebrate communities. The control-impact design will be used to monitor larger and more mobile fish or shellfish. The evaluated results will serve as the basis for determining impact predictions and to provide information to allow for decisions pertaining to the protection of the marine environment

  18. Understanding and valuing environmental issues: the effects of availability and anchoring on judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pligt, J; van Schie, E C; Hoevenagel, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on people's beliefs and values concerning environmental issues. The first three studies focus on lay people's perceptions of the causes of large scale environmental risks, the second series of three studies deals with how people value environmental goods and how much they are prepared to pay to mitigate environmental risks. In studies 1-3 we investigate the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on estimating the contribution of various factors to large scale environmental risks. Highly complex risks such as acid rain and global warming tend to be associated with multiple causes, and our results show that estimating the role of these causes is clearly affected by availability and anchoring-and-adjustment. Both have sizeable effects and persist over time. Moreover, corrective procedures only seem to have a limited effect. Availability and anchoring-and-adjustment not only play a role in judging the possible causes of risks; they also play a role in research attempting to assess the public's willingness to pay (WTP) to protect our environment. The outcomes of WTP surveys are often used as a tool to help policy decision making. In the second part of this article we present three studies on this issue. Results provide further evidence of the impact of the two heuristics on the outcomes of WTP research. Implications for research and practice are briefly discussed.

  19. State of the art of mitigation and relation mitigation/adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Van Doorn, J.; Verheggen, B.; Sahan, E.; Boersma, A.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    This study has the main purpose to make useful information available for the programming of the Knowledge for Climate (KfC) program. The emphasis has been laid on a broad overview of mitigation options and relations, complemented with more detailed information on new or less known options and insights. The mitigation option biomass gets special attention in this study. The production of biomass has many (positive and negative) relations with other elements of the KfC program like space use and adaptation. Recently a global discussion on biomass usage for biofuels has started (food or fuel). Therefore a separate chapter will be dedicated to the sustainability aspects of biomass. An overview of technical mitigation measures with emphasis on the energy supply side is presented. This overview shows the large number of available and innovative options and the vast potential for reduction of the emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) of these mitigation measures. The effectiveness of many mitigation options is strongly dependent on local conditions and implementation issues. A number of innovative mitigation measures such as aquatic biomass and biomass in combination with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are described in more detail. Biomass for energy has many different forms and applications. It is one of the mitigation options with a high potential, but at the same time it can have negative environmental impacts and might compete with other forms of land use including food production. This makes bio-energy a promising but complex option, which makes careful evaluation necessary. Several examples of multifunctional land use show that by combining functions, synergy can be achieved. This could lead to a reduction of potentially negative impacts and thus easier implementation. Furthermore, novel technologies for reducing or offsetting climate change such as air capture and artificial cooling might have a high potential as mitigation option, but need to be examined before

  20. The Effect of Summer Environmental Education Program (SEEP) on Elementary School Students' Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Summer Environmental Education Program (SEEP) on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, affect, skills and behavior which are the main components of environmental literacy. The sample consisted of 45 students (25 males, 20 females) studying in 4th through 8th grades and living in…

  1. Minimalist fault-tolerance techniques for mitigating single-event effects in non-radiation-hardened microcontrollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Douglas Wyche

    Commercial microcontrollers--monolithic integrated circuits containing microprocessor, memory and various peripheral functions--such as are used in industrial, automotive and military applications, present spacecraft avionics system designers an appealing mix of higher performance and lower power together with faster system-development time and lower unit costs. However, these parts are not radiation-hardened for application in the space environment and Single-Event Effects (SEE) caused by high-energy, ionizing radiation present a significant challenge. Mitigating these effects with techniques which require minimal additional support logic, and thereby preserve the high functional density of these devices, can allow their benefits to be realized. This dissertation uses fault-tolerance to mitigate the transient errors and occasional latchups that non-hardened microcontrollers can experience in the space radiation environment. Space systems requirements and the historical use of fault-tolerant computers in spacecraft provide context. Space radiation and its effects in semiconductors define the fault environment. A reference architecture is presented which uses two or three microcontrollers with a combination of hardware and software voting techniques to mitigate SEE. A prototypical spacecraft function (an inertial measurement unit) is used to illustrate the techniques and to explore how real application requirements impact the fault-tolerance approach. Low-cost approaches which leverage features of existing commercial microcontrollers are analyzed. A high-speed serial bus is used for voting among redundant devices and a novel wire-OR output voting scheme exploits the bidirectional controls of I/O pins. A hardware testbed and prototype software were constructed to evaluate two- and three-processor configurations. Simulated Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) were injected at high rates and the response of the system monitored. The resulting statistics were used to evaluate

  2. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  3. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-04-27

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  4. Environmental effects on molecules immersed in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sese, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology to study environmental effects is thoroughly discussed. It combines molecular quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics of molecular fluids. Pair distribution functions collecting statistical information appear quite naturally in the quantum equations describing a single molecule. As well as allowing the computation of any individual molecular property in a liquid phase, this approach satisfies a number of theoretical requirements (dependence on density and temperature, validity in the thermodynamic limit). In a sense, it can be regarded as a useful alternative to the well-known Monte Carlo averaging processes for calculating molecular properties. Numerical applications studying liquid carbon disulphide and liquid carbon tetrachloride at several state points are given. Results cover typical RHF information (CNDO/2) on molecules, and show the sensitivity of the presented methodology to structural changes in liquids. (orig.)

  5. Effects of Environmental Design on Patient Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess how inpatients were affected by the built environment design during their hospitalization. BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, the healthcare system has become increasingly aware of how focus on healthcare environment might affect patient....... The following databases were searched: Medline/PubMed, Cinahl, and Embase. Inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of built environment design interventions such as music, natural murals, and plants in relation to patients' health outcome. RESULTS: Built environment...... satisfaction. The focus on environmental design has become a field with great potential because of its possible impact on cost control while improving quality of care. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify current and past studies about evidence-based healthcare design...

  6. Evaluation of the crash mitigation effect of low-speed automated emergency braking systems based on insurance claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the crash mitigation performance of low-speed automated emergency braking collision avoidance technologies by examining crash rates, car damage, and personal injuries. Insurance claims data were used to identify rear-end frontal collisions, the specific situations where the low-speed automated emergency braking system intervenes. We compared cars of the same model (Volvo V70) with and without the low-speed automated emergency braking system (AEB and no AEB, respectively). Distributions of spare parts required for car repair were analyzed to identify car damage, and crash severity was estimated by comparing the results with laboratory crash tests. Repair costs and occupant injuries were investigated for both the striking and the struck vehicle. Rear-end frontal collisions were reduced by 27% for cars with low-speed AEB compared to cars without the system. Those of low severity were reduced by 37%, though more severe crashes were not reduced. Accordingly, the number of injured occupants in vehicles struck by low-speed AEB cars was reduced in low-severity crashes. In offset crash configurations, the system was found to be less effective. This study adds important information about the safety performance of collision avoidance technologies, beyond the number of crashes avoided. By combining insurance claims data and information from spare parts used, the study demonstrates a mitigating effect of low-speed AEB in real-world traffic.

  7. A systematic review of the effectiveness of liming to mitigate impacts of river acidification on fish and macro-invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mant, Rebecca C.; Jones, David L.; Reynolds, Brian; Ormerod, Steve J.; Pullin, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    The addition of calcium carbonate to catchments or watercourses – liming – has been used widely to mitigate freshwater acidification but the abatement of acidifying emissions has led to questions about its effectiveness and necessity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of liming streams and rivers on two key groups of river organisms: fish and invertebrates. On average, liming increased the abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates and increased overall fish abundance, but benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all rivers. Where B-A-C-I designs (before-after-control-impact) were used to reduce bias, there was evidence that liming decreased overall invertebrate abundance. This systematic review indicates that liming has the potential to mitigate the symptoms of acidification in some instances, but effects are mixed. Future studies should use robust designs to isolate recovery due to liming from decreasing acid deposition, and assess factors affecting liming outcomes. -- Highlights: •In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we asked how river liming affected fish and invertebrates. •On average, liming increased fish abundance. •Liming also increased average abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates. •However, benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all acidified rivers. -- A systematic review showed lime application to acidified rivers increased average fish abundance, and abundance and richness in acid-sensitive invertebrates, but not always

  8. Adaptive Effectiveness of Irrigated Area Expansion in Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yields in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve adaptive capacity and further strengthen the role of irrigation in mitigating climate change impacts, the Chinese government has planned to expand irrigated areas by 4.4% by the 2030s. Examining the adaptive potential of irrigated area expansion under climate change is therefore critical. Here, we assess the effects of irrigated area expansion on crop yields based on county-level data during 1980–2011 in northern China and estimate climate impacts under irrigated area scenarios in the 2030s. Based on regression analysis, there is a statistically significant effect of irrigated area expansion on reducing negative climate impacts. More irrigated areas indicate less heat and drought impacts. Irrigated area expansion will alleviate yield reduction by 0.7–0.8% in the future but associated yield benefits will still not compensate for greater adverse climate impacts. Yields are estimated to decrease by 4.0–6.5% under future climate conditions when an additional 4.4% of irrigated area is established, and no fundamental yield increase with an even further 10% or 15% expansion of irrigated area is predicted. This finding suggests that expected adverse climate change risks in the 2030s cannot be mitigated by expanding irrigated areas. A combination of this and other adaptation programs is needed to guarantee grain production under more serious drought stresses in the future.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures: The case of Xiamen city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianyi; Cao Bin; Cui Shenghui; Wang Wei; Bai Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures, a detailed Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model is developed and applied to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen city. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future energy strategies in relation to the development of Xiamen city. The 'Business as Usual' scenario assumes that the government will do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. An 'Integrated' scenario, on the other hand, is generated to assess the cumulative impact of a series of available reduction measures: clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control, and new and renewable energy development and utilization. The reduction potentials in energy consumption and GHG emissions are estimated for a time span of 2007-2020 under these different scenarios. The calculation results in Xiamen show that the clean energy substitution measure is the most effective in terms of energy saving and GHG emissions mitigation, while the industrial sector has the largest abatement potential.

  10. The environmental effects of dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, G; Chong, J; Kluczewska, A; Lau, A; Gorjy, S; Tennant, M

    2000-12-01

    Dental amalgam is one of the most commonly used materials in restorative dentistry. However, one of its major components, mercury, is of particular concern due to its potential adverse effects on humans and the environment. In this review, the environmental impact of dental amalgam will be discussed, with particular reference to the effects attributed to its mercury component. Mercury commonly occurs in nature as sulfides and in a number of minerals. Globally, between 20,000-30,000 tons of mercury are discharged into the environment each year as a result of human activities. According to a recent German report, approximately 46 per cent of the freshly triturated amalgam is inserted as new amalgam restorations and the rest is waste. Depending on the presence of an amalgam separating unit, some of the generated amalgam-contaminated sludge is discharged into the sewage system. Lost or extracted teeth with amalgam fillings and amalgam-contaminated waste, such as trituration capsules and cotton rolls are discharged with the solid waste and, in most instances, are incinerated. Use of disinfectants containing oxidizing substances in dental aspirator kits may contribute to remobilization of mercury and its subsequent release into the environment. Nevertheless, dental mercury contamination is only a small proportion of terrestrial mercury (3-4 per cent), which is quite insignificant compared with industrial pollution and combustion of fossil fuels by vehicles. The environmental impact of dental mercury is mainly due to the poor management of dental amalgam waste. Proper collection of mercury-contaminated solid waste prevents the release of mercury vapour during combustion. In addition, the use of amalgam separating devices reduces the amount of amalgam-contaminated water released from dental clinics.

  11. Incorporating cumulative effects into environmental assessments of mariculture: Limitations and failures of current siting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Sarah C.; Pushchak, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Assessing and evaluating the cumulative impacts of multiple marine aquaculture facilities has proved difficult in environmental assessment. A retrospective review of 23 existing mariculture farms in southwestern New Brunswick was conducted to determine whether cumulative interactions would have justified site approvals. Based on current scientific evidence of cumulative effects, six new criteria were added to a set of far-field impacts and other existing criteria were expanded to include regional and cumulative environmental impacts in Hargrave's [Hargrave BT. A traffic light decision system for marine finfish aquaculture siting. Ocean Coast Manag 2002; 45:215-35.] Traffic Light Decision Support System (DSS) presently used in Canadian aquaculture environmental assessments. Before mitigation, 19 of the 23 sites failed the amended set of criteria and after considering mitigation, 8 sites failed. Site and ecosystem indices yielded varying site acceptability scores; however, many sites would not have been approved if siting decisions had been made within a regional management framework and cumulative impact criteria were considered in the site evaluation process

  12. Mitigation by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mitigation or 'the act of bringing together' is not to be confused with applied architectural or landscape cosmetics to render development which has been predesigned in terms of engineering parameters to be more 'seemly' or 'attractive'. It is more profoundly an exercise in simultaneous engineering and environmental analysis in which the level of synthesis between the elements of construction and the elements of the physical environment is fundamental to the ultimate design success of projects. This text, having looked firstly at the nature of design and the characteristics of design processes and procedures, considers the linkages and interaction between design and the statutory land use planning system through which major development projects in Scotland are authorised. A case study of the development of the oil handling terminal at Flotta, Orkney, is included to demonstrate the implications of certain problems related to mitigation by design. (author)

  13. Irradiation embrittlement mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torronen, K.; Pelli, R.; Planman, T.; Valo, M.

    1993-01-01

    Mitigation methods for reducing the irradiation damage on pressure vessel materials are reviewed: load leakage loading schemes are commonly used in PWRs to mitigate reactor pressure vessel embrittlement; dummy assemblies have been applied in WWER 440-type and in some old western power plants, when exceptional fast embrittlement has been encountered; shielding of the pressure vessel has been developed, but is not in common use; pre-stressing the pressure vessel has been proposed for preventing PTS failures, but its applicability is not yet demonstrated. The large number of successful annealing treatments performed in WWER 440 type reactors as well as research on the effects of annealing treatments suggest applications for western PWRs. The emergency core cooling systems have been modified in WWER 440-type reactors in connection with other mitigation measures. (authors). 37 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Irradiation embrittlement mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torronen, K; Pelli, R; Planman, T; Valo, M [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Combustion and Thermal Engineering Lab.

    1994-12-31

    Mitigation methods for reducing the irradiation damage on pressure vessel materials are reviewed: load leakage loading schemes are commonly used in PWRs to mitigate reactor pressure vessel embrittlement; dummy assemblies have been applied in WWER 440-type and in some old western power plants, when exceptional fast embrittlement has been encountered; shielding of the pressure vessel has been developed, but is not in common use; pre-stressing the pressure vessel has been proposed for preventing PTS failures, but its applicability is not yet demonstrated. The large number of successful annealing treatments performed in WWER 440 type reactors as well as research on the effects of annealing treatments suggest applications for western PWRs. The emergency core cooling systems have been modified in WWER 440-type reactors in connection with other mitigation measures. (authors). 37 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Natural canopy bridges effectively mitigate tropical forest fragmentation for arboreal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Tremaine; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Alonso, Alfonso; Kolowski, Joseph; Deichmann, Jessica L

    2017-06-20

    Linear infrastructure development and resulting habitat fragmentation are expanding in Neotropical forests, and arboreal mammals may be disproportionately impacted by these linear habitat clearings. Maintaining canopy connectivity through preservation of connecting branches (i.e. natural canopy bridges) may help mitigate that impact. Using camera traps, we evaluated crossing rates of a pipeline right-of-way in a control area with no bridges and in a test area where 13 bridges were left by the pipeline construction company. Monitoring all canopy crossing points for a year (7,102 canopy camera nights), we confirmed bridge use by 25 mammal species from 12 families. With bridge use beginning immediately after exposure and increasing over time, use rates were over two orders of magnitude higher than on the ground. We also found a positive relationship between a bridge's use rate and the number of species that used it, suggesting well-used bridges benefit multiple species. Data suggest bridge use may be related to a combination of bridge branch connectivity, multiple connections, connectivity to adjacent forest, and foliage cover. Given the high use rate and minimal cost, we recommend all linear infrastructure projects in forests with arboreal mammal populations include canopy bridges.

  16. The pro-inflammatory effects of platelet contamination in plasma and mitigation strategies for avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovitz, R. S.; Kelher, M. R.; Khan, S. Y.; Land, K. J.; Berry, T. H.; Silliman, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma and platelet concentrates are disproportionately implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Platelet-derived pro-inflammatory mediators, including soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), accumulate during storage. We hypothesized that platelet contamination induces sCD40L generation that causes neutrophil [polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN)] priming and PMN-mediated cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods Plasma was untreated, centrifuged (12 500 g) or separated from leucoreduced whole blood (WBLR) prior to freezing. Platelet counts and sCD40L concentrations were measured 1–5 days post-thaw. The plasma was assayed for PMN priming activity and was used in a two-event in vitro model of PMN-mediated human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC) cytotoxicity. Results Untreated plasma contained 42 ± 4.2 × 103/μl platelets, which generated sCD40L accumulation (1.6-eight-fold vs. controls). Priming activity and HMVEC cytotoxicity were directly proportional to sCD40L concentration. WBLR and centrifugation reduced platelet and sCD40L contamination, abrogating the pro-inflammatory potential. Conclusion Platelet contamination causes sCD40L accumulation in stored plasma that may contribute to TRALI. Platelet reduction is potentially the first TRALI mitigation effort in plasma manufacturing. PMID:22092073

  17. The effect of severe accident mitigation design on the containment performance for Korean ALWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. H.; Lee, J. S.; Lim, H. K.; Kim, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The containment performance analysis for Korean ALWR standard design has been performed to confirm the safety goal and to identify the design features vulnerable to severe accidents for the on-going design. The results in terms of conditional containment failure probability show Korean ALWR design does not have any particular vulnerability given core damage sequences. It shows the conditional containment failure probability for pull power internal event is less than that of design goal. The late containment failure is much less than 4% for given core damages and that of containment bypass is about 2%. New design features of the Korean ALWR such as bydrogen mitigation system (IIMS), cavity flooding system (CFS), and emergency containment spray bakcup system (ECSBS), external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC), etc. are reflected in Korean ALWR design and is reviewed in this paper to give an insight for the design vulnerabilities and input to the development of accident management. These Korean ALWR specific design features showed the containment performance is significantly enhanced compared with the other PWR plants

  18. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    would reduce the food N footprint by ~60%. Such a reduction would result in significant lessening of the impacts of societal use of food resources on both ecosystem and human health. The personal food nitrogen footprints will then be linked to environmental effects based on the N species of the nitrogen footprint. Environmental effects considered will include global warming, air quality, drinking water quality, eutrophication, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Each of the scenarios will be scaled up to represent the full population of the United States, and the total national nitrogen reductions and the impact on environmental effects will be reported. The results of this analysis will help us begin to solve the human dimension of the nitrogen challenge by showing how different personal choices impact nitrogen losses and the environment. This information can then educate and empower consumers to make informed decisions about their food choices.

  19. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  20. Small-scale electricity generating facilities from natural gas : a measure to mitigate the greenhouse effect; Microgeneracion de energia con gas natural: una medida efectiva para mitigar el cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2002-07-01

    The forthcoming liberalization of the gas and electricity markets in Europe, in conjunction with the increase of the global energy consumption in the near future are enabling the development of natural gas alternatives to traditional large-scale centralized power plants. They emerged from research suggesting that the use of small-scale electricity generating facilities dispersed throughout the electrical network, provides the electricity system with measurable technical, economic and environmental benefits. In this sense, the distributed generation powered by cogeneration systems offers the biggest measure to mitigate the greenhouse effect due to the carbon dioxide. (Author)

  1. Environmental effects of alternative energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinghorst, D.

    1975-06-01

    The exponential increase of the energy consumption has reduced the possibility to pollute air and land so much that the detrimental external effects of economic activities must be regarded in energy modelling. That means to analyse the interdependent connections between the economic system and the environment and to picture the structure of the real system on a mathematical model. To do this, System Dynamics models were developed. Beside the relevant technical variables also sociological variables such as 'public pressure' or 'lobby pressure' were regarded. So it was possible to break open the 'ceteris paribus' assumption of the constant sociological and political influences. The environmental effect of various policies to meet the energy demand were critically examined in simulation runs. It was demonstrated that the pollution of the atmosphere will decrease in the beginning of the 80ies. This is based on the implementation of a new energy technology with a lower pollution and, on the other side, on the increasing amount of pollution control. (orig.) [de

  2. Environmental effects on underwater optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Peter C.; Breshears, Brian F.; Cullen, Alexander J.; Hammerer, Ross F.; Martinez, Ramon P.; Phung, Thai Q.; Margolina, Tetyana; Fan, Chenwu

    2017-05-01

    Optical communication/detection systems have potential to get around some limitations of current acoustic communications and detection systems especially increased fleet and port security in noisy littoral waters. Identification of environmental effects on underwater optical transmission is the key to the success of using optics for underwater communication and detection. This paper is to answer the question "What are the transfer and correlation functions that relate measurements of hydrographic to optical parameters?" Hydrographic and optical data have been collected from the Naval Oceanographic Office survey ships with the High Intake Defined Excitation (HIDEX) photometer and sea gliders with optical back scattering sensor in various Navy interested areas such as the Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, east Asian marginal seas, and Adriatic Sea. The data include temperature, salinity, bioluminescence, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, transmissivity at two different wavelengths (TRed at 670 nm, TBlue at 490 nm), and back scattering coefficient (bRed at 700 nm, bBlue at 470 nm). Transfer and correlation functions between the hydrographic and optical parameters are obtained. Bioluminescence and fluorescence maxima, transmissivity minimum with their corresponding depths, red and blue laser beam peak attenuation coefficients are identified from the optical profiles. Evident correlations are found between the ocean mixed layer depth and the blue and red laser beam peak attenuation coefficients, bioluminescence and fluorescence maxima in the Adriatic Sea, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and Philippine Sea. Based on the observational data, an effective algorithm is recommended for solving the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for predicting underwater laser radiance.

  3. Radon mitigation experience in difficult-to-mitigate schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Initial radon mitigation experience in schools has shown sub-slab depressurization (SSD) to be generally effective in reducing elevated levels of radon in schools that have a continuous layer of clean, coarse aggregate underneath the slab. However, mitigation experience is limited in schools without sub-slab aggregate and in schools with characteristics such as return-air ductwork underneath the slab or unducted return-air plenums in the drop ceiling that are open to the sub-slab area (via open tops of block walls). Mitigation of schools with utility tunnels and of schools constructed over crawl spaces is also limited. Three Maryland schools exhibiting some of the above characteristics are being researched to help understand the mechanisms that control radon entry and mitigation in schools where standard SSD systems are not effective. This paper discusses specific characteristics of potentially difficult-to-mitigate schools and, where applicable, details examples from the three Maryland schools

  4. The unintended consequences of maternity leaves: How agency interventions mitigate the negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Krstic, Anja; Trau, Raymond N C; Zarina, Tanya

    2018-06-07

    To support women in the workplace, longer legislated maternity leaves have been encouraged in Scandinavian countries and recently in Canada. Yet, past research shows that longer legislated maternity leaves (i.e., 1 year and longer) may unintentionally harm women's career progress. To address this issue, we first sought to identify one potential mechanism underlying negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves: others' lower perceptions of women's agency. Second, we utilize this knowledge to test interventions that boost others' perceptions of women's agency and thus mitigate negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves. We test our hypotheses in three studies in the context of Canadian maternity leave policies. Specifically, in Study 1, we found that others' lower perceptions of women's agency mediated the negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave, that is, 1 year (vs. shorter, i.e., 1 month maternity leave) on job commitment. In Study 2, we found that providing information about a woman's agency mitigates the unintended negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave on job commitment and hireability. In Study 3, we showed that use of a corporate program that enables women to stay in touch with the workplace while on maternity leave (compared to conditions in which no such program was offered; a program was offered but not used by the applicant; and the program was offered, but there was no information about its usage by the applicant) enhances agency perceptions and perceptions of job commitment and hireability. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Earthquakes, public spaces and (the social construction of environmental disasters. The role of public space for risk mitigation and urban redevelopment and the role of environmental disasters for re­ assessing the ‘space of the Public’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pizzo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from long­lasting research dedicated to urban risk reduction through a planning approach. It focuses on public space, proposing an inversion of the usual perspective: instead of considering public spaces for risk mitigation and urban redevelopment, here the imperatives of environmental safety and urban resilience can be instrumental for exploring the meaning and role of the public space from a different, rather compelling point of view. One starting point is the concept of SUM, Strategic Urban Structure (or Framework, from the Italian “Struttura urbana minima”, which has been introduced in order to set out the contents of urban risk reduction in local administration agendas and particularly into ordinary planning processes. The SUM has been conceived both as an analytical and a normative/planning tool. Public spaces are the backbone of both urban structure and of the SUM. From their features, localization, distribution within thesettlement, and their systemic characters, largely depend the capacity of a town to positively react to a seismic event. Six case­studies of small and medium­size historic towns in the Umbria Region (one of the many Italian Regions with a high level of seismic risk, help to understand the complexities and problems related to seismic prevention within historical centres, and the conflicts between conservation of the heritage and the imperatives of environmental safety. In order to overcome possible criticalities identified in a SUM, it is necessary to provide alternatives to its functioning through redundant elements. The concept of redundancy, which is strictly related to that of uncertainty, is very interesting and promising in this field of research.

  6. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, Carsten; Wartmann, Sina; Höhne, Niklas; Blok, Kornelis

    2014-01-01

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  7. Energy efficiency, rebound effects and the environmental Kuznets Curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Karen, E-mail: karen.turner@stir.ac.uk; Hanley, Nick

    2011-09-15

    Technological change is one factor used to justify the existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve, and technological improvements have been argued to be a key factor in mitigating the impacts of economic growth on environmental quality. In this paper we use a CGE model of the Scottish economy to consider the factors influencing the impacts of one form of technological change-improvements in energy efficiency-on absolute levels of CO2 emissions, on the carbon intensity of the economy (CO2 emissions relative to real GDP), and the per capita EKC relationship. These factors include the elasticity of substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, responses in the labour market and the structure of the economy. Our results demonstrate the key role played by the general equilibrium price elasticity of demand for energy, and the relative influence of different factors on this parameter.

  8. Energy efficiency, rebound effects and the environmental Kuznets Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Karen; Hanley, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Technological change is one factor used to justify the existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve, and technological improvements have been argued to be a key factor in mitigating the impacts of economic growth on environmental quality. In this paper we use a CGE model of the Scottish economy to consider the factors influencing the impacts of one form of technological change-improvements in energy efficiency-on absolute levels of CO2 emissions, on the carbon intensity of the economy (CO2 emissions relative to real GDP), and the per capita EKC relationship. These factors include the elasticity of substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, responses in the labour market and the structure of the economy. Our results demonstrate the key role played by the general equilibrium price elasticity of demand for energy, and the relative influence of different factors on this parameter.

  9. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  10. Forecasting the effects of land use scenarios on farmland birds reveal a potential mitigation of climate change impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Princé

    Full Text Available Climate and land use changes are key drivers of current biodiversity trends, but interactions between these drivers are poorly modeled, even though they could amplify or mitigate negative impacts of climate change. Here, we attempt to predict the impacts of different agricultural change scenarios on common breeding birds within farmland included in the potential future climatic suitable areas for these species. We used the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES to integrate likely changes in species climatic suitability, based on species distribution models, and changes in area of farmland, based on the IMAGE model, inside future climatic suitable areas. We also developed six farmland cover scenarios, based on expert opinion, which cover a wide spectrum of potential changes in livestock farming and cropping patterns by 2050. We ran generalized linear mixed models to calibrate the effects of farmland cover and climate change on bird specific abundance within 386 small agricultural regions. We used model outputs to predict potential changes in bird populations on the basis of predicted changes in regional farmland cover, in area of farmland and in species climatic suitability. We then examined the species sensitivity according to their habitat requirements. A scenario based on extensification of agricultural systems (i.e., low-intensity agriculture showed the greatest potential to reduce reverse current declines in breeding birds. To meet ecological requirements of a larger number of species, agricultural policies accounting for regional disparities and landscape structure appear more efficient than global policies uniformly implemented at national scale. Interestingly, we also found evidence that farmland cover changes can mitigate the negative effect of climate change. Here, we confirm that there is a potential for countering negative effects of climate change by adaptive management of landscape. We argue that such studies will help inform

  11. Caffeine administration at night during extended wakefulness effectively mitigates performance impairment but not subjective assessments of fatigue and sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Gemma M; Banks, Siobhan; Pajcin, Maja; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Vedova, Chris B Della

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated caffeine administration on performance and subjective reports of sleepiness and fatigue during 50h extended wakefulness. Twenty-four, non-smokers aged 22.5±2.9y (mean±SD) remained awake for two nights (50h) in a controlled laboratory environment. During this period, 200mg of caffeine or placebo gum was administered at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00 and 07:00 on both nights (total of 800mg/night). Neurobehavioral performance and subjective reports were assessed throughout the wake period. Caffeine improved performance compared to placebo, but did not affect overall ratings of subjective sleepiness and fatigue. Performance and sleepiness worsened with increasing time awake for both conditions. However, caffeine slowed performance impairments such that after 50h of wakefulness performance was better following caffeine administration compared to placebo. Caffeine also slowed the increase in subjective sleepiness and performance ratings, but only during the first night of wakefulness. After two nights of sleep deprivation, there was no difference in sleepiness ratings between the two conditions. These results demonstrate that strategic administration of caffeine effectively mitigates performance impairments associated with 50h wakefulness but does not improve overall subjective assessments of sleepiness, fatigue and performance. Results indicate that while performance impairment is alleviated, individuals may continue to report feelings of sleepiness. Individuals who use caffeine as a countermeasure in sustained operations may feel as though caffeine is not effective despite impairments in objective performance being largely mitigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, A. [Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Faculty of Economics, Ryukoku University, Otsu (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership.

  13. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership

  14. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  15. Environmental effects of exploratory drilling offshore Canada : environmental effects monitoring data and literature review : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, G.; Ellis, J.

    2004-10-01

    This study examined pertinent environmental effects monitoring (EEM) information and data associated with offshore exploratory and development drilling in Canada. Two approaches were used: (1) a review of scientific literature was conducted to provide a synthesis of knowledge concerning interactions between exploratory drilling and the environment; and (2) a review of pertinent Canadian EEM data was conducted to evaluate interactions between exploratory drilling and the environment. Virtually all the east coast Canadian data reviewed in the study related to the effects of multiple wells. Although the effects of drilling waste were a primary focus, the effects of accidental discharges, lights and flaring, atmospheric emissions and noise emissions were also considered. Changes in the diversity and abundance of benthic organisms were detected within 1000 metres of many drill sites. The fine particles in drilling wastes contributed to the environmental effects observed around drilling platforms, and elevated body burden concentrations of drill waste indicators were detected over larger scales in a wide range of taxonomic groups. The results of laboratory and field studies suggested a lower potential for toxicity on commercial finfish and shellfish species. However, it was observed that measuring the effects of elevated concentrations of contaminants remained a challenge due to high levels variability in literature studies. A precautionary approach to the management of seismic surveys was recommended. It was concluded that the potential cumulative impacts of exploration drilling should be considered in the context of other anthropogenic activities. 138 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO 2 and SO 3 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x NO + NO 2 ) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO 2 and NO x are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas

  17. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G

    1999-07-01

    Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} NO + NO{sub 2}) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in

  18. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  19. Mining-related environmental impacts of carbon mitigation; Coal-based carbon capture and sequestration and wind-enabling transmission expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubert, Emily

    2010-09-15

    Carbon mitigation can occur by preventing generation of greenhouse gases or by preventing emissions from entering the atmosphere. Accordingly, increasing the use of wind energy or carbon capture and storage (CCS) at coal-fired power plants could reduce carbon emissions. This work compares the direct mining impacts of increased coal demand associated with CCS with those of increased aluminum demand for expanding transmission systems to enable wind power incorporation. Aluminum needs for expanded transmission probably represent a one-time need for about 1.5% of Jamaica's annual bauxite production, while CCS coal needs for the same mitigation could almost double US coal demand.

  20. Environmental effects of uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibbs, N.H.; Rath, D.L.; Donovan, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium exploration and mining is increasing as the Nation's demand for energy grows. The environmental impacts associated with this exploration and mining are not severe and compare favorably with impacts from the production of other energy resources

  1. Environmental effect of constructed wetland as biofuel production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Being as a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted worldwide attention. Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Biofuel may offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but serious concerns arise about the adverse greenhouse gas consequences from using nitrogen fertilizers. Waste-nitrogen recycling is an attractive idea. Here we advocate a win-win approach to biofuel production which takes advantage of excessive nitrogen in domestic wastewater treated via constructed wetland (CW) in China. This study will carry on environmental effect analysis of CW as a biomass generation system through field surveys and controllable simulated experiments. This study intends to evaluate net energy balance, net greenhouse effect potential and ecosystem service of CW as biomass generation system, and make comparation with traditional wastewater treatment plant and other biofuel production systems. This study can provide a innovation mode in order to solve the dilemma between energy crops competed crops on production land and excessive nitrogen fertilizer of our traditional energy plant production. Data both from our experimental CWs in China and other researches on comparable CWs worldwide showed that the biomass energy yield of CWs can reach 182.3 GJ ha-1 yr-1, which was two to eight times higher than current biofuel-production systems. Energy output from CW was ˜137% greater than energy input for biofuel production. If CWs are designed with specific goal of biofuel production, biofuel production can be greatly enhanced through the optimization of N supply, hydraulic structures, and species selection in CWs. Assuming that 2.0 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) waste nitrogen contained in domestic wastewater is treated by CWs, biofuel production can account for 1.2% of national gasoline consumption in China. The proportion would increase to 6.7% if extra nitrogen (9.5 Tg) from industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff was included

  2. Urban heat island effect: A systematic review of spatio-temporal factors, data, methods, and mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilami, Kaveh; Kamruzzaman, Md.; Liu, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Despite research on urban heat island (UHI) effect has increased exponentially over the last few decades, a systematic review of factors contributing to UHI effect has scarcely been reported in the literature. This paper provides a systematic and overarching review of different spatial and temporal factors affecting the UHI effect. UHI is a phenomenon when urban areas experience a higher temperature than their surrounding non-urban areas and is considered as a critical factor contributing to global warming, heat related mortalities, and unpredictable climatic changes. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify the spatio-temporal factors that contribute to (or mitigate) the UHI effect in order to develop a thorough understanding of their causal mechanism so that these are addressed through urban planning policies. This paper systematically identified 75 eligible studies on UHI effect and reviews the nature and type of satellite images used, the techniques applied to classify land cover/use changes, the models to assess the link between spatio-temporal factors and UHI effect, and the effects of these factors on UHI. The review results show that: a) 54% of the studies used Landsat TM images for modelling the UHI effect followed by Landsat ETM (34%), and MODIS (28%); b) land cover indices (46%), followed by supervised classification (17%) were the dominant methods to derive land cover/use changes associated with UHI effect; c) ordinary least square regression is the most commonly applied method (68%) to investigate the link between different spatio-temporal factors and the UHI effect followed by comparative analysis (33%); and d) the most common factors affecting the UHI effect as reported in the reviewed studies, include vegetation cover (44%), season (33%), built-up area (28%), day/night (25%), population density (14%), water body (12%) together with others. This research discusses the findings in policy terms and provides directions for future research.

  3. N-acetyl cysteine mitigates the acute effects of cocaine-induced toxicity in astroglia-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh B Badisa

    Full Text Available Cocaine has a short half-life of only about an hour but its effects, predominantly on the central nervous system (CNS, are fairly long-lasting. Of all cells within the CNS, astrocytes may be the first to display cocaine toxicity owing to their relative abundance in the brain. Cocaine entry could trigger several early response changes that adversely affect their survival, and inhibiting these changes could conversely increase their rate of survival. In order to identify these changes and the minimal concentrations of cocaine that can elicit them in vitro, rat C6 astroglia-like cells were treated with cocaine (2-4 mM for 1h and assayed for alterations in gross cell morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolation, viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, glutathione (GSH levels, cell membrane integrity, F-actin cytoskeleton, and histone methylation. We report here that all of the above identified features are significantly altered by cocaine, and may collectively represent the key pathology underlying acute toxicity-mediated death of astroglia-like cells. Pretreatment of the cells with the clinically available antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 5 mM for 30 min inhibited these changes during subsequent application of cocaine and mitigated cocaine-induced toxicity. Despite repeated cocaine exposure, NAC pretreated cells remained highly viable and post NAC treatment also increased viability of cocaine treated cells to a smaller yet significant level. We show further that this alleviation by NAC is mediated through an increase in GSH levels in the cells. These findings, coupled with the fact that astrocytes maintain neuronal integrity, suggest that compounds which target and mitigate these early toxic changes in astrocytes could have a potentially broad therapeutic role in cocaine-induced CNS damage.

  4. Modulation of differentiation and self-renewal of tissue specific stem cells for effective mitigation of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, Mayuri; Patwardhan, R.S.; Maurya, Dharmendra K.; Bhilwade, Hari N.; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine for the treatment of various human diseases is one of the active research areas. The aim of regenerative medicine is to restore normal tissue functions by replenishing injured tissues using either cell-based therapy or by inducing certain factors that can aid endogenous repair and regeneration. The approach for inducing endogenous repair and regeneration requires in vivo modulation of tissue-specific stem cells by therapeutic agents and enhance their abundance through activation, proliferation, differentiation, or reprogramming. Here we describe three different approaches to enhance the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells in vivo for mitigation of radiation induced toxicity. Baicalein, a flavonoid derived from Chinese and Indian medicinal plants like Scutellaria baicalensis and Terminalia ariuna enhanced the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells through activation of Nrf-2 in the lineage negative cells. Another anti-oxidant, chlorophyllin derived from green plant pigment, chlorophyll also enhanced the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells through modulation of cell cycle in cells of the bone marrow. Treatment of mice with Cobaltus chloride (CoCl_2), a well-known activator of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIP-1α), also led to increase in the number of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Whereas chlorophyllin offered up to 100 % protection against whole body irradiation (WBI, 8 Gy) induced mortality in mice, baicalein offered up to70%protection. Cobaltus chloride treatment offered 40% protection against 8 Gy of WBI. These studies indicate potential use of stem cell modulating agents as effective mitigators of radiation induced toxicity in vivo. (author)

  5. Assessment of transboundary environmental effects in the Pearl River Delta Region: Is there a role for strategic environmental assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Simon

    2011-01-01

    China's EIA Law does not require transboundary proposals to be assessed, despite recognition of this globally, for example in the Espoo Convention and Kiev Protocol, and in the European EIA and SEA Directives. In a transboundary context assessment within a state is unusual, as regulating these effects is primarily about the relationship between states. However where a state has more than one legal system such as in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of southern China, transboundary effects should also be addressed. Yet despite the geographical connections between Guangdong Province in mainland China (where the EIA Law applies) and the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions (which have their own provisions, neither of which requires transboundary assessments), EIA and SEA are carried out separately. Coordinated or joint approaches to transboundary assessment are generally absent, with the legal autonomy of Hong Kong and Macau a major constraint. As a result institutional responses at the policy level have developed. The article considers global experiences with regulating transboundary EIA and SEA, and analyses potential application to land use, transport and air and water planning in the PRD Region. If applied, benefits may include prevention or mitigation of cumulative effects, broader public participation, and improvements to environmental governance. The PRD Region experience may encourage China to conduct and coordinate EIA and SEA processes with neighbouring states, which has been non-existent or extremely limited to date.

  6. Radiolytic model of Cofrentes NPP using the BWRVIA: analysis of the effectiveness of mitigation in localizations of the vessel with noble metal application on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Zapata, J. D.; Martin-Serrano, C.

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry is one of the principal factors that takes part in IGSCC materials susceptibility. BWR industry has been applying different mitigation techniques against IGSCC: hydrogen injection and noble metals. Mitigation effectiveness is checked by studying chemical parameters: ECP (for hydrogen injection) and Molar Ratio (for noble metal application). There is a software from EPRI called BWRVIA that allows to modelize radiolysis influence in parameters variation and obtain them at different points in the vessel. Recently, this kind of studies have become very relevant within BWR industry because it is the previous step to implement BWRVIP-62-A guidelines in order to get longer inspection intervals at vessel location where mitigation effectiveness is justified, with the cost savings for plants that this means. (Author)

  7. Does Power Distance Exacerbate or Mitigate the Effects of Abusive Supervision? It Depends on the Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Huiwen; Ferris, D. Lance; Brown, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that the effects of abusive supervision are likely to be moderated by subordinate power distance orientation and that the nature of the moderating effect will depend on the outcome. Drawing upon work suggesting that high power distance orientation subordinates are more tolerant of supervisory mistreatment, we posited that high power…

  8. Environmental Impact from Outdoor/Environmental Education Programs: Effects of Frequent Stream Classes on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossley, Jon P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stewardship is an underlying theme in outdoor education (OE) and environmental education (EE), but maintaining natural areas in a sustainable balance between conservation and preservation requires knowledge about how natural areas respond to anthropogenic disturbance. My five-part study investigated the effects of disturbance on…

  9. Effects of a 1-Day Environmental Education Intervention on Environmental Attitudes and Connectedness with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Besides cognitive learning effects, short-term environmental education (EE) is often regarded as ineffective in intervening with participants' environmental attitudes and behaviour. However, in Germany, school classes often participate in such 1-day EE programmes because they better match the school curriculum in contrast to longer (residential)…

  10. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  11. Evaluation and mitigation of the interplay effects for intensity modulated proton therapy for lung cancer in a clinical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardar, Laleh; Li, Yupeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Cao, Wenhua; Chang, Joe Y.; Liao, Li; Zhu, Ronald X.; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Liao, Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Lim, Gino; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of interplay effects for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans for lung cancer in the clinical setting. The secondary aim was to explore the technique of iso-layered re-scanning for mitigating these interplay effects. Methods and Materials Single-fraction 4D dynamic dose without considering re-scanning (1FX dynamic dose) was used as a metric to determine the magnitude of dosimetric degradation caused by 4D interplay effects. The 1FX dynamic dose was calculated by simulating the machine delivery processes of proton spot scanning on moving patient described by 4D computed tomography (4DCT) during the IMPT delivery. The dose contributed from an individual spot was fully calculated on the respiratory phase corresponding to the life span of that spot, and the final dose was accumulated to a reference CT phase by using deformable image registration. The 1FX dynamic dose was compared with the 4D composite dose. Seven patients with various tumor volumes and motions were selected. Results The CTV prescription coverage for the 7 patients were 95.04%, 95.38%, 95.39%, 95.24%, 95.65%, 95.90%, and 95.53%, calculated with use of the 4D composite dose, and were 89.30%, 94.70%, 85.47%, 94.09%, 79.69%, 91.20%, and 94.19% with use of the 1FX dynamic dose. For the 7 patients, the CTV coverage, calculated by using single-fraction dynamic dose, were 95.52%, 95.32%, 96.36%, 95.28%, 94.32%, 95.53%, and 95.78%, using maximum MU limit value of 0.005. In other words, by increasing the number of delivered spots in each fraction, the degradation of CTV coverage improved up to 14.6%. Conclusions Single-fraction 4D dynamic dose without re-scanning was validated as a surrogate to evaluate the interplay effects for IMPT for lung cancer in the clinical setting. The interplay effects can be potentially mitigated by increasing the number of iso-layered re-scanning in each fraction delivery. PMID:25407877

  12. Evaluation and mitigation of the interplay effects of intensity modulated proton therapy for lung cancer in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardar, Laleh; Li, Yupeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Cao, Wenhua; Chang, Joe Y; Liao, Li; Zhu, Ronald X; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Liao, Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D; Lim, Gino; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the interplay effects of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans for lung cancer in the clinical setting. The secondary aim was to explore the technique of isolayered rescanning to mitigate these interplay effects. A single-fraction 4-dimensional (4D) dynamic dose without considering rescanning (1FX dynamic dose) was used as a metric to determine the magnitude of dosimetric degradation caused by 4D interplay effects. The 1FX dynamic dose was calculated by simulating the machine delivery processes of proton spot scanning on a moving patient, described by 4D computed tomography during IMPT delivery. The dose contributed from an individual spot was fully calculated on the respiratory phase that corresponded to the life span of that spot, and the final dose was accumulated to a reference computed tomography phase by use of deformable image registration. The 1FX dynamic dose was compared with the 4D composite dose. Seven patients with various tumor volumes and motions were selected for study. The clinical target volume (CTV) prescription coverage for the 7 patients was 95.04%, 95.38%, 95.39%, 95.24%, 95.65%, 95.90%, and 95.53% when calculated with the 4D composite dose and 89.30%, 94.70%, 85.47%, 94.09%, 79.69%, 91.20%, and 94.19% when calculated with the 1FX dynamic dose. For these 7 patients, the CTV coverage calculated by use of a single-fraction dynamic dose was 95.52%, 95.32%, 96.36%, 95.28%, 94.32%, 95.53%, and 95.78%, with a maximum monitor unit limit value of 0.005. In other words, by increasing the number of delivered spots in each fraction, the degradation of CTV coverage improved up to 14.6%. A single-fraction 4D dynamic dose without rescanning was validated as a surrogate to evaluate the interplay effects of IMPT for lung cancer in the clinical setting. The interplay effects potentially can be mitigated by increasing the amount of isolayered rescanning in each fraction delivery.

  13. Mitigation of salt stress in white clover (Trifolium repens) by Azospirillum brasilense and its inoculation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Wang, Hang; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-12-01

    Salinity is one of the increasingly serious environmental problems worldwide for cultivating agricultural crops. The present study was aimed to ascertain the potential of beneficial soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense to alleviate saline stress in Trifolium repens. Experimental plants (white clover) were grown from seeds and inoculated with or without A. brasilense bacterial strain supplemented with 0, 40, 80, or 120 mM NaCl into soil. The growth attributes including, shoot heights, root lengths, fresh and dry weights, leaf area and chlorophyll content were significantly enhanced in T. repens plants grown in A. brasilense inoculated soil than un-inoculated controls, particularly under elevated salinity conditions (40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl). Malondialdehyde content of leaf was recorded to be declined under saline conditions. Moreover, the K + /Na + ratio was also improved in bacterium-inoculated plants, since A. brasilense significantly reduced the root and shoot Na + level under high salty environment. Results revealed that soil inoculation with A. brasilense could significantly promote T. repens growth under both non-saline and saline environments, and this study might be extended to other vegetables and crops for the germination and growth enhancement.

  14. The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, S. M.; Kunreuther, H.

    2005-12-01

    Policy formulation for the mitigation and management of risks posed by natural hazards requires that governments confront difficult decisions for resource allocation and be able to justify their spending. Governments also need to recognize when spending offers little improvement and the circumstances in which relatively small amounts of spending can make substantial differences. Because natural hazards can have detrimental impacts on local and regional economies, patterns of economic development can also be affected by spending decisions for disaster mitigation. This paper argues that by mapping interdependencies among physical, social and economic factors, governments can improve resource allocation to mitigate the risks of natural hazards while improving economic development on local and regional scales. Case studies of natural hazards in Turkey have been used to explore specific "filters" that act to modify short- and long-term outcomes. Pre-event filters can prevent an event from becoming a natural disaster or change a routine event into a disaster. Post-event filters affect both short and long-term recovery and development. Some filters cannot be easily modified by spending (e.g., rural-urban migration) but others (e.g., land-use practices) provide realistic spending targets. Net social benefits derived from spending, however, will also depend on the ways by which filters are linked, or so-called "interdependencies". A single weak link in an interdependent system, such as a power grid, can trigger a cascade of failures. Similarly, weak links in social and commercial networks can send waves of disruption through communities. Conversely, by understanding the positive impacts of interdependencies, spending can be targeted to maximize net social benefits while mitigating risks and improving economic development. Detailed information on public spending was not available for this study but case studies illustrate how networks of interdependent filters can modify

  15. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  16. Selection of appropriate greenhouse gas mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1999-10-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation options help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions so as to avoid the adverse environmental impacts due to global warming/climate change. They have different characteristics when evaluated using different criteria. For example, some options may be very cost effective, while some may have an additional advantage of reducing local pollution. Hence, selection of these options, for consideration by a national government or by a funding agency, has to incorporate multiple criteria. In this paper, some important criteria relevant to the selection are discussed, and a multi-criteria methodology is suggested for making appropriate selection. The methodology, called the Analytic Hierarchy Process, is described using two illustrations. (author)

  17. Capacity of Albit® Plant Growth Stimulator for Mitigating Side-effects of Pesticides on Soil Microbial Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Karpun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms give an early and integrated measure of soil functioning. In particular, soil microbial respiration is recommended for monitoring soil quality. The present study aims to determine the capacity of Albit® (poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, PHB to reduce the detrimental effects of pesticides on soil microbial respiration. The effects of three conventional pesticides (deltamethrin, dithianon, and difenoconazole on basal respiration (BR and substrate-induced respiration (SIR were assessed in the presence and absence of Albit®. The studied pesticides caused negative impacts on soil functioning, reducing BR and SIR. Applications of Albit® increased BR and SIR, and both BR and SIR were kept similar to the control when pesticides were applied with Albit®. PHB, an active ingredient of Albit®, is known to increase beneficial microflora in the rhizosphere due to its regulatory activity on indigenous microorganisms. Thus, more studies should be carried out under different edaphoclimatic conditions to study the benefits of Albit® applications along with pesticides in order to mitigate their side effects on soil microbial functioning.

  18. Assessment of stone columns as a mitigation technique of liquefaction-induced effects during Italian earthquakes (May 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcellini, Davide; Tarantino, Angelo Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012). The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading.

  19. A New Chicane Experiment In PEP-II to Test Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Effect for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M

    2008-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings, and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of future colliders [1-3]. The effect is expected to be particularly severe in magnetic field regions. To test possible mitigation methods in magnetic fields, we have installed a new 4-dipole chicane experiment in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) at SLAC with both bare and TiN-coated aluminum chambers. In particular, we have observed a large variation of the electron flux at the chamber wall as a function of the chicane dipole field. We infer this is a new high order resonance effect where the energy gained by the electrons in the positron beam depends on the phase of the electron cyclotron motion with respect to the bunch crossing, leading to a modulation of the secondary electron production. Presumably the cloud density is modulated as well and this resonance effect could be used to reduce its magnitude in future colliders. We present the experimental results obtained during January 2008 until the April final shut-down of the PEP-II machine

  20. The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. (CCT fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70 mg/kg b.w. 1 hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24 hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs. In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P<0.0001. At 200 mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy.

  1. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals' resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants' recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals' perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function.

  2. Bioenergy expansion in the EU: Cost-effective climate change mitigation, employment creation and reduced dependency on imported fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, Goeran; Hansson, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the European Union (EU) is promoting bioenergy. The aim of this paper is to study the prospects for using domestic biomass resources in Europe and specifically to investigate whether different policy objectives underlying the promotion of bioenergy (cost-effective climate change mitigation, employment creation and reduced dependency on imported fuels) agree on which bioenergy options that should be used. We model bioenergy use from a cost-effectiveness perspective with a linear regionalized energy- and transport-system model and perform supplementary analysis. It is found that the different policy objectives do not agree on the order of priority among bioenergy options. Maximizing climate benefits cost-effectively is in conflict with maximizing employment creation. The former perspective proposes the use of lignocellulosic biomass in the stationary sector, while the latter requires biofuels for transport based on traditional agricultural crops. Further, from a security-of-supply perspective, the appeal of a given bioenergy option depends on how oil and gas import dependencies are weighed relative to each other. Consequently, there are tradeoffs that need to be addressed by policymakers promoting the use of bioenergy. Also, the importance of bioenergy in relation to employment creation and fuel import dependency reduction needs to be further addressed

  3. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to

  4. Private Environmental Governance in the Ethiopian Pesticide Supply Chain: Importation, Distribution and Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural pesticides are important chemicals that are used to mitigate crop damage or loss and improve productivity. However, pesticides may cause negative environmental and human health effects depending on their specific distribution and use. Securing environmental safety and sustainability of

  5. Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants and their Mitigation and Control (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, M.

    1998-01-01

    The nature of chemical, biological and physical contaminants present in indoor air, their sources, and the health effects they cause are reviewed. Among the physical agents, the interaction between tobacco smoke and radon is discussed. Control and improvement of indoor air quality can be achieved combining the use of two main strategies: proper design and construction of buildings, and control of indoor air pollution through source control, ventilation, air cleaning, exposure control, or a combination of them. A number of control measures primarily targeted to pollutants other than radon can also be particularly effective for radon. On the other hand, measures primarily targeted to radon containment can also be beneficial for other pollutants. Effective programmes on indoor air improvement are urgently needed to benefit the health, comfort and productivity of our communities. (author)

  6. Risk informed analysis of training effectiveness for mitigating accidents of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju

    2012-01-01

    A critical area for deriving expected benefits from training and exercise is the measurement of 'training effectiveness'-how well the training inputs are serving the intended purpose. This aspect is often neglected by nuclear organizations, saying that measurement is difficult. However, I believe that a technique in nuclear society has developed sufficiently to measure most important aspects of training by way of human reliability analysis (HRA) used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The consequences of errors caused by lack of training can be evaluated in terms of the overall vulnerability to human error of the facility under consideration. This study presents current situation and considerations for measures of robustness on nuclear accidents and HRA technique on the training effectiveness. In view of risk informed approach with this consideration and an example case, I'd like to identify appropriate relationship between risk measures of robustness and training effectiveness

  7. Training for effective environmental protection in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.; Brake, J.; Hickman, C.; Tamm, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the role of environmental training in the delivery of effective environmental protection programs for construction projects in the nuclear industry. The paper uses a case study approach, based on Point Lepreau Generating Station's Refurbishment Project, to demonstrate how the underpinning principles of 'training, awareness and competence' can be delivered within a structured environmental management framework, to achieve sustained excellence in environmental management and performance. Key issues addressed by the paper include the early identification of different target audiences, making effective use of communication themes, and the importance of reinforcement and follow-up in support of training goals. (author)

  8. Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Edwards, S.; Kennedy, M.; O'Hagan, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Scholz, G.; Steinberg, P.; Tennant, D.; Chiodini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for

  9. Effectiveness of flood damage mitigation measures: Empirical evidence from French flood disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poussin, J.K.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent destructive flood events and projected increases in flood risks as a result of climate change in many regions around the world demonstrate the importance of improving flood risk management. Flood-proofing of buildings is often advocated as an effective strategy for limiting damage caused by

  10. Mitigation of Adverse Effects Caused by Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions Through Optimal Wall Shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, May-Fun; Lee, Byung Joon

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the adverse effects of shock wave boundary layer interactions in high speed inlets include reduced total pressure recovery and highly distorted flow at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). This paper presents a design method for flow control which creates perturbations in geometry. These perturbations are tailored to change the flow structures in order to minimize shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) inside supersonic inlets. Optimizing the shape of two dimensional micro-size bumps is shown to be a very effective flow control method for two-dimensional SWBLI. In investigating the three dimensional SWBLI, a square duct is employed as a baseline. To investigate the mechanism whereby the geometric elements of the baseline, i.e. the bottom wall, the sidewall and the corner, exert influence on the flow's aerodynamic characteristics, each element is studied and optimized separately. It is found that arrays of micro-size bumps on the bottom wall of the duct have little effect in improving total pressure recovery though they are useful in suppressing the incipient separation in three-dimensional problems. Shaping sidewall geometry is effective in re-distributing flow on the side wall and results in a less distorted flow at the exit. Subsequently, a near 50% reduction in distortion is achieved. A simple change in corner geometry resulted in a 2.4% improvement in total pressure recovery.

  11. In vivo and in vitro effects of a blend of essential oils on rumen methane mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Montoya, J.; Peiren, N.; Cone, J.W.; Zweifel, B.; Fievez, V.; Campeneere, De S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Agolin Ruminant, a blend of essential oils, on methane (CH4) emissions were investigated in two in vivo experiments and in four in vitro experiments. In the in vivo experiments, four lactating dairy cows and four beef heifers were supplemented 0.2 g/d of the essential oils (ca. 2–4 ppm

  12. Application of manures to mitigate the harmful effects of electrokinetic remediation of heavy metals on soil microbial properties in polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar; Nguyen, Thi Thu Nhan; Che, Rongxiao; Phan, Thuc D; Hosseini Bai, Shahla

    2017-12-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) used with electrokinetic (EK) to remediate heavy metal-polluted soils is a toxic chelate for