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Sample records for effectively indexing uncertain

  1. Effectively Indexing Uncertain Moving Objects for Predictive Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Meihui; Chen, Su; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    in more complex and stochastic ways. This paper investigates the possibility of a marriage between moving-object indexing and probabilistic object modelling. Given the distributions of the current locations and velocities of moving objects, we devise an efficient inference method for the prediction...

  2. Uncertain Dynamics, Correlation Effects, and Robust Investment Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Hesel, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a firm's investment problem when the dynamics of project value and investment cost are uncertain. We provide an explicit solution using a robust method for an ambiguity averse firm taking this into account. Ambiguity aversion regarding a common risk factor impacts differently than...... ambiguity aversion regarding investment cost residual risk. Correlation between project value and investment cost matters; ambiguity aversion regarding common risk can decrease the investment probability only if correlation is positive. Ambiguity aversion regarding residual risk always increases...... the investment probability. When only project value is risky, volatility can monotonically decrease the investment threshold; this does not hold with the multiple prior method....

  3. An Uncertain Programming Model for Land Use Structure Optimization to Promote Effectiveness of Land Use Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; MA Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Land use structure optimization (LUSO) is an important issue for land use planning.In order for land use planning to have reasonable flexibility,uncertain optimization should be applied for LUSO.In this paper,the researcher first expounded the uncertainties of LUSO.Based on this,an interval programming model was developed,of which interval variables were to hold land use uncertainties.To solve the model,a heuristics based on Genetic Algorithm was designed according to Pareto Optimum principle with a confidence interval under given significance level to represent LUSO result.Proposed method was applied to a real case of Yangzhou,an eastern city in China.The following conclusions were reached.1) Different forms of uncertainties ranged from certainty to indeterminacy lay in the five steps of LUSO,indicating necessary need of comprehensive approach to quantify them.2) With regards to trade-offs of conflicted objectives and preferences to uncertainties,our proposed model displayed good ability of making planning decision process transparent,therefore providing an effective tool for flexible land use planning compiling.3) Under uncertain conditions,land use planning effectiveness can be primarily enhanced by flexible management with reserved space to percept and hold uncertainties in advance.

  4. Non-specific effects of vaccines: plausible and potentially important, but implications uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam; Curtis, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    Non-specific effects (NSE) or heterologous effects of vaccines are proposed to explain observations in some studies that certain vaccines have an impact beyond the direct protection against infection with the specific pathogen for which the vaccines were designed. The importance and implications of such effects remain controversial. There are several known immunological mechanisms which could lead to NSE, since it is widely recognised that the generation of specific immunity is initiated by non-specific innate immune mechanisms that may also have wider effects on adaptive immune function. However, there are no published studies that demonstrate a mechanistic link between such immunological phenomena and clinically relevant NSE in humans. While it is highly plausible that some vaccines do have NSE, their magnitude and duration, and thus importance, remain uncertain. Although the WHO recently concluded that current evidence does not justify changes to immunisation policy, further studies of sufficient size and quality are needed to assess the importance of NSE for all-cause mortality. This could provide insights into vaccine immunobiology with important implications for infant health and survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. WebScore: An Effective Page Scoring Approach for Uncertain Web Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Qiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively score pages with uncertainty in web social networks, we first proposed a new concept called transition probability matrix and formally defined the uncertainty in web social networks. Second, we proposed a hybrid page scoring algorithm, called WebScore, based on the PageRank algorithm and three centrality measures including degree, betweenness, and closeness. Particularly,WebScore takes into a full consideration of the uncertainty of web social networks by computing the transition probability from one page to another. The basic idea ofWebScore is to: (1 integrate uncertainty into PageRank in order to accurately rank pages, and (2 apply the centrality measures to calculate the importance of pages in web social networks. In order to verify the performance of WebScore, we developed a web social network analysis system which can partition web pages into distinct groups and score them in an effective fashion. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on real data and the results show that WebScore is effective at scoring uncertain pages with less time deficiency than PageRank and centrality measures based page scoring algorithms.

  6. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  7. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  8. Effective production planning for purchased part under long lead time and uncertain demand: MRP Vs demand-driven MRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofa, M. J.; Moeis, A. O.; Restiana, N.

    2018-04-01

    MRP as a production planning system is appropriate for the deterministic environment. Unfortunately, most production systems such as customer demands are stochastic, so that MRP is inappropriate at the time. Demand-Driven MRP (DDMRP) is new approach for production planning system dealing with demand uncertainty. The objective of this paper is to compare the MRP and DDMRP for purchased part under long lead time and uncertain demand in terms of average inventory levels. The evaluation is conducted through a discrete event simulation with the long lead time and uncertain demand scenarios. The next step is evaluating the performance of DDMRP by comparing the inventory level of DDMRP with MRP. As result, DDMRP is more effective production planning than MRP in terms of average inventory levels.

  9. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  10. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  11. The cost effectiveness of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in patients with an uncertain clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laere, Koen van; Everaert, Ludwig; Annemans, Lieven; Gonce, Michel; Vandenberghe, Wim; Vander Borght, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    123 I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2-β-carboxymethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl )nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been suggested to be a useful diagnostic adjunct in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonism. We developed a pharmaco-economic (PE) model, evaluating the cost effectiveness of adding 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT to the diagnostic workup. As the model was developed before application of the diagnostic technique in real practice, a predictive validity assessment was performed based on data from a large nationwide patient registry in these patients. A PE model, using a Markov state transition model, was created, based on literature-derived and clinical expert panel data. Effects were expressed as adequately treated years (ATY). Key input data were compared to the real-life patterns in a nationwide multi-centre clinical setting, based on a complete national registry of 1,701 consecutive patients. The change in initial diagnosis and alteration of management of the patient after SPECT were registered. In the PE model, it was calculated that management would change in 48.5% of patients by SPECT and that, over a 5-year period, 1.2 ATYs could be gained at a yearly additional cost of EUR72. From the studied 1,701 patients, nigrostriatal degeneration was observed in 59.8%, the initial diagnosis was changed in 51.5%, management was altered in 49%, and cost effectiveness was increased to EUR358 per ATY. Good correspondence between assumed and observed changes in patient management was found, indicating that 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT is influential in diagnosis and management of patients with uncertain clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism. This can be achieved at a marginal added cost to the health insurance and leads to a significant gain in ATY. (orig.)

  12. Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on choice between small certain rewards and large uncertain rewards in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howes Nathan J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals must frequently make choices between alternative courses of action, seeking to maximize the benefit obtained. They must therefore evaluate the magnitude and the likelihood of the available outcomes. Little is known of the neural basis of this process, or what might predispose individuals to be overly conservative or to take risks excessively (avoiding or preferring uncertainty, respectively. The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC is known to contribute to rats' ability to choose large, delayed rewards over small, immediate rewards; AcbC lesions cause impulsive choice and an impairment in learning with delayed reinforcement. However, it is not known how the AcbC contributes to choice involving probabilistic reinforcement, such as between a large, uncertain reward and a small, certain reward. We examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the AcbC on probabilistic choice in rats. Results Rats chose between a single food pellet delivered with certainty (p = 1 and four food pellets delivered with varying degrees of uncertainty (p = 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.0625 in a discrete-trial task, with the large-reinforcer probability decreasing or increasing across the session. Subjects were trained on this task and then received excitotoxic or sham lesions of the AcbC before being retested. After a transient period during which AcbC-lesioned rats exhibited relative indifference between the two alternatives compared to controls, AcbC-lesioned rats came to exhibit risk-averse choice, choosing the large reinforcer less often than controls when it was uncertain, to the extent that they obtained less food as a result. Rats behaved as if indifferent between a single certain pellet and four pellets at p = 0.32 (sham-operated or at p = 0.70 (AcbC-lesioned by the end of testing. When the probabilities did not vary across the session, AcbC-lesioned rats and controls strongly preferred the large reinforcer when it was certain, and strongly

  13. On the effective refractive index of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmad-Rohen, Alexander; Contreras-Tello, Humberto; Morales-Luna, Gesuri; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index {n}{eff} of blood as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm; we employed van de Hulst’s theory, together with the anomalous diffraction approximation, for the calculation. We modelled blood as a mixture of plasma and erythrocytes. Our results indicate that erythrocyte orientation has a strong effect on {n}{eff}, making blood an optically anisotropic medium except when the erythrocytes are randomly oriented. In the case in which their symmetry axis is perpendicular to the wave vector, {n}{eff} equals the refractive index of plasma at certain wavelengths. Furthermore, the erythrocytes’ shape affects their contribution to {n}{eff} in an important way, implying that studies on the effective refractive index of blood should avoid approximating them as spheres or spheroids. Finally, the effective refractive index of blood predicted by van de Hulst’s theory is different from what would be obtained by averaging the refractive indices of its constituents weighted by volume; such a volume-weighted average is appropriate only for haemolysed blood. We then measured the real part of the refractive index of various blood solutions using two different experimental setups. One of the most important results of our expriment is that {n}{eff} is measurable to a good degree of precision even for undiluted blood, although not all measuring apparatuses are appropriate. The experimental data is self-consistent and in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  14. Effects of an Uncertain Literature on All Facets of Clinical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Morgan T.; Newman, Russ

    2010-01-01

    Greenberg (2010) is correct in his assertion that the investigational heuristic used to measure the efficacy of antidepressants is flawed. Robust placebo effects are endemic in the psychiatric literature, particularly in studies of antidepressants, and estimates of placebo responding have increased over time (Rief et al., 2009). In the case of…

  15. Content and effects of news stories about uncertain cancer causes and preventive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lee, Theodore; Robbins, Rebecca; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kresovich, Alex; Kirshenblat, Danielle; Standridge, Kimberly; Clarke, Christopher E; Jensen, Jakob; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from two studies that describe news portrayals of cancer causes and prevention in local TV and test the effects of typical aspects of this coverage on cancer-related fatalism and overload. Study 1 analyzed the content of stories focused on cancer causes and prevention from an October 2002 national sample of local TV and newspaper cancer coverage (n = 122 television stations; n = 60 newspapers). Informed by results from the content analysis, Study 2 describes results from a randomized experiment testing effects of the volume and content of news stories about cancer causes and prevention (n = 601). Study 1 indicates that local TV news stories describe cancer causes and prevention as comparatively more certain than newspapers but include less information about how to reduce cancer risk. Study 2 reveals that the combination of stories conveying an emerging cancer cause and prevention behavior as moderately certain leads to an increased sense of overload, while a short summary of well-established preventive behaviors mitigates these potentially harmful beliefs. We conclude with a series of recommendations for health communication and health journalism practice.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  17. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Emilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is metabolic effect of low glycaemic-index diet. The currently available scientific literature shows that low glycaemic-index diets acutely induce a number of favorable effects, such as a rapid weight loss, decrease of fasting glucose and insulin levels, reduction of circulating triglyceride levels and improvement of blood pressure. The long-term effect of the combination of these changes is at present not known. Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of cardiovascular disease, further controlled studies on low-GI diet and metabolic disease are needed.

  18. Uncertain differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the basic concepts of and latest findings in the area of differential equations with uncertain factors. It covers the analytic method and numerical method for solving uncertain differential equations, as well as their applications in the field of finance. Furthermore, the book provides a number of new potential research directions for uncertain differential equation. It will be of interest to researchers, engineers and students in the fields of mathematics, information science, operations research, industrial engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, automation, economics, and management science.

  19. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  20. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  1. (Approximate) Uncertain Skylines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of points with uncertain locations, we consider the problem of computing the probability of each point lying on the skyline, that is, the probability that it is not dominated by any other input point. If each point’s uncertainty is described as a probability distribution over a discre...

  2. (Approximate) Uncertain Skylines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Given a set of points with uncertain locations, we consider the problem of computing the probability of each point lying on the skyline, that is, the probability that it is not dominated by any other input point. If each point’s uncertainty is described as a probability distribution over a discre...

  3. Ranking Queries on Uncertain Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Uncertain data is inherent in many important applications, such as environmental surveillance, market analysis, and quantitative economics research. Due to the importance of those applications and rapidly increasing amounts of uncertain data collected and accumulated, analyzing large collections of uncertain data has become an important task. Ranking queries (also known as top-k queries) are often natural and useful in analyzing uncertain data. Ranking Queries on Uncertain Data discusses the motivations/applications, challenging problems, the fundamental principles, and the evaluation algorith

  4. Effect of glycemic index on obesity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisângela Vitoriano; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate the effect of glycemic index (GI) on biochemical parameters, food intake, energy metabolism, anthropometric measures and body composition in overweight subjects. Simple blind study, in which nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to consume in the laboratory two daily low GI (n = 10) or high GI (n = 9) meals, for forty-five consecutive days. Habitual food intake was assessed at baseline. Food intake, anthropometric measures and body composition were assessed at each 15 days. Energy metabolism and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study. Low GI meals increased fat oxidation, and reduced waist circumference and HOMA-IR, while high GI meals increased daily dietary fiber and energy intake compared to baseline. There was a higher reduction on waist circumference and body fat, and a higher increase on postprandial fat oxidation in response to the LGI meals than after high GI meals. High GI meals increased fasting respiratory coefficient compared to baseline and low GI meals. The results of the present study showed that the consumption of two daily low GI meals for forty-five consecutive days has a positive effect on obesity control, whereas, the consumption of high GI meals result has the opposite effect.

  5. Specificity of indexes of malnutrition when applied to apparently healthy people: the effect of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, T.H.J.; Bree, de A.; Schermer, T.R.J.; Bakkeren, J.; Bör, B.; Wild, de G.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is thought to be widespread in hospitalized patients. However, the specificity of indexes used to assess malnutrition is uncertain. We therefore assessed the rate of false-positive diagnoses of malnutrition when biochemical-anthropometric indexes were applied to healthy

  6. A novel research design can aid disinvestment from existing health technologies with uncertain effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and/or safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Terry; O'Brien, Lisa; McDermott, Fiona; Markham, Donna; Mitchell, Deb; Watterson, Dina; Skinner, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Disinvestment is critical for ensuring the long-term sustainability of health-care services. Key barriers to disinvestment are heterogeneity between research and clinical settings, absence of evidence of effectiveness of some health technologies, and exposure of patients and organizations to risks and poor outcomes. We aimed to develop a feasible research design that can evaluate disinvestment in health technologies of uncertain effectiveness or cost-effectiveness. This article (1) establishes the need for disinvestment methodologies, (2) identifies the ethical concerns and feasibility constraints of conventional research designs for this issue, (3) describes the planning, implementation, and analytical framework for a novel disinvestment-specific study design, and (4) describes potential limitations in application of this design. The stepped-wedge, roll-in cluster randomized controlled trial can facilitate the disinvestment process, whereas generating evidence to determine whether the decision to disinvest was sound in the clinical environment. A noninferiority research paradigm may be applied to this methodology to demonstrate that the removal of a health technology does not adversely affect outcomes. This research design can be applied across multiple fields and will assist determination of whether specific health technologies are clinically effective, cost-effective, and safe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective spectral index properties for Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, JiangHe; Fan, JunHui; Liu, Yi; Zhang, YueLian; Tuo, ManXian; Nie, JianJun; Yuan, YuHai

    2018-05-01

    Blazars are a special subclass of active galactic nuclei with extreme observation properties. This subclass can be divided into two further subclasses of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) according to their emission line features. To compare the spectral properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs, the 1.4 GHz radio, optical R-band, 1 keV X-ray, and 1 GeV γ-ray flux densities for 1108 Fermi blazars are calculated to discuss the properties of the six effective spectral indices of radio to optical ( α RO), radio to X-ray ( α RX), radio to γ ray ( α Rγ), optical to X-ray ( α OX), optical to γ ray ( α Oγ), and X-ray to γ ray ( α Xγ). The main results are as follows: For the averaged effective spectral indices, \\overline {{α _{OX}}} > \\overline {{α _{Oγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{Rγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{RX}}} > \\overline {{α _{RO}}} for samples of whole blazars and BL Lacs; \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Rγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{RX}}} for FSRQs and low-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs); and \\overline {{α _{OX}}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Oγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} for high-synchrotron-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). The distributions of the effective spectral indices involving optical emission ( α RO, α OX, and α Oγ) for LBLs are different from those for FSRQs, but if the effective spectral index does not involve optical emission ( α RX, α Rγ, and α Xγ), the distributions for LBLs and FSRQs almost come from the same parent population. X-ray emissions from blazars include both synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) components; the IC component for FSRQs and LBLs accounts for a larger proportion than that for HBLs; and the radiation mechanism for LBLs is similar to that for FSRQs, but the radiation mechanism for HBLs is different from that for both FSRQs and LBLs in X-ray bands. The tendency of α Rγ decreasing from LBLs to HBLs suggests that the synchrotron self

  8. Effective spectral dispersion of refractive index modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, M.; Richter, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 045603. ISSN 2040-8978 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : volume gratings * holography * dispersion * refractive index modulation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.741, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2040-8986/aa6092/meta

  9. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  10. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  11. Under the influence: Effects of adolescent ethanol exposure and anxiety on motivation for uncertain gambling-like cues in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Samantha N; Levit, Jeremy D; Robinson, Mike J F

    2018-01-30

    Gambling disorder (GD) frequently co-occurs with alcohol use and anxiety disorders, suggesting possible shared mechanisms. Recent research suggests reward uncertainty may powerfully enhance attraction towards reward cues. Here, we examined the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure, anxiety, and reward uncertainty on cue-triggered motivation. Male and female adolescent rats were given free access to ethanol or control jello for 20days. Following withdrawal, rats underwent autoshaping on a certain (100%-1) or uncertain (50%-1-2-3) reward contingency, followed by single-session conditioned reinforcement and progressive ratio tasks, and 7days of omission training, during which lever pressing resulted in omission of reward. Finally, anxiety levels were quantified on the elevated plus maze. Here, we found that uncertainty narrowed cue attraction by significantly increasing the ratio of sign-tracking to goal-tracking, particularly amongst control jello and high anxiety animals, but not in animals exposed to ethanol during adolescence. In addition, attentional bias towards the lever cue was more persistent under uncertain conditions following omission training. We also found that females consumed more ethanol, and that uncertainty mitigated the anxiolytic effects of ethanol exposure observed in high ethanol intake animals under certainty conditions. Our results further support that reward uncertainty biases attraction towards reward cues, suggesting also that heightened anxiety may enhance vulnerability to the effects of reward uncertainty. Chronic, elevated alcohol consumption may contribute to heightened anxiety levels, while high anxiety may promote the over-attribution of incentive value to reward cues, highlighting possible mechanisms that may drive concurrent anxiety, heavy drinking, and problematic gambling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on index system of GPS interference effect evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zeng, Fangling; Zhao, Yuan; Zeng, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation interference effect evaluation is the key technology to break through the research of Navigation countermeasure. To evaluate accurately the interference degree and Anti-jamming ability of GPS receiver, this text based on the existing research results of Navigation interference effect evaluation, build the index system of GPS receiver effectiveness evaluation from four levels of signal acquisition, tracking, demodulation and positioning/timing and establish the model for each index. These indexes can accurately and quantitatively describe the interference effect at all levels.

  13. Analysis of semantic search within the domains of uncertainty: using Keyword Effectiveness Indexing as an evaluation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel; Abraham, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Medical and health-related searches pose a special case of risk when using the web as an information resource. Uninsured consumers, lacking access to a trained provider, will often rely on information from the internet for self-diagnosis and treatment. In areas where treatments are uncertain or controversial, most consumers lack the knowledge to make an informed decision. This exploratory technology assessment examines the use of Keyword Effectiveness Indexing (KEI) analysis as a potential tool for profiling information search and keyword retrieval patterns. Results demonstrate that the KEI methodology can be useful in identifying e-health search patterns, but is limited by semantic or text-based web environments.

  14. Effectiveness of author-assigned keywords to INIS indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoko; Habara, Tadashi

    1977-01-01

    A test was carried out on the quality of indexing data which is based only upon author-assigned keywords in order to appreciate effectiveness of the keywords. As measures of the quality, the retrievability and the consistency of the indexing data were evaluated by comparison with the case of the conventional indexing method under the circumstances of the INIS descriptor assignment to the journal articles of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The indexing consistency obtained was approximately 0.61 on an average (or 0.66 when the narrower-broader hierarchical relations were regarded as consistent ones). Of the hit, noise, or total documents retrieved with the conventional indexing data, 0.86, 0.27, or 0.71, respectively, were retrievable with the keywords-based indexing data. From the results the recall ratio for the keywords-based indexing is estimated to be no less than 0.86 of that for the conventional indexing method, and the consistency of the hit documents are to be 0.75 at least. Consequently, the author-assigned keywords proved to be very effective to the document indexing. (auth.)

  15. G-index: A new metric to describe dynamic refractive index effects in HPLC absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiczek, Karsten G; Rozing, Gerard P; Zengerle, Roland

    2018-09-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a solvent gradient and absorbance detection is one of the most widely used methods in analytical chemistry. The observed absorbance baseline is affected by the changes in the refractive index (RI) of the mobile phase. Near the limited of detection, this complicates peak quantitation. The general aspects of these RI-induced apparent absorbance effects are discussed. Two different detectors with fundamentally different optics and flow cell concepts, a variable-wavelength detector equipped with a conventional flow cell and a diode-array detector equipped with a liquid core waveguide flow cell, are compared with respect to their RI behavior. A simple method to separate static - partly unavoidable - RI effects from dynamic RI effects is presented. It is shown that the dynamic RI behavior of an absorbance detector can be well described using a single, relatively easy-to-determine metric called the G-index. The G-index is typically in the order of a few seconds and its sign depends on the optical flow cell concept. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Index method for analyzing cost effectiveness of drilling rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batura, N P; Bocharov, V V

    1978-01-01

    The method for a complete analysis of the factors determining cost effectiveness of a drilling rig fleet is examined. The system of calculating production indexes from statistical reports is relatively simple and is not difficult to use for production organizations. The analytical results may be used to develop actual measures used to increase cost effectiveness of drilling operations.

  17. Effects of Body Mass Index on Lung Function Index of Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiao; Ye, Jun; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Changan; Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung function indexes in Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 10, 592 participants. The linear relationship between lung function and BMI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis, and the correlation between BMI and lung function was assessed by Pearson correlation analysis. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was positively related with the decreasing of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC (P <0.05), the increasing of FVC% predicted value (FVC%pre) and FEV1% predicted value (FEV1%pre). These suggested that Chinese people can restrain the decline of lung function to prevent the occurrence and development of COPD by the control of BMI.

  18. Uncertain programming models for portfolio selection with uncertain returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Jin; Li, Shengguo

    2015-10-01

    In an indeterminacy economic environment, experts' knowledge about the returns of securities consists of much uncertainty instead of randomness. This paper discusses portfolio selection problem in uncertain environment in which security returns cannot be well reflected by historical data, but can be evaluated by the experts. In the paper, returns of securities are assumed to be given by uncertain variables. According to various decision criteria, the portfolio selection problem in uncertain environment is formulated as expected-variance-chance model and chance-expected-variance model by using the uncertainty programming. Within the framework of uncertainty theory, for the convenience of solving the models, some crisp equivalents are discussed under different conditions. In addition, a hybrid intelligent algorithm is designed in the paper to provide a general method for solving the new models in general cases. At last, two numerical examples are provided to show the performance and applications of the models and algorithm.

  19. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Sameer Ganu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.

  20. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  1. A hybrid land-water-environment model for identification of ecological effect and risk under uncertain meteorological precipitation in an agroforestry ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xueting; Li, Tienan; Chen, Cong; Si, Zhenjiang; Huang, Guohe; Guo, Ping; Zhuang, Xiaowen

    2018-08-15

    In this study, a hybrid land-water-environment (LWE) model is developed for identifying ecological effect and risk under uncertain precipitation in an agroforestry ecosystem. A simulation-based fuzzy-stochastic programming with risk analysis (SFSR) method is used into LWE model to reflect the meteorological impacts; meanwhile, it also can quantify artificial fuzziness (e.g., risk attitude of policymaker) and natural vagueness (e.g., ecological function) in decision-making. The developed LWE model with SFSR method is applied to a practical agroforestry ecosystem in China. Results of optimized planting scale, irrigative water schedule, pollution mitigation scheme, and system benefit under changed rainfall, precise risk-adoption and vague ecological function are obtained; meanwhile their corresponding ecological effects and risks are analyzed. It found that current LWE plans could generate massive water deficits (e.g., 23.22×10 6 m 3 in crop irrigation and 26.32×10 6 m 3 in forest protection at highest) due to over-cultivation and excessive pollution discharges (e.g., the highest excessive TP and TN discharges would reach 460.64 and 15.30×10 3 ton) due to irrational fertilization, which would increase regional ecological risks. In addition, fifteen scenarios associated with withdrawing cultivation and recovering forest based on regional environment heterogeneity (such as soil types) have been discussed to adjust current agriculture-environment policies. It found that, the excessive pollution discharges (TN and TP) could be reduced 12.95% and 18.32% at highest through ecological expansions, which would generate higher system benefits than that without withdrawing farmland and recovering forest. All above can facilitate local policymakers to modulate a comprehensive LWE with more sustainable and robust manners, achieving regional harmony between socio-economy and eco-environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chernobylsk: uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeau, D.

    1996-01-01

    The account of the Chernobylsk catastrophic event is described. The effects and impacts on the environment and on the human health are difficult to estimate. Twelve tons of nuclear fuels have been regrouped at the foot of the building and recovered with earth and concrete. They constitute the pioneer wall. Another wall called the cascade wall includes three steps of stairs dug by alveoles. The liquidators have accumulated in this wall a lot of the explosion fragments. This wall supports again the constructions of the north building which have been strongly shaken. These walls contain ten tons of the irradiated fuel. It is leached by the rain waters which infiltrate into the soil and pollute the ground waters. The sarcophagus built around the 4-reactor dilapidates more rapidly than it was provided. The internal collapse risk is permanent. There is a risk of dusts propagation too. In the urgent nature of decontamination works, several contaminated materials storage have been constituted. In the exclusion zone, evacuated in 1986, the lands contamination is above 1480 kilo-becquerels of cesium 137 per square meter. It is also contaminated by strontium 90 and transuranium elements. The most important flow of radioactivity towards the outside of the exclusion zone is particularly due to the running waters. The other sources of radioactivity towards the outside of the exclusion zone are due to the atmospheric transfer of the radioactive dusts which are put again in suspension, to the animals migrations and the human activities. At the moment of the accident, between twenty to fifty per cent of 12.6 iodine tera-becquerels millions have been thrown out in the atmosphere and have induced important damages on the population health. These effects (neoplasms, psychological traumatisms) are given into details. (O.M.). 7 refs., 9 figs

  3. Restructuring Electricity Markets when Demand is Uncertain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of reorganizing electricity markets on capacity investments, retail prices and welfare when demand is uncertain. We study the following market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly with wholesale...... trade. Assuming that wholesale prices can react to changes in retail prices (but not vice versa), we find that generators install sufficient capacity to serve retail demand in each market configuration, thus avoiding blackouts. Furthermore, aggregate capacity levels and retail prices...

  4. Synchronizing a class of uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun

    2005-01-01

    This Letter deals with the synchronization of a class of uncertain chaotic systems in the drive-response framework. A robust adaptive observer based response system is designed to synchronize a given chaotic system with unknown parameters and external disturbances. Lyapunov stability ensures the global synchronization between the drive and response systems even if Lipschitz constants on function matrices and bounds on uncertainties are unknown. Numerical simulation of Genesio-Tesi system verifies the effectiveness of this scheme

  5. Data Envelopment Analysis with Uncertain Inputs and Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a useful management and decision tool, has been widely used since it was first invented by Charnes et al. in 1978. On the one hand, the DEA models need accurate inputs and outputs data. On the other hand, in many situations, inputs and outputs are volatile and complex so that they are difficult to measure in an accurate way. The conflict leads to the researches of uncertain DEA models. This paper will consider DEA in uncertain environment, thus producing a new model based on uncertain measure. Due to the complexity of the new uncertain DEA model, an equivalent deterministic model is presented. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the uncertain DEA model.

  6. Diversified models for portfolio selection based on uncertain semivariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Peng, Jin; Zhang, Bo; Rosyida, Isnaini

    2017-02-01

    Since the financial markets are complex, sometimes the future security returns are represented mainly based on experts' estimations due to lack of historical data. This paper proposes a semivariance method for diversified portfolio selection, in which the security returns are given subjective to experts' estimations and depicted as uncertain variables. In the paper, three properties of the semivariance of uncertain variables are verified. Based on the concept of semivariance of uncertain variables, two types of mean-semivariance diversified models for uncertain portfolio selection are proposed. Since the models are complex, a hybrid intelligent algorithm which is based on 99-method and genetic algorithm is designed to solve the models. In this hybrid intelligent algorithm, 99-method is applied to compute the expected value and semivariance of uncertain variables, and genetic algorithm is employed to seek the best allocation plan for portfolio selection. At last, several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  7. Entity resolution for uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Akbarinia, R.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Entity resolution (ER), also known as duplicate detection or record matching, is the problem of identifying the tuples that represent the same real world entity. In this paper, we address the problem of ER for uncertain data, which we call ERUD. We propose two different approaches for the ERUD

  8. Investigating the Effective Index on Customers Choice in Buying Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rangavar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The competitive world today, with increasing customers satisfaction and expanding the definition of hosting and its direct connection with quality of products is essential. Thus not only the current customers stay fixed but also it increases. The purpose of this study was to investigate and ranking the crucial indicators that influence the choice of furniture by customers. Because of this, the studied indexes are classified in 6 group: quality, beauty, design, creating a suitable atmosphere for selling the goods, selling conditions and advertising. Population consisted of three major commercial areas in Tehran (Delawaran, Hassan Abad and Yaftabad. Statistical sample consisted a number of 100 people. A questionnaire was developed to gather data. Reliability of the questionnaires has been approved through Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (0.921. Investigation of effective indexes was done by chi-square method and in order to final ranking the indexes, friedman analyses have been used. The results obtained of ranking showed the chief factor in customers choice is under category of beauty due to this elegancy role in customers point of view. After elegancy, according to the classified elements studied in this research, raw material in making furniture, wood production’s price, ergonomy, customers satisfaction for his last purchase and immediate delivery, respectively, are the most important effective index in buying furniture by consumer.

  9. The Effect of Uncertain End-of-Life Product Quality and Consumer Incentives on Partial Disassembly Sequencing in Value Recovery Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Rickli, Jeremy Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses gaps in the interaction between End-of-Life (EoL) product acquisition systems and disassembly sequencing. The research focuses on two remanufacturing research problems; 1) modeling uncertain EoL product quality, quantity, and timing in regards to EoL product acquisition and disassembly sequencing and 2) designing EoL product acquisition schemes considering EoL product uncertainty. The main research objectives within these areas are; analyzing, predicting, and contr...

  10. Characterization of Fabricated Photonic Crystal Fibers Using Effective Index Method

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz E. Seraji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), which have been experimentally determined in the last few years in Iran's Telecom Research Center are analyzed and compared theoretically using an effective index method. The PCFs under investigation are fabricated with a high speed drawing process that has not yet been reported elsewhere. It was shown that at higher wavelengths in PCFs; the light field is confined in the core where in shorter wavelengths the field spread...

  11. Preparing for an Uncertain Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Navigating the world of government relations and public policy can be a little like predicting the weather. One can't always be sure what's in store or how it will affect him/her down the road. But there are common patterns and a few basic steps that can help one best prepare for a change in the forecast. Though the forecast is uncertain, early…

  12. The effect of financial ratios on systematic risk index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Faez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between financial ratios and indicator of systemic risk in the Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects 73 manufacturing companies of the Tehran Stock Exchange market over the period 2003-2010. The study first calculates the independent variables in the form of financial ratios and then the ratios affecting the systematic risk index are extracted using entropy method. The output of this stage is the introduction of five influential financial indicators as the independent variables of the study. Using t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient the rate of independent variables effect on the systematic risk index is evaluated and finally, using stepwise regression method, the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable is examined. According to results of our survey, the correlation coefficient of such indices as “the ratio of stock price to the profit of each share”, “Current ratio”, “each share profit ratio” and “the stockholders rights return ratio” have respectively the highest correlation with the systematic risk index.

  13. CMAC-based adaptive backstepping synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-M.; Peng, Y.-F.; Lin, M.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an adaptive backstepping control system for synchronizing uncertain chaotic system by using cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC). CMAC is a nonlinear network with simple computation, good generalization capability and fast learning property. The proposed CMAC-based adaptive backstepping control (CABC) system uses backstepping method and adaptive cerebellar model articulation controller (ACMAC) for synchronizing uncertain chaotic system. Finally, simulation results for the Genesio system are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  14. The Uncertain of Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovina dÁvila Bordoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the existence of certainty in the scientific process, it seeks the truth, however, faced with the unknown, causes uncertainties and doubts. We used the bibliographical research, in which it systematized the scientific literature on epistemology and knowledge related to the scientific process and the uncertainties that surround him. The scientific process, though continuously seeks the truth, will not attain perfection, because the researcher deals with the unknown. The science seeks constantly new knowledge and progress with the criticism of the mistakes, seeks the truth, however these are provisional. It is concluded that all scientific knowledge is uncertain.

  15. Energy pricing under uncertain supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a new pricing system - based on the Chilean tariff regulations - to deal with an uncertain energy supply. It consists of a basic rate for each unit actually consumed and a compensation that the utilities pay their customers for each unit of energy that they voluntarily reduce below their normal consumption during an energy shortage. Within the framework of a model that portrays the stylized facts of the Chilean electric system, and assumes risk-neutral agents, this paper shows the equivalency of the new pricing system with both contingent pricing and priority pricing. (Author)

  16. Effects of Oral Health Training on Dental Plaque Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M amiri

    2016-02-01

    3- oral health training (control group . Two weeks and two months after the intervention, plaque index was measured. Positive and negative changes were recorded over time, and then, the study data were analyzed using Chi-square (bonferroni adjustment, McNemar, Kruskal-Wallis  and Paired t-Test. Results: The study results revealed no significant differences between the  halitosis group and the traditional group, though both had a significant difference with the control group. Positive changes in halitosis group especially within girls were held to be more durable compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Oral health training accompanging training of oral malodor, tooth decay and periodontal disease seems to be more effective on health promotion of senior high school students in Yazd. Furthermore, oral malodor training produces more durable effects. As a result, this training style is recommended in regard with eductional programs of schools.

  17. The Effects of Smoking Cessation on Visceral Adiposity Index Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-06-11

    Jun 11, 2018 ... mass index (BMI), and high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol levels .... used to determine the relationship between not normally .... monoxide; VAI=Visceral adiposity index; TG=Triglyceride; HDL‑cholesterol=High density ...

  18. Decentralized H∞ Control for Uncertain Interconnected Systems of Neutral Type via Dynamic Output Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of the dynamic output feedback H∞ control for uncertain interconnected systems of neutral type is investigated. In the framework of Lyapunov stability theory, a mathematical technique dealing with the nonlinearity on certain matrix variables is developed to obtain the solvability conditions for the anticipated controller. Based on the corresponding LMIs, the anticipated gains for dynamic output feedback can be achieved by solving some algebraic equations. Also, the norm of the transfer function from the disturbance input to the controlled output is less than the given index. A numerical example and the simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. The Effectiveness of Monetary Policy Towards Stock Index Case Study : Jakarta Islamic Index 2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lak lak Nashat el Hasanah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuation in economy situation is an important indicator for investor decision making. The investor actions are base on the minimum risk while having maximum profit. One of it is observing the condition of macro variables within monetary policy. This research aims to analyze the impact of inflation, money supply, exchange rate, and birate towards stock of jakarta islamic Index. The type data used is times series periode 2006-2014. Multiple linier regression with chow test and dummy variable approach to compare and to know the behavior of each independent variables. The result shows partially that birate and exchange rate negatively impact Jakarta Islamic Index before global monetary crisis in 2008, while inflation and money supply not that significantly impact. After global monetary crisis in 2008, partially, birate variable and money supply significantly giving positive influence to Jakarta Islamic Index, while at same time exchange rate and inflation are not significantly influencial. Simultaneously, inflation, money supply, exchange rate, and birate influence Jakarta islamic Index.

  20. Investment under Uncertain Climate Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of payment probability as an important component of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under uncertain climate policy). In modeling power plant investment decisions, most existing literature uses the expected carbon price (e.g., the price...... actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the surge of activity in 2005–2006 and the subsequent decline in interest in coal-fired power plant development in the U.S. The data for this case study comes from an extensive online survey of 700 U.S. energy...... design better incentives for investing in low-carbon technologies...

  1. Uncertain deduction and conditional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Thompson, Valerie A; Over, David E

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paradigm shift in the psychology of deductive reasoning. Many researchers no longer think it is appropriate to ask people to assume premises and decide what necessarily follows, with the results evaluated by binary extensional logic. Most every day and scientific inference is made from more or less confidently held beliefs and not assumptions, and the relevant normative standard is Bayesian probability theory. We argue that the study of "uncertain deduction" should directly ask people to assign probabilities to both premises and conclusions, and report an experiment using this method. We assess this reasoning by two Bayesian metrics: probabilistic validity and coherence according to probability theory. On both measures, participants perform above chance in conditional reasoning, but they do much better when statements are grouped as inferences, rather than evaluated in separate tasks.

  2. Effects of Economic Recession on Road Safety Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, M.; Gonzalo-Orden, H.; Linares, A.; Olio, L. dell’

    2016-07-01

    During the last years, the investment in both construction and conservation of transportinfrastructures has been considerably reduced in several countries, as Spain. After anumber of years in which economic circumstances have forced Governments to reducebudgets earmarked for the maintenance and creation of new ways, it is interesting toanalyze whether this has taken a toll on accident rates.The paper evaluates if there are significant changes in the road safety through these yearsin Spain, comparing the annual statistics concerning investment in infrastructure andaccidents. Thus, the classical risk, mortality and severity indexes have been analyzed tounderstand their real trends. Finally, through linear regression techniques, it is shown howthese trends are related to the budgets invested each year, in order to draw interestingconclusions about the effect of their reduction. (Author)

  3. The Effect of Consumer Expectation Index, Economic Condition Index and Crude Oil Price on Indonesian Government Bond Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Budiawan Tjandrasa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments sell bonds to finance their budget. The investors willing to buy government bonds because of the yield they will get, but on the other hand if government bond yields is  too high it would burden the state in paying the interest due. Various studies have been done to find the variables that affect government bond yield significantly, such as exchange rate, inflation rate, interest rate, and oil price. This study found two more variables namely consumer expectations index and the economic conditions index to complement the variables that have been discovered. Those two variables are used as a proxy of economic stability of a country, the increase of those variables represent the increase of economic stability and will reduce the level of risk and lowering the yield that investors demand. This research use descriptive method and explanatory study with secondary data using multivariate regression equation model. The results shown consumer expectation index and economic condition index have significant effect on Indonesian Government Bond yield. To keep consumer expectation index and economic condition index increase government should give a positive signal and a sense of security to investor.

  4. Moiré Effect: Index and the Digital Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Baraklianou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The moiré effect and phenomena are natural occurring geometric formations that appear during the super-position of grid structures. Most widely recognisable in colour printing practices, generally viewed on screens (computer and TV they are in most cases examples of interference within a signal or a code, unwanted visual mis-alignment. Especially in digital image capture, moiré patternings appear when a geometrically even pattern, like a fabric or close-up of fine texture, has an appearance of rippled water with blue or red hues of concentric circle formations. The intriguing pattern formation in this case points back not only to the mis-alignment of frequencies, but can be further seen as the intersection point of a speculative ontology for the index of the digital image. Moiré not only as a visually reproducible phenomenon or effect, but a field of vision that blurs the boundaries between analogue and digital, perception and affect, manifesting the photographic as a constant site of becoming, a site of immanence. The philosophy of Henri Bergson, Brian Massumi and Francois Laruelle will be explored alongside the moiré image and phenomenon, to see if there is such a speculative site underlining the becoming of the digital image and its repercussions in contemporary digital culture.

  5. Decision Making Under Uncertain Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ying-Fen Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of what categories are and are not relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use was and was not appropriate.

  6. The effect of body mass index on perioperative thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer AB

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayşe Belin Özer,1 Aysun Yildiz Altun,1 Ömer Lütfi Erhan,1 Tuba Çatak,2 Ümit Karatepe,1 İsmail Demirel,1 Gonca Çağlar Toprak3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Firat University Medical School, Elaziğ, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Bingol State Hospital, Bingöl, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Elazig Training and Research Hospital, Elaziğ, Turkey Purpose: We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI on thermoregulation in obese patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery with no premedication were included in the study. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to BMI <24.9, 25–39.9, 40–49.9, and >50. Anesthesia was provided with routine techniques. Tympanic and peripheral temperatures were recorded every 5 minutes starting with the induction of anesthesia. The mean skin temperature (MST, mean body temperature (MBT, vasoconstriction time, and vasoconstriction threshold that triggers core warming were calculated with the following formulas: MST = 0.3 (Tchest + Tarm + 0.2 (Tthigh + Tcalf. MBT was calculated using the equation 0.64Tcore+0.36Tskin, and vasoconstriction was determined by calculating Tforearm-Tfinger. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, duration of operation, and room temperature. Compared to those with BMI <24.9, the tympanic temperature was significantly higher in those with BMI =25–39.9 in the 10th, 15th, 20th, and 50th minutes. In addition, BMI =40–49.9 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 40th, 45th, 50th, and 55th minutes and BMI >50 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 50th, and 55th minutes were less than those with BMI <24.9 (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in terms of MST and MBT. Vasoconstriction occurred later, and that vasoconstriction threshold was

  7. An edge index for the quantum spin-Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Quantum spin-Hall systems are topological insulators displaying dissipationless spin currents flowing at the edges of the samples. In contradistinction to the quantum Hall systems where the charge conductance of the edge modes is quantized, the spin conductance is not and it remained an open problem to find the observable whose edge current is quantized. In this paper, we define a particular observable and the edge current corresponding to this observable. We show that this current is quantized and that the quantization is given by the index of a certain Fredholm operator. This provides a new topological invariant that is shown to take the generic values 0 and 2, in line with the Z 2 topological classification of time-reversal invariant systems. The result gives an effective tool for the investigation of the edge structure in quantum spin-Hall systems. Based on a reasonable assumption, we also show that the edge conducting channels are not destroyed by a random edge. (fast track communication)

  8. Dynamic response of structures with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Z H; Liu, Y; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an interval method for the dynamic response of structures with uncertain parameters is presented. In the presented method, the structural physical and geometric parameters and loads can be considered as interval variables. The structural stiffness matrix, mass matrix and loading vectors are described as the sum of two parts corresponding to the deterministic matrix and the uncertainty of the interval parameters. The interval problem is then transformed into approximate deterministic one. The Laplace transform is used to transform the equations of the dynamic system into linear algebra equations. The Maclaurin series expansion is applied on the modified dynamic equation in order to deal with the linear algebra equations. Numerical examples are studied by the presented interval method for the cases with and without damping. The upper bound and lower bound of the dynamic responses of the examples are compared, and it shows that the presented method is effective.

  9. Dynamics Model Applied to Pricing Options with Uncertain Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorella Fatone

    2012-01-01

    model is proposed. The data used to test the calibration problem included observations of asset prices over a finite set of (known equispaced discrete time values. Statistical tests were used to estimate the statistical significance of the two parameters of the Black-Scholes model: the volatility and the drift. The effects of these estimates on the option pricing problem were investigated. In particular, the pricing of an option with uncertain volatility in the Black-Scholes framework was revisited, and a statistical significance was associated with the price intervals determined using the Black-Scholes-Barenblatt equations. Numerical experiments involving synthetic and real data were presented. The real data considered were the daily closing values of the S&P500 index and the associated European call and put option prices in the year 2005. The method proposed here for calibrating the Black-Scholes dynamics model could be extended to other science and engineering models that may be expressed in terms of stochastic dynamical systems.

  10. Breakfast glycaemic index and exercise: combined effects on adolescents' cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the combined effects of breakfast glycaemic index (GI) and a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents' cognitive function. Participants were randomly allocated to a high or low GI breakfast group in a mixed research design, where each participant completed two experimental trials (exercise and resting). Forty-two adolescents (12.4±0.5 years old), undertook a bout of exercise (ten repeats of level one of the multi-stage fitness test; exercise trial) or continued to rest (resting trial) following consumption of either a high or low GI breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm) was completed 30 min before and 45 min following the exercise. Average heart rate during exercise was 170±15 beats·min(-1). On the complex level of the Stroop test, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast on both the exercise and resting trials, though the improvement was greatest on the exercise trial. However, response times only improved on the resting trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.012). On the 5 letter level of the Sternberg paradigm, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast (regardless of exercise) and only on the exercise trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.019). The findings of the present study suggest that the combined effects of breakfast GI and exercise in adolescents depend upon the component of cognitive function examined. A low GI breakfast and mid-morning bout of exercise were individually beneficial for response times on the Sternberg paradigm, whereas they conferred additional benefits for response times on the Stroop test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An artificial bee colony algorithm for uncertain portfolio selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio selection is an important issue for researchers and practitioners. In this paper, under the assumption that security returns are given by experts' evaluations rather than historical data, we discuss the portfolio adjusting problem which takes transaction costs and diversification degree of portfolio into consideration. Uncertain variables are employed to describe the security returns. In the proposed mean-variance-entropy model, the uncertain mean value of the return is used to measure investment return, the uncertain variance of the return is used to measure investment risk, and the entropy is used to measure diversification degree of portfolio. In order to solve the proposed model, a modified artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is designed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  13. Orientation effects on indexing of electron backscatter diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, Matthew M.; Wright, Stuart I.

    2005-01-01

    Automated Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) has become a well-accepted technique for characterizing the crystallographic orientation aspects of polycrystalline microstructures. At the advent of this technique, it was observed that patterns obtained from grains in certain crystallographic orientations were more difficult for the automated indexing algorithms to accurately identify than patterns from other orientations. The origin of this problem is often similarities between the EBSD pattern of the correct orientation and patterns from other orientations or phases. While practical solutions have been found and implemented, the identification of these problem orientations generally occurs only after running an automated scan, as problem orientations are often readily apparent in the resulting orientation maps. However, such an approach only finds those problem orientations that are present in the scan area. It would be advantageous to identify all regions of orientation space that may present problems for automated indexing prior to initiating an automated scan, and to minimize this space through the optimization of acquisition and indexing parameters. This work presents new methods for identifying regions in orientation space where the reliability of the automated indexing is suspect prior to performing a scan. This methodology is used to characterize the impact of various parameters on the indexing algorithm

  14. Effects of substorms on the stormtime ring current index Dst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rostoker

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion in recent times regarding whether or not substorm expansive phase activity plays any role of importance in the formation of the stormtime ring current. I explore this question using the Kp index as a proxy for substorm expansive phase activity and the Dst index as a proxy for symmetric ring current strength. I find that increases in Dst are mildly related to the strength of substorm expansive phase activity during the development of the storm main phase. More surprisingly, I find that the strength of Dst during the storm recovery phase is positively correlated with the strength of substorm expansive phase activity. This result has an important bearing on the question of how much the Dst index reflects activity other than that of the stormtime symmetric ring current strength for which it is supposed to be a proxy.Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (current systems; storms and substorms

  15. Effects of substorms on the stormtime ring current index Dst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rostoker

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion in recent times regarding whether or not substorm expansive phase activity plays any role of importance in the formation of the stormtime ring current. I explore this question using the Kp index as a proxy for substorm expansive phase activity and the Dst index as a proxy for symmetric ring current strength. I find that increases in Dst are mildly related to the strength of substorm expansive phase activity during the development of the storm main phase. More surprisingly, I find that the strength of Dst during the storm recovery phase is positively correlated with the strength of substorm expansive phase activity. This result has an important bearing on the question of how much the Dst index reflects activity other than that of the stormtime symmetric ring current strength for which it is supposed to be a proxy.Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (current systems; storms and substorms

  16. Relativistic effects on complexity indexes in atoms in position and momentum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, P.; Sarsa, A.; Buendia, E.; Galvez, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three different statistical measures of complexity are explored for the atoms He to Ra. The measures are analysed in both position and momentum spaces. Relativistic effects on the complexity indexes are systematically studied. These effects are discussed in terms of the information content factor and the disorder terms of the complexity indexes. Relativistic and non-relativistic complexity indexes are calculated from Optimized Effective Potential densities.

  17. Adaptive synchronization of a new hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Tiegang; Chen Zengqiang; Yuan Zhuzhi; Yu Dongchuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses control for the master-slave synchronization of a new hyperchaos with five uncertain parameters. An adaptive control law is derived to make the states of two identical hyperchaotic systems asymptotically synchronized based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme

  18. Adaptive synchronization of Rossler system with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses control for the chaos synchronization of Rossler systems with three uncertain parameters. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive control law is derived to make the states of two identical Rossler systems asymptotically synchronized. A numerical simulations is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme

  19. Adaptive synchronization of hyperchaotic Chen system with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses control for the chaos synchronization of hyperchaotic Chen system with five uncertain parameters. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive control law is derived to make the states of two identical hyperchaotic Chen systems asymptotically synchronized. Finally, a numerical simulations is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme

  20. Conical Dispersion and Effective Zero Refractive Index in Photonic Quasicrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dong; M Chang; X. Huang; Z. Hang; Z. Zhong; W. Chen; Z. Huang; C. Chan; X. Huang; Z. Huang

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is recognized that for a certain class of periodic photonic crystals, conical dispersion can be related to a zero-refractive index. It is not obvious whether such a notion can be extended to a noncrystalline system. We show that certain photonic quasicrystalline approximants have

  1. Hedging effectiveness of weather index-based insurance in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelka, N.; Musshoff, O.; Finger, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Maize production in China is exposed to pronounced yield risks, in particular weather risk, which is one of the most important and least controllable sources of risk in agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent to which weather index-based insurance can contribute to

  2. Processing Uncertain RFID Data in Traceability Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries.

  3. Processing uncertain RFID data in traceability supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie; Guo, Guangjun; Jiang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries.

  4. Effects of physical exercice over corporal fat predictor indexes: corporal mass index, waist-hip proportion and cutaneous folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertino de Oliveira Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify alterations in corporal fat amount prediction indexes as a consequence of physical exercise, in assiduous individuals of programs offered in academies in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. The sample consisted of 68 subjects who practiced swimming, water aerobics, gymnastics or muscular exercice, being 38 women (age 29±6 years and 30 men (age 28±8 years. The data was collected during the year of 2000. According to the results, both groups showed significant decrease of the variables related to corporal fat prediction (fat percentage, corporal mass index, waist-hip proportion and significant increase in the thin corporal mass, independent of the exercise modality, allowing the conclusion that, besides aesthetic effects, physical exercises precticed with regularity and continuity act positively on aspects related to the individual's life quality, bringing him/her closer to ideal health standards.

  5. Effect of acetylcysteine on prothrombin index in paracetamol poisoning without hepatocellular injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Knudsen, Tore Tveit; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Acetylcysteine treatment reduces liver damage after paracetamol overdose, but can affect the prothrombin index, which is used to assess the progress of overdose patients. We aimed to assess retrospectively the effect of intravenous acetylcysteine on the prothrombin index in patients with paraceta......Acetylcysteine treatment reduces liver damage after paracetamol overdose, but can affect the prothrombin index, which is used to assess the progress of overdose patients. We aimed to assess retrospectively the effect of intravenous acetylcysteine on the prothrombin index in patients...... with paracetamol poisoning without signs of hepatocellular injury. Prothrombin index had been recorded before, and serially during, acetylcysteine treatment in 87 patients. After initiation of treatment, prothrombin index decreased (mean 0.33, 95% CI 0.29-0.38) in all patients, and was strongly associated...... with the start of acetylcysteine infusion. In patients with uncomplicated paracetamol poisoning, a fall in this index might be misinterpreted as a sign of liver failure, leading to prolonged treatment time....

  6. Robust lyapunov controller for uncertain systems

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2017-01-01

    Various examples of systems and methods are provided for Lyapunov control for uncertain systems. In one example, a system includes a process plant and a robust Lyapunov controller configured to control an input of the process plant. The robust

  7. The uncertain geographic context problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Any study that examines the effects of area-based attributes on individual behaviors or outcomes faces another fundamental methodological problem besides the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). It is the problem that results about these effects can be affected by how contextual units or

  8. Synchronization transmission of laser pattern signal within uncertain switched network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ling; Li, Chengren; Li, Gang; Sun, Ao; Yan, Zhe; Rong, Tingting; Gao, Yan

    2017-06-01

    We propose a new technology for synchronization transmission of laser pattern signal within uncertain network with controllable topology. In synchronization process, the connection of dynamic network can vary at all time according to different demands. Especially, we construct the Lyapunov function of network through designing a special semi-positive definite function, and the synchronization transmission of laser pattern signal within uncertain network with controllable topology can be realized perfectly, which effectively avoids the complicated calculation for solving the second largest eignvalue of the coupling matrix of the dynamic network in order to obtain the network synchronization condition. At the same time, the uncertain parameters in dynamic equations belonging to network nodes can also be identified accurately via designing the identification laws of uncertain parameters. In addition, there are not any limitations for the synchronization target of network in the new technology, in other words, the target can either be a state variable signal of an arbitrary node within the network or an exterior signal.

  9. When, not if: the inescapability of an uncertain climate future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Timothy; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2015-11-28

    Climate change projections necessarily involve uncertainty. Analysis of the physics and mathematics of the climate system reveals that greater uncertainty about future temperature increases is nearly always associated with greater expected damages from climate change. In contrast to those normative constraints, uncertainty is frequently cited in public discourse as a reason to delay mitigative action. This failure to understand the actual implications of uncertainty may incur notable future costs. It is therefore important to communicate uncertainty in a way that improves people's understanding of climate change risks. We examined whether responses to projections were influenced by whether the projection emphasized uncertainty in the outcome or in its time of arrival. We presented participants with statements and graphs indicating projected increases in temperature, sea levels, ocean acidification and a decrease in arctic sea ice. In the uncertain-outcome condition, statements reported the upper and lower confidence bounds of the projected outcome at a fixed time point. In the uncertain time-of-arrival condition, statements reported the upper and lower confidence bounds of the projected time of arrival for a fixed outcome. Results suggested that people perceived the threat as more serious and were more likely to encourage mitigative action in the time-uncertain condition than in the outcome-uncertain condition. This finding has implications for effectively communicating the climate change risks to policy-makers and the general public. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Project Delivery System Mode Decision Based on Uncertain AHP and Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaishan, Liu; Huimin, Li

    2017-12-01

    The project delivery system mode determines the contract pricing type, project management mode and the risk allocation among all participants. Different project delivery system modes have different characteristics and applicable scope. For the owners, the selection of the delivery mode is the key point to decide whether the project can achieve the expected benefits, it relates to the success or failure of project construction. Under the precondition of comprehensively considering the influence factors of the delivery mode, the model of project delivery system mode decision was set up on the basis of uncertain AHP and fuzzy sets, which can well consider the uncertainty and fuzziness when conducting the index evaluation and weight confirmation, so as to rapidly and effectively identify the most suitable delivery mode according to project characteristics. The effectiveness of the model has been verified via the actual case analysis in order to provide reference for the construction project delivery system mode.

  11. Effect of dietary curries on the glycaemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirasath, S; Thayaananthan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2010-12-01

    Determination of the glycaemic index (GI) of different basic foods in combination with different curries. METHODS; Healthy volunteers (n = 20) of 21.05 (+/- 0.92) years old, 53.90 (+/- 9.36) kg in body weight, 153.92 (+/- 9.15) cm in height and 20.55 (+/- 2.22) kgm(-2) of body mass index were included. After overnight fasting, 75g of glucose and each test food containing 75g of digestible carbohydrate were administered and blood glucose level measured half hourly for two hours. The GI was calculated and analysed by randomised complete block design using SAS analytical package. The mean GI values of parboiled rice ('Mottaikarupan') either with green leaf curry (Amaranthus) or gravy (soya meat) or green leaf curry and gravy were 47.47 (+/- 11.21), 56.30 (+/- 9.31) and 54.67 (+/- 10.03) % respectively. The mean GI of 'kurakkan pittu' (Eleucine coracana) with the above curries were 57.51 (+/- 5.52), 63.25 (+/- 8.86) and 59.25 (+/- 5.49) % respectively. The mean GI of 'atta pittu' (whole wheat grain flour) with the above curries were 44.40 (+/-14.27), 50.80 (+/- 9.35) and 46.29 (+/- 8.90) % respectively. The GI of parboiled rice or 'kurakkan pittu' or 'atta pittu' with green leaf curry differed significantly (p gravy or green leaf curry and gravy did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among them. 'Kurakkan pittu' is inferior to 'atta pittu' and parboiled rice. Including curries to basic foods altered the GI. Therefore, when dietary advice is given to diabetic patients, not only the basic foods, but also the curries to be consumed have to be considered.

  12. The uncertain first-time voter: Effects of political media exposure on young citizens’ formation of vote choice in a digital media environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    2018-01-01

    The digital media environment changes the way citizens receive political information, also during an election campaign. Particularly first-time voters increasingly use social media platforms as news sources. Yet, it is less clear how accessing political information in such a unique social setting...... exposure and certainty can be mediated by active campaign participation. An 11-wave national panel study was conducted, using a smartphone-based assessment of citizens’ (n = 1108) media exposure and vote choice certainty across the campaign period. Results suggest that first-time voters’ social media...... affects these cohorts’ decision-making processes during an election campaign, compared to experienced voters. We compare effects of these two groups’ political information exposure on their vote choice certainty during the 2015 Danish national election. We furthermore test how the relation between...

  13. Non probabilistic solution of uncertain neutron diffusion equation for imprecisely defined homogeneous bare reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraverty, S.; Nayak, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertain neutron diffusion equation of bare square homogeneous reactor is studied. • Proposed interval arithmetic is extended for fuzzy numbers. • The developed fuzzy arithmetic is used to handle uncertain parameters. • Governing differential equation is modelled by modified fuzzy finite element method. • Fuzzy critical eigenvalues and effective multiplication factors are investigated. - Abstract: The scattering of neutron collision inside a reactor depends upon geometry of the reactor, diffusion coefficient and absorption coefficient etc. In general these parameters are not crisp and hence we get uncertain neutron diffusion equation. In this paper we have investigated the above equation for a bare square homogeneous reactor. Here the uncertain governing differential equation is modelled by a modified fuzzy finite element method. Using modified fuzzy finite element method, obtained eigenvalues and effective multiplication factors are studied. Corresponding results are compared with the classical finite element method in special cases and various uncertain results have been discussed

  14. The Effectiveness of Web Search Engines to Index New Sites from Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkola, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Investigates how effectively Web search engines index new sites from different countries. The primary interest is whether new sites are indexed equally or whether search engines are biased towards certain countries. If major search engines show biased coverage it can be considered a significant economic and political problem because…

  15. Robust control synthesis for uncertain dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kuk-Whan; Wie, Bong; Sunkel, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents robust control synthesis techniques for uncertain dynamical systems subject to structured parameter perturbation. Both QFT (quantitative feedback theory) and H-infinity control synthesis techniques are investigated. Although most H-infinity-related control techniques are not concerned with the structured parameter perturbation, a new way of incorporating the parameter uncertainty in the robust H-infinity control design is presented. A generic model of uncertain dynamical systems is used to illustrate the design methodologies investigated in this paper. It is shown that, for a certain noncolocated structural control problem, use of both techniques results in nonminimum phase compensation.

  16. Effect of drop jump technique on the reactive strength index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Juras, Grzegorz; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Rokita, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The basic drill of plyometric training aimed at improving lower limb power and jump height is a drop jump. This exercise can be performed using different techniques, which substantially affects jump variables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the values of the reactive strength index (RSI) for countermovement drop jumps (CDJs) and bounce drop jumps (BDJs). The study was carried out in a group of 8 male youth basketball players. The tests were conducted using the AMTI BP600900 force plate to measure ground reaction forces and the Noraxon MyoMotion system to record kinematic data. Each player performed two CDJs and two BDJs from the height of 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm. The RSI was calculated as a ratio of jump height and contact time. Moreover, the RSI was determined for the amortization and take-off phases separately. Significant differences (p jumps from 30, 45 and 60 cm. Differences in RSI values for jumps from 15 cm were not significant. Furthermore, CDJ height values were significantly higher (p jump technique that is commonly performed by basketball players.

  17. Effect of drop jump technique on the reactive strength index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struzik Artur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic drill of plyometric training aimed at improving lower limb power and jump height is a drop jump. This exercise can be performed using different techniques, which substantially affects jump variables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the values of the reactive strength index (RSI for countermovement drop jumps (CDJs and bounce drop jumps (BDJs. The study was carried out in a group of 8 male youth basketball players. The tests were conducted using the AMTI BP600900 force plate to measure ground reaction forces and the Noraxon MyoMotion system to record kinematic data. Each player performed two CDJs and two BDJs from the height of 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm. The RSI was calculated as a ratio of jump height and contact time. Moreover, the RSI was determined for the amortization and take-off phases separately. Significant differences (p < 0.05 between RSI values for CDJs and BDJs were recorded for jumps from 30, 45 and 60 cm. Differences in RSI values for jumps from 15 cm were not significant. Furthermore, CDJ height values were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the values recorded for BDJs. Times of contact, amortization and take-off during BDJs were significantly shorter (p < 0.05 than the respective values obtained for CDJs. Therefore, the use of the RSI to monitor plyometric training should be based on the drop jump technique that is commonly performed by basketball players.

  18. Effects of body mass index on sleep patterns during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile sleep patterns during pregnancy according to body mass index (BMI) and to correlate labour outcomes with both BMI and hours sleep. Data were collected from 200 postpartum women detailing sleep characteristics before and during pregnancy. A validated sleep questionnaire was employed, which comprised of questions about sleep apnoea, snoring, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication and daytime dysfunction. Descriptive analyses were used. With advancing gestation, the mean (SD) number of hours sleep per night declined: pre-pregnancy 8.1 (SD 1.4); 1st trimester 8.3 (SD 1.8); 2nd trimester 7.7 (SD 1.7) and 3rd trimester 6.7 (SD 2.2). In the 18.5-24.9 BMI group, there was a marked difference in hours sleep per night from pre-pregnancy to 1st (8.6 h, p = 0.007), 2nd (7.9 h, p = 0.023) and 3rd (6.4 h, p = 0.000) trimesters in primiparous women. In the 25-29.9 BMI group, there was a difference from pre-pregnancy to 3rd trimester (p = 0.000). These changes were not reflected in a clinically significant difference in birth weight or mode of delivery.

  19. Nonfragile Robust Model Predictive Control for Uncertain Constrained Systems with Time-Delay Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the problem of asymptotic stabilization for a class of discrete-time linear uncertain time-delayed systems with input constraints. Parametric uncertainty is assumed to be structured, and delay is assumed to be known. In Lyapunov stability theory framework, two synthesis schemes of designing nonfragile robust model predictive control (RMPC with time-delay compensation are put forward, where the additive and the multiplicative gain perturbations are, respectively, considered. First, by designing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K functions, the robust performance index is defined as optimization problems that minimize upper bounds of infinite horizon cost function. Then, to guarantee closed-loop stability, the sufficient conditions for the existence of desired nonfragile RMPC are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  20. Uncertain R and D, backstop technology and GHGs stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses optimal investments in innovation when dealing with a stringent climate target and with the uncertain effectiveness of R and D. The innovation needed to achieve the deep cut in emissions is modeled by a backstop carbon-free technology whose cost depends on R and D investments. To better represent the process of technological progress, we assume that R and D effectiveness is uncertain. By means of a simple analytical model, we show how accounting for the uncertainty that characterizes technological advancement yields higher investments in innovation and lower policy costs. We then confirm the results via a numerical analysis performed with a stochastic version of WITCH, an energy-economy-climate model. The results stress the importance of a correct specification of the technological change process in economy-climate models. (author)

  1. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Fasanmade, O A; Ogbera, A O; Ohwovoriole, A E

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or under production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity. Some literature describes reduced serum cortisol levels in obesity, however, this is not a well-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum cortisol levels. Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences) were done. Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. The basal cortisol (BC) sample was taken at 8 a.m. immediately before administration of an intravenous bolus injection of 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). BMI categories were defined as normal and high if BMI was 18.5-24.99 kg/m² and ≥ 25 kg/m², respectively. Forty (57.1%) participants had normal BMI while 30 (42.9%) participants had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (P0 = 0.053). The mean BC level was lower in participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² but not significant. There was a negative correlation between BMI and BC level ( r = -0.205, P = 0.88) while a positive correlation existed between stimulated cortisol level and BMI (r = 0.009, P = 0.944). Persons with BMI above 25 kg/m² had lower BC level though not statistically significant, the trend was noticed. Subjecting people whose BMI is above 25 kg/m² to further stimulation with ACTH because of low BC is not advised because their response to ACTH stimulation was similar to those who have normal BMI.

  2. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.F.; Hassan, M.; Nazar, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Methods: Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI (89 normal, 92 overweight, and 89 obese). After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15 calculating mean, percentage, independent t-test and chi-square test. Correlation and regression curve analysis were obtained, and p and r values were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6+-1.5 gamma g/ml in men, and 17.3+9-10.2 gamma g/ml for women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels in men were 9.9+-6.8 gamma g/ml and in women were 34.8+-13.6 gamma g/ml. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values for men were 21.3+-14.2 gamma g/ml and for women were 48.21+-21.2 gamma g/ml (p<0.001). Conclusion: A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects. (author)

  3. New composite index based on midlatency auditory evoked potential and electroencephalographic parameters to optimize correlation with propofol effect site concentration - Comparison with bispectral index and solitary used fast extracting auditory evoked potential index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereecke, HEM; Vasquez, PM; Jensen, EW; Thas, O; Vandenbroecke, R; Mortier, EP; Struys, MMRF

    Background: This study investigates the accuracy of a composite index, the A-Line (R) auditory evoked potentials index version 1.6 (AAI(1.6); Danmeter A/S, Odense, Denmark), as a measure of cerebral anesthetic drug effect in a model for predicting a calculated effect site concentration of propofol

  4. Uncertain climate policy and the green paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Sjak A.; Tsur, Y.; Zemel, A.; Moser, E.; Semmler, W.; Tragler, G.; Veliov, V.

    2014-01-01

    Unintended consequences of announcing a climate policy well in advance of its implementation have been studied in a variety of situations. We show that a phenomenon akin to the so-called “Green-Paradox” holds also when the policy implementation date is uncertain. Governments are compelled, by

  5. Quality Measures in Uncertain Data Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice; Prade, H.; Subrahmanian, V.S.

    2007-01-01

    Many applications deal with data that is uncertain. Some examples are applications dealing with sensor information, data integration applications and healthcare applications. Instead of these applications having to deal with the uncertainty, it should be the responsibility of the DBMS to manage all

  6. Management of Uncertain Data - towards unattended integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to support uncertain data has increased. Sensor applications, for example, are dealing with the inherent uncertainty about the readings of the sensors. Current database management systems are not equipped to deal with this uncertainty, other than as a user defined

  7. Chance constrained uncertain classification via robust optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Tal, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bhattacharayya, C.; Saketha Nat, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of constructing robust classifiers when the training is plagued with uncertainty. The problem is posed as a Chance-Constrained Program (CCP) which ensures that the uncertain data points are classified correctly with high probability. Unfortunately such a CCP turns out

  8. Robust scheduling in an uncertain environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents research on scheduling in an uncertain environment, which forms a part of the rolling stock life cycle logistics applied research and development program funded by Dutch railway industry companies. The focus therefore lies on scheduling of maintenance operations on rolling stock

  9. Investment risks under uncertain climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; Bradley, Richard; Yang, Ming; Bunn, Derek; Clarke, Charlie; Wilson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes results from a model of decision-making under uncertainty using a real options methodology, developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The model represents investment decisions in power generation from the perspective of a private company. The investments are subject to uncertain future climate policy, which is treated as an external risk factor over which the company has no control. The aims of this paper are to (i) quantify these regulatory risks in order to improve understanding of how policy uncertainty may affect investment behaviour by private companies and (ii) illustrate the effectiveness of the real options approach as a policy analysis tool. The study analysed firms' investment options of coal- and gas-fired power plants and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. Policy uncertainty is represented as an exogenous event that creates uncertainty in the carbon price. Our findings indicate that climate policy uncertainty creates a risk premium for power generation investments. In the case of gas- and coal-fired power generation, the risk premium would lead to an increase in electricity prices of 5-10% in order to stimulate investment. In the case of CCS, the risk premium would increase the carbon price required to stimulate investment by 16-37% compared to a situation of perfect certainty. The option to retrofit CCS acts as a hedge against high future carbon prices, and could accelerate investment in coal plant. This paper concludes that to minimise investment risks in low carbon technologies, policy-makers should aim to provide some long-term regulatory certainty. (author)

  10. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  11. Evaluation of Pistacia lentiscus Fatty Oil Effects on Glycemic Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil (PLFO) is a well known natural remedy in eastern Algeria folk medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of respiratory disorders and dermal burns. The present study has been carried out to investigate effects of this oil on fasting glucose and some functional parameters of the liver and kidney in ...

  12. Multiobjective Location Routing Problem considering Uncertain Data after Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keliang Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relief distributions after large disasters play an important role for rescue works. After disasters there is a high degree of uncertainty, such as the demands of disaster points and the damage of paths. The demands of affected points and the velocities between two points on the paths are uncertain in this article, and the robust optimization method is applied to deal with the uncertain parameters. This paper proposes a nonlinear location routing problem with half-time windows and with three objectives. The affected points can be visited more than one time. The goals are the total costs of the transportation, the satisfaction rates of disaster nodes, and the path transport capacities which are denoted by vehicle velocities. Finally, the genetic algorithm is applied to solve a number of numerical examples, and the results show that the genetic algorithm is very stable and effective for this problem.

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of color attributes for video indexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Bertrand; Forest, Ronan

    2001-10-01

    Color features are reviewed and their effectiveness assessed in the application framework of key-frame clustering for abstracting unconstrained video. Existing color spaces and associated quantization schemes are first studied. Description of global color distribution by means of histograms is then detailed. In our work, 12 combinations of color space and quantization were selected, together with 12 histogram metrics. Their respective effectiveness with respect to picture similarity measurement was evaluated through a query-by-example scenario. For that purpose, a set of still-picture databases was built by extracting key frames from several video clips, including news, documentaries, sports and cartoons. Classical retrieval performance evaluation criteria were adapted to the specificity of our testing methodology.

  14. Synchronization of uncertain time-varying network based on sliding mode control technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ling; Li, Chengren; Bai, Suyuan; Li, Gang; Rong, Tingting; Gao, Yan; Yan, Zhe

    2017-09-01

    We research synchronization of uncertain time-varying network based on sliding mode control technique. The sliding mode control technique is first modified so that it can be applied to network synchronization. Further, by choosing the appropriate sliding surface, the identification law of uncertain parameter, the adaptive law of the time-varying coupling matrix element and the control input of network are designed, it is sure that the uncertain time-varying network can synchronize effectively the synchronization target. At last, we perform some numerical simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  15. The effect of nasal surgery on apnea-hypopnea index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nourizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors, which is involved in obstructive sleep apnea, is anatomic or inflammatory pathologies of nasal airway obstruction. Thus, it is logical to observe improvement of polysomnographic parameters of sleep-disordered breathing after nasal surgery. The authors performed a review of the literature, up to 2013, to determine the impact of nasal surgery on obstructive sleep apnea. Most current idea in this field is based on case series studies while randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of surgery for nasal obstruction on sleep apnea are few and far between. According to these studies, surgery for nasal obstruction does not improve objective parameters of sleep apnea. Although nasal obstruction is one of the factors involved in obstructive apnea, one has to keep in mind that surgery will not result in major reduction of obstructive sleep apnea severity to relieve nasal obstruction. Detailed upper airway analysis has to be considered when surgery is an option for obstructive sleep apnea. Thus, nasal surgeries are beneficial when they are part of a multilevel approach in obstructive sleep apnea treatment.

  16. Overcoming Learning Aversion in Evaluating and Managing Uncertain Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2015-10-01

    Decision biases can distort cost-benefit evaluations of uncertain risks, leading to risk management policy decisions with predictably high retrospective regret. We argue that well-documented decision biases encourage learning aversion, or predictably suboptimal learning and premature decision making in the face of high uncertainty about the costs, risks, and benefits of proposed changes. Biases such as narrow framing, overconfidence, confirmation bias, optimism bias, ambiguity aversion, and hyperbolic discounting of the immediate costs and delayed benefits of learning, contribute to deficient individual and group learning, avoidance of information seeking, underestimation of the value of further information, and hence needlessly inaccurate risk-cost-benefit estimates and suboptimal risk management decisions. In practice, such biases can create predictable regret in selection of potential risk-reducing regulations. Low-regret learning strategies based on computational reinforcement learning models can potentially overcome some of these suboptimal decision processes by replacing aversion to uncertain probabilities with actions calculated to balance exploration (deliberate experimentation and uncertainty reduction) and exploitation (taking actions to maximize the sum of expected immediate reward, expected discounted future reward, and value of information). We discuss the proposed framework for understanding and overcoming learning aversion and for implementing low-regret learning strategies using regulation of air pollutants with uncertain health effects as an example. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Fuzzy controller for an uncertain dynamical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, P.; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2002-01-01

    The present paper deals with the time-optimal control for mechanical systems with uncertain load. A fuzzy approach is used in the design of suboptimal feedback controllers, robust with respect to the load. Statistical kernel estimators are used for the specification of crucial parameters. The met......The present paper deals with the time-optimal control for mechanical systems with uncertain load. A fuzzy approach is used in the design of suboptimal feedback controllers, robust with respect to the load. Statistical kernel estimators are used for the specification of crucial parameters....... The methodology proposed in this work may be easily adopted to other modeling uncertainties of mechanical systems, e.g. motion resistance....

  18. EFFECTS OF WEATHER-INDEX INSURANCE: THE CASE OF SMALLHOLDER MAIZE FARMERS IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashiru Haruna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of weather-index insurance on intensity of fertilizer use and yields among 230 smallholder maize farmers in Northern Region of Ghana. Out of the total sample of selected farmers, about 35% purchased the insurance. Using an endogenous treatment regression model, the study showed that weather-index insurance purchase increased the intensity of fertilizer use but did not have a significant effect on maize yield. Past experience of crop failure due to drought, livestock ownership as well as the total area of land owned explained weather-index insurance purchase in the study area. Based on the results of this study, the Government of Ghana can use weather-index insurance as a policy tool to increase the use of fertilizer by smallholder maize farmers.

  19. Constructor:synthesizing information about uncertain variables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, W. Troy (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Ferson, Scott (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Hajagos, Janos (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Myers, David S. (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY)

    2005-09-01

    Constructor is software for the Microsoft Windows microcomputer environment that facilitates the collation of empirical information and expert judgment for the specification of probability distributions, probability boxes, random sets or Dempster-Shafer structures from data, qualitative shape information, constraints on moments, order statistics, densities, and coverage probabilities about uncertain unidimensional quantities. These quantities may be real-valued, integer-valued or logical values.

  20. High-negative effective refractive index of silver nanoparticles system in nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, Konstantin K.; Gadomsky, Oleg N.

    2012-03-01

    We have proved on the basis of the experimental optical reflection and transmission spectra of the nanocomposite film of poly(methyl methacrylate) with silver nanoparticles that (PMMA + Ag) nanocomposite films have quasi-zero refractive indices in the optical wavelength range. We show that to achieve quasi-zero values of the complex index of refraction of composite materials is necessary to achieve high-negative effective refractive index in the system of spherical silver nanoparticles.

  1. Uncertain relational reasoning in the parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Marco; Franzmeier, Imke; Maier, Simon; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The psychology of reasoning is currently transitioning from the study of deductive inferences under certainty to inferences that have degrees of uncertainty in both their premises and conclusions; however, only a few studies have explored the cortical basis of uncertain reasoning. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we show that areas in the right superior parietal lobe (rSPL) are necessary for solving spatial relational reasoning problems under conditions of uncertainty. Twenty-four participants had to decide whether a single presented order of objects agreed with a given set of indeterminate premises that could be interpreted in more than one way. During the presentation of the order, 10-Hz TMS was applied over the rSPL or a sham control site. Right SPL TMS during the inference phase disrupted performance in uncertain relational reasoning. Moreover, we found differences in the error rates between preferred mental models, alternative models, and inconsistent models. Our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved when people reason spatially and evaluate different kinds of uncertain conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of dobutamine on a Doppler echocardiographic index of combined systolic and diastolic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K; Tamura, M; Toyono, M; Yasuoka, K

    2002-01-01

    Dobutamine stress echocardiography has become accepted in the evaluation of cardiac functional reserve. Although the Doppler-derived index of combined systolic/diastolic myocardial performance (Tei index) has been reported to be easily obtainable and useful for predicting left ventricular performance, the effect of dobutamine on the Tei index has not been determined in children. To assess the effect of dobutamine on the Tei index, 8 patients who had undergone surgery for ventricular septal defect and 7 patients who had a history of Kawasaki disease were examined. Echocardiographic recordings were obtained before and after dobutamine infusion (5 microg/kg per minute). Variables measured were transmitral flow velocities (E, A, E/A), rate-corrected mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (rate-corrected Vcf), and IMP. We measured isovolumic contraction time (ICT), isovolumic relaxation time (IRT), and ejection time (ET) and then calculated the Tei index using the following formula: Tei index = (ICT + IRT)/ET. Dobutamine infusion increased rate-corrected Vcf (29%, p ICT, and IRT were found to decrease during dobutamine infusion. The magnitude of the change in the ICT (-21%, p ICT/ET (-21%, p effects of inotropic stimilation on global left ventricular function.

  3. Method of determining effects of heat-induced irregular refractive index on an optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xifa; Li, Lin; Huang, Yifan

    2015-09-01

    The effects of an irregular refractive index on optical performance are examined. A method was developed to express a lens's irregular refractive index distribution. An optical system and its mountings were modeled by a thermomechanical finite element (FE) program in the predicted operating temperature range, -45°C-50°C. FE outputs were elaborated using a MATLAB optimization routine; a nonlinear least squares algorithm was adopted to determine which gradient equation best fit each lens's refractive index distribution. The obtained gradient data were imported into Zemax for sequential ray-tracing analysis. The root mean square spot diameter, modulation transfer function, and diffraction ensquared energy were computed for an optical system under an irregular refractive index and under thermoelastic deformation. These properties are greatly reduced by the irregular refractive index effect, which is one-third to five-sevenths the size of the thermoelastic deformation effect. Thus, thermal analyses of optical systems should consider not only thermoelastic deformation but also refractive index irregularities caused by inhomogeneous temperature.

  4. Adaptive observer based synchronization of a class of uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowong, S.; Yamapi, R.

    2005-05-01

    This study addresses the adaptive synchronization of a class of uncertain chaotic systems in the drive-response framework. For a class of uncertain chaotic systems with unknown parameters and external disturbances, a robust adaptive observer based response system is constructed to synchronize the uncertain chaotic system. Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat lemma ensure the global synchronization between the drive and response systems even if Lipschitz constants on function matrices and bounds on uncertainties are unknown. Numerical simulation of the Genesio-Tesi system verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  5. Effect of Entry into Socially Responsible Investment Index on Cost of Equity and Firm Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijung Eom

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a company’s incorporation into the Socially Responsible Investment (SRI index on its cost of equity (COE and corporate value. The study collected and analyzed data about the four-year long changes of the component stocks of the Korea Exchange (KRX SRI index from September 2010 to September 2013 to verify the correlation between the incorporation of the SRI index and the cost of equity or corporate value by using the Price-Earnings Growth (PEG, Modified PEG (MPEG and Gode and Mohanram (GM models for estimation of the implied costs of equity capital, as well as Tobin’s Q ratio. The analysis results failed to show any significant relation between the incorporation of the SRI index and the cost of equity capital. Also, no statistically significant correlation between the incorporation of the SRI index and corporate value was observed. However, at an early phase of introduction of the SRI index, the included companies revealed a negative correlation with the cost of equity. However, after changing the listed stocks, they showed a positive correlation with the cost of equity capital. All in all, this can be ascribed to a mixed presence of optimistic and pessimistic investors about CSR activities, or there is a possibility that the KRX SRI index might not correctly reflect the CSR activities of companies.

  6. Numerical solution of uncertain neutron diffusion equation for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The concept of fuzziness is hybridised with ... impreciseness, vagueness, experimental error and different operating conditions affected by the system. ... But the presence of uncertain parameters makes the system uncertain and we get uncer-.

  7. THE EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES ON BANKING STOCK PRICE INDEX IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laduna R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock price index can be regarded as a barometer in the measuremet of a nation’s economic condition, besides it can also be used in conducting statistical analysis on the current market. Stock is the proof of one’s share in a company in the form of securities issued by the listed go-public companies. This study was conducted to measure the effect of macroeconomic variables such as inflation, interest rate, and exchange rate on banking stock price index in Indonesia stock exchange or Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The results of study show that inflation and exchange rate posively influence the stock price index. The positive effect of the exchange rate shows that issuers who were positively affected by Rupiah (IDR depreciation appear to be the most dominant group. Meanwhile, the interest rate or Suku Bunga (SBI has a negative effect. Lower interest rate stimulates higher investments and better economic activities which increase the stock price.

  8. An Extended TOPSIS Method for Multiple Attribute Decision Making based on Interval Neutrosophic Uncertain Linguistic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables can easily express the indeterminate and inconsistent information in real world, and TOPSIS is a very effective decision making method more and more extensive applications. In this paper, we will extend the TOPSIS method to deal with the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic information, and propose an extended TOPSIS method to solve the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute value takes the form of the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables and attribute weight is unknown. Firstly, the operational rules and properties for the interval neutrosophic variables are introduced. Then the distance between two interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables is proposed and the attribute weight is calculated by the maximizing deviation method, and the closeness coefficients to the ideal solution for each alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the decision making steps and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. The System for Assessment of the Effectiveness of Personnel Stimulation on the Basis of Integral Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to construct the system for assessment ofpersonnel manage­ ment performance and its testing on a sample o f Ukrainian companies. Problems o f person­ nel stimulation at company level are highlighted. It is proposed to build the mechanism for company personnel stimulation by functional approach. Indicators to be used for assess­ ing the means o f personnel stimulation (material stimulation, organizational stimulation, social and psychological stimulation and personnel management modeling are given. The algorithm for estimating the integral index o f the personnel stimulation effectiveness is recommended. Estimation o f the index o f social and psychological stimulation of company personnel by the proposed method is illustrated. By use o f the proposed algorithm it is demonstrated that the material stimulation (salary rate is the most important determinant o f the highly effective personnel stimulation. The integral index o f the personnel stimulation effectiveness is estimated by correlation and regression analysis for a sample of Ukrainian companies over 2011-2015. On its basis, the companies under study are grouped by level of personnel stimulation. Corrective measures to increase the integral index o f the personnel stimulation effectiveness in each company under study are proposed. The matrix o f correc­ tive measures on personnel stimulation at these companies is constructed and used to find the range o f estimates o f the integral index o f the personnel stimulation effectiveness. The quality o f personnel stimulation mechanism at company level is assessed on the basis o f the estimated integral index o f the personnel stimulation effectiveness.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF THE BODY MASS INDEXES ON THE DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES IN SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milomir Trivun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 39 tested male students of the Faculty of Physical Education at the University in East Sarajevo, who were 22 years +-6 months old in 2007/08 academic year, there has been done the research on the effects of the body mass indexes on the different sections in swimming. The results gained using the measures of the central tendencies and regression analysis showed the different effects of the body mass indexes in swimming. The results were in the relation with stylistic ways of moving at 50m and 100m swimming the crawl.

  11. Structure identification and adaptive synchronization of uncertain general complex dynamical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Lu Hongqian [Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Shandong Jinan 250353 (China)

    2009-12-28

    This Letter proposes an approach to identify the topological structure and unknown parameters for uncertain general complex networks simultaneously. By designing effective adaptive controllers, we achieve synchronization between two complex networks. The unknown network topological structure and system parameters of uncertain general complex dynamical networks are identified simultaneously in the process of synchronization. Several useful criteria for synchronization are given. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the application of the theoretical results.

  12. Structure identification and adaptive synchronization of uncertain general complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuhua; Zhou Wuneng; Fang Jian'an; Lu Hongqian

    2009-01-01

    This Letter proposes an approach to identify the topological structure and unknown parameters for uncertain general complex networks simultaneously. By designing effective adaptive controllers, we achieve synchronization between two complex networks. The unknown network topological structure and system parameters of uncertain general complex dynamical networks are identified simultaneously in the process of synchronization. Several useful criteria for synchronization are given. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the application of the theoretical results.

  13. Chaos synchronization of uncertain Genesio-Tesi chaotic systems with deadzone nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, the concept of practical synchronization is introduced and the chaos synchronization of uncertain Genesio-Tesi chaotic systems with deadzone nonlinearity is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a tracking control is proposed to realize chaos synchronization for the uncertain Genesio-Tesi chaotic systems with deadzone nonlinearity. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate and convergence radius can be pre-specified. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained result.

  14. Function Projective Synchronization in Discrete-Time Chaotic System with Uncertain Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Li Xin

    2009-01-01

    The function projective synchronization of discrete-time chaotic systems is presented. Based on backstepping design with three controllers, a systematic, concrete and automatic scheme is developed to investigate function projective synchronization (FPS) of discrete-time chaotic systems with uncertain parameters. With the aid of symbolic-numeric computation, we use the proposed scheme to illustrate FPS between two identical 3D Henon-like maps with uncertain parameters. Numeric simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of our scheme. (general)

  15. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Yin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3% had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m−0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B] in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  16. Vessels Route Planning Problem with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neumann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to find a solution for route planning in a transport networks, where the costs of tracks, factor of safety and travel time are ambiguous. This approach is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory and well known Dijkstra's algorithm. In this approach important are the influencing factors of the mentioned coefficients using uncertain possibilities presented by probability intervals. Based on these intervals the quality intervals of each route can be determined. Applied decision rules can be described by the end user.

  17. Green taxes and uncertain timing of technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper concerns the role of environmental taxation in a model with endogenous technological change, where the latter implies that natural inputs become more productive. The timing of technological change is, in turn, uncertain and the likelihood of discovering the new technology is related to the amount of resources spent on R and D. The analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model. One purpose of the paper is to design a policy so as to internalize the external effects arising from pollution and R and D. Another is to develop cost benefit rules for green tax reforms, when the initial equilibrium is suboptimal

  18. Exponential Synchronization of Uncertain Complex Dynamical Networks with Delay Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lifu; Kong Zhi; Jing Yuanwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the global exponential synchronization of uncertain complex delayed dynamical networks. The network model considered is general dynamical delay networks with unknown network structure and unknown coupling functions but bounded. Novel delay-dependent linear controllers are designed via the Lyapunov stability theory. Especially, it is shown that the controlled networks are globally exponentially synchronized with a given convergence rate. An example of typical dynamical network of this class, having the Lorenz system at each node, has been used to demonstrate and verify the novel design proposed. And, the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed synchronization approaches. (general)

  19. CKD of Uncertain Etiology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunyera, Joseph; Mohottige, Dinushika; Von Isenburg, Megan; Jeuland, Marc; Patel, Uptal D; Stanifer, John W

    2016-03-07

    Epidemics of CKD of uncertain etiology (CKDu) are emerging around the world. Highlighting common risk factors for CKD of uncertain etiology across various regions and populations may be important for health policy and public health responses. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify published studies on CKDu. The search was generated in January of 2015; no language or date limits were used. We used a vote-counting method to evaluate exposures across all studies. We identified 1607 articles, of which 26 met inclusion criteria. Eighteen (69%) were conducted in known CKDu-endemic countries: Sri Lanka (38%), Nicaragua (19%), and El Salvador (12%). The other studies were from India, Japan, Australia, Mexico, Sweden, Tunisia, Tanzania, and the United States. Heavy metals, heat stress, and dietary exposures were reported across all geographic regions. In south Asia, family history, agrochemical use, and heavy metal exposures were reported most frequently, whereas altitude and temperature were reported only in studies from Central America. Across all regions, CKDu was most frequently associated with a family history of CKDu, agricultural occupation, men, middle age, snake bite, and heavy metal exposure. Studies examining etiologies of CKDu have reported many exposures that are heterogeneous and vary by region. To identify etiologies of CKDu, designing consistent and comparative multisite studies across high-risk populations may help elucidate the importance of region-specific versus global risk factors. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Sensitivity in risk analyses with uncertain numbers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, W. Troy; Ferson, Scott

    2006-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a study of how changes in the inputs to a model influence the results of the model. Many techniques have recently been proposed for use when the model is probabilistic. This report considers the related problem of sensitivity analysis when the model includes uncertain numbers that can involve both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and the method of calculation is Dempster-Shafer evidence theory or probability bounds analysis. Some traditional methods for sensitivity analysis generalize directly for use with uncertain numbers, but, in some respects, sensitivity analysis for these analyses differs from traditional deterministic or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. A case study of a dike reliability assessment illustrates several methods of sensitivity analysis, including traditional probabilistic assessment, local derivatives, and a ''pinching'' strategy that hypothetically reduces the epistemic uncertainty or aleatory uncertainty, or both, in an input variable to estimate the reduction of uncertainty in the outputs. The prospects for applying the methods to black box models are also considered.

  1. Generalization from uncertain and imprecise data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Marsala, C.; Rifqi, M. [Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Ramdani, M. [Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France)]|[Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Mohammadia (Morocco)

    1996-12-31

    Most of the knowledge available about a given system is imperfect, which means imprecise, uncertain, qualitative, expressed in natural language with words which are generally vague. Some pieces of knowledge are numerical, obtained by means of measurements with more or less precise devices. They can also be incomplete, with unknown values for some elements of the system. Classification of objects, decision-making according to the description of the system, are well known problems which can be approached by various ways. Methods based on a generalization process appear very efficient when a list of already solved cases is available and sufficiently representative of all the possible cases. In this paper, we focus on the case where fuzzy sets are used to represent imperfect knowledge because of the capability of fuzzy sets to help managing imprecise data, possibly submitted to some non probabilistic uncertainty such as a subjective doubt. Fuzzy sets also present the interesting property to establish an interface between numerical and symbolic data and are interesting to use when both types of data are present. We suppose that the objects of the system are described by means of attributes, the value of which can be imprecise, uncertain or undetermined. Our purpose is to find rules enabling us to attach a class to any object of the system. We focus this study on two generalization methods based on the knowledge of a training set of objects associated with their descriptions and their classes.

  2. Stability analysis of fuzzy parametric uncertain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhiwani, R J; Patre, B M

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the determination of stability margin, gain and phase margin aspects of fuzzy parametric uncertain systems are dealt. The stability analysis of uncertain linear systems with coefficients described by fuzzy functions is studied. A complexity reduced technique for determining the stability margin for FPUS is proposed. The method suggested is dependent on the order of the characteristic polynomial. In order to find the stability margin of interval polynomials of order less than 5, it is not always necessary to determine and check all four Kharitonov's polynomials. It has been shown that, for determining stability margin of FPUS of order five, four, and three we require only 3, 2, and 1 Kharitonov's polynomials respectively. Only for sixth and higher order polynomials, a complete set of Kharitonov's polynomials are needed to determine the stability margin. Thus for lower order systems, the calculations are reduced to a large extent. This idea has been extended to determine the stability margin of fuzzy interval polynomials. It is also shown that the gain and phase margin of FPUS can be determined analytically without using graphical techniques. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) On Degree of Angular Knee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aetiology of Blount\\'s disease remains unknown, but it is generally agreed that weight bearing plays a role in the pathogenesis of knee deformity in these patients. Our aim was to analyze the effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) on the degree of angular knee deformity in children with clinical and radiological features of ...

  4. Effect of preload alternations on a new Doppler echocardiographic index of combined systolic and diastolic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Poulsen, S H; Egstrup, K

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of preload alternations on a nongeometric Doppler index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance (MPI). Doppler echocardiography was performed during Valsalva maneuver, passive leg lifting, and after sublingual administration of...

  5. The effect of gastric band slippage on patient body mass index and quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sahebally, Shaheel M

    2012-05-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a popular surgical procedure for the management of morbid obesity. Gastric band slippage (GBS) is the most common long-term complication. In this study, the effect of GBS on body mass index (BMI) and quality of life (QOL) were assessed.

  6. Microcomputer software for calculating an elk habitat effectiveness index on Blue Mountain winter ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Hitchcock; Alan. Ager

    1992-01-01

    National Forests in the Pacific Northwest Region have incorporated elk habitat standards into Forest plans to ensure that elk habitat objectives are met on multiple use land allocations. Many Forests have employed versions of the habitat effectiveness index (HEI) as a standard method to evaluate habitat. Field application of the HEI model unfortunately is a formidable...

  7. Effect of talker and speaking style on the Speech Transmission Index (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Houtgast, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Speech Transmission Index (STI) is routinely applied for predicting the intelligibility of messages (sentences) in noise and reverberation. Despite clear evidence that the STI is capable of doing so accurately, recent results indicate that the STI sometimes underestimates the effect of

  8. Genotype-covariate interaction effects and the heritability of adult body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Matthew R.; English, Geoffrey; Moser, Gerhard; Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Triplett, Marcus A; Zhu, Zhihong; Nolte, Ilja M; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Snieder, Harold; Esko, Tonu; Milani, Lili; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus; Yang, Jian; Cesarini, David; Visscher, Peter M.

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, with major health and economic costs. Here we estimate heritability for body mass index (BMI) in 172,000 sibling pairs and 150,832 unrelated individuals and explore the contribution of genotype-covariate interaction effects at common SNP loci. We find evidence for

  9. Effect of Glycemic Index of a Pre-exercise Meal on Endurance Exercise Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdon, Catriona A.; Spronk, Inge; Cheng, Hoi Lun; O’Connor, Helen T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on

  10. Effect of Watertight Subdivision on Subdivision Index for Medium Size Ro–Ro Passenger Ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ro-pax vessels should fulfil the requirements of the current harmonised SOLAS Convention. The study analyses the effect of various ro-pax vessel subdivision arrangements on the subdivision index. A Polish ferry was chosen as a generic ship to perform the study. For illustration of damage survivability, the attained subdivision index A was calculated for a number of modified configurations. The arrangements included single and double sides above and below the car deck, with and without a double buoyant car deck. The conclusions of the study can be used in the design of new ro-pax vessels.

  11. Effect of changes in contractility on the index of myocardial performance in the dysfunctional left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavine Steven J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The index of myocardial performance has prognostic power in patients with cardiomyopathy and following myocardial infarction. As the index of myocardial performance has been shown to be preload and afterload dependent, the effect of altering contractility on IMP and its components with left ventricular dysfunction has been incompletely delineated. Methods Chronic left ventricular dysfunction was induced in 10 canines using coronary microsphere embolization. Each dog was instrumented and imaged with 2D echo and Doppler. At the same atrially paced rate, contractility was increased with a dobutamine infusion and then following 4 weeks of oral digoxin. Results With chronic left ventricular dysfunction, a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (42 ± 3%, p Conclusion Increased inotropy with digoxin and dobutamine reduced the index of myocardial performance in dogs with left ventricular dysfunction. Shortened isovolumic contraction time, increased diastolic filling period, and reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure with digoxin may provide insight into its efficacy in heart failure.

  12. The effect of soil moisture on the 37 GHz microwave polarization difference index (MPDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felde, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the 37 GHz microwave polarization difference index (MPDI) has an inverse nonlinear relationship to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with the MPDI (NDVI) being more sensitive to vegetation density under sparse (moderate) vegetation conditions. It has also been noted that soil moisture can have a significant influence on the MPDI. This study quantifies the effect of soil moisture on the MPDI using the RADTRAN model and comparison with measurements from a few geographically restricted (eastern USA) study sites. Model results show the MPDI increases with soil moisture but its sensitivity approaches zero when soil moisture values or vegetation densities are large. Results based on special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) measured values of MPDI, using the NDVI as a surrogate for vegetation density and an antecedent precipitation index (API) as a surrogate for soil moisture, were consistent with those based on the model. Linear equations, one for each of three categories of vegetation density, expressing MPDI as a function of API were derived based on SSM/I measurements. These equations demonstrate that soil moisture information can be extracted from the MPDI when the NDVI is used to account for the effect of vegetation and that the effect of soil moisture on the MPDI should be taken into account if it is to be used as a vegetation index. The potential to normalize MPDI values for variations in soil moisture is discussed. (author)

  13. The effect of grain size and cement content on index properties of weakly solidified artificial sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapour, Hadi; Mortazavi, Ali

    2018-04-01

    The effects of textural characteristics, especially grain size, on index properties of weakly solidified artificial sandstones are studied. For this purpose, a relatively large number of laboratory tests were carried out on artificial sandstones that were produced in the laboratory. The prepared samples represent fifteen sandstone types consisting of five different median grain sizes and three different cement contents. Indices rock properties including effective porosity, bulk density, point load strength index, and Schmidt hammer values (SHVs) were determined. Experimental results showed that the grain size has significant effects on index properties of weakly solidified sandstones. The porosity of samples is inversely related to the grain size and decreases linearly as grain size increases. While a direct relationship was observed between grain size and dry bulk density, as bulk density increased with increasing median grain size. Furthermore, it was observed that the point load strength index and SHV of samples increased as a result of grain size increase. These observations are indirectly related to the porosity decrease as a function of median grain size.

  14. Robust lyapunov controller for uncertain systems

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-02-23

    Various examples of systems and methods are provided for Lyapunov control for uncertain systems. In one example, a system includes a process plant and a robust Lyapunov controller configured to control an input of the process plant. The robust Lyapunov controller includes an inner closed loop Lyapunov controller and an outer closed loop error stabilizer. In another example, a method includes monitoring a system output of a process plant; generating an estimated system control input based upon a defined output reference; generating a system control input using the estimated system control input and a compensation term; and adjusting the process plant based upon the system control input to force the system output to track the defined output reference. An inner closed loop Lyapunov controller can generate the estimated system control input and an outer closed loop error stabilizer can generate the system control input.

  15. Towards electricity markets accommodating uncertain offers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    formulation of an electricity market, based on the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) reduces the impact of poor estimates for both the stochastic producers and the system operator. We introduce a simulation setting which first demonstrates that impact and then proceed to illustrate the main features......The use of renewable energy sources of energy and in particular wind and solar has been on the rise over the last decades with plans to increase it even more. Such developments introduce significant challenges in existing power systems and can result in high electricity prices and costly...... infrastructure investments. In this paper we propose a new electricity market mechanism whereby the uncertain and dynamic nature of wind power and other stochastic sources is embedded in the market mechanism itself, by modelling producers’ bids as probabilistic estimates. An extension on the bilevel programming...

  16. Adaptive generalized function projective lag synchronization of different chaotic systems with fully uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiangjun; Lu Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Adaptive generalized function projective lag synchronization (AGFPLS) is proposed. → Two uncertain chaos systems are lag synchronized up to a scaling function matrix. → The synchronization speed is sensitively influenced by the control gains. → The AGFPLS scheme is robust against noise perturbation. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel projective synchronization scheme called adaptive generalized function projective lag synchronization (AGFPLS) is proposed. In the AGFPLS method, the states of two different chaotic systems with fully uncertain parameters are asymptotically lag synchronized up to a desired scaling function matrix. By means of the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller with corresponding parameter update rule is designed for achieving AGFPLS between two diverse chaotic systems and estimating the unknown parameters. This technique is employed to realize AGFPLS between uncertain Lue chaotic system and uncertain Liu chaotic system, and between Chen hyperchaotic system and Lorenz hyperchaotic system with fully uncertain parameters, respectively. Furthermore, AGFPLS between two different uncertain chaotic systems can still be achieved effectively with the existence of noise perturbation. The corresponding numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and robustness of the presented synchronization method.

  17. Atmospheric effects on the NDVI - Strategies for its removal. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Markham, B.; Gitelson, A.

    1992-01-01

    The compositing technique used to derive global vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA AVHRR radiances reduces the residual effect of water vapor and aerosol on the NDVI. The reduction in the atmospheric effect is shown using a comprehensive measured data set for desert conditions, and a simulation for grass with continental aerosol. A statistical analaysis of the probability of occurrence of aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor measured in different climatic regimes is used for this simulation. It is concluded that for a long compositing period (e.g., 27 days), the residual aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor are usually too small to be corrected. For a 9-day compositing, the residual average aerosol effect may be about twice the correction uncertainty. For Landsat TM or Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (EOS-MODIS) data, the newly defined atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) is more promising than possible direct atmospheric correction schemes, except for heavy desert dust conditions.

  18. Intraocular lens power calculation following LASIK: determination of the new effective index of refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarade, Elias F; Abi Nader, Françoise C; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2006-01-01

    To determine the new corneal effective index of refraction (rN) following LASIK to be used for accurate keratometry reading (K-reading). A total of 332 eyes that underwent myopic LASIK were divided into two groups (group A [n = 137] and group B [n = 1951). In each group, patients were divided into four subgroups according to the amount of spherical equivalent refraction of myopic LASIK ablation (subgroup 1 [ -12.0 D]). In each subgroup of group A, K-reading was measured by the clinical history method and the new corneal effective index (rN) was determined using paraxial formula: (K-reading = (rN-1)/Ra), where Ra is the radius of curvature of the anterior corneal surface. In group B, the anterior radius of curvature of the cornea was determined by automated K-reading, and K-reading was measured in each subgroup using the new effective index in paraxial formula, clinical history method, and automated K-reading. In group A, the new effective index of refraction was 1.3355, 1.3286, 1.3237, and 1.3172 in the four subgroups, respectively. In group B, the mean K-reading measurements using rN in paraxial formula, clinical history method, and automated K-reading were: 40.33 +/- 1.68 D, 40.33 +/- 1.67 D, and 40.54 +/- 1.69 D, respectively, in subgroup 1; 37.96 +/- 1.26 D, 38.03 +/- 1.38 D, and 38.98 +/- 1.28 D, respectively, in subgroup 2; 35.77 +/- 1.75 D, 35.84 +/- 1.85 D, and 37.29 +/- 1.83 D, respectively, in subgroup 3; and 34.03 +/- 1.49 D, 34.15 +/- 1.84 D, and 36.21 +/- 1.59 D, respectively, in subgroup 4. In all subgroups of group B, the results of K-reading obtained using the new effective index of refraction were statistically similar to the results obtained by clinical history method (P > .05). Automated K-reading statistically overestimated the K-reading values in subgroups 2, 3, and 4 of group B (P < .001). The use of the new corneal effective index of refraction allows for an accurate derivation of K-reading from the anterior radius of curvature.

  19. Optimal Order Strategy in Uncertain Demands with Free Shipping Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Chun Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Free shipping with conditions has become one of the most effective marketing tools; more and more companies especially e-business companies prefer to offer free shipping to buyers whenever their orders exceed the minimum quantity specified by them. But in practice, the demands of buyers are uncertain, which are affected by weather, season, and many other factors. Firstly, we model the centralization ordering problem of retailers who face stochastic demands when suppliers offer free shipping, in which limited distributional information such as known mean, support, and some deviation measures of the random data is needed only. Then, based on the linear decision rule mainly for stochastic programming, we analyze the optimal order strategies of retailers and discuss the approximate solution. Further, we present the core allocation between all retailers via dual and cooperative game theory. The existence of core shows that each retailer is pleased to cooperate with others in the centralization problem. Finally, a numerical example is implemented to discuss how uncertain data and parameters affect the optimal solution.

  20. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  1. Possible world based consistency learning model for clustering and classifying uncertain data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Zhang, Xianchao; Zhang, Xiaotong

    2018-06-01

    Possible world has shown to be effective for handling various types of data uncertainty in uncertain data management. However, few uncertain data clustering and classification algorithms are proposed based on possible world. Moreover, existing possible world based algorithms suffer from the following issues: (1) they deal with each possible world independently and ignore the consistency principle across different possible worlds; (2) they require the extra post-processing procedure to obtain the final result, which causes that the effectiveness highly relies on the post-processing method and the efficiency is also not very good. In this paper, we propose a novel possible world based consistency learning model for uncertain data, which can be extended both for clustering and classifying uncertain data. This model utilizes the consistency principle to learn a consensus affinity matrix for uncertain data, which can make full use of the information across different possible worlds and then improve the clustering and classification performance. Meanwhile, this model imposes a new rank constraint on the Laplacian matrix of the consensus affinity matrix, thereby ensuring that the number of connected components in the consensus affinity matrix is exactly equal to the number of classes. This also means that the clustering and classification results can be directly obtained without any post-processing procedure. Furthermore, for the clustering and classification tasks, we respectively derive the efficient optimization methods to solve the proposed model. Experimental results on real benchmark datasets and real world uncertain datasets show that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art uncertain data clustering and classification algorithms in effectiveness and performs competitively in efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Curtain Airbag on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Index in Rollover Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupant injuries in rollover crashes are associated with vehicle structural performance, as well as the restraint system design. For a better understanding of the occupant kinematics and injury index in certain rollover crash, it is essential to carry out dynamic vehicle rollover simulation with dummy included. Objective. This study focused on effects of curtain airbag (CAB parameters on occupant kinematics and injury indexes in a rollover crash. Besides, optimized parameters of the CAB were proposed for the purpose of decreasing the occupant injuries in such rollover scenario. Method and Material. The vehicle motion from the physical test was introduced as the input for the numerical simulation, and the 50% Hybrid III dummy model from the MADYMO database was imported into a simulation model. The restraint system, including a validated CAB module, was introduced for occupant kinematics simulation and injury evaluation. TTF setting, maximum inflator pressure, and protection area of the CAB were analysed. Results. After introducing the curtain airbag, the maximum head acceleration was reduced from 91.60 g to 49.52 g, and the neck Mx and neck Fz were reduced significantly. Among these CAB parameters, the TTF setting had the largest effect on the head acceleration which could reduce 8.6 g furthermore after optimization. The neck Fz was decreased from 3766.48 N to 2571.77 N after optimization of CAB protection area. Conclusions. Avoiding hard contact is critical for the occupant protection in the rollover crashes. The simulation results indicated that occupant kinematics and certain injury indexes were improved with the help of CAB in such rollover scenario. Appropriate TTF setting and inflator selection could benefit occupant kinematics and injury indexes. Besides, it was advised to optimize the curtain airbag thickness around the head contact area to improve head and neck injury indexes.

  3. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  4. Effect of money supply on the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Širůček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This focus of this paper are the effects and implications of a change in the money supply for share price indices in the USA during 1959–2011. The money supply will be measured by the M2 and MZM aggregates (money with zero maturity. The US stock market is represented by the Dow Jones Industrial Average index. The objective of this paper is to find, describe and evaluate the effects of changes to the money supply (M2 and MZM on the US stock market. A partial objective of this paper is to determine whether a change in the monetary aggregate shows in the stock index immediately or with a delay of several weeks. Another aim is to determine whether asset prices influence the money supply.

  5. Probabilistic logic networks a comprehensive framework for uncertain inference

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Goertzel, Izabela Freire; Heljakka, Ari

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive book describes Probabilistic Logic Networks (PLN), a novel conceptual, mathematical and computational approach to uncertain inference. A broad scope of reasoning types are considered.

  6. [Cost-effectiveness analysis and diet quality index applied to the WHO Global Strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Flávia Mori Sarti; Simões, Arlete Naresse

    2008-02-01

    To test the use of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision making tool in the production of meals for the inclusion of the recommendations published in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy. Five alternative options for breakfast menu were assessed previously to their adoption in a food service at a university in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Costs of the different options were based on market prices of food items (direct cost). Health benefits were estimated based on adaptation of the Diet Quality Index (DQI). Cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated by dividing benefits by costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated as cost differential per unit of additional benefit. The meal choice was based on health benefit units associated to direct production cost as well as incremental effectiveness per unit of differential cost. The analysis showed the most simple option with the addition of a fruit (DQI = 64 / cost = R$ 1.58) as the best alternative. Higher effectiveness was seen in the options with a fruit portion (DQI1=64 / DQI3=58 / DQI5=72) compared to the others (DQI2=48 / DQI4=58). The estimate of cost-effectiveness ratio allowed to identifying the best breakfast option based on cost-effectiveness analysis and Diet Quality Index. These instruments allow easy application easiness and objective evaluation which are key to the process of inclusion of public or private institutions under the Global Strategy directives.

  7. Probabilistic Graph Layout for Uncertain Network Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christoph; Nocaj, Arlind; Goertler, Jochen; Deussen, Oliver; Brandes, Ulrik; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel uncertain network visualization technique based on node-link diagrams. Nodes expand spatially in our probabilistic graph layout, depending on the underlying probability distributions of edges. The visualization is created by computing a two-dimensional graph embedding that combines samples from the probabilistic graph. A Monte Carlo process is used to decompose a probabilistic graph into its possible instances and to continue with our graph layout technique. Splatting and edge bundling are used to visualize point clouds and network topology. The results provide insights into probability distributions for the entire network-not only for individual nodes and edges. We validate our approach using three data sets that represent a wide range of network types: synthetic data, protein-protein interactions from the STRING database, and travel times extracted from Google Maps. Our approach reveals general limitations of the force-directed layout and allows the user to recognize that some nodes of the graph are at a specific position just by chance.

  8. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  9. uncertain dynamic systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmikantham

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic feedback control problem is that of obtaining some desired stability property from a system which contains uncertainties due to unknown inputs into the system. Despite such imperfect knowledge in the selected mathematical model, we often seek to devise controllers that will steer the system in a certain required fashion. Various classes of controllers whose design is based on the method of Lyapunov are known for both discrete [4], [10], [15], and continuous [3–9], [11] models described by difference and differential equations, respectively. Recently, a theory for what is known as dynamic systems on time scales has been built which incorporates both continuous and discrete times, namely, time as an arbitrary closed sets of reals, and allows us to handle both systems simultaneously [1], [2], [12], [13]. This theory permits one to get some insight into and better understanding of the subtle differences between discrete and continuous systems. We shall, in this paper, utilize the framework of the theory of dynamic systems on time scales to investigate the stability properties of conditionally invariant sets which are then applied to discuss controlled systems with uncertain elements. For the notion of conditionally invariant set and its stability properties, see [14]. Our results offer a new approach to the problem in question.

  10. Frequent Symptom Sets Identification from Uncertain Medical Data in Differentially Private Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining techniques are applied to identify hidden patterns in large amounts of patient data. These patterns can assist physicians in making more accurate diagnosis. For different physical conditions of patients, the same physiological index corresponds to a different symptom association probability for each patient. Data mining technologies based on certain data cannot be directly applied to these patients’ data. Patient data are sensitive data. An adversary with sufficient background information can make use of the patterns mined from uncertain medical data to obtain the sensitive information of patients. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented to determine the top K most frequent itemsets from uncertain medical data and to protect data privacy. Based on traditional algorithms for mining frequent itemsets from uncertain data, our algorithm applies sparse vector algorithm and the Laplace mechanism to ensure differential privacy for the top K most frequent itemsets for uncertain medical data and the expected supports of these frequent itemsets. We prove that our algorithm can guarantee differential privacy in theory. Moreover, we carry out experiments with four real-world scenario datasets and two synthetic datasets. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of our algorithm.

  11. A methodology for the synthesis of heat exchanger networks having large numbers of uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak Pintarič, Zorka; Kravanja, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a robust computational methodology for the synthesis and design of flexible HEN (Heat Exchanger Networks) having large numbers of uncertain parameters. This methodology combines several heuristic methods which progressively lead to a flexible HEN design at a specific level of confidence. During the first step, a HEN topology is generated under nominal conditions followed by determining those points critical for flexibility. A significantly reduced multi-scenario model for flexible HEN design is formulated at the nominal point with the flexibility constraints at the critical points. The optimal design obtained is tested by stochastic Monte Carlo optimization and the flexibility index through solving one-scenario problems within a loop. This presented methodology is novel regarding the enormous reduction of scenarios in HEN design problems, and computational effort. Despite several simplifications, the capability of designing flexible HENs with large numbers of uncertain parameters, which are typical throughout industry, is not compromised. An illustrative case study is presented for flexible HEN synthesis comprising 42 uncertain parameters. - Highlights: • Methodology for HEN (Heat Exchanger Network) design under uncertainty is presented. • The main benefit is solving HENs having large numbers of uncertain parameters. • Drastically reduced multi-scenario HEN design problem is formulated through several steps. • Flexibility of HEN is guaranteed at a specific level of confidence.

  12. The effect of two dosage of BCAA supplementation on wrestlers’ serum indexes on cellular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Amirsasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few studies were done to examine the effect of different dosage of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation on serum indexes of muscle injury in wrestlers. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of two dosage of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on muscle serumic damage indexes after heavy resistance exercise in wrestlers.Materials and Method: Twenty-nine young wrestlers were randomly selected and divided into three groups. All subjects were participated in heavy resistance exercise (3 sets, 10 repetitions, 80% 1RM. The BCAA was given at doses of 210 and 450 mg/kg for supplemental groups 1 and 2 respectively, 30 minutes before and after to exercise test and dextrin was given at dose of 210 mg/kg for control group. To identify enzymes activity (IU/L, venous blood samples were obtained 30 min prior to exercise and at 24 and 48 hrs after exercise. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonfferoni post hoc test (p≥ 0.05.Results: Based on this study results, CPK, LDH, CPKMB activity were significantly increased (p<0.05 in all groups. CPK, LDH, CPKMB indexes having the highest activity in the control group, but there were no significant differences between all groups. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that the use of two different dosage of BCAA could not decrease muscle damage associated with heavy resistance exercise

  13. The effect of various pozzolanic additives on the concrete strength index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, L.; Sahmenko, G.; Erdmane, D.; Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.

    2017-10-01

    The concrete industry is searching continuously for new effective mineral additives to improve the concrete properties. Replacing cement with the pozzolanic additives in most cases has resulted not only in positive impact on the environment but also has improved strength and durability of the concrete. Effective pozzolanic additives can be obtained from natural resources such as volcanic ashes, kaolin and other sediments as well as from different production industries that create various by-products with high pozzolanic reactivity. Current research deals with effectiveness evaluation of various mineral additives/wastes, such as coal combustion bottom ash, barley bottom ash, waste glass and metakaolin containing waste as well as calcined illite clays as supplementary cementitious materials, to be used in concrete production as partial cement replacement. Most of the examined materials are used as waste stream materials with potential reactive effect on the concrete. Milling time and fineness of the tested supplementary material has been evaluated and effectiveness was detected. Results indicate that fineness of the tested materials has crucial effect on the concrete compressive strength index. Not in all cases the prolonged milling time can increase fineness and reactivity of the supplementary materials; however the optimal milling time and fineness of the pozolanic additives increased the strength index of concrete up to 1.16 comparing to reference, even in cases when cement was substituted by 20 w%.

  14. Effect of imaging time on the values of the sacroiliac index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Domljan, Z.; Popovic, S.; Simonovic, I.; Zagreb Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative scintigraphy of the sacroiliac joints was performed in a group of normal subjects and a group of subjects with unilateral and bilateral sacroiliitis. The aim of the study was to determine whether the time intervals of imaging had any effect on the values of the sacroiliac index. Imaging was performed every 30 min up to 300 min and the indices were calculated at the time intervals mentioned. We found that the values of the sacroiliac index increased in the group of normal subjects until 150 min after the application of the radiopharmaceutical, and that in the group of subjects who had sacroiliitis they increased until 210 min. The results show that the time interval optimal to quantitative sacroiliac joint imaging is at least 3 1/2 h after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  15. Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

  16. Reversing the direction of space and inverse Doppler effect in positive refraction index media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A negative refractive index medium, in which all spatial coordinates are reversed (i.e. a left-hand triplet is formed) by a spatial folding transformation, can create many novel electromagnetic phenomena, e.g. backward wave propagation, and inversed Doppler effect (IDE). In this study, we use coordinate rotation transformation to reverse only two spatial coordinates (e.g. x ′ and y ′), while keeping z ′ unchanged. In this case, some novel phenomena, e.g. radiation-direction-reversing illusions and IDE, can be achieved in a free space region wrapped by the proposed shell without any negative refractive index medium, which is easier for experimental realization and future applications. (paper)

  17. The optical interface of a photonic crystal: Modeling an opal with a stratified effective index

    OpenAIRE

    Maurin, Isabelle; Moufarej, Elias; Laliotis, Athanasios; Bloch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An artificial opal is a compact arrangement of transparent spheres, and is an archetype of a three-dimensional photonic crystal. Here, we describe the optics of an opal using a flexible model based upon a stratified medium whose (effective) index is governed by the opal density in a small planar slice of the opal. We take into account the effect of the substrate and assume a well- controlled number of layers, as it occurs for an opal fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition. The calculation...

  18. Determining the interviewer effect on CQ Index outcomes: a multilevel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winters Sjenny

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CQ Index for the elderly, a quality-of-care questionnaire administered by conducting interviews, is used to assess clients' experiences in Dutch nursing homes and homes for the elderly. This article describes whether inter-interviewer differences influence the perceived quality of healthcare services reported by residents, the size of this interviewer effect and the influence of the interviewer characteristics on CQ Index dimensions for public reporting. Methods Data from 4345 questionnaires was used. Correlations were calculated, reliability analyses were performed, and a multilevel analysis was used to calculate the degree of correlation between two interviewers within one health care institution. Five models were constructed and the Intra Class Correlation (ICC was calculated. Healthcare institutions were given 1-5 stars on every quality dimensions (1 = worst and 5 = best, adjusted for resident and interviewer characteristics. The effect of these characteristics on the assignment of the stars was investigated. Results In a multilevel approach, the ICC showed a significant amount of variance on five quality dimensions. Of the interviewer characteristics, only previous interviewing experience, the reason of interviewing and general knowledge of health care had a significant effect on the quality dimensions. Adjusting for interviewer characteristics did not affect the overall star assignment to the institutions regarding 7 of 12 quality dimensions. For the other five dimensions (Shared decision-making, Meals, Professional competency, Autonomy, and Availability of personnel a minor effect was found. Conclusions We have shown that training, the use of experienced interviewers, written instructions, supervision and educational meetings do not automatically prevent interviewer effects. While the results of this study can be used to improve the quality of services provided by these institutions, several CQ index dimensions

  19. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of Distributed Engine Control Systems with Uncertain Delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    Full Text Available Future gas turbine engine control systems will be based on distributed architecture, in which, the sensors and actuators will be connected to the controllers via a communication network. The performance of the distributed engine control (DEC is dependent on the network performance. This study introduces a distributed control system architecture based on a networked cascade control system (NCCS. Typical turboshaft engine-distributed controllers are designed based on the NCCS framework with a H∞ output feedback under network-induced time delays and uncertain disturbances. The sufficient conditions for robust stability are derived via the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality approach. Both numerical and hardware-in-loop simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the presented method.

  1. Design of Distributed Engine Control Systems with Uncertain Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Yanxi; Sun, Xu

    Future gas turbine engine control systems will be based on distributed architecture, in which, the sensors and actuators will be connected to the controllers via a communication network. The performance of the distributed engine control (DEC) is dependent on the network performance. This study introduces a distributed control system architecture based on a networked cascade control system (NCCS). Typical turboshaft engine-distributed controllers are designed based on the NCCS framework with a H∞ output feedback under network-induced time delays and uncertain disturbances. The sufficient conditions for robust stability are derived via the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality approach. Both numerical and hardware-in-loop simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the presented method.

  2. Valuing Interest Rate Swap Contracts in Uncertain Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Swap is a financial contract between two counterparties who agree to exchange one cash flow stream for another, according to some predetermined rules. When the cash flows are fixed rate interest and floating rate interest, the swap is called an interest rate swap. This paper investigates two valuation models of the interest rate swap contracts in the uncertain financial market. The new models are based on belief degrees, and require relatively less historical data compared to the traditional probability models. The first valuation model is designed for a mean-reversion term structure, while the second is designed for a term structure with hump effect. Explicit solutions are developed by using the Yao–Chen formula. Moreover, a numerical method is designed to calculate the value of the interest rate swap alternatively. Finally, two examples are given to show their applications and comparisons.

  3. Air quality trends and potential health effects - Development of an aggregate risk index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Lesne, Olivia; Alexandre, Nicolas; Mangin, Antoine; Collomp, Rémy

    2011-02-01

    The "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (PACA) region, in the South East of France, is one of Europe's regions most influenced by the atmospheric pollution. During the last 15 years, the industrial emissions decrease caused an evolution of the atmospheric pollution nature. Nowadays, atmospheric pollution is more and more influenced by the road traffic, the dominating pollution source in urban zones for the PACA region. Combined with this intense road traffic, the strong hot season of the Mediterranean climate contributes to the region bad air quality; it is known to be one of the worse in Europe. The recognized air pollution effects over public health include increased risk of hospital admissions and mortality by respiratory or cardiovascular diseases. The combination of these serious pollution related health hazards with senior and children vulnerabilities leads to serious sanitary concerns. Over the 1990-2005 period, we obtained, using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test from annual mortality dataset (CépiDC), decreasing trends for Asthma (-5.00% year -1), Cardiovascular (-0.73% year -1), Ischemic (-0.69% year -1) and cerebrovascular diseases (-3.10% year -1). However, for "Other heart diseases" (+0.10% year -1) and "Respiratory" (+0.10% year -1) an increase was observed. The development of an adequate tool to understand impacts of pollution levels is of utmost importance. Different pollutants have different health endpoints, information may be lost through the use of a single index consequently, in this study we present the modified formula of air quality index, based on Cairncross's concept the Aggregate Risk Index (ARI). ARI is based on the relative risk of the well-established increased daily mortality, or morbidity, enabling an assessment of additive effects of short-term exposure to the main air pollutants: PM 2.5, PM 10, SO 2, O 3 and NO 2 in order to account for the reality of the multiple exposures impacts of chemical agents. The ARI, developed per pathology

  4. Millennial Teachers and Multiculturalism: Considerations for Teaching in Uncertain Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the intersection of generational traits of millennial teachers, multiculturalism and teaching in an era of Uncertain Times. Uncertain Times, as a framework for the paper, characterizes changing aspects of the current era in which we live, such as the rise of the internet and interconnectivity, globalization and…

  5. Multi-criteria indexes to evaluate the effects of repeated organic amendment applications on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriot, Fiona; Stauffer, Marie; Goubard, Yolaine; Vieuble-Gonod, Laure; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    Objectives The soil application of organic waste products (OWP) favours the recycling of nutrients, the crop production, the increase of soil biological activity and biodiversity. It may also lead to soil contamination. All these effects occurred simultaneously and must be considered in the evaluation of the practice. This study aims at deciphering the long-term impact of repeated applications and the short-term effect of an additional application on soil quality using 5 different Soil Quality Indices (SQI)[a]: fertility, microbial activity, biodiversity, physical properties and productivity and one pollution index by heavy metals. Methodology A long term field experiment was used (QualiAgro, Ile de France) where repeated applications of 4 amendments (a municipal solid waste compost, MSW; a biowaste compost, BIO; a co-compost of sewage sludge and green waste, GWS and a farmyard manure, FYM) have differentiated soil characteristics and crop production compared to a control treatments without organic residue and receiving mineral fertilizer or not (CONT+N and CONT). The OWP are applied every 2 years, in September, at doses equivalent to 4 t C/ha (4 replicates) on a maize-wheat succession. We used 2 sampling dates: 3 weeks before application (cumulative residual effect of 7 applications) and 3 weeks just after the 8th application (short-term additional effect of a recent application), in 2011. More than 30 different variables were used: chemical (pH, Polsen…), physical (bulk density, plasticity…) and biological (microbial biomass, enzymatic activity…) soil indicators. All of these were classified in 6 classes: fertility, microbial activity, biodiversity, physical properties, productivity and pollution. Five SQI and one pollution index by heavy metals were estimated using a weighted additive index calculation method described by Velasquez et al. (2007)[a]. Only parameters with statistically significant differences (peffect on the SQI. Physical properties

  6. Effect of low and high glycaemic index drink on sleep pattern in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilolghadr, S.; Afaghi, A.; Connor, H.O.; Chow, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of high and low glycaemic index drinks on children's sleep pattern. Methods: Eight children underwent 3 nights of full polysomnography study, one familiarization and two test nights consecutively. On the test nights, 1 hour before bedtime, the children had a milk drink of either low or high GI in a random order. The glycaemic loads (GL) were 7.4 and 52.8 for low and high GI drink respectively. Results: The mean of total arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was greater than that of low GI drink. (12.9 +- 4.6 vs. 9.9 +- 2.2, P=0.03). NREM arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was also higher than that of low GI drink. (12.7+- 4.8 vs. 9.6 +- 2.3, P=0.05). Other sleep parameters did not show any significant difference in low GI and high GI diets. Conclusion: NREM and total arousal indices were higher in those who consumed high GI drinks compared with low GI, one hour before sleep. It seems that the high quantity consumption of carbohydrates close to the bedtime is accompanied by frequent arousals and may affect the sleep quality. (author)

  7. Effect of relaxation on working memory and the Bispectral Index of the EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudetz, Judith A; Hudetz, Anthony G; Reddy, Diane M

    2004-08-01

    Beneficial effects of relaxation on cardiovascular and immune functions and on memory has been implied but an empirical relationship between task performance and anxiety reduction has not been reported. In this study, we investigated whether guided imagery of relatively short duration would decrease S-Anxiety and electroencephalogram Bispectral Index and improve working memory. 42 participants (age: M=39, SD=11, 14 men, 28 women, university students and VA Medical Center employees, recruited by their professor or by fellow employees) underwent relaxation by 16-min. guided imagery or no treatment (control). Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the WAIS-III Letter-Number Sequencing Test were administered before and after relaxation. S-Anxiety and BIS Index decreased and the Letter-Number test score increased by 30% after relaxation but not in the control group. This score was higher for participants with low anxiety and BIS Index. There was no significant difference between the groups before treatment. The results suggest that guided imagery of short duration produces relaxation as measured by psychological and neurophysiological indices and improves working memory performance.

  8. A study on the effect of macroeconomics instability index on private investment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Saki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical study to investigate the impact of economical stability on the amount of investment coming from the private sector. We calculate macroeconomics instability index (MIX using the existing methods in the literature. We have also used Glezakos (1973 method [Glezakos,C.(1973. Export instability and economic growth: A statistical verification. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 21(3, 670-678.], which considers long-term deviation of real values as instability index. Therefore, we use four variables of inflation rate (TINF, the ratio of budget deficit on growth domestic product (GDP (TBD, foreign debt on GDP (TFD and the ratio of actual currency rate on nominate currency (TFD. The preliminary results show that the short-term changes on LNIP with one lag and LNIV have positive impact on LNIP. In addition, any short term changes on LNMII has negative and meaningful impact on LNIP and approximately 0.67 percent of difference between the actual and long term are discounted in each period. The results indicate that instability index has negative effect even in short term on Iran's industry. This shows the relevant importance of instability on economy.

  9. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Ushakov, Igor B.; Semenov, Leonid F.; Lapin, Boris A.; Suvorov, Nikolai N.; Ilyin, Leonid A.

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2-3-years-old and weighing 2.1-3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from 60 Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40-120 mg kg -1 ) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg -1 protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3-94.3) mg kg -1 , and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg -1 . Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. (author)

  10. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  11. Excitonic effects in gain and index in GaAlAs quantum well lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.P.; Harder, C. (IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland))

    1990-07-09

    Spontaneous emission and gain measurements in GaAlAs single quantum well lasers are presented. The gain is derived from the spontaneous emission detected through an opening in the top metallic contact of the lasers. Excitonic effects are seen in the gain (absorption) spectra for low carrier densities, and the step-like nature of the two-dimensional density of states is evident. From the gain spectra, refractive index changes are derived via a Kramers--Kronig transformation, and this is used to evaluate the linewidth enhancement factor as a function of photon energy.

  12. [Assessment of work ability index in evaluation of small peptides geroprotective effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, A S; Kachan, E Yu

    We have conducted a comparative analysis of the work ability index (WAI) application in evaluation of the effectiveness of small peptides (cytogens) used as geroprotectors in the system of preventive medical nutrition of those working with occupational hazards. Our study revealed the necessity of an inclusion of small peptides into the system of preventive medical nutrition, health promotion in people working with occupational hazards and thus subjected to an accelerated aging. The combined application of peptide geroprotectors makes it possible to restore and enhance adaptive resources as well as to correct work ability and maintain health and well-being in different professional groups.

  13. [Applicability of Voice Handicap Index to the evaluation of voice therapy effectiveness in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Błoch, Piotr; Domańska, Maja; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) to the evaluation of effectiveness of functional voice disorders treatment in teachers. The subjects were 45 female teachers with functional dysphonia who evaluated their voice problems according to the subjective VHI scale before and after phoniatric management. Group I (29 patients) were subjected to vocal training, whereas group II (16 patients) received only voice hygiene instructions. The results demonstrated that differences in the mean VHI score before and after phoniatric treatment were significantly higher in group 1 than in group II (p teacher's dysphonia.

  14. An Uncertain Wage Contract Model with Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Wang

    2014-01-01

    it can be characterized as an uncertain variable. Moreover, the employee's effort is unobservable to the employer, and the employee can select her effort level to maximize her utility. Thus, an uncertain wage contract model with adverse selection and moral hazard is established to maximize the employer's expected profit. And the model analysis mainly focuses on the equivalent form of the proposed wage contract model and the optimal solution to this form. The optimal solution indicates that both the employee's effort level and the wage increase with the employee's ability. Lastly, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  15. A New Bi-Directional Projection Model Based on Pythagorean Uncertain Linguistic Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidong Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To solve the multi-attribute decision making (MADM problems with Pythagorean uncertain linguistic variable, an extended bi-directional projection method is proposed. First, we utilize the linguistic scale function to convert uncertain linguistic variable and provide a new projection model, subsequently. Then, to depict the bi-directional projection method, the formative vectors of alternatives and ideal alternatives are defined. Furthermore, a comparative analysis with projection model is conducted to show the superiority of bi-directional projection method. Finally, an example of graduate’s job option is given to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  16. On robust control of uncertain chaotic systems: a sliding-mode synthesis via chaotic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhao; Shieh Leangsan; Chen GuanRong

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Lyapunov-based control approach which utilizes a Lyapunov function of the nominal plant for robust tracking control of general multi-input uncertain nonlinear systems. The difficulty of constructing a control Lyapunov function is alleviated by means of predefining an optimal sliding mode. The conventional schemes for constructing sliding modes of nonlinear systems stipulate that the system of interest is canonical-transformable or feedback-linearizable. An innovative approach that exploits a chaotic optimizing algorithm is developed thereby obtaining the optimal sliding manifold for the control purpose. Simulations on the uncertain chaotic Chen's system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach

  17. The Effects of FOCUS-PDCA Methodology on Emergency Department Patient Disposition Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Jabbari beirami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital emergency is an important and unique department and prolonged stay of the patients in this ward leads to a decrease in the ability to serve other patients in need. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the ability of FOCUS-PDCA methodology to decrease waiting time of the procedures and improve index of decision-making within 6 hours in emergency department (ED. Methods: In this interventional before-after study, the effect of FOCUS-PDCA methodology on waiting time of the procedures and decision-making was evaluated in the ED of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran in a 5-month period. Initially, a team of procedure definers defined the problematic procedures and suggested practical solutions to relieve them. Then, these solutions were practiced using appropriate programming, and finally the effects of these measures were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 and independent t-test. Results: 5 months after intervention, mean waiting time for receiving consultation was reduced from 28.1 to 17 minutes (p < 0.001 and mean time for the results of a laboratory test to be ready was reduced from 70.26 to 37.66 minutes (p = 0.006. The number of patients who stayed in the ED for more than 6 hours, which was 101 in April, decreased to 52 in November (p = 0.002. The index of patient disposition in less than 6 hours increased from 94.71% in April to 96.87% in November. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that carrying out FOCUS-PDCA methodology can decrease waiting time of the procedures and improve patient disposition index in the ED.

  18. Pinning adaptive synchronization of a class of uncertain complex dynamical networks with multi-link against network deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Weiwei; Kurths, Jürgen; Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian; Li, Shudong

    2015-01-01

    For the reason that the uncertain complex dynamic network with multi-link is quite close to various practical networks, there is superiority in the fields of research and application. In this paper, we focus upon pinning adaptive synchronization for uncertain complex dynamic networks with multi-link against network deterioration. The pinning approach can be applied to adapt uncertain coupling factors of deteriorated networks which can compensate effects of uncertainty. Several new synchronization criterions for networks with multi-link are derived, which ensure the synchronized states to be local or global stable with uncertainty and deterioration. Results of simulation are shown to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of our method

  19. Wind farm investment risks under uncertain CDM benefit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming; Nguyen, Francois; T'Serclaes, Philippine de; Buchner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target to increase its wind power capacity by 35 GW from 2007 to 2020. The country's hunger for clean power provides great opportunities for wind energy investors. However, risks from China's uncertain electricity market regulation and an uncertain energy policy framework, mainly due to uncertain Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) benefits, prevent foreign investors from investing in China's wind energy. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) quantify wind energy investment risk premiums in an uncertain international energy policy context and (2) evaluate the impact of uncertain CDM benefits on the net present values of wind power projects. With four scenarios, this study simulates possible prices of certified emissions reductions (CERs) from wind power projects. Project net present values (NPVs) have been calculated. The project risk premiums are drawn from different and uncertain CER prices. Our key findings show that uncertain CDM benefits will significantly affect the project NPVs. This paper concludes that the Chinese government needs revising its tariff incentives, most likely by introducing fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs), and re-examining its CDM-granting policy and its wind project tax rates, to facilitate wind power development and enable China to achieve its wind energy target. (author)

  20. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  1. Robust Control with Enlaeged Interval of Uncertain Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Keresturi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust control is advantageous for systems with defined interval of uncertain parameters. This can be substantially enlarged dividing it into a few sub-intervals. Corresponding controllers for each of them may be set after approximate identification of some uncertain plant parameters. The paper deals with application of the pole region assignment method for position control of the crane crab. The same track form is required for uncertain burden mass and approximate value of rope length. Measurement of crab position and speed is supposed, burden deviation angle is observed. Simulation results have verified feasibility of this design procedure.

  2. Uncertain Climate Forecasts From Multimodel Ensembles: When to Use Them and When to Ignore Them

    OpenAIRE

    Jewson, Stephen; Rowlands, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty around multimodel ensemble forecasts of changes in future climate reduces the accuracy of those forecasts. For very uncertain forecasts this effect may mean that the forecasts should not be used. We investigate the use of the well-known Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) to make the decision as to whether a forecast should be used or ignored.

  3. Application of a functional mathematical index for antibacterial and anticarcinogenic effects of tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotti, Enrico; Bersani, Enrico; Friedman, Mendel

    2011-02-09

    Tea leaves produce secondary metabolites that are involved in the defense of the plants against invading pathogens. In the case of green teas, these metabolites are polyphenolic compounds called catechins. Previous studies developed a mathematical formula called functional mathematical index (FMI) that was used to describe the quality of different olive oils and potatoes in terms of compositional parameters and antioxidative properties of individual components. This study extends the development of the FMI concept to define an "optimum tea" based on reported relationships between the content of structurally different catechins of a large number of teas and their dual beneficial effects: antimicrobial activities against a foodborne pathogen and inhibition of human cancer cell lines. The described mathematical approach may be useful for predicting relative beneficial effects of new teas based on their catechin content.

  4. Effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after intense exercise in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick; Silvestri, Sonia; Galeazzi, Roberta; Antonicelli, Roberto; Marcheggiani, Fabio; Cirilli, Ilenia; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tiano, Luca

    2018-12-01

    Physical exercise significantly impacts the biochemistry of the organism. Ubiquinone is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and ubiquinol, its reduced and active form, is an emerging molecule in sport nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after an intense bout of exercise. 21 male young athletes (26 + 5 years of age) were randomized in two groups according to a double blind cross-over study, either supplemented with ubiquinol (200 mg/day) or placebo for 1 month. Blood was withdrawn before and after a single bout of intense exercise (40 min run at 85% maxHR). Physical performance, hematochemical parameters, ubiquinone/ubiquinol plasma content, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, paraoxonase activity and oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. A single bout of intense exercise produced a significant increase in most hematochemical indexes, in particular CK and Mb while, on the contrary, normalized coenzyme Q 10 plasma content decreased significantly in all subjects. Ubiquinol supplementation prevented exercise-induced CoQ deprivation and decrease in paraoxonase activity. Moreover at a cellular level, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ubiquinol supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in cytosolic ROS while mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative DNA damage remained unchanged. Data highlights a very rapid dynamic of CoQ depletion following intense exercise underlying an increased demand by the organism. Ubiquinol supplementation minimized exercise-induced depletion and enhanced plasma and cellular antioxidant levels but it was not able to improve physical performance indexes or markers of muscular damage.

  5. Effect of body mass index on in vitro fertilization outcomes in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sathya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :Obesity has become a major health problem across the world. In women, it is known to cause anovulation, subfecundity, increased risk of fetal anomalies and miscarriage rates. However, in women going for assisted reproduction the effects of obesity on egg quality, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy, live birth rates are controversial. Objectives :To assess the effect of women′s body mass index (BMI on the reproductive outcome of non donor In vitro fertilization (IVF/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. The effects of BMI on their gonadotrophin levels (day 2 LH, FSH, gonadotrophin dose required for ovarian stimulation, endometrial thickness and oocyte/embryo quality were looked at, after correcting for age and poor ovarian reserve. Materials and Methods : Retrospective study of medical records of 308 women undergoing non donor IVF cycles in a University affiliated teaching hospital. They were classified into three groups: normal weight (BMI25 30 kg/m 2 . All women underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation using long agonist protocol. Results : There were 88 (28.6% in the normal weight group, 147 (47.7% in the overweight and 73 (23.7% in the obese group. All three groups were comparable with respect to age, duration of infertility, female and male causes of infertility. The three groups were similar with respect to day 2 LH/FSH levels, endometrial thickness and gonadotrophin requirements, oocyte quality, fertilization, cleavage rates, number of good quality embryos and clinical pregnancy rates. Conclusion :Increase in body mass index in women does not appear to have an adverse effect on IVF outcome. However, preconceptual counselling for obese women is a must as weight reduction helps in reducing pregnancy-related complications.

  6. Bayesian inference on genetic merit under uncertain paternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tempelman Robert J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hierarchical animal model was developed for inference on genetic merit of livestock with uncertain paternity. Fully conditional posterior distributions for fixed and genetic effects, variance components, sire assignments and their probabilities are derived to facilitate a Bayesian inference strategy using MCMC methods. We compared this model to a model based on the Henderson average numerator relationship (ANRM in a simulation study with 10 replicated datasets generated for each of two traits. Trait 1 had a medium heritability (h2 for each of direct and maternal genetic effects whereas Trait 2 had a high h2 attributable only to direct effects. The average posterior probabilities inferred on the true sire were between 1 and 10% larger than the corresponding priors (the inverse of the number of candidate sires in a mating pasture for Trait 1 and between 4 and 13% larger than the corresponding priors for Trait 2. The predicted additive and maternal genetic effects were very similar using both models; however, model choice criteria (Pseudo Bayes Factor and Deviance Information Criterion decisively favored the proposed hierarchical model over the ANRM model.

  7. Effective use of latent semantic indexing and computational linguistics in biological and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyu; Martin, Bronwen; Daimon, Caitlin M; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Text mining is rapidly becoming an essential technique for the annotation and analysis of large biological data sets. Biomedical literature currently increases at a rate of several thousand papers per week, making automated information retrieval methods the only feasible method of managing this expanding corpus. With the increasing prevalence of open-access journals and constant growth of publicly-available repositories of biomedical literature, literature mining has become much more effective with respect to the extraction of biomedically-relevant data. In recent years, text mining of popular databases such as MEDLINE has evolved from basic term-searches to more sophisticated natural language processing techniques, indexing and retrieval methods, structural analysis and integration of literature with associated metadata. In this review, we will focus on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), a computational linguistics technique increasingly used for a variety of biological purposes. It is noted for its ability to consistently outperform benchmark Boolean text searches and co-occurrence models at information retrieval and its power to extract indirect relationships within a data set. LSI has been used successfully to formulate new hypotheses, generate novel connections from existing data, and validate empirical data.

  8. Effects of body mass index on the outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Selcuk Isoglu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To examine the the effect of body mass index (BMI on PNL results and complications with a large number of patients. Materials and Methods A total of 958 patients were included in the study, who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy in our clinic between 2008 and 2015. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their body mass index. Patients with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 were classified as group 1 (n:676 and patients with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were classified as group 2 (n:282. Achieving stone-free status or having residual stones of ≤ 4 mm were considered as operational success. Results The mean age was 47.9 years for group 1 and 48.9 years for group 2 patients. At postoperative first month CT analysis, residual stone was not observed in 466 patients (69% of group 1 and 20 (72% patients of group 2. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of stone-free status (p=0.348. There was no significant difference between two groups complications. Also, there was no difference between the groups for requiring additional intervention (p=0.924. No other complications were observed in the patients. Conclusions BMI does not affect the outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy as well as complication rate.

  9. Statistical properties of effective drought index (EDI) for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chang, Heon-Young

    2014-08-01

    Time series of drought indices has been considered mostly in view of temporal and spatial distributions of a drought index so far. Here we investigate the statistical properties of a daily Effective Drought Index (EDI) itself for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo for the period of 100 years from 1913 to 2012. We have found that both in dry and wet seasons the distribution of EDI as a function of EDI follows the Gaussian function. In dry season the shape of the Gaussian function is characteristically broader than that in wet seasons. The total number of drought days during the period we have analyzed is related both to the mean value and more importantly to the standard deviation. We have also found that according to the distribution of the number of occasions where the EDI values of several consecutive days are all less than a threshold, the distribution follows the exponential distribution. The slope of the best fit becomes steeper not only as the critical EDI value becomes more negative but also as the number of consecutive days increases. The slope of the exponential distribution becomes steeper as the number of the city in which EDI is simultaneously less than a critical EDI in a row increases. Finally, we conclude by pointing out implications of our findings.

  10. Effects of Work-Related Stress on Work Ability Index among Iranian Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Vahid; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Taban, Abrahim; Yazdani Aval, Mohsen; Samimi, Kazem; Salesi, Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Work Ability Index (WAI) is a well-known and valid self-report tool that has been widely used in various studies to identify and avoid early retirement and work-related disability. Nevertheless, very few studies have been carried out to evaluate work ability in Iran. We aimed to investigate the WAI and the effect of work-related stress on it among Iranian workers. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study was carried out among 449 workers from five working sectors in three big cities of Iran. Work ability and work-related stress were measured using the Persian version of WAI and the Persian version of Health and Safety Executive Stress Indicator Tool. More than a third of the workers surveyed (34.70%) did not have an appropriate level of work ability (WAI work-related stress and the mean score of WAI. Furthermore, the variables of body mass index, sleep quality, exercise activity, job tenure, and three subscales of work-related stress including demands, supervisor support, and role were significant predictors of WAI. According to the results of this study, the interventional programs must be focused on improving supervisors support, eliminating ambiguity and conflicts in the role of workers in their job and organization, reducing job demands, improving sleep quality, and increasing exercise activity.

  11. A Novel Adaptive Observer-Based Control Scheme for Synchronization and Suppression of a Class of Uncertain Chaotic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Wang; Zhen-Yu, Tan; Xi-Kui, Ma; Jin-Feng, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive observer-based control scheme is presented for synchronization and suppression of a class of uncertain chaotic system. First, an adaptive observer based on an orthogonal neural network is designed. Subsequently, the sliding mode controllers via the proposed adaptive observer are proposed for synchronization and suppression of the uncertain chaotic systems. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. (general)

  12. An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Uncertain Portfolio Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio selection is an important issue for researchers and practitioners. In this paper, under the assumption that security returns are given by experts’ evaluations rather than historical data, we discuss the portfolio adjusting problem which takes transaction costs and diversification degree of portfolio into consideration. Uncertain variables are employed to describe the security returns. In the proposed mean-variance-entropy model, the uncertain mean value of the return is ...

  13. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop uncertain systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems by using an auxiliary input vector is considered in this paper, i.e. active fault diagnosis (AFD). The active fault diagnosis is based directly on the socalled fault signature matrix, related to the YJBK (Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno...... and Kucera) parameterization. Conditions are given for exact detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems....

  14. Effects of nicotine on visuo-spatial selective attention as indexed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, A; Thiel, C M; Fink, G R

    2006-08-11

    Nicotine has been shown to specifically reduce reaction times to invalidly cued targets in spatial cueing paradigms. In two experiments, we used event-related potentials to test whether the facilitative effect of nicotine upon the detection of invalidly cued targets is due to a modulation of perceptual processing, as indexed by early attention-related event-related potential components. Furthermore, we assessed whether the effect of nicotine on such unattended stimuli depends upon the use of exogenous or endogenous cues. In both experiments, the electroencephalogram was recorded while non-smokers completed discrimination tasks in Posner-type paradigms after chewing a nicotine polacrilex gum (Nicorette 2 mg) in one session and a placebo gum in another session. Nicotine reduced reaction times to invalidly cued targets when cueing was endogenous. In contrast, no differential effect of nicotine on reaction times was observed when exogenous cues were used. Electrophysiologically, we found a similar attentional modulation of the P1 and N1 components under placebo and nicotine but a differential modulation of later event-related potential components at a frontocentral site. The lack of a drug-dependent modulation of P1 and N1 in the presence of a behavioral effect suggests that the effect of nicotine in endogenous visuo-spatial cueing tasks is not due to an alteration of perceptual processes. Rather, the differential modulation of frontocentral event-related potentials suggests that nicotine acts at later stages of target processing.

  15. Neural basis of uncertain cue processing in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Ma, Chao; Luo, Yanyan; Li, Ji; Li, Qingwei; Liu, Yijun; Ding, Cody; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-02-19

    Individuals with high trait anxiety form a non-clinical group with a predisposition for an anxiety-related bias in emotional and cognitive processing that is considered by some to be a prerequisite for psychiatric disorders. Anxious individuals tend to experience more worry under uncertainty, and processing uncertain information is an important, but often overlooked factor in anxiety. So, we decided to explore the brain correlates of processing uncertain information in individuals with high trait anxiety using the learn-test paradigm. Behaviorally, the percentages on memory test and the likelihood ratios of identifying novel stimuli under uncertainty were similar to the certain fear condition, but different from the certain neutral condition. The brain results showed that the visual cortex, bilateral fusiform gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus were active during the processing of uncertain cues. Moreover, we found that trait anxiety was positively correlated with the BOLD signal of the right parahippocampal gyrus during the processing of uncertain cues. No significant results were found in the amygdala during uncertain cue processing. These results suggest that memory retrieval is associated with uncertain cue processing, which is underpinned by over-activation of the right parahippocampal gyrus, in individuals with high trait anxiety.

  16. Effects of dietary protein and glycaemic index on biomarkers of bone turnover in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Müller, Martha; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it has been debated whether high protein intake compromises bone mineralisation, but no long-term randomised trial has investigated this in children. In the family-based, randomised controlled trial DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity and Genes), we examined the effects of dietary protein...... and glycaemic index (GI) on biomarkers of bone turnover and height in children aged 5-18 years. In two study centres, families with overweight parents were randomly assigned to one of five ad libitum-energy, low-fat (25-30 % energy (E%)) diets for 6 months: low protein/low GI; low protein/high GI; high protein....../low GI; high protein/high GI; control. They received dietary instructions and were provided all foods for free. Children, who were eligible and willing to participate, were included in the study. In the present analyses, we included children with data on plasma osteocalcin or urinary N...

  17. Towards Effective Network Intrusion Detection: A Hybrid Model Integrating Gini Index and GBDT with PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjie Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect computing systems from malicious attacks, network intrusion detection systems have become an important part in the security infrastructure. Recently, hybrid models that integrating several machine learning techniques have captured more attention of researchers. In this paper, a novel hybrid model was proposed with the purpose of detecting network intrusion effectively. In the proposed model, Gini index is used to select the optimal subset of features, the gradient boosted decision tree (GBDT algorithm is adopted to detect network attacks, and the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is utilized to optimize the parameters of GBDT. The performance of the proposed model is experimentally evaluated in terms of accuracy, detection rate, precision, F1-score, and false alarm rate using the NSL-KDD dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed model is superior to the compared methods.

  18. Feathering effect detection and artifact agglomeration index-based video deinterlacing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André Luis; Rodrigues, Evandro Luis Linhari; de Paiva, Maria Stela Veludo

    2018-03-01

    Several video deinterlacing techniques have been developed, and each one presents a better performance in certain conditions. Occasionally, even the most modern deinterlacing techniques create frames with worse quality than primitive deinterlacing processes. This paper validates that the final image quality can be improved by combining different types of deinterlacing techniques. The proposed strategy is able to select between two types of deinterlaced frames and, if necessary, make the local correction of the defects. This decision is based on an artifact agglomeration index obtained from a feathering effect detection map. Starting from a deinterlaced frame produced by the "interfield average" method, the defective areas are identified, and, if deemed appropriate, these areas are replaced by pixels generated through the "edge-based line average" method. Test results have proven that the proposed technique is able to produce video frames with higher quality than applying a single deinterlacing technique through getting what is good from intra- and interfield methods.

  19. Study on Informational Transaction and Its Effect on China's Stock Index Futures Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Che

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the important factors that influence the behavior of investors and then have an effect on the price of the risky assets in the market. Firstly, the new procedure developed by Easley et al. (2011 is used to estimate the Volume-Synchronized Probability of Informed Trading (VPIN of the Chinese stock index futures market. Then VPIN for special scenarios is depicted. As a result, we find that the future contracts generally have a larger number of information transactions. We also find that, for particular scenarios, the probability of informed trading in the market has obvious exceptions. The larger proportion of informed trader is, the higher the volatility of the price is.

  20. Effective refractive index modulation based optical fiber humidity sensor employing etched fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundendhar, Pathi; Khijwania, Sunil K.

    2015-09-01

    Relative humidity (RH) sensor employing etched fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is reported where RH variations are captured using effective-index-modulation, rather than traditional strain-modulation. Additionly, linear sensor response over wide dynamic range with optimum characteristics is focused. Comprehensive experimental investigation is carried out for the sensor that comprises uniformly etched cladding in the FBG region. Obtained results are observed to be in agreement with the theoretical analysis. Sensor response is observed to be linear over dynamic range 3-94%RH with ~ 0.082 pm/%RH sensitivity, ~0.6%RH resolution, ~ +/-2.5%RH accuracy, ~ +/-0.2 pm average discrepancy and ~ 0.2s response time during humidification/desiccation.

  1. Measurement of the effective refractive index of a turbid colloidal suspension using light refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Coronado, A; Garcia-Valenzuela, A; Sanchez-Perez, C; Barrera, R G

    2005-01-01

    We propose and analyse a simple method to measure simultaneously the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of a turbid suspension of particles. The method is based on measurements of the angle of refraction and transmittance of a laser beam that traverses a hollow glass prism filled with a colloidal suspension. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the method. It can offer high sensitivity while still being simple to interpret. We present results of experiments using an optically turbid suspension of polystyrene particles and compare them with theoretical predictions. We also report experimental evidence showing that the refractive behaviour of the diffuse component of light coming from a suspension depends on the volume fraction of the colloidal particles

  2. Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy...... were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive...... environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained...

  3. Individual and shared effects of social environment and polygenic risk scores on adolescent body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jonathan R I; Krapohl, Eva; Eley, Thalia C; Breen, Gerome

    2018-04-20

    Juvenile obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes. Understanding genetic and environmental influences on body mass index (BMI) during adolescence could inform interventions. We investigated independent and interactive effects of parenting, socioeconomic status (SES) and polygenic risk on BMI pre-adolescence, and on the rate of change in BMI across adolescence. Genome-wide genotype data, BMI and child perceptions of parental warmth and punitive discipline were available at 11 years old, and parental SES was available from birth on 3,414 unrelated participants. Linear models were used to test the effects of social environment and polygenic risk on pre-adolescent BMI. Change in BMI across adolescence was assessed in a subset (N = 1943). Sex-specific effects were assessed. Higher genetic risk was associated with increased BMI pre-adolescence and across adolescence (p parenting was not significantly associated with either phenotype, but lower SES was associated with increased BMI pre-adolescence. No interactions passed correction for multiple testing. Polygenic risk scores from adult GWAS meta-analyses are associated with BMI in juveniles, suggesting a stable genetic component. Pre-adolescent BMI was associated with social environment, but parental style has, at most, a small effect.

  4. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design and application to nonlinear uncertain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Li, Jie; Cao, Huiliang; Shen, Chong; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) based on sigmoid function is developed to calculate the noise-less time derivative under noisy measurement condition. The essential philosophy of proposed AND in achieving high attenuation of noise effect is established by expanding the signal dynamics with extra state variable representing the integrated noisy measurement, then with the integral of measurement as input, the augmented differentiator is formulated to improve the estimation quality. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the improved methodology can be readily extended to construct augmented high-order differentiator to obtain multiple derivatives. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, the robust control problems of nonlinear uncertain systems, including a numerical example and a mass spring system, are addressed to demonstrate the effectiveness of AND in precisely estimating the disturbance and providing the unavailable differential estimate to implement output feedback based controller. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of strain rate on sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels: Sooting temperature index and sooting sensitivity index

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2014-05-01

    The effect of the strain rate on the sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames was investigated in various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels by varying the nitrogen dilution in the fuel and oxidizer streams. The sooting limit was defined as the critical fuel and oxygen mole fraction at which soot started to appear in the elastic light scattering signal. The sooting region for normal alkane fuels at a specified strain rate, in terms of the fuel and oxygen mole fraction, expanded as the number of carbon atoms increased. The alkene fuels (ethylene, propene) tested had a higher propensity for sooting as compared with alkane fuels with the same carbon numbers (ethane, propane). Branched iso-butane had a higher propensity for sooting than did n-butane. An increase in the strain rate reduced the tendency for sooting in all the fuels tested. The sensitivity of the sooting limit to the strain rate was more pronounced for less sooting fuels. When plotted in terms of calculated flame temperature, the critical oxygen mole fraction exhibited an Arrhenius form under sooting limit conditions, which can be utilized to significantly reduce the effort required to determine sooting limits at different strain rates. We found that the limiting temperatures of soot formation flames are viable sooting metrics for quantitatively rating the sooting tendency of various fuels, based on comparisons with threshold soot index and normalized smoke point data. We also introduce a sooting temperature index and a sooting sensitivity index, two quantitative measures to describe sooting propensity and its dependence on strain rate. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  6. Social accounting matrix and the effects of economic reform on health price index and household expenditures: Evidence from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Khosro; Najafi, Behzad; Andayesh, Yaghob; Rezapour, Aziz; Abolhallaj, Masoud; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Sanati, Ehsan; Mirian, Iman; Nikfar, Shekoofeh; Lotfi, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic indicators are the main factors that affect health outcome. Health price index (HPI) and households living costs (HLC) are affected by economic reform. This study aimed at examining the effect of subsidy targeting plan (STP) on HPI and HLC. Methods: The social accounting matrix was used to study the direct and indirect effects of STP. We chose 11 health related goods and services including insurance, compulsory social security services, hospital services, medical and dental services, other human health services, veterinary services, social services, environmental health services, laundry& cleaning and dyeing services, cosmetic and physical health services, and pharmaceutical products in the social accounting matrix to examine the health price index. Data were analyzed by the I-O&SAM software. Results: Due to the subsidy release on energy, water, and bread prices, we found that (i) health related goods and services groups' price index rose between 33.43% and 77.3%, (ii) the living cost index of urban households increased between 48.75% and 58.21%, and (iii) the living cost index of rural households grew between 53.51% and 68.23%. The results demonstrated that the elimination of subsidy would have negative effects on health subdivision and households' costs such that subsidy elimination increased the health prices index and the household living costs, especially among low-income families. The STP had considerable effects on health subdivision price index. Conclusion: The elimination or reduction of energy carriers and basic commodities subsidies have changed health price and households living cost index. Therefore, the policymakers should consider controlling the price of health sectors, price fluctuations and shocks.

  7. Effect of paclitaxel, epirubicin and tamoxifen on labelling index in cultured ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arican, G. Oe.; Oezalpan, A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Paclitaxel (PAC), Epirubicin (EPR) and Tamoxifen (TAM) on ''3H-thymidine labelling index (''3H-TdR LI) of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT) was investigated in cultured. In the present study, an estrogen receptor positive ER(+) hyper diploid cell lines were studied. We used optimum doses of PAC, EPR and TAM (12 mg/ml, 12 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml, respectively). Cells were treated with these doses for 0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. At the end of these periods, both control and treated cells were labelled for 5 mCi/ml 3H-thymidine for 30 minutes. The results showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis in cultured EAT cells were increased in the combined treatment of two drugs when compared to the treatment of a single drug (p<0.01). In the treatment of three drugs, however, this effect reached a maximum (p<0.001). As a result, PAC+EPR+TAM treatment's had a maximum synergistic effect at 4 hours treatment

  8. Effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index among Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L; Miller, Tracie L; Lipshultz, Steven E; Messiah, Sarah E

    2013-02-01

    Ethnic minority adolescents, Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow-up data available (91 %) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Among 71 adolescents (80 % Hispanic, 77 % female), mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P surgery. Our results show that bariatric surgery, gastric bypass procedure in particular, can markedly reduce weight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducing weight in a group of adolescents who are at a particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences.

  9. Local Doppler Effect, Index of Refraction through the Earth Crust, PDF and the CNGS Neutrino Anomaly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis A. V. D. B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this brief paper, we show the neutrino velocity discrepancy obtained in the OPERA experiment may be due to the local Doppler effect between a local clock attached to a given detector at Gran Sasso, say C G , and the respective instantaneous clock crossing C G , say C C , being this latter at rest in the instantaneous inertial frame having got the velocity of rotation of CERN about Earth’s axis in relation to the fixed stars. With this effect, the index of refraction of the Earth crust may accomplish a refractive effect by which the neutrino velocity through the Earth crust turns out to be small in relation to the speed of light in the empty space, leading to an encrusted discrepancy that may have contamined the data obtained from the block of detectors at Gran Sasso, leading to a time interval excess that did not provide an exact match between the shift of the protons PDF (probability distribution function by TOF c and the detection data at Gran Sasso via the maximum likelihood matching.

  10. Effect of a low glycemic index compared with a conventional healthy diet on polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate A; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Atkinson, Fiona S; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2010-07-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are intrinsically insulin resistant and have a high risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Weight loss improves risk factors, but the optimal diet composition is unknown. Low-glycemic index (low-GI) diets are recommended without evidence of their clinical effectiveness. We compared changes in insulin sensitivity and clinical outcomes after similar weight losses after consumption of a low-GI diet compared with a conventional healthy diet in women with PCOS. We assigned overweight and obese premenopausal women with PCOS (n = 96) to consume either an ad libitum low-GI diet or a macronutrient-matched healthy diet and followed the women for 12 mo or until they achieved a 7% weight loss. We compared changes in whole-body insulin sensitivity, which we assessed using the insulin sensitivity index derived from the oral-glucose-tolerance test (ISI(OGTT)); glucose tolerance; body composition; plasma lipids; reproductive hormones; health-related quality of life; and menstrual cycle regularity. The attrition rate was high in both groups (49%). Among completers, ISI(OGTT) improved more with the low-GI diet than with the conventional healthy diet (mean +/- SEM: 2.2 +/- 0.7 compared with 0.7 +/- 0.6, respectively; P = 0.03). There was a significant diet-metformin interaction (P = 0.048), with greater improvement in ISI(OGTT) among women prescribed both metformin and the low-GI diet. Compared with women who consumed the conventional healthy diet, more women who consumed the low-GI diet showed improved menstrual cyclicity (95% compared with 63%, respectively; P = 0.03). Among the biochemical measures, only serum fibrinogen concentrations showed significant differences between diets (P < 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first objective evidence to justify the use of low-GI diets in the management of PCOS.

  11. The property investigation of the numerical code TIGER for the uncertain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebina, Takanori; Ohi, Takao

    2008-03-01

    In order to obtain the information concerning the safety of the geological disposal under various geological environments, the sensitivity analysis that considers the uncertainty of parameters resulting from the insufficiency of knowledge and information plays an important role. The numerical code TIGER allows the physical and chemical properties within the system to vary with time in the radionuclide migration analysis from vitrified glass to rock and these function is useful for understanding the effect of the property change of each barrier in such sensitivity analysis. Therefore, at this study, some typical processing methods with the engineered barrier system and the host rock were developed at fast, and through the comparison with the calculation time, the step of preprocessing and postprocessing, the most suitable method was considered. After this consideration, the interrelation between the calculation accuracy and the calculation time at the most suitable method was examined for the purpose of using this method to the uncertain analysis. In addition, the STRIDER that was the program to make the input file for the uncertain analysis with setting random parameter and do the preprocessing and the postprocessing, was improved for the uncertain analysis. Through this consideration, the information of the best processing method, the calculation accuracy, and the analysis tool was arranged for an uncertain analysis using TIGER. (author)

  12. Intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned Bonferroni means and their application to multiple attribute decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengmin; Liu, Peide

    2017-04-01

    The Bonferroni mean (BM) was originally introduced by Bonferroni and generalised by many other researchers due to its capacity to capture the interrelationship between input arguments. Nevertheless, in many situations, interrelationships do not always exist between all of the attributes. Attributes can be partitioned into several different categories and members of intra-partition are interrelated while no interrelationship exists between attributes of different partitions. In this paper, as complements to the existing generalisations of BM, we investigate the partitioned Bonferroni mean (PBM) under intuitionistic uncertain linguistic environments and develop two linguistic aggregation operators: intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (IULPBM) and its weighted form (WIULPBM). Then, motivated by the ideal of geometric mean and PBM, we further present the partitioned geometric Bonferroni mean (PGBM) and develop two linguistic geometric aggregation operators: intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned geometric Bonferroni mean (IULPGBM) and its weighted form (WIULPGBM). Some properties and special cases of these proposed operators are also investigated and discussed in detail. Based on these operators, an approach for multiple attribute decision-making problems with intuitionistic uncertain linguistic information is developed. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the developed approach and comparison analyses are conducted with other representative methods to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed approach.

  13. Hyperchaos control and adaptive synchronization with uncertain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    classical differential equations describe the memory effect, and it is the major advantage over integer-order derivatives [2]. ... for information decoding. It has also received increased attention due to its theoreti- cal challenge and its great ...

  14. The pan-European environment: glimpses into an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of and increasing inter-linkages between many socio-economic phenomena - population growth and migration, globalisation and trade, personal consumption patterns and use of natural resources . are reflected in many of today's environment policy priorities: minimising and adapting to climate change; loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services; the degradation of such natural resources as land, freshwater and oceans; and the impacts of a wide range of pollutants on our environment and our health. The challenges that environmental policy makers are facing in this century are already very different from those of the last. Given the rapid change in socio.economic trends, both designing and implementing actions are becoming much more complex, and the way in which such policies deliver effective outcomes seems to be becoming increasingly uncertain. Alongside this, the time.lags between policy demands and institutional responses are often lengthening, with the institutional structures charged with designing and implementing agreed actions needing to change in order to keep up with this process. This report aims to contribute to the discussion about plausible future developments relevant to the wider European region and to stimulate medium to long-term thinking in policy-making circles. It does so by sketching some of the key environmental concerns for the pan-European region based on the EEA's Europe's environment - The fourth assessment, and by highlighting some of the many uncertainties the future holds. (au)

  15. Effect of fast track surgery on anxiety index and stress indices in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Xia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of fast track surgery (FTS on anxiety index and stress indices in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. MethodsThe patients who were hospitalized in Department of General Surgery, The Second People′s Hospital of Lanzhou, from March 2015 to July 2016 and underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled and randomly divided into FTS group and conventional treatment group, with 200 patients in each group. The patients in the FTS group were given FTS in the perioperative period, and those in the conventional treatment group were given conventional treatment. The C-reactive protein (CRP level, white blood cell count (WBC, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 level were measured on admission, at 1 hour before surgery, and at 24 and 48 hours after surgery, as well as the anxiety index in Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThere was no significant difference in anxiety index between the FTS group and the conventional treatment group on admission (P>0.05; at 1 hour before surgery and at 24 and 48 hours after surgery, there were significant differences in anxiety index between the two groups (χ2=12.73, 13.17, and 14.12, all P<0.05. On admission and at 1 hour before surgery, there were no significant differences in the CRP level, WBC, and IL-6 level between the FTS group and the conventional treatment group (all P>0.05; at 24 and 48 hours after surgery, there were significant differences in the CRP level, WBC, and IL-6 level between the two groups [CRP24h: 8.47±0.78 mg/L vs 17.56±1.31 mg/L, t=17.63, P<0.05; WBC24h: (8.3±3.4×109/L vs (10.2±3.8×109/L, t=21.62, P<0.05; IL-624h: 127.43±37.46 ng/L vs 146.25±42.56 ng/L, t=2632, P<0.05; CRP48h:(6.57±1.27 mg/L vs (10.76±1.25 mg/L,t=19.25,P<0.05;WBC48h:(7.1±2.3×109/L vs (9.3±2.4×109/L

  16. Associations between Substance Use and Body Mass Index: Moderating Effects of Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Taiwanese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ling Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between substance use and body mass index (BMI among adolescents in Southern Taiwan. A total of 10,259 adolescent students aged 11–19 years were selected by stratified random sampling for proportional representation of districts, schools and grades in Southern Taiwan, and completed the questionnaires. The body weight, body height, experience of substance use and sociodemographic characteristics including sex, age, residential background and paternal/maternal educational levels were collected. The association between substance use and BMI, and the moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics were examined. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI was higher for adolescents who smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol than for those who do not regularly smoke or drink. Chewing betel nuts and using illicit drugs were not significantly associated with BMI. Paternal education level had a moderating effect on the association between smoking and BMI. Smoking, alcohol drinking, and low paternal education level were associated with higher BMI among adolescents. Thus, healthcare professionals should pay more attention to the weight-related problems among these adolescents.

  17. The glycemic index: methodological aspects related to the interpretation of health effects and to regulatory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is an experimental system that classifies carbohydrates (CHO) and CHO-containing foods according to their blood glucose-raising potential. It is based on the glycemic response following the ingestion of a test food containing a defined amount of available CHO relative to that of an equi-carbohydrate portion of either white bread or glucose. The concept has been extended to mixed meals and whole diets where the GI of the meal/diet is expressed as the weighted average of the GI of each food, based on the percentage of the total mealldiet CHO provided by each food. Over the last few decades, a substantial number of epidemiological and interventional studies have reported beneficial associationsleffects of lower GI diets across a wide spectrum of pathophysiological conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and certain forms of cancer. This has prompted proponents of the GI to recommend its use for dietary planning and labeling purposes. However, the currently recommended GI methodology is not well standardized and has several flaws, which brings into question the strength of evidence attributed to the health effects of low-GI diets. This review focuses exclusively on the methodological aspects of the GI, how they might impact the interpretation of data related to the purported health benefits of low GI diets, and the considerations for the use of the GI in food labeling. In addition, alternative systems for classifying the glycemic effects of CHO-containing foods are briefly discussed.

  18. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive marker of redox status.

  19. MAGDM linear-programming models with distinct uncertain preference structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeshui S; Chen, Jian

    2008-10-01

    Group decision making with preference information on alternatives is an interesting and important research topic which has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with distinct uncertain preference structures. We develop some linear-programming models for dealing with the MAGDM problems, where the information about attribute weights is incomplete, and the decision makers have their preferences on alternatives. The provided preference information can be represented in the following three distinct uncertain preference structures: 1) interval utility values; 2) interval fuzzy preference relations; and 3) interval multiplicative preference relations. We first establish some linear-programming models based on decision matrix and each of the distinct uncertain preference structures and, then, develop some linear-programming models to integrate all three structures of subjective uncertain preference information provided by the decision makers and the objective information depicted in the decision matrix. Furthermore, we propose a simple and straightforward approach in ranking and selecting the given alternatives. It is worth pointing out that the developed models can also be used to deal with the situations where the three distinct uncertain preference structures are reduced to the traditional ones, i.e., utility values, fuzzy preference relations, and multiplicative preference relations. Finally, we use a practical example to illustrate in detail the calculation process of the developed approach.

  20. Compression of Index Term Dictionary in an Inverted-File-Oriented Database: Some Effective Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Janusz L.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of a new method of index term dictionary compression in an inverted-file-oriented database highlights a technique of word coding, which generates short fixed-length codes obtained from the index terms themselves by analysis of monogram and bigram statistical distributions. Substantial savings in communication channel utilization are…

  1. Experimental verification of the inverse Doppler effect in negative-index material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lie; Chen, Jiabi; Wang, Yan; Geng, Tao; Zhuang, Songlin

    2010-10-01

    μResearch of negative-index material (NIM) is a very hot developing research field in recent years. NIM is also called left-handed material (LHM), in which the electric field [see manuscript], the magnetic field [see manuscript] and the wave vector [see manuscript] are not composed of a set of right-handed coordinates but a set of left-handed coordinates. Thus the action of electromagnetic waves in both left-handed material and right-handed material is just the opposite, for instance, the negative refraction phenomenon, the inverse Doppler effect and so on. Here we report the explicit result of the inverse Doppler effect through a photonic crystal (PC) prism at 10.6m wavelength for the first time, and the result we get from the experiment is much similar to the theoretical analysis we have deduced before. During the experiment, the CO2 laser is used as a light source, and the PC prism is used as a sample, which can move a tiny distance (1mm) uniformly with a translating stage. Based on the method of optical heterodyne, we let the emergent light from the output surface of PC prism and the reference light from light source interfere at the surface of the detector. When the translating stage moves towards the detector, the optical paths in the PC prism will be changed, and then the Doppler frequency shift will be generated. Though several different samples have been tested repeatedly, the results we get are extraordinarily similar. So we can be sure that the inverse Doppler effect really exists in the NIM at optical frequencies. To our best knowledge, this is the only experimental verification of the inverse Doppler effect in the NIM at optical frequencies at home and aboard.

  2. Refractive index modulation based on excitonic effects in GaInAs-InP coupled asymmetric quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Carsten

    1995-01-01

    The effect of excitons in GaInAs-InP coupled asymmetric quantum wells on the refractive index modulation, is analyzed numerically using a model based on the effective mass approximation. It is shown that two coupled quantum wells brought in resonance by an applied electric field will, due...

  3. Threshold pump intensity effect on the refractive index changes in InGaN SQD: Internal constitution and size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat (Morocco); LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); A John Peter [P.G. & Research Department of Physics, Goverment Arts and Science College, Melur 625106, Madurai (India)

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, internal composition and size-dependent threshold pump intensity effects on on-center impurity-related linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index changes are investigated in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN unstrained spherical quantum dot. The calculation is performed within the framework of parabolic band and single band effective-mass approximations using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) method. According to the results obtained, (i) a significant red-shift (blue shift) is obtained as the dot size (potential barrier) increases and (ii) a threshold optical pump intensity depending strongly on the size and the internal composition is obtained which constitutes the limit between two behaviors.

  4. The Uncertain Consequences of Nuclear Weapons Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    this genre is the venerable, and classified, official “bible” of nuclear weapons effects, Capabilities of Nuclear Weapons. Widely referred to by...weekly comic Shukan Shonen Jampu and was later made into several film versions, a television drama series, and ten books, which follow Gen’s...civilized behavior. The film , distributed internationally and shown on Soviet television, was widely discussed in the United States and both depressed

  5. Effects of electrical stimulation in early Bells palsy on facial disability index scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alakram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery following facial nerve palsy is variable. Physiotherapists try  to restore  function  in  patients  with  Bell’s  palsy.  The  choice  of treatment modality  depends  on  the  stage  of  the  condition.  Although limited  evidence  exists  for  the  use  of  electrical  stimulation  in  the acute  stage  of  Bell’s  palsy, some physiotherapists in South Africa have been applying this modality. This study examined the effects of electrical stimulation on functional recovery from  Bell’s palsy using the Facial Disability Index, a tool that documents recovery from the patients’ perspective. A two group pre-test post-test experimental design comprising of 16 patients with Bell’s Palsy of less than 30 days duration was utilized. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Bell’s Palsy were systematically allocated to the control and experimental groups. Patients (n=16 were pre-tested and post-tested using the Facial Disability Index. Both groups were treated with heat, massage, exercises and given a home program. The experimental group also received electrical stimulation. The FDI of the control group improved between 17, 8% and 95, 4% with a mean of 52, 8%. The improvement in the experimental group ranged between 14, 8% and 126% with a mean of 49, 8%. Certain clinical residuals persisted in a mild form in both groups on discharge from the study.  The effects of electrical stimulation as used in this study during the acute phase of Bell’s palsy, quantified as the FDI was clinically but not statistically significant. A larger sample size, longer stimulation time or both should be investigated.

  6. Uncertain multi-attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces methods for uncertain multi-attribute decision making including uncertain multi-attribute group decision making and their applications to supply chain management, investment decision making, personnel assessment, redesigning products, maintenance services, military system efficiency evaluation. Multi-attribute decision making, also known as multi-objective decision making with finite alternatives, is an important component of modern decision science. The theory and methods of multi-attribute decision making have been extensively applied in engineering, economics, management and military contexts, such as venture capital project evaluation, facility location, bidding, development ranking of industrial sectors and so on. Over the last few decades, great attention has been paid to research on multi-attribute decision making in uncertain settings, due to the increasing complexity and uncertainty of supposedly objective aspects and the fuzziness of human thought. This book can be used as a ref...

  7. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  8. Polymorphic Uncertain Linear Programming for Generalized Production Planning Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymorphic uncertain linear programming (PULP model is constructed to formulate a class of generalized production planning problems. In accordance with the practical environment, some factors such as the consumption of raw material, the limitation of resource and the demand of product are incorporated into the model as parameters of interval and fuzzy subsets, respectively. Based on the theory of fuzzy interval program and the modified possibility degree for the order of interval numbers, a deterministic equivalent formulation for this model is derived such that a robust solution for the uncertain optimization problem is obtained. Case study indicates that the constructed model and the proposed solution are useful to search for an optimal production plan for the polymorphic uncertain generalized production planning problems.

  9. Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr; Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)

    2012-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.

  10. Passivity analysis and synthesis for uncertain time-delay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi S. Mahmoud

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the robust passivity analysis and synthesis problems for a class of uncertain time-delay systems. This class of systems arises in the modelling effort of studying water quality constituents in fresh stream. For the analysis problem, we derive a sufficient condition for which the uncertain time-delay system is robustly stable and strictly passive for all admissible uncertainties. The condition is given in terms of a linear matrix inequality. Both the delay-independent and delay-dependent cases are considered. For the synthesis problem, we propose an observer-based design method which guarantees that the closed-loop uncertain time-delay system is stable and strictly passive for all admissible uncertainties. Several examples are worked out to illustrate the developed theory.

  11. Hypoglycaemic and coronary risk index lowering effects of Bauhinia thoningii in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojezele, M O; Abatan, O M

    2011-03-01

    Disease, one of humanity's greatest adversaries, has in recent times showed an intimidating increase in numerical and pathological strength. This stretched the available medications to the limit thereby necessitating the need for the discovery of new and alternative medications to combat the menace of disease. Diabetic mellitus is one disease condition for which ideal synthetic drugs are yet to be discovered. To this end, pharmaceuticals are looking in the direction of medicinal plants. This work aimed at screening Bauhinia thoningii (leaves) for its hypoglycaemic effect. The effect of the extract on lipid profile as a Coronary Risk Index (CRI) was also evaluated. Aqueous crude extract of the plant was administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats and fasting blood glucose monitored over a period of 7 days. Blood samples collected from the rats were assayed for full lipid profile and the CRI calculated. Bauhinia thoningii caused 81.37% reduction in blood glucose of the experimental animals over a period of 7 days from an initial 365 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl. The plant extract was also observed to have the capacity to ameliorate diabetic complications like cardiovascular disorders. The extract reduced the Low Density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduced the CRI. Results from this study confirmed the hypoglycaemic efficacy of the extract and ability to ameliorate coronary diabetic complications. Further study is required to purify the plant extract to identify the fraction(s) that are responsible for the hypoglycaemic effects observed. This will also help to isolate the active components and elucidate the likely mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  12. Effect of body mass index on diabetogenesis factors at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, An-Tsz; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Yen-Lin; Pei, Dee; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2018-01-01

    The present study evaluated the relative influence of body mass index (BMI) on insulin resistance (IR), first-phase insulin secretion (FPIS), second-phase insulin secretion (SPIS), and glucose effectiveness (GE) at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level in an older ethnic Chinese population. In total, 265 individuals aged 60 years with a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.56 mmol/L were enrolled. Participants had BMIs of 20.0-34.2 kg/m2. IR, FPIS, SPIS, and GE were estimated using our previously developed equations. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to assess the correlations between the four diabetogenesis factors and BMI. A general linear model was used to determine the differences in the percentage of change among the four factor slopes against BMI. Significant correlations were observed between BMI and FPIS, SPIS, IR, and GE in both women and men, which were higher than those reported previously. In men, BMI had the most profound effect on SPIS, followed by IR, FPIS, and GE, whereas in women, the order was slightly different: IR, followed by FPIS, SPIS, and GE. Significant differences were observed among all these slopes, except for the slopes between FPIS and SPIS in women (p = 0.856) and IR and FPIS in men (p = 0.258). The contribution of obesity to all diabetes factors, except GE, was higher than that reported previously. BMI had the most profound effect on insulin secretion in men and on IR in women in this 60-year-old cohort, suggesting that lifestyle modifications for obesity reduction in women remain the most important method for improving glucose metabolism and preventing future type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Time required for gulf restoration uncertain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Hurricane Andrew's long term effect on Gulf of Mexico oil and gas operations likely won't be known until next year. This paper reports that while damage assessments have moved beyond the emergency stage, many offshore service companies say reliable estimates of the extent of damage or cost of repairs still are unavailable. The time needed to complete restorations won't be known conclusively until more organized surveys are complete. Even then, many contractors say, gulf operators must decide how to handle damage at each location-whether to repair damaged structures or replace them by applying technology not available when many of the fields were developed. Some damaged installations will not be replaced or restored, and the production will be lost

  14. Effect of dietary glycemic index on food intake, adiposity, and fasting plasma ghrelin levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculati, M; Rossi, F; Cena, H; Roggi, C

    2010-04-01

    An increase in lipid storage as a consequence of feeding animals with high-glycemic index (GI) diets has been observed by many authors. Ghrelin is one of the most important orexigenic hormones, and curiously, its fasting plasma levels are decreased in human obesity. As ghrelin secretion is affected by insulin concentration, we hypothesized that carbohydrates with different glycemic responses might influence fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Twenty rats were divided into two groups and fed ad libitum a low-GI or a high-GI diet for 21 days. In rats fed a high- vs low-GI diet we observed: increased food intake (18.9+/-0.6 vs 16.4+/-2.0 g/day; pfasting ghrelin levels (41.1+/-10.7 vs 59.5+/-9.8 pg/ml; p=0.05). Ghrelin appeared to be downregulated in rats fed a high-GI diet; this observation could be related to the higher food intake and fat mass observed in these rats and to the effects of insulin response on ghrelin levels.

  15. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  16. The effect of increased body mass index on patient dose in paediatric radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladia, Arsenoi P., E-mail: arsenoh@gmail.com; Skiadopoulos, Spyros G., E-mail: skiado@upatras.gr; Karahaliou, Anna N., E-mail: akarahaliou@upatras.gr; Messaris, Gerasimos A.T., E-mail: messaris@upatras.gr; Delis, Harry B., E-mail: hdelis@gmail.com; Panayiotakis, George S., E-mail: panayiot@upatras.gr

    2016-10-15

    Radiation protection is of particular importance in paediatric radiology. In this study, the influence of increased body mass index (BMI) in radiation dose and associated risk was investigated for paediatric patients aged 5–6.5 years, undergoing chest (64 patients) or abdomen (64 patients) radiography. Patients were categorized into normal and overweight, according to the BMI classification scheme. Entrance surface dose (ESD), organ dose, effective dose (ED) and risk of exposure induced cancer death (REID) were calculated using the Monte Carlo based code PCXMC 2.0. Statistically significant increase in patient radiation dose and REID was obtained for overweight patients as compared to normal ones, in both chest and abdomen examinations (Wilcoxon singed-rank test for paired data, p < 0.001). The percentage increase in overweight as compared to normal patients of ESD, organ dose (maximum value), ED and REID was 13.6%, 24.4%, 18.9% and 20.6%, respectively, in case of chest radiographs. Corresponding values in case of abdomen radiographs were 15.0%, 24.7%, 21.8% and 19.8%, respectively. An increased BMI results in increased patient radiation dose in chest and abdomen paediatric radiography.

  17. The effects of gender on circadian rhythm of human physiological indexes in high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, G. Z.; Li, K.; Bu, W. T.; Lu, Y. Z.; Wang, Y. J.

    2018-03-01

    In the context of frequent high temperature weather in recent years, peoples’ physical health is seriously threatened by the indoor high temperature. The physiological activities of human body show a certain changes of circadian rhythm. In this paper, the circadian rhythms of the physiological indexes in indoor high temperature environment were quantified and compared between the male subjects and female subjects. Ten subjects (five males and five females) were selected. The temperature conditions were set at 28°C, 32°C, 36°C and 38°C, respectively. The blood pressure, heart rate, rectal temperature, eardrum temperature, forehead temperature and mean skin temperature were measured for 24 hours continuously. The medians, amplitudes and acrophases of the circadian rhythms were obtained by the cosinor analysis method. Then the effects of gender on the circadian rhythm of the human body in high temperature environment were analyzed. The results indicate that, compared with the female subjects, the male medians of the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were higher, and the male medians of heart rate and rectal temperature were lower, however, no significant differences were found between eardrum temperature, forehead temperature and mean skin temperature. This study can provide scientific basis for the health protection of the indoor relevant personnel.

  18. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Freitas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2. A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2. Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7. The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women.

  19. Perturbative Power Counting, Lowest-Index Operators and Their Renormalization in Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2018-03-01

    We study two aspects of higher dimensional operators in standard model effective field theory. We first introduce a perturbative power counting rule for the entries in the anomalous dimension matrix of operators with equal mass dimension. The power counting is determined by the number of loops and the difference of the indices of the two operators involved, which in turn is defined by assuming that all terms in the standard model Lagrangian have an equal perturbative power. Then we show that the operators with the lowest index are unique at each mass dimension d, i.e., (H † H) d/2 for even d ≥ 4, and (LT∈ H)C(LT∈ H) T (H † H)(d-5)/2 for odd d ≥ 5. Here H, L are the Higgs and lepton doublet, and ∈, C the antisymmetric matrix of rank two and the charge conjugation matrix, respectively. The renormalization group running of these operators can be studied separately from other operators of equal mass dimension at the leading order in power counting. We compute their anomalous dimensions at one loop for general d and find that they are enhanced quadratically in d due to combinatorics. We also make connections with classification of operators in terms of their holomorphic and anti-holomorphic weights. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11025525, 11575089, and by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  20. Effects of body mass index on gastric slow wave: a magnetogastrographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somarajan, S; Cassilly, S; Obioha, C; Bradshaw, L A; Richards, W O

    2014-01-01

    We measured gastric slow wave activity simultaneously with magnetogastrogram (MGG), mucosal electromyogram (EMG) and electrogastrogram (EGG) in human subjects with varying body mass index (BMI) before and after a meal. In order to investigate the effect of BMI on gastric slow wave parameters, each subject's BMI was calculated and divided into two groups: subjects with BMI ≤ 27 and BMI > 27. Signals were processed with Fourier spectral analysis and second-order blind identification (SOBI) techniques. Our results showed that increased BMI does not affect signal characteristics such as frequency and amplitude of EMG and MGG. Comparison of the postprandial EGG power, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant reduction in subjects with BMI > 27 compared with BMI ≤ 27. In addition to the frequency and amplitude, the use of SOBI-computed propagation maps from MGG data allowed us to visualize the propagating slow wave and compute the propagation velocity in both BMI groups. No significant change in velocity with increasing BMI or meal was observed in our study. In conclusion, multichannel MGG provides an assessment of frequency, amplitude and propagation velocity of the slow wave in subjects with differing BMI categories and was observed to be independent of BMI. (paper)

  1. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Transfusions and 24-Hour Chest-Tube Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Heather R.; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    An increasing obese population in the United States focuses attention on the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes. Our objective was to see if obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI), contributed to bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as measured by intraoperative and postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion frequency and amount and 24-hour chest-tube output. A retrospective chart review examined 150 subjects undergoing single-surgeon off-pump or on-pump CABG surgery between September 2006 and April 2009. BMI groups included normal-weight (BMI trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the combined intraoperative or 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The transfusion amount during the 72-hour postoperative period varied significantly between BMI groups (p = 0.021), and the test for a linear decrease across groups was significant (p = 0.020). Twenty-four hour chest-tube output showed variation across all three BMI categories (p = 0.018) with chest-tube output decreasing with increasing obesity in a linear fashion (p = 0.006). Transfusion rate and amount indicate total blood loss is decreased in the obese, and chest-tube output findings give a direct measurable indicator of blood loss from the surgical site indicating increasing BMI is linearly correlated with decreasing postoperative bleeding. PMID:22654469

  2. Effects of smoking and body mass index on the exposure of fentanyl in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuip, Evelien J M; Oldenmenger, Wendy H; Thijs-Visser, Martine F; de Bruijn, Peter; Oosten, Astrid W; Oomen-de Hoop, Esther; Koolen, Stijn L W; Van der Rijt, Carin C D; Mathijssen, Ron H J

    2018-01-01

    The transdermal fentanyl patch is widely used to treat cancer-related pain despite its wide inter- and intrapatient variability in pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether smoking and body size (i.e. body mass index) influence fentanyl exposure in patients with cancer. These are factors that typically change during treatment and disease trajectories. We performed an explorative cohort study in patients with cancer using transdermal fentanyl patches (Durogesic®), by taking a blood sample for pharmacokinetic analysis one day after applying a patch in patients with a stable fentanyl dose. A total of 88 patients were evaluable. Although no statistically significant difference was found, the plasma concentrations of non-smokers was 28% (95% CI [-14%; +89-%]) higher than those of smokers normalizing for a dose of 25μg/min. Patients with a low BMI ( 25 kg/m2). A wider variation in fentanyl plasma concentrations was found in this study than anticipated. Due to this variation, studies in larger patient cohorts are needed to further investigate the effect of smoking on plasma concentration of fentanyl and thereby clarify the clinical significance of our findings.

  3. Effects of age and body mass index on breast characteristics: A cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltman, Celeste E; Steele, Julie R; McGhee, Deirdre E

    2018-05-24

    Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristics of their breasts and torsos, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence of these breast categories. Four breast characteristic clusters were identified (X-Large, Very-ptotic & Splayed; Large, Ptotic & Splayed; Medium & Mildly-ptotic; and Small & Non-ptotic), with age and BMI shown to significantly affect the breast characteristic clusters. These results highlight the difference in breast characteristics exhibited among women and how these clusters are affected by age and BMI. The breast characteristic clusters identified in this study could be used as a basis for future bra designs and sizing systems in order to improve bra fit for women.

  4. Effect of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of Acer mono

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunfei; Yang Fan; Ren Yunhui

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of Acer mono, seeds were divided into two groups, one was treated by carrying on Shijian No.8 breeding satellite for 15 d, and the other was kept on the ground as controls. 5 years old seedlings that derived from the seeds of space flight and the seeds of ground control were chosen as materials, then the growth characteristics, photosynthetic characteristics, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activities were analyzed. The results showed that the plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and soluble protein content of seedlings after space flight were much higher than those of ground control. However, the changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were not significantly changed. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), as well as the plant growth of seedlings after space flight were higher than those of the control. The improved ability of photosynthesis may be one of the reasons that seedlings from seeds of space flight have higher speed of growth. (authors)

  5. Simulation Opportunity Index, A Simple and Effective Method to Boost the Hydrocarbon Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Saputra, Wardana

    2016-09-08

    During periods of low oil prices, profitability of field developments drops drastically. To help with this difficulty, a cost-effective method has been proposed to boost the hydrocarbon recovery by optimizing well locations through the Simulated Opportunity Index (SOI). SOI is an intelligent method to identify zones with high potential for production which is empirically calculated from basic rock and fluid properties, and from reservoir pressure as its energy capacity. In order to obtain the best results, the original SOI formula (Molina et al., 2009) was extended to both oil and gas fields. Based on this modified SOI formula, a software program has been developed to locate the best well locations considering multilayer, existing wells, and fault existences. This paper describes how the SOI software helps as a simple, fast, and accurate way to obtain the higher hydrocarbon production than that of trial-error method and previous studies in two different fields located in offshore Indonesia. On one hand, the proposed method could save money by minimizing the required number of wells. On the other hand, it could maximize profit by maximizing recovery.

  6. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  7. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani S.H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  8. Effect of Refractive Index of Substrate on Fabrication and Optical Properties of Hybrid Au-Ag Triangular Nanoparticle Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the nanosphere lithography (NSL method was used to fabricate hybrid Au-Ag triangular periodic nanoparticle arrays. The Au-Ag triangular periodic arrays were grown on different substrates, and the effect of the refractive index of substrates on fabrication and optical properties was systematically investigated. At first, the optical spectrum was simulated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA numerical method as a function of refractive indexes of substrates and mediums. Simulation results showed that as the substrates had the refractive indexes of 1.43 (quartz and 1.68 (SF5 glass, the nanoparticle arrays would have better refractive index sensitivity (RIS and figure of merit (FOM. Simulation results also showed that the peak wavelength of the extinction spectra had a red shift when the medium’s refractive index n increased. The experimental results also demonstrated that when refractive indexes of substrates were 1.43 and 1.68, the nanoparticle arrays and substrate had better adhesive ability. Meanwhile, we found the nanoparticles formed a large-scale monolayer array with the hexagonally close-packed structure. Finally, the hybrid Au-Ag triangular nanoparticle arrays were fabricated on quartz and SF5 glass substrates and their experiment extinction spectra were compared with the simulated results.

  9. Effect of TiCl4 treatment on the refractive index of nanoporous TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the effect of TiCl4 treatment on the refractive index of a nanoporous TiO2 film. A nanoparticulate TiO2 film prepared on a glass substrate was immersed in a TiCl4 aqueous solution. The subsequent reaction of TiCl4 with H2O produces TiO2 and thus modifies the density and the refractive index of the film. With increasing TiCl4 concentration, the refractive index initially increased and then declined after being maximized (n = 2.02 at 633 nm) at 0.08 M concentration. A refractive index change as large as 0.45 could be obtained with the TiCl4 treatment, making it possible to achieve diffraction efficiency exceeding 80% in a diffraction grating-embedded TiO2 film. For high TiCl4 concentrations of 0.32 M and 0.64 M, the refractive index remained nearly unchanged. This was attributed to the limited permeability of high-viscosity TiCl4 solutions into the nanoporous films. The measured pore size distributions were in good agreement with the results of a diffraction analysis and refractive index measurement.

  10. Robust tracking control of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of virtual stabilizability for dynamical systems is introduced and the virtual stabilizability of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control systems is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach with differential inequality, a tracking control is proposed such that the states of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control system track the desired trajectories with any pre-specified exponential decay rate and convergence radius. Moreover, we present an algorithm to find such a tracking control. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the use of the main results.

  11. Uncertain Portfolio Selection with Background Risk and Liquidity Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an uncertain portfolio selection problem with consideration of background risk and asset liquidity. In addition, the transaction costs are also considered. The security returns, background asset return, and asset liquidity are estimated by experienced experts instead of historical data. Regarding them as uncertain variables, a mean-risk model with background risk, liquidity, and transaction costs is proposed for portfolio selection and the crisp forms of the model are provided when security returns obey different uncertainty distributions. Moreover, for better understanding of the impact of background risk and liquidity on portfolio selection, some important theorems are proved. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the modeling idea.

  12. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  13. Synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems using a single transmission channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yong; Yu Xinghuo; Sun Lixia

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust sliding mode observer for synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with multi-nonlinearities. A new control strategy is proposed for the construction of the robust sliding mode observer, which can avoid the strict conditions in the design process of Walcott-Zak observer. A new method of multi-dimensional signal transmission via single transmission channel is proposed and applied to chaos synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with multi-nonlinearities. The simulation results are presented to validate the method

  14. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  15. Modeling the uncertain impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.

    1992-08-01

    Human and earth systems are extremely complex processes. The modeling of these systems to assess the effects of climate change is an activity fraught with uncertainty. System models typically involve the linking of a series of computer codes, each of which is a detailed model of some physical or social process in its own right. In such system models, the output from one process model is the input to another. Traditional methods for dealing with uncertainty are inadequate because of the sheer complexity of the modeling effort: Monte Carlo methods and the exhaustive evaluation of ''what if?'' scenarios estimate sensitivities fail because of the heavy computational burden. More efficient methods are required for learning about system models that are constructed from a collection of computer codes. A two-tiered modeling approach is being developed to estimate the distribution of outcomes from a series of nested models. The basic strategy is to develop a simplified executive, or simplified system code (SSC), that is analogous to the more complex underlying code. An essential feature of the SSC is that it uses information abstracted from the detailed underlying process codes in a manner that preserves their essential features and interactions among them. Of course, to be useful, the SSC must be much faster to run than its complex counterpart. The success of the SSC modeling strategy depends on the methods used to extract essential features of the complex underlying codes

  16. Secure Broadcasting with Uncertain Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-01-06

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper s CSI and not of its channel s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1-a ) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  17. Secure Broadcasting with Uncertain Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-03-13

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper\\'s CSI and not of its channel\\'s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1-a ) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  18. Exchange Rates’ Effect on Spot and Futures Equity Index Markets: A Study on Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayben Koy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between the foreign exchange rates, spot equity index and equity index futures. The study aims to investi-gate whether there is difference between the spot and futures markets in the scope of relation with the foreign exchange rates’ returns and which leads the other. The relationships are examined by using the vector autoregression (VAR model, impulse-response functions, variance decomposition and Granger Causality tests. The sample of the study consists of US dollar to Turkish Lira rate (USD/TRY, Euro to Turkish Lira rate (EUR/TRY, BIST 30 Index and BIST 30 Index Futures. The data of the study includes the period between January 2011 and December 2014 with daily data range. Our results have evidence that the foreign exchange rate markets in Turkey are driven by the equity market.

  19. Transition from manual to automatic rutting measurements : effect on pavement serviceability index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Pavement Serviceability Index (pSn is used by New Mexico Department of Transportation : (NMDOT) to express the serviceability level of a pavement section at the network level. The PSI : is calculated with distress ratings (including rutting) and ...

  20. Effect of Jiangzhi tablet on serum indexes of mice with fatty liver induced by CCL4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiuli; Kong, Xuejun; Li, Chongxian; Hao, Shaojun; Wang, Hongyu; Chen, Weiliang; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Jiangzhi tablet on serum indexes of mice with fatty liver induced by CCL4, 60 mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, positive group, high, middle and low dose group. High fat diet fed mice for 2 weeks, in second the beginning of the weekend, each group of experimental animal except the blank group in the afternoon 1:00 subcutaneous injection of 40% CCl4 of edible oil (0.05 mL/10g, 2 times / week) for modeling; at the same time, 9:00 in the morning to lipid-lowering tablets LARGEMEDTUM and small dose group (0.1125g/ml, 0.05625g/ml, 0.02815g/ml) and Gantai tablet group (0.045g/ml) mice fed with corresponding drugs, the model group received the same volume of physiological saline. At the end of the fifth week, the eyeballs were collected and the serum was separated. The levels of serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, serum AST, ALT and ALP were detected. Compared with the model group, Dongbao Gantai group, Jiangzhi tablets, high dose group had significantly decreased TG and LDL content in serum of mice (ptablets low dose group can significantly reduce TG and LDL content in serum (ptablet high dose group and middle dose group could significantly reduce the content of ALT, ALP, AST in serum of mice (ptablets in small dose group can significantly reduce ALP and AST content in serum (ptablets have a better intervention effect on the mice model of fatty liver induced by small dose of carbon tetrachloride.

  1. The study regarding effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in kidney tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasnezhad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 14 July, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Paraoxon is the active form of parathion, which is an organophosphate pesticide (OP. The toxic effects of some OPs are not limited to inhibition of cholinesterase, they are capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance in body antioxidant systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in the kidney of rat.Materials and methods: Wistar male rats were randomly divided in four groups including: control (corn oil as paraoxon solvent and three paraoxon groups receiving different doses (0.3, 0.7 and 1mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. 24 hours after injection, animal was given anesthesia and kidney tissue removed. After kidney tissue hemogenation, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione S- transferase (GST activities, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined by biochemical methods.Results: At doses higher than 0.3 mg/kg paraoxon, kidney SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased, comparing with the control, while GSH level was significantly decreased. There were no significant changes observed in GST, LDH activities and MDA levels.Conclusion: The results suggest that paraoxon induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney of rats probably was a function of the increased detoxification capacity. Depletion of tissue GSH is a prime factor, which can impair the cell’s defense against the toxic actions of free radicals.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 17-26 (Persian.

  2. Transverse and polarization effects in index-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, M. S.; Masoller, C.; Mandel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We study numerically the polarization dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) operating in the fundamental transverse mode. We use an extension of the spin-flip model that not only accounts for the vector nature of the laser field, but also considers spatial transverse effects. The model assumes two orthogonal, linearly polarized fields, which are coupled to two carrier populations, associated with different spin sublevels of the conduction and valence bands in the quantum-well active region. Spatial effects are taken into account by considering transverse profiles for the two polarizations, for the two carrier populations, and for the carrier diffusion. The optical profile is the LP 01 mode, suitable for describing index-guided VCSEL's with cylindrical symmetry emitting on the fundamental transverse mode for both polarizations. We find that in small-active-region VCSEL's, fast carrier diffusion induces self-sustained oscillations of the total laser output, which are not present in larger-area devices or with slow carrier diffusion. These self-pulsations appear close to threshold, and, as the injection current increases, they grow in amplitude; however, there is saturation and the self-pulsations disappear at higher injection levels. The dependence of the oscillation amplitude on various laser parameters is investigated, and the results are found to be in good qualitative agreement with those reported by Van der Sande et al. [Opt. Lett. 29, 53 (2004)], based on a rate-equation model that takes into account transverse inhomogeneities through an intensity-dependent confinement factor

  3. The effect of elevated body mass index on ischemic heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Palmer, Tom M; Benn, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal.......Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal....

  4. Robust digital controllers for uncertain chaotic systems: A digital redesign approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ababneh, Mohammad [Department of Controls, FMC Kongsberg Subsea, FMC Energy Systems, Houston, TX 77067 (United States); Barajas-Ramirez, Juan-Gonzalo [CICESE, Depto. De Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Ensenada, BC, 22860 (Mexico); Chen Guanrong [Centre for Chaos Control and Synchronization, Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (China); Shieh, Leang S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4005 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, a new and systematic method for designing robust digital controllers for uncertain nonlinear systems with structured uncertainties is presented. In the proposed method, a controller is designed in terms of the optimal linear model representation of the nominal system around each operating point of the trajectory, while the uncertainties are decomposed such that the uncertain nonlinear system can be rewritten as a set of local linear models with disturbed inputs. Applying conventional robust control techniques, continuous-time robust controllers are first designed to eliminate the effects of the uncertainties on the underlying system. Then, a robust digital controller is obtained as the result of a digital redesign of the designed continuous-time robust controller using the state-matching technique. The effectiveness of the proposed controller design method is illustrated through some numerical examples on complex nonlinear systems--chaotic systems.

  5. An Uncertain QFD Approach for the Strategic Management of Logistics Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengpeng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to customers’ growing concern about logistics performances related to products, logistics service increasingly contributes to the core competence of an enterprise or product, which calls an appropriate tool to develop effective strategic actions to improve logistics performances and gain customer satisfaction. Therefore, an uncertain quality function deployment (QFD approach for selecting the most effective strategic actions in terms of efficiency to meet the customer requirements is developed in this paper, which integrates uncertainty theory into the traditional QFD methodology in order to rationally deal with imprecise information inherently involved in the QFD process. The framework and systematic procedures of the approach are presented in the context of logistics services. Specifically, the calculations for the prioritization of strategic actions are discussed in detail, in which uncertain variables are used to capture the linguistic judgements given by customers and experts. Applications of the proposed approach are presented as well for illustration.

  6. Chaos control and duration time of a class of uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowong, Samuel; Moukam Kakmeni, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    This Letter presents a robust control scheme for a class of uncertain chaotic systems in the canonical form, with unknown nonlinearities. To cope with the uncertainties, we combine Lyapunov methodology with observer design. The proposed strategy comprises an exponential linearizing feedback and an uncertainty estimator. The developed control scheme allows chaos suppression. The advantage of this method over the existing results is that the control time is explicitly computed. Simulations studies are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the scheme

  7. Adaptive controller design for modified projective synchronization of Genesio-Tesi chaotic system with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses control problem for the modified projective synchronization of the Genesio-Tesi chaotic systems with three uncertain parameters. An adaptive control law is derived to make the states of two identical Genesio-Tesi systems asymptotically synchronized up to specific ratios. The stability analysis in the paper is proved using a well-known Lyapunov stability theory. A numerical simulation is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme

  8. Optimization Model for Uncertain Statistics Based on an Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertain statistics is a methodology for collecting and interpreting the expert’s experimental data by uncertainty theory. In order to estimate uncertainty distributions, an optimization model based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP and interpolation method is proposed in this paper. In addition, the principle of least squares method is presented to estimate uncertainty distributions with known functional form. Finally, the effectiveness of this method is illustrated by an example.

  9. Exponential convergence rate estimation for uncertain delayed neural networks of neutral type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, C.-H.; Yu, K.-W.; Lin, Y.-F.; Chung, Y.-J.; Chung, L.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    The global exponential stability for a class of uncertain delayed neural networks (DNNs) of neutral type is investigated in this paper. Delay-dependent and delay-independent criteria are proposed to guarantee the robust stability of DNNs via LMI and Razumikhin-like approaches. For a given delay, the maximal allowable exponential convergence rate will be estimated. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. The simulation results reveal significant improvement over the recent results.

  10. Invariant set computation for constrained uncertain discrete-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasopoulos, N.; Bitsoris, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this article a novel approach to the determination of polytopic invariant sets for constrained discrete-time linear uncertain systems is presented. First, the problem of stabilizing a prespecified initial condition set in the presence of input and state constraints is addressed. Second, the

  11. Distributed Robustness Analysis of Interconnected Uncertain Systems Using Chordal Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale interconnected uncertain systems commonly have large state and uncertainty dimensions. Aside from the heavy computational cost of performing robust stability analysis in a centralized manner, privacy requirements in the network can also introduce further issues. In this paper, we util...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging features of extremity sarcomas of uncertain differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacy, G.S.; Nair, L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to illustrate the pertinent clinical and imaging features of extremity sarcomas of uncertain differentiation, including synovial sarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, clear-cell sarcoma, and alveolar soft part sarcoma. These tumours should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a soft-tissue mass is encountered in the extremity of an adolescent or young adult

  13. Uncertain input data problems and the worst scenario method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 187-196 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/1503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : uncertain input data * the worst-case approach * fuzzy sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Fault tolerant control for uncertain systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2006-01-01

    A fault tolerant control (FTC) architecture based on active fault diagnosis (AFD) and the YJBK (Youla, Jarb, Bongiorno and Kucera)parameterization is applied in this paper. Based on the FTC architecture, fault tolerant control of uncertain systems with slowly varying parametric faults...... is investigated. Conditions are given for closed-loop stability in case of false alarms or missing fault detection/isolation....

  15. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  16. The effects of work-related and individual factors on the Work Ability Index: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); L.A.M. Elders (Leo); B.C.H. Zwart, de; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were

  17. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  18. The Effect of Dietary Pattern and Body Mass Index on the Academic Performance of In-School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsile, Seyi Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pattern and body mass index on the academic performance of in-school adolescents in Ekiti State. One hundred and twenty eight students (10-19 years) selected from three senior secondary schools in Ekiti State Nigeria, formed the participants for this study. Questionnaire was…

  19. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J-C; Nelson, A; Katwal, D; Elathamna, E N; Durski, M T

    2016-11-01

    Changes in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and age have been found to affect Smile Index (SI, width/height of smile). Limited information is available regarding the aesthetic effects of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of digitally manipulated smile images with differences in SI and incisal edge position (IEP) judged by respondents in different age groups. A total of 12 smile images were generated with varying SI (3·5, 5·3, 7·2, 9·0) and IEP (High, Medium, Low). Fifty respondents each in four age groups (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55+) evaluated the attractiveness of the 12 images using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS, 10 being most attractive). A repeated-measures three-factorial mixed model assessed differences. SI, IEP and age of respondents were found to significantly influence attractiveness score (P age groups combined, SI = 7·2/IEP = Medium was most attractive (VAS = 7·22), followed by SI = 9·0/IEP = Medium, and SI = 5·3/IEP = Medium (VAS = 6·53 and 6·48, respectively). SI = 3·5/IEP = High and SI = 3·5/IEP = Low were least attractive (VAS = 1·99 and VAS = 2·58, respectively). Age group significantly influenced aesthetic perception, with younger respondents more critical in differences in SI and IEP. SI and IEP significantly influenced attractiveness of the smile in all respondent age groups. Low SI (i.e. 3·5) combined with high or low IEP was unattractive. Medium SI to high SI (i.e. 5·3-9·0) combined with medium IEP were considered attractive. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of maternal body mass index on hormones in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Gale, Chris; Parkinson, James R C; Jeffries, Suzan; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) is positively associated with infant obesity risk. Breast milk contains a number of hormones that may influence infant metabolism during the neonatal period; these may have additional downstream effects on infant appetite regulatory pathways, thereby influencing propensity towards obesity in later life. To conduct a systematic review of studies examining the association between maternal BMI and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones in breast milk. Pubmed was searched for studies reporting the association between maternal BMI and leptin, adiponectin, insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, Peptide YY and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in breast milk. Twenty six studies were identified and included in the systematic review. There was a high degree of variability between studies with regard to collection, preparation and analysis of breast milk samples. Eleven of fifteen studies reporting breast milk leptin found a positive association between maternal BMI and milk leptin concentration. Two of nine studies investigating adiponectin found an association between maternal BMI and breast milk adiponectin concentration; however significance was lost in one study following adjustment for time post-partum. No association was seen between maternal BMI and milk adiponectin in the other seven studies identified. Evidence for an association between other appetite regulating hormones and maternal BMI was either inconclusive, or lacking. A positive association between maternal BMI and breast milk leptin concentration is consistently found in most studies, despite variable methodology. Evidence for such an association with breast milk adiponectin concentration, however, is lacking with additional research needed for other hormones including insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1. As most current studies have been conducted with small sample sizes, future studies should ensure adequate sample sizes and

  1. The effect of change in body mass index on volumetric measures of mammographic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Vicki; Reeves, Katherine W.; Sturgeon, Susan R.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Shepherd, John; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Malkov, Serghei; Sprague, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how changes in body mass index (BMI) relate to changes in mammographic density is necessary to evaluate adjustment for BMI gain/loss in studies of change in density and breast cancer risk. Increase in BMI has been associated with a decrease in percent density, but the effect on change in absolute dense area or volume is unclear. Methods We examined the association between change in BMI and change in volumetric breast density among 24,556 women in the San Francisco Mammography Registry from 2007-2013. Height and weight were self-reported at the time of mammography. Breast density was assessed using single x-ray absorptiometry measurements. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between BMI and dense volume (DV), non-dense volume (NDV) and percent dense volume (PDV) were assessed using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, risk factors, and reproductive history. Results In cross-sectional analysis, BMI was positively associated with DV (β=2.95 cm3, 95% CI 2.69, 3.21) and inversely associated with PDV (β=-2.03%, 95% CI -2.09, -1.98). In contrast, increasing BMI was longitudinally associated with a decrease in both DV (β=-1.01 cm3, 95% CI -1.59, -0.42) and PDV (β=-1.17%, 95% CI -1.31, -1.04). These findings were consistent for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Conclusion Our findings support an inverse association between change in BMI and change in PDV. The association between increasing BMI and decreasing DV requires confirmation. Impact Longitudinal studies of PDV and breast cancer risk, or those using PDV as an indicator of breast cancer risk, should evaluate adjustment for change in BMI. PMID:26315554

  2. Effects of work-related stress on work ability index among refinery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Dehghan, Habibollah; Safari, Shahram; Mahaki, Behzad; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress is one of the basic problems in industrial also top 10 work-related health problems and it is increasingly implicated in the development a number of problems such as cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal diseases, early retirement to employees. On the other hand, early retirement to employees from the workplace has increased on the problems of today's industries. Hereof, improving work ability is one of the most effective ways to enhance the ability and preventing disability and early retirement. The aim of This study is determine the relationship between job stress score and work ability index (WAI) at the refinery workers. This is a cross-sectional study in which 171 workers from a refinery in isfahan in 2012 who were working in different occupational groups participated. Based on appropriate assignment sampling, 33 office workers, 69 operational workers, and 69 maintenance workers, respectively, were invited to participate in this study. Two questionnaires including work related-stress and WAI were filled in. Finally, the information was analyzed using the SPSS-20 and statistic tests namely, analysis of covariance Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson correlation coefficient, ANOVA and t-test. Data analysis revealed that 86% and 14% of participants had moderate and severe stress respectively. Average score of stress and standard deviation was 158.7 ± 17.3 that was in extreme stress range. Average score and standard deviation of WAI questionnaire were 37.18 and 3.86 respectively. That placed in a good range. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that WAI score had significant reversed relationship with a score of stress. According to the results, mean stress score among refinery worker was high and one fator that affect work abiity was high stress, hence training on communication skills and safe working environment in order to decreses stress, enhance the work ability of workers.

  3. Irradiation effect on peroxidation index on Okara-based soybean flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, Ana Paula N.; Villavicêncio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Góes-Favoni, Silvana S.P.; Giannoni, Juliana A. [Faculdade Tecnológica de Alimentos (FATEC), Marília, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: ana.sa@ipen.br, E-mail: silvanafavoni@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Soya seasoned flour (SSF), also known as 'farofa', is an industrialized product, low cost, easy to make and can be enriched in order to provide a food with greater nutritional and functional value. In this regard, 'okara' (inert flavored mass obtained as a residue from the soybean extract), is a viable alternative for nutritional enrichment in relation to conventional maize and manioc tempered flours and ionizing radiation process increases its conservation. The present work aimed to use the SSF based 'okara', as a way to reuse a by-product of soybean processing and analyzing the possible effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 1 and 3 kGy, in the analysis of determination of lipid peroxidation. The preparation of SSF containing 'okara', dehydrated condiments and flavor uplifting was held at FATEC Marília. SSF samples were processed at Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), University of Piracicaba-SP, irradiated with doses of 1 and 3 KGy in {sup 60}Co source. The dose rate was 0.269/hs. Analyses were performed to determine the peroxide index of control samples and irradiated in triplicate in 1, 15, 30 and 45 storage days in accordance with methodology for oils and fats with modifications. Using this peroxides methodology, it was not possible to detect changes in oxidative quality in SSF samples, within 45 days of storage, with the parameter that the flour showed 29.92% of lipids. We conclude that this product with excellent nutritional attributes about the commercial flour, we must apply a different methodology to detect any radiation damage on lipid compounds. (author)

  4. Irradiation effect on peroxidation index on Okara-based soybean flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá, Ana Paula N.; Villavicêncio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Góes-Favoni, Silvana S.P.; Giannoni, Juliana A.; Arthur, Valter

    2017-01-01

    Soya seasoned flour (SSF), also known as 'farofa', is an industrialized product, low cost, easy to make and can be enriched in order to provide a food with greater nutritional and functional value. In this regard, 'okara' (inert flavored mass obtained as a residue from the soybean extract), is a viable alternative for nutritional enrichment in relation to conventional maize and manioc tempered flours and ionizing radiation process increases its conservation. The present work aimed to use the SSF based 'okara', as a way to reuse a by-product of soybean processing and analyzing the possible effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 1 and 3 kGy, in the analysis of determination of lipid peroxidation. The preparation of SSF containing 'okara', dehydrated condiments and flavor uplifting was held at FATEC Marília. SSF samples were processed at Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), University of Piracicaba-SP, irradiated with doses of 1 and 3 KGy in 60 Co source. The dose rate was 0.269/hs. Analyses were performed to determine the peroxide index of control samples and irradiated in triplicate in 1, 15, 30 and 45 storage days in accordance with methodology for oils and fats with modifications. Using this peroxides methodology, it was not possible to detect changes in oxidative quality in SSF samples, within 45 days of storage, with the parameter that the flour showed 29.92% of lipids. We conclude that this product with excellent nutritional attributes about the commercial flour, we must apply a different methodology to detect any radiation damage on lipid compounds. (author)

  5. Effect of maternal body mass index on hormones in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Andreas

    Full Text Available Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI is positively associated with infant obesity risk. Breast milk contains a number of hormones that may influence infant metabolism during the neonatal period; these may have additional downstream effects on infant appetite regulatory pathways, thereby influencing propensity towards obesity in later life.To conduct a systematic review of studies examining the association between maternal BMI and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones in breast milk.Pubmed was searched for studies reporting the association between maternal BMI and leptin, adiponectin, insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, Peptide YY and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in breast milk.Twenty six studies were identified and included in the systematic review. There was a high degree of variability between studies with regard to collection, preparation and analysis of breast milk samples. Eleven of fifteen studies reporting breast milk leptin found a positive association between maternal BMI and milk leptin concentration. Two of nine studies investigating adiponectin found an association between maternal BMI and breast milk adiponectin concentration; however significance was lost in one study following adjustment for time post-partum. No association was seen between maternal BMI and milk adiponectin in the other seven studies identified. Evidence for an association between other appetite regulating hormones and maternal BMI was either inconclusive, or lacking.A positive association between maternal BMI and breast milk leptin concentration is consistently found in most studies, despite variable methodology. Evidence for such an association with breast milk adiponectin concentration, however, is lacking with additional research needed for other hormones including insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1. As most current studies have been conducted with small sample sizes, future studies should ensure adequate sample

  6. Pulse wave velocity as a diagnostic index: The effect of wall thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Simona

    2018-06-01

    Vascular compliance is a major determinant of wave propagation within the vascular system, and hence the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) is commonly used clinically as a method of detecting vascular stiffening. The accuracy of that assessment is important because vascular stiffening is a major risk factor for hypertension. PWV is usually measured by timing a pressure wave as it travels from the carotid artery to the femoral or radial artery and estimating the distance that it traveled in each case to obtain the required velocity. A major assumption on which this technique is based is that the vessel wall thickness h is negligibly small compared with the vessel radius a . The extent to which this assumption is satisfied in the cardiovascular system is not known because the ratio h /a varies widely across different regions of the vascular tree and under different pathological conditions. Using the PWV as a diagnostic test without knowing the effect of wall thickness on the measurement could lead to error when interpreting the PWV value as an index of vessel wall compliance. The aim of the present study was to extend the validity of the current practice of assessing wall stiffness by developing a method of analysis that goes beyond the assumption of a thin wall. We analyzed PWVs calculated with different wall models, depending on the ratio of wall thickness to vessel radius and the results showed that PWV is not reliable when it is estimated with the classic thin wall theory if the vessel wall is not around 25% of vessel radius. If the arterial wall is thicker than 25% of vessel radius, then the wave velocity calculated with the thin wall theory could be overestimated and in the clinical setting, this could lead to a false positive. For thicker walls, a thick wall model presented here should be considered to account for the stresses within the wall thickness that become dominant compared with the wall inertia.

  7. Familial psychosocial risk classes and preschooler body mass index: The moderating effect of caregiver feeding style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Martoccio, Tiffany L; Contreras, Dawn; Peterson, Karen; Shattuck, Mackenzie; Senehi, Neda; Favreau, Zachary; Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2018-04-01

    Early child weight gain predicts adolescent and adult obesity, underscoring the need to determine early risk factors affecting weight status and how risk factors might be mitigated. Socioeconomic status, food insecurity, caregiver depressive symptomology, single parenthood, and dysfunctional parenting each have been linked to early childhood weight status. However, the associations between these risk factors and children's weight status may be moderated by caregiver feeding styles (CFS). Examining modifiable factors buffering risk could provide key information to guide early obesity intervention efforts. This analysis used baseline data from the Growing Healthy project that recruited caregivers/child dyads (N = 626) from Michigan Head Start programs. Caregivers were primarily non-Hispanic white (62%) and African American (30%). After using latent class analysis to identify classes of familial psychosocial risk, CFS was tested as a moderator of the association between familial psychosocial risk class and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Latent class analysis identified three familial psychosocial risk classes: (1) poor, food insecure and depressed families; (2) poor, single parent families; and (3) low risk families. Interactive effects for uninvolved feeding styles and risk group indicated that children in poor, food insecure, and depressed families had higher BMI z-scores compared to children in the low risk group. Authoritative feeding styles in low risk and poor, food insecure, and depressed families showed lower child BMI z-scores relative to poor, single parent families with authoritative feeding styles. Uninvolved feeding styles intensified the risk and an authoritative feeding style muted the risk conferred by living in a poor, food-insecure, and depressed family. Interventions that promote responsive feeding practices could help decrease the associations of familial psychosocial risks with early child weight outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Evaluating scintillators used in radiation detectors of medical imaging systems by the effective fidelity index method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Prassopoulos, P.; Kanellopoulos, E.; Nomicos, C.D.; Panayiotakis, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The performance of medical X-ray image receptors depends: (1) on the scintillator light emission efficiency; and (2) on the compatibility of the scintillator light spectrum with the spectral sensitivity of the light detector (film, photocathode, or photodiode), employed in conjunction with the scintillator. In this study, a scintillator performance measure, the effective fidelity index (EFI), is defined as function of both the scintillator light emission efficiency and spectral compatibility. Materials and Method: CsI:Na, Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb and La 2 O 2 S:Tb scintillators were employed in the form of phosphor screens prepared in our laboratory with various coating thicknesses. The screens were irradiated with X-rays employing tube voltages ranging between 50-120 kVp. Results: The EFI performance of CsI:Na was found to increase with screen coating thickness and it was best when combined with the orthochromatic film or the ES/20 photocathode. Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb showed peak EFI performance at 70 mg/cm 2 coating thickness and it was well combined with the light detectors considered. Conclusion: In accordance with our results, CsI:Na may be employed in radiography when adequately protected against humidity. Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb suitability for conventional imaging was verified and it was found that it may be useful in all types of digital imaging. La 2 O 2 S:Tb could also be used in digital detectors of imaging applications demanding medium X-ray tube voltages

  9. Effect of First Ray Insufficiency and Metatarsal Index on Metatarsalgia in Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slullitel, Gaston; López, Valeria; Calvi, Juan Pablo; Seletti, Maximiliano; Bartolucci, Carla; Pinton, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    Two concepts have been proposed to explain the etiology of metatarsalgia in hallux valgus patients: First, as the magnitude of hallux valgus increases, there is a mechanical overload of the lesser metatarsals. Second, increased relative lesser metatarsal length is a factor in the development of metatarsalgia. However, there is no current evidence that these structural factors lead to primary metatarsalgia. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the factors associated with metatarsalgia in hallux valgus patients. A cross-sectional study of 121 consecutive adult patients with non-arthritic hallux valgus was carried out. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the effect of the clinical and demographic factors on the occurrence of metatarsalgia. One hundred twenty-one patients (184 feet) with hallux valgus were analyzed. The median weight was 65 kg (interquartile range 58-72). Metatarsalgia was present in 84 (45.6%) feet. The binary logistic regression showed that lesser toe deformity (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.2-0.5), gastrocnemius shortening (OR 5.8, 95% CI 2.8-12.3), metatarsal index (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5), and weight (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.3) were significantly associated. Metatarsalgia occurs in almost half of hallux valgus patients. It has a multifactorial etiology. Our findings contradict the common theory that both the magnitude of hallux valgus deformity and an increased length of the lesser metatarsals, by themselves, lead to primary metatarsalgia. Metatarsalgia was associated with Achilles shortening, excessive weight, and associated lesser toe deformity. These factors should be addressed in order to treat this disorder adequately. Level III, comparative series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Effect of Gestational Weight Gain and Prepregnancy Body Mass Index in Adolescent Mothers on Weight and Body Mass Index of Adolescent Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Holland, Margaret L; Smith, Joyce A; Meng, Ying; Kitzman, Harriet

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association of the gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) of low-income adolescent mothers with the risk of their children being overweight and/or obese in late adolescence. Study subjects were low-income, primiparous adolescents (n = 360) who self-identified as black and participated in the New Mothers Study in Memphis, Tennessee, and their children. Gestational weight gain was examined as a continuous variable and also categorized into overgain, recommended gain, and undergain following the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. The effects of maternal prepregnancy BMI percentiles and calculated BMI were also considered. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used. The main outcome measures were offspring overweight, obesity, and BMI. Thirty-nine percent of offspring were overweight or obese. Higher maternal gestational weight gain increased the risk for offspring overweight and obesity. There was an interaction between gestational weight gain and prepregnancy BMI: offspring of mothers with a BMI percentile ≤76 were at greater risk of obesity with higher maternal weight gain. If mothers with a BMI percentile between the 29th and 83rd percentiles overgained, offspring were at greater risk for overweight. Using calculated BMIs, if a mother's BMI was ≤26 kg/m 2 , offspring risk for obesity was greater with higher gestational weight gain. High gestational weight gain had a larger effect on offspring overweight and obesity if maternal prepregnancy BMI percentile was ≤76. The gestational weight gain of primiparous adolescents who self-identified as black had an effect on offspring weight. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Fitness Qigong-Wuqinxi exercise on some physiological indexes of female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To know the reaction and adaption of human body after taking Fitness Qigong-Wuqinxi exercise and promote the popularity of Fitness Qigong-Wuqinxi exercise in universities,especially in female college students who do not major in sports,we observed their gas metabolism indexes and heart rates and contrast body shape and some physical quality indexes before and after the regular exercise for 16 weeks.The results showed that the indexes of waist,BMI,back force,grip force,and proneness when sitting improved obviously.Although height,weight,abdominal skinfold thickness,body fate percentage didn′t have significant change,the development trend is toward the direction of health.After exercise for 16 weeks,the three indexes of lung ventilation (VE、VO2、VCO2 showed wave shape.It is obvious that Fitness Qigong-Wuqinxi exercise can obviously improve the body shape,physical quality,and the function of heart and lung.Also,the wave feature of the indexes of lung ventilation can adjust the cardiopulmonary function,so Fitness Qigong-Wuqinxi exercise is a new safe and reliable fitness program.

  12. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap index procedure. Effects of solar wind sector structure and reverse polar convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauning, P.

    2015-01-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) has recently endorsed a new Polar Cap (PC) index version to supersede the previous seven different versions of the PCN (North) index and the five different PCS (South) index versions. However, the new PC index has some adverse features which should be known and taken into account by users of the index. It uses in its derivation procedure an ''effective'' quiet day level (QDC) composed of a ''basic'' QDC and an added solar wind sector term related to the azimuthal component (B y ) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The added IMF B y -related terms may introduce unjustified contributions to the PC index of more than 2 index units (mV m -1 ). Furthermore, cases of reverse convection during strong northward IMF B z (NBZ) conditions included in the database for calculation of index coefficients can cause unjustified index enhancements of 0.5-1 mV m -1 during calm conditions, reduction of index values by more than 20% during disturbed conditions, and inconsistencies between index coefficients and index values for the northern and southern polar caps. The aim here is to specify these adverse features and quantify their effects, and to suggest alternative steps for future modifications of the index procedure.

  13. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap index procedure. Effects of solar wind sector structure and reverse polar convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauning, P. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) has recently endorsed a new Polar Cap (PC) index version to supersede the previous seven different versions of the PCN (North) index and the five different PCS (South) index versions. However, the new PC index has some adverse features which should be known and taken into account by users of the index. It uses in its derivation procedure an ''effective'' quiet day level (QDC) composed of a ''basic'' QDC and an added solar wind sector term related to the azimuthal component (B{sub y}) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The added IMF B{sub y}-related terms may introduce unjustified contributions to the PC index of more than 2 index units (mV m{sup -1}). Furthermore, cases of reverse convection during strong northward IMF B{sub z} (NBZ) conditions included in the database for calculation of index coefficients can cause unjustified index enhancements of 0.5-1 mV m{sup -1} during calm conditions, reduction of index values by more than 20% during disturbed conditions, and inconsistencies between index coefficients and index values for the northern and southern polar caps. The aim here is to specify these adverse features and quantify their effects, and to suggest alternative steps for future modifications of the index procedure.

  14. Compete, coordinate, and cooperate: How to exploit uncertain environments with social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christin; Newell, Ben R

    2015-10-01

    Countless decisions, from the trivial to the crucial, are made in complex social contexts while facing uncertain consequences. Yet a large portion of decision making research focuses on either the effects of social interaction or the effects of environmental uncertainty by examining strategic games against others or individual games against nature. Drawing a connection between these approaches, the authors extend a standard individual choice paradigm to include social interaction with 1 other person. In this paradigm, 2 competing decision makers repeatedly select among 2 options, each offering a particular probability of a fixed payoff. When both players choose the same, correct option, the payoff is evenly split; when they choose different options, the player choosing the correct option receives the full payoff. The addition of this social dimension gives players an opportunity to fully exploit an uncertain environment via cooperation: By consistently choosing opposite options, two players can exploit the uncertain environment more effectively than a single player could. We present 2 experiments that manipulate environmental (Experiment 1) and social (Experiment 2) aspects of the paradigm. In Experiment 1, the outcome probabilities were either known or unknown to participants; in Experiment 2, participants' attention was drawn to individual or group gains by introducing either within- or between-group competition. Efficient cooperation did not emerge spontaneously in Experiment 1. Instead, most people probability maximized, mirroring the behavior observed in individual choice. By contrast, between--group competition in Experiment 2 facilitated efficient-but not always equitable--exploitation of uncertain environments. This work links the concepts of individual risky choice and strategic decision making under both environmental and social uncertainty. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Multiple point statistical simulation using uncertain (soft) conditional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Vu, Le Thanh; Mosegaard, Klaus; Cordua, Knud Skou

    2018-05-01

    Geostatistical simulation methods have been used to quantify spatial variability of reservoir models since the 80s. In the last two decades, state of the art simulation methods have changed from being based on covariance-based 2-point statistics to multiple-point statistics (MPS), that allow simulation of more realistic Earth-structures. In addition, increasing amounts of geo-information (geophysical, geological, etc.) from multiple sources are being collected. This pose the problem of integration of these different sources of information, such that decisions related to reservoir models can be taken on an as informed base as possible. In principle, though difficult in practice, this can be achieved using computationally expensive Monte Carlo methods. Here we investigate the use of sequential simulation based MPS simulation methods conditional to uncertain (soft) data, as a computational efficient alternative. First, it is demonstrated that current implementations of sequential simulation based on MPS (e.g. SNESIM, ENESIM and Direct Sampling) do not account properly for uncertain conditional information, due to a combination of using only co-located information, and a random simulation path. Then, we suggest two approaches that better account for the available uncertain information. The first make use of a preferential simulation path, where more informed model parameters are visited preferentially to less informed ones. The second approach involves using non co-located uncertain information. For different types of available data, these approaches are demonstrated to produce simulation results similar to those obtained by the general Monte Carlo based approach. These methods allow MPS simulation to condition properly to uncertain (soft) data, and hence provides a computationally attractive approach for integration of information about a reservoir model.

  16. Effect of surface roughness variation on the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers with ambient index change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, Oh-Jang; Han, Young-Geun

    2010-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness on the sensitivity of D-shaped fibers to changes in the ambient index was investigated. In order to obtain D-shaped fibers with different surface roughness, we polished one side of the fibers by using different abrasive grits. The topographies of the surfaces of the polished D-shaped fibers were then observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The light scattered from the rough surfaces of the D-shaped fibers was measured by using optical microscopy. The effect of an ambient index change on the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers was measured for various values of the surface roughness. The experimental results indicate that variations in the surface roughness have a considerable influence on the sensitivity of the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers to changes in the ambient index.

  17. Slow light effect with high group index and wideband by saddle-like mode in PC-CROW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Jiang, Li-Jun; Xu, Sheng; Li, Meng-Xue; Liu, Meng-Nan; Jiang, Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Slow light with high group index and wideband is achieved in photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides (PC-CROWs). According to the eye-shaped scatterers and various microcavities, saddle-like curves between the normalized frequency f and wave number k can be obtained by adjusting the parameters of the scatterers, parameters of the coupling microcavities, and positions of the scatterers. Slow light with decent flat band and group index can then be achieved by optimizing the parameters. Simulations prove that the maximal value of the group index is > 104, and the normalized delay bandwidth product within a new varying range of n g > 102 or n g > 103 can be a new and effective criterion of evaluation for the slow light in PC-CROWs.

  18. The Effect Of PHA And SEA On Mitotic Index Of Lymphocyte Cell Of Macaca Fasciulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Masnelli; Iwiq-Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The observation of influences of PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and SEA (staphilucoccal enterotoxin A) on mitotic index of lymphocyte of Macaca Fascicularis had been done. Half milliliters of lymphocyte cells stimulated with PHA or SEA were cultured in 10 ml RPMI + 1.0 ml Fetal Bouvine Serum (FBS ) + 0.1 ml L-glutamine + 0.15 ml PHA or 0.1 ml SEA ( 0.5 μg/ml ) + 0.1 ml Colchisin on 37 degree C for 96 hours. The result demonstrated that the frequency of mitotic index stimulated with PHA was higher than that of SEA. The average of mitotic index with PHA was 18.56 %, and with SEA was 8.3 %. (author)

  19. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Yellowness Index (Y I) and Mechanical Properties in Plastic Food Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanhindarto, Rindy P.; I, Dian

    2002-01-01

    An experiment has been done for measuring the yellowness index (Yi) and mechanical properties at food packaging material was caused by gamma irradiation. The samples were obtained from the manufacture. There were three of samples with types of poly acrylonitrile copolymer, PVdC laminated biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly vinyl chloride films. Samples were irradiated at ambient temperature by gamma rays with the doses of 0 up to 100 kGy. Yellowness Index (Yi) of sample was carried out by using chromameter Hunter Lab system. while mechanical properties measuring by stragraph. The purpose of the present experiment was the yellowness index (Yi) and mechanical properties of food packaging material after and before the irradiation. The effects of I year storage on irradiated and unirradiated samples were also investigated. The results showed that best of three samples of plastic food packaging was poly acrylonitrile copolymer film because the Yellowness Index (Yi) and mechanical properties of poly acrylonitrile copolymer did not give any measurable change on the plastic treated by irradiation up to 100 kGy. Storage for 1 year gave some measurable changes of e Yellowness Index (Yi) and mechanical properties on all the samples examined

  20. Structure Identification of Uncertain Complex Networks Based on Anticipatory Projective Synchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Heng

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a method to identify uncertain system parameters and unknown topological structure in general complex networks with or without time delay. A complex network, which has uncertain topology and unknown parameters, is designed as a drive network, and a known response complex network with an input controller is designed to identify the drive network. Under the proposed input controller, the drive network and the response network can achieve anticipatory projective synchronization when the system is steady. Lyapunov theorem and Barbǎlat's lemma guarantee the stability of synchronization manifold between two networks. When the synchronization is achieved, the system parameters and topology in response network can be changed to equal with the parameters and topology in drive network. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Role of diagnostic laparoscopy in chronic abdominal conditions with uncertain diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep S Nar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laparoscopy has proved to be an important tool in the minimally invasive exploration of selected patients with chronic abdominal disorders, whose diagnosis remains uncertain, despite exploring the requisite laboratory and imaging investigations like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT scan, and the like. Materials and Methods: Diagnostic Laparoscopy was conducted on 120 patients, admitted to the Departments of Surgery and Gynecology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, with an uncertain diagnosis after four weeks of onset of symptoms. Conclusion: With laparoscopy providing tissue diagnosis, and helping to achieve the final diagnosis without any significant complication and less operative time, it can be safely concluded that diagnostic laparoscopy is a safe, quick, and effective adjunct to non-surgical diagnostic modalities, for establishing a conclusive diagnosis, but whether it will replace imaging studies as a primary modality for diagnosis needs more evidence.

  2. A Robust Service Selection Method Based on Uncertain QoS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of Web services on the Internet is quickly increasing. Meanwhile, different service providers offer numerous services with the similar functions. Quality of Service (QoS has become an important factor used to select the most appropriate service for users. The most prominent QoS-based service selection models only take the certain attributes into account, which is an ideal assumption. In the real world, there are a large number of uncertain factors. In particular, at the runtime, QoS may become very poor or unacceptable. In order to solve the problem, a global service selection model based on uncertain QoS was proposed, including the corresponding normalization and aggregation functions, and then a robust optimization model adopted to transform the model. Experiment results show that the proposed method can effectively select services with high robustness and optimality.

  3. Parameter Identification and Synchronization of Uncertain Chaotic Systems Based on Sliding Mode Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-lian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization of nonlinear uncertain chaotic systems is investigated. We propose a sliding mode state observer scheme which combines the sliding mode control with observer theory and apply it into the uncertain chaotic system with unknown parameters and bounded interference. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the constraints of synchronization and proof are given. This method not only can realize the synchronization of chaotic systems, but also identify the unknown parameters and obtain the correct parameter estimation. Otherwise, the synchronization of chaotic systems with unknown parameters and bounded external disturbances is robust by the design of the sliding surface. Finally, numerical simulations on Liu chaotic system with unknown parameters and disturbances are carried out. Simulation results show that this synchronization and parameter identification has been totally achieved and the effectiveness is verified very well.

  4. Location Model for Distribution Centers for Fulfilling Electronic Orders of Fresh Foods under Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of locating distribution centers for delivering fresh food as a part of electronic commerce is a strategic decision problem for enterprises. This paper establishes a model for locating distribution centers that considers the uncertainty of customer demands for fresh goods in terms of time-sensitiveness and freshness. Based on the methodology of robust optimization in dealing with uncertain problems, this paper optimizes the location model in discrete demand probabilistic scenarios. In this paper, an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the distribution center location problem. An example is given to show that the proposed model and algorithm are robust and can effectively handle the complications caused by uncertain demand. The model proposed in this paper proves valuable both theoretically and practically in the selection of locations of distribution centers.

  5. Chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control strategy for uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, H.-T.; Chen, C.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control (FSMC) strategy for uncertain chaotic systems. A fuzzy logic control is used to replace the discontinuous sign function of the reaching law in traditional sliding-mode control (SMC), and hence a control input without chattering is obtained in the chaotic systems with uncertainties. Base on the Lyapunov stability theory, we address the design schemes of integration fuzzy sliding-mode control, where the reaching law is proposed by a set of linguistic rules and the control input is chattering free. The Genesio chaotic system is used to test the proposed control strategy and the simulation results show the FSMC not only can control the uncertain chaotic behaviors to a desired state without oscillator very fast, but also the switching function is smooth without chattering. This result implies that this strategy is feasible and effective for chaos control

  6. An Integrated Multiechelon Logistics Model with Uncertain Delivery Lead Time and Quality Unreliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Feng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order to achieve advantages in supply chain management, how to keep inventory in adequate level and how to enhance customer service level are two critical practices for decision makers. Generally, uncertain lead time and defective products have much to do with inventory and service level. Therefore, this study mainly aims at developing a multiechelon integrated just-in-time inventory model with uncertain lead time and imperfect quality to enhance the benefits of the logistics model. In addition, the Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA is established to determine the optimal solutions. Moreover, based on our proposed model and analysis, the ACA is more efficient than Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Lingo in SMEIJI model. An example is provided in this study to illustrate how production run and defective rate have an effect on system costs. Finally, the results of our research could provide some managerial insights which support decision makers in real-world operations.

  7. Design of Robust AMB Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Varying and Uncertain Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and simulation results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjectedto uncertain and changing dynamic seal forces. Specifically, a turbocharger with a hole-pattern seal mounted acrossthe balance piston is considered. The dynamic forces of the seal, which...... are dependent on the operational conditions,have a significant effect on the overall system dynamics. Furthermore, these forces are considered uncertain.The nominal and the uncertainty representation of the seal model are established using results from conventionalmodelling approaches, i.e. CFD and Bulkflow......, and experimental results. Three controllers are synthesized: I) AnH∞ controller based on nominal plant representation, II) A µ controller, designed to be robust against uncertaintiesin the dynamic seal model and III) a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) controller, designed to provide a unifiedperformance over a large...

  8. Effects of Playing a Serious Computer Game on Body Mass Index and Nutrition Knowledge in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyko, Mariya; Hallinan, Sean; Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Subramanian, Shree; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2016-06-02

    Obesity and weight gain is a critical public health concern. Serious digital games are gaining popularity in the context of health interventions. They use persuasive and fun design features to engage users in health-related behaviors in a non-game context. As a young field, research about effectiveness and acceptability of such games for weight loss is sparse. The goal of this study was to evaluate real-world play patterns of SpaPlay and its impact on body mass index (BMI) and nutritional knowledge. SpaPlay is a computer game designed to help women adopt healthier dietary and exercise behaviors, developed based on Self-Determination theory and the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) model. Progress in the game is tied to real-life activities (e.g., eating a healthy snack, taking a flight of stairs). We recruited 47 women to partake in a within-subject 90-day longitudinal study, with assessments taken at baseline, 1-, 2-, and 3- months. Women were on average, 29.8 years old (±7.3), highly educated (80.9% had BA or higher), 39% non-White, baseline BMI 26.98 (±5.6), who reported at least contemplating making changes in their diet and exercise routine based on the Stages of Change Model. We computed 9 indices from game utilization data to evaluate game play. We used general linear models to examine inter-individual differences between levels of play, and multilevel models to assess temporal changes in BMI and nutritional knowledge. Patterns of game play were mixed. Participants who reported being in the preparation or action stages of behavior change exhibited more days of play and more play regularity compared to those who were in the contemplation stage. Additionally, women who reported playing video games 1-2 hours per session demonstrated more sparse game play. Brief activities, such as one-time actions related to physical activity or healthy food, were preferred over activities that require a longer commitment (e.g., taking stairs every day for a week

  9. Synergistic effect of age and body mass index on mortality and morbidity in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanquez, Federico J; Clements, John M; Grauf, Dawn; Merchant, Aziz M

    2013-09-01

    The elderly population (aged 65 y and older) is expected to be the dominant age group in the United States by 2030. In addition, the prevalence of obesity in the United States is growing exponentially. Obese elderly patients are increasingly undergoing elective or emergent general surgery. There are few, if any, studies highlighting the combined effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on surgical outcomes. We hypothesize that increasing age and BMI synergistically impact morbidity and mortality in general surgery. We collected individual-level, de-identified patient data from the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative. Subjects underwent general surgery with general anesthetic, were >18 y, and had a BMI between 19 and 60. Primary and secondary outcomes were 30-d "Any morbidity" and mortality (from wound, respiratory, genitourinary, central nervous system, and cardiac systems), respectively. Preoperative risk variables included diabetes, dialysis, steroid use, cardiac risk, wound classification, American Society of Anesthesiology class, emergent cases, and 13 other variables. We conducted binary logistic regression models for 30-d morbidity and mortality to determine independent effects of age, BMI, interaction between both age and BMI, and a saturated model for all independent variables. We identified 149,853 patients. The average age was 54.6 y, and the average BMI was 30.9. Overall 30-d mortality was 2%, and morbidity was 6.7%. Age was a positive predictor for mortality and morbidity, and BMI was negatively associated with mortality and not significantly associated with morbidity. Age combined with higher BMI was positively associated with morbidity and mortality when the higher age groups were analyzed. Saturated models revealed age and American Society of Anesthesiology class as highest predictors of poor outcomes. Although BMI itself was not a major independent factor predicting 30-d major morbidity or mortality, the morbidly obese, elderly (>50 and 70 y

  10. Evaluation of the effects of diuron and its derivatives on Lemna gibba using a fluorescence toxicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, David; Marchand, Mathieu; Eullaffroy, Philippe; Popovic, Radovan

    2002-10-01

    The herbicide diuron (DCMU) [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is largely used in agricultural practices which contribute to water pollution in large areas. Its degradation induced by light or microbial activity is known to be a slow process, and may result in the accumulation of DCMU derivatives in the environment. In this report we used the yield of PSII variable fluorescence of Lemna gibba affected by the DCMU derivatives DCPMU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea], DCPU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea], and DCA [3,4-dichloroaniline] to calculate the fluorescence toxicity index. We found the fluorescence toxicity index to be a useful parameter to evaluate the inhibitory effect on PSII electron transport in L. gibba exposed to DCMU and its derivatives. The variations observed for the inhibitory effect between DCMU and its derivatives seem to be caused by the modification of the dimethylurea group within the DCMU molecule. The fluorescence toxicity index demonstrated a strong quantitative dependency between the inhibitory effect of PSII electron transport and pollutant concentrations. We propose the fluorescence toxicity index to be a useful tool for future bioassays in evaluating the quality of water polluted with herbicides that induce an inhibition to PSII photochemistry. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. New index based on the physical separation of motion into three categories for characterizing the effect of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hiroto; Nakatomi, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Chihiro; Fukui, Kenji; Hanai, Kazumitsu

    2013-09-21

    Characterization of open-field behavior and locomotor activity is widely used to assess the influence of a drug on mouse or rat behavior. In this study, we developed an index for characterizing the behavior of cocaine-administered mice (C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c). Because a three-exponential-model exhibited the best fit to the obtained data among the different probability density functions, we divided each walking episode into three categories according to the duration of movement. We found a significant difference in decay variation of mean speed with time in the case of long walking duration. To clarify this difference quantitatively, we developed an index for the changes in locomotion control, based on a heuristic argument regarding the ratio of the coefficients of the drag term obtained by the biphasic motion-equation model. The index had a significant dose-related effect in each strain and a significant strain effect in high-concentration drug. Therefore, it would thus be useful for examining the effect of the drug on locomotor activity in mice. Moreover, evaluating other characters suggested previously, the proposed index had good advantage to differentiate the dose-related response in the three species of inbred mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of uncertain threat on affective bias: Individual differences in response to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Maital; Cantelon, Julie; Haga, Zachary; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Davis, F Caroline

    2017-12-01

    Individuals who operate under highly stressful conditions (e.g., military personnel and first responders) are often faced with the challenge of quickly interpreting ambiguous information in uncertain and threatening environments. When faced with ambiguity, it is likely adaptive to view potentially dangerous stimuli as threatening until contextual information proves otherwise. One laboratory-based paradigm that can be used to simulate uncertain threat is known as threat of shock (TOS), in which participants are told that they might receive mild but unpredictable electric shocks while performing an unrelated task. The uncertainty associated with this potential threat induces a state of emotional arousal that is not overwhelmingly stressful, but has widespread-both adaptive and maladaptive-effects on cognitive and affective function. For example, TOS is thought to enhance aversive processing and abolish positivity bias. Importantly, in certain situations (e.g., when walking home alone at night), this anxiety can promote an adaptive state of heightened vigilance and defense mobilization. In the present study, we used TOS to examine the effects of uncertain threat on valence bias, or the tendency to interpret ambiguous social cues as positive or negative. As predicted, we found that heightened emotional arousal elicited by TOS was associated with an increased tendency to interpret ambiguous cues negatively. Such negative interpretations are likely adaptive in situations in which threat detection is critical for survival and should override an individual's tendency to interpret ambiguity positively in safe contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Boosting the FM-Index on the GPU: Effective Techniques to Mitigate Random Memory Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Alejandro; Marco-Sola, Santiago; Espinosa, Antonio; Ribeca, Paolo; Moure, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The recent advent of high-throughput sequencing machines producing big amounts of short reads has boosted the interest in efficient string searching techniques. As of today, many mainstream sequence alignment software tools rely on a special data structure, called the FM-index, which allows for fast exact searches in large genomic references. However, such searches translate into a pseudo-random memory access pattern, thus making memory access the limiting factor of all computation-efficient implementations, both on CPUs and GPUs. Here, we show that several strategies can be put in place to remove the memory bottleneck on the GPU: more compact indexes can be implemented by having more threads work cooperatively on larger memory blocks, and a k-step FM-index can be used to further reduce the number of memory accesses. The combination of those and other optimisations yields an implementation that is able to process about two Gbases of queries per second on our test platform, being about 8 × faster than a comparable multi-core CPU version, and about 3 × to 5 × faster than the FM-index implementation on the GPU provided by the recently announced Nvidia NVBIO bioinformatics library.

  14. Variability of the autoregulation index decreases after removing the effect of the very low frequency band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, J. W.; Maurits, N. M.; Aries, M. J. H.

    Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) estimates show large between and within subject variability. Sources of variability include low coherence and influence of CO2 in the very low frequency (VLF) band, where dCA is active. This may lead to unreliable transfer function and autoregulation index (ARI)

  15. Determining the interviewer effect on CQ Index outcomes: A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.M. Winters-van der Meer (Sjenny); M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); R.B. Kool; R. Huijsman (Robbert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The CQ Index for the elderly, a quality-of-care questionnaire administered by conducting interviews, is used to assess clients' experiences in Dutch nursing homes and homes for the elderly. This article describes whether inter-interviewer differences influence the perceived

  16. Determining the interviewer effect on CQ Index outcomes: a multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Sjenny; Strating, Mathilde H.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Kool, Rudolf B.; Huijsman, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The CQ Index for the elderly, a quality-of-care questionnaire administered by conducting interviews, is used to assess clients' experiences in Dutch nursing homes and homes for the elderly. This article describes whether inter-interviewer differences influence the perceived

  17. Effect of scintillometer height on structure parameter of the refractive index of air measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintillometers measure amount of scintillations by emitting a beam of light over a horizontal path and expresses as the atmospheric turbulence structure parameter as the refractive index of air (Cn**2). Cn**2 represents the turbulent strength of the atmosphere and describes the ability of the atmos...

  18. Effect of sample moisture content on XRD-estimated cellulose crystallinity index and crystallite size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Carlos Baez; Richard S. Reiner; Steve P. Verrill

    2017-01-01

    Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been the most widely used technique to investigate crystallinity index (CrI) and crystallite size (L200) of cellulose materials, there are not many studies that have taken into account the role of sample moisture on these measurements. The present investigation focuses on a variety of celluloses and cellulose...

  19. The Spectral Index and Beaming Effect for Radio Sources J. Pan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Pan & J. H. Fan. ∗. Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. ∗ e-mail: jhfan_cn@yahoo.com.cn. Abstract. In this paper, we revisited the relationship between the spec- tral index and the core-dominance parameter using a larger sample of blazars. Conclusively, we explain that the ...

  20. Habitat-effectiveness index for elk on Blue Mountain Winter Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Donavin A. Leckenby; Mark Henjum; Richard J. Pedersen; Larry D. Bryant

    1988-01-01

    An elk-habitat evaluation procedure for winter ranges in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington is described. The index is based on an interaction of size and spacing of cover and forage areas, roads open to traffic per unit of area, cover quality, and quantity and quality of forage.

  1. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on C-reatine reactive protein and Index of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamina

    Subjects in the interval group involved in interval training (60-79% maximum heart ... of exercise training on C-reactive protein, erectile function index, SBP, DBP ... patients with cardiac disease have shown a high .... low intensity of between 35-59% of their HR max .... Aging and Body Composition Study (Health ABC) (40),.

  2. Effect of DEM resolution and comparison between different weighting factors for hydrologic connectivity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantreul, Vincent; Cavalli, Marco; Degré, Aurore

    2016-04-01

    The emerging concept of hydrological connectivity is difficult to quantify. Some indices have been proposed. The most cited is Borselli's one. It mainly uses the DEM as input. The pixel size may strongly impacts the result of the calculation. It has not been studied yet in silty areas. Another important aspect is the choice of the weighting factor which strongly influences the index value. The objective of this poster is so to compare 8 different DEM's resolutions (12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 204, 504 and 996cm) and 3 different weighting factors (factor C of Wischmeier, Manning's factor and rugosity index) in the Borselli's index calculation. The IC was calculated in a 124ha catchment (Hevillers), in the loess belt, in Belgium. The DEM used is coming from a UAV with a maximum resolution of 12 cm. Permanent covered surfaces are not considered in order to avoid artefact due to the vegetation (2% of the surface). Regarding the DEM pixel size, the IC increases for a given pixel when the pixel size decreases. That confirms some results observed in the Alpine region by Cavalli (2014). The mean difference between 12 cm and 10 m resolution is 35% with higher values up to 100% for higher connectivity zones (flow paths). Another result is the lower impact of connections in the watershed (grass strips…) at lower pixel sizes. This is linked to the small width of some connections which are sometimes comparing to cell size. Furthermore, a great loss of precision is observed from the 500 cm pixel size and upper. That remark is quite intuitive. Finally, some very well disconnected zones appear for the highest resolutions. Regarding the weighting factor, IC values calculated using C factor are lower than with the rugosity index which is only a topographic factor. With very high resolution DEM, it permits to represent the fine topography. For the C factor, the zones up to very well disconnected areas (grass strips, wood…) are well represented with lower index values than downstream

  3. Effect of foamability index of short chain alkyl amines on flotation of quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerkowska Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amines can be used for flotation of various minerals, especially quartz. The flotation efficiency of quartz depends on the amine type and dose. It was proved that the shorter alkyl amine, higher amine concentration has to be used to recover quartz at the same level. In flotation amines play a role of both collectors and frothers. The ability of a amine to collect particles can be expressed in the form of contact angle, while the foaming properties by different parameters including dynamic foamability index (DFI and critical coalescence concentration (CCC. Determination of DFI and CCC requires advanced techniques and methods. Therefore, in this paper a rapid and facile method for determination of foaming properties of amines and also other surfactants was used. It was based on measuring the initial foam and froth heights in a conventional flotation machine at different concentrations of surfactants. The foam height-concentration curve was described by utilizing an empirical equation which was based on one-adjustable parameter called the foamability index (FI. In this work the foamability index was determined for butylamine (ButNH2, hexylamine (HexNH2 and octylamine (OctNH2 as examples of short chain alkyl amines. The determined foamability indices were 92, 12 and 4 mg/dm3 for ButNH2, HexNH2 and OctNH2, respectively. It was shown that when the flotation results of quartz were presented in the form of recovery versus normalized amine concentration in relation to the foamability index (c/FI, all the experimental data points converged to one curve. It indicates that amines act similarly but at different concentrations expressed as FI. The foamability index seems to be a useful parameter for characterizing any flotation frother.

  4. Effect of body mass index on functional outcomes following arthroplasty procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gokhan; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Sayar, Safak; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Erdil, Mehmet; Tuncay, Ibrahim

    2015-12-18

    To evaluate the body mass index (BMI) change in arthroplasty patients and its impact on the patients' functional results. Between October 2010 and May 2013, 606 patients who were operated due to gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis, aseptic loosening of the total knee and hip prosthesis were evaluated prospectively. Patients were operated by three surgeons in three medical centers. Patients who were between 30-90 years of age and who were underwent total knee arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, revision knee arthroplasty, or revision hip arthroplasty were included in the study. We excluded the patients who cannot tolerate our standard postoperative rehabilitation program. Additionally, patients who had systemic inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, or endochrinopathies were excluded from the study. The remaining 513 patients comprised our study group. Preoperative functional joint scores, height, weight and BMI of all patients were recorded. We used the Knee Society Score (KSS) for knee and Harris Hip Score (HHS) for hip patients. Postoperative functional scores were measured at 1(st), 6(th) and 12(th) months and recorded separately at outpatient visits. The mean age of the patients was 64.7 (range: 30-90) years (207 males/306 females) and the mean follow-up duration was 14.3 (range: 12-26) mo. We found that arthroplasty patients had weight gain and had an increase in BMI at the postoperative 1(st), 6(th) and 12(th) months. The mean BMI of the patients was 27.7 preoperatively, 27.8 at the postoperative 1(st) month, 28.1 at the 6(th) month and 28.6 at the 12(th) month (P < 0.01). At the last visit, the mean postoperative HHS of the hip arthroplasty patients was 82.2 ± 7.12 (preoperatively, 52.3; 1(st) month, 78.2; 6(th) month, 81.1; 12(th) month, 82.2), and the mean KSS of the knee arthroplasty patients was 79.3 ± 4.31 (preoperatively, 35.8; 1(st) month, 75.2; 6(th) month, 79.1; 12(th) month, 79.3). Worse functional results were noted in the patients who had a BMI

  5. Effect of rocuronium on the bispectral index under anesthesia and tracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hui; Han, Jinyu; Liu, Ling; Wang, Kaiyuan; Li, Jincheng

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various doses of rocuronium on bispectral index (BIS) responses to propofol induction and tracheal intubation, as well as the role of the non-depolarization muscle relaxant rocuronium on the depth of sedation. A total of 72 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II) were anaesthetized with propofol using a target-controlled infusion, and randomly divided into two sedation level groups (n=36). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the BIS value: A normal sedation group (group 1), with a stable BIS value at 40-60, and a deep sedation group (group 2), with a BIS value rocuronium (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg). Tracheal intubation was performed after 2 min of rocuronium administration. BIS, electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously and averaged over 1 min during baseline (T1), steady state (T2), 2 min after rocuronium infusion (T3), and 0, 2 and 5 min after tracheal intubation. The results demonstrated that HR and MAP decreased significantly at T2 and T3 compared with T1. Following tracheal intubation (L0), HR and MAP significantly increased compared with T2 and T3, and returned to levels similar to those prior to intubation after 5 min. In group 1C and 1D, BIS was significantly decreased at T3 compared with T2; BIS was significantly increased at L0 compared with T3 in group 1A and 1B. EMG at earlier stages of anesthesia was significantly higher compared with other points, and was significantly increased at L0 compared with T3 in group 1A and 1B. These results demonstrated that BIS response may be associated with the dosage of rocuronium in the normal sedation group, although no association was observed with the deep sedation group. Tracheal intubation resulted in marked hemodynamic changes under both normal and deep sedation.

  6. Effects of Phenytoin Therapy on Bispectral Index and Haemodynamic Changes Following Induction and Tracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod P Bithal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (LTI increase blood pressure and heart rate (HR. Intensity of these changes is influenced by the anaesthetic depth assessed by the bispectral index (BIS. We determined the effect of phenytoin on anaesthetic depth and its influence on haemodynamics following LTI. Fifty patients of ASA grades I and II on oral phenytoin 200 to 300mg per day for more than one week were compared with 48 control patients. Standard anaesthesia technique was followed. BIS, non invasive mean blood pressure (MBP and HR were recorded 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI. Phenytoin group needed lesser thiopentone for induction, 5 mg (1.1 vs. 4.3 mg (0.7 [p=0.036]. BIS was significantly lower in the phenytoin group vs. the control 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [43.1 (16.0 vs. 48.9 (14.9, p=0.068, 56.3 (16.7 vs. 64.3 (14.4, p=0.013, 59.8 (15.8 vs. 67.5 (12.1, p=0.008, 62.6 (14 vs. 68.9 (11.2, p=0.017, and 64.2 (11.3 vs. 69 (11.7, p=0.033], respectively. MBP was also lower in the phenytoin group 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [112.8 mmHg (13.8, vs. 117.9 mmHg (18 p=0.013, 108.6 (12.8 vs. 117.5 (16 p=0.003, 106.1 mmHg (14.1 vs. 113.2 mmHg (14.9, p=0.017, 101.8 mmHg (13.8 vs. 109.5 mmHg (14.1, p=0.007], respectively. HR was lower in phenytoin group at 30 sec. (p=0.027, 60 sec (p=0.219, and again at 120 sec (p=0.022. Oral phenytoin therapy for over a week results in greater anaesthetic depth as observed using BIS, which also attenuated haemodynamic response of LTI.

  7. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.

  8. Adaptive control of a quadrotor aerial vehicle with input constraints and uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trong-Toan; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Wei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive bounded control for the trajectory tracking of a Quadrotor Aerial Vehicle (QAV) while the input saturations and uncertain parameters with the known bounds are simultaneously taken into account. First, to deal with the underactuated property of the QAV model, we decouple and construct the QAV model as a cascaded structure which consists of two fully actuated subsystems. Second, to handle the input constraints and uncertain parameters, we use a combination of the smooth saturation function and smooth projection operator in the control design. Third, to ensure the stability of the overall system of the QAV, we develop the technique for the cascaded system in the presence of both the input constraints and uncertain parameters. Finally, the region of stability of the closed-loop system is constructed explicitly, and our design ensures the asymptotic convergence of the tracking errors to the origin. The simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Formation Learning Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles With Heterogeneous Nonlinear Uncertain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Licht, Stephen; He, Haibo

    2017-09-26

    In this paper, a new concept of formation learning control is introduced to the field of formation control of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which specifies a joint objective of distributed formation tracking control and learning/identification of nonlinear uncertain AUV dynamics. A novel two-layer distributed formation learning control scheme is proposed, which consists of an upper-layer distributed adaptive observer and a lower-layer decentralized deterministic learning controller. This new formation learning control scheme advances existing techniques in three important ways: 1) the multi-AUV system under consideration has heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics; 2) the formation learning control protocol can be designed and implemented by each local AUV agent in a fully distributed fashion without using any global information; and 3) in addition to the formation control performance, the distributed control protocol is also capable of accurately identifying the AUVs' heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics and utilizing experiences to improve formation control performance. Extensive simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  10. IP Controller Design for Uncertain Two-Mass Torsional System Using Time-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrial production, drive systems are demanded for larger inertias of motors and load machines, whereas shafts should be lightweight. In this situation, it will excite mechanical vibrations in load side, which is harmful for industrial production when the motor works. Because of the complexity of the flexible shaft, it is often difficult to calculate stiffness coefficient of the flexible shaft. Furthermore, only the velocity of driving side could be measured, whereas the driving torque, the load torque, and the velocity of load side are immeasurable. Therefore, it is inconvenient to design the controller for the uncertain system. In this paper, a low-order IP controller is designed for an uncertain two-mass torsional system based on polynomial method and time-frequency analysis (TFA. IP controller parameters are calculated by inertias of driving side and load side as well as the resonant frequency based on polynomial method. Therein, the resonant frequency is identified using the time-frequency analysis (TFA of the velocity step response of the driving side under the open-loop system state, which can not only avoid harmful persistent start-stop excitation signal of the traditional method, but also obtain high recognition accuracy under the condition of weak vibration signal submerged in noise. The effectiveness of the designed IP controller is verified by groups of experiments. Experimental results show that good performance for vibration suppression is obtained for uncertain two-mass torsional system in a medium-low shaft stiffness condition.

  11. Energy trading and pricing in microgrids with uncertain energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Shubing; Yang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profi....... In particular, the uncertainty of the energy supply from the energy provider is considered. Simulation results show that the energy provider can obtain more profit using the proposed decision-making scheme.......This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profit...

  12. Robust Optimization for Household Load Scheduling with Uncertain Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Home energy management systems (HEMS face many challenges of uncertainty, which have a great impact on the scheduling of home appliances. To handle the uncertain parameters in the household load scheduling problem, this paper uses a robust optimization method to rebuild the household load scheduling model for home energy management. The model proposed in this paper can provide the complete robust schedules for customers while considering the disturbance of uncertain parameters. The complete robust schedules can not only guarantee the customers’ comfort constraints but also cooperatively schedule the electric devices for cost minimization and load shifting. Moreover, it is available for customers to obtain multiple schedules through setting different robust levels while considering the trade-off between the comfort and economy.

  13. Robust output synchronization of heterogeneous nonlinear agents in uncertain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Wan, Fuhua; Tu, Mengchuan; Shen, Guojiang

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the global robust output synchronization problem for a class of nonlinear multi-agent systems. In the considered setup, the controlled agents are heterogeneous and with both dynamic and parametric uncertainties, the controllers are incapable of exchanging their internal states with the neighbors, and the communication network among agents is defined by an uncertain simple digraph. The problem is pursued via nonlinear output regulation theory and internal model based design. For each agent, the input-driven filter and the internal model compose the controller, and the decentralized dynamic output feedback control law is derived by using backstepping method and the modified dynamic high-gain technique. The theoretical result is applied to output synchronization problem for uncertain network of Lorenz-type agents. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synchronization and parameter estimations of an uncertain Rikitake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Ibanez, Carlos; Martinez-Guerra, Rafael; Aguilar-Lopez, Ricardo; Mata-Machuca, Juan L.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter we address the synchronization and parameter estimation of the uncertain Rikitake system, under the assumption the state is partially known. To this end we use the master/slave scheme in conjunction with the adaptive control technique. Our control approach consists of proposing a slave system which has to follow asymptotically the uncertain Rikitake system, refereed as the master system. The gains of the slave system are adjusted continually according to a convenient adaptation control law, until the measurable output errors converge to zero. The convergence analysis is carried out by using the Barbalat's Lemma. Under this context, uncertainty means that although the system structure is known, only a partial knowledge of the corresponding parameter values is available.

  15. Robust master-slave synchronization for general uncertain delayed dynamical model based on adaptive control scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianbo; Zhou, Wuneng; Zhao, Shouwei; Yu, Weiqin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the robust exponential synchronization problem for a class of uncertain delayed master-slave dynamical system is investigated by using the adaptive control method. Different from some existing master-slave models, the considered master-slave system includes bounded unmodeled dynamics. In order to compensate the effect of unmodeled dynamics and effectively achieve synchronization, a novel adaptive controller with simple updated laws is proposed. Moreover, the results are given in terms of LMIs, which can be easily solved by LMI Toolbox in Matlab. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Valuation of American Call Option Considering Uncertain Volatility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 211-221 ISSN 2070-0733 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : American options * parabolic variational inequality * uncertain parameter Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.510, year: 2010 http://www.global-sci.org/aamm/readabs.php?vol=2&no=2&doc=211&year=2010&ppage=221

  17. ON A NUMERICAL ALGORITHM FOR UNCERTAIN SYSTEM ∫ Φ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Science World Journal Vol 7 (No 1) 2012 www.scienceworldjournal.org. ISSN 1597-6343. On a Numerical Algorithm for Uncertain System. Newton's Algorithm. Step 1 Calculate. )(),().(k k k. xAxgxF. Step 2. Check if ε. <. )(k xg for a predetermined ,ε if so stop, else. Step3. Set k k. PxA. )( = )(k xg. -. Step4. Set k k k. Px x. +. = +1.

  18. Uncertain CERN cash means UK physicists face grant freeze.

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Britain's funding agency Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council is uncertain about its ability to cover membership costs to the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This has resulted in suspension of research grants to university physicists and astronomers. Funding will be available only for genuine hardship, and for major national and international astronomical projects that have already been sanctioned. The new four-year rolling grants to university-based particle physics group is withheld.

  19. Technology Proliferation: Acquisition Strategies and Opportunities for an Uncertain Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    COVERED (From - To) 07/31/17 to 04/09/18 Technology Proliferation: Acquisition Strategies and Opportunities for an Uncertain Future Colonel Heather A...efficient and expeditious fielding of technologically superior capabilities. In today’s environment, it is commonplace for private industry to be the...first to develop and deploy technologies that can be adopted for defense systems. The result is that the Department of Defense (DoD) is largely a

  20. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  1. Path Integration Applied to Structural Systems with Uncertain Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Köylüoglu, H. Ugur

    Path integration (cell-to-cell mapping) method is applied to evaluate the joint probability density function (jpdf) of the response of the structural systems, with uncertain properties, subject to white noise excitation. A general methodology to deal with uncertainties is outlined and applied...... to the friction controlled slip of a structure on a foundation where the friction coefficient is modelled as a random variable. Exact results derived using the total probability theorem are compared to the ones obtained via path integration....

  2. Flexible Procurement of Services with Uncertain Durations using Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, S; Gerding, E; Rogers, A; Larson, K; Jennings, NR

    2009-01-01

    Emerging service-oriented technologies allow software agents to automatically procure distributed services to complete complex tasks. However, in many application scenarios, service providers demand financial remuneration, execution times are uncertain and consumers have deadlines for their tasks. In this paper, we address these issues by developing a novel approach that dynamically procures multiple, redundant services over time, in order to ensure success by the deadline. Specifically, we f...

  3. Effect of Body Mass Index on Exercise Capacity in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Carolyn M; Ball, Caroline A; Hebl, Virginia B; Ong, Kevin C; Siontis, Konstantinos C; Olson, Thomas P; Ackerman, Michael J; Ommen, Steve R; Allison, Thomas G; Geske, Jeffrey B

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between body mass index (BMI), exercise capacity, and symptoms in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) and to utilize results of cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPX) and transthoracic echocardiograms to understand the mechanism(s) of reduced exercise capacity across body mass index groups. Over a 6-year period, 510 consecutive patients with HC seen at a tertiary referral center underwent (CPX) and a transthoracic echocardiogram. Increasing BMI was associated with decreased exercise capacity as assessed by peak VO 2 (ml/kg/min). However, the prevalence of cardiac impairment did not vary by BMI group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that in some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac impairment is not the primary cause of exercise limitation and weight loss may result in improved exercise capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation effects and risks: overview and a new risk perception index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty provides opportunities for differences in perception, and radiation risks at low level of exposures involved in few computed tomography scans fall in this category. While there is good agreement among national and international organisations on risk probability of cancer, risk perception has barely been dealt with by these organisations. Risk perception is commonly defined as the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Severity and latency are important factors in perception. There is a need to connect all these. Leaving risk perception purely as a subjective judgement provides opportunities for people to amplifying risk. The author postulates a risk perception index as severity divided by latency that becomes determining factor for risk perception. It is hoped that this index will bring rationality in risk perception. (authors)

  5. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5...... different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus...... dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from 149 euro...

  6. Secure estimation, control and optimization of uncertain cyber-physical systems with applications to power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmad Fayez

    observers---observers/estimators for uncertain CPSs---are designed such that the effect of time-delays and cyber-induced perturbations are minimized, enabling secure DSE and risk mitigation in the first two parts. The final part deals with the extreme time-scales encompassed in CPSs, generally, and smart grids, specifically. Operational decisions for long time-scales can adversely affect the security of CPSs for faster time-scales. We present a model that jointly describes steady-state operation and transient stability by combining convex optimal power flow with semidefinite programming formulations of an optimal control problem. This approach can be jointly utilized with the aforementioned parts of the dissertation work, considering time-delays and DSE. The research contributions of this dissertation furnish CPS stakeholders with insights on the design and operation of uncertain CPSs, whilst guaranteeing the system's real-time safety. Finally, although many of the results of this dissertation are tailored to power systems, the results are general enough to be applied for a variety of uncertain CPSs.

  7. The Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and Cadmium on Tolerance Index and Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum, as a bioabsorbant to ameliorate the harmful effects of cadmium (Cd on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety ‘Sahra’, a factorial pot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was conducted. Trichoderma harzianum withtwo levels (with and without inoculation and cadmium nitrate with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg.L-1 were the treatments. Results of ANOVA revealed that there was a significant interaction between Trichoderma and cadmium nitrate in terms of biological yield, straw yield, harvest index, spike number per plant and seed number per spike. Mean comparisons showed that Trichoderma inoculation at all Cd levels significantly improved both biological and straw yields. Trichoderma at 50 and 100 mg.L-1 of Cd also increased the spike number per plant (up to 120 and 66%, respectively significantly. Increasing Cd levels decreased seed yield (19%, 1000 seed weight (18%, partitioning coefficient (57% and tolerance index (23% significantly. Inoculation of Trichoderma into growth medium had a significant effect on seed yield and tolerance index (up to 17 and 22%, respectively. In conclusion, Trichoderma harzianum inoculation at lower concentrations of Cd (50 and 100 mg.L-1 could be effective to improve growth parameters of barley plant.

  8. Entropy correlation distance method. The Euro introduction effect on the Consumer Price Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miśkiewicz, Janusz

    2010-04-01

    The idea of entropy was introduced in thermodynamics, but it can be used in time series analysis. There are various ways to define and measure the entropy of a system. Here the so called Theil index, which is often used in economy and finance, is applied as it were an entropy measure. In this study the time series are remapped through the Theil index. Then the linear correlation coefficient between the remapped time series is evaluated as a function of time and time window size and the corresponding statistical distance is defined. The results are compared with the the usual correlation distance measure for the time series themselves. As an example this entropy correlation distance method (ECDM) is applied to several series, as those of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in order to test some so called globalisation processes. Distance matrices are calculated in order to construct two network structures which are next analysed. The role of two different time scales introduced by the Theil index and a correlation coefficient is also discussed. The evolution of the mean distance between the most developed countries is presented and the globalisation periods of the prices discussed. It is finally shown that the evolution of mean distance between the most developed countries on several networks follows the process of introducing the European currency - the Euro. It is contrasted to the GDP based analysis. It is stressed that the entropy correlation distance measure is more suitable in detecting significant changes, like a globalisation process than the usual statistical (correlation based) measure.

  9. Effect of annealing on various dielectric functions and refractive index of lead iodide single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, M. A. S.; Matuchová, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, 2/3 (2006), s. 51-54 ISSN 1407-009X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0379; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/0959; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : dielectric losses * refractive index * characteristics measurement Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tong

    2016-08-20

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  11. Representation and management of temporal and uncertain knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ziqiang

    1993-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the investigation of uncertain temporal knowledge representation and management, especially for process verification and supervisor systems design. The evolution of process behaviour is time dependent and information describing this temporal evolution is uncertain/imprecise. In Artificial Intelligence, time and uncertainty have been, since long-time, considered as two of the most difficult research fields. Furthermore, these two fields, even different, may be present in an interactive way. We now try to deal with this special kind of uncertainty: temporal uncertainty. Integrating time and uncertainty brings out study issues of temporal information representation, events ordering and temporal reasoning under uncertainty. The investigation of these problems has been guided by preserving the intrinsic properties of time. The main contribution of this thesis can be summarised as follows: (1) unified representation of uncertainty and imprecision over temporal information; (2) formal structuring of time under uncertainty; (3) formalising fuzzy temporal reasoning system; (4) modelling temporal evolution of process, providing associated reasoning mechanism to verify the process evolution, modelling fuzzy temporal Petri nets; (5) design and implementation of SURTEL, a programming tool for dealing with uncertain temporal information and knowledge. (author) [fr

  12. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  13. Multi-index time series monitoring of drought and fire effects on desert grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Buckley, Steven; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Coe, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    The Western United States is expected to undergo both extended periods of drought and longer wildfire seasons under forecasted global climate change and it is important to understand how these disturbances will interact and affect recovery and composition of plant communities in the future. In this research paper we describe the temporal response of grassland communities to drought and fire in southern Arizona, where land managers are using repeated, prescribed fire as a habitat restoration tool. Using a 25-year atlas of fire locations, we paired sites with multiple fires to unburned control areas and compare satellite and field-based estimates of vegetation cover over time. Two hundred and fifty Landsat TM images, dating from 1985–2011, were used to derive estimates of Total Vegetation Fractional Cover (TVFC) of live and senescent grass using the Soil-Adjusted Total Vegetation Index (SATVI) and post-fire vegetation greenness using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We also implemented a Greenness to Cover Index that is the difference of time-standardized SATVI-TVFC and NDVI values at a given time and location to identify post-fire shifts in native, non-native, and annual plant cover. The results highlight anomalous greening and browning during drought periods related to amounts of annual and non-native plant cover present. Results suggest that aggressive application of prescribed fire may encourage spread of non-native perennial grasses and annual plants, particularly during droughts.

  14. Organizational Health Index and Organizational Agility Maturity Criteria as Measurement Tools of Organizational Transformation Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swasti Sri Harjanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a response to negative growth in the mobile legacy projection - which supports 50% of Telkom revenue, and a positive high growth projection in the ICT and digital business revenue, Telkom decides to shift the business to digital. To be a successful digital company, Telkom has created strategic initiatives, including organizational transformation adopting Customer Facing Unit (CFU concept that has been done for several months but there still no evaluation method for the success. This paper purpose is to evaluate the implementation of one human capital management strategic initiatives - CFU transformation implementation success, through Organizational Health Index and Organizational Agility Maturity model and formulate a recommendation for Telkom to create a more healthy and agile organization. This research using 11 synthetized dimension of Organization Health Index and Organizational Agility Maturity Model method as tools. Questionnaire consist of 53 practices that represented by 55 questions that asks about respondents extent to which they agree (satisfaction and whether it meet respondents expectation. Survey result shows that Telkom already in a healthy condition and agile as an organization. This result concluded that by methods used in this research, the transformation could be stated as a success. However, according to the result, maintain and improvement of current health and agility still needed, especially improvement regarding innovation and learning. Keywords:Organization, organizational agility, organizational health index, telecommunication, transformation

  15. The effect of second-stage pushing and body mass index on postdural puncture headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Amber M; Jia, Shawn Y; Bahnson, Henry T; Goel, Akash; Habib, Ashraf S

    2017-02-01

    To explore how pushing during labor and body mass index affect the development of postdural puncture headache in parturients who experienced dural puncture with Tuohy needles. Retrospective cohort. Obstetric ward and operating rooms at a university-affiliated hospital. One hundred ninety parturients who had witnessed dural puncture with 17 or 18 gauge Tuohy needles from 1999-2014. Patients were categorized by pushing status and body mass index (kg/m 2 ): nonobese push, women who pushed during labor had increased risk of postdural puncture headache (odds ratio [OR], 2.1 [1.1-4.0]; P=.02), more days of headache (P=.02), and increased epidural blood patch placement (P=.02). Super obese patients were less likely to develop headache compared with nonobese (OR, 0.33 [0.13-0.85]; P=.02), obese (OR, 0.37 [0.14-0.98]; P=.045], and morbidly obese patients (OR, 0.20 [0.05-0.68]; Ppushing (OR, 0.57 [0.29-1.10]; P=.096) and super obesity (OR, 0.41 [0.16-1.02]; P=.056] were no longer significantly associated with reduced risk of postdural puncture headache. Parturients who did not push before delivery and parturients with body mass index ≥50kg/m 2 were less likely to develop postdural puncture headache in a univariate analysis. Similar trends were demonstrated in a multivariate model, but were no longer statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE REFRACTIVE INDEX AND DENSITY OF LOW-TEMPERATURE ICES: SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Moore, M. H.; Gerakines, P. A. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, Code 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    We present the first study on the effects of the deposition technique on the measurements of the visible refractive index and the density of a low-temperature ice using solid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at 14–70 K as an example. While our measurements generally agree with previous studies that show a dependence of index and density on temperature below 50 K, we also find that the measured values depend on the method used to create each sample. Below 50 K, we find that the refractive index varied by as much as 4% and the density by as much as 16% at a single temperature depending on the deposition method. We also show that the Lorentz–Lorenz approximation is valid for solid CO{sub 2} across the full 14–70 K temperature range, regardless of the deposition method used. Since the refractive index and density are important in calculations of optical constants and infrared (IR) band strengths of materials, our results suggest that the deposition method must be considered in cases where n {sub vis} and ρ are not measured in the same experimental setup where the IR spectral measurements are made.

  18. The Effects of Experimental Conditions on the Refractive Index and Density of Low-Temperature Ices: Solid Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Moore, M. H.; Gerakines, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first study on the effects of the deposition technique on the measurements of the visible refractive index and the density of a low-temperature ice using solid carbon dioxide (CO2) at 14-70 K as an example. While our measurements generally agree with previous studies that show a dependence of index and density on temperature below 50 K, we also find that the measured values depend on the method used to create each sample. Below 50 K, we find that the refractive index varied by as much as 4% and the density by as much as 16% at a single temperature depending on the deposition method. We also show that the Lorentz-Lorenz approximation is valid for solid CO2 across the full 14-70 K temperature range, regardless of the deposition method used. Since the refractive index and density are important in calculations of optical constants and infrared (IR) band strengths of materials, our results suggest that the deposition method must be considered in cases where nvis and ? are not measured in the same experimental setup where the IR spectral measurements are made.

  19. Triglyceride glucose-body mass index is effective in identifying nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in nonobese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Du, Tingting; Li, Mengni; Jia, Jing; Lu, Huiming; Lin, Xuan; Yu, Xuefeng

    2017-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common condition that is highly correlated with obesity; however, it is not uncommon among nonobese individuals. Triglyceride (TG) and glucose index combined with body mass index (TyG-BMI) has been proposed as a favorable marker of insulin resistance. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of TyG-BMI in identifying NAFLD in nonobese subjects.We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonobese (BMI glucose, for identifying nonobese subjects at risk for NAFLD.In this study, the prevalence of NAFLD was over one-fifth in the nonobese population. TyG-BMI was an effective marker to detect NAFLD in nonobese subjects.

  20. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilizatio...

  1. Passive harmonic mode locking by mode selection in Fabry-Perot diode lasers with patterned effective index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitauld, David; Osborne, Simon; O'Brien, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate passive harmonic mode locking of a quantum-well laser diode designed to support a discrete comb of Fabry-Perot modes. Spectral filtering of the mode spectrum was achieved using a nonperiodic patterning of the cavity effective index. By selecting six modes spaced at twice the fundamental mode spacing, near-transform-limited pulsed output with 2 ps pulse duration was obtained at a repetition rate of 100 GHz.

  2. The Effects of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs Applied to Elite Wrestlers on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Nurcan; Özbay, Serhat; Kaya, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs applied to elite wrestlers on body mass index (BMI) and blood lipids. 20 elite wrestlers, whose average age is (experimental group; 15.20 ± 4.61, n = 10), control group; 15.90 ± 2.08, n = 10), participated in the study and they were randomly divided into…

  3. Uncertain estimation of activity measurement in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Diaz, A.; Palau, S.P.A.; Cardenas, T.A.I.; Garcia, A.I.; Tulio, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Accuracy and precision of dose is mandatory in radiopharmaceutical therapy procedures to guarantee the treatment success. The evaluation of uncertain in dose measurement in NM lab becomes a very important step, moreover if the operational parameters change between different equipment. In order to assure the traceability of activity measurements, and the quality assurance of dose administration, the behavior of two dose calibrator Capintec CRC-15R and PTW Curimentor 3, were studied. Accuracy, precision, linearity of activity response and reproducibility, and the activity uncertain determination with a second lab source were determined. Accuracy was evaluate using Tc 99m and I 131 Pstandard source (Secondary Standard Laboratory), for 10R vial (V) and 5 ml syringe (S) geometry, obtaining 1.3% (V-I 131 ), 1.4% (V -Tc 99m ), 0.8% (S -Tc 99m ) for CRC-15R and 2.3% (V-I 131 ), 1.1%(V-Tc 99m ), 1.0% (S-Tc 99m ) for Curimentor 3. Precision and Reproducibility was calculate using Cs 137 source. The reproducibility of CRC-15R and Curimentor 3 was less than 1.1% and 1.2 % respectively, during all evaluation time. The linearity of activity response was evaluate only for Tc 99m , and the results obtained were CRC 15R (672.97mCi 0.07 mCi, 1.3 % like mayor deviation) and Curimentor 3 (670.91mCi 0.08 mCi; 0.6 % like mayor deviation). To calculate the uncertain was use I 131 sources, the influences of calibration factor, linearity to activity, precision, reproducibility, background, half live time took into account. The typical combine uncertain for I 131 activity of was 2.24% for CRC-15R and 2.41% for Curimentor 3. The results were traceable between two equipment, no statistical significant differences were found for all tests. The equipment have a proper performance in the checked parameters, showing compliance with AIEA and National Authorities recommendation. Conclusion: The two equipmentcan be used in NM services with high level of traceability and confidence, with

  4. Visceral adiposity index may be a surrogate marker for the assessment of the effects of obesity on arterial stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD remains unclear. This study aims to describe the relationship between arterial stiffness and obesity in order to investigate the effects of obesity on CVD.We collected data from 5,158 individuals over 40 years of age from a cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China. Anthropometric, demographic, hemodynamic measurements and arterial stiffness measured through brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV were obtained. Subjects were grouped by body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and visceral adiposity index (VAI, a sex-specific index based on BMI, WC, triglyceride (TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C.The multivariate regression analysis revealed a negative but weak effect of BMI (β = -0.047, P0.05, it was still obtained between baPWV and VAI quartile (P0.05. However, baPWV significantly increased across groups with higher VAI categories even in the same metabolic category (P<0.01.This study supports the concept of heterogeneity of metabolic status among individuals within the same obesity range. Obese individuals are at an increased risk of arterial stiffness regardless of their metabolic conditions. VAI may be a surrogate marker for the assessment of obesity and the effects of obesity on arterial stiffness.

  5. Child Maltreatment, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Behavior in African-American Children: Moderation Effects from a Cumulative Dopaminergic Gene Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer and counselor rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, and COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using SEM, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2(32, N =1012) = 86..51, pmaltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β= 0.173, pmaltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse-control within context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  6. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on various core/clad ratio step index pure silica fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, R.A.; Barnes, C.E.; Nelson, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation testing was performed on polyimide-coated pure-silica-core step-index fibers fabricated from different preform core/clad ratios. Preliminary results indicate that the smaller the core/clad ratio, the better the radiation response of the fiber. These results are fortuitous for space applications, since the polyimide coating is also a low-outgassing wide-temperature-range small-size fiber coating material. The variations in radiation response may be due to a postdrawing anneal occurring during coating cure, which minimizes drawing-induced defects. 8 references

  8. Effect of embedded silver nanoparticles on refractive index of soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonal, Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2018-05-01

    Silver glass nanocomposites were prepared by exposing silver doped soda lime glass slides obtained via ion-exchange reaction to a beam of 200 keV Argon ions (Ar+) at an off normal angle of 400 with doses of 5x1015 ions cm-2 and 1x1016 ions cm-2. These nanocomposites were further characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometer so as to study their transmission and reflection behavior and compute their refractive index and real and imaginary parts of dielectric function.

  9. The effect of refractive index changes in an intracavity absorption on the laser output power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawat, Sh.; Eskef, M.

    2007-10-01

    A model describing the intra-cavity absorption has been developed. The model allows for a reliable description of the attenuation of laser power as a function of the gas pressure inside the absorption cell, conducting both real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the absorbing gas. The model relies on an adequate integration of the additional loss due to the absorption into the rate equations. After that the rate equations are solved under steady state conditions, which is quite reliable for a cw CO 2 laser. The oscillation, clearly observed in case of weak absorption, is described in the framework of an interference model considering the electric field inside the cavity as the interference result of successive phase correlated waves differing from each other in the number of passes made through the cavity. The phase shift is determined by the optical length of the cavity depending on the real part of the refractive index of the gas in the absorption cell. The model has been applied to analyze a large set of attenuation curves obtained in a previous work, in which intra-cavity absorption was measured for the three gases CFC-11, 12, 22 using a tunable cw CO 2 laser at 44 lines of the emission spectrum of the CO 2 molecule distributed on the branches P and R of the two bands at 9.6 μm and 10.6 μm. For mostly all examples, the value of the absorption cross section (imaginary part of the refractive index) has been determined by fitting the model to the experimental data. Furthermore, the value of the linear polarizability (real part of the refractive index) has been calculated from the oscillation period for all examples, in which the attenuation curve exhibits reliable oscillating behavior. The results are in fair agreement with the values of the absorption cross section published in the Hitran data base, as well as with the results obtained from independent absorption measurements performed outside the cavity (Author)

  10. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2016-07-01

    For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

  11. Effect of physical activity after a cardiac event on smoking habits and/or Quetelet index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbrechts, I P A M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Passchier, J; Deckers, J W; Kazemier, M; Erdman, R A M

    2003-02-01

    To further elucidate earlier findings, the present study investigated whether physical activity could serve as a positive stimulus to modify other changeable cardiac risk factors. Participants were 140 patients who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme focused on physical activity. Their present level of physical activity, smoking habits and Quetelet index were investigated as well as that before the cardiac event, in retrospect. Current feelings of anxiety and depression were also assessed. Participants were divided into two categories according to their present level of physical activity after finishing the rehabilitation programme, compared with that before the cardiac event. It appeared that the more physically active category contained more smokers. Although many of them had quitted smoking, significantly more persisted in their smoking habits compared with the patients who did not increase their physical activity. Significantly less depression was found in the more active patients. Although it could not be confirmed that physical activity stimulated a positive change in smoking and Quetelet index, the more active patients appeared to be less depressed.

  12. Refractive index of ternary and quaternary compound semiconductors below the fundamental absorption edge: Linear and nonlinear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.; Torabi, A.

    1985-01-01

    The index of refraction n is calculated as a function of frequency and mole fraction x for the following compounds: Hg/sub l-x/Cd/sub x/Te, Al/sub x/Ga/sub l-x/As, and In/sub l-x/Ga/sub x/As/sub y/P/sub l-y/ lattice matched to InP. Lattice matching of In/sub l-x/Ga/sub x/As/sub y/P/sub l-y/ to InP requires that x = 0.466 y. The theoretical result for the refractive index is obtained from a quantum mechanical calculation of the dielectric constant of a compound semiconductor. It is given in terms of the basic material parameters of band gap energy, effective electron mass m/sub n/, effective heavy hole mass m/sub rho/, spin orbit splitting energy, lattice constant, and carrier concentration n/sub e/ or rho for n-type or rho-type materials, respectively. If these quantities are known as functions of mole fraction x, there are no adjustable parameters involved. A negative change in the refractive index near the fundamental absorption edge is predicted on passing radiation through a crystal if the change in carrier concentration of the initially unoccupied conduction band is assumed proportional to internal intensity I. Comparison of theory with experimental data is given

  13. Long-Term Single and Joint Effects of Excessive Daytime Napping on the HOMA-IR Index and Glycosylated Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Pang, Xiuyu; Zhang, Qiao; Qu, Qiannuo; Hou, Zhigang; Liu, Zhipeng; Lv, Lin; Na, Guanqiong; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the duration of daytime napping and its effect combined with night sleep deprivation on the risk of developing high HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) index and disadvantageous changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. A total of 5845 diabetes-free subjects (2736 women and 3109 men), 30 to 65 years of age, were targeted for this cohort study since 2008. Multiple adjusted Cox regression models were performed to evaluate the single and joint effects of daytime napping on the risk of an elevated HbA1c level and high HOMA-IR index. After an average of 4.5 years of follow-up, >30 minutes of daytime napping was significantly associated with an increased risk of an elevated HbA1c level (>6.5%) in men and women (all P trend HOMA-IR index in the entire cohort, men, and women were 1.33 (1.10–1.62), 1.46 (1.08–1.98), and 1.47 (1.12–1.91), respectively. The combination of sleep deprivation with no naps or >30 minutes napping and the combination of no sleep deprivation with >30 minutes daytime napping were all associated with an HbA1c level >6.5% (HR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.24–3.51; HR = 4.00, 95% CI = 2.03–7.90; and HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.29–3.27, respectively). No sleep deprivation combined with >30 minutes daytime napping correlated with a high risk of an HbA1c level between 5.7% and 6.4% and high HOMA-IR index (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.48–3.02; and HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10–1.65, respectively). Daytime napping >30 minutes was associated with a high risk of an elevated HbA1c level and high HOMA-IR index. No sleep deprivation combined with napping >30 minutes carries a risk of abnormal glucose metabolism. Sleep deprivation combined with brief daytime napping HOMA-IR index. PMID:26844520

  14. Influence of radiation (Co60) in pre-implant rabbit embryos: effect on mitotic index and embryonic pole malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approbato, M.S.; Moura, K.K.V.O.; Florencio, R.S.; Cunha Junior, C.; Garcia, R.; Faria, R.S.; Benedetti, L.N.; Goulart, F.B.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after (± 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: mitotic index; embryonic pole malformations. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The mitotic index were altered both by the time and doses. (author)

  15. Assessment of the pharmacological effects of alprazolam on electroencephalography using connectivity indexes not affected by volume conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Francesc Alonso

    2015-04-01

    The fact that the considered indexes were not able to find significant differences in the beta band might indicate that phase-coupling changes induced by the drug are weak or too subtle to be detected, given that all measures are corrected by a baseline recording. This might discourage their use in psychopharmacological studies when assessing low doses, mild effects, or when working with a reduced number of participants. However, correlations with plasma concentrations remained high, indicating that PLI, WPLI and IC should not be totally discarded as means of evaluating pharmacological effects on the brain via EEG recordings.

  16. Kerr-effect analysis in a three-level negative index material under magneto cross-coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutabba, N.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the feasibility of the Kerr effect in negative refractive index materials under magneto cross-coupling and reservoir interaction. The considered medium is a typical three-level atomic system where we derive both the refractive and the gain spectrum. The profiles are analyzed for a weak probe field, and for varying strengths of the strong control field. The considered scheme shows an enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity which we attribute to the contribution of the electromagnetic components of the fields. For more realistic experimental conditions, we discuss the dependence of the Kerr effect on different thermal bath coupling constants.

  17. [Effect of bone marrow mediator myelopeptides on the summation-threshold index and behavioral reactions of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, A M; Barashkov, G N; Zakharova, L A

    1984-12-01

    Transmitter peptides having immunostimulant and endorphine-like properties were isolated from supernatant of medullary cell culture. Bioregulatory peptides were called myelopeptides. Myelopeptides provoked changes of the summation-threshold index in rats, which augmented in time. These changes pointed to the realization of the analgetic effect of myelopeptides via the spinal-stem structures of the central nervous system. Having a remarkable analgesic effect myelopeptides administered in the doses tested did not produce any action on the behavioral responses. The latter circumstance makes them differ from narcotic analgesics and known endorphines.

  18. H2 Control for the Continuous-Time Markovian Jump Linear Uncertain Systems with Partly Known Transition Rates and Input Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Gang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a class of continuous-time Markovian jump linear uncertain systems with partly known transition rates and input quantization, the H2 state-feedback control design is considered. The elements in the transition rates matrix include completely known, boundary known, and completely unknown ones. First, an H2 cost index for Markovian jump linear uncertain systems is introduced; then by introducing a new matrix inequality condition, sufficient conditions are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs for the H2 control of the Markovian jump linear uncertain systems. Less conservativeness is achieved than the result obtained with the existing technique. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the validity of the theoretical results.

  19. Personnel's Health Surveillance at Work: Effect of Age, Body Mass Index, and Shift Work on Mental Workload and Work Ability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Safari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI and demographic details were recorded. Results. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m2 (standard deviation 4.1 and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Conclusions. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI.

  20. Personnel's Health Surveillance at Work: Effect of Age, Body Mass Index, and Shift Work on Mental Workload and Work Ability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Shahram; Akbari, Jafar; Kazemi, Meghdad; Mououdi, Mohammad Amin; Mahaki, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI) and demographic details were recorded. Results. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m2 (standard deviation 4.1) and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Conclusions. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI. PMID:23956756

  1. Personnel's health surveillance at work: effect of age, body mass index, and shift work on mental workload and work ability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Shahram; Akbari, Jafar; Kazemi, Meghdad; Mououdi, Mohammad Amin; Mahaki, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI) and demographic details were recorded. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m(2) (standard deviation 4.1) and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI.

  2. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  3. Detrimental Effects of Higher Body Mass Index and Smoking Habits on Menstrual Cycles in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, An Na; Park, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Cha, Byung Heun; Sull, Jae Woong; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Alteration of menstrual cycle by individual lifestyles and unfavorable habits may cause menstrual irregularity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between lifestyle factors and menstrual irregularity in Korean women using data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. This cross-sectional study included 3779 nondiabetic Korean women aged 19-49 years who did not take any oral contraceptives or sex hormonal compounds. We examined the association of menstrual irregularity with age, body mass index (BMI), drinking experience, and smoking habits. Age, Asian BMI, marriage status, age at menarche, and smoking habits were significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity (p smoking habits in middle-aged women aged 30-39 years (p smoking habits in nondiabetic Korean women. Weight loss and smoking cessation should be recommended to promote women's reproductive health.

  4. The Effect of Body Mass Index on Relapse of Pilonidal Sinus Disease in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorghasem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pilonidal disease occurs either as a secreting sinus or in the form of an acute abscess in the coccygeal area and is an underlying cyst associated with granulomatous and fibrosis tissue which commonly contains heaps of hair, for which inherited and acquisitive hypotheses are proposed. Body mass index (BMI is the objective indicator of obesity according to height and weight. This study aims to examine the relationship between BMI and the role of obesity in development and relapse of pilonidal cyst disease.Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study examined 126 patients with primary or recurrent pilonidal sinus within a year. A separate questionnaire was formed and recorded in the computer for each patient based on the disease type and body mass index.Results: One hundred out of 126 studied patients (79.4% underwent primary Pilonidal Sinus surgery and 26 patients (20.6 had recurrent Pilonidal sinus surgery. 36 patients (28.6 were female and 90 patients (71.4% were male. Among patients with recurrent Pilonidal sinus, 18 patients (69.2% had BMI above 30 and 8 patients (30.8% had BMI of 25 to 30 kg/m2. The patients whose BMI was estimated to be 20 to 25 or less than 20 kg/ m2 per square meter, had no recurrence of disease. Conclusion: In this study, high BMI was associated with relapse of pilonidal sinus disease. Supporting the previous studies, the incidence of disease in this study was also higher in young adults.

  5. The role of computed tomography in uncertain obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Yoshino, Toyoaki; Takayanagi, Ryuichi; Negishi, Ken; Tanaka, Teruhiko; Ito, Ichiro.

    1985-01-01

    42 patients with uncertain obstructive jaundice were examined by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed obstructive jaundice in 97% of 37 proven cases and the accuracy of CT in determing the level of obstruction was also 97%. But the sensitivity of CT in determing the cause of obstructive jaundice was 62.5%, particularly poor in common bile duct stone (61.5%), inflammation of common bile duct (0%), and common bile duct carcinoma (50%). All cases of diagnosed malignant tumors were inoperable. (author)

  6. R&D Collaboration with Uncertain Intellectual Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    uncertain intellectual property rights (IPRs) lead to reduced collaboration between firms and can, hence, hinder knowledge production. This has implications for technology policy as R&D collaborations are exempt from antitrust legislation in order to increase R&D in the economy. We argue that a functional IPR system......Patent pendencies create uncertainty in research and development (R&D) collaboration, which can result in a threat of expropriation of unprotected knowledge, reduced bargaining power and enhanced search costs. We show that—depending of the type of collaboration partner and the size of the company...

  7. R&D Collaboration with Uncertain Intellectual Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    - uncertain intellectual property rights (IPR) lead to reduced collaboration between firms and may hinder the production of knowledge. This has implications for technology policy as R&D collaborations are exempt from anti-trust legislation in order to increase R&D in the economy. We argue that a functional......Patent pendencies create uncertainty in research and development (R&D) collaboration agreements, resulting in a threat of expropriation of unprotected knowledge by potential partners, reduced bargaining power and enhanced search costs. In this paper, we show that - depending of the type of partner...

  8. When, not if: The inescapability of an uncertain future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Ballard, T.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty is an inherent feature of most scientific endeavours, and many political decisions must be made in the presence of scientific uncertainty. In the case of climate change, there is evidence that greater scientific uncertainty increases the risk associated with the impact of climate change. Scientific uncertainty thus provides an impetus for cutting emissions rather than delaying action. In contrast to those normative considerations, uncertainty is frequently cited in political and public discourse as a reason to delay mitigation. We examine ways in which this gap between public and scientific understanding of uncertainty can be bridged. In particular, we sought ways to communicate uncertainty in a way that better calibrates people's risk perceptions with the projected impact of climate change. We report two behavioural experiments in which uncertainty about the future was expressed either as outcome uncertainty or temporal uncertainty. The conventional presentation of uncertainty involves uncertainty about an outcome at a given time—for example, the range of possible sea level rise (say 50cm +/- 20cm) by a certain date. An alternative presentation of the same situation presents a certain outcome ("sea levels will rise by 50cm") but places the uncertainty into the time of arrival ("this may occur as early as 2040 or as late as 2080"). We presented participants with a series of statements and graphs indicating projected increases in temperature, sea levels, ocean acidification, and a decrease in artic sea ice. In the uncertain magnitude condition, the statements and graphs reported the upper and lower confidence bounds of the projected magnitude and the mean projected time of arrival. In the uncertain time of arrival condition, they reported the upper and lower confidence bounds of the projected time of arrival and the mean projected magnitude. The results show that when uncertainty was presented as uncertain time of arrival rather than an uncertain

  9. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings: After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  10. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollahi Shoorabeh F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  11. Sublethal effects of catch-and-release fishing: measuring capture stress, fish impairment, and predation risk using a condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Patino, Reynaldo; Tolan, J.M.; Strauss, R.E.; Diamond, S.

    2009-01-01

    The sublethal effects of simulated capture of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) were analysed using physiological responses, condition indexing, and performance variables. Simulated catch-and-release fishing included combinations of depth of capture and thermocline exposure reflective of environmental conditions experienced in the Gulf of Mexico. Frequency of occurrence of barotrauma and lack of reflex response exhibited considerable individual variation. When combined into a single condition or impairment index, individual variation was reduced, and impairment showed significant increases as depth increased and with the addition of thermocline exposure. Performance variables, such as burst swimming speed (BSS) and simulated predator approach distance (AD), were also significantly different by depth. BSSs and predator ADs decreased with increasing depth, were lowest immediately after release, and were affected for up to 15 min, with longer recovery times required as depth increased. The impairment score developed was positively correlated with cortisol concentration and negatively correlated with both BSS and simulated predator AD. The impairment index proved to be an efficient method to estimate the overall impairment of red snapper in the laboratory simulations of capture and shows promise for use in field conditions, to estimate release mortality and vulnerability to predation.

  12. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Felipe Elli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú, five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1, and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, SPAD index, leaf area index (LAI, Global Radiation Interception (GRI and grain yield. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was used for the comparison between the means of cultivar and growth reducer factors, and for a regression analysis to evaluate N levels. Increasing the dose of nitrogen promotes an increase in LAI of plants of wheat crops differently among cultivars, which leads to a greater degree of global radiation interception. At doses higher or equal to 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, there are significant differences in grain yield between treatments with and without the application of the growth reducer. The significant interaction between growth reducer and nitrogen dose, showed that applications of growth reducer increase the GRI at doses above and below 80 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Nitrogen rates of 138 and 109 Kg ha-1 are responsible for maximum grain yields of wheat, which is 4235 and 3787 Kg ha-1 with and without the use of growth reducer, respectively.

  13. [Effects of Two Placement Ways for Storage of Blood Bag on Biochemical Indexes of Leukodepleted Red Blood Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Duan, Bing-Zheng; Ju, Chun-Mei; Sui, Su-Qin; Bai, Yan; Cao, Huan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of 2 different ways of storage bag placement on some biochemical indexes of leukodepleted red blood cells (LD-RBC) to as to ensure the efficacy and safety of clinical blood transfusion. The whole blood samples of 20 donors (400 ml/donor) were selected for preparating the LP-RBC, which were divided evenly into 10 bags. The 10 bags were randomly divided into 2 groups; the bags in 1 group were placed uprightly, while the bags in another group were placed horizontally. The bags of 2 groups were stored in the same conditions. One storage bag from each group was taken randomly on day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 respectively, and then the biochemical indexes of samples were detected and analyzed. The values of K(+) and LAC on day 14, the value of LDH on day 28 in the uprightly placed group were higher than those in the horizontally placed group (P value of Na(+) on day 28, and the value of Glu on day 35 in the uprightly placed group were lower than those in horizontally placed group (P 0.05). The storage bags placed by different ways during the storage show different influence on some biochemical indexes of LD-RBC in the storage period.

  14. The effect of moderate running on foot posture index and plantar pressure distribution in male recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Martínez, Elena; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Gómez-Martín, Beatriz; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue due to running has been shown to contribute to changes in plantar pressure distribution. However, little is known about changes in foot posture after running. We sought to compare the foot posture index before and after moderate exercise and to relate any changes to plantar pressure patterns. A baropodometric evaluation was made, using the FootScan platform (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium), of 30 men who were regular runners and their foot posture was examined using the Foot Posture Index before and after a 60-min continuous run at a moderate pace (3.3 m/sec). Foot posture showed a tendency toward pronation after the 60-min run, gaining 2 points in the foot posture index. The total support and medial heel contact areas increased, as did pressures under the second metatarsal head and medial heel. Continuous running at a moderate speed (3.3 m/sec) induced changes in heel strike related to enhanced pronation posture, indicative of greater stress on that zone after physical activity. This observation may help us understand the functioning of the foot, prevent injuries, and design effective plantar orthoses in sport.

  15. Sliding mode control for uncertain unified chaotic systems with input nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, T.-Y.; Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Yang, Y.-S.; Chang, J.-F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of unified chaotic systems subject to uncertainties and input nonlinearity. Using the sliding mode control technique, a robust control law is established which stabilizes the uncertain unified chaotic systems even when the nonlinearity in the actuators is present. A novel adaptive switching surface is introduced to simplify the task of assigning the stability of the closed-loop system in the sliding mode motion. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control design

  16. Control uncertain Genesio-Tesi chaotic system: Adaptive sliding mode approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadras, Sara; Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) technique is introduced in this paper for a chaotic dynamical system (Genesio-Tesi system). Using the sliding mode control technique, a sliding surface is determined and the control law is established. An adaptive sliding mode control law is derived to make the states of the Genesio-Tesi system asymptotically track and regulate the desired state. The designed control scheme can control the uncertain chaotic behaviors to a desired state without oscillating very fast and guarantee the property of asymptotical stability. An illustrative simulation result is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive sliding mode control design.

  17. Adaptive robust PID controller design based on a sliding mode for uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Weider; Yan Junjuh

    2005-01-01

    A robust adaptive PID controller design motivated from the sliding mode control is proposed for a class of uncertain chaotic systems in this paper. Three PID control gains, K p , K i , and K d , are adjustable parameters and will be updated online with an adequate adaptation mechanism to minimize a previously designed sliding condition. By introducing a supervisory controller, the stability of the closed-loop PID control system under with the plant uncertainty and external disturbance can be guaranteed. Finally, a well-known Duffing-Holmes chaotic system is used as an illustrative to show the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive PID controller

  18. A guide for functional analysis of BRCA1 variants of uncertain significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millot, Gaël A; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Caputo, Sandrine M

    2012-01-01

    of these variants, the effect on protein function is unknown making it difficult to infer the consequences on risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Thus, many individuals undergoing genetic testing for BRCA1 mutations receive test results reporting a variant of uncertain clinical significance (VUS), leading...... to issues in risk assessment, counseling, and preventive care. Here, we describe functional assays for BRCA1 to directly or indirectly assess the impact of a variant on protein conformation or function and how these results can be used to complement genetic data to classify a VUS as to its clinical...

  19. Melioration as rational choice: sequential decision making in uncertain environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R; Neth, Hansjörg; Jacobs, Robert A; Gray, Wayne D

    2013-01-01

    Melioration-defined as choosing a lesser, local gain over a greater longer term gain-is a behavioral tendency that people and pigeons share. As such, the empirical occurrence of meliorating behavior has frequently been interpreted as evidence that the mechanisms of human choice violate the norms of economic rationality. In some environments, the relationship between actions and outcomes is known. In this case, the rationality of choice behavior can be evaluated in terms of how successfully it maximizes utility given knowledge of the environmental contingencies. In most complex environments, however, the relationship between actions and future outcomes is uncertain and must be learned from experience. When the difficulty of this learning challenge is taken into account, it is not evident that melioration represents suboptimal choice behavior. In the present article, we examine human performance in a sequential decision-making experiment that is known to induce meliorating behavior. In keeping with previous results using this paradigm, we find that the majority of participants in the experiment fail to adopt the optimal decision strategy and instead demonstrate a significant bias toward melioration. To explore the origins of this behavior, we develop a rational analysis (Anderson, 1990) of the learning problem facing individuals in uncertain decision environments. Our analysis demonstrates that an unbiased learner would adopt melioration as the optimal response strategy for maximizing long-term gain. We suggest that many documented cases of melioration can be reinterpreted not as irrational choice but rather as globally optimal choice under uncertainty.

  20. Strict Constraint Feasibility in Analysis and Design of Uncertain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty, where hard inequality constraints are present. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations prescribed by the uncertainty model. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles. These models make it possible to consider sets of parameters having comparable as well as dissimilar levels of uncertainty. Two alternative formulations for hyper-rectangular sets are proposed, one based on a transformation of variables and another based on an infinity norm approach. The suite of tools developed enable us to determine if the satisfaction of hard constraints is feasible by identifying critical combinations of uncertain parameters. Since this practice is performed without sampling or partitioning the parameter space, the resulting assessments of robustness are analytically verifiable. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness of competing design alternatives, the approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness characteristics are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the solution methods only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, the tools developed are applicable to a broad range of problems in several disciplines.

  1. Global sensitivity analysis in stochastic simulators of uncertain reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Jimenez, M; Le Maître, O P; Knio, O M

    2016-12-28

    Stochastic models of chemical systems are often subjected to uncertainties in kinetic parameters in addition to the inherent random nature of their dynamics. Uncertainty quantification in such systems is generally achieved by means of sensitivity analyses in which one characterizes the variability with the uncertain kinetic parameters of the first statistical moments of model predictions. In this work, we propose an original global sensitivity analysis method where the parametric and inherent variability sources are both treated through Sobol's decomposition of the variance into contributions from arbitrary subset of uncertain parameters and stochastic reaction channels. The conceptual development only assumes that the inherent and parametric sources are independent, and considers the Poisson processes in the random-time-change representation of the state dynamics as the fundamental objects governing the inherent stochasticity. A sampling algorithm is proposed to perform the global sensitivity analysis, and to estimate the partial variances and sensitivity indices characterizing the importance of the various sources of variability and their interactions. The birth-death and Schlögl models are used to illustrate both the implementation of the algorithm and the richness of the proposed analysis method. The output of the proposed sensitivity analysis is also contrasted with a local derivative-based sensitivity analysis method classically used for this type of systems.

  2. On the robust optimization to the uncertain vaccination strategy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaerani, D.; Anggriani, N.; Firdaniza

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent an epidemic of infectious diseases, the vaccination coverage needs to be minimized and also the basic reproduction number needs to be maintained below 1. This means that as we get the vaccination coverage as minimum as possible, thus we need to prevent the epidemic to a small number of people who already get infected. In this paper, we discuss the case of vaccination strategy in term of minimizing vaccination coverage, when the basic reproduction number is assumed as an uncertain parameter that lies between 0 and 1. We refer to the linear optimization model for vaccination strategy that propose by Becker and Starrzak (see [2]). Assuming that there is parameter uncertainty involved, we can see Tanner et al (see [9]) who propose the optimal solution of the problem using stochastic programming. In this paper we discuss an alternative way of optimizing the uncertain vaccination strategy using Robust Optimization (see [3]). In this approach we assume that the parameter uncertainty lies within an ellipsoidal uncertainty set such that we can claim that the obtained result will be achieved in a polynomial time algorithm (as it is guaranteed by the RO methodology). The robust counterpart model is presented

  3. Intelligent diagnosis of jaundice with dynamic uncertain causality graph model*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shao-rui; Geng, Shi-chao; Fan, Lin-xiao; Chen, Jia-jia; Zhang, Qin; Li, Lan-juan

    2017-01-01

    Jaundice is a common and complex clinical symptom potentially occurring in hepatology, general surgery, pediatrics, infectious diseases, gynecology, and obstetrics, and it is fairly difficult to distinguish the cause of jaundice in clinical practice, especially for general practitioners in less developed regions. With collaboration between physicians and artificial intelligence engineers, a comprehensive knowledge base relevant to jaundice was created based on demographic information, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory tests, imaging diagnosis, medical histories, and risk factors. Then a diagnostic modeling and reasoning system using the dynamic uncertain causality graph was proposed. A modularized modeling scheme was presented to reduce the complexity of model construction, providing multiple perspectives and arbitrary granularity for disease causality representations. A “chaining” inference algorithm and weighted logic operation mechanism were employed to guarantee the exactness and efficiency of diagnostic reasoning under situations of incomplete and uncertain information. Moreover, the causal interactions among diseases and symptoms intuitively demonstrated the reasoning process in a graphical manner. Verification was performed using 203 randomly pooled clinical cases, and the accuracy was 99.01% and 84.73%, respectively, with or without laboratory tests in the model. The solutions were more explicable and convincing than common methods such as Bayesian Networks, further increasing the objectivity of clinical decision-making. The promising results indicated that our model could be potentially used in intelligent diagnosis and help decrease public health expenditure. PMID:28471111

  4. Adapting environmental management to uncertain but inevitable change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Sam; Fuller, Richard A; Iwamura, Takuya; Chadès, Iadine

    2015-06-07

    Implementation of adaptation actions to protect biodiversity is limited by uncertainty about the future. One reason for this is the fear of making the wrong decisions caused by the myriad future scenarios presented to decision-makers. We propose an adaptive management (AM) method for optimally managing a population under uncertain and changing habitat conditions. Our approach incorporates multiple future scenarios and continually learns the best management strategy from observations, even as conditions change. We demonstrate the performance of our AM approach by applying it to the spatial management of migratory shorebird habitats on the East Asian-Australasian flyway, predicted to be severely impacted by future sea-level rise. By accounting for non-stationary dynamics, our solution protects 25,000 more birds per year than the current best stationary approach. Our approach can be applied to many ecological systems that require efficient adaptation strategies for an uncertain future. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Transitioning nuclear fuel cycles with uncertain fast reactor costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phathanapirom, U.B., E-mail: bphathanapirom@utexas.edu; Schneider, E.A.

    2016-06-15

    This paper applies a novel decision making methodology to a case study involving choices leading to the transition from the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle to one relying on continuous recycle of plutonium and minor actinides in fast reactors in the face of uncertain fast reactor capital costs. Unique to this work is a multi-stage treatment of a range of plausible trajectories for the evolution of fast reactor capital costs over time, characterized by first-of-a-kind penalties as well as time- and unit-based learning. The methodology explicitly incorporates uncertainties in key parameters into the decision-making process by constructing a stochastic model and embedding uncertainties as bifurcations in the decision tree. “Hedging” strategies are found by applying a choice criterion to select courses of action which mitigate “regrets”. These regrets are calculated by evaluating the performance of all possible transition strategies for every feasible outcome of the uncertain parameter. The hedging strategies are those that preserve the most flexibility for adjusting the fuel cycle strategy in response to new information as uncertainties are resolved.

  6. Assimilating uncertain, dynamic and intermittent streamflow observations in hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Alfonso, Leonardo; Chacon-Hurtado, Juan; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-09-01

    Catastrophic floods cause significant socio-economical losses. Non-structural measures, such as real-time flood forecasting, can potentially reduce flood risk. To this end, data assimilation methods have been used to improve flood forecasts by integrating static ground observations, and in some cases also remote sensing observations, within water models. Current hydrologic and hydraulic research works consider assimilation of observations coming from traditional, static sensors. At the same time, low-cost, mobile sensors and mobile communication devices are becoming also increasingly available. The main goal and innovation of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of assimilating uncertain streamflow observations that are dynamic in space and intermittent in time in the context of two different semi-distributed hydrological model structures. The developed method is applied to the Brue basin, where the dynamic observations are imitated by the synthetic observations of discharge. The results of this study show how model structures and sensors locations affect in different ways the assimilation of streamflow observations. In addition, it proves how assimilation of such uncertain observations from dynamic sensors can provide model improvements similar to those of streamflow observations coming from a non-optimal network of static physical sensors. This can be a potential application of recent efforts to build citizen observatories of water, which can make the citizens an active part in information capturing, evaluation and communication, helping simultaneously to improvement of model-based flood forecasting.

  7. Transitioning nuclear fuel cycles with uncertain fast reactor costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phathanapirom, U.B.; Schneider, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies a novel decision making methodology to a case study involving choices leading to the transition from the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle to one relying on continuous recycle of plutonium and minor actinides in fast reactors in the face of uncertain fast reactor capital costs. Unique to this work is a multi-stage treatment of a range of plausible trajectories for the evolution of fast reactor capital costs over time, characterized by first-of-a-kind penalties as well as time- and unit-based learning. The methodology explicitly incorporates uncertainties in key parameters into the decision-making process by constructing a stochastic model and embedding uncertainties as bifurcations in the decision tree. “Hedging” strategies are found by applying a choice criterion to select courses of action which mitigate “regrets”. These regrets are calculated by evaluating the performance of all possible transition strategies for every feasible outcome of the uncertain parameter. The hedging strategies are those that preserve the most flexibility for adjusting the fuel cycle strategy in response to new information as uncertainties are resolved.

  8. Intelligent diagnosis of jaundice with dynamic uncertain causality graph model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shao-Rui; Geng, Shi-Chao; Fan, Lin-Xiao; Chen, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Qin; Li, Lan-Juan

    2017-05-01

    Jaundice is a common and complex clinical symptom potentially occurring in hepatology, general surgery, pediatrics, infectious diseases, gynecology, and obstetrics, and it is fairly difficult to distinguish the cause of jaundice in clinical practice, especially for general practitioners in less developed regions. With collaboration between physicians and artificial intelligence engineers, a comprehensive knowledge base relevant to jaundice was created based on demographic information, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory tests, imaging diagnosis, medical histories, and risk factors. Then a diagnostic modeling and reasoning system using the dynamic uncertain causality graph was proposed. A modularized modeling scheme was presented to reduce the complexity of model construction, providing multiple perspectives and arbitrary granularity for disease causality representations. A "chaining" inference algorithm and weighted logic operation mechanism were employed to guarantee the exactness and efficiency of diagnostic reasoning under situations of incomplete and uncertain information. Moreover, the causal interactions among diseases and symptoms intuitively demonstrated the reasoning process in a graphical manner. Verification was performed using 203 randomly pooled clinical cases, and the accuracy was 99.01% and 84.73%, respectively, with or without laboratory tests in the model. The solutions were more explicable and convincing than common methods such as Bayesian Networks, further increasing the objectivity of clinical decision-making. The promising results indicated that our model could be potentially used in intelligent diagnosis and help decrease public health expenditure.

  9. On the robust optimization to the uncertain vaccination strategy problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaerani, D., E-mail: d.chaerani@unpad.ac.id; Anggriani, N., E-mail: d.chaerani@unpad.ac.id; Firdaniza, E-mail: d.chaerani@unpad.ac.id [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Padjadjaran Indonesia, Jalan Raya Bandung Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor Sumedang 45363 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-21

    In order to prevent an epidemic of infectious diseases, the vaccination coverage needs to be minimized and also the basic reproduction number needs to be maintained below 1. This means that as we get the vaccination coverage as minimum as possible, thus we need to prevent the epidemic to a small number of people who already get infected. In this paper, we discuss the case of vaccination strategy in term of minimizing vaccination coverage, when the basic reproduction number is assumed as an uncertain parameter that lies between 0 and 1. We refer to the linear optimization model for vaccination strategy that propose by Becker and Starrzak (see [2]). Assuming that there is parameter uncertainty involved, we can see Tanner et al (see [9]) who propose the optimal solution of the problem using stochastic programming. In this paper we discuss an alternative way of optimizing the uncertain vaccination strategy using Robust Optimization (see [3]). In this approach we assume that the parameter uncertainty lies within an ellipsoidal uncertainty set such that we can claim that the obtained result will be achieved in a polynomial time algorithm (as it is guaranteed by the RO methodology). The robust counterpart model is presented.

  10. Global sensitivity analysis in stochastic simulators of uncertain reaction networks

    KAUST Repository

    Navarro, María

    2016-12-26

    Stochastic models of chemical systems are often subjected to uncertainties in kinetic parameters in addition to the inherent random nature of their dynamics. Uncertainty quantification in such systems is generally achieved by means of sensitivity analyses in which one characterizes the variability with the uncertain kinetic parameters of the first statistical moments of model predictions. In this work, we propose an original global sensitivity analysis method where the parametric and inherent variability sources are both treated through Sobol’s decomposition of the variance into contributions from arbitrary subset of uncertain parameters and stochastic reaction channels. The conceptual development only assumes that the inherent and parametric sources are independent, and considers the Poisson processes in the random-time-change representation of the state dynamics as the fundamental objects governing the inherent stochasticity. A sampling algorithm is proposed to perform the global sensitivity analysis, and to estimate the partial variances and sensitivity indices characterizing the importance of the various sources of variability and their interactions. The birth-death and Schlögl models are used to illustrate both the implementation of the algorithm and the richness of the proposed analysis method. The output of the proposed sensitivity analysis is also contrasted with a local derivative-based sensitivity analysis method classically used for this type of systems.

  11. Effect of refraction index and thickness of the light guide in the position-sensitive gamma-ray detector using compact PS-PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Saito, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hyodo, T.; Nagai, Y.; Muramatsu, S.; Nagai, S.

    2000-01-01

    We constructed a position-sensitive gamma-ray detector consisting of an array of BGO scintillators, a light guide and compact PS-PMTs. The effects of refractive index and thickness of the light guide of a glass plate on the detector performance were investigated. A light guide with higher refractive index and smaller thickness is found better for a good spatial resolution.

  12. Mastication effects on the glycaemic index: impact on variability and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawana, V; Leow, M K-S; Henry, C J K

    2014-01-01

    Glycaemic variability challenges the accuracy and use of the glycaemic index (GI). The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of mastication on GI. Using a randomized, controlled, crossover, non-blind design, 15 healthy young subjects returned on 5 separate days for three glucose and two rice test sessions. At the rice sessions, subjects chewed each mouthful either 15 or 30 times. Rice chewed 15 times produced a total glycaemic response (GR; 155 mmol min/l), peak GR (2.4 mmol/l) and GI (68) significantly lower than when chewed for longer (30 times) (184 mmol min/l, 2.8 mmol/l and 88, respectively). The study shows that the GI of rice is affected by the degree of mastication. Chewing 15 times compared with 30 times significantly attenuates the GI, suggesting that mastication may potentially contribute to the glycaemic variability of rice. While future work must establish the extent and limits to which mastication affects glycaemia, it could also explore the potential of using mastication to reduce the glycaemic load of rice.

  13. Large-volume reduction mammaplasty: the effect of body mass index on postoperative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Bobadilla, G Mabel; Killingsworth, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Eighty-six women underwent modified inferior pedicled reduction mammaplasty. All were grouped according to body mass index (BMI): 14 in the overweight group, 51 in the obese group, and 21 in the morbidly obese group. The mean ages were 34, 35, and 36, respectively, for the 3 groups and were not statistically different. The mean resection weight in the overweight group was 929 g, 1316 g for the obese group, and 1760 g for the morbidly obese group. Wound healing complications increased with BMI; the overweight, obese, and morbidly obese groups had 21%, 43%, and 71% of complications, respectively. The results were not statistically different. The rate of repeat operations increased proportionally with the BMI to 7%, 8%, and 19%, respectively. Postoperative BMI was measured in 30 patients. Fifty percent of this group had limited preoperative activity secondary to breast enlargement. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 43 months. Forty-seven percent of this group continued to have limited activity after breast reduction with a mean BMI of 37.8 kg/m2. The mean BMI of all women was 37.41 kg/m2 with a total BMI change of -0.4 kg/m2, suggesting that most women do not lose a significant amount of weight after breast reduction. There was no statistical difference in long-term BMI.

  14. Effects of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on the therapeutic index of amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhachemi, M H; Boucherit, K; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Belmir, S; Benbekhti, Z

    2014-12-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) remains the antifungal polyene of choice in deep fungal infections, but its high toxicity to mammalian cells limits its use. This toxicity is partly due to lipid peroxidation exerted by amphotericin B in cell membranes. The work we have undertaken focused on the one part the evaluation of the efficacy of amphotericin B in the presence of some antioxidants vitamins (vitamin C "ascorbic acid" and vitamin E "α-tocopherol") against the yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Secondly, we have tested the cytotoxicity of these formulations on human red blood cells. The results showed a significant improvement in the efficiency of our formulations tested from 7% to 12% compared with amphotericin B alone at therapeutic concentrations. Furthermore, the addition of vitamin C and vitamin E protects human red blood cells against the cytotoxicity induced by amphotericin B with 17%. This is due may be to the antioxidant power of vitamins which confer protection against the autoxidation of the molecule of amphotericin B. On the other hand, it is noticed that the yeast regrows after 24h whatever in complex with vitamin C or vitamin E of the stock solution. On completion of this study, the incorporation of antioxidant vitamins that we propose to the reaction medium of antifungal improved the therapeutic index of amphotericin B. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of geographical and ethnic variation on Dysphonia Severity Index: a study of Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, T; Savithri, S R

    2012-01-01

    Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a widely used multiparametric approach to objectively quantify the voice quality. Few research groups have investigated the test-retest, interobserver variability, and influence of age and gender. They have also verified the application of DSI in various voice rehabilitation conditions. However, all these studies have been conducted on European population. There is a possibility of variation in the basic parameters of DSI across geographical and ethnic groups. Hence, the present study evaluated DSI in Indian population. One hundred twenty voluntary participants (60 males, 60 females) who had G(0) on the Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Aesthenia, Strain (GRBAS) scale participated in the study (age range of 18-25 years, M=21.8, standard deviation=2.7). Maximum phonation time (MPT), frequency intensity, and jitter measurements were made using CSL 4500 (Kay Elemetrics, Pine Brook, NJ). Results showed noticeable difference between Indian and European population on MPT, Highest frequency (F(0)-High), and DSI values. Significant gender difference was also observed on MPT and F(0)-High. Test-retest reliability showed >95% for all the parameters. The MPT decrement lead to a reduction in the overall DSI value in both the genders. These results of the study caution voice professionals to reinvestigate and establish their own norms for their geographical and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relation between Raman backscattering from droplets and bulk water: Effect of refractive index dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnik, Taras; Reichardt, Jens

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical framework is presented that permits investigations of the relation between inelastic backscattering from microparticles and bulk samples of Raman-active materials. It is based on the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and no fundamental restrictions concerning the microparticle shape apply. The approach provides a simple and intuitive explanation for the enhancement of the differential backscattering cross-section in particles in comparison to bulk. The enhancement factor for scattering of water droplets in the diameter range from 0 to 60 μm (vitally important for the a priori measurement of liquid water content of warm clouds with spectroscopic Raman lidars) is about a factor of 1.2-1.6 larger (depending on the size of the sphere) than an earlier study has shown. The numerical calculations are extended to 1000 μm and demonstrate that dispersion of the refractive index of water becomes an important factor for spheres larger than 100 μm. The physics of the oscillatory phenomena predicted by the simulations is explained.

  17. Effects of Direction and Index of Difficulty on Aiming Movements after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ribeiro Coqueiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain hemispheres play different roles in the control of aiming movements that are impaired after unilateral stroke. It is not clear whether those roles are influenced by the direction and the difficulty of the task. Objective. To evaluate the influence of direction and index of difficulty (ID of the task on performance of ipsilesional aiming movements after unilateral stroke. Methods. Ten individuals with right hemisphere stroke, ten with left hemisphere stroke, and ten age- and gender-matched controls performed the aiming movements on a digitizing tablet as fast as possible. Stroke individuals used their ipsilesional arm. The direction (ipsilateral or contralateral, size (0.8 or 1.6 cm, and distance (9 or 18 cm of the targets, presented on a monitor, were manipulated and determined to be of different ID (3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Results. Individuals with right hemisphere lesion were more sensitive to ID of the task, affecting planning and final position accuracy. Left hemisphere lesion generated slower and less smooth movements and was more influenced by target distance. Contralateral movements and higher ID increased planning demands and hindered movement execution. Conclusion. Right and left hemisphere damages are differentially influenced by task constraints which suggest their complementary roles in the control of aiming movements.

  18. Effects of different dietary cation-anion balance and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Xuejia; Sun Yongqiang; Zheng Guoping; Li Mangxue; Liu Dasen

    2007-01-01

    Five sheep with average live weight of 38 kg were selected and fitted with permanent ruminal fistulae for the study of the influence of DCAB and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep. With the design of 5 x 5 Latin square, the goats were undergone four groups of treatments. As sheep in control group were only fed with basic feed, other treatments were fed with basic feed and additives. Those additives were: treatment 1 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary), treatment 2 with DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM), treatment 3 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM) and treatment 4 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB2 (40 mEq/100 g DM). The results show that different DCAB and cellulase had no apparent influence on the concentrations of T 3 and T 4 (P>0.05), but they had significant influence on the concentration of insulin (P 0.05). The study indicated that addition of 0.2% cellulase to dietary while adjusting DCAB to 0.2-40 mEq/100 g DM respectively did not destroy tissues and organs of sheep. (authors)

  19. Reproductive effects on fecal nitrogen as an index of diet quality: an experimental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kyle B.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Leslie,, David M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of fecal nitrogen has been used widely as an indicator of dietary quality for free-ranging ruminants. Differences in digestive function between species of dimorphic ungulates render interspecific comparisons of fecal nitrogen unreliable; however, whether intraspecific sexual differences in digestive function also bias this nutritional index is unknown. Our objective was to compare sex-specific variation in concentration of fecal nitrogen using male, nonlactating female, and lactating female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on high- and low-quality diets. During weekly trials over spring and summer (2008-2009), we monitored intake rates, collected feces twice daily, and used micro-Kjeldahl procedures to determine percent fecal nitrogen. We also determined nitrogen content of feces following a neutral detergent fiber (NDF) rinse during pre-, peak, and postlactation. Fecal nitrogen reflected general differences in dietary quality between diets; however, fecal nitrogen of lactating females in both dietary groups was lower than for males or nonlactating females throughout lactation. Nitrogen concentration following an NDF rinse also was lower for lactating females during peak lactation. We hypothesize that the remodeling of the digestive tract and increased rumination by lactating females may enhance their ability to extract nitrogen from their forage. These adjustments may expand the foraging options of lactating females by increasing their ability to process low-quality foods, but also affects the interpretation of fecal nitrogen during the season of lactation.

  20. Homogeneity index: effective tool for evaluation of intensity modulated radiation therapy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Ahmed, Wigdan Elsir Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Homogeneity index (HI) is a simple scoring tool that quantifies dose homogeneity in the target volume. It is therefore used to evaluate and compare the dose distribution of various treatment plans. This study aimed to analyze and compare HI using two formulae in patients with malignant tumors in different regions of the body. It also aimed to get knowledge about the optimal plan of IMRT and to apply it in cancer treatment cases. In this study treatment plans for 15 patients with different sites of malignant tumors was done including: cervical fibro sarcoma, nasal-sarcoma, abdomen nerosarcoma, crainopharyngioma, rabdomayosarcoma (R.M.S), which performed at three patients for each site. All of which are from the children cancer hospital (57357) in Cairo/ Egypt. The HI for each patient was calculated using two different formulae. HI values calculated using formulae (B) D max /D min was higher than those calculated using formulae (A) D5%, D95% Organs at risk were not exceeding their tolerance. The lowest values of HI were found in formula (A) D5%, D95%, therefore it was preferred to use in plan evaluation than formula (B) D max /D min. HI is used for early evaluation of the plan then the plan evaluation is completed with visual inspection of dose distribution and DVH. IMRT technique is special case of 3D conformal radiotherapy and it has accurate dose delivery for tumor and it has optimal sparing of normal tissue. (Author).

  1. Integrated optical devices based on sol – gel waveguides using the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, S V; Trofimov, N S; Chekhlova, T K [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    A possibility of designing optical waveguide devices based on sol – gel SiO{sub 2} – TiO{sub 2} films using the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index is shown. The dependences of the device characteristics on the parameters of the film and opticalsystem elements are analysed. The operation of a temperature recorder and a temperature limiter with a resolution of 0.6 K mm{sup -1} is demonstrated. The film and output-prism parameters are optimised. (fibreoptic and nonlinear-optic devices)

  2. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis Felipe Elli; Braulio Otomar Caron; Sandro Luis Petter Medeiros; Elder Eloy; Gean Charles Monteiro; Denise Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú), five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1), and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteri...

  3. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  4. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  5. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  6. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  7. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  8. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise and fish oil supplements on plasma levels of inflammatory indexes in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish o...

  10. Effect of centrifuge test on blood serum lipids index of cadet pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochyński, Zbigniew; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Kłossowski, Marek; Sobiech, Krzysztof A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the lipid index (WS) in the examined cadets and duration of exposure to +Gz in the human centrifuge. The study involved 19 first-year cadets of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. Tests in the human centrifuge were repeated twice, i.e. prior to (test I) and 45 days after (test II). After exposure to +Gz, the examined cadets were divided into 2 groups. Group I (N=11) included cadets subjected to a shorter total duration of exposure to +Gz, while group II (N=8) included cadets with a longer total duration of exposure to +Gz. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), and apolipoproteins A1 and B were assayed in blood serum prior to (assay A) and after (assay B) both exposures to +Gz. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) level was estimated from the Friedewald formula. WS is an own mathematical algorithm. WS was higher in group II, assay A - 10.0 and B - 10.08 of test I in the human centrifuge than in group I where the WS values were 6.91 and 6.96, respectively. WS was also higher in group II in assay A - 10.0 and B -10.1 of test II in the human centrifuge than in group I - 6.96 and 6.80, respectively. The higher value of WS in group II, both after the first and second exposure to +Gz in human centrifuge, in comparison with group I, indicated its usefulness for determination of the maximum capability of applying acceleration of the interval type during training in the human centrifuge.

  11. Effects of body mass index-related disorders on cognition: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesavage JA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jerome A Yesavage,1,2 Lisa M Kinoshita,1,2 Art Noda,2 Laura C Lazzeroni,2 Jennifer Kaci Fairchild,1,2 Joy Taylor,1,2 Doina Kulick,3 Leah Friedman,1,2 Jauhtai Cheng,1,2 Jamie M Zeitzer,1,2 Ruth O’Hara1,21Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USABackground: Well-known risk factors for cognitive impairment are also associated with obesity. Research has highlighted genetic risk factors for obesity, yet the relationship of those risk factors with cognitive impairment is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between cognition, hypertension, diabetes, sleep-disordered breathing, and obesity. Genetic risk factors of obesity were also examined.Methods: The sample consisted of 369 nondemented individuals aged 50 years or older from four community cohorts. Primary outcome measures included auditory verbal memory, as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and executive functioning, as measured by the Color–Word Interference Test of the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System battery. Apnea–hypopnea index indicators were determined during standard overnight polysomnography. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and linear regressions.Results: Poor executive function and auditory verbal memory were linked to cardiovascular risk factors, but not directly to obesity. Genetic factors appeared to have a small but measureable association to obesity.Conclusion: A direct linkage between obesity and poor executive function and auditory verbal memory is difficult to discern, possibly because nonobese individuals may show cognitive impairment due to insulin resistance and the “metabolic syndrome”.Keywords: sleep-disordered breathing, hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea, BMI, obesity

  12. Family meals and body mass index among adolescents: effects of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Murray, Marisa A; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine; Obeid, Nicole; Kukaswadia, Atif; Flament, Martine F

    2011-08-01

    Family meals have been identified as a protective factor against obesity among youth. However, gender specificities with respect to the relationship between the frequency of family meals and body mass index (BMI) have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the frequency of family meals and BMI in male and female adolescents, while controlling for potential confounding factors associated with BMI, such as parental education, adolescent's age, and snack-food eating. Research participants were 734 male and 1030 female students (mean age, 14.12 years, SD = 1.62) recruited from middle schools and high schools in the capital region of Canada. Participants completed validated, self-report measures to assess the frequency of family meals and the risk factors associated with increased BMI, which was derived from objective measures of height and weight. After controlling for proposed confounding variables, a higher frequency of family meals was associated with lower BMI in females, but not in males. A Z-transformation test of the homogeneity of adjusted correlation coefficients showed a significant trend (p = 0.06), indicating that the relationship between family meals and BMI is stronger in females than males, consistent with our regression analyses. Our findings suggest that eating together as a family may be a protective factor against obesity in female adolescents, but not in male adolescents. Findings from this study have important implications for parents and health care practitioners advocating for more frequent family meals as part of a comprehensive obesity prevention and treatment program for female adolescents.

  13. Determination of Uranium Concentration in Soil of Baghdad Governorate and its Effect on Mitotic Index Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mryoush, A.Q.; Salim, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the uranium concentration in soil samples taken from the north, south, east, west and center of the city of Baghdad and measure its impact on the rate of cell division for non-smokers peoples and living in those areas and that between the ages 25-30 year.The uranium concentration in the samples determined by using CR-39 track detector.As calculated for the ten samples of each site when irradiated by thermal neutrons from the (Am - Be) source with flux (5x 10 3 n S -1 cm -2 ), the concentration values were calculated by a comparison with standard geological samples. The results indicate that the extent of the concentration of uranium in the soil north and east of Baghdad was 12.9 ± 0.7 in Al- Taji north of Baghdad and 12.4 ± 0.23ppm in the Diyala- Bridge area east of Baghdad and the results were recorded lower concentration of uranium in the western, central and southern Baghdad, which stood at 0.60 ± 0.21 in the Abu Ghraib area west of Baghdad, and 4.6 ± 0.7ppm in the Bab-Al-Sharqee of central Baghdad and 0.87 ± 0.7ppm in Al-Mhmodya area south of Baghdad.The mitotic index assay MI in the north and east of Baghdad was 2.3 ± 0.059 in the north and 2.43 ± 0.059 in eastern Baghdad, while the lowest rate in West and Central and South compared with the threshold level of 0.6 . Which indicates contamination north and east of Baghdad as a result of uranium wars on Iraq passed in 2003 which negatively affects the behavior of lymphocytes and on the rate of division

  14. Effect of Body Mass Index on Intrafraction Prostate Displacement Monitored by Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Wayne M.; Morris, Mallory N.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Murray, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). Methods and Materials: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a “beam on” tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI ≥30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Results: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 ± 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 ± 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI ≥30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. Conclusions: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

  15. Air trapping on computed tomography images of healthy individuals: effects of respiration and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Tate, E.; Watarai, J.; Sasaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationships of changes in the lung area during respiration and of individual body mass index (BMI) to air trapping on expiratory computed tomography (CT) in young non-smoking adults of either gender. Methods: The volunteers were 10 women and 10 men (mean age 25.7 years) who were healthy lifelong non-smokers. We obtained both end-inspiratory and end-expiratory CT images at three levels: the upper, middle and lower lung. The ratio of cross-sectional lung area upon expiration to cross-sectional lung area upon inspiration (lung area ratio) was determined for each lung at each of the three levels. In cases showing air trapping, we calculated the percentage of area of air in relation to the total lung area in each section. BMI was calculated for each participant. Results: Air trapping was present in dependent areas of the lungs of 6 women and 5 men. The mean percentage of area of air trapped was statistically greater for men (9.8 ± 9.2%) than for women (4.9 ± 5.2%). The mean lung area ratio was 0.52 ± 0 14 among volunteers with air trapping (66 sections) and 0.69 ± 0.12 among those without air trapping (54 sections) (p < 0.001). At each lung level, the mean lung area ratio was greater in individuals with air trapping than in those without. Mean BMI was also greater in these people (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Change in the respiratory lung area and BMI contribute to development of air trapping

  16. "The impact of uncertain threat on affective bias: Individual differences in response to ambiguity": Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Reports an error in "The impact of uncertain threat on affective bias: Individual differences in response to ambiguity" by Maital Neta, Julie Cantelon, Zachary Haga, Caroline R. Mahoney, Holly A. Taylor and F. Caroline Davis ( Emotion , 2017[Dec], Vol 17[8], 1137-1143). In this article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed under the Creative Commons CC-BY license due to production-related error. The correct copyright should be "In the public domain." The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-40275-001.) Individuals who operate under highly stressful conditions (e.g., military personnel and first responders) are often faced with the challenge of quickly interpreting ambiguous information in uncertain and threatening environments. When faced with ambiguity, it is likely adaptive to view potentially dangerous stimuli as threatening until contextual information proves otherwise. One laboratory-based paradigm that can be used to simulate uncertain threat is known as threat of shock (TOS), in which participants are told that they might receive mild but unpredictable electric shocks while performing an unrelated task. The uncertainty associated with this potential threat induces a state of emotional arousal that is not overwhelmingly stressful, but has widespread-both adaptive and maladaptive-effects on cognitive and affective function. For example, TOS is thought to enhance aversive processing and abolish positivity bias. Importantly, in certain situations (e.g., when walking home alone at night), this anxiety can promote an adaptive state of heightened vigilance and defense mobilization. In the present study, we used TOS to examine the effects of uncertain threat on valence bias, or the tendency to interpret ambiguous social cues as positive or negative. As predicted, we found that heightened emotional arousal elicited by TOS was associated with an increased tendency to

  17. The Effect of Irrigation Intervals and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Chlorophyll Index, Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of irrigation intervals and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chlorophyll index, yield and yield components of grain sorghum. A factorial experiment was done based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at the Agriculture Research Station faculty of Agriculture, Bu- Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days with three levels of seed inoculation (control without inoculation, inoculation with Glomus mossea and inoculation with G. intraradices were the experimental treatments. Results indicated that the effect of irrigation intervals and mycorrhizal fungi were significant for traits of chlorophyll index, percentage of root symbiosis (PRS, number of grain per panicle, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and harvest index (HI. Maximum value for each trait was observed at G. mossea treatment. G. mossea treatment in comparison with G. intraradices and control treatment can increase the grain yield of sorghum up to 6.80 and 23.10%, respectively. Also, with increasing irrigation interval from 7 to 21 days, PRS increased up to 27.9%. Maximum value for grain yield (755 g m-2 was achieved at irrigation every 14 days and application of G. mossea treatment. But, there was no significant difference between irrigation sorghum plants every 14 days and application of G. mossea and irrigation every 7 days and application of either G. mossea or G. intraradices. In general, irrigation of sorghum plants every 14 days and supplying of G. mossea can produce the highest grain yield, while decreasing water consumption for sorghum production.

  18. Communication constraints, indexical countermeasures, and crew configuration effects in simulated space-dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Banner, Michele J.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.

    2007-02-01

    Previous research with groups of individually isolated crews communicating and problem-solving in a distributed interactive simulation environment has shown that the functional interchangeability of available communication channels can serve as an effective countermeasure to communication constraints. The present report extends these findings by investigating crew performance effects and psychosocial adaptation following: (1) the loss of all communication channels, and (2) changes in crew configuration. Three-person crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crews developed and employed discrete navigation system operations that served as functionally effective communication signals (i.e., “indexical” or “deictic” cues) in generating appropriate crewmember responses and maintaining performance effectiveness in the absence of normal communication channels. Additionally, changes in crew configuration impacted both performance effectiveness and psychosocial adaptation.

  19. A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR FINDING FUZZY SHORTEST PATHS IN UNCERTAIN NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heidari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In realistic network analysis, there are several uncertainties in the measurements and computation of the arcs and vertices. These uncertainties should also be considered in realizing the shortest path problem (SPP due to the inherent fuzziness in the body of expert's knowledge. In this paper, we investigated the SPP under uncertainty to evaluate our modified genetic strategy. We improved the performance of genetic algorithm (GA to investigate a class of shortest path problems on networks with vague arc weights. The solutions of the uncertain SPP with considering fuzzy path lengths are examined and compared in detail. As a robust metaheuristic, GA algorithm is modified and evaluated to tackle the fuzzy SPP (FSPP with uncertain arcs. For this purpose, first, a dynamic operation is implemented to enrich the exploration/exploitation patterns of the conventional procedure and mitigate the premature convergence of GA technique. Then, the modified GA (MGA strategy is used to resolve the FSPP. The attained results of the proposed strategy are compared to those of GA with regard to the cost, quality of paths and CPU times. Numerical instances are provided to demonstrate the success of the proposed MGA-FSPP strategy in comparison with GA. The simulations affirm that not only the proposed technique can outperform GA, but also the qualities of the paths are effectively improved. The results clarify that the competence of the proposed GA is preferred in view of quality quantities. The results also demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently be utilized to handle FSPP in uncertain networks.

  20. [Treatment of aerobic vaginitis and clinically uncertain causes of vulvovaginal discomfort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepický, P; Malina, J; Kuzelová, M

    2003-11-01

    The treatment of clinically uncertain conditions of vaginal discomforts with a mixed preparation of nifuratel + nystatin (Macmiror complex) and the relation of uncertain conditions to aerobic vaginitis. A prospective study. Gynecology-Obstetrics Outpatient Department LEVRET Ltd., AescuLab Ltd., Laboratory of Microbiology, Prague. 50 women with vaginal discomfort, causes of which had not been clarified by gynecological examination, determination of pH and the amine test, were examined by vaginal smears using microscopy. The results were evaluated in relation to aerobic vaginitis in a pure form or in combination with other nosological units. The authors also evaluated results of therapy by oral nifuratel (Macmiror tbl) 3 x 200 mg daily and a vaginal combined preparation containing nifuratel 500 mg + nystatin 200 kIU (Macmiror complex 500 glo vag) for the period of 7 days. In 50 women candida was demonstrated 24 times, presence of key cells 11 times, lactobacillus nine times with more than 50 in the field, six women were affected by aerobic vaginitis. In all these cases the pH was 4.8 or higher, leukocytes were significantly represented in all cases (> 15 in the field), as well as gram-negative bacteria and/or cocci (> 30 in the field), indicating a combined picture of mycosis, anaerobic vaginosis or lactobacillosis with aerobic vaginitis. The therapy was successful in all cases, the relapse of complaints during one month occurred in three cases. Aerobic vaginitis in a pure form or with anaerobic vaginosis, mycosis or lactobacillosis is frequently concealed under clinically uncertain pictures of vulvo-vaginal discomfort. The therapy by a combination of nifurated 3 x 200 mg orally together with the combined vaginal preparation nifuratel 500 mg + nystatin 200 kIU for the period of 7 days exerts high effect and a low number of relapses.

  1. Neural correlates of uncertain decision making: ERP evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-fang eCui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In our daily life, it is very common to make decisions in uncertain situations. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT has been widely used in laboratory studies because of its good simulation of uncertainty in real life activities. The present study aimed to examine the neural correlates of uncertain decision making with the IGT. Twenty-six university students completed this study. An adapted IGT was administered to them, and the EEG data were recorded. The adapted IGT we used allowed us to analyze the choice evaluation, response selection, and feedback evaluation stages of uncertain decision making within the same paradigm. In the choice evaluation stage, the advantageous decks evoked larger P3 amplitude in the left hemisphere, while the disadvantageous decks evoked larger P3 in the right hemisphere. In the response selection stage, the response of pass (the card was not turned over; the participants neither won nor lost money evoked larger negativity preceding the response compared to that of play (the card was turned over; the participant either won or lost money. In the feedback evaluation stage, feedback-related negativity was only sensitive to the valence (win/loss but not the magnitude (large/small of the outcome, and P3 was sensitive to both the valence and the magnitude of the outcome. These results were consistent with the notion that a positive somatic state was represented in the left hemisphere and a negative somatic state was represented in the right hemisphere. There were also anticipatory ERP effects that guided the participants’ responses and provided evidence for the somatic marker hypothesis with more precise timing.

  2. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEbrahim Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats, that were randomly divided into 4 groups including non diabetic control, diabetic control and two experimental groups receiving doses 60mg/kg of cinnamon extract for 3 and 6 weeks. At the end, by phlebotomizing of rats' heart, blood glucose and insulin were measured and using HOMA score insulin resistance was measured. To be normal data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done and data analyzed by SPSS-20 software and ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that in the group receiving the cinnamon extract, glycemic and insulin indexes were significantly adjusted. Conclusion: Cinnamon is probably due to have flavonoid and antioxidant compounds with antioxidant by increasing glucose uptake via the different body cells and due to reduction of oxidative stress level led to adjust glycemic and insulin indexes of blood

  3. The Effect of a Stretching- Strengthening Exercise Program on Decreasing Pain Index on Workers with Musculoskeletal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Ashraf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability among people during working years which impose high expenses on the society in different aspects. this study was conducted to assess the effect of a stretching- strengthening exercise program on decreasing pain index on workers with musculoskeletal complaints. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on cleaning unit workers in one of the factories producing hygiene instruments in Shiraz in 2006. All the fifty four employees were considered in our study. First, all workers were evaluated by the physiatrist under complete musculoskeletal examination and pain intensity was assessed by VAS and BPI indices. After 3 months, to confirm the chronicity of symptoms, the second examination was done and then exercise program was recommended for 3 months. The collected results were analyzed by SPSS software and non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Results: The primary mean of the VAS index was 5.00±2.27cm while after 3 months it was raised to 5.32±2.76 cm and reduced to 1.98±2.07 after doing exercise program, which is a significant decline (p< 0.001. Mean of different indices of BPI showed significant decrease after completing exercise program (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Doing an exercise program based on type of work, and availability of facilities in work environment is effective in decreasing musculoskeletal complaints as a primary cause of disability among workers.

  4. Lung recruitment maneuver effects on respiratory mechanics and extravascular lung water index in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Fen; Zeng, Zhen-Guo; Qian, Ke-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Animal experiments showed that recruitment maneuver (RM) and protective ventilation strategy of the lung could improve oxygenation and reduce extravascular lung water. This study was to investigate the effects of RM on respiratory mechanics and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty patients with ARDS were randomized into a RM group and a non-RM group. In the RM group, after basic mechanical ventilation stabilized for 30 minutes, RM was performed and repeated once every 12 hours for 3 days. In the non-RM group, lung protective strategy was conducted without RM. Oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), Plateau pressure (Pplat), static pulmonary compliance (Cst) and EVLWI of patients before treatment and at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after the treatment were measured and compared between the groups. Hemodynamic changes were observed before and after RM. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test and Fisher's exact test were used to process the data. The levels of PaO2/FiO2 and Cst increased after treatment in the two groups, but they were higher in the RM group than in the non-RM group (P0.05). RM could reduce EVLWI, increase oxygenation and lung compliance. The effect of RM on hemodynamics was transient.

  5. Effects of methylphenidate on body index and physical fitness in Korean children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Yun, Sin Weon; Chung, Unsun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Jeong Ha; Park, In Hui; Han, Doug Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The side effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on growth remain a controversial concern. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MPH on clinical symptoms, growth, and physical fitness in Korean children. Fifty male children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with methylphenidate (MPH-ADHD), 69 MPH-naïve male children with ADHD (Naïve-ADHD), and 60 age-matched and sex-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Intelligence quotient (IQ), clinical symptoms of ADHD, body index (height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]), and physical fitness (muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, agility, speed, and balance) were assessed. Total IQ and performance IQ scores were significantly different among the three groups, as were mean Korean Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (K-ARS)-total, K-ARS-inattention, and K-ARS-hyperactivity scores. There was no significant difference in height, weight, or BMI among the three groups. There were significant differences in skill-related fitness scores for balance (healthy controls > MPH-ADHD > Naïve-ADHD) and agility shuttle test time (healthy controls attention, and balance and agility measures of skill-related fitness in Korean children with ADHD. MPH was not associated with growth delays in height, weight, and BMI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. negeen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, Gholamabbas; Ranjbar, Morteza; Amiri, Aliasghar

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant’s productions for human consumptions.

  7. Effect of dextran-induced changes in refractive index and aggregation on optical properties of whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangqun; Wang, Ruikang K; Elder, James B; Tuchin, Valery V

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate systematically the mechanisms of alterations in the optical properties of whole blood immersed in the biocompatible agent dextran, and to define the optimal concentration of dextrans required for blood optical clearing in order to enhance the capability of light penetration depth for optical imaging applications. In the experiments, dextrans with different molecular weights and various concentrations were employed and investigated by the use of the optical coherence tomography technique. Changes in light attenuation, refractive index and aggregation properties of blood immersed in dextrans were studied. It was concluded from the results that the mechanisms for blood optical clearing are characteristic of the types of dextrans employed, their concentrations and the application stages. Among the substances applied, Dx500 at a concentration at 0.5 g dl -1 gives the best result in improving light penetration depth through the blood. The increase of light transmission at the beginning of the addition of dextrans is mainly attributed to refractive index matching between the scattering centres and the ground matter. Thereafter, the transmission change is probably due to a dextran-induced aggregation-disaggregation effect. Overall, light scattering in the blood could be effectively reduced by the application of dextrans. It represents a promising approach to increasing the imaging depth for in vivo optical imaging of biological tissue, for example optical coherence tomography

  8. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  9. Risk estimates of stochastic effects due to exposure to radiation - a stochastic harm index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Y.G.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of exposure to low level radiation on the survival probability and life expectancy were investigated. The 1977 vital statistics of Jewish males in Israel were used as a baseline, mainly the data on normalized survival probability and life expectation as functions of age. Assumed effects of exposure were superposed on these data and the net differences calculated. It was found that the realistic rate effects of exposure to radiation are generally less than calculated by multiplying the collective dose by the risk factor. The effects are strongly age-dependent, decreasing sharply with age at exposure. The assumed harm due to exposure can be more than offset by improvements in medical care and safety. (H.K.)

  10. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high-fat d...... metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil.......Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...

  11. REEXAMINING THE EXPIRATION DAY EFFECTS OF STOCK INDEX DERIVATIVES: EVIDENCE FROM TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Lin Chuang; Dar-Hsin Chen; Chung-Hsien Su

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether the expiration of derivative contracts affects the underlying spot assets in Taiwan. The expiration effect refers to abnormal return, price reversal, abnormal return volatility, and abnormal volume in underlying spot stock markets as derivatives contracts expire. Due to the unique settlement procedure in the Taiwan Futures Exchange, this study also examines if the expiration effects occur on the settlement day which is the next business day after the expiration day...

  12. Practical Stabilization of Uncertain Nonholonomic Mobile Robots Based on Visual Servoing Model with Uncalibrated Camera Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The practical stabilization problem is addressed for a class of uncertain nonholonomic mobile robots with uncalibrated visual parameters. Based on the visual servoing kinematic model, a new switching controller is presented in the presence of parametric uncertainties associated with the camera system. In comparison with existing methods, the new design method is directly used to control the original system without any state or input transformation, which is effective to avoid singularity. Under the proposed control law, it is rigorously proved that all the states of closed-loop system can be stabilized to a prescribed arbitrarily small neighborhood of the zero equilibrium point. Furthermore, this switching control technique can be applied to solve the practical stabilization problem of a kind of mobile robots with uncertain parameters (and angle measurement disturbance which appeared in some literatures such as Morin et al. (1998, Hespanha et al. (1999, Jiang (2000, and Hong et al. (2005. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller design approach.

  13. Adaptive Neural Output Feedback Control for Uncertain Robot Manipulators with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators with input saturation using the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and disturbance observer. First, the RBFNN is used to approximate the system uncertainty, and the unknown approximation error of the RBFNN and the time-varying unknown external disturbance of robot manipulators are integrated as a compounded disturbance. Then, the state observer and the disturbance observer are proposed to estimate the unmeasured system state and the unknown compounded disturbance based on RBFNN. At the same time, the adaptation technique is employed to tackle the control input saturation problem. Utilizing the estimate outputs of the RBFNN, the state observer, and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural output feedback control scheme is developed for robot manipulators using the backstepping technique. The convergence of all closed-loop signals is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the asymptotically convergent tracking error is obtained under the integrated effect of the system uncertainty, the unmeasured system state, the unknown external disturbance, and the input saturation. Finally, numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators.

  14. Fuzzy Backstepping Sliding Mode Control for Mismatched Uncertain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Q. Hou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mode controllers have succeeded in many control problems that the conventional control theories have difficulties to deal with; however it is practically impossible to achieve high-speed switching control. Therefore, in this paper an adaptive fuzzy backstepping sliding mode control scheme is derived for mismatched uncertain systems. Firstly fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed using backstepping method based on the Lyapunov function approach, which is capable of handling mismatched problem. Then fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed using T-S fuzzy model method, it can improve the performance of the control systems and their robustness. Finally this method of control is applied to nonlinear system as a case study; simulation results are also provided the performance of the proposed controller.

  15. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    , we simplify state prediction for the MPC. Consequently, the control problem of the nonlinear system is simplified into a quadratic programming. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation time, which is the traveling time of wind from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based......The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...... on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, the MPC without error compensation and an MPC with re-linearization at each sample point...

  16. AN UNCERTAIN FEDERALISM: THE STATES AND THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, L Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an initial assessment of the Affordable Care Act's recent implementation experience in the states. Drawing on state-level and regional analyses that have been coordinated by the ACA Implementation Network--a cooperative effort involving researchers in 35 states--this article highlights the uncertain policy environment associated with the politics and complexities of the ACA. Understanding the ACA implementation experience requires an appreciation for political context, but must also take into account underlying demographic, market, and state administrative capacity issues in the states. There are indications that the ACA implementation experience is moving from a highly charged partisan nature to a more accommodating posture long associated with intergovernmental relations between the federal and state government in health and human services administration. In short, the key questions going forward will turn on how, not whether, the ACA is implemented.

  17. Modern medicine and the "uncertain body": from corporeality to hyperreality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S J

    1997-10-01

    This paper (re)considers the role of medical technology at three interrelated levels: first, the extent to which medical technology renders our bodies increasingly "uncertain" at the turn of the century; second, the analytical purchase which the notion of the (medical) cyborg provides regarding contemporary forms of human embodiment; and finally, at a broader level, the issues this raises in relation to a (late) modernist or postmodernist reading of contemporary medical practice. Key themes here include the plastic body, the bionic body, communal/interchangeable bodies, (genetically) engineered/ chosen bodies, and virtual bodies. The paper concludes with a critical appraisal of these themes and issues, arguing for a late modernist position on medical technology as both a positive and negative rationalising force, and a "life political agenda" in which the "all-too-human" quality of human nature is seen as inviolable.

  18. Chernobyl, the true, the false and the uncertain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This work makes the part between the true and the false information in France about the Chernobyl accident that have been read in different newspapers during the last years. This document is divide in three parts: what is true, what is false, what is uncertain. In each part are noticed extracts from newspapers face to the synthesis of thoughts about them. It is the fourth edition, the first one was in April 1990, the second one was in 1992 after a report from IAEA on the radiological consequences, the third edition was born in 1994 with the emergence of thyroid cancers especially among children, this fourth edition of 1996 takes into account the sanitary report given by the World Health Organisation experts in 1995. It confirms the progression of thyroid cancers and the absence of any other cancer as well leukemia. (N.C.)

  19. Partnership Selection Involving Mixed Types of Uncertain Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partnership selection is an important issue in management science. This study proposes a general model based on mixed integer programming and goal-programming analytic hierarchy process (GP-AHP to solve partnership selection problems involving mixed types of uncertain or inconsistent preferences. The proposed approach is designed to deal with crisp, interval, step, fuzzy, or mixed comparison preferences, derive crisp priorities, and improve multiple solution problems. The degree of fulfillment of a decision maker’s preferences is also taken into account. The results show that the proposed approach keeps more solution ratios within the given preferred intervals and yields less deviation. In addition, the proposed approach can treat incomplete preference matrices with flexibility in reducing the number of pairwise comparisons required and can also be conveniently developed into a decision support system.

  20. Probabilistic confidence for decisions based on uncertain reliability estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stuart G.

    2013-05-01

    Reliability assessments are commonly carried out to provide a rational basis for risk-informed decisions concerning the design or maintenance of engineering systems and structures. However, calculated reliabilities and associated probabilities of failure often have significant uncertainties associated with the possible estimation errors relative to the 'true' failure probabilities. For uncertain probabilities of failure, a measure of 'probabilistic confidence' has been proposed to reflect the concern that uncertainty about the true probability of failure could result in a system or structure that is unsafe and could subsequently fail. The paper describes how the concept of probabilistic confidence can be applied to evaluate and appropriately limit the probabilities of failure attributable to particular uncertainties such as design errors that may critically affect the dependability of risk-acceptance decisions. This approach is illustrated with regard to the dependability of structural design processes based on prototype testing with uncertainties attributable to sampling variability.

  1. Multilateral Telecoordinated Control of Multiple Robots With Uncertain Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Di-Hua; Xia, Yuanqing

    2017-06-06

    This paper addresses the telecoordinated control of multiple robots in the simultaneous presence of asymmetric time-varying delays, nonpassive external forces, and uncertain kinematics/dynamics. To achieve the control objective, a neuroadaptive controller with utilizing prescribed performance control and switching control technique is developed, where the basic idea is to employ the concept of motion synchronization in each pair of master-slave robots and among all slave robots. By using the multiple Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals method, the state-independent input-to-output practical stability of the closed-loop system is established. Compared with the previous approaches, the new design is straightforward and easier to implement and is applicable to a wider area. Simulation results on three pairs of three degrees-of-freedom robots confirm the theoretical findings.

  2. The impact of marriage and parenthood on male body mass index: Static and dynamic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrda, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies investigated the link between marital status and BMI in the context of competing social science theories (marriage market, marriage selection, marriage protection and social obligation), frequently offering conflicting theoretical predictions and conflicting empirical findings. This study analysed the effects of marriage, divorce, pregnancy, and parenthood on male BMI in a longitudinal setting, avoiding the estimation bias of cross-sectional studies and allowing for an analysis of BMI fluctuation over time and the dynamic effects of these events. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 1999-2013 dataset (N = 8729), this study was the first to employ a dynamic panel-data estimation to examine the static and dynamic effects of marriage, divorce, and fatherhood on male BMI. The study showed that married men have higher BMI, but marital status changes largely drove this static effect, namely, an increase in BMI in the period following marriage, and a decrease in BMI preceding and following divorce. Thus, this study found marked evidence in support of the marriage market and social obligation theories' predictions about male BMI, and supports neither marriage protection theory nor marriage selection theory. Wives' pregnancies had no significant effect on BMI; instead, men tend to have higher BMI in the periods following childbirth. Finally, analyses showed marked contemporaneous correlations between husband and wife BMI over the course of marriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...... out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing...

  4. The effects of prone bridge exercise on the Oswestry disability index and proprioception of patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Park, Seol

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bridge exercises on the Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores and proprioception among patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 patients participated in this study. After eight weeks of bridge exercise, the joint position angle of the body trunk was measured and the ODI was used in survey form to investigate the intensity of the patients' low back pain. [Results] After eight weeks of exercise, the ODI showed significant differences in all three groups. Subjects' joint position sense of the trunk in both lumbar flexion and extension was also significantly different after completing the exercise program; this was true for all three groups. [Conclusion] Performing the prone bridge exercise for eight weeks improved proprioceptive function and reduced pain and impediment of activity, showing it a more effective exercise than other bridge exercises.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 449 ... Vol 1, No 3 (2012), Adult Functional Literacy Curriculum: Effective Strategy for Human ... and Exchange Rate Influence on the Nigerian Stock Market Index ... for the Stimulation and Attraction of Foreign Direct Investments ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 147 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Library (TEEAL) Database among faculty members in Federal University, ... Vol 5, No 2 (2014), Effects of corporate culture on the implementation of automation in ...

  7. [Effect of genetic polymorphisms on change in body mass index and obesity status during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M X; Cheng, H; Zhao, X Y; Wu, L J; Yan, Y K; Mi, J

    2017-07-06

    Objective: The present study aimed to prospectively validate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-related genes were associated with change in body mass index (BMI) and obesity status during childhood. Methods: Based on the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study (BCAMS), which was initiated between April and October in 2004, we conducted a follow-up study among 1 624 children aged 6 to 11 years old with genetic data in December 2010. A total of 777 children (246 obese and 531 non-obese) were reassessed for BMI. Z -score of BMI was used to standardize for age and sex. The changes in BMI Z -score during follow up were calcnlated SNPs were genotyped by quantitative Real-time PCR (rs9939609, rs6499640, rs7138803, rs1805081, rs17782313, rs6265, rs10938397, rs6235, rs29941, rs2844479, rs10913469 and rs4788102). Overweight and obesity were diagnosed by the age-and sex-specific BMI cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. A multilocus genetic risk score for BMI was calculated as the simple sum of alleles of all the SNPs associated with BMI. Linear regression models and logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of change in BMI Z-score and obese status with genotypes (assuming an additive model), respectively. Results: During 6 years of follow-up, 158 previously obese children remained obese as they aged into adolescence, and 88 transiently obese children were not obese during the second survey, 58 children were newly identified obese, and the other 473 children remained their non-obese state. BMI Z-score increased from 1.41±0.05 at baseline to 1.57±0.06 at follow up.The genotypes of the SNPs except rs6499640( P =0.033) and rs6265( P =0.041) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in each group ( P> 0.05). Each additional copy of the rs9939609 A allele was significantly associated with an increase in BMI Z-score (β=0.205, P= 0.014) during follow up. Per C allele of rs17782313 was associated

  8. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  9. Baseline studies and evaluation of effects of surface discharge of deep-sea mining - INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.

    . An evaluation of possible effects of surface discharge of mining fines - a slurry consisting of fine nodule fragments, bottom water and sediments - suggests that the discharge, with an expected solid content of 50 g/l, will induce increased primary production...

  10. Wave propagation method as an accurate technique for effective refractive index retrieving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    An effective parameters retrieval method based on the wave propagation simulation is proposed and compared with the standard S-parameter procedure. The method is free from possible mistakes originated by the multiple branching of solutions in the S-parameter procedure and shows high accuracy. The...

  11. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  12. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-01-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20–22; women: 50%; age: 50–80 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  13. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-04-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [ n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUC i ) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUC i ( P < 0.0001), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0066), and mean GL ( P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUC i ( P = 0.0026), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0139), and meal GL ( P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUC i or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  14. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4

  15. Network features of sector indexes spillover effects in China: A multi-scale view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sida; Huang, Shupei; Qi, Yabin; Liu, Xueyong; Sun, Qingru; Wen, Shaobo

    2018-04-01

    The spillover effects among sectors are of concern for distinct market participants, who are in distinct investment horizons and concerned with the information in different time scales. In order to uncover the hidden spillover information in multi-time scales in the rapidly changing stock market and thereby offer guidance to different investors concerning distinct time scales from a system perspective, this paper constructed directional spillover effect networks for the economic sectors in distinct time scales. The results are as follows: (1) The "2-4 days" scale is the most risky scale, and the "8-16 days" scale is the least risky one. (2) The most influential and sensitive sectors are distinct in different time scales. (3) Although two sectors in the same community may not have direct spillover relations, the volatility of one sector will have a relatively strong influence on the other through indirect relations.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise and fish oil supplements on plasma levels of inflammatory indexes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplement on plasma levels of IL-17, CPK and CRP in trained male mice. Totally, 54 healthy male mice (2 months old, weight= 34±1 grams) were selected. At first 10 mice were killed to determine base line values, the rest of them were randomly divided into four groups, control group (C, n=11), supplement group (S, n=11), training group (T, n=11) and supplement-training group (ST, n=11).The supplement and supplement-training groups were fed with 0.2cc/day fish oil for 8 weeks. Training and supplement-training groups underwent exercise for 5 sessions per week for a period of 8 weeks on animal treadmill. SPSS 16.0 software and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis of data Exercise and fish oil supplement lead to a decrease in CRP levels and subsequently causing a reduction in plasma levels of IL-17 and CK in mice (poil can reduce regulate inflammatory response caused by incremental exercise.

  17. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  18. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women, aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1 control conditions (only water; (2 low GI (LGI breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy; and (3 high GI (HGI breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy. Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR and pulse pressures (PPs. We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05 except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05. In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  19. High pulmonary vascular resistance in addition to low right ventricular stroke work index effectively predicts biventricular assist device requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Ono, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Although the right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI) is a good index for RV function, a low RVSWI is not necessarily an indicator for the need for a right ventricular assist device at the time of left VAD implantation. We here aimed to determine a more precise indicator for the need for a biventricular assist device (BiVAD). In total, 116 patients (mean age, 38 ± 14 years), who underwent hemodynamic assessments preoperatively including 12 BiVAD patients, and had been followed at our institute from 2003 to 2015, were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RVSWI and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were independent predictors of BiVAD requirement (P 5 g/m, PVR 5, PVR > 3.7), (3) RV failure (RVSWI 3.7), and examined. Most of the patients in Group 4 (75 %), with acutely depressed hemodynamics and inflammatory responses in the myocardium, required BiVAD. Overall, patients with BiVAD had a worse survival rate as compared with those with LVAD alone. In conclusion, high PVR in addition to low RVSWI effectively predicts BiVAD requirement.

  20. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.