WorldWideScience

Sample records for effective unified medical

  1. Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UMLS integrates and distributes key terminology, classification and coding standards, and associated resources to promote creation of more effective and...

  2. Unified theory of effective interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo, E-mail: k-takaya@sophia.ac.jp

    2016-09-15

    We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh–Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin–Wigner, and Bloch–Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa–Kuo and the extended Lee–Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.

  3. Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Link R. Swanson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available How do psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic range of acute effects in perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self? How do these effects relate to the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies? Efforts to understand psychedelic phenomena date back more than a century in Western science. In this article I review theories of psychedelic drug effects and highlight key concepts which have endured over the last 125 years of psychedelic science. First, I describe the subjective phenomenology of acute psychedelic effects using the best available data. Next, I review late 19th-century and early 20th-century theories—model psychoses theory, filtration theory, and psychoanalytic theory—and highlight their shared features. I then briefly review recent findings on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of psychedelic drugs in humans. Finally, I describe recent theories of psychedelic drug effects which leverage 21st-century cognitive neuroscience frameworks—entropic brain theory, integrated information theory, and predictive processing—and point out key shared features that link back to earlier theories. I identify an abstract principle which cuts across many theories past and present: psychedelic drugs perturb universal brain processes that normally serve to constrain neural systems central to perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self. I conclude that making an explicit effort to investigate the principles and mechanisms of psychedelic drug effects is a uniquely powerful way to iteratively develop and test unifying theories of brain function.

  4. Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R.

    2018-01-01

    How do psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic range of acute effects in perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self? How do these effects relate to the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies? Efforts to understand psychedelic phenomena date back more than a century in Western science. In this article I review theories of psychedelic drug effects and highlight key concepts which have endured over the last 125 years of psychedelic science. First, I describe the subjective phenomenology of acute psychedelic effects using the best available data. Next, I review late 19th-century and early 20th-century theories—model psychoses theory, filtration theory, and psychoanalytic theory—and highlight their shared features. I then briefly review recent findings on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of psychedelic drugs in humans. Finally, I describe recent theories of psychedelic drug effects which leverage 21st-century cognitive neuroscience frameworks—entropic brain theory, integrated information theory, and predictive processing—and point out key shared features that link back to earlier theories. I identify an abstract principle which cuts across many theories past and present: psychedelic drugs perturb universal brain processes that normally serve to constrain neural systems central to perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self. I conclude that making an explicit effort to investigate the principles and mechanisms of psychedelic drug effects is a uniquely powerful way to iteratively develop and test unifying theories of brain function. PMID:29568270

  5. Medical Imaging Lesion Detection Based on Unified Gravitational Fuzzy Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marie Vianney Kinani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a swift, robust, and practical tool for detecting brain lesions with minimal user intervention to assist clinicians and researchers in the diagnosis process, radiosurgery planning, and assessment of the patient’s response to the therapy. We propose a unified gravitational fuzzy clustering-based segmentation algorithm, which integrates the Newtonian concept of gravity into fuzzy clustering. We first perform fuzzy rule-based image enhancement on our database which is comprised of T1/T2 weighted magnetic resonance (MR and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images to facilitate a smoother segmentation. The scalar output obtained is fed into a gravitational fuzzy clustering algorithm, which separates healthy structures from the unhealthy. Finally, the lesion contour is automatically outlined through the initialization-free level set evolution method. An advantage of this lesion detection algorithm is its precision and its simultaneous use of features computed from the intensity properties of the MR scan in a cascading pattern, which makes the computation fast, robust, and self-contained. Furthermore, we validate our algorithm with large-scale experiments using clinical and synthetic brain lesion datasets. As a result, an 84%–93% overlap performance is obtained, with an emphasis on robustness with respect to different and heterogeneous types of lesion and a swift computation time.

  6. Unified Medical Command and Control in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    This is the Joint Task Force – Capital Medical (JTF CAPMED ) model, in which organizations, resources, and personnel are aligned under a single...This was demonstrated in the formation of the JTF- CAPMED , designed as a 3-star level command controlling military medical activities in the National...used ground vehicles, helicopters and fixed wing aircraft for strategic casualty evacuation (CASEVAC). Enroute care is standard and critical in

  7. Database Capture of Natural Language Echocardiographic Reports: A Unified Medical Language System Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canfield, K.; Bray, B.; Huff, S.; Warner, H.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a prototype system for semi-automatic database capture of free-text echocardiography reports. The system is very simple and uses a Unified Medical Language System compatible architecture. We use this system and a large body of texts to create a patient database and develop a comprehensive hierarchical dictionary for echocardiography.

  8. A unified framework for data modeling on medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, J; Cortez, P; Rocha, M; Abelha, A; Machado, J; Alves, V; Basto, S; Botelho, H; Neves, J

    1999-01-01

    Medical Information Systems (MIS) are seen as a way of optimizing the use of existing health-care infrastructure, without resorting to new and costly hospital (re)construction. The qualitative (re)design of such an environment requires a basic understanding of patient and doctors related characteristics and capabilities. Patient care, patient education, medical education, and clinical research need to be considered to meet the basic requirements on the level of services desirable, determined on the basis of the patient's length of stay; i.e., used for modeling the significant entities of such a world. The aim is to extract conclusions for the level of services provided to the users. One's concept will capture, as well as will integrate, the basic design principles under which MIS may be set.

  9. Possible unifying effect of the dynamic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.E.

    1983-05-01

    This report presents the tentative results of recent research during which a neocoulombic electrostatic force of the form (k/r 2 )(1-lambda/r) exp(-lambda/r) was derived. This neocoulombic force offers a possible alternative explanation of nuclear phenomena without the necessity for postulating the existence of nuclear forces, and it allows the prediction of nuclear masses. The result is a view of physics in a five-dimensional manifold of space, time, and mass density in which the gauge field includes gravitational and electromagnetic components coupled by a single system of eight differential equations, quantum effects occur as the result of a restrictive assumption, and nuclear phenomena result from the new form for the electrostatic force. Also, the geometrical effect on the unit of action in quantum mechanics is presented, the self-energy of charged particles is calculated, and experimental tests of the theory are suggested

  10. A unified treatment of kinetic effects in a tokamak pedestal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, Peter J; Landreman, Matt; Kagan, Grigory; Pusztai, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effects of a finite pedestal radial electric field on ion orbits using a unified approach. We then employ these modified orbit results to retain finite E x B drift departures from flux surfaces in an improved drift-kinetic equation. The procedure allows us to make a clear distinction between transit averages and flux surface averages when solving this kinetic equation. The technique outlined here is intended to clarify and unify recent evaluations of the banana regime decrease and plateau regime alterations in the ion heat diffusivity; the reduction and possible reversal of the poloidal flow in the banana regime, and its augmentation in the plateau regime; the increase in the bootstrap current; and the enhancement of the residual zonal flow regulation of turbulence.

  11. A chemical specialty semantic network for the Unified Medical Language System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrey C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terms representing chemical concepts found the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS are used to derive an expanded semantic network with mutually exclusive semantic types. The UMLS Semantic Network (SN is composed of a collection of broad categories called semantic types (STs that are assigned to concepts. Within the UMLS’s coverage of the chemical domain, we find a great deal of concepts being assigned more than one ST. This leads to the situation where the extent of a given ST may contain concepts elaborating variegated semantics. A methodology for expanding the chemical subhierarchy of the SN into a finer-grained categorization of mutually exclusive types with semantically uniform extents is presented. We call this network a Chemical Specialty Semantic Network (CSSN. A CSSN is derived automatically from the existing chemical STs and their assignments. The methodology incorporates a threshold value governing the minimum size of a type’s extent needed for inclusion in the CSSN. Thus, different CSSNs can be created by choosing different threshold values based on varying requirements. Results A complete CSSN is derived using a threshold value of 300 and having 68 STs. It is used effectively to provide high-level categorizations for a random sample of compounds from the “Chemical Entities of Biological Interest” (ChEBI ontology. The effect on the size of the CSSN using various threshold parameter values between one and 500 is shown. Conclusions The methodology has several potential applications, including its use to derive a pre-coordinated guide for ST assignments to new UMLS chemical concepts, as a tool for auditing existing concepts, inter-terminology mapping, and to serve as an upper-level network for ChEBI.

  12. Predicting medical staff intention to use an online reporting system with modified unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Chiu; Hsu, Hui-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to report incident events using an online information system (IS) may be different from those of a paper-based reporting system. The nationwide online Patient-Safety Reporting System (PSRS) contains a value judgment behind use of the system, similar to the Value of Perceived Consequence (VPC), which is seldom discussed in ISs applications of other disciplines. This study developed a more adequate research framework by integrating the VPC construct into the well-known Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model as a theoretical base to explore the predictors of medical staff's intention to use online PSRS. The results showed that management support was an important factor to influence medical staff's intention of using PSRS. The effects of factors such as performance expectancy, perceived positive, and perceived negative consequence on medical staff's intention of using PSRS were moderated by gender, age, experience, and occupation. The results proved that the modified UTAUT model is significant and useful in predicting medical staff's intention of using the nationwide online PSRS.

  13. Knowledge Discovery from Posts in Online Health Communities Using Unified Medical Language System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Patient-reported posts in Online Health Communities (OHCs contain various valuable information that can help establish knowledge-based online support for online patients. However, utilizing these reports to improve online patient services in the absence of appropriate medical and healthcare expert knowledge is difficult. Thus, we propose a comprehensive knowledge discovery method that is based on the Unified Medical Language System for the analysis of narrative posts in OHCs. First, we propose a domain-knowledge support framework for OHCs to provide a basis for post analysis. Second, we develop a Knowledge-Involved Topic Modeling (KI-TM method to extract and expand explicit knowledge within the text. We propose four metrics, namely, explicit knowledge rate, latent knowledge rate, knowledge correlation rate, and perplexity, for the evaluation of the KI-TM method. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed method outperforms existing methods in terms of providing knowledge support. Our method enhances knowledge support for online patients and can help develop intelligent OHCs in the future.

  14. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBozec, C; Jaulent, M C; Zapletal, E; Degoulet, P

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users.

  15. A Simple But Effective Canonical Dual Theory Unified Algorithm for Global Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2011-01-01

    Numerical global optimization methods are often very time consuming and could not be applied for high-dimensional nonconvex/nonsmooth optimization problems. Due to the nonconvexity/nonsmoothness, directly solving the primal problems sometimes is very difficult. This paper presents a very simple but very effective canonical duality theory (CDT) unified global optimization algorithm. This algorithm has convergence is proved in this paper. More important, for this CDT-unified algorithm, numerous...

  16. Social medicalization and alternative and complementary medicine: the pluralization of health services in the Brazilian Unified Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2008-10-01

    Social medicalization transforms people's habits, discourages them from finding their own solutions to certain health problems and places an excess demand on the Unified Health System. With regard to healthcare provision, an alternative to social medicalization is the pluralization of treatment provided by health institutions namely through the recognition and provision of alternative and complementary practices and medicines. The objective of the article was to analyze the potentials and difficulties of alternative and complementary practices and medicines based on clinical and institutional experiences and on the specialist literature. The research concludes that the potential of such a strategy to "demedicalize" is limited and should be included in the remit of the Unified Health System. The article highlights that the Biosciences retain a political and epistemiological hegemony over medicine and that the area of healthcare is dominated by market principles, whereby there is a trend towards the transformation of any kind of knowledge or structured practice related to health-illness processes into goods or procedures to be consumed, and this only reinforces heteronomy and medicalization.

  17. Medications and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  18. A Unified Impedance Model of Voltage-Source Converters with Phase-Locked Loop Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Harnefors, Lennart; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a unified impedance model for analyzing the effect of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) on the stability of grid-connected voltage-source converters. In the approach, the dq-frame impedance model is transformed into the stationary αβ-frame by means of complex transfer functions...... and complex space vectors, which not only predicts the stability impact of the PLL, but reveals also its frequency coupling effect in the phase domain. Thus, the impedance models previously developed in the different domains can be unified. Moreover, the impedance shaping effects of PLL are structurally...... characterized for the current control in the rotating dq-frame and the stationary αβ-frame. Case studies based on the unified impedance model are presented, which are then verified in the time-domain simulations and experiments. The results closely correlate with the impedance-based analysis....

  19. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  20. Unified communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  1. Effectiveness of medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either the constitutive causal basis of a disease or the harms caused by the disease (or ideally both). This provides a theoretical underpinning to the two principle aims of medical treatment: care and cure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ODMSummary: A Tool for Automatic Structured Comparison of Multiple Medical Forms Based on Semantic Annotation with the Unified Medical Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Krumm, Rainer; Dugas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Medical documentation is applied in various settings including patient care and clinical research. Since procedures of medical documentation are heterogeneous and developed further, secondary use of medical data is complicated. Development of medical forms, merging of data from different sources and meta-analyses of different data sets are currently a predominantly manual process and therefore difficult and cumbersome. Available applications to automate these processes are limited. In particular, tools to compare multiple documentation forms are missing. The objective of this work is to design, implement and evaluate the new system ODMSummary for comparison of multiple forms with a high number of semantically annotated data elements and a high level of usability. System requirements are the capability to summarize and compare a set of forms, enable to estimate the documentation effort, track changes in different versions of forms and find comparable items in different forms. Forms are provided in Operational Data Model format with semantic annotations from the Unified Medical Language System. 12 medical experts were invited to participate in a 3-phase evaluation of the tool regarding usability. ODMSummary (available at https://odmtoolbox.uni-muenster.de/summary/summary.html) provides a structured overview of multiple forms and their documentation fields. This comparison enables medical experts to assess multiple forms or whole datasets for secondary use. System usability was optimized based on expert feedback. The evaluation demonstrates that feedback from domain experts is needed to identify usability issues. In conclusion, this work shows that automatic comparison of multiple forms is feasible and the results are usable for medical experts.

  3. Effects of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on Distance Relay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the effects of UPFC on Distance Relay tripping characteristics in Nigerian 330kV (North-Central) Network. Its operation is based on impedance measurement at the relaying point. However, the system performance is often impeded by certain operational or structural factors such as load angle, the ...

  4. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Dose–Response Assessment of Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slob, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Background When chemical health hazards have been identified, probabilistic dose–response assessment (“hazard characterization”) quantifies uncertainty and/or variability in toxicity as a function of human exposure. Existing probabilistic approaches differ for different types of endpoints or modes-of-action, lacking a unifying framework. Objectives We developed a unified framework for probabilistic dose–response assessment. Methods We established a framework based on four principles: a) individual and population dose responses are distinct; b) dose–response relationships for all (including quantal) endpoints can be recast as relating to an underlying continuous measure of response at the individual level; c) for effects relevant to humans, “effect metrics” can be specified to define “toxicologically equivalent” sizes for this underlying individual response; and d) dose–response assessment requires making adjustments and accounting for uncertainty and variability. We then derived a step-by-step probabilistic approach for dose–response assessment of animal toxicology data similar to how nonprobabilistic reference doses are derived, illustrating the approach with example non-cancer and cancer datasets. Results Probabilistically derived exposure limits are based on estimating a “target human dose” (HDMI), which requires risk management–informed choices for the magnitude (M) of individual effect being protected against, the remaining incidence (I) of individuals with effects ≥ M in the population, and the percent confidence. In the example datasets, probabilistically derived 90% confidence intervals for HDMI values span a 40- to 60-fold range, where I = 1% of the population experiences ≥ M = 1%–10% effect sizes. Conclusions Although some implementation challenges remain, this unified probabilistic framework can provide substantially more complete and transparent characterization of chemical hazards and support better-informed risk

  5. Performance evaluation of unified medical language system®'s synonyms expansion to query PubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffon Nicolas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubMed is the main access to medical literature on the Internet. In order to enhance the performance of its information retrieval tools, primarily non-indexed citations, the authors propose a method: expanding users' queries using Unified Medical Language System' (UMLS synonyms i.e. all the terms gathered under one unique Concept Unique Identifier. Methods This method was evaluated using queries constructed to emphasize the differences between this new method and the current PubMed automatic term mapping. Four experts assessed citation relevance. Results Using UMLS, we were able to retrieve new citations in 45.5% of queries, which implies a small increase in recall. The new strategy led to a heterogeneous 23.7% mean increase in non-indexed citation retrieved. Of these, 82% have been published less than 4 months earlier. The overall mean precision was 48.4% but differed according to the evaluators, ranging from 36.7% to 88.1% (Inter rater agreement was poor: kappa = 0.34. Conclusions This study highlights the need for specific search tools for each type of user and use-cases. The proposed strategy may be useful to retrieve recent scientific advancement.

  6. From plastic to gold: a unified classification scheme for reference standards in medical image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Thomas M.

    2002-05-01

    Reliable evaluation of medical image processing is of major importance for routine applications. Nonetheless, evaluation is often omitted or methodically defective when novel approaches or algorithms are introduced. Adopted from medical diagnosis, we define the following criteria to classify reference standards: 1. Reliance, if the generation or capturing of test images for evaluation follows an exactly determined and reproducible protocol. 2. Equivalence, if the image material or relationships considered within an algorithmic reference standard equal real-life data with respect to structure, noise, or other parameters of importance. 3. Independence, if any reference standard relies on a different procedure than that to be evaluated, or on other images or image modalities than that used routinely. This criterion bans the simultaneous use of one image for both, training and test phase. 4. Relevance, if the algorithm to be evaluated is self-reproducible. If random parameters or optimization strategies are applied, reliability of the algorithm must be shown before the reference standard is applied for evaluation. 5. Significance, if the number of reference standard images that are used for evaluation is sufficient large to enable statistically founded analysis. We demand that a true gold standard must satisfy the Criteria 1 to 3. Any standard only satisfying two criteria, i.e., Criterion 1 and Criterion 2 or Criterion 1 and Criterion 3, is referred to as silver standard. Other standards are termed to be from plastic. Before exhaustive evaluation based on gold or silver standards is performed, its relevance must be shown (Criterion 4) and sufficient tests must be carried out to found statistical analysis (Criterion 5). In this paper, examples are given for each class of reference standards.

  7. Effects of extra light Z bosons in unified and superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.M.

    1985-07-01

    We discuss the low energy effects of extra light Z bosons in unified models especially in those models which might arise from the E 8 x E' 8 superstring. We find that deviations from the standard model in neutral-current scattering data can give a very sensitive test of the presense of such bosons, of unification, and of the pattern of symmetry breaking. Such deviations have already in fact been observed and seem consistent both with SO(10) and with most of the models arising from the E 8 x E 8 superstring. We also discuss flavor changing effects such as μ → 3e. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. A Unified Model of Performance for Predicting the Effects of Sleep and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Wesensten, Nancy J.; Kamimori, Gary H.; Moon, James E.; Balkin, Thomas J.; Reifman, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Existing mathematical models of neurobehavioral performance cannot predict the beneficial effects of caffeine across the spectrum of sleep loss conditions, limiting their practical utility. Here, we closed this research gap by integrating a model of caffeine effects with the recently validated unified model of performance (UMP) into a single, unified modeling framework. We then assessed the accuracy of this new UMP in predicting performance across multiple studies. Methods: We hypothesized that the pharmacodynamics of caffeine vary similarly during both wakefulness and sleep, and that caffeine has a multiplicative effect on performance. Accordingly, to represent the effects of caffeine in the UMP, we multiplied a dose-dependent caffeine factor (which accounts for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of caffeine) to the performance estimated in the absence of caffeine. We assessed the UMP predictions in 14 distinct laboratory- and field-study conditions, including 7 different sleep-loss schedules (from 5 h of sleep per night to continuous sleep loss for 85 h) and 6 different caffeine doses (from placebo to repeated 200 mg doses to a single dose of 600 mg). Results: The UMP accurately predicted group-average psychomotor vigilance task performance data across the different sleep loss and caffeine conditions (6% caffeine resulted in improved predictions (after caffeine consumption) by up to 70%. Conclusions: The UMP provides the first comprehensive tool for accurate selection of combinations of sleep schedules and caffeine countermeasure strategies to optimize neurobehavioral performance. Citation: Ramakrishnan S, Wesensten NJ, Kamimori GH, Moon JE, Balkin TJ, Reifman J. A unified model of performance for predicting the effects of sleep and caffeine. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1827–1841. PMID:27397562

  9. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Dose-Response Assessment of Human Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A; Slob, Wout

    2015-12-01

    When chemical health hazards have been identified, probabilistic dose-response assessment ("hazard characterization") quantifies uncertainty and/or variability in toxicity as a function of human exposure. Existing probabilistic approaches differ for different types of endpoints or modes-of-action, lacking a unifying framework. We developed a unified framework for probabilistic dose-response assessment. We established a framework based on four principles: a) individual and population dose responses are distinct; b) dose-response relationships for all (including quantal) endpoints can be recast as relating to an underlying continuous measure of response at the individual level; c) for effects relevant to humans, "effect metrics" can be specified to define "toxicologically equivalent" sizes for this underlying individual response; and d) dose-response assessment requires making adjustments and accounting for uncertainty and variability. We then derived a step-by-step probabilistic approach for dose-response assessment of animal toxicology data similar to how nonprobabilistic reference doses are derived, illustrating the approach with example non-cancer and cancer datasets. Probabilistically derived exposure limits are based on estimating a "target human dose" (HDMI), which requires risk management-informed choices for the magnitude (M) of individual effect being protected against, the remaining incidence (I) of individuals with effects ≥ M in the population, and the percent confidence. In the example datasets, probabilistically derived 90% confidence intervals for HDMI values span a 40- to 60-fold range, where I = 1% of the population experiences ≥ M = 1%-10% effect sizes. Although some implementation challenges remain, this unified probabilistic framework can provide substantially more complete and transparent characterization of chemical hazards and support better-informed risk management decisions.

  10. A unifying Bayesian account of contextual effects in value-based choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rigoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests the incentive value of an option is affected by other options available during choice and by options presented in the past. These contextual effects are hard to reconcile with classical theories and have inspired accounts where contextual influences play a crucial role. However, each account only addresses one or the other of the empirical findings and a unifying perspective has been elusive. Here, we offer a unifying theory of context effects on incentive value attribution and choice based on normative Bayesian principles. This formulation assumes that incentive value corresponds to a precision-weighted prediction error, where predictions are based upon expectations about reward. We show that this scheme explains a wide range of contextual effects, such as those elicited by other options available during choice (or within-choice context effects. These include both conditions in which choice requires an integration of multiple attributes and conditions where a multi-attribute integration is not necessary. Moreover, the same scheme explains context effects elicited by options presented in the past or between-choice context effects. Our formulation encompasses a wide range of contextual influences (comprising both within- and between-choice effects by calling on Bayesian principles, without invoking ad-hoc assumptions. This helps clarify the contextual nature of incentive value and choice behaviour and may offer insights into psychopathologies characterized by dysfunctional decision-making, such as addiction and pathological gambling.

  11. A unified frame of predicting side effects of drugs by using linear neighborhood similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yue, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Chen, Yanlin; Tu, Shikui; Zhang, Xining

    2017-12-14

    Drug side effects are one of main concerns in the drug discovery, which gains wide attentions. Investigating drug side effects is of great importance, and the computational prediction can help to guide wet experiments. As far as we known, a great number of computational methods have been proposed for the side effect predictions. The assumption that similar drugs may induce same side effects is usually employed for modeling, and how to calculate the drug-drug similarity is critical in the side effect predictions. In this paper, we present a novel measure of drug-drug similarity named "linear neighborhood similarity", which is calculated in a drug feature space by exploring linear neighborhood relationship. Then, we transfer the similarity from the feature space into the side effect space, and predict drug side effects by propagating known side effect information through a similarity-based graph. Under a unified frame based on the linear neighborhood similarity, we propose method "LNSM" and its extension "LNSM-SMI" to predict side effects of new drugs, and propose the method "LNSM-MSE" to predict unobserved side effect of approved drugs. We evaluate the performances of LNSM and LNSM-SMI in predicting side effects of new drugs, and evaluate the performances of LNSM-MSE in predicting missing side effects of approved drugs. The results demonstrate that the linear neighborhood similarity can improve the performances of side effect prediction, and the linear neighborhood similarity-based methods can outperform existing side effect prediction methods. More importantly, the proposed methods can predict side effects of new drugs as well as unobserved side effects of approved drugs under a unified frame.

  12. A Unified Model of Performance for Predicting the Effects of Sleep and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kamimori, Gary H; Moon, James E; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2016-10-01

    Existing mathematical models of neurobehavioral performance cannot predict the beneficial effects of caffeine across the spectrum of sleep loss conditions, limiting their practical utility. Here, we closed this research gap by integrating a model of caffeine effects with the recently validated unified model of performance (UMP) into a single, unified modeling framework. We then assessed the accuracy of this new UMP in predicting performance across multiple studies. We hypothesized that the pharmacodynamics of caffeine vary similarly during both wakefulness and sleep, and that caffeine has a multiplicative effect on performance. Accordingly, to represent the effects of caffeine in the UMP, we multiplied a dose-dependent caffeine factor (which accounts for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of caffeine) to the performance estimated in the absence of caffeine. We assessed the UMP predictions in 14 distinct laboratory- and field-study conditions, including 7 different sleep-loss schedules (from 5 h of sleep per night to continuous sleep loss for 85 h) and 6 different caffeine doses (from placebo to repeated 200 mg doses to a single dose of 600 mg). The UMP accurately predicted group-average psychomotor vigilance task performance data across the different sleep loss and caffeine conditions (6% caffeine resulted in improved predictions (after caffeine consumption) by up to 70%. The UMP provides the first comprehensive tool for accurate selection of combinations of sleep schedules and caffeine countermeasure strategies to optimize neurobehavioral performance. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Unified Drain Current Model of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons with Uniaxial Strain and Quantum Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EngSiew Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A unified current-voltage I-V model of uniaxial strained armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs incorporating quantum confinement effects is presented in this paper. The I-V model is enhanced by integrating both linear and saturation regions into a unified and precise model of AGNRs. The derivation originates from energy dispersion throughout the entire Brillouin zone of uniaxial strained AGNRs based on the tight-binding approximation. Our results reveal the modification of the energy band gap, carrier density, and drain current upon strain. The effects of quantum confinement were investigated in terms of the quantum capacitance calculated from the broadening density of states. The results show that quantum effect is greatly dependent on the magnitude of applied strain, gate voltage, channel length, and oxide thickness. The discrepancies between the classical calculation and quantum calculation were also measured and it has been found to be as high as 19% drive current loss due to the quantum confinement. Our finding which is in good agreement with the published data provides significant insight into the device performance of uniaxial strained AGNRs in nanoelectronic applications.

  14. The Brazilian Unified National Health System: Proposal of a Cost-effectiveness Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Unified National Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS] is in a prominent position compared to the existing social policies. One of the new tools used by SUS is known as Performance Index of the Unified Health System (Índice de Desempenho do Sistema Único de Saúde [IDSUS], which is intended to measure the performance of each municipality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a model of cost-effectiveness to compare IDSUS performance against total revenues achieved in Homogeneous Group 2, consisting of 94 municipalities and analysed using data from IDSUS and the System Information of the Public Budget for Health Care (Sistema de Informação do Orçamento Público em Saúde [SIOPS] for the year 2011. After structuring this data, we carried out descriptive statistical and cluster analysis in order to group similar municipalities in accordance with established variables: IDSUS performance, population and total revenue in health per capita. Even with the division of municipalities into homogeneous groups and after using variables such as population and revenue to regroup them, the results showed there are municipalities with heterogeneous characteristics. Another finding is in the use and intersection of two distinct databases (IDSUS and SIOPS, which allowed for visualizing the impact of health care revenue on the municipalities performance.

  15. Generalized linear models with random effects unified analysis via H-likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Youngjo; Pawitan, Yudi

    2006-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1972, generalized linear models (GLMs) have proven useful in the generalization of classical normal models. Presenting methods for fitting GLMs with random effects to data, Generalized Linear Models with Random Effects: Unified Analysis via H-likelihood explores a wide range of applications, including combining information over trials (meta-analysis), analysis of frailty models for survival data, genetic epidemiology, and analysis of spatial and temporal models with correlated errors.Written by pioneering authorities in the field, this reference provides an introduction to various theories and examines likelihood inference and GLMs. The authors show how to extend the class of GLMs while retaining as much simplicity as possible. By maximizing and deriving other quantities from h-likelihood, they also demonstrate how to use a single algorithm for all members of the class, resulting in a faster algorithm as compared to existing alternatives. Complementing theory with examples, many of...

  16. Baryon-number generation in supersymmetric unified models: the effect of supermassive fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Raby, S.

    1983-01-01

    In supersymmetric unified models, baryon-number-violating reactions may be mediated by supermassive fermions in addition to the usual supermassive bosons. The effective low-energy baryon-number-violating cross section for fermion-mediated reactions is sigma/sub DeltaB/approx.g 4 /m 2 , where g is a coupling constant and m is the supermassive fermion mass, as opposed to sigma/sub DeltaB/approx.g 4 s/m 4 for scalar- or vector-mediated reactions (√s is the center-of-mass energy). Since the fermion-mediated cross section is larger at low energy, it is more effective at damping the baryon number produced in decay of the supermassive particles. In this paper we calculate baryon-number generation in models with fermion-mediated baryon-number-violating reactions, and discuss implications for supersymmetric model building

  17. Assessment of the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Helena Corgosinho Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of interventions on the levels of physical activity of healthy adults, users of the Brazilian Unified Health System and attended by the Family Health Strategy. METHODS Non-randomized experimental study with 157 adults allocated in three groups: 1 physical exercise classes (n = 54, 2 health education (n = 54, 3 control (n = 49. The study lasted for18 months, with 12 months of interventions and six months of follow-up after intervention. Assessments took place at the beginning, in the 12 months, and in the 18 months of study. Physical activity has been assessed by questionnaires and accelerometry. For the analyses, we have used the intention-to-treat principle and generalized estimating equations. RESULTS After 12 months, both intervention groups have increased the minutes of weekly leisure time physical activity and annual scores of physical exercise, leisure and transport-related physical activity. The exercise class group has obtained the highest average annual physical exercises score when compared to the other groups (p < 0.001. In the follow-up period, the exercise class group reduced its annual score (average: -0.3; 95%CI -0.5–-0.1, while the health education group increased this score (average: 0.2; 95%CI 0.1–0.4. There have been no differences in the levels of physical activity measured by accelerometry. CONCLUSIONS The interventions have been effective in increasing the practice of physical activity. However, we have observed that the health education intervention was more effective for maintaining the practice of physical activity in the period after intervention. We recommend the use of both interventions to promote physical activity in the Brazilian Unified Health System, according to the local reality of professionals, facilities, and team objectives.

  18. Successful N2 leptogenesis with flavour coupling effects in realistic unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    In realistic unified models involving so-called SO(10)-inspired patterns of Dirac and heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino masses, the lightest right-handed neutrino N 1 is too light to yield successful thermal leptogenesis, barring highly fine tuned solutions, while the second heaviest right-handed neutrino N 2 is typically in the correct mass range. We show that flavour coupling effects in the Boltzmann equations may be crucial to the success of such N 2 dominated leptogenesis, by helping to ensure that the flavour asymmetries produced at the N 2 scale survive N 1 washout. To illustrate these effects we focus on N 2 dominated leptogenesis in an existing model, the A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam, where the neutrino Dirac mass matrix may be equal to an up-type quark mass matrix and has a particular constrained structure. The numerical results, supported by analytical insight, show that in order to achieve successful N 2 leptogenesis, consistent with neutrino phenomenology, requires a ''flavour swap scenario'' together with a less hierarchical pattern of RH neutrino masses than naively expected, at the expense of some mild fine-tuning. In the considered A to Z model neutrino masses are predicted to be normal ordered, with an atmospheric neutrino mixing angle well into the second octant and the Dirac phase δ≅ 20 o , a set of predictions that will be tested in the next years in neutrino oscillation experiments. Flavour coupling effects may be relevant for other SO(10)-inspired unified models where N 2 leptogenesis is necessary

  19. The effect of size-control policy on unified energy and carbon efficiency for Chinese fossil fuel power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Kong, Fanbin; Choi, Yongrok; Zhou, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of size control policy on the energy and carbon efficiency for Chinese fossil fuel power industry. For this purpose, we propose two non-radial directional distance functions for energy/carbon efficiency analysis of fossil fuel electricity generation. One is named a total-factor directional distance function that incorporates the inefficiency of all input and output factors to measure the unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of fossil fuel power plants, and the other is called an energy–environmental directional distance function that can be used to measure the energy–environmental performance of fossil fuel electric power plants. Several standardized indicators for measuring unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance are derived from the two directional distance functions. An empirical study of 252 fossil fuel power plants in China is conducted by using the proposed approach. Our empirical results show that there exists a significant positive relationship between the plant size and unified efficiency, the five state-owned companies show lower unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance than other companies. It is suggested that Chinese government might need to consider private incentives and deregulation for its state-owned enterprises to improve their performance proactively. - Highlights: • Two non-radial directional distance functions are presented for energy/carbon efficiency analysis. • An empirical study of 252 fossil fuel power plants in China is conducted. • The five state-owned companies show lower unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance

  20. Rural Navajo Students in Kayenta Unified School District's Special Education Programs: The Effects of Home Location and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbecker, Connie; Bradley-Wilkinson, Evangeline; Nelson, Bernita; Smith, Jody; Whitehair, Marsha; Begay, Mary H.; Bradley, Brian; Gamble, Armanda; McCarty, Nellie; Medina, Catherine; Nelson, Jacob; Pettigrew, Bobbie; Sealander, Karen; Snyder, Maria; White, Sherri; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg

    In Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) on the Navajo Reservation, 92 percent of students come from homes where Navajo is the primary language, but many students entering school are not fluent in either English or Navajo. A survey of 23 educators examined the effects of language and culture on the likelihood that a student would be placed in…

  1. Copenhagen's single system premise prevents a unified view of integer and fractional quantum hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Evert Jan

    1999-05-01

    This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction between ensemble disorder as in the normal Hall effect versus ensemble order in the plateau states. Since the order of the latter permits a view of the plateau states as a macro- or meso-scopic single system, the period integral description applies, yielding a straightforward unified description of integer and fractional quantum Hall effects.

  2. The Effectiveness of the Unified Protocol on Emotional Dysregulation and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mazaheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The unified treatment approach (UP is an emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in which the main object of treatment is emotional processes. The aim of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of The Unified Protocol (UP on emotional dysregulation and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in patients with psychosomatic disorders. Methods: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT, a unified treatment, with 12 weekly group sessions of 2 hours, was presented to 14 patients with psychosomatic complaints at the Subspecialty Center of Psychiatry in Isfahan in 2013. Pre- and post-intervention assessments were done by means of the self-report tests of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ. Results: Significant reductions in post-test scores of total emotional dysregulation (P < 0.01 as well as the factors of non-acceptance (P < 0.05 and strategy (P < 0.01 were seen, while the other factors (goal, impulse, awareness, and clarity did not change. Moreover, a significant reduction was observed in the catastrophizing strategy score (P < 0.05, in comparison with other cognitive strategies. Conclusion: This pilot study including 14 patients with psychosomatic disorders indicates that the Unified treatment approach is an effective treatment in improvement of emotional dysregulation and in reduction of utilizing maladaptive cognitive strategies.

  3. A unified effective-field renormalization-group framework approach for the quenched diluted Ising models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Douglas F.; Fittipaldi, I. P.

    1994-05-01

    A unified effective-field renormalization-group framework (EFRG) for both quenched bond- and site-diluted Ising models is herein developed by extending recent works. The method, as in the previous works, follows up the same strategy of the mean-field renormalization-group scheme (MFRG), and is achieved by introducing an alternative way for constructing classical effective-field equations of state, based on rigorous Ising spin identities. The concentration dependence of the critical temperature, Tc(p), and the critical concentrations of magnetic atoms, pc, at which the transition temperature goes to zero, are evaluated for several two- and three-dimensional lattice structures. The obtained values of Tc and pc and the resulting phase diagrams for both bond and site cases are much more accurate than those estimated by the standard MFRG approach. Although preserving the same level of simplicity as the MFRG, it is shown that the present EFRG method, even by considering its simplest size-cluster version, provides results that correctly distinguishes those lattices that have the same coordination number, but differ in dimensionality or geometry.

  4. Unifying Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgersen, Mads

    This thesis presents the RUNE language, a semantic construction of related and tightly coupled programming constructs presented in the shape of a programming language. The major contribution is the succesfull design of a highly unified and general programming model, capable of expressing some of ...... a unified name declaration mechanism. The resulting expressiveness allows for argument covariance, dependent types and module types, plus a solution to the so-called expression problem of two way extensibility in object-oriented languages....... of the most complex type relations put forth in type systems research, without compromising such fundamental qualities as conceptuality, modularity and static typing. While many new constructs and unifications are put forth  to substantiate their conceptual validity, type rules are given to support...

  5. Why unify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Unified gauge theories such as SU(5) of particle interactions are built on the colour SU(3) and SU(2) x U(1) gauge theories which apparently describe strong and weak and electromagnetic interactions at distances as small as 10 -16 cm. In this article the classical reasons for going beyond SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) to a fully unified theory such as SU(5) are reviewed, and a new reason formulated. A class of imaginary worlds similar to our own is considered and it is shown that unification is possible only in ours. This suggests that the low-energy interactions are unique in that they are constructed to make unification possible. (author)

  6. A unifying framework for metrics for aggregating the climate effect of different emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, Richard S J; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S; O’Neill, Brian C; Shine, Keith P

    2012-01-01

    Multi-gas approaches to climate change policies require a metric establishing ‘equivalences’ among emissions of various species. Climate scientists and economists have proposed four kinds of such metrics and debated their relative merits. We present a unifying framework that clarifies the relationships among them. We show, as have previous authors, that the global warming potential (GWP), used in international law to compare emissions of greenhouse gases, is a special case of the global damage potential (GDP), assuming (1) a finite time horizon, (2) a zero discount rate, (3) constant atmospheric concentrations, and (4) impacts that are proportional to radiative forcing. Both the GWP and GDP follow naturally from a cost–benefit framing of the climate change issue. We show that the global temperature change potential (GTP) is a special case of the global cost potential (GCP), assuming a (slight) fall in the global temperature after the target is reached. We show how the four metrics should be generalized if there are intertemporal spillovers in abatement costs, distinguishing between private (e.g., capital stock turnover) and public (e.g., induced technological change) spillovers. Both the GTP and GCP follow naturally from a cost-effectiveness framing of the climate change issue. We also argue that if (1) damages are zero below a threshold and (2) infinitely large above a threshold, then cost-effectiveness analysis and cost–benefit analysis lead to identical results. Therefore, the GCP is a special case of the GDP. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change uses the GWP, a simplified cost–benefit concept. The UNFCCC is framed around the ultimate goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations. Once a stabilization target has been agreed under the convention, implementation is clearly a cost-effectiveness problem. It would therefore be more consistent to use the GCP or its simplification, the GTP. (letter)

  7. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  8. [The framing effect: medical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Ketti; Cherubini, Paolo; Rumiati, Rino

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, many studies explored how the way information is presented modifies choices. This sort of effect, referred to as "framing effects", typically consists of the inversion of choices when presenting structurally identical decision problems in different ways. It is a common assumption that physicians are unaffected (or less affected) by the surface description of a decision problem, because they are formally trained in medical decision making. However, several studies showed that framing effects occur even in the medical field. The complexity and variability of these effects are remarkable, making it necessary to distinguish among different framing effects, depending on whether the effect is obtained by modifying adjectives (attribute framing), goals of a behavior (goal framing), or the probability of an outcome (risky choice framing). A further reason for the high variability of the framing effects seems to be the domain of the decision problem, with different effects occurring in prevention decisions, disease-detection decisions, and treatment decisions. The present work reviews the studies on framing effects, in order to summarize them and clarify their possible role in medical decision making.

  9. Metrics for aggregating the climate effects of different emissions: a unifying framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Berntsen, T.K.; O'Neill, B.C.; Fuglestvedt, J.S.; Shine, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-gas approaches to climate change policies require a metric establishing equivalences among emissions of various species. Climate scientists and economists have proposed four kinds of such metrics and debated their relative merits. We present a unifying framework that clarifies the

  10. Grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on a pedagogical introduction that attempts to unify the strong and electroweak interactions. Unifying groups discussed include SU(5), SO(10), and E 6 . Particular attention is paid to the questions of whether the low-energy gauge group (that accessible at accelerator experiments in the foreseeable future) extends beyond SU(3) x SU(2) L x U(1). Low-energy studies of neutral-current effects, direct production of gauge bosons, and new fermions all can shed light on this question. Brief remarks are made concerning the role of monopoles, cosmic strings, baryogenesis, supersymmetry, and higher dimensions in this program

  11. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  12. Assessment of the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in the Brazilian Unified Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Evelyn Helena Corgosinho; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles; Costa, Evelyn Fabiana; Andrade, Douglas Roque; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2017-06-26

    To assess the effect of interventions on the levels of physical activity of healthy adults, users of the Brazilian Unified Health System and attended by the Family Health Strategy. Non-randomized experimental study with 157 adults allocated in three groups: 1) physical exercise classes (n = 54), 2) health education (n = 54), 3) control (n = 49). The study lasted for18 months, with 12 months of interventions and six months of follow-up after intervention. Assessments took place at the beginning, in the 12 months, and in the 18 months of study. Physical activity has been assessed by questionnaires and accelerometry. For the analyses, we have used the intention-to-treat principle and generalized estimating equations. After 12 months, both intervention groups have increased the minutes of weekly leisure time physical activity and annual scores of physical exercise, leisure and transport-related physical activity. The exercise class group has obtained the highest average annual physical exercises score when compared to the other groups (p education group increased this score (average: 0.2; 95%CI 0.1-0.4). There have been no differences in the levels of physical activity measured by accelerometry. The interventions have been effective in increasing the practice of physical activity. However, we have observed that the health education intervention was more effective for maintaining the practice of physical activity in the period after intervention. We recommend the use of both interventions to promote physical activity in the Brazilian Unified Health System, according to the local reality of professionals, facilities, and team objectives. Avaliar o efeito de intervenções nos níveis de atividade física de adultos saudáveis, usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde e atendidos pela Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Estudo experimental, não randomizado, com 157 adultos alocados em três grupos: 1) classes de exercícios físicos (n = 54); 2) educação em saúde (n = 54

  13. Unifying Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2013-04-01

    Century old GR fails to unify quantum physics, nuclear force or distinguish between the mass of living bodies from inert mass. Probabilistic gravity [1] explains strong coupling (nuclear force). The natural log of the age of the universe, 10E60 in Planck times, equaling 137 (1/Alpha) extends physics to deeper science, if we stand on the shoulders of giants like Feynman and Gamow. Implications of [1] are that it is not the earth, but M and S numbers of the particles of the earth are remotely interacting with corresponding numbers of the particles of the moon and the sun respectively, neglecting other heavenly bodies in this short draft. This new physics is likely to enable creative scientific minds to throw light on a theoretical basis for an otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant, uniformity of microwave background, further vindication of Boltzmann, quantum informatics, Einstein’s later publicized views and more, eliminating the need to spend money for implicitly nonexistent quantum gravity and graviton.[4pt] [1] Journal of Physical Science and Applications 2 (7) (2012) 265-268.

  14. Gas-kinetic unified algorithm for hypersonic flows covering various flow regimes solving Boltzmann model equation in nonequilibrium effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhihui; Ma, Qiang; Wu, Junlin; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body

  15. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  16. Effectiveness of continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulos, Spyridon S; Dorman, Todd; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Wilson, Lisa M; Ashar, Bimal H; Magaziner, Jeffrey L; Miller, Redonda G; Thomas, Patricia A; Prokopowicz, Gregory P; Qayyum, Rehan; Bass, Eric B

    2007-01-01

    Despite the broad range of continuing medical education (CME) offerings aimed at educating practicing physicians through the provision of up-to-date clinical information, physicians commonly overuse, under-use, and misuse therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. It has been suggested that the ineffective nature of CME either accounts for the discrepancy between evidence and practice or at a minimum contributes to this gap. Understanding what CME tools and techniques are most effective in disseminating and retaining medical knowledge is critical to improving CME and thus diminishing the gap between evidence and practice. The purpose of this review was to comprehensively and systematically synthesize evidence regarding the effectiveness of CME and differing instructional designs in terms of knowledge, attitudes, skills, practice behavior, and clinical practice outcomes. We formulated specific questions with input from external experts and representatives of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) which nominated this topic. We systematically searched the literature using specific eligibility criteria, hand searching of selected journals, and electronic databases including: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), PsycINFO, and the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Two independent reviewers conducted title scans, abstract reviews, and then full article reviews to identify eligible articles. Each eligible article underwent double review for data abstraction and assessment of study quality. Of the 68,000 citations identified by literature searching, 136 articles and 9 systematic reviews ultimately met our eligibility criteria. The overall quality of the literature was low and consequently firm conclusions were not possible. Despite this, the

  17. A unified universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2018-01-01

    We present a unified evolution of the universe from very early times until the present epoch by including both the leading local correction R2 and the leading non-local term R1□2R to the classical gravitational action. We find that the inflationary phase driven by R2 term gracefully exits...... in a transitory regime characterized by coherent oscillations of the Hubble parameter. The universe then naturally enters into a radiation dominated epoch followed by a matter dominated era. At sufficiently late times after radiation–matter equality, the non-local term starts to dominate inducing an accelerated...... expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We further exhibit the fact that both the leading local and non-local terms can be obtained within the covariant effective field theory of gravity. This scenario thus provides a unified picture of inflation and dark energy in a single framework by means...

  18. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Unified Gas Kinetic Scheme for Transport and Collision Effects in Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxin Pan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Boltzmann equation with electric acceleration term is discretized and solved by the unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS. The charged particle transport driven by electric field is included in the electric acceleration term. To capture non-equilibrium distribution function, the probability distribution functions of gas is discretized in a discrete velocity space. After discretization, the numerical flux for distribution function is computed to update the microscopic and macroscopic states. The flux is decided by an integral solution of Boltzmann equation based on characteristic problem. An electron-ion collision model is introduced in the Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK equation. This finite volume method for the UGKS couples the free transport and long-range interaction between particles. For simplicity, the electric field induced by charged particles is controlled by the Poisson’s equation, which is solved using the Green’s function for two dimensional plasma system subjected to the symmetry or periodic boundary conditions. Two numerical cases, linear Landau damping and Gaussian beam, are carried out to validate the proposed method. The linear electron plasma wave damping is simulated based on electron-ion collision operator. Comparison results show good accuracy and higher efficiency than particle based methods. Difference between Poisson’s equation and complete electromagnetic Maxwell equation is presented by numerical results based on the two models. Highly non-equilibrium and rarefied plasma flows, such as electron flows driven by electromagnetic field, can be simulated easily. The UGKS-Poisson model is proved to be promising in plasma flow simulation.

  20. Unified Internet Messaging

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan

    2015-01-01

    As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...

  1. ACHP | Unified Federal Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Unified Federal Review Three logos: 1) Executive Office of the Homeland Security. Unified Federal Environmental and Historic Preservation Review Process Please visit the new location for the Unified Federal Review located here: http://www.fema.gov/environmental-historic

  2. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  3. Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Program on Psycho-Social Attributes of Youth with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, D.; Baran, F.; Aktop, A.; Nalbant, S.; Aglamis, E.; Hutzler, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sports (UNS) soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 76 male youth with (n = 38) and without (n = 38) ID. Participants with ID were randomly allocated into a SO athletes group (n…

  4. The effects of medical tourism: Thailand's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaRanong, Anchana; NaRanong, Viroj

    2011-05-01

    To explore the positive and negative effects of medical tourism on the economy, health staff and medical costs in Thailand. The financial repercussions of medical tourism were estimated from commerce ministry data, with modifications and extrapolations. Survey data on 4755 foreign and Thai outpatients in two private hospitals were used to explore how medical tourism affects human resources. Trends in the relative prices of caesarean section, appendectomy, hernia repair, cholecystectomy and knee replacement in five private hospitals were examined. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital managers and key informants from the public and private sectors were conducted to better understand stakeholders' motivations and practices in connection with these procedures and learn more about medical tourism. Medical tourism generates the equivalent of 0.4% of Thailand's gross domestic product but has exacerbated the shortage of medical staff by luring more workers away from the private and public sectors towards hospitals catering to foreigners. This has raised costs in private hospitals substantially and is likely to raise them in public hospitals and in the universal health-care insurance covering most Thais as well. The "brain drain" may also undermine medical training in future. Medical tourism in Thailand, despite some benefits, has negative effects that could be mitigated by lifting the restrictions on the importation of qualified foreign physicians and by taxing tourists who visit the country solely for the purpose of seeking medical treatment. The revenue thus generated could then be used to train physicians and retain medical school professors.

  5. Comparative effectiveness research and medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D

    2010-12-01

    As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Comparative effectiveness research: Challenges for medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovey David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER. In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

  7. Medical exposure and the effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Chio

    2011-01-01

    Radiation gives cracks to genes. The influence is divided into deterministic effect with a threshold value, and the stochastic effect (tumor and genetic effect) which increases according to the exposure amount. Although we are put to various non-artificial radiations, which we cannot be avoided, on the earth, the contamination by artificial radiation can be defended. Artificial radioactive exposure includes medical exposure and non-medical exposure for example by nuclear power plant. As to medical examinations using radiation, the inquiry about the radiation exposure is increasing after the occurrence of the first nuclear power plant disaster of Fukushima. While concern about non-medical radioactive exposure increases, the uneasiness to medical irradiation is also increasing. The dose limit by artificial radioactive exposure other than medical exposure is set up in order to prevent the influence on the health. While the dose limit of the public exposure is set to the lower value than the total dose of non-artificial exposure concerning of a safety margin for all people, the dose limit of medical exposure is not defined, since it is thought that medical irradiation has a benefit for those who receive irradiation. Making an effort to decrease the radiation dose in performing the best medical treatment is the responsibility with which we are burdened. (author)

  8. Experimental status of unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilen'kij, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A standard SU(2)xU(1) theory is discussed. It is based on an assumption that the left components of fields form doublets, and the rignt ones - singlets. From the weak interaction lagrangian an expression is obtained for the effective hamiltonian describing neutrino-lepton processes. The results of discussing the experimental status of the unified theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions are in agreement with the simplest version of the unified theories - the Weinberg-Salam theory. It has been noted that the accuracy of the experiments (not exceeding 20%) is insufficient and no information is available on diagonal terms of the hamiltonian

  9. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides - a unified phenomenological description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, Z. E-mail: gajek@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2004-05-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO{sub 2} and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO{sub 2} and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides.

  10. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides-a unified phenomenological description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.

    2004-05-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO2 and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO2 and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides.

  11. Crystal field effect in light actinide dioxides and oxychalcogenides - a unified phenomenological description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic properties of the actinide ions in the series of semi-conducting, antiferromagnetic compounds: dioxides, AnO 2 and oxychalcogenides, AnOY, where An=U, Np and Y=S, Se, are re-examined from the point of view of the consistency of the crystal field (CF) model. The discussion is based on the supposition that the effective metal-ligand interaction solely determines the net CF effect in non-metallic compounds. The main question we address here is, whether a reliable, consistent description of the CF effect in terms of the intrinsic parameters can be achieved for this particular family of compounds. Encouraging calculations reported previously for the AnO 2 and UOY series serve as a reference data in the present estimation of electronic structure parameters for neptunium oxychalcogenides

  12. Medical response to effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, W.A.; Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on 'Medical Response to Effects of Ionising Radiation' in 1989 in the form of nineteen papers published as a book. Topics discussed include radiation accidents at nuclear facilities, the medical management of radiation casualties, the responsibilities, plans and resources for coping with a nuclear accident and finally the long term effects of radiation, including leukaemia epidemiology studies. All papers were selected and indexed separately. (UK)

  13. Unified theory of dislocation motion including thermal activation and inertial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, R.D.; Granato, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Transition-state rate theory has generally been used to explain the temperature dependence of the flow stress of a crystal. However, the existence of a change in the flow stress during the superconducting transition indicates the presence of inertial effects in which dislocations overcome obstacles mechanically rather than thermally. It is shown here that the thermally activated and the inertial overcoming of obstacles are not unrelated but can both be derived from principles of stochastic motion. This leads to a theory of dislocation motion that includes both thermal activation and inertial effects. It is also shown that a distribution of activation energies must be considered to account for the experimental data

  14. Medical therapeutic effect of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    In order to compare the therapeutic effect as well as side effects between antithyroid therapy and radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism, the author evaluated 111 cases of hyperthyroidism which were composed of 57 patients with antithyroid treatment, 23 patients with combined treatment comprising of antithyroid and radioactive iodine ( 131 I) and 31 patients with treatment of 131 I alone. (author)

  15. Unified Impact Theory for Velocity-Changing Effects and Speed Dependencies in Neutral Species Lineshapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A dole correlation function which incorporates velocity-changing (motional narrowing) effects and the effects of speed-dependent Lorentz relaxation rates into otherwise Voigt profile correlation functions is developed, based partly upon previous work by the author. For the first time simple closed expressions, which lend themselves to elementary calculation beginning only with the relevant parts of intermolecular interaction energies, are developed for the cubic time-dependent term within the exponent describing the decay of the correlation function. This term is of first order in perturbers number density, as are the Lorentz parameters, and is complex, thereby allowing for narrowing, changing in shape and asymmetry in the line profile. Soft and hard collisions play no explicit role, though both are variously present for each line. Quartic time dependencies are also discussed, though they are thought to be negligible in non hydrogen molecular spectroscopy. Finally, some comments are added about a relevant technique for hydrogen spectra

  16. Copenhagen's single system premise prevents a unified view of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Post, E J

    1999-01-01

    This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction betw...

  17. Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krol, A.A.; Read, D.

    1986-09-01

    This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

  18. Effective stakeholder management for medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Zigiriadis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of organizational-stakeholder relationships is highlighted in most organizational studies literature. This article investigates the relationship between medical practices and their stakeholders and has been developed to provide guidance on stakeholder engagement and communication. It is intended to provide a useful reference point for all medical practices concerning stakeholder engagement activities. Direction is provided on how to identify and ultimately engage with stakeholders. It should hopefully further develop the effectiveness of engagement efforts that are undertaken between a medical practice and its stakeholders. The ability of a medical practice to cultivate and sustain strong relationships with its prominent stakeholder groups greatly enhances the likelihood that the relationship will endure. Medical practitioners in South Africa are generally in urgent need of pursuing new ways of delivering quality health care through developing new service models that have been developed with the help of relevant stakeholders. Since stakeholder relationship management is critical for corporate sustainability, medical practice management should seek strategic direction by investigating the relative competitive threat and relative supportive value of each stakeholder and then classify them accordingly.

  19. Framing effect debiasing in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashat, Sammy; Ayotte, Brian; Edelstein, Barry; Margrett, Jennifer

    2008-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts. The present study investigated the effects of a debiasing procedure designed to prevent the framing effect for young adults who made decisions based on hypothetical medical decision-making vignettes. The debiasing technique involved participants listing advantages and disadvantages of each treatment prior to making a choice. One hundred and two undergraduate students read a set of three medical treatment vignettes that presented information in terms of different outcome probabilities under either debiasing or control conditions. The framing effect was demonstrated by the control group in two of the three vignettes. The debiasing group successfully avoided the framing effect for both of these vignettes. These results further support previous findings of the framing effect as well as an effective debiasing technique. This study improved upon previous framing debiasing studies by including a control group and personal medical scenarios, as well as demonstrating debiasing in a framing condition in which the framing effect was demonstrated without a debiasing procedure. The findings suggest a relatively simple manipulation may circumvent the use of decision-making heuristics in patients.

  20. Chernobylsk NPP accident and its medical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Medical effects of the Chernobyl accident for various groups of people engaged in liquidation of the accident aftereffects and residents of the regions affected are assessed. Specific medical and social recommendations for each of the five groups of patients are made. Special attention is paid to the health of children who were exposed to external radiation in combination with intake of iodine isotopes. Extremely unfavourable influence of the mass media on the health of people involved in the Chernobyl accident is painted out. The necessity of adequate rehabilitation measures for various categories of patients involved in a large-scale accident is emphasized [ru

  1. A Note on Unified Statistics Including Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and Tsallis Statistics, and Plausible Extension to Anisotropic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianto V.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of some recent hypotheses suggesting plausible unification of thermostatistics where Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein and Tsallis statistics become its special subsets, we consider further plausible extension to include non-integer Hausdorff dimension, which becomes realization of fractal entropy concept. In the subsequent section, we also discuss plausible extension of this unified statistics to include anisotropic effect by using quaternion oscillator, which may be observed in the context of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

  2. Cromatografia unificada Unified chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin von Mühlen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study encompasses an overview of the principles of unified chromatography as well as the principles of chromatographic techniques as applied to unified systems, which include gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, high temperature and high pressure liquid chromatography, micro-liquid chromatography, enhanced fluidity chromatography, and solvating gas chromatography. Theoretical considerations and individual instrumental parameters such as mobile phase, sample introduction system, columns, and detection system are also discussed. Future applications of this separation approach are discussed.

  3. Unified User Interface to Support Effective and Intuitive Data Discovery, Dissemination, and Analysis at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Bryant, K.; Johnson, J. E.; Ritrivi, A.; Shen, S.; Volmer, B.; Pham, L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been providing access to scientific data sets since 1990s. Beginning as one of the first Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) archive centers, GES DISC has evolved to offer a wide range of science-enabling services. With a growing understanding of needs and goals of its science users, GES DISC continues to improve and expand on its broad set of data discovery and access tools, sub-setting services, and visualization tools. Nonetheless, the multitude of the available tools, a partial overlap of functionality, and independent and uncoupled interfaces employed by these tools often leave the end users confused as of what tools or services are the most appropriate for a task at hand. As a result, some the services remain underutilized or largely unknown to the users, significantly reducing the availability of the data and leading to a great loss of scientific productivity. In order to improve the accessibility of GES DISC tools and services, we have designed and implemented UUI, the Unified User Interface. UUI seeks to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key services available at GES DISC, including sub-setting (Simple Subset Wizard), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other services. In this poster, we will discuss the main lessons, obstacles, and insights encountered while designing the UUI experience. We will also present the architecture and technology behind UUI, including NodeJS, Angular, and Mongo DB, as well as speculate on the future of the tool at GES DISC as well as in a broader context of the Space Science Informatics.

  4. Unified electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    A unified European electricity market means a unification and harmonisation of functioning of the national electricity market into one European Market or into one entity. It gives an opportunity to Slovenske elektrarne to open room for their wider activity within Europe where common rules for cross-boarder trade and markets functioning will apply. (author)

  5. Unified field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.

    1975-01-01

    Results of researches into Unified Field Theory over the past seven years are presented. The subject is dealt with in chapters entitled: the choice of affine connection, algebraic properties of the vector fields, field laws obtained from the affine connection based on the path integral method, application to quantum theory and cosmology, interpretation of physical theory in terms of geometry. (U.K.)

  6. Finite unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Mondragon, M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Zoupanos, G. (National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  7. Finite unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1993-01-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  8. The Unified Theory of Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ding-Yu

    2002-01-01

    The unified theory of physics unifies various phenomena in our observable universe and other universes. The unified theory is based on the zero-energy universe and the space-object structures. Different universes in different developmental stages are the different expressions of the space-object structures. The unified theory is divided into five parts: the space-object structures, cosmology, the periodic table of elementary particles, the galaxy formation, and the extreme force field. The sp...

  9. Analysis and effect of multi-fuel and practical constraints on economic load dispatch in the presence of Unified Power Flow Controller using UDTPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintalapudi V. Suresh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to analyze the effect of multi-fuel and practical constraints on economic load dispatch problem using a novel uniform distributed two-stage particle swarm optimization (UDTPSO algorithm without and with unified power flow controller (UPFC while satisfying equality, inequality, practical constraints such as ramp-rate and prohibited operating zone (POZ limits and device operating limits. A Novel severity function is formulated based on the transmission line overloads and bus voltage violations to identify an optimal location to install UPFC. A multi-objective optimization problem is solved for multi-fuel non-convex cost and transmission power loss objectives. Obtained results for considered standard test functions and electrical systems indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and can obtain efficient solution when compared to existing methods. Hence, the proposed method is a promising method and can be easily applied to optimize the power system objectives.

  10. Unified approach to dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons

  11. THz waves: biological effects, industrial and medical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutaz, J.L.; Garet, F.; Le Drean, Y.; Zhadobov, M.; Veyret, B.; Mounaix, P.; Caumes, J.P.; Gallot, G.; Gian Piero, Gallerano; Mouret, G.; Guilpin, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Following the debates about body scanners installed in airports for passengers security control, the non-ionizing radiations (NIR) section of the French radiation protection society (SFR) has organized a conference day to take stock of the present day knowledge about the physical aspects and the biological effects of this frequency range as well as about their medical, and industrial applications (both civil and military). This document gathers the slides of the available presentations: 1 - introduction and general considerations about THz waves, the THz physical phenomenon among NIR (J.L. Coutaz); 2 - interaction of millimeter waves with living material: from dosimetry to biological impacts (Y. Le Drean and M. Zhadobov); 3 - Tera-Hertz: standards and recommendations (B. Veyret); 4 - THz spectro-imaging technique: status and perspectives (P. Mounaix); 5 - THz technology: seeing the invisible? (J.P. Caumes); 6 - Tera-Hertz: biological and medical applications (G. Gallot); 7 - Biological applications of THz radiation: a review of events and a glance to the future (G.P. Gallerano); 8 - Industrial and military applications - liquids and solids detection in the THz domain (F. Garet); 9 - THz radiation and its civil and military applications - gas detection and quantifying (G. Mouret); 10 - Body scanners and civil aviation security (J.C. Guilpin, presentation not available). (J.S.)

  12. Grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langacker, P.

    1981-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the present status of these theories and of their observational and experimental implications. In section II, I briefly review the standard SU 3 sup(c) x SU 2 x U 1 model of the strong and electroweak interactions. Although phenomenologically successful, the standard model leaves many questions unanswered. Some of these questions are addressed by grand unified theories, which are defined and discussed in Section III. The Georgi-Glashow SU 5 model is described, as are theories based on larger groups such as SO 10 , E 6 , or SO 16 . It is emphasized that there are many possible grand unified theories and that it is an experimental problem not only to test the basic ideas but to discriminate between models. (orig./HSI)

  13. Operation Unified Protector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2012-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at se nærmere på erfaringerne fra den maritime kampagne under den militære indsats i konflikten i Libyen i 2011, som i NATO regi blev kendt som Operation Unified Protector (OUP). Dækningen i de danske medier fokuserede primært på luftkampagnen, hvilket må tilskrives,...

  14. Unified Engineering Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  15. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  16. Effects of First Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus on Medical Visits and Medication Adherence in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeongsu, KIM; Soon-Ae, SHIN; Kunsei, LEE; Jong-Heon, PARK; Tae Hwa, HAN; Minsu, PARK; Eunyoung, Minsu; Hyoseon, JEONG; Jung-Hyun, LEE; Hyemi, AHN; Vitna, KIM

    2018-01-01

    Background: The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) conducted a screening test to detect chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes in Korea. This study evaluated the effects of health screening for DM on pharmacological treatment. Methods: The data from qualification and the General Health Screening in 2012, the insurance claims of medical institutions from Jan 2009 to Dec 2014, and the diabetic case management program extracted from the NHIS administrative system were used. Total 16068 subjects were included. Visiting rate to medical institution, medication possession ratio and the rate of medication adherence of study subjects were used as the indices. Results: The visiting rates to medical institutions were 39.7%. The percentage who received a prescription for a diabetes mellitus medication from a doctor was 80.9%, the medication possession ratio was 70.8%, and the rate of medication adherence was 57.8%. Conclusion: The visiting rate, medication possession ratio and rate of medication adherence for DM medication were not high. In order to increase the visiting rate, medication possession ratio and rate of medication adherence, NHIS should support environment in which medical institutions and DM patients can do the role of each part. PMID:29445630

  17. The effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer training program on anthropometry, physical fitness and skilled performance in Special Olympics soccer athletes and non-disabled partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Özer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Ağlamış, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were randomly selected out of all the students between the ages 12 and 15, with a diagnosis of educable mental retardation and no secondary disabilities, who were attending a special education school. Participants without ID (WoID) were randomly selected from a regular secondary school out of the same age groups of male students. All participants were given permission by their parents or guardians to participate in the study. Participants in the TRG included 23 youth WID and 23 youth WoID. Mean ages were = 14.1 (SD = 1.1) and 13.2 (SD = 0.79) respectively. Fifteen WID, and 15 WoID comprised the CG. Mean ages were 14.51 (SD = 0.81) and 13.78 (SD = 0.49) respectively. Prior to and following the program measurements were conducted, and data were collected on students' anthropometric and fitness components of the Brockport physical fitness test as well as a soccer skill performance based on the SO soccer skill test. Participants in the TRG trained 8 weeks, 1.5h per session, three times per week, in an after-school soccer program. CG did not participate in any sports program outside of the school physical education class. Dependent t tests and effect size calculations revealed that SO athletes and non-disabled partners scored significantly higher with regard to physical fitness and football skills in most variables compared with their CG. This Unified Program was successful in increasing fitness and soccer skill performance of youth WID as well as of those WoID. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Medical Conditions on Driving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This project investigated the effect of selected medical conditions on the exposure and performance of older drivers. A review of recent literature, followed by a panel meeting with driving safety experts, prioritized four medical conditions for furt...

  19. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Advance Organizer in a Medical Microbiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slock, James A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An advance organizer is a set of conceptual statements about the unifying ideas of a topic in terms already familiar to the learner. A study is reported that sought to determine whether two presentations of an advance organizer for a unit on pathogenic bacteria would result in increasing medical students' knowledge and ability to solve problems in…

  20. Due Diligence and the Evaluation of Teachers: A Review of the Value-Added Analysis Underlying the Effectiveness Rankings of Los Angeles Unified School District Teachers by the "Los Angeles Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek; Domingue, Ben

    2011-01-01

    On August 14, 2010, the "Los Angeles Times" published the results of a statistical analysis of student test data to provide information about elementary schools and teachers in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). The analysis, covering the period from 2003 to 2009, was put forward as an evaluation of the effects of schools…

  1. Diabesity: are weight loss medications effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio C

    2005-01-01

    Weight reduction has been shown to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic options for these patients include promoting weight loss (non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment) and improving glycemic control, as well as treating common associated risk factors such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidemias. This article provides an overview of anti-obesity drugs used in the treatment of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The most widely investigated drugs, sibutramine and orlistat, result in modest, clinically worthwhile weight loss, with demonstrable improvements in many co-morbidities, among them, type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials with these anti-obesity medications in cohorts of obese diabetic patients have been reviewed as well as cathecolaminergic agents (diethylpropion [amfepramone], fenproporex, mazindol, ephedrine-caffeine combination), serotoninergic drugs (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine), and other drugs that have some action on weight loss (the antidiabetic agent metformin, anti-epileptic agents topiramate and zonisamide, and the antidepressive bupropion [amfebutamone]). These trials show variable benefits in terms of effects on glucose profiles.

  2. Medical effects of internal contamination with uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraković, A

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to present an outline of the metabolic pathways of uranium isotopes and compounds, medical consequences of uranium poisoning, and an evaluation of the therapeutic alternatives in uranium internal contamination. The chemical toxicity of uranium has been recognized for more than two centuries. Animal experiments and human studies are conclusive about metabolic adverse affects and nephro- toxicity of uranium compounds. Radiation toxicity of uranium isotopes has been recognized since the beginning of the nuclear era, with well documented evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity, as well as mutagenic and carcinogenic consequences of uranium internal contamination. Natural uranium (238U), an alpha emitter with a half-life of 4.5x10(9) years, is one of the primordial substances of the universe. It is found in the earth's crust, combined with 235U and 234U, alpha, beta, and gamma emitters with respective half-lives of 7.1x10(8) and 2.5x10(5) years. A special emphasis of this paper concerns depleted uranium. The legacy of radioactive waste, environmental and health hazards in the nuclear industry, and, more recently, the military use of depleted uranium in the tactical battlefield necessitates further insight into the toxicology of depleted uranium. The present controversy over the radiological and chemical toxicity of depleted uranium used in the Gulf War warrants further experimental and clinical investigations of its effects on the biosphere and human organisms.

  3. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang

    2005-01-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.

  4. Unified Bohm criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [LECAD Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Fusion@ÖAW, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.

  5. Beyond the Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorf, S.

    2018-04-01

    The key elements of the Unified Model are reviewed. The microscopic derivation of the Bohr Hamiltonian by means of adiabatic time-dependent mean field theory is presented. By checking against experimental data the limitations of the Unified Model are delineated. The description of the strong coupling between the rotational and intrinsic degrees of freedom in framework of the rotating mean field is presented from a conceptual point of view. The classification of rotational bands as configurations of rotating quasiparticles is introduced. The occurrence of uniform rotation about an axis that differs from the principle axes of the nuclear density distribution is discussed. The physics behind this tilted-axis rotation, unknown in molecular physics, is explained on a basic level. The new symmetries of the rotating mean field that arise from the various orientations of the angular momentum vector with respect to the triaxial nuclear density distribution and their manifestation by the level sequence of rotational bands are discussed. Resulting phenomena, as transverse wobbling, rotational chirality, magnetic rotation and band termination are discussed. Using the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking the microscopic underpinning of the rotational degrees is refined.

  6. Effect of the Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Medications on Medication Communication and Deprescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Terri R; Niehoff, Kristina M; Street, Richard L; Charpentier, Peter A; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Miller, Perry L; Goldstein, Mary K; O'Leary, John R; Fenton, Brenda T

    2017-10-01

    To examine the effect of the Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Medications (TRIM), a web tool linking an electronic health record (EHR) to a clinical decision support system, on medication communication and prescribing. Randomized clinical trial. Primary care clinics at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Veterans aged 65 and older prescribed seven or more medications randomized to receipt of TRIM or usual care (N = 128). TRIM extracts information on medications and chronic conditions from the EHR and contains data entry screens for information obtained from brief chart review and telephonic patient assessment. These data serve as input for automated algorithms identifying medication reconciliation discrepancies, potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs), and potentially inappropriate regimens. Clinician feedback reports summarize discrepancies and provide recommendations for deprescribing. Patient feedback reports summarize discrepancies and self-reported medication problems. Primary: subscales of the Patient Assessment of Care for Chronic Conditions (PACIC) related to shared decision-making; clinician and patient communication. Secondary: changes in medications. 29.7% of TRIM participants and 15.6% of control participants provided the highest PACIC ratings; this difference was not significant. Adjusting for covariates and clustering of patients within clinicians, TRIM was associated with significantly more-active patient communication and facilitative clinician communication and with more medication-related communication among patients and clinicians. TRIM was significantly associated with correction of medication discrepancies but had no effect on number of medications or reduction in PIMs. TRIM improved communication about medications and accuracy of documentation. Although there was no association with prescribing, the small sample size provided limited power to examine medication-related outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The

  7. Understanding IBD Medications and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important not to suddenly stop taking this medication. Immunomodulators: These include azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), methotrexate, ... ongoing inflammation. Usually given orally (methotrexate is injectable), immunomodulators are typically used in people for whom aminosalicylates ...

  8. A rational quantitative approach to determine the best dosing regimen for a target therapeutic effect: a unified formalism for antibiotic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Nekka, Fahima

    2013-02-21

    The determination of an optimal dosing regimen is a critical step to enhance the drug efficacy and avoid toxicity. Rational dosing recommendations based on mathematical considerations are increasingly being adopted in the process of drug development and use. In this paper, we propose a quantitative approach to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic agents. By integrating both pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) information, this approach gives rise to a unified formalism able to measure the cause-effect of dosing regimens. This new pharmaco-metric allows to cover a whole range of antibiotics, including the two well known concentration and time dependent classes, through the introduction of the Hill-dependency concept. As a direct fallout, our formalism opens a new path toward the bioequivalence evaluation in terms of PK and PD, which associates the in vivo drug concentration and the in vitro drug effect. Using this new approach, we succeeded to reveal unexpected, but relevant behaviors of drug performance when different drug regimens and drug classes are considered. Of particular notice, we found that the doses required to reach the same therapeutic effect, when scheduled differently, exhibit completely different tendencies for concentration and time dependent drugs. Moreover, we theoretically confirmed the previous experimental results of the superiority of the once daily regimen of aminoglycosides. The proposed methodology is appealing for its computational features and can easily be applicable to design fair clinical protocols or rationalize prescription decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular

  10. [Evaluation of Medical Instruments Cleaning Effect of Fluorescence Detection Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Shen, Yue; Li, Zhen; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Chaoqun

    2016-01-01

    To compare the cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine and manual cleaning on coupling type surgical instruments. A total of 32 cleaned medical instruments were randomly sampled from medical institutions in Putuo District medical institutions disinfection supply center. Hygiena System SUREII ATP was used to monitor the ATP value, and the cleaning effect was evaluated. The surface ATP values of the medical instrument of manual cleaning were higher than that of the automatic cleaning machine. Coupling type surgical instruments has better cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine before disinfection, the application is recommended.

  11. Direction: unified theory of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valko, P.

    1987-01-01

    Briefly characterized are the individual theories, namely, the general relativity theory, the Kaluza-Klein theory, the Weyl theory, the unified theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions, the supergravity theory, and the superstring theory. The history is recalled of efforts aimed at creating a unified theory of interactions, and future prospects are outlined. (M.D.). 2 figs

  12. Grand unified theories. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The author gives an introduction to the construction of grand unified theories on the base of the SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) model of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. Especially he discusses the proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations, and cosmological implications in connection with grand unified theories. (orig./HSI)

  13. Effective equilibrium states in the colored-noise model for active matter I. Pairwise forces in the Fox and unified colored noise approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, René; Maggi, C.; Sharma, A.; Scacchi, A.; Brader, J. M.; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U.

    2017-11-01

    The equations of motion of active systems can be modeled in terms of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes (OUPs) with appropriate correlators. For further theoretical studies, these should be approximated to yield a Markovian picture for the dynamics and a simplified steady-state condition. We perform a comparative study of the unified colored noise approximation (UCNA) and the approximation scheme by Fox recently employed within this context. We review the approximations necessary to define effective interaction potentials in the low-density limit and study the conditions for which these represent the behavior observed in two-body simulations for the OUPs model and active Brownian particles. The demonstrated limitations of the theory for potentials with a negative slope or curvature can be qualitatively corrected by a new empirical modification. In general, we find that in the presence of translational white noise the Fox approach is more accurate. Finally, we examine an alternative way to define a force-balance condition in the limit of small activity.

  14. On the effect of scalar partons at short distances in unified theories with spontaneously broken colour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Salam, Abdus

    1979-05-01

    The effect of scalar partons arising in QCD if the colour symmetry is spontaneously broken is discussed. The authors use a previous result, which states that such scalars can be incorporated into the theory without disturbing asymptotic freedom. (author)

  15. Unified theory to evaluate the effect of concentration difference and Peclet number on electroosmotic mobility error of micro electroosmotic flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wentao; Lee, Yi Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Both theoretical analysis and nonlinear 2D numerical simulations are used to study the concentration difference and Peclet number effect on the measurement error of electroosmotic mobility in microchannels. We propose a compact analytical model

  16. Medical radiography examinations and carcinogenic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demina, Eh.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the review was the synthesis of the literature data and the results of our radiobiological (biodosimetric) research on the development of radiation-associated tumors as a result of medical radiography (X-ray) diagnostic. Medical X-ray examinations contribute the most to the excess of radiation exposure of the population, much of which is subject to examination to diagnose the underlying disease, the dynamic observation of the patient during treatment, the research of related diseases, and preventative examinations. The review provides arguments for the necessity of developing a more balanced indication for preventative radiological examination of the population in the aftermath of radio-ecological crisis caused by the Chornobyl accident, taking into account the likelihood of radiation carcinogenesis. The problems and tasks of biological (cytogenetic) dosimetry in radiology are formulated

  17. Unified theory to evaluate the effect of concentration difference and Peclet number on electroosmotic mobility error of micro electroosmotic flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wentao

    2012-03-01

    Both theoretical analysis and nonlinear 2D numerical simulations are used to study the concentration difference and Peclet number effect on the measurement error of electroosmotic mobility in microchannels. We propose a compact analytical model for this error as a function of normalized concentration difference and Peclet number in micro electroosmotic flow. The analytical predictions of the errors are consistent with the numerical simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Preventive effectiveness of pre-employment medical assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, W.; van Dijk, F.

    1997-01-01

    Health gain, prevention of health loss, and avoidance of financial risk all seem to be driving forces for the use of pre-employment medical assessment. An attempt is made to measure the effect of implementing the pre-employment medical assessment on these end points. The anticipated maximum

  19. Towards the unified non-classical physics: account for quantum fluctuations in equilibrium thermodynamics via the effective temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G.Rudoy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective temperature (ET T*(T0, T is used in order to approximately "quantize" the thermodynamic functions of the dynamical object which is in the thermal equilibrium with thermal bath being at constant temperature T (T0=E0/kB, where E0 is the ground-state energy, kB - Boltzmann constant, is the characteristic ``quantum'' temperature of the system itself. On these grounds the extensive comparative investigation is carried out for the ``standard model'' of statistical mechanics - the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator (HO. Three well-known approaches are considered and their thermodynamic consequences thoroughly studied. These are: the exact quantum, or non-classical Planck-Einstein approach, intermediate, or semiclassical Bloch-Wigner approach and, finally, the pure classical, or Maxwell-Boltzmann approach.

  20. UPQC (Unified power Quality Conditioner)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. UPQC (Unified power Quality Conditioner). Hybrid of Shunt and Series compensator. Compensate both Current Quality and Voltage Quality. Costlier Solution as it involves two set of Inverters.

  1. An Effective Health and Medical Technical Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Governance model directed the formation of three Technical Authorities, Engineering; Safety and Mission Assurance; and Health and Medical, to ensure that risks are identified and adjudicated efficiently and transparently in concert with the spaceflight programs and projects. The Health and Medical Technical Authority (HMTA) has been implemented at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and consists of the Chief Medical Office (CMO), the Deputy CMO, and HMTA Delegates. The JSC HMTA achieves the goals of risk identification and adjudication through the discharge of the appropriate technical expertise to human space flight programs and projects and the escalation of issues within program and technical authority boards. The JSC HMTA relies on subject matter experts (SMEs) in the Space Life Sciences Directorate at JSC as well as experts from other Centers to work crew health and performance issues at the technical level, develop requirements, oversee implementation and validation of requirements, and identify risks and non-compliances. Once a risk or potential noncompliance has been identified and reported to the programs or projects, the JSC HMTA begins to track it and closely monitor the program's or project's response. As a risk is developed or a non-compliance negotiated, positions from various levels of decision makers are sought at the program and project control boards. The HMTA may support a program or project position if it is satisfied with the decision making and vetting processes (ex. the subject matter expert voiced his/her concerns and all dissenting opinions were documented) and finds that the position both acknowledges the risk and cost of the mitigation and resolves the issue without changing NASA risk posture. The HMTA may disagree with a program or project position if the NASA risk posture has been elevated or obfuscated. If the HMTA does disagree with the program or project position, it will appeal to successively higher levels of authority so that

  2. Model of unified gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1998-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the physical ideas which represents the basis for the unified gauge field model. Despite of the difficulties that we presently have for embodying in a natural manner muons and hadrons in that model, we have the feeling that we are on the way which seems to lead to the construction of a theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Fermi weak interaction field are manifestations of a unique subjacent physical entity - the unified gauge fields. (author)

  3. Effects of Teaching First-Year Medical Students Skills to Read Medical Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegelman, Richard K.

    1986-01-01

    A course at George Washington University School of Medicine was evaluated to determine the course's effectiveness, changes in the students' perception of their competence in reading medical literature, the student's knowledge of research study design and statistics, and the effect of the course on the students' journal reading. (Author/MLW)

  4. Effect of land cover on atmospheric processes and air quality over the continental United States – a NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The land surface plays a crucial role in regulating water and energy fluxes at the land–atmosphere (L–A interface and controls many processes and feedbacks in the climate system. Land cover and vegetation type remains one key determinant of soil moisture content that impacts air temperature, planetary boundary layer (PBL evolution, and precipitation through soil-moisture–evapotranspiration coupling. In turn, it will affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the effect of land cover on some key L–A processes with a focus on air quality. The newly developed NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF modeling system couples NASA's Land Information System (LIS with the community WRF model and allows users to explore the L–A processes and feedbacks. Three commonly used satellite-derived land cover datasets – i.e., from the US Geological Survey (USGS and University of Maryland (UMD, which are based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS – bear large differences in agriculture, forest, grassland, and urban spatial distributions in the continental United States, and thus provide an excellent case to investigate how land cover change would impact atmospheric processes and air quality. The weeklong simulations demonstrate the noticeable differences in soil moisture/temperature, latent/sensible heat flux, PBL height, wind, NO2/ozone, and PM2.5 air quality. These discrepancies can be traced to associate with the land cover properties, e.g., stomatal resistance, albedo and emissivity, and roughness characteristics. It also implies that the rapid urban growth may have complex air quality implications with reductions in peak ozone but more frequent high ozone events.

  5. Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.; Tanaka, K.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory in which the neutrino mass matrix is determined by the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism was investigated. With an arbitrary real right-handed Majorana mass matrix which incorporates three neutrino mass scales, the effects of the up-quark mass matrix are found to be dominant and as a result no significant mixing of ν/sub e/ occurs, while ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub γ/ mixing can be substantial

  6. The effects of medical tourism: Thailand’s experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaRanong, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the positive and negative effects of medical tourism on the economy, health staff and medical costs in Thailand. Methods The financial repercussions of medical tourism were estimated from commerce ministry data, with modifications and extrapolations. Survey data on 4755 foreign and Thai outpatients in two private hospitals were used to explore how medical tourism affects human resources. Trends in the relative prices of caesarean section, appendectomy, hernia repair, cholecystectomy and knee replacement in five private hospitals were examined. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital managers and key informants from the public and private sectors were conducted to better understand stakeholders’ motivations and practices in connection with these procedures and learn more about medical tourism. Findings Medical tourism generates the equivalent of 0.4% of Thailand’s gross domestic product but has exacerbated the shortage of medical staff by luring more workers away from the private and public sectors towards hospitals catering to foreigners. This has raised costs in private hospitals substantially and is likely to raise them in public hospitals and in the universal health-care insurance covering most Thais as well. The “brain drain” may also undermine medical training in future. Conclusion Medical tourism in Thailand, despite some benefits, has negative effects that could be mitigated by lifting the restrictions on the importation of qualified foreign physicians and by taxing tourists who visit the country solely for the purpose of seeking medical treatment. The revenue thus generated could then be used to train physicians and retain medical school professors. PMID:21556301

  7. Effects of a refugee elective on medical student perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussán Kathleen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing numbers of refugees throughout the world. Refugee health is a relatively unstudied and rarely taught component of medical education. In response to this need, a Refugee Health Elective was begun. Medical student perceptions toward cultural aspects of medicine and refugee health before and after participation in the elective were measured. Methods Preliminary questionnaires were given to all preclinical students at the academic year commencement with follow-up questionnaires at the refugee elective's conclusion. Both questionnaires examined students' comfort in interacting with patients and familiarity with refugee medical issues, alternative medical practices, and social hindrances to medical care. The preliminary answers served as a control and follow-up questionnaire data were separated into participant/non-participant categories. All preclinical medical students at two Midwestern medical schools were provided the opportunity to participate in the Refugee Health Elective and surveys. The 3 data groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted analysis techniques with the Kruskall-Wallis, Bonferroni and ANCOVA adjustment. P-values Results 408 and 403 students filled out the preliminary and follow-up questionnaires, respectfully, 42 of whom participated in the elective. Students considering themselves minorities or multilingual were more likely to participate. Elective participants were more likely to be able to recognize the medical/mental health issues common to refugees, to feel comfortable interacting with foreign-born patients, and to identify cultural differences in understanding medical/mental health conditions, after adjusting for minority or multilingual status. Conclusion As medical schools integrate a more multicultural curriculum, a Refugee Health Elective for preclinical students can enhance awareness and promote change in attitude toward medical/mental health issues common to refugees. This

  8. Cosmic strings in unified gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Some spontaneously broken gauge theories can give rise to stringlike vacuum structures (vortices). It has been pointed out by Vilenkin that in grand unified theories these can be sufficiently massive to have cosmological implications, e.g., in explaining the formation of galaxies. The circumstances in which such structures occur are examined. They do not occur in the simplest grand unified theories, but can occur in some more elaborate models which have been proposed. The cross section for the scattering of elementary particles by strings is estimated. This is used to evaluate the effect of collisions on the dynamics of a collapsing circular string, with particular attention to the question of whether energy dissipation by collision can reduce the rate of formation of black holes by collapsed strings, which may be unacceptably large in models where strings occur. It is found that the effect of collisions is not important in the case of grand unified strings, although it can be important for lighter strings

  9. Twelve tips for effective body language for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrew J; Freed, Jason; Ricotta, Daniel; Farris, Grace; Smith, C Christopher

    2017-09-01

    A significant proportion of human communication is nonverbal. Although the fields of business and psychology have significant literature on effectively using body language in a variety of situations, there is limited literature on effective body language for medical educators. To provide 12 tips to highlight effective body language strategies and techniques for medical educators. The tips provided are based on our experiences and reflections as clinician-educators and the available literature. The 12 tips presented offer specific strategies to engage learners, balance learner participation, and bring energy and passion to teaching. Medical educators seeking to maximize their effectiveness would benefit from an understanding of how body language affects a learning environment and how body language techniques can be used to engage audiences, maintain attention, control challenging learners, and convey passion for a topic. Understanding and using body language effectively is an important instructional skill.

  10. Protective effect of lead aprons in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an ongoing study regarding the protective effect that lead aprons, as used in medical radiology, have on the resulting effective dose for medical personnel. By means of model calculations we have analyzed the protection efficacy of lead aprons for various lead thicknesses, in function of tube potential and of variations in exposure geometry as they occur in practice. The degree of efficacy appears to be highly dependent on the fit of aprons because of the dominating influence of the equivalent dose of partially unshielded organs on the resulting effective dose. Also by model calculations we investigated the ratio between the effective dose and the operational quantify for personal dose monitoring. Our study enables the choice of appropriate correction factors for convering personal dosimetry measurements into effective dose, for typical exposure situations in medical radiology. (orig.) [de

  11. MEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2001-07-26

    Organisms living on the earth are exposed to solar radiation, including its ultraviolet (UV) components (for general reviews, the reader is referred to Smith [1] and Young et al. [2]). UV wavelength regions present in sunlight are frequently designated as UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). In today's solar spectrum, UVA is the principal UV component, with UVB present at much lower levels. Ozone depletion will increase the levels of UVB reaching the biosphere, but the levels of UVA will not be changed significantly [3]. Because of the high efficiency of UVB in producing damage in biological organisms in the laboratory experiments, it has sometimes been assumed that UVA has little or no adverse biological effects. However, accumulating data [4, 5], including action spectra (efficiency of biological damage as a function of wavelength of radiation; see Section 5) for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings [6], in human skin [7], and for a variety of plant damages (Caldwell, this volume) indicate that UVA can induce damage in DNA in higher organisms. Thus, understanding the differential effects of UVA and UVB wavebands is essential for estimating the biological consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion.

  12. Unified strength theory and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mao-Hong

    2004-01-01

    This is a completely new theory dealing with the yield and failure of materials under multi-axial stresses. It provides a system of yield and failure criteria adopted for most materials, from metallic materials to rocks, concretes, soils, polymers etc. The Unified Strength Theory has been applied successfully to analyse the elastic limit, plastic limit capacities, the dynamic response behavior for some structures under static and moderate impulsive load, and may be implemented in some elasto-plastic finite element computer codes. The Unified Strength Theory is described in detail and by using this theory a series of results can be obtained. The Unified Strength Theory can improve the conservative Mohr-Coulomb Theory, and since intermediate principal stress is not taken into account in the Mohr-Coulomb theory and most experimental data is not pertainable to the Mohr-Coulomb Theory, a considerable economic benefit may be obtained. The book can also increase the effect of most commercial finite element computer ...

  13. Proton decay in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.

    1984-01-01

    Interactions which violate the conservation of baryon and lepton number represent an intrinsic part of all grand unified theories (GUTs) of strong and electroweak interactions. These new interactions - predicted within the framework of GUTs - generate B and L violating four-fermion interactions via the exchange of superheavy particles which cannot be ascribed a well-defined baryon or lepton number. The effective coupling constant of these four-fermion interactions might be large enough to make the proton decay detectable by the present generation of experiments. In this review the basic concepts of conventional as well as supersymmetric GUTs relevant for proton decay are sketched. The baryon number violating sector of grand unified theories is discussed in more detail. Special emphasis is laid on the various selection rules arising as consequences of low-energy gauge invariance and supersymmetry for proton decay. These selection rules already determine the coarse pattern of the resulting decay modes and branching ratios without any reference to or detailed knowledge of the underlying grand unified theory. Finally the numerous theoretical predictions are summarized and confronted with experiment. (Author)

  14. The effect of teaching medical ethics on medical students' moral reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, D J; Wolinsky, F D; Baldwin, D C

    1989-12-01

    A study assessed the effect of incorporating medical ethics into the medical curriculum and the relative effects of two methods of implementing that curriculum, namely, lecture and case-study discussions. Results indicate a statistically significant increase (p less than or equal to .0001) in the level of moral reasoning of students exposed to the medical ethics course, regardless of format. Moreover, the unadjusted posttest scores indicated that the case-study method was significantly (p less than or equal to .03) more effective than the lecture method in increasing students' level of moral reasoning. When adjustment were made for the pretest scores, however, this difference was not statistically significant (p less than or equal to .18). Regression analysis by linear panel techniques revealed that age, gender, undergraduate grade-point average, and scores on the Medical College Admission Test were not related to the changes in moral-reasoning scores. All of the variance that could be explained was due to the students' being in one of the two experimental groups. In comparison with the control group, the change associated with each experimental format was statistically significant (lecture, p less than or equal to .004; case study, p less than or equal to .0001). Various explanations for these findings and their implications are given.

  15. The Simplest Unified Growth Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This paper provides a unified growth theory, i.e. a model that explains the very long-run economic and demographic development path of industrialized economies, stretching from the pre-industrial era to present-day and beyond. Making strict use of Malthus' (1798) so-called preventive check...... hypothesis - that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food - the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. The current framework lends support to existing unified growth theories and is well in tune...

  16. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  17. Effectively incorporating selected multimedia content into medical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Mietchen, Daniel; Faber, Cornelius; von Hausen, Wolfram; Schöbel, Christoph; Sellerer, Markus; Ziegler, Andreas

    2011-02-17

    Until fairly recently, medical publications have been handicapped by being restricted to non-electronic formats, effectively preventing the dissemination of complex audiovisual and three-dimensional data. However, authors and readers could significantly profit from advances in electronic publishing that permit the inclusion of multimedia content directly into an article. For the first time, the de facto gold standard for scientific publishing, the portable document format (PDF), is used here as a platform to embed a video and an audio sequence of patient data into a publication. Fully interactive three-dimensional models of a face and a schematic representation of a human brain are also part of this publication. We discuss the potential of this approach and its impact on the communication of scientific medical data, particularly with regard to electronic and open access publications. Finally, we emphasise how medical teaching can benefit from this new tool and comment on the future of medical publishing.

  18. Team effectiveness in academic medical libraries: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elaine Russo

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams.

  19. Measuring the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

  20. The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgelt, Laura M; Franson, Kari L; Nussbaum, Abraham M; Wang, George S

    2013-02-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2) ) found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics. The cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol has been determined to have the primary psychoactive effects; the effects of several other key cannabinoid compounds have yet to be fully elucidated. Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity. Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis, effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  1. Toward a Unified Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Saundra

    After discussing the nature of theory itself, the author explains her concept of the Unified Communication Theory, which rests on the assumption that there exists in all living structures a potential communication factor which is delimited by species and ontogeny. An organism develops "symbol fixation" at the level where its perceptual abilities…

  2. A model unified field equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perring, J.K.; Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    The classical solutions of a unified field theory in a two-dimensional space-time are considered. This system, a model of a interacting mesons and baryons, illustrates how the particle can be built from a wave-packet of mesons and how reciprocally the meson appears as a tightly bound combination of particle and antiparticle. (author). 6 refs

  3. Effectively marketing prepaid medical care with decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgionne, G A

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports a decision support system (DSS) that enables health plan administrators to quickly and easily: (1) manage relevant medical care market (consumer preference and competitors' program) information and (2) convert the information into appropriate medical care delivery and/or payment policies. As the paper demonstrates, the DSS enables providers to design cost efficient and market effective medical care programs. The DSS provides knowledge about subscriber preferences, customer desires, and the program offerings of the competition. It then helps administrators structure a medical care plan in a way that best meets consumer needs in view of the competition. This market effective plan has the potential to generate substantial amounts of additional revenue for the program. Since the system's data base consists mainly of the provider's records, routine transactions, and other readily available documents, the DSS can be implemented at a nominal incremental cost. The paper also evaluates the impact of the information system on the general financial performance of existing dental and mental health plans. In addition, the paper examines how the system can help contain the cost of providing medical care while providing better services to more potential beneficiaries than current approaches.

  4. The effect of an interprofessional clinical simulation on medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five themes emerged from the reflections: (i) difficulties with implementing knowledge and skills; (ii) importance of teamwork; (iii) skills necessary for teamwork; (iv) effect of being observed by peers; and (v) IPE in the curriculum. Conclusions. Medical students gained clinical knowledge during the simulation and became ...

  5. Guidelines for Effective Teleconference Presentations in Continuing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszkowski, Robert R.; Chute, Alan G.

    Designing teleconference programs for the physician learner puts unique demands on the teleconferencing medium. Typically, physicians expect a 1-hour lecture presentation with high information density. To effectively present the medical content material in an audio medium, strategies which structure and organize the content material are necessary.…

  6. What Makes Informal Mentorship in the Medical Realm Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtady, Heba A.; Könings, Karen D.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Informal mentoring is based on a natural match between a junior individual and a senior one who share mutual interests. It usually aids in the professional and personal development of both parties involved. We reviewed the literature regarding factors that make informal mentoring effective within the medical realm, by searching a major academic…

  7. Effects of Stimulant Medication under Varied Motivational Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; Prager, Kevin L.; Thomas, Karen; Kochy, Jane; Dyer, Tim J.; Perry, Lora; Pritchard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the evocative effects of four conditions (high- and low-preference activities, low and divided attention) and stimulant medication on the behavior of a 16-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and moderate mental retardation. All behavior (activity engagement, activity changes, inappropriate touching, rude…

  8. Building Effective Medical Missions with Servant Leadership Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda

    Nurses are naturally drawn to service opportunities, such as short-term medical missions (STMM), which hold great potential to benefit health. But STMMs have been criticized as potentially being culturally insensitive, leading to dependency, inadvertently causing harm, or being unsustainable. Utilizing servant leadership skills, nurses can effectively build community, vision, and sustainability into STMM projects.

  9. Marketing your medical practice with an effective web presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Tammy

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation of the World Wide Web has provided an opportunity for medical practices to sell themselves through low-cost marketing on the Internet. A Web site is a quick and effective way to provide patients with up-to-date treatment and procedure information. This article provides suggestions on what to include on a medical practice's Web site, how the Web can assist office staff and physicians, and cost options for your Web site. The article also discusses design tips, such as Web-site optimization.

  10. Grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include coupling constants; minimal SU(5) predictions (sin 2 theta/sub W/, m/sub W/ and m/sub Z/, proton decay, and magnetic monopoles); Higgs scalar effects including proton decay and flavor changing and oscillation phenomena; and supersymmetry. 31 references

  11. The Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana potency has risen dramatically over the past two decades. In the United States, it is unclear whether state medical marijuana policies have contributed to this increase. Methods Employing a differences-in-differences model within a mediation framework, we analyzed data on n = 39,157 marijuana samples seized by law enforcement in 51 U.S. jurisdictions between 1990-2010, producing estimates of the direct and indirect effects of state medical marijuana laws on potency, as measured by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Results We found evidence that potency increased by a half percentage point on average after legalization of medical marijuana, although this result was not significant. When we examined specific medical marijuana supply provisions, results suggest that legal allowances for retail dispensaries had the strongest influence, significantly increasing potency by about one percentage point on average. Our mediation analyses examining the mechanisms through which medical marijuana laws influence potency found no evidence of direct regulatory impact. Rather, the results suggest that the impact of these laws occurs predominantly through a compositional shift in the share of the market captured by high-potency sinsemilla. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for policymakers and those in the scientific community trying to understand the extent to which greater availability of higher potency marijuana increases the risk of negative public health outcomes, such as drugged driving and drug-induced psychoses. Future work should reconsider the impact of medical marijuana laws on health outcomes in light of dramatic and ongoing shifts in both marijuana potency and the medical marijuana policy environment. PMID:24502887

  12. Leading gravitational corrections and a unified universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Leading order gravitational corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action can lead to a consistent picture of the universe by unifying the epochs of inflation and dark energy in a single framework. While the leading local correction induces an inflationary phase in the early universe, the leading...... nonlocal term leads to an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We argue that both the leading UV and IR terms can be obtained within the framework of a covariant effective field theory of gravity. The perturbative gravitational corrections therefore provide a fundamental basis...

  13. Improvements on a Unified Dark Matter Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Popolo A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study, by means of a spherical collapse model, the effect of shear, rotation, and baryons on a generalized Chaplygin gas (gCg dominated universe. We show that shear, rotation, and the presence of baryons slow down the collapse compared to the simple spherical collapse model. The slowing down in the growth of density perturbation is able to solve the instability of the unified dark matter (UDM models described in previous papers (e.g. Sandvik et al. 2004 at the linear perturbation level, as also shown by a direct comparison of our model with previous results.

  14. [Internet-based continuing medical education: as effective as live continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Hervé; Chabot, Olivier

    2009-10-01

    E-learning consists in using new multimedia and Internet technologies to improve the quality of learning activities by facilitating access to resources and services, as well as exchanges and remote collaboration. The Internet is used for adult education in most professional domains, but its use for continuing medical education is less developed. Advantages are observed for teachers (e.g., permanent updating, interactive links, illustrations, archiving, and collective intelligence) and for the learners (e.g., accessibility, autonomy, flexibility, and adaptable pace). Research and meta-analyses have shown that e-CME is as effective as live events for immediate and retained learning. English-language educational medical websites that grant CME credits are numerous; few such French-language sites can currently grant credits. Accreditation of websites for CME, in its infancy in Europe, is common in North America.

  15. Effectiveness of a quality improvement curriculum for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Tartaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As health systems find ways to improve quality of care, medical training programs are finding opportunities to prepare learners on principles of quality improvement (QI. The impact of QI curricula for medical students as measured by student learning is not well delineated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a QI curriculum for senior medical students as measured by student knowledge and skills. Methods: This study was an observational study that involved a self-assessment and post-test Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT for intervention and control students. A QI curriculum consisting of online modules, live discussions, independent readings and reflective writing, and participation in a mentored QI project was offered to fourth-year medical students completing an honor's elective (intervention group. Senior medical students who received the standard QI curriculum only were recruited as controls. Results: A total of 22 intervention students and 12 control students completed the self-assessment and QIKAT. At baseline, there was no difference between groups in self-reported prior exposure to QI principles. Students in the intervention group reported more comfort with their skills in QI overall and in 9 of the 12 domains (p<0.05. Additionally, intervention students performed better in each of the three case scenarios (p<0.01. Discussion: A brief QI curriculum for senior medical students results in improved comfort and knowledge with QI principles. The strengths of our curriculum include effective use of classroom time and faculty mentorship with reliance on pre-existing online modules and written resources. Additionally, the curriculum is easily expandable to larger groups of students and transferable to other institutions.

  16. Análise crítica sobre especialidades médicas e estratégias para integrá-las ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS A critical analysis of medical specialities and strategies for their integration into the Unified National Health System in Brazil (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastão Wagner de Sousa Campos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificou-se relativa liberdade dos médicos brasileiros para criação de novas especialidades médicas, havendo, em conseqüência, progressiva fragmentação do trabalho em saúde, verificando-se também crescente diminuição da importância e mesmo da capacidade resolutiva das especialidades-raízes: clínica médica, pediatria, cirurgia geral e gineco-obstetrícia. Propõem-se dois conceitos operativos para redefinição da abrangência e da responsabilidade do trabalho médico: Campo de competência e Núcleo de Competência. São também levantadas diretrizes para reforma das políticas de formação e de incorporação de especialistas ao SUS.The implementation of medical specialization in Brasil has been relatively free of constraints. There has thus been a progressive fragmentation of medical work. The so-called root specialities are losing both their strength and clinical problem-solving capacity. Two operational concepts are proposed for achieving better administration of medical responsibilities and the role of medical professionals: 1 field of competence and 2 core competence. General goals are suggested for reforming specialized training and integration of specialists into the Unified National Health System.

  17. Split supersymmetry in unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    In the context of split supersymmetry, the gaugino mass spectrum seems to be very important to satisfy the dark matter content of the universe and the gauge coupling unification. In this Letter, we have considered various sources of gaugino masses in the context of unified models. We show that the gaugino mass spectrum varies in different unification pictures. In the context of SU(5), we have found that the bino/wino mass ratio can be close to one at the weak scale which is helpful to satisfy the WMAP data. The gluino/wino mass ratio is also different from the usual scenario of unified gaugino masses. The gaugino masses can be around one TeV and m SUSY is chosen so that the gluino mass does not create any cosmological problem. In the context of the Pati-Salam model, we show that the gluino mass can be made very heavy even after maintaining the unification of the gauge couplings

  18. Qualities of an effective teacher: what do medical teachers think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simerjit; Pai, Dinker R; Sinha, Nirmal K; Kaur, Avneet; Soe, Htoo Htoo Kyaw; Barua, Ankur

    2013-09-17

    Effective teaching in medicine is essential to produce good quality doctors. A number of studies have attempted to identify the characteristics of an effective teacher. However, most of literature regarding an effective medical teacher includes student ratings or expert opinions. Furthermore, interdisciplinary studies for the same are even fewer. We did a cross-sectional study of the characteristics of effective teachers from their own perspective across medicine and dentistry disciplines. A questionnaire comprising of 24 statements relating to perceived qualities of effective teachers was prepared and used. The study population included the faculty of medicine and dentistry at the institution. Respondents were asked to mark their response to each statement based on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. These statements were grouped these into four main subgroups, viz. Class room behaviour/instructional delivery, interaction with students, personal qualities and professional development, and analysed with respect to discipline, cultural background, gender and teaching experience using SPSS v 13.0. For bivariate analysis, t-test and one way ANOVA were used. Multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis was used to control confounding variables. The top three desirable qualities of an effective teacher in our study were knowledge of subject, enthusiasm and communication skills. Faculty with longer teaching experienced ranked classroom behaviour/instructional delivery higher than their less experienced counterparts. There was no difference of perspectives based on cultural background, gender or discipline (medicine and dentistry). This study found that the faculty perspectives were similar, regardless of the discipline, gender and cultural background. Furthermore, on review of literature similar findings are seen in studies done in allied medical and non-medical fields. These findings support common teacher training programs

  19. Unified theory of the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildermuth, K.; Tang, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to describe a microscopic nuclear theory which can be used to consider all low-energy nuclear phenomena from a unified viewpoint. In this theory, the Pauli principle is completely taken into account and translationally invariant wave functions are always employed. It can be utilized to study reactions initiated not only by nucleons but also by arbitrary composite particles

  20. LEP constraints on grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Utpal

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments on grand unified theories (GUTs) in the context of the LEP measurements of the coupling constants are reviewed. The three coupling constants at the electroweak scale have been measured at LEP quite precisely. One can allow these couplings to evolve with energy following the renormalization group equations for the various groups and find out whether all the coupling constants meet at any energy. It was pointed out that the minimal SU(5) grand unified theory fails to satisfy this test. However, various extensions of the theory are still allowed. These extensions include (i) supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, with some arbitrariness in the susy breaking scale arising from the threshold corrections, (ii) non-susy SU(5) GUTs with additional fermions as well as Higgs multiplets, which has masses of the order of TeV, and (iii) non-renormalizable effect of gravity with a fine tuned relation among the coupling constants at the unification energy. The LEP results also constrain GUTs with an intermediate symmetry breaking scale. By adjusting the intermediate symmetry breaking scale, one usually can have unification, but these theories get constrained. For example, the left-right symmetric theories coming from GUTs can be broken only at energies higher than about ∼10 10 GeV. This implies that if right handed gauge bosons are found at energies lower than this scale, then that will rule out the possibility of grand unification. Another recent interesting development on the subject, namely, low energy unification, is discussed in this context. All the coupling constants are unified at energies of the order of ∼10 8 GeV when they are embedded in an SU(15)GUT, with some particular symmetry breaking pattern. But even in this case the results of the intermediate symmetry breaking scale remain unchanged. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  1. Effectiveness of the Solar Panels in the Castro Valley Unified School District Based on Projected Amount of Energy to be Produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J. R.; Palmer, T. C.; Siegel, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years Americans have warmed to the idea of installing solar panels to their homes and businesses. These panels help reduce the cost of receiving energy from power plants that lose a lot of energy in transportation. These power plants provide energy by burning gas or coal producing emissions that add to the growing problem of pollution and global warming. In 2010 the Castro Valley Unified School District decided to add solar panels to Canyon Middle School, Castro Valley High School, and Castro Valley Adult School. We researched whether the solar panels reached their projected amount of energy (74%) for the sites where the panels were placed. The solar panels at all three sites were found to exceed these projected amounts. The solar panels at each site produce a little over 74% for the each school.

  2. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrić, Bisera

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challan...

  3. Patient engagement in healthcare: pathways for effective medical decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Barello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Making patients protagonists of decisions about their care is a primacy in the 21st century medical ethics. Precisely, to favor shared treatment decisions potentially enables patients’ autonomy and self-determination, and protects patients’ rights to make decisions about their own future care. To fully accomplish this goal, medicine should take into account the complexity of the healthcare decision making processes: patients may experience dilemmas when having to take decisions that not only concern their patient role/identity but also involve the psychosocial impact of treatments on their overall life quality. A deeper understanding of the patients’ expected role in the decision making process across their illness journey may favor the optimal implementation of this practice into the day-to-day medical agenda. In this paper, authors discuss the value of assuming the Patient Health Engagement Model to sustain successful pathways for effective medical decision making throughout the patient’s illness course. This model and its relational implication for the clinical encounter might be the base for an innovative “patient-doctor relational agenda” able to sustain an “engagement-sensitive” medical decision making.

  4. Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Regina Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. Results: The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components “received smoking cessation training” and “raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking”. Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%, believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%, and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96% and using other tobacco products (94%. Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%. Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking.

  5. Team effectiveness in academic medical libraries: a multiple case study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Martin, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. Methods: The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Findings: Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Conclusions: Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams. PMID:16888659

  6. What side effects are problematic for patients prescribed antipsychotic medication? The Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure for antipsychotic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, T; Evans, J; Paton, C; Barnes, T R E; Taylor, D; Bentall, R; Dalton, B; Ruffell, T; Rose, D; Vitoratou, S

    2017-10-01

    Capturing service users' perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications. Aim To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure. An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language. Feasibility and comprehensive psychometric properties were established in two samples (N43 and N50). We investigated whether we could predict the three most important side effects for individuals from their frequency, severity and life impact. MSE is a 53-item measure with good reliability and validity. Poorer mental and physical health, but not psychotic symptoms, was related to side-effect burden. Seventy-nine percent of items were chosen as one of the three most important effects. Severity, impact and distress only predicted 'putting on weight' which was more distressing, more severe and had more life impact in those for whom it was most important. MSE is a self-report questionnaire that identifies reliably the side-effect burden as experienced by patients. Identifying key side effects important to patients can act as a starting point for joint decision making on the type and the dose of medication.

  7. Improving medical stores management through automation and effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Cariappa, M P; Marwaha, Vishal; Sharma, Mukti; Arora, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Medical stores management in hospitals is a tedious and time consuming chore with limited resources tasked for the purpose and poor penetration of Information Technology. The process of automation is slow paced due to various inherent factors and is being challenged by the increasing inventory loads and escalating budgets for procurement of drugs. We carried out an indepth case study at the Medical Stores of a tertiary care health care facility. An iterative six step Quality Improvement (QI) process was implemented based on the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle. The QI process was modified as per requirement to fit the medical stores management model. The results were evaluated after six months. After the implementation of QI process, 55 drugs of the medical store inventory which had expired since 2009 onwards were replaced with fresh stock by the suppliers as a result of effective communication through upgraded database management. Various pending audit objections were dropped due to the streamlined documentation and processes. Inventory management improved drastically due to automation, with disposal orders being initiated four months prior to the expiry of drugs and correct demands being generated two months prior to depletion of stocks. The monthly expense summary of drugs was now being done within ten days of the closing month. Improving communication systems within the hospital with vendor database management and reaching out to clinicians is important. Automation of inventory management requires to be simple and user-friendly, utilizing existing hardware. Physical stores monitoring is indispensable, especially due to the scattered nature of stores. Staff training and standardized documentation protocols are the other keystones for optimal medical store management.

  8. Effects of Sterilization Cycles on PEEK for Medical Device Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wai Teng; Foo, Soo Leong; Lee, Teck Kheng

    2018-01-01

    The effects of the sterilization process have been studied on medical grade thermoplastic polyetheretherketone (PEEK). For a reusable medical device, material reliability is an important parameter to decide its lifetime, as it will be subjected to the continuous steam sterilization process. A spring nature, clip component was selected out of a newly designed medical device (patented) to perform this reliability study. This clip component was sterilized for a predetermined number of cycles (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20…100) at 121 °C for 30 min. A significant decrease of ~20% in the compression force of the spring was observed after 30 cycles, and a ~6% decrease in the lateral dimension of the clip was observed after 50 cycles. No further significant change in the compression force or dimension was observed for the subsequent sterilization cycles. Vickers hardness and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to characterize the effects of sterilization. DSC results exhibited no significant change in the degree of cure and melting behavior of PEEK before and after the sterilization. Hardness measurement exhibited an increase of ~49% in hardness after just 20 cycles. When an unsterilized sample was heated for repetitive cycles without the presence of moisture (121 °C, 10 and 20 cycles), only ~7% of the maximum change in hardness was observed. PMID:29466289

  9. Effects of Sterilization Cycles on PEEK for Medical Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Yap, Wai Teng; Foo, Soo Leong; Lee, Teck Kheng

    2018-02-21

    The effects of the sterilization process have been studied on medical grade thermoplastic polyetheretherketone (PEEK). For a reusable medical device, material reliability is an important parameter to decide its lifetime, as it will be subjected to the continuous steam sterilization process. A spring nature, clip component was selected out of a newly designed medical device (patented) to perform this reliability study. This clip component was sterilized for a predetermined number of cycles (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20…100) at 121 °C for 30 min. A significant decrease of ~20% in the compression force of the spring was observed after 30 cycles, and a ~6% decrease in the lateral dimension of the clip was observed after 50 cycles. No further significant change in the compression force or dimension was observed for the subsequent sterilization cycles. Vickers hardness and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to characterize the effects of sterilization. DSC results exhibited no significant change in the degree of cure and melting behavior of PEEK before and after the sterilization. Hardness measurement exhibited an increase of ~49% in hardness after just 20 cycles. When an unsterilized sample was heated for repetitive cycles without the presence of moisture (121 °C, 10 and 20 cycles), only ~7% of the maximum change in hardness was observed.

  10. Aspects of extra dimensional supersymmetric unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichet, S.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) and to make the link with passed and upcoming experiments. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In the first chapter, we will briefly review the sequence of arguments leading to the Higgs mechanism, then to the different concepts underlying physics beyond the Standard Model, and to the paradigm of extra dimensional supersymmetric grand unified theories. At each level of the argumentation, we will mention the different solutions available. The second chapter introduces more formally supersymmetry and extra dimensions, focusing in particular on the aspects of symmetry breaking. Then, in the third chapter, we present in details the two frameworks of extra dimensional theories in which we worked, called supersymmetric gauge-Higgs unification (GHU) and holographic grand unification (HGU) as well as the developments and modifications we brought to them. The fourth chapter is devoted to the low energy viability of the GHU framework, as well as its phenomenological implications. The fifth chapter presents a more generic study of the property of GUT-scale degenerate Higgs mass matrix, common to both frameworks. Finally, the sixth chapter is devoted to the viability and phenomenological implications of the HGU framework, with special emphasis on lepton flavour violation. This quantitative study takes properly into account effects of matrix anarchy, as well as exact flavour observables. The results obtained should generalize, at least qualitatively, to any other model with similar localization and supersymmetry breaking features

  11. Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-Feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2017-10-13

    High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.

  12. Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2017-10-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.

  13. a Unified Matrix Polynomial Approach to Modal Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1998-04-01

    One important current focus of modal identification is a reformulation of modal parameter estimation algorithms into a single, consistent mathematical formulation with a corresponding set of definitions and unifying concepts. Particularly, a matrix polynomial approach is used to unify the presentation with respect to current algorithms such as the least-squares complex exponential (LSCE), the polyreference time domain (PTD), Ibrahim time domain (ITD), eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), rational fraction polynomial (RFP), polyreference frequency domain (PFD) and the complex mode indication function (CMIF) methods. Using this unified matrix polynomial approach (UMPA) allows a discussion of the similarities and differences of the commonly used methods. the use of least squares (LS), total least squares (TLS), double least squares (DLS) and singular value decomposition (SVD) methods is discussed in order to take advantage of redundant measurement data. Eigenvalue and SVD transformation methods are utilized to reduce the effective size of the resulting eigenvalue-eigenvector problem as well.

  14. Einstein's theory of unified fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnelat, Marie Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    First published in1966, here is presented a comprehensive overview of one of the most elusive scientific speculations by the pre-eminent genius of the 20th century. The theory is viewed by some scientists with deep suspicion, by others with optimism, but all agree that it represents an extreme challenge. As the author herself affirms, this work is not intended to be a complete treatise or 'didactic exposition' of the theory of unified fields, but rather a tool for further study, both by students and professional physicists. Dealing with all the major areas of research whic

  15. Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenlin; Chen Xiuqin; Shen Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers; a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable. Compared with the existing results, the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain, simple structure and less conservation. Finally, numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method

  16. Climate Justice: A Constitutional Approach to Unify the Lex Specialis Principles of International Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorp, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Legal principles legitimise ubiquitous social values. They make certain social norms lawful and legitimate. Legal principles may act as governing vectors. They may give effect to a unified and legitimate constitutional framework insofar as a constitution unifies the fundamental principles on which a

  17. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  18. A unified factor-analytic approach to the detection of item and test bias: Illustration with the effect of providing calculators to students with dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An absence of measurement bias against distinct groups is a prerequisite for the use of a given psychological instrument in scientific research or high-stakes assessment. Factor analysis is the framework explicitly adopted for the identification of such bias when the instrument consists of a multi-test battery, whereas item response theory is employed when the focus narrows to a single test composed of discrete items. Item response theory can be treated as a mild nonlinearization of the standard factor model, and thus the essential unity of bias detection at the two levels merits greater recognition. Here we illustrate the benefits of a unified approach with a real-data example, which comes from a statewide test of mathematics achievement where examinees diagnosed with dyscalculia were accommodated with calculators. We found that items that can be solved by explicit arithmetical computation became easier for the accommodated examinees, but the quantitative magnitude of this differential item functioning (measurement bias was small.

  19. The effective factors on library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Sajad, Maryam Sadat; Rahmani, Sedigheh; Bahrami, Susan; Papi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The efficient use of libraries can be an important factor in determining the educational quality of Universities. Therefore, investigation and identification of factors affecting library anxiety becomes increasingly necessary. The purpose of this research is to determine the factors effecting library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This was an applied survey research using Bostick's Library Anxiety questionnaire as data gathering tool. The statistical population consisted of all students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (15011 students) with the sample size of 375 using stratified random sampling. The validity of data gathering tool was confirmed by experts in the library and information science and its reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.92). Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA) were used for data analysis using SPSS 18 software. Findings showed that the mean of library anxiety score was 2.68 and 2.66 for students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences respectively which is above average (2.5). Furthermore, age and gender had no meaningful effect on the library anxiety of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, but gender had a meaningful effect on library anxiety of students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences while age had no such effect. The results showed that the mean of factors effecting library anxiety in students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is higher than average and therefore not satisfactory and only factors relating to feeling comfortable in the library is lower than average and somewhat satisfactory.

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Technology Integration in a Unified School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodman, Suzette L.

    2014-01-01

    A unified school district (USD) continues to invest millions of dollars into its technology integration initiatives with minimal academic gains. Since teachers are essential to effective technology integration, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to analyze the perceptions of 13 teachers within the USD relative to how they could more…

  1. Branding your medical practice with effective public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Whether you think of it as your image, your standing in the community, or your reputation, your medical practice is also a brand. While many organizations, companies, products, and services are known for specific attributes that make them stand out from competitors, most use a combination of marketing disciplines to communicate who and what they are to their customers, consumers, and patients. Public relations is often considered the most powerful, cost-effective, and efficacious of the marketing disciplines, surpassing advertising, promotion, and direct mail in molding and developing brands. Your practice can benefit from a well-crafted branding public relations program.

  2. Effects of anti-osteoporosis medications on fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Schwarz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A number of fractures are complicated by impaired healing. This is prevalent in certain risk groups such as elderly, osteoporotics, postmenopausal women, and in people with malnutrition. At present, no pharmacologic treatments are available. Thus, there is an unmet need for medications that can...... healing. However, more randomized clinical trials documenting the clinical efficacy of PTH as a promoter of fracture healing in the clinical setting are warranted. Also, strontium ranelate seems to have beneficial effects on fracture healing under conditions with impaired healing. However, no clinical...

  3. Effects produced by nuclear weapons from the medical viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1982-01-01

    Recommendations are given for the protection commission of the Minister of the Interior on diagnostics and therapy of the acute radiation syndrome. In summary form, findings from the medical viewpoint are given on the biological effects of nuclear explosions - irrespective of their being produced in peace times by reactor accidents or by use of nuclear weapons in warfare. The statements on the therapy of radiation injuries are a practical aid to the experienced catastrophe physician and suggest to the still unexperienced physician to extend his training for mastering radiation injuries in catastrophes. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: effects, costs and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. Ringburg (Akkie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced prehospital medical care with air transport was introduced in the Netherlands in May 1995. The fi rst helicopter Mobile Medical Team, also called Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) was a joint venture initiative of the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Algemene

  5. Cost Effectiveness and Demand for Medical Services among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With daily improvement in science and technology, the demand for modern medical services is becoming increasing. This is because modern medical services provide answers to some medical problems which could not be handled by traditional or other forms of medicine. Regrettably, these medical services receive low ...

  6. Analysis of the factors influencing healthcare professionals' adoption of mobile electronic medical record (EMR) using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok; Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung

    2016-01-30

    Although the factors that affect the end-user's intention to use a new system and technology have been researched, the previous studies have been theoretical and do not verify the factors that affected the adoption of a new system. Thus, this study aimed to confirm the factors that influence users' intentions to utilize a mobile electronic health records (EMR) system using both a questionnaire survey and a log file analysis that represented the real use of the system. After observing the operation of a mobile EMR system in a tertiary university hospital for seven months, we performed an offline survey regarding the user acceptance of the system based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). We surveyed 942 healthcare professionals over two weeks and performed a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis to identify the intention to use the system among the participants. Next, we compared the results of the SEM analysis with the results of the analyses of the actual log files for two years to identify further insights into the factors that affected the intention of use. For these analyses, we used SAS 9.0 and AMOS 21. Of the 942 surveyed end-users, 48.3 % (23.2 % doctors and 68.3 % nurses) responded. After eliminating six subjects who completed the survey insincerely, we conducted the SEM analyses on the data from 449 subjects (65 doctors and 385 nurses). The newly suggested model satisfied the standards of model fitness, and the intention to use it was especially high due to the influences of Performance Expectancy on Attitude and Attitude. Based on the actual usage log analyses, both the doctors and nurses used the menus to view the inpatient lists, alerts, and patients' clinical data with high frequency. Specifically, the doctors frequently retrieved laboratory results, and the nurses frequently retrieved nursing notes and used the menu to assume the responsibilities of nursing work. In this

  7. Teaching Medical Ethics in Graduate and Undergraduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Santiago; Phuoc, Vania; Throneberry, Steven; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence; Coverdale, John

    2017-08-01

    One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes. Search terms included ethics, bioethics, medical ethics, medical students, residents/registrars, teaching, education, outcomes, and controlled trials. Nine studies were found that met inclusion criteria, including five randomized controlled trails and four controlled non-randomized trials. Subjects included medical students (5 studies), surgical residents (2 studies), internal medicine house officers (1 study), and family medicine preceptors and their medical students (1 study). Teaching methods, course content, and outcome measures varied considerably across studies. Common methodological issues included a lack of concealment of allocation, a lack of blinding, and generally low numbers of subjects as learners. One randomized controlled trial which taught surgical residents using a standardized patient was judged to be especially methodologically rigorous. None of the trials incorporated psychiatry residents. Ethics educators should undertake additional rigorously controlled trials in order to secure a strong evidence base for the design of medical ethics curricula. Psychiatry ethics educators can also benefit from the findings of trials in other disciplines and in undergraduate medical education.

  8. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan M; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F; Booth, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes in marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, pcenter calls mentioning marijuana (pcenter calls increased 0.8% per month (95% CI=0.2, 1.4, pcenter calls also increased 56% (95% CI=49%, 63%, p<0.001) in the period following the policy change. Further, there was one hospital discharge coded as dependent for every 3,159 (95% CI=2465, 3853, p<0.001) medical marijuana registrant applications. The abrupt nature of these changes suggests public health effects related to broad policy changes associated with marijuana. This report may be used to assist in policy decisions regarding the short-term public health effects of marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing potential legal responses to medical ghostwriting: effectiveness and constitutionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pharmaceutical companies are extensively involved in shaping medical knowledge to market their products to physicians and consumers. Specialized planning is undertaken to produce scientific articles driven by commercial interests. Rather than the listed authors, hidden analysts and publication management firms hired by pharmaceutical companies are often responsible for the content of scientific articles. Such ghostwriting practices raise serious concerns regarding the integrity of knowledge and thus demand urgent attention. This paper analyses the strategies of legal regulation on medical ghostwriting and their comparative advantages and disadvantages. Many of regulatory proposals suffer from a lack of effectiveness, whereas others are subject to constitutional concerns. The analysis in this paper offers insights into framing adequate regulation; it supports the strategy for reforming the structure of information production while calling for cautiousness in shaping its regulatory outline. In addition, this paper contributes to the analysis of First Amendment jurisprudence, suggesting that the judiciary should allow a certain amount of leeway for political branches to develop effective regulation PMID:29707217

  10. Effect of the ionizing radiation in polyurethane of medical grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceron, P.; Rivera, T.; Calderon, J. A.; Paredes, L.

    2011-10-01

    The polyurethane is a material broadly used in implant medical devices, such as the connection blocks of the pacemakers and the insulator of the electrodes. Some patients that are users of these devices possibly have the necessity to receive external radiotherapy. For that reason is necessary to know the effects induced by the ionizing radiation in this polymer. In this study samples of Pellethane 2363 80a (thermoplastic polyurethane of medical grade) were irradiated. It was used the same energy and absorbed dose of a treatment of external radiotherapy in pelvis, by means of a linear accelerator of X-rays of 6 MeV and absorbed dose of 60 Gy to isocenter. The irradiation corresponding to the gamma sterilization of the material was reproduced (1, 5, 7.5, 10 and 25 kGy for the Co 60) the effects induced by the radiotherapy and for the sterilization in the material were studied by means of an analysis of the chemical connection, the molecular structure and identification of the functional groups of the polymer, by means of the infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform in the infrared half region. (Author)

  11. The effects of medical school on health outcomes: Evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; de Wolf, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of attending medical school on health outcomes by exploiting that admission to medical school in the Netherlands is determined by a lottery. Among the applicants for medical school, people who attended medical school have on average 1.5 more years of completed

  12. A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hateren, J H

    2017-01-01

    A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological (or selected effects) theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. The new proposal unifies the key notions of both kinds of theories, but goes beyond them by explaining how functions in an organism can exist as factors with autonomous causal efficacy. The goal-directedness and normativity of functions exist in this strict sense as well. The theory depends on an internal physiological or neural process that mimics an organism's fitness, and modulates the organism's variability accordingly. The structure of the internal process can be subdivided into subprocesses that monitor specific functions in an organism. The theory matches well with each intuition on a previously published list of intuited ideas about biological functions, including intuitions that have posed difficulties for other theories.

  13. A unified approach to the Darwin approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Todd B.; Apte, A.; Morrison, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    There are two basic approaches to the Darwin approximation. The first involves solving the Maxwell equations in Coulomb gauge and then approximating the vector potential to remove retardation effects. The second approach approximates the Coulomb gauge equations themselves, then solves these exactly for the vector potential. There is no a priori reason that these should result in the same approximation. Here, the equivalence of these two approaches is investigated and a unified framework is provided in which to view the Darwin approximation. Darwin's original treatment is variational in nature, but subsequent applications of his ideas in the context of Vlasov's theory are not. We present here action principles for the Darwin approximation in the Vlasov context, and this serves as a consistency check on the use of the approximation in this setting

  14. Higgsless grand unified theory breaking and trinification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Conroy, Justin M.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary conditions on an extra dimensional interval can be chosen to break bulk gauge symmetries and to reduce the rank of the gauge group. We consider this mechanism in models with gauge trinification. We determine the boundary conditions necessary to break the trinified gauge group directly down to that of the standard model. Working in an effective theory for the gauge-symmetry-breaking parameters on a boundary, we examine the limit in which the grand-unified theory-breaking-sector is Higgsless and show how one may obtain the low-energy particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that gauge unification is preserved in this scenario, and that the differential gauge coupling running is logarithmic above the scale of compactification. We compare the phenomenology of our model to that of four dimensional 'trinified' theories

  15. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... find that the languages of the future should integrate the best available concepts and constructs in such a way that the programmer does not think of multiple paradigms when using a given language. In this paper, we describe to what extent the BETA language has been successful in obtaining a unified...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...

  16. A unified plant information network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederauer, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Technology is bringing power plants fully into the age of computerization. Microcomputers, data base managers, networking, and friendly, expert software are principal technology factors. Monitoring will improve, and the number and power of computers is increasing. The huge information flow will cause computers to be integrated into a communication network. The total plant operating triangle includes process, engineering, and management systems. The total network will integrate all of these into a Total Unified Plant Information Network (TUPIN). Software will take the type of information beyond monitored data. Analysis will improve through direct access to logical, physical, and procedural models by end users. Information management will improve through widespread use of hierarchical, relational, and expert data base managers. Expert systems will aid in diagnostics and interpretation. The goal is to automate plant operations to enhance safety and performance and to reduce cost by making both the plants and the personnel more expert

  17. Cosmology and unified gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraifeartaigh, L.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical points in common between cosmology and unified gauge theory (UGT) are reviewed, with attention given to areas of one which have proven useful for the other. The underlying principles for both theoretical frameworks are described, noting the differences in scale, i.e., 10 to the 25th cm in cosmology and 10 to the -15th cm for UGT. Cosmology has produced bounds on the number of existing neutrino species, and also on the mass of neutrinos, two factors of interest in particle physics. Electrons, protons, and neutrinos, having been spawned from the same massive leptons, each composed of three quarks, have been predicted to be present in equal numbers in the Universe by UGT, in line with necessities of cosmology. The Grand UGT also suggests specific time scales for proton decay, thus accounting for the observed baryon assymmetry.

  18. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  19. Phenomenology of unified gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1983-01-01

    Part I of these lectures treats the standard Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model of weak and electromagnetic interactions, discussing in turn its basic structure and weak neutral currents, charged currents, mixing angles and CP violation, and the phenomenology of weak vector and Higgs bosons. Part II of the lectures discusses the structure of theories of dynamical symmetry breaking such as technicolour, phenomenological consequences, frustrations and alternatives. The third part of these lectures offers the standard menu of grand unified theories (GUTs) of the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions, including an hors d'oeuvre of constraints on the parameters of the standard model, a main course of baryon number violating processes, and desserts which violate lepton number and CP. The fourth and final part goes through different attempts to remedy the inadequacies of previous theories by invoking supersymmetry and reaching out towards gravitation. (orig./HSI)

  20. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences

  1. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  2. A unifying philosophy of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Acharya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bertrand Russell won Nobel Prize for arguing that science has triumphed over religion. Since religions are based on god, Russell’s argument implies that science has triumphed over both religion and god. But neither Russell nor anyone else has ever defined religion and god, rationally. The assertion about triumph of science (which is founded on rationality over concepts such as religion and god (which are not defined rationally or scientifically in the extant literature cannot be rational. This paper offers a novel rational philosophical foundation for the concepts of god, religion and science in which the claim that science triumphs over religion is redundant. This paper also presents substantial new insights about epistemic truths to help resolve current problems facing humanity like financial moral hazard and terrorism which have unnerved nations worldwide. The humanity now begs to answer a fundamental question of how we can govern ourselves. This paper offers a coherent set of credible answers. In particular, it offers a coherent unified philosophy about how humans have universally formed beliefs to govern themselves and how this philosophy could help resolve current problems. The universal rendering of beliefs articulated here subsumes the extant characterization of probability beliefs in mathematics, science, engineering, economics, religion and philosophy. The universal beliefs so articulated in this paper obviate the currently prevalent philosophical conflicts between religion and science or between theism and atheism and paves the way for optimal governance for prosperity amid stability. This philosophy also offers a rational characterization of the spiritual notion of Nirvana or salvation of the soul and the notion of epistemic truth. The unifying philosophy can help humanity achieve unity, stability and prosperity, sans financial moral hazard, antagonism, wars, nuclear proliferation, global warming and atmospheric pollution.

  3. Toward a Unified AGN Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, Keigo; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulosa, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a unified model for the structure and appearance of accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from galactic X-ray binaries (XRB) to luminous quasars, with emphasis on AG N and their phenomenology. Central to this model is the notion of MHD winds launched by the accretion disks that power these objects. These winds provide the matter that manifests as blueshifted absorption features in the UV and X-ray spectra of a large fraction of these sources; furthermore, their density distribution in the poloidal plane determines their "appearance" (i.e. the column and velocity structure of these absorption features and the obscuration of the continuum source) as a function of the observer inclination angle (a feature to which INTEGRAL has made significant contributions). This work focuses on just the broadest characteristics of these objects; nonetheless, it provides scaling laws that allow one to reproduce within this model the properties of objects extending in luminosity from luminous quasars to XRBs. Our general conclusion is that the AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of three parameters: The wind maSS flux in units of the Eddington value, m(dot), the observers' inclination angle Theta and the logarithmic slope between the 0/UV and X-ray fluxes alpha(sub ox); however because of a correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV luminosity the number of significant parameters is two. The AGN correlations implied by this model appear to extend to and consistent with the XRB phenomenology, suggesting the presence of a truly unified underlying structure for accretion powered sources.

  4. Using evidence to improve satisfaction with medication side-effects education on a neuro-medical surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Susan L; Wirges, Ashley M

    2013-10-01

    Patient satisfaction is viewed as a significant indicator of quality of care. More specifically, improving patient satisfaction related to communication about medications and potential side effects can improve healthcare outcomes. Patient satisfaction scores related to medication side effects on a neuro-medical surgical unit were monitored following a quality improvement program. These patients frequently experience cognitive impairment and functional difficulties that can affect the way they understand and handle medications. The purpose of this quality improvement practice change was to (a) develop an educational approach for post acute neurosurgical patients and (b) evaluate whether the use of the approach is successful in improving patient satisfaction scores related to medication education on side effects. The quality improvement program interventions included (a) patient informational handouts inserted into admission folders, (b) nurse education about the importance of providing education on side effects to patient and discussion of their involvement with the program, (c) unit flyers with nurse education, and (d) various communications with bedside nurses through personal work mail and emails. The primary focus was for nurses to employ the "teach back" method to review and reinforce the medication side-effect teaching with patients. Evaluation of the data showed an increase in patient satisfaction after the implementation of the "Always Ask" program.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of an online medical laboratory technician program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Suchy, Kara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of an online medical laboratory technician program in the academic preparation and development of laboratory professionals. A semi-quantitative comparative research design was used. Several factors were considered in this evaluation. Academic outcomes between online and campus medical laboratory technician (MLT) students was determined by comparing overall and categorical scores on certification exams as well as first time pass rate. Certification exam scores and first time pass rates were also compared to national norms when possible to do so. Demographic data, including age and experience were compared. Additionally, learning styles were assessed to determine if there was a correlation to overall GPA and MLT GPA and if learning styles could be used to predict successful completion of an online Associates of Applied Science. The research was conducted at an academic university located in the mountain west United States. Participants consisted of online and campus students enrolled in a Medical Laboratory Technician program that graduated with their Associate of Applied Science degree between the years 2007-2009. Results of these years were also compared to graduates from 2004-2006 in the same program. Certification performance and first time pass rates were the major outcomes measured. Age and experience were correlated. Online learning styles and GPA were also compared to successful degree completion. The researcher found no significant difference in certification performance with regard to total and categorical scores, and first time pass rates between campus and online MLT students. Online students were slightly older and had more experience working in a laboratory in some capacity. Correlation studies showed significant positive correlation between learning styles, GPA, and successful completion of an Associate of Applied Science degree. When registry scores were compared to the prior cohort of online

  6. The Effect of Medical Socialization on Medical Students' Need for Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressin, Nancy R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether the individual personality characteristic of power motivation increases during medical school. Recorded interviews with a diverse group of medical students at two points in time were coded for power motivation. Results showed that white students' power motivation decreased, whereas minority students' levels remained the same,…

  7. Medical effects of low doses of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggle, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ionising radiation is genotoxic and causes biological effects via a chain of events involving DNA strand breaks and 'multiply damaged sites' as critical lesions that lead to cell death. The acute health effects of radiation after doses of a few gray, are due to such cell death and consequent disturbance of cell population kinetics. Because of cellular repair and repopulation there is generally a threshold dose of about 1-2 Gy below which such severe effects are not inducible. However, more subtle, sub-lethal mutational DNA damage in somatic cells of the body and the germ cells of the ovary and testis cause the two major low dose health risks -cancer induction and genetic (heritable) effects. This paper discusses some of the epidemiological and experimental evidence regarding radiation genetic effects, carcinogenesis and CNS teratogenesis. It concludes that current risk estimates imply that about 3% of all cancers; 1% of genetic disorders and between 0% and 0.3% of severe mental subnormality in the UK is attributable to the ubiquitous background radiation. The health risks associated with the medical uses of radiation are smaller, whilst the nuclear industry causes perhaps 1% of the health detriment attributable to background doses. (author)

  8. Effective didactic skills training for teachers in continuing medical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Abanador, N.; Moedder, U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and implement effective state-of-the-art teacher training in didactic skills and methods. The training concept should be designed and beneficial for medical teachers' postgraduate medical education (CME). Materials and methods: A 5-day workshop with 12 theoretical and 9 'hands-on' modules was designed and stepwise improved, according to the trainees' feedback. All trainees were trained in small groups (6 to 10 participants per workshop). The workshops consisted of mini-lectures, repeated micro teaching exercises and video-supported feedback concerning the following key-competencies: Communication of goals; methods to trigger interactivity; design of slides in power point presentations; effective feedback-techniques; and use of media, time-management, skills teaching, assessment methods (e.g. OSCE and others), evaluation and general presentation skills. The evaluation was based on two components: (A) trainees' scores in two objective structured teaching exercises (OSTEs) at the beginning and end of workshop, with the ratings of 15 to 20 external observers checked for significant trends (Pearson's X 2 test) in 17 givencriteria for high teaching effectiveness; (B) the trainees rated 20 teaching competencies in a retrospective 'pre-post-analysis' (self-assessment questionnaire) at the end of each workshop and after 6 to 12 months later. Results: The results revealed highly significant (p<0.01) improvements in 13 of 16 OSTE-criteria and in 12 of 13 items of the pre-post-analysis, predominantly estimated to be 'persistent'. Overall, trainees' feedback has been highly encouraging to continue and broaden the program. The discussion covers potential factors for the training success as well as pitfalls and the controversial issue of fees. (orig.)

  9. Seagrass from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Seagrass areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified Reef Map) provides...

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Navy Medical Corps Accession Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    GAO General Accounting Office GME Graduate Medical Education GMO General Medical Officer GPA Grade Point Average xiv HPLRP Health...supersede, or automatically promote, to O-3. At this juncture, a student will begin internship training, followed by a General Medical Officer ( GMO ) or...medical students will not complete a GMO or FS tour, and they will instead continue on through residency and fellowship training. This is commonly

  11. Document sheet no.3. The sanitary effects and the medical uses of the radioactivity, the radiations, the biological effects, the medical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In order to inform the public the ANCLI published information sheets. This sheet no.3 deals with the sanitary effects and the medical uses of the radioactivity. It presents the radiations definitions (the internal and external irradiation, the doses levels, the absorbed doses), the biological effects (deterministic effects, random effects and chronicity effects), and the medical uses (radiotherapy and monitoring of chemotherapy). (A.L.B.)

  12. Effects on Deaf Patients of Medication Education by Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyoguchi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Deaf people often experience difficulty in understanding medication information provided by pharmacists due to communication barriers. We held medication education lectures for deaf and hard of hearing (HH) individuals and examined the extent to which deaf participants understood medication-related information as well as their attitude about…

  13. Medication effectiveness may not be the major reason for accepting cardiovascular preventive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Støvring, Henrik; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2012-01-01

    Shared decision-making and patients' choice of interventions are areas of increasing importance, not least seen in the light of the fact that chronic conditions are increasing, interventions considered important for public health, and still non-acceptance of especially risk-reducing treatments...... of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is prevalent. A better understanding of patients' medication-taking behavior is needed and may be reached by studying the reasons why people accept or decline medication recommendations. The aim of this paper was to identify factors that may influence people's decisions...... and reasoning for accepting or declining a cardiovascular preventive medication offer....

  14. Acute effects of energy drinks in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés; Romero, César; Arroyave, Cristhian; Giraldo, Fabián; Sánchez, Leidy; Sánchez, Julio

    2017-09-01

    To determine the acute effects of a variety of recognized energy drinks on medical students, based on the hypothesis that these beverages may affect negatively cardiovascular parameters, stress levels and working memory. Eighty young healthy medical students were included in the study. 62.5 % of the participants were male, and the age mean was 21.45 years. Each person was evaluated via measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, oxygen saturation, breath rate, temperature, STAI score (to assess anxiety state), salivary cortisol and N-back task score (to determine cognitive enhancement). These evaluations were performed before and following the intake of either carbonated water or one of three energy drinks containing caffeine in similar concentrations and an undetermined energy blend; A contained less sugar and no taurine. Thirty-minute SBP increased significantly in the A and C groups. The B group exhibited a diminution of the percentage of the 1-h SBP increase, an increase of 1-h DBP and QTc shortening. HR showed an increase in the percent change in the A and C groups. Cortisol salivary levels increased in the B group. The STAI test score decreased in the C group. The percent change in N-back scores increased in the A group. The data reinforce the need for further research on the acute and chronic effects of energy drinks to determine the actual risks and benefits. Consumers need to be more informed about the safety of these energy drinks, especially the young student population.

  15. Non-evidence-based policy: how effective is China's new cooperative medical scheme in reducing medical impoverishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Winnie; Hsiao, William C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many lower to middle income countries have looked to insurance as a means to protect their populations from medical impoverishment. In 2003, the Chinese government initiated the New Cooperative Medical System (NCMS), a government-run voluntary insurance program for its rural population. The prevailing model of NCMS combines medical savings accounts with high-deductible catastrophic hospital insurance (MSA/Catastrophic). To assess the effectiveness of this approach in reducing medical impoverishment, we used household survey data from 2006 linked to claims records of health expenditures to simulate the effect of MSA/Catastrophic on reducing the share of individuals falling below the poverty line (headcount), and the amount by which household resources fall short of the poverty line (poverty gap) due to medical expenses. We compared the effects of MSA/Catastrophic to Rural Mutual Health Care (RMHC), an experimental model that provides first dollar coverage for primary care, hospital services and drugs with a similar premium but a lower ceiling. Our results show that RMHC is more effective at reducing medical impoverishment than NCMS. Under the internationally accepted poverty line of US$1.08 per person per day, the MSA/Catastrophic models would reduce the poverty headcount by 3.5-3.9% and the average poverty gap by 11.8-16.4%, compared with reductions of 6.1-6.8% and 15-18.5% under the RMHC model. The primary reason for this is that NCMS does not address a major cause of medical impoverishment: expensive outpatient services for chronic conditions. As such, health policymakers need first to examine the disease profile and health expenditure pattern of a population before they can direct resources to where they will be most effective. As chronic diseases impose a growing share of the burden on the population in developing countries, it is not necessarily true that insurance coverage focusing on expensive hospital care alone is the most effective at

  16. Effectiveness of the medication safety review clinics for older adults prescribed multiple medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Cheng Chan

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: DRPs were common in geriatric outpatients taking multiple medications and most were solved with appropriate interventions. The MSRC service may improve prescription quality in Taiwan if widely available.

  17. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related activit...... activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study....

  18. A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    A unified account of the principles of theoretical physics, A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics, Second Edition stresses the inter-relationships between areas that are usually treated as independent. The profound unifying influence of geometrical ideas, the powerful formal similarities between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, and the ubiquitous role of symmetries in determining the essential structure of physical theories are emphasized throughout.This second edition conducts a grand tour of the fundamental theories that shape our modern understanding of the physical wor

  19. The unified theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobocman, W.

    A unified nuclear reaction theory is a formalism for the scattering reactions of many-body nuclear systems which is capable of describing both direct interaction and compound nucleus formation processes. The Feshbach projection operator formalism is the original unified nuclear reaction theory. An alternative unified nuclear reaction theory called the X-matrix formalism is described. The X-matrix formalism is a generalization of the Brown-de Dominicis formalism. It does not require projection operators and is readly applied to rearrangement collisions

  20. The Effect of Plan Type and Comprehensive Medication Reviews on High-Risk Medication Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodovar, Armando Silva; Axon, David Rhys; Coleman, Ashley M; Warholak, Terri; Nahata, Milap C

    2018-05-01

    In 2007, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) instituted a star rating system using performance outcome measures to assess Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) and Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) providers. To assess the relationship between 2 performance outcome measures for Medicare insurance providers, comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs), and high-risk medication use. This cross-sectional study included Medicare Part C and Part D performance data from the 2014 and 2015 calendar years. Performance data were downloaded per Medicare contract from the CMS. We matched Medicare insurance provider performance data with the enrollment data of each contract. Mann Whitney U and Spearman rho tests and a hierarchical linear regression model assessed the relationship between provider characteristics, high-risk medication use, and CMR completion rate outcome measures. In 2014, an inverse correlation between CMR completion rate and high-risk medication use was identified among MAPD plan providers. This relationship was further strengthened in 2015. No correlation was detected between the CMR completion rate and high-risk medication use among PDP plan providers in either year. A multivariate regression found an inverse association with high-risk medication use among MAPD plan providers in comparison with PDP plan providers in 2014 (beta = -0.358, P plan providers and higher CMR completion rates were associated with lower use of high-risk medications among beneficiaries. No outside funding supported this study. Silva Almodovar reports a fellowship funded by SinfoniaRx, Tucson, Arizona, during the time of this study. The other authors have nothing to disclose.

  1. Medical Information Technology in Support of the Operational Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, James

    1999-01-01

    .... DoD is aggressively pursuing a unified force health protection strategy to protect service members from medical hazards associated with their military service from accession through retirement...

  2. The effects of utilizing a near-patient e-learning tool on medical student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Rob; Tallentire, Victoria R; Foley, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a near-patient, e-learning tool and explore student views on how utilization of such a tool influenced their learning. Third year medical students from Monash University in Melbourne, Australia were invited to trial a novel, near-patient, e-learning tool in two separate pilots within the ward environment. All participating students were invited to contribute to focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 participants. The emerging themes revealed influences on the students' learning both prior to and during a clinical encounter, as well as following completion of an e-learning module. The unifying concept which linked all six themes and formed the central feature of the experience was patient-centered learning. This occurred through the acquisition of contextualized knowledge and the facilitation of workplace integration. Utilization of a near-patient e-learning tool influences medical student learning in a number of complex, inter-related ways. Clinical e-learning tools are poised to become more commonplace and provide many potential benefits to student learning. However, incorporation of technology into clinical encounters requires specific skills which should form an integral part of primary medical training.

  3. Effects of Medical Device Regulations on the Development of Stand-Alone Medical Software: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagec, Kathrin; Jungwirth, David; Haluza, Daniela; Samwald, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Medical device regulations which aim to ensure safety standards do not only apply to hardware devices but also to standalone medical software, e.g. mobile apps. To explore the effects of these regulations on the development and distribution of medical standalone software. We invited a convenience sample of 130 domain experts to participate in an online survey about the impact of current regulations on the development and distribution of medical standalone software. 21 respondents completed the questionnaire. Participants reported slight positive effects on usability, reliability, and data security of their products, whereas the ability to modify already deployed software and customization by end users were negatively impacted. The additional time and costs needed to go through the regulatory process were perceived as the greatest obstacles in developing and distributing medical software. Further research is needed to compare positive effects on software quality with negative impacts on market access and innovation. Strategies for avoiding over-regulation while still ensuring safety standards need to be devised.

  4. A unifying conceptual model of entrepreneurial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senderovitz, Martin

    This article offers a systematic analysis and synthesis of the area of entrepreneurial management. Through a presentation of two main perspectives on entrepreneurial management and a newly developed unifying conceptual entrepreneurial management model, the paper discusses a number of theoretical...

  5. Unified data model for biological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.

    2014-01-01

    A data model empowers us to store, retrieve and manipulate data in a unified way. We consider the biological data consists of DNA (De-Oxyribonucleic Acid), RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and protein structures. In our Bioinformatics Lab (Bioinformatics Lab, Alkhawarizmi Institute of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan), we have already proposed two data models for DNA and protein structures individually. In this paper, we propose a unified data model by using the data models of TOS (Temporal Object Oriented System) after making some necessary modifications to this data model and our already proposed the two data models. This proposed unified data model can be used for the modeling and maintaining the biological data (i.e. DNA, RNA and protein structures), in a single unified way. (author)

  6. 76 FR 19893 - Unified Command Plan 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Plan 2011 Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my authority as Commander in Chief, I hereby approve and direct the implementation of the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title...

  7. Development of unified gauge theories: retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    The construction and development of unified gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions is reviewed. The Weinberg and Lee contributions to this study are mainly considered as personal recollections

  8. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  9. Unified Approach in the DSS Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of today's decision support environment become very complex due to new generation of Business Intelligence applications and technologies like Data Warehouse, OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing and Data Mining. In this respect DSS development process are not simple and needs an adequate methodology or framework able to manage different tools and platforms to achieve manager's requirements. The DSS development process must be view like a unified and iterative set of activities and operations. The new techniques based on Unified Process (UP methodology and UML (Unified Modeling Language it seems to be appropriate for DSS development using prototyping and RAD (Rapid Application Development techniques. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for development and integrate Decision Support Systems using Unified Process Methodology and UML.

  10. Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Galain, R.; Ripka, G.

    1990-01-01

    Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons are presented. Emphasis is placed on the underlying quark structure of hadrons including the Skyrmion. The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with vector mesons is discussed

  11. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  12. Effect of acute and chronic job demands on effective individual teamwork behaviour in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.

  13. Effect of Professional Ethics on Reducing Medical Errors from the Viewpoint of Faculty Members in Medical School of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Donboli Miandoab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professionalism and adherence to ethics and professional standards are among the most important topics in medical ethics that can play a role in reducing medical errors. This paper examines and evaluates the effect of professional ethics on reducing medical errors from the viewpoint of faculty members in the medical school of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: in this cross-sectional descriptive study, faculty members of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were the statistical population from whom 105 participants were randomly selected through simple random sampling. A questionnaire was used, to examine and compare the self-assessed opinions of faculty members in the internal, surgical, pediatric, gynecological, and psychiatric departments. The questionnaires were completed by a self-assessment method and the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 21. Results: Based on physicians’ opinions, professional ethical considerations and its three domains and aspects have a significant role in reducing medical errors and crimes. The mean scores (standard deviations of the managerial, knowledge and communication skills and environmental variables were respectively 46.7 (5.64, 64.6 (8.14 and 16.2 (2.97 from the physicians’ viewpoints. The significant factors with highest scores on the reduction of medical errors and crimes in all three domains were as follows: in the managerial skills variable, trust, physician’s sense of responsibility against the patient and his/her respect for patients’ rights; in the knowledge and communication skills domain, general competence and eligibility as a physician and examination and diagnosis skills; and, last, in the environmental domain, the sufficiency of trainings in ethical issues during education and their satisfaction with basic needs. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this research, attention to the improvement of communication, management and environment skills should

  14. The effects of cosmic radiation on implantable medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    1996-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits, with the benefits of low power consumption, represent the state of the art technology for implantable medical devices. Three significant sources of radiation are classified as having the ability to damage or alter the behavior of implantable electronics; Secondary neutron cosmic radiation, alpha particle radiation from the device packaging and therapeutic doses(up to 70 Gγ) of high energy radiation used in radiation oncology. The effects of alpha particle radiation from the packaging may be eliminated by the use of polyimide or silicone rubber die coatings. The relatively low incidence of therapeutic radiation incident on an implantable device and the use of die coating leaves cosmic radiation induced secondary neutron single event upset (SEU) as the main pervasive ionising radiation threat to the reliability of implantable devices. A theoretical model which predicts the susceptibility of a RAM cell to secondary neutron cosmic radiation induced SEU is presented. The model correlates well within the statistical uncertainty associated with both the theoretical and field estimate. The predicted Soft Error Rate (SER) is 4.8 x l0 -12 upsets/(bit hr) compared to an observed upset rate of 8.5 x 10 -12 upsets/(bit hr) from 20 upsets collected over a total of 284672 device days. The predicted upset rate may increase by up to 20% when consideration is given to patients flying in aircraft The upset rate is also consistent with the expected geographical variations of the secondary cosmic ray neutron flux, although insufficient upsets precluded a statistically significant test. This is the first clinical data set obtained indicating the effects of cosmic radiation on implantable devices. Importantly, it may be used to predict the susceptibility of future to the implantable device designs to the effects of cosmic radiation

  15. the effect of air medical transport on survival after trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    region in the latter part of 1999. This empirical research assessed death rate data to ascertain if the air medical transport (AMT) of patients results in lower death rates than occur with road transportation of patients. Wits Business School ... the South African medical environment, patients were evaluated at the trauma units of ...

  16. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  18. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisera Mavrić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challanging topic for those who find themselves facing the moral dilemma of whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. Problems of controversy are numerous. Is abortion a murder or not? Is fetus a person or not? When it becomes the one if ever till the birth? If abortion is not morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it's right to have an abortion. If abortion is morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it is always impermissible to have an abortion. The comon dilema is whether having an abortion is less wrong than the alternatives. These are some of the questions this paper deals with.

  19. Designing effective on-line continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimitat, Craig

    2001-03-01

    The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour.

  20. Effect of two Howard Hughes Medical Institute research training programs for medical students on the likelihood of pursuing research careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di; Meyer, Roger E

    2003-12-01

    To assess the effect of Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) two one-year research training programs for medical students on the awardees' research careers. Awardees of the HHMI Cloister Program who graduated between 1987 and 1995 and awardees of the HHMI Medical Fellows Program who graduated between 1991 and 1995 were compared with unsuccessful applicants to the programs and MD-PhD students who graduated during the same periods. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess research career outcomes while controlling for academic and demographic variables that could affect selection to the programs. Participation in both HHMI programs increased the likelihood of receiving National Institutes of Health postdoctoral support. Participation in the Cloister Program also increased the likelihood of receiving a faculty appointment with research responsibility at a medical school. In addition, awardees of the Medical Fellows Program were not significantly less likely than Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) and non-MSTP MD-PhD program participants to receive a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award, and awardees of the Cloister Program were not significantly less likely than non-MSTP MD-PhD students to receive a faculty appointment with research responsibility. Women and underrepresented minority students were proportionally represented among awardees of the two HHMI programs whereas they were relatively underrepresented in MD-PhD programs. The one-year intensive research training supported by the HHMI training programs appears to provide an effective imprinting experience on medical students' research careers and to be an attractive strategy for training physician-scientists.

  1. Effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. National Consensus Development Panel on Effective Medical Treatment of Opiate Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    To provide clinicians, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of the effective approaches to treat opiate dependence. A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member panel representing the fields of psychology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, family medicine, drug abuse, epidemiology, and the public. In addition, 25 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 600. Presentations and discussions were divided into 3 phases over 2 1/2 days: (1) presentations by investigators working in the areas relevant to the consensus questions during a 2-day public session; (2) questions and statements from conference attendees during open discussion periods that are part of the public session; and (3) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second day and morning of a third day. The conference was organized and supported by the Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health. The literature was searched through MEDLINE and other National Library of Medicine and online databases from January 1994 through September 1997 and an extensive bibliography of 941 references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Experts prepared abstracts for their presentations as speakers at the conference with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed its conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft statement was made available on the World Wide Web immediately following its

  2. The unified mechanism of aging effects in both martensite and parent phase for shape-memory alloys: atomic-level simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J.; Ding, X.; Suzuki, T.; Otsuka, K.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Sun, J.; Ren, X.

    2011-03-01

    Most shape-memory alloys (SMAs) subject to the aging effects not only in the martensite phase but also in the parent phase. These aging effects have been attracted much attention as they strongly affect the practical applications of SMAs. So far, the intrinsic mechanism of them has remained controversial due to the difficulty in visualization of what happens in atomic scale. In the present study, by using a combination of molecular dynamics method and Monte-Carlo method [1], we investigate the aging effects in both martensite and parent phase. We successfully reproduced the thermal behaviors of aging effects for SMAs, i.e., the Af temperature increase with aging time in martensite and the Ms temperature decrease with aging time in parent phase, which keep good agreement with the experimental observations [2]. In addition, quantitative analysis of the atomic configurations during aging reveals that the aging effects are not associated with a change in the average structure.

  3. [Burnout effect on academic progress of Oncology medical residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ávila, Gabriel; Bello-Villalobos, Herlinda

    2014-01-01

    In the formative period of the courses taken in medical specializations, new and greater responsibilities are accepted by physicians in personal and academic spheres. The interaction of several factors that encompass the practice of these physicians could surpass their capacity to cope, causing on these professionals a high level of stress and professional exhaustion, which will affect their academic development. The objective of this research was to establish if the occupational stress of these medical residents affects their academic progress. We administered the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to 52 residents of three specializations in Oncology (Medical Oncology, Surgical Oncology, and Radio-Oncology). These residents accepted voluntarily at the same time of their third cognitive exam. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 13.5 %, with a high frequency among medical residents of first degree. Medical Oncology residents showed a higher emotional exhaustion and lower personal fulfillment. Considering the three specializations, the academic progress was higher in the third year, with a significant difference to Surgical Oncology and Medical Oncology (p = 0.026 and 0.015, respectively). No significant difference was found between burnout syndrome, academic progress and sociodemographic characteristics. The presence of burnout syndrome does not affect the academic progress of Oncology medical residents.

  4. Effect of dyad training on medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students' resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills.Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022).Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance.

  5. Effect of dyad training on medical students’ cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students’ resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills. Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022). Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance. PMID:28353555

  6. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  7. Chaos synchronization of a unified chaotic system via partial linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongguang; Li Hanxiong; Duan Jian

    2009-01-01

    A partial linearization method is proposed for realizing the chaos synchronization of an unified chaotic system. Through synchronizing partial state of the chaotic systems can result in the synchronization of their entire states, and the resulting controller is singularity free. The results can be easily extended to the synchronization of other similar chaotic systems. Simulation results are conducted to show the effectiveness of the method.

  8. Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2017-01-01

    To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components "received smoking cessation training" and "raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking". Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%), believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%), and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96%) and using other tobacco products (94%). Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%). Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking. Determinar o grau de concordância com medidas eficazes de controle do tabaco

  9. The Psychoactive Effects of Psychiatric Medication: The Elephant in the Room

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrieff, J; Cohen, D; Porter, S

    2013-01-01

    The psychoactive effects of psychiatric medications have been obscured by the presumption that these medications have disease-specific actions. Exploiting the parallels with the psychoactive effects and uses of recreational substances helps to highlight the psychoactive properties of psychiatric medications and their impact on people with psychiatric problems. We discuss how psychoactive effects produced by different drugs prescribed in psychiatric practice might modify various disturbing and...

  10. The introduction and effectiveness of simulation-based learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Nobuo; Beppu, Masashi; Tohda, Shuji; Suzuki, Toshiya

    2009-01-01

    To contribute to reforming the medical education system in Japan, we visited overseas medical schools and observed the methods utilized in medical education. We visited 28 medical schools and five institutes in the United States, Europe, Australia and Asia in 2008. We met deans and specialists in medical affairs and observed the medical schools' facilities. Among the several effective educational methods used in overseas medical schools, simulation-based learning was being used in all that we visited. Simulation-based learning is used to promote medical students' mastery of communication skills, medical interviewing, physical examination and basic clinical procedures. Students and tutors both recognize the effectiveness of simulation-based learning in medical education. In contrast to overseas medical schools, simulation-based learning is not common in Japan. There remain many barriers to introduce simulation-based education in Japan, such as a shortage of medical tutors, staff, mannequins and budget. However, enhancing the motivation of tutors is likely the most important factor to facilitate simulation-based education in Japanese medical schools to become common place.

  11. The Effects of Price and Health Consciousness and Satisfaction on the Medical Tourism Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JungKun; Ahn, Jiseon; Yoo, Weon Sang

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of price and health consciousness on medical tourism. Accordingly, we explore the utility of the theory of planned behavior for assessing the relationships between several variables and explain consumers' intentions to be repeat medical tourists. A 26-item questionnaire was developed, and data were collected from 407 patients who visited South Korea for medical purposes. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that medical tourists' price consciousness was significant with respect to their satisfaction with medical and travel services. However, health consciousness also influenced their decision-making process. The study results reveal that health consciousness did not have a significant effect on tourists' satisfaction with medical travel services. Although this study was conducted in South Korea, the findings may be relevant elsewhere. When developing products and services for the medical tourism industry, policymakers and service providers should focus on the importance of cost-effectiveness.

  12. Medication effects on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.N.; Turp, J.C.; Motschall, E.; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, several reviews have been published on the effects of medications on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in orthodontics. However, the effects of medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been evaluated. METHODS: A systematic literature review

  13. The Doubling Undone? Double Effect in Recent Medical Ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and Frances Kamm against familiar ways of applying DER to certain controversies within medical ethics, especially, that over physician-assisted suicide. After detailing, interpreting, and attempting to rebut the challenges from these ...

  14. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  15. The Effect of Clinical Psychiatric Training on Medical Students' Belief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    ... +2348072243922. Medical. Students,. Psychiatric training,. Attitude,. Stigma,. Mental illness. ... ill lead to strained social interaction, low self-esteem, loss of employment and ... seeking help and result in compromised care. The importance of ...

  16. Adverse Consequences of Glucocorticoid Medication : Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  17. A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSU Jong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework,gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the clectroweak theory.By gauging T(4) × [SU(3)]color in fiat space-time,we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field,which couples universally to all gluons,quarks and anti-quarks.The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the same ‘effective Riemann metric tensors' in the geometric-optics (or classical) limit.The emergence of effective metric tensors in the classical limit is essential for the unified model to agree with experiments.The unified model suggests that all gravitational,strong and electroweak interactions appear to be dictated by gauge symmetries in the generalized Yang-Mills framework.

  18. A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HSU Jongping

    2012-01-01

    Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework, gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the electroweak theory. By gauging T(4) × [SU(3)] color in flat space-time, we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field, which couples universally to all gluons, quarks and anti-quarks. The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the same 'effective Riemann metric tensors’ in the geometric-optics (or classical) limit. The emergence of effective metric tensors in the classical limit is essential for the unified model to agree with experiments. The unified model suggests that all gravitational, strong and electroweak interactions appear to be dictated by gauge symmetries in the generalized Yang-Mills framework. (author)

  19. Effectiveness of Switching Smoking-Cessation Medications Following Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Bryan W; Cummings, K Michael; Kasza, Karin A; Borland, Ron; Burris, Jessica L; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic disorder often characterized by multiple failed quit attempts (QAs). Yet, little is known about the sequence of methods used across multiple QAs or how this may impact future ability to abstain from smoking. This prospective cohort study examines the effectiveness of switching smoking-cessation medications (SCMs) across multiple QAs. Adult smokers (aged ≥18 years) participating in International Tobacco Control surveys in the United Kingdom, U.S., Canada, and Australia (N=795) who: (1) completed two consecutive surveys between 2006 and 2011; (2) initiated a QA at least 1 month before each survey; and (3) provided data for the primary predictor (SCM use during most recent QA), outcome (1-month point prevalence abstinence), and relevant covariates. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Five SCM user classifications were identified: (1) non-users (43.5%); (2) early users (SCM used for initial, but not subsequent QA; 11.4%); (3) later users (SCM used for subsequent, but not initial QA; 18.4%); (4) repeaters (same SCM used for both QAs; 10.7%); and (5) switchers (different SCM used for each QA; 14.2%). Abstinence rates were lower for non-users (15.9%, OR=0.48, p=0.002), early users (16.6%, OR=0.27, p=0.03), and repeaters (12.4%, OR=0.36, p=0.004) relative to switchers (28.5%). Findings suggest smokers will be more successful if they use a SCM in QAs and vary the SCM they use across time. That smokers can increase their odds of quitting by switching SCMs is an important message that could be communicated to smokers. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Onset of the nonlinear regime in unified dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P.P.; Beca, L.M.G.; Carvalho, J.P.M. de; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Copeland, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the onset of the nonlinear regime in the context of unified dark matter models involving a generalized Chaplygin gas. We show that the transition from dark-matter-like to dark-energy-like behavior will never be smooth. In some regions of space the transition will never take place while in others it may happen sooner or later than naively expected. As a result the linear theory used in previous studies may break down late in the matter dominated era even on large cosmological scales. We study the importance of this effect showing that its magnitude depends on the exact form of the equation of state in the low density regime. We expect that our results will be relevant for other unified dark matter scenarios, particularly those where the quartessence candidate is a perfect fluid

  1. Unified creep-plasticity model for halite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    There are two national energy programs which are considering caverns in geological salt (NaCl) as a storage repository. One is the disposal of nuclear wastes and the other is the storage of oil. Both short-time and long-time structural deformations and stresses must be predictable for these applications. At 300K, the nominal initial temperature for both applications, the salt is at 0.28 of the melting temperature and exhibits a significant time dependent behavior. A constitutive model has been developed which describes the behavior observed in an extensive set of triaxial creep tests. Analysis of these tests showed that a single deformation mechanism seems to be operative over the stress and temperature range of interest so that the secondary creep data can be represented by a power of the stress over the entire test range. This simple behavior allowed a new unified creep-plasticity model to be applied with some confidence. The resulting model recognizes no inherent difference between plastic and creep strains yet models the total inelastic strain reasonably well including primary and secondary creep and reverse loadings. A multiaxial formulation is applied with a back stress. A Bauschinger effect is exhibited as a consequence and is present regardless of the time scale over which the loading is applied. The model would be interpreted as kinematic hardening in the sense of classical plasticity. Comparisons are made between test data and model behavior

  2. Synchronization of linearly coupled unified chaotic systems based on linear balanced feedback scheme with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-H.; Chen, C.-S.; Lee, C.-I

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the synchronization of unidirectional and bidirectional coupled unified chaotic systems. A balanced coupling coefficient control method is presented for global asymptotic synchronization using the Lyapunov stability theorem and a minimum scheme with no constraints/constraints. By using the result of the above analysis, the balanced coupling coefficients are then designed to achieve the chaos synchronization of linearly coupled unified chaotic systems. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme are verified via numerical simulations.

  3. Development of the PARA-ID Program to Simulate a Unified Viscoplasticity Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi

    2009-01-01

    The PARA-ID code is a general purpose computer simulation program for a nonlinear cyclic material behavior with and without viscous effects, which can simulate various constitutive models such as - Prager Model - Armstrong and Frederick Model - Chaboche 3-decomposed rule Model - Chaboche 4-decomposed rule Model - Ohno and Wang Model - Unified Chaboche Viscoplastic Model In this paper, the unified Chaboche viscoplasticity model is investigated with some examples of application for a cyclic hardening material of 316L

  4. The Effects of Medication on Activity and Rehabilitation of Older People – Opportunities and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Clarke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple medication use, or polypharmacy, is common in people undergoing rehabilitation. Polypharmacy is also common in older people, where it has the potential to impact on habitual physical activity. Despite this, the interactions between medication, disease, activity, and rehabilitation outcomes are insufficiently researched. In this review, we consider common classes of medications that can affect physical activity levels and outcomes of rehabilitation. We consider medications that improve disease processes and improve limiting symptoms (eg, breathlessness in heart failure and lung disease, pain in arthritis, unwanted side effects of medications (eg, central slowing caused by opioids and hypnotics, and also medication classes that might have the ability to improve activity and rehabilitation outcomes via beneficial effects on neuromuscular function (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. We conclude by giving practical advice on how to review and optimise medication use to support habitual physical activity and ensure the best results from rehabilitation.

  5. Individual and crossover effects of stress on adjustment in medical student marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J; Monnier, J; Libet, J; Shaw, D; Beach, S R

    2000-07-01

    High-stress individuals may benefit from social support, although their support providers may be adversely affected via stress crossover effects. Individual and crossover effects of perceived stress within medical student marriages (n = 30) were investigated. Perceived spousal support was positively associated with individuals' own marital and emotional adjustment, attenuating stress effects. With regard to crossover effects, medical students' perceived stress was significantly associated with their spouses' emotional adjustment. Further, medical students' own emotional adjustment fully mediated this crossover effect. Results suggest that the contagion of negative affect may serve as a key mechanism through which stress crossover effects operate in marriage.

  6. The effective management of medical isotope production in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    During the 50-yr history of the use of radioisotopes for medical applications, research reactors have played a pivotal role in the production of many if not most of the key products. The marriage between research reactors and production operations is subject to significant challenges on two fronts. The medical applications of the radioisotope products impose some unique constraints and requirements on the production process. In addition, the mandates and priorities of a research reactor are not always congruent with the demands of a production environment. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of medical isotope production, identifies the unique challenges facing this endeavor, and discusses the management of the relationship between the isotope producer and the research reactor operator. Finally, the key elements of a successful relationship are identified

  7. Commentary from Westminster. Medical effects of nuclear war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, R

    1983-03-12

    A British Medical Association report on the medical consequences of nuclear war, scheduled for commercial publication in April 1983, could damage the Government's arguments for maintaining a nuclear deterrent. The gist of the BMA's findings is that Britain could not possibly cope with the aftermath of nuclear attack. Although Prime Minister Thatcher has made no comment, both the Home Office and the Department of Health and Social Security have criticized the report's negative conclusions. The BMA is expected to take up the issue at its annual meeting, and the Labour party has called for a Parliamentary debate on the report and its implications.

  8. Unifying framework for multimodal brain MRI segmentation based on Hidden Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricq, S; Collet, Ch; Armspach, J P

    2008-12-01

    In the frame of 3D medical imaging, accurate segmentation of multimodal brain MR images is of interest for many brain disorders. However, due to several factors such as noise, imaging artifacts, intrinsic tissue variation and partial volume effects, tissue classification remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a unifying framework for unsupervised segmentation of multimodal brain MR images including partial volume effect, bias field correction, and information given by a probabilistic atlas. Here-proposed method takes into account neighborhood information using a Hidden Markov Chain (HMC) model. Due to the limited resolution of imaging devices, voxels may be composed of a mixture of different tissue types, this partial volume effect is included to achieve an accurate segmentation of brain tissues. Instead of assigning each voxel to a single tissue class (i.e., hard classification), we compute the relative amount of each pure tissue class in each voxel (mixture estimation). Further, a bias field estimation step is added to the proposed algorithm to correct intensity inhomogeneities. Furthermore, atlas priors were incorporated using probabilistic brain atlas containing prior expectations about the spatial localization of different tissue classes. This atlas is considered as a complementary sensor and the proposed method is extended to multimodal brain MRI without any user-tunable parameter (unsupervised algorithm). To validate this new unifying framework, we present experimental results on both synthetic and real brain images, for which the ground truth is available. Comparison with other often used techniques demonstrates the accuracy and the robustness of this new Markovian segmentation scheme.

  9. Effect of Facebook on the life of Medical University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Hassan; Patel, Hamza; Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Ansari, Iqra Qamar; Khan, Mariya; Iqbal, Noureen; Rasheed, Hira; Jabbar, Qamar; Khan, Saqib Raza; Khalid, Barira; Nadeem, Anum; Afroz, Raunaq; Shafiq, Sara; Mustafa, Arwa; Asad, Nazia

    2013-10-17

    Facebook is a social networking service launched in February 2004, owned and operated by Facebook, Inc. As of June 2012, Facebook reports more than 1 billion active users. Objective of study was to evaluate the effect of Facebook on the social life, health and behavior of medical students. It was a cross sectional, observational and questionnaire based study conducted in Dow University OF Health Sciences during the period of January 2012 to November 2012. We attempted to interview all the participants who could be approached during the period of the study. Participants were MBBS students, while all students of other courses and programs were taken as exclusion criteria. Approximately 1050 questionnaires were distributed to participants. Fifty questionnaires were rejected due to incomplete answers, yielding 1000 usable responses for an approximate 95% response rate. Informed verbal consent was taken from each participant. Study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Out of total 1000 participants, males were 400 (40%) and females were 600 (60%). Participants were in the age group of 18-25 years with a mean age of 20.08 years. Most of the participants were using Facebook daily (N = 640, 64%) for around 3-4 hours (N = 401, 40.1%). Majority of them (N = 359, 35.9%) believed that they were equally active on Facebook and in real life while few believed their social life became worse after start using Facebook (N = 372, 37.2%). Most of the participants admitted that they were considered as shy in real world (N = 390, 39.0%) while in the world of Facebook they were considered as fun loving by their friends (N = 603, 60.3%). A large number of participants (N = 715, 75%) complained of mood swings. Youngsters are willing to compromise their health, social life, studies for the sake of fun and entertainment or whatever satisfaction they get

  10. Effect of Facebook on the life of Medical University students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Facebook is a social networking service launched in February 2004, owned and operated by Facebook, Inc. As of June 2012, Facebook reports more than 1 billion active users. Objective of study was to evaluate the effect of Facebook on the social life, health and behavior of medical students. Methodology It was a cross sectional, observational and questionnaire based study conducted in Dow University OF Health Sciences during the period of January 2012 to November 2012. We attempted to interview all the participants who could be approached during the period of the study. Participants were MBBS students, while all students of other courses and programs were taken as exclusion criteria. Approximately 1050 questionnaires were distributed to participants. Fifty questionnaires were rejected due to incomplete answers, yielding 1000 usable responses for an approximate 95% response rate. Informed verbal consent was taken from each participant. Study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result Out of total 1000 participants, males were 400 (40%) and females were 600 (60%). Participants were in the age group of 18–25 years with a mean age of 20.08 years. Most of the participants were using Facebook daily (N = 640, 64%) for around 3–4 hours (N = 401, 40.1%). Majority of them (N = 359, 35.9%) believed that they were equally active on Facebook and in real life while few believed their social life became worse after start using Facebook (N = 372, 37.2%). Most of the participants admitted that they were considered as shy in real world (N = 390, 39.0%) while in the world of Facebook they were considered as fun loving by their friends (N = 603, 60.3%). A large number of participants (N = 715, 75%) complained of mood swings. Conclusion Youngsters are willing to compromise their health, social life, studies for the sake of fun and

  11. Unified Medical Language System Terminology Services (UTS) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UTS API is intended for application developers to perform Web service calls and retrieve UMLS data within their own applications. The UTS API provides the...

  12. Unified theory in the worldline approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Edwards

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We explore unified field theories based on the gauge groups SU(5 and SO(10 using the worldline approach for chiral fermions with a Wilson loop coupling to a background gauge field. Representing path ordering and chiral projection operators with functional integrals has previously reproduced the sum over the chiralities and representations of standard model particles in a compact way. This paper shows that for SU(5 the 5¯ and 10 representations – into which the Georgi–Glashow model places the left-handed fermionic content of the standard model – appear naturally and with the familiar chirality. We carry out the same analysis for flipped SU(5 and uncover a link to SO(10 unified theory. We pursue this by exploring the SO(10 theory in the same framework, the less established unified theory based on SU(6 and briefly consider the Pati–Salam model using SU(4×SU(2×SU(2.

  13. How to Retrieve Knowledge from Medical Texts Effectively

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolesa, Petr; Antolík, Ján; Ďurovec, Ján

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 1-6 ISSN 1727-1983. [EMBEC'05. European Medical and Biomedical Conference /3./. Prague, 20.11.2005-25.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : information extraction * natural language processing * machine learning Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  14. Effectiveness of incinerators in the management of medical wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and Objectives Medical waste incinerators release into the air a host of pollutants that have serious adverse consequences on public health and the environment. This study aimed at determining ... Questionnaires, researcher observation and laboratory investigations of ash samples were used in data collection.

  15. Unified Stochastic Geometry Model for MIMO Cellular Networks with Retransmissions

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, Laila H.

    2016-10-11

    This paper presents a unified mathematical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, for downlink cellular networks with multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base stations (BSs). The developed paradigm accounts for signal retransmission upon decoding errors, in which the temporal correlation among the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) of the original and retransmitted signals is captured. In addition to modeling the effect of retransmission on the network performance, the developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for MIMO cellular networks literature. First, it integrates the tangible decoding error probability and the abstracted (i.e., modulation scheme and receiver type agnostic) outage probability analysis, which are largely disjoint in the literature. Second, it unifies the analysis for different MIMO configurations. The unified MIMO analysis is achieved by abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by Gaussian signaling approximation along with an equivalent SISO representation for the per-data stream SINR in MIMO cellular networks. We show that the proposed unification simplifies the analysis without sacrificing the model accuracy. To this end, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff imposed by different MIMO schemes and shed light on the diversity loss due to the temporal correlation among the SINRs of the original and retransmitted signals. Finally, several design insights are highlighted.

  16. Unified Stochastic Geometry Model for MIMO Cellular Networks with Retransmissions

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, Laila H.; Elsawy, Hesham; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a unified mathematical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, for downlink cellular networks with multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base stations (BSs). The developed paradigm accounts for signal retransmission upon decoding errors, in which the temporal correlation among the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) of the original and retransmitted signals is captured. In addition to modeling the effect of retransmission on the network performance, the developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for MIMO cellular networks literature. First, it integrates the tangible decoding error probability and the abstracted (i.e., modulation scheme and receiver type agnostic) outage probability analysis, which are largely disjoint in the literature. Second, it unifies the analysis for different MIMO configurations. The unified MIMO analysis is achieved by abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by Gaussian signaling approximation along with an equivalent SISO representation for the per-data stream SINR in MIMO cellular networks. We show that the proposed unification simplifies the analysis without sacrificing the model accuracy. To this end, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff imposed by different MIMO schemes and shed light on the diversity loss due to the temporal correlation among the SINRs of the original and retransmitted signals. Finally, several design insights are highlighted.

  17. Longitudinal effects of medical students' communication skills on future performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey S; Durning, Steven J; Saguil, Aaron; Swygert, Kimberly; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    The Essential Elements of Communication (EEC) were developed from the Kalamazoo consensus statement on physician-patient communication. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) has adopted a longitudinal curriculum to use the EEC both as a learning tool during standardized patient encounters and as an evaluation tool culminating with the end of preclerkship objective-structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Medical educators have recently emphasized the importance of teaching communication skills, as evidenced by the United States Medical Licensing Examination testing both the integrated clinical encounter (ICE) and communication and interpersonal skills (CIS) within the Step 2 Clinical Skills exam (CS). To determine the associations between students' EEC OSCE performance at the end of the preclerkship period with later communication skills assessment and evaluation outcomes in the context of a longitudinal curriculum spanning both undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. Retrospective data from preclerkship (overall OSCE scores and EEC OSCE scores) and clerkship outcomes (internal medicine [IM] clinical points and average clerkship National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] scores) were collected from 167 USU medical students from the class of 2011 and compared to individual scores on the CIS and ICE components of Step 2 CS, as well as to the communication skills component of the program directors' evaluation of trainees during their postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residency. In addition to bivariate Pearson correlation analysis, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis to examine the predictive power of the EEC score beyond the IM clerkship clinical points and the average NBME Subject Exams score on the outcome measures. The EEC score was a significant predictor of the CIS score and the PGY-1 communication skills score. Beyond the average NBME Subject Exams score and the IM clerkship clinical points, the EEC score

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ribeiro Bahia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH under Brazilian public health system perspective (Unified Health System - "Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS". MATERIAL AND METHODS: A revision of the literature of the medical treatment of BPH using alpha-blockers, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and combinations was carried out. A panel of specialists defined the use of public health resources during episodes of acute urinary retention (AUR, the treatment and the evolution of these patients in public hospitals. A model of economic analysis(Markov predicted the number of episodes of AUR and surgeries (open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate related to BPH according to stages of evolution of the disease. Brazilian currency was converted to American dollars according to the theory of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP 2010: US$ 1 = R$ 1.70. RESULTS: The use of finasteride reduced 59.6% of AUR episodes and 57.9% the need of surgery compared to placebo, in a period of six years and taking into account a treatment discontinuity rate of 34%. The mean cost of treatment was R$ 764.11 (US$449.78 and R$ 579.57 (US$ 340.92 per patient in the finasteride and placebo groups, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs was R$ 4.130 (US$ 2.429 per episode of AUR avoided and R$ 2.735 (US$ 1.609 per episode of surgery avoided. The comparison of finasteride + doxazosine to placebo showed a reduction of 75.7% of AUR episodes and 66.8% of surgeries in a 4 year time horizon, with a ICERs of R$ 21.191 (US$ 12.918 per AUR episodes avoided and R$ 11.980 (US$ 7.047 per surgery avoided. In the sensitivity analysis the adhesion rate to treatment and the cost of finasteride were the main variables that influenced the results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the treatment of BPH with finasteride is cost-effective compared to placebo in the Brazilian public health system

  19. A unified mobility model for quantum mechanical simulation of MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Sang Kyung; Shin, Hyung Soon; Jin, Seong Hoon; Park, Young June; Min, Hong Shik

    2004-01-01

    A unified electron and hole mobility model for inversion and accumulation layers with quantum effect is presented for the first time. By accounting for the screened Coulomb scattering based on the well-known bulk mobility model and allowing the surface roughness scattering term to be a function of net charge, the new model is applicable to the bulk, inversion, and accumulation layers with only one set of fitting parameters. The new model is implemented in the 2-D quantum mechanical device simulator and gives excellent agreement with the experimentally measured effective mobility data over a wide range of effective transverse field, substrate doping, substrate bias, and temperature.

  20. A unified transmission loss allocation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Qifeng; Abur, Ali

    2007-01-01

    A new unified method which allocates transmission losses either to buses in a pool market or to individual transactions in a bilateral contract market is presented in this paper. A detailed derivation of the method is given. A bus-loss matrix and a transaction-loss matrix are developed to show the interactions between bus injections and transactions. It is further demonstrated that the ''Physical-power-flow-based'' method can be obtained as an approximation of this unified approach under certain simplifying assumptions. Test systems are used to illustrate how the proposed method behaves under different possible scenarios. (author)

  1. Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Cessa, J R; Moya-Cessa, H; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

    2008-08-01

    We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a classical signal in space and (spatial) frequency and position and momentum for a quantum system. Probably the most well known of them is the Wigner distribution function. We show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihaczek's complex energy function, and Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions. We do this by showing how they may be obtained from ordered forms of creation and annihilation operators and by obtaining them in terms of expectation values in different eigenbases.

  2. Technical writing practically unified through industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    General background details in the development of a university level technical writing program, based upon the writing tasks of the student's occupations, are summarized. Objectives and methods for unifying the courses of study with the needs of industry are discussed. Four academic course divisions, Industries Technologies, in which preparation and training are offered are: Animal, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Agricultural Business. Occupational competence is cited as the main goal for these programs in which technical writing is to be practically unified through industry. Course descriptions are also provided.

  3. Prospects of a Unified Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Simonsen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the trend among management systems towards a common structure and the inclusion of additional areas of corporate concern (quality, environment, occupational health and safety and social responsibility) is outlined. The article suggests that a large part of the work associated...... with implementing and maintaining standardised management systems can be rationalised by developing a ?unified system?. The unified system is proposed to consist of a common basic standard of general managerial methodology expandable with supplements, which are related to the specific areas of concern...

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs

  5. Essays on the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Over half of the US states have adopted "medical marijuana" laws (MMLs), and 58% of Americans now favor marijuana legalization. Despite public support, federal law continues to prohibit the use and sale of marijuana due to public health concerns of increased dependence and abuse, youth access, and drugged driving. These essays contribute toward understanding the likely health consequences of marijuana liberalization using evidence from MMLs.Chapter 1 -- Growing Like Weed: Explaining Variation...

  6. Effect of smartphone overuse on sleep problems in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pairoj Boonluksiri

    2018-01-01

    Background: Smartphones are used worldwide. Consequently, it does seem to be having an impact on health-related problems if overused. However, it is uncertain whether it is associated with sleep problems or poor learning. Objective: To determine the association between smartphone overuse and sleep problems in medical students as primary outcome and poor learning as secondary outcome. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 89 students having their own smartphones, at Hatyai...

  7. Effects of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Patel, Bimal V; Brunetti, Louis

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the impact of Part D coverage gap reform on diabetes medication adherence. Retrospective data analysis based on pharmacy claims data from a national pharmacy benefit manager. We used a difference-in-difference-indifference method to evaluate the impact of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications. Two cohorts (2010 and 2011) were constructed to represent the last year before Affordable Care Act (ACA) reform and the first year after reform, respectively. Each patient had 2 observations: 1 before and 1 after entering the coverage gap. Patients in each cohort were divided into groups based on type of gap coverage: no coverage, partial coverage (generics only), and full coverage. Following ACA reform, patients with no gap coverage and patients with partial gap coverage experienced substantial drops in copayments in the coverage gap in 2011. Their adherence to diabetes medications in the gap, measured by percentage of days covered, improved correspondingly (2.99 percentage points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-5.48, P = .019 for patients with no coverage; 6.46 percentage points, 95% CI 3.34-9.58, P gap in 2011. However, their adherence did not increase (-0.13 percentage point, P = .8011). In the first year of ACA coverage gap reform, copayments in the gap decreased substantially for all patients. Patients with no coverage and patients with partial coverage in the gap had better adherence in the gap in 2011.

  8. Piercings in medical students and their effects on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Rosario, Bernardo Augusto; Rosario, Cristine Secco; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt

    2014-01-01

    Piercings are body embellishments commonly seen in young people, however their inherent risk of infection and scarring disorders are less divulged. To evaluate the prevalence of body piercings among medical students and their possible dermatologic consequences. Cross-sectional study with 58 medical students, by means of a structured questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, technical issues related to the piercing and characteristics of the dermatologic complications. The sample was predominantly female (86.2%), with mean age 24 ± 3 years. The placement of the first piercing occurred during adolescence (median age 15), without medical supervision (91.4%) or knowledge of parents/guardians (74%). Most piercings were made of metal alloy/stainless steel, in a dumbbell model (51.7%), inserted in the umbilical area (53.5%) or ear (41.4%), with frequent cutaneous reactions in the first six months post-piercing. Hypertrophic scarring, pain, swelling and infection (ppiercings. Piercing insertion occurred during adolescence. Local inflammatory and infectious reactions were common. Scarring disorders and dermatitis appeared in the long term. There is need for preventive and educational activities, starting with those in the academic environment.

  9. Piercings in medical students and their effects on the skin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Rosario, Bernardo Augusto; Rosario, Cristine Secco; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Piercings are body embellishments commonly seen in young people, however their inherent risk of infection and scarring disorders are less divulged. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of body piercings among medical students and their possible dermatologic consequences. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 58 medical students, by means of a structured questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, technical issues related to the piercing and characteristics of the dermatologic complications. RESULTS The sample was predominantly female (86.2%), with mean age 24 ± 3 years. The placement of the first piercing occurred during adolescence (median age 15), without medical supervision (91.4%) or knowledge of parents/guardians (74%). Most piercings were made of metal alloy/stainless steel, in a dumbbell model (51.7%), inserted in the umbilical area (53.5%) or ear (41.4%), with frequent cutaneous reactions in the first six months post-piercing. Hypertrophic scarring, pain, swelling and infection (ppiercings. CONCLUSION Piercing insertion occurred during adolescence. Local inflammatory and infectious reactions were common. Scarring disorders and dermatitis appeared in the long term. There is need for preventive and educational activities, starting with those in the academic environment. PMID:25387495

  10. Effectiveness of medical equipment donations to improve health systems: how much medical equipment is broken in the developing world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lora; Malkin, Robert

    2011-07-01

    It is often said that most of the medical equipment in the developing world is broken with estimates ranging up to 96% out of service. But there is little documented evidence to support these statements. We wanted to quantify the amount of medical equipment that was out of service in resource poor health settings and identify possible causes. Inventory reports were analyzed from 1986 to 2010, from hospitals in sixteen countries across four continents. The UN Human Development Index was used to determine which countries should be considered developing nations. Non-medical hospital equipment was excluded. This study examined 112,040 pieces of equipment. An average of 38.3% (42,925, range across countries: 0.83-47%) in developing countries was out of service. The three main causes were lack of training, health technology management, and infrastructure. We hope that the findings will help biomedical engineers with their efforts toward effective designs for the developing world and NGO's with efforts to design effective healthcare interventions.

  11. The unified coordination language UnCL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.V. Guillen Scholten (Juan); J.F. Jacob (Joost)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we show how to use a (subset) of UML as an Unified Coordination Language (UnCL) that is based on a separation of concerns between coordination and computation. As such UnCL provides a general language for the coordination of, in particular, object-oriented applications. The

  12. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  13. Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prause, Christian; Ternier, Stefaan; De Jong, Tim; Apelt, Stefan; Scholten, Marius; Wolpers, Martin; Eisenhauer, Markus; Vandeputte, Bram; Specht, Marcus; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Prause, C., Ternier, S., De Jong, T., Apelt, S., Scholten, M., Wolpers, M., et al. (2007). Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE. In D. Massart, J.-N. Colin & F. V. Assche (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Learning Object Discovery & Exchange (LODE'07). September,

  14. Unify a hazardous materials/waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiently managing a hazardous materials/waste program in a multi-facility, multi-product corporation is a major challenge. This paper describes several methods to help unify a program and gain maximum efficiency of manpower and to minimize risk

  15. A unified theory in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We present a grand unified model defined in ten dimensions and based on the group SO(13). The model is dimensionally reduced over the non-simply-connected space (Su(3)/U(1)xU(1))/Z{sub 2} giving in four dimensions the standard model. (orig.).

  16. A unified theory in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We present a grand unified model defined in ten dimensions and based on the group SO(13). The model is dimensionally reduced over the non-simply-connected space [Su(3)/U(1)xU(1)]/Z 2 giving in four dimensions the standard model. (orig.)

  17. Toward a Unified Theory of Human Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this unified theory of human reasoning is to specify what constitutes reasoning and to characterize the psychological distinction between inductive and deductive reasoning. The theory views reasoning as the controlled and mediated application of three processes (encoding, comparison and selective combination) to inferential rules. (JAZ)

  18. IDEA: A Unifying Theory for Evaluation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bella, Giampaolo; Giustolisi, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Secure systems for voting, exams, auctions and conference paper management are theorised to address the same problem, that of secure evaluations. In support of such a unifying theory comes a model for Secure Evaluation Systems (SES), which offers innovative common grounds to understand all four...

  19. The Effects of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Children’s Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keilow, Maria; Holm, Anders; Fallesen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We use Danish register data to estimate the effect of medical treatment of ADHD on children’s academic achievement. Using a sample of 7,523 children who undergo medical treatment, we exploit plausibly exogenous variation in medical nonresponse to estimate the effect of medical treatment on school...

  20. Processing speed can monitor stimulant-medication effects in adults with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niels Peter; Wiig, Elisabeth H; Bäck, Svante; Gustafsson, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Treatment responses to methylphenidate by adults with ADHD are generally monitored against DSM-IV/DSM-V symptomatology, rating scales or interviews during reviews. To evaluate the use of single- and dual-dimension processing-speed and efficiency measures to monitor the effects of pharmacological treatment with methylphenidate after a short period off medication. A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) monitored the effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in 40 previously diagnosed and medicated adults with ADHD. Processing speed was evaluated with prior prescription medication, without medication after a 2-day period off ADHD medication, and with low-dose (10/20 mg) and high-dose (20/40 mg) methylphenidate hydrochloride (Medikinet IR). Thirty-three participants responded to the experimental treatments. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc analysis (Scheffe) indicated significant main effects for single dimension colour and form and dual-dimension colour-form naming. Post-hoc analysis indicated statistical differences between the no- and high-dose medication conditions for colour and form, measures of perceptual speed. For colour-form naming, a measure of cognitive speed, there was a significant difference between no- and low-dose medication and between no- and high-dose medications, but not between low- and high-dose medications. Results indicated that the AQT tests effectively monitored incremental effects of the methylphenidate dose on processing speed after a 2-day period off medication. Thus, perceptual (colour and form) and cognitive speed (two-dimensional colour-form naming) and processing efficiency (lowered shift costs) increased measurably with high-dose medication. These preliminary findings warrant validation with added measures of associated behavioural and cognitive changes.

  1. Graduates from a traditional medical curriculum evaluate the effectiveness of their medical curriculum through interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, Simon; O'Sullivan, Helen; Taylor, David

    2009-10-26

    In 1996 The University of Liverpool reformed its medical course from a traditional lecture-based course to an integrated PBL curriculum. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. Part of this project has involved gathering retrospective views on the relevance of both types of undergraduate education according to graduates. This paper focuses on the views of traditional Liverpool graduates approximately 6 years after graduation. From February 2006 to June 2006 interviews took place with 46 graduates from the last 2 cohorts to graduate from the traditional Liverpool curriculum. The graduates were generally happy with their undergraduate education although they did feel there were some flaws in their curriculum. They felt they had picked up good history and examination skills and were content with their exposure to different specialties on clinical attachments. They were also pleased with their basic science teaching as preparation for postgraduate exams, however many complained about the overload and irrelevance of many lectures in the early years of their course, particular in biochemistry. There were many different views about how they integrated this science teaching into understanding disease processes and many didn't feel it was made relevant to them at the time they learned it. Retrospectively, they felt that they hadn't been clinically well prepared for the role of working as junior doctor, particularly the practical aspects of the job nor had enough exposure to research skills. Although there was little communication skills training in their course they didn't feel they would have benefited from this training as they managed to pick up had the required skills on clinical attachments. These interviews offer a historical snapshot of the views of graduates from a traditional course before many courses were reformed. There was some conflict in the interviews about the doctors enjoying their undergraduate education but then saying that they

  2. Graduates from a traditional medical curriculum evaluate the effectiveness of their medical curriculum through interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 The University of Liverpool reformed its medical course from a traditional lecture-based course to an integrated PBL curriculum. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. Part of this project has involved gathering retrospective views on the relevance of both types of undergraduate education according to graduates. This paper focuses on the views of traditional Liverpool graduates approximately 6 years after graduation. Methods From February 2006 to June 2006 interviews took place with 46 graduates from the last 2 cohorts to graduate from the traditional Liverpool curriculum. Results The graduates were generally happy with their undergraduate education although they did feel there were some flaws in their curriculum. They felt they had picked up good history and examination skills and were content with their exposure to different specialties on clinical attachments. They were also pleased with their basic science teaching as preparation for postgraduate exams, however many complained about the overload and irrelevance of many lectures in the early years of their course, particular in biochemistry. There were many different views about how they integrated this science teaching into understanding disease processes and many didn't feel it was made relevant to them at the time they learned it. Retrospectively, they felt that they hadn't been clinically well prepared for the role of working as junior doctor, particularly the practical aspects of the job nor had enough exposure to research skills. Although there was little communication skills training in their course they didn't feel they would have benefited from this training as they managed to pick up had the required skills on clinical attachments. Conclusion These interviews offer a historical snapshot of the views of graduates from a traditional course before many courses were reformed. There was some conflict in the interviews about the doctors

  3. Effect of smartphone overuse on sleep problems in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairoj Boonluksiri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smartphones are used worldwide. Consequently, it does seem to be having an impact on health-related problems if overused. However, it is uncertain whether it is associated with sleep problems or poor learning. Objective: To determine the association between smartphone overuse and sleep problems in medical students as primary outcome and poor learning as secondary outcome. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 89 students having their own smartphones, at Hatyai Medical Education Centre, Thailand. The habits of using smartphone were obtained. Smartphone overuse during bedtime was defined as using longer than 1 hour according to Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS. The primary outcome was napping in a classroom that was defined as a problem if it happened more than 20% of the time attending class. Sleep problems using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS were obtained by self-assessment. Learning outcome measured by grade point average was the secondary outcome. Multivariable analysis was performed for the association between smartphone overuse and sleep problems. Results: Of all students, 77.5% had sleep problems and 43.6% had napped in the classroom. No personal characteristics, daily life behaviours, and physical environments were associated with sleep problems. 70.8% of all students found to over use smartphones during bedtime. The Facebook website was the most popular. Smartphone overuse was significantly associated with poor sleep quality (odds ratio= 3.46 and napping in the classroom (odds ratio=4.09 but not grade point average. Conclusion: Smartphone overuse during bedtime in medical students is associated with sleep problems but not learning achievement.

  4. The effect of the electronic medical record on nurses' work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The electronic medical record (EMR) is a workplace reality for most nurses. Its advantages include a single consolidated record for each person; capacity for data interfaces and alerts; improved interdisciplinary communication; and evidence-based decision support. EMRs can add to work complexity, by forcing better documentation of previously unrecorded data and/or because of poor design. Well-designed and well-implemented computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems can streamline nurses' work. Generational differences in acceptance of and facility with EMRs can be addressed through open, healthy communication.

  5. High Times: The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Student Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Yu-Wei Luke; Gershenson, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed medical marijuana laws. Previous research shows that these laws increase marijuana use among adults. In this paper, we estimate the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on secondary and post-secondary students' time use using time diaries from the American Time Use Survey. We apply a difference-in-differences research design and estimate flexible fixed effects models that condition on state fixed effects and state-specific time t...

  6. PATTERN OF MOBILE PHONE USE AND ITS EFFECT AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Anju; Pooja; Satyendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mobile phone use has been tremendously increased in the last decades. Although mobile phone is used by large section of society, but awareness about its adverse effects has not increased in the same proportion. Hence, the present study was taken up to focus the pattern and effect of mobile phone usage amongst medical students. AIM To study the pattern of use of mobile phone and its effects. STUDY DESIGN A cross-sectional study was carried out at Rama Medical ...

  7. Radial and Regge excitations in unified, grand unified and subconstituent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzer, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Necessary group theoretic conditions for all elementary gauge bosons and fermions of an arbitrary renormalizable gauge theory to lie on Regge trajectories are reviewed. It is then argued that in properly unified gauge theories all particles of a given spin lie on Regge trajectories. This then implies that a properly unified gauge theory has no local U(1) factor groups, and no massive fermion singlets. A consideration of the general pattern of Regge and radial recurrences to be expected in quantum field theories suggests that the presence or absence of spin 3/2 quarks and/or leptons in the TeV region will provide crucial clues to enable one to distinguish between various classes of unified, grand unified, and subconstituent models. The correct interpretation of such excited fermions will require correlation with the higgs boson mass and possible radial and Regge excitations of the weak vector bosons. (orig.)

  8. Unified treatment of the classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, Yu.M.

    1979-01-01

    Classical and Quantum Mechanics are unified in the sense that almost all axioms of both mechanics are identical. The only distinction is the explicit form of one algebraic identity. The unified theory is applied to scattering problem. (Z.M.)

  9. designing a framework for a unified electronic identity system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    In this paper, a Unified Identity System is proposed where single electronic identity (eID) is issued that can be used ... online commerce and public sector organizations. Because ..... SearchUnifiedCommunications.com Definitions, Access date.

  10. Effect of Medical Education on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry and Individuals with Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Marzellus; Harendza, Sigrid; Meyer, Jelka; Drabik, Anna; Reimer, Jens; Kuhnigk, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the effect of medical education on students' attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatric patients, and examined the usefulness of a new evaluation tool: the 6-item Psychiatric Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge (PEAK-6). Method: Authors studied the attitudes of 116 medical students toward psychiatry…

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Simulation on Medication Administration in Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudmore, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Medication errors are a leading cause of injury and death in health care, and nurses are the last line of defense for patient safety. Nursing educators must develop curriculum to effectively teach nursing students to prevent medication errors and protect the public. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to determine if…

  12. 505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper Best External Care for Lingering Diseases Unconventional Product for Vigorous Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper,a national patent product(patent num-ber 90202386.1),together with its serial products,has filled in the gaps in the field ofChina’s medical science and health care products.The development of the product wasbrought into line with the State Spark Programme by the State Commission for Science

  13. Clinical Effects of Lithospermum Ruderal on Medical Abortion by Mifepristone with Misoprostol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    法韫玉; 刘建华; 孙桦; 曹爱华

    1996-01-01

    Early pregnancies (0. 05 ). In all, the medical abortion by mifepristone and Lithospermum Ruderal with misoprostol was even more successful, with less bleeding time. Therefore it is essential to make researches on the auxiliary effects of Lithospermum Ruderal on the medical abortion by mifepristone with misoprostol.

  14. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: adverse effects of medications and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B E; Hatters-Friedman, S; Fernandes-Filho, J A; Anthony, K; Natowicz, M R

    2006-09-12

    The authors conducted a retrospective and brief prospective study of adverse effects of approximately 350 medications in 44 adults with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS). Some medications were relatively safe, whereas others, particularly haloperidol, risperidone, and chlorpromazine, were associated with neurologic worsening.

  15. Sustained Intervention Effects on Older Adults' Attitudes toward Alcohol and Medication Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Faika; Allen, Hannah; Schoenberg, Nancy; Martin, Catherine; Clayton, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background: Older adults are at risk for experiencing alcohol and medication interactions (AMIs) given their concomitant alcohol and medication use. However, there have been limited efforts to develop and evaluate AMI prevention interventions. Purpose: The current study examined sustained intervention effects on older adults' attitudes, awareness,…

  16. The effect of medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on foster care caseloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would...... have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral...

  17. Theoretical and methodological approaches to determining the effectiveness of medical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Shvets

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the results of theoretical and methodological studies on the effectiveness of the health care system. It formulated the concept and components of the efficiency of medical services it is an economic category of health care operations. In particular, it is determined that the efficiency of medical services is a characteristic effect and shows the feasibility of the use of material, financial and human resources in this event, method, intervention. The results showed that in respect of medical services is determined by the medical, social and economic efficiency, between which there is a relationship and interdependence. The article analyzes the fundamentals and methodological bases of social, medical and economic efficiency of medical services. It was determined that a priority in the health system are the very social and medical effectiveness, taking into account those of socially important tasks to perform which is directed the whole health system in the country. Given the ambiguous understanding of the relationship of efficiency of medical services with its quality, based on the analysis of theoretical developments, identified the common and distinctive features of the characteristics of the health service in order to determine their impact on software quality and affordable health care services to the population. In particular, the efficiency of medical services is considered in close conjunction with its quality. The quality and efficiency of medical services are interrelated characteristics. However, the results showed that it is not always effective healthcare services, particularly in terms of economic efficiency, can be qualitative, and not always high-quality medical services – can be called economically efficient.

  18. Effective factors in expansion of medical tourism in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Reza; Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Medical tourism (MT) refers to circumstances in which people travel for medical treatments. The present study focuses on determining factors affecting MT in Iran. The study uses a mixed method approach. Initially, through a qualitative study, 12 experts were interviewed deeply; then, 22 participants in three equal focus groups expressed their ideas about growth and development of MT in Iran. Based on the expressed ideas, 120 factors were identified and accordingly a structured questionnaire was developed. Some members from the focus groups confirmed the questionnaire's face and content validity. The reliability of pertinent items was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha=0.8. Afterwards, 61 eligible subjects filled out this questionnaire. The findings showed that "healthcare quality" and "high level of expertise" are two most attractive factors in MT. However, other factors such as "healthcare costs", and "visa facilities" are among key factors as well. Also, the role of "the healthcare providers" was found to be more prominent than the roles of "the government" and "the general tourist services". Although some attractive MT factors are present currently, MT expansion to a desirable level in Iran requires a comprehensive plan of which its factors were discussed in this paper.

  19. Effective factors in expansion of medical tourism in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Reza; Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical tourism (MT) refers to circumstances in which people travel for medical treatments. The present study focuses on determining factors affecting MT in Iran. Methods: The study uses a mixed method approach. Initially, through a qualitative study, 12 experts were interviewed deeply; then, 22 participants in three equal focus groups expressed their ideas about growth and development of MT in Iran. Based on the expressed ideas, 120 factors were identified and accordingly a structured questionnaire was developed. Some members from the focus groups confirmed the questionnaire’s face and content validity. The reliability of pertinent items was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha=0.8. Afterwards, 61 eligible subjects filled out this questionnaire. Results: The findings showed that "healthcare quality" and "high level of expertise" are two most attractive factors in MT. However, other factors such as "healthcare costs", and "visa facilities" are among key factors as well. Also, the role of "the healthcare providers" was found to be more prominent than the roles of "the government" and "the general tourist services". Conclusion: Although some attractive MT factors are present currently, MT expansion to a desirable level in Iran requires a comprehensive plan of which its factors were discussed in this paper. PMID:27683650

  20. Outcomes of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for medication errors in pediatric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lizabeth D; Grigg, Eliot B; Verma, Shilpa; Latham, Gregory J; Rampersad, Sally E; Martin, Lynn D

    2017-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine has called for development of strategies to prevent medication errors, which are one important cause of preventable harm. Although the field of anesthesiology is considered a leader in patient safety, recent data suggest high medication error rates in anesthesia practice. Unfortunately, few error prevention strategies for anesthesia providers have been implemented. Using Toyota Production System quality improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team observed 133 h of medication practice in the operating room at a tertiary care freestanding children's hospital. A failure mode and effects analysis was conducted to systematically deconstruct and evaluate each medication handling process step and score possible failure modes to quantify areas of risk. A bundle of five targeted countermeasures were identified and implemented over 12 months. Improvements in syringe labeling (73 to 96%), standardization of medication organization in the anesthesia workspace (0 to 100%), and two-provider infusion checks (23 to 59%) were observed. Medication error reporting improved during the project and was subsequently maintained. After intervention, the median medication error rate decreased from 1.56 to 0.95 per 1000 anesthetics. The frequency of medication error harm events reaching the patient also decreased. Systematic evaluation and standardization of medication handling processes by anesthesia providers in the operating room can decrease medication errors and improve patient safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of learning climate and registered nurse staffing on medication errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, YunKyung; Mark, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the significance of learning from errors, little is known about how learning climate contributes to error reduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning climate moderates the relationship between error-producing conditions and medication errors. A cross-sectional descriptive study was done using data from 279 nursing units in 146 randomly selected hospitals in the United States. Error-producing conditions included work environment factors (work dynamics and nurse mix), team factors (communication with physicians and nurses' expertise), personal factors (nurses' education and experience), patient factors (age, health status, and previous hospitalization), and medication-related support services. Poisson models with random effects were used with the nursing unit as the unit of analysis. A significant negative relationship was found between learning climate and medication errors. It also moderated the relationship between nurse mix and medication errors: When learning climate was negative, having more registered nurses was associated with fewer medication errors. However, no relationship was found between nurse mix and medication errors at either positive or average levels of learning climate. Learning climate did not moderate the relationship between work dynamics and medication errors. The way nurse mix affects medication errors depends on the level of learning climate. Nursing units with fewer registered nurses and frequent medication errors should examine their learning climate. Future research should be focused on the role of learning climate as related to the relationships between nurse mix and medication errors.

  2. Effectiveness of medical treatment for Cushing's syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersen, Leonie H A; Jha, Meghna; Biermasz, Nienke R; Pereira, Alberto M; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2018-05-31

    To systematically review the effectiveness of medical treatment for Cushing's syndrome in clinical practice, regarding cortisol secretion, clinical symptom improvement, and quality of life. To assess the occurrence of side effects of these medical therapies. Eight electronic databases were searched in March 2017 to identify potentially relevant articles. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of medical treatment in patients with Cushing's syndrome, were eligible. Pooled proportions were reported including 95% confidence intervals. We included 35 articles with in total 1520 patients in this meta-analysis. Most included patients had Cushing's disease. Pooled reported percentage of patients with normalization of cortisol ranged from 35.7% for cabergoline to 81.8% for mitotane in Cushing's disease. Patients using medication monotherapy showed a lower percentage of cortisol normalization compared to use of multiple medical agents (49.4 vs. 65.7%); this was even higher for patients with concurrent or previous radiotherapy (83.6%). Mild side effects were reported in 39.9%, and severe side effects were seen in 15.2% of patients after medical treatment. No meta-analyses were performed for clinical symptom improvement or quality of life due to lack of sufficient data. This meta-analysis shows that medication induces cortisol normalization effectively in a large percentage of patients. Medical treatment for Cushing's disease patients is thus a reasonable option in case of a contraindication for surgery, a recurrence, or in patients choosing not to have surgery. When experiencing side effects or no treatment effect, an alternate medical therapy or combination therapy can be considered.

  3. The Pathway to a Safe and Effective Spaceflight Medication Formulary: Expert Review Panel Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, V. R.; Bayuse, T. M.; Mulcahy, R. A.; McGuire, R. K. M.; Antonsen, E. L.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration spaceflight poses several challenges to the provision of a comprehensive medication formulary. This formulary must accommodate the size and space limitations of the spacecraft, while addressing individual medication needs and preferences of the crew, consequences of a degrading inventory over time, the inability to resupply used or expired medications, and the need to forecast the best possible medication candidates to treat conditions that may occur. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's Pharmacy Project Team has developed a research plan (RP) that is focused on evidence-based models and theories as well as new diagnostic tools, treatments, or preventive measures aimed to ensure an available, safe, and effective pharmacy sufficient to manage potential medical threats during exploration spaceflight. Here, we will discuss the ways in which the ExMC Pharmacy Project Team pursued expert evaluation and guidance, and incorporated acquired insight into an achievable research pathway, reflected in the revised RP.

  4. Effects of a Patient-Provider, Collaborative, Medication-Planning Tool: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Graumlich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among patients with various levels of health literacy, the effects of collaborative, patient-provider, medication-planning tools on outcomes relevant to self-management are uncertain. Objective. Among adult patients with type II diabetes mellitus, we tested the effectiveness of a medication-planning tool (Medtable™ implemented via an electronic medical record to improve patients’ medication knowledge, adherence, and glycemic control compared to usual care. Design. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial in outpatient primary care clinics. 674 patients received either the Medtable tool or usual care and were followed up for up to 12 months. Results. Patients who received Medtable had greater knowledge about indications for medications in their regimens and were more satisfied with the information about their medications. Patients’ knowledge of drug indication improved with Medtable regardless of their literacy status. However, Medtable did not improve patients’ demonstrated medication use, regimen adherence, or glycemic control (HbA1c. Conclusion. The Medtable tool supported provider/patient collaboration related to medication use, as reflected in patient satisfaction with communication, but had limited impact on patient medication knowledge, adherence, and HbA1c outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01296633.

  5. Medical Professionalism: the Effects of Sociodemographic Diversity and Curricular Organization on the Attitudinal Performance of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Silva dos Santos

    compared to the other students. Age and marital status had no relevant effect on attitude scores. Conclusions: The attitude scores of medical students declined as the curriculum progressed. Female students had more positive attitudes than male students. Religious affiliation appeared to positively influence the observed attitude scores.

  6. Effect of antidepressant medication use on emotional information processing in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tony T; Clerkin, Elise M; Ellis, Alissa J; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-02-01

    Acute administration of antidepressant medication increases emotional information processing for positive information in both depressed and healthy persons. This effect is likely relevant to the therapeutic actions of these medications, but it has not been studied in patients with major depressive disorder taking antidepressants as typically prescribed in the community. The authors used eye tracking to examine the effects of antidepressant medication on selective attention for emotional stimuli in a sample of 47 patients with major depressive disorder (21 medicated and 26 unmedicated) and 47 matched comparison subjects without depression. Participants completed a passive-viewing eye-tracking task assessing selective attention for positive, dysphoric, threatening, and neutral stimuli in addition to providing medication information and self-report measures of depression and anxiety severity. Depressed participants currently taking antidepressants and nondepressed comparison subjects demonstrated greater total gaze duration and more fixations for positive stimuli compared with unmedicated depressed participants. Depressed participants on medication also had fewer fixations for dysphoric stimuli compared with depressed participants not on medication. Antidepressants, as prescribed in the community to patients with depression, appear to modify emotional information processing in the absence of differences in depression severity. These results are consistent with previous work and indicate a robust effect for antidepressants on positive information processing. They also provide further evidence for modification of information processing as a potential mechanism of action for antidepressant medication.

  7. The effects of personality traits on academic burnout in Korean medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Lee

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that personality might account for the burnout level in medical education. The importance of character dimension for modulating the effects of temperament traits on academic burnout was discussed for future research.

  8. Computerized Decision Support Improves Medication Review Effectiveness : An Experiment Evaluating the STRIP Assistant's Usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, Michiel C; Spruit, Marco R; Drenth-van Maanen, A Clara; Numans, Mattijs E; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Jansen, Paul A F; Knol, Wilma

    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy poses threats to patients' health. The Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) is a drug optimization process for conducting medication reviews in primary care. To effectively and efficiently incorporate this method into daily practice, the STRIP

  9. Computerized decision support improves medication review effectiveness: an experiment evaluating the STRIP Assistant’s usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, M.; Spruit, M.; Drenth-van Maanen, C.; Numans, M.; Brinkkemper, S.; Jansen, P.; Knol, W

    2015-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy poses threats to patients’ health. The Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) is a drug optimization process for conducting medication reviews in primary care. To effectively and efficiently incorporate this method into daily practice, the STRIP

  10. The effect of a clinical pharmacist discharge service on medication discrepancies in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Eggink; A.W. Lenderink (Albert); J.W. Widdershoven (Jos); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Heart failure patients are regularly admitted to hospital and frequently use multiple medication. Besides intentional changes in pharmacotherapy, unintentional changes may occur during hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a clinical

  11. Artist concept of Mercury program study of medical effects and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Artist concept of Mercury program study of medical effects and technology development. Drawing depicts cut-away view of Mercury capsule orbiting the Earth, showing the astronaut and his capsule's hardware.

  12. Model Sistem Informasi Manajemen Sekolah Berbasiskan Notasi Unified Modeling Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Kurniawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basically the use of integrated information systems can be applied not only for the company, but also education industry, particularly schools. To support business processes at the school, this research would like to describe a conceptual model of information systems using the Unified Modeling Language (UML notationwith "4 +1 View" architectural model. This model is expected to assist analysis and design the whole business processes at school. A conceptual model of the information system can help application developers to easily and clearly understand the school system. By adopting this information system model, schools are able to have effective understanding of management information systems.

  13. Robust synchronization of unified chaotic systems via sliding mode control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Junjuh; Yang Yisung; Chiang Tsungying; Chen Chingyuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the chaos synchronization problem for a class of uncertain master-slave unified chaotic systems. Based on the sliding mode control technique, a robust control scheme is established which guarantees the occurrence of a sliding motion of error states even when the parameter uncertainty and external perturbation are present. Furthermore, a novel proportional-integral (PI) switching surface is introduced for determining the synchronization performance of systems in the sliding mode motion. Simulation results are proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method

  14. Collusion-resistant multimedia fingerprinting: a unified framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Trappe, Wade; Wang, Z. Jane; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2004-06-01

    Digital fingerprints are unique labels inserted in different copies of the same content before distribution. Each digital fingerprint is assigned to an inteded recipient, and can be used to trace the culprits who use their content for unintended purposes. Attacks mounted by multiple users, known as collusion attacks, provide a cost-effective method for attenuating the identifying fingerprint from each coluder, thus collusion poses a reeal challenge to protect the digital media data and enforce usage policies. This paper examines a few major design methodologies for collusion-resistant fingerprinting of multimedia, and presents a unified framework that helps highlight the common issues and the uniqueness of different fingerprinting techniques.

  15. Unified model of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2001-01-01

    The objective of present work is to obtain a unified description of nuclear shell, pairing and deformation effects for both ground state masses and level densities, and to find a new set of parameter systematics for both the mass and the level density formulas on the basis of a model for new single-particle state densities. In this model, an analytical expression is adopted for the anisotropic harmonic oscillator spectra, but the shell-pairing correlation are introduced in a new way. (author)

  16. Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, Vladislav S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek

    2001-07-01

    A unified approach to the time analysis of tunnelling of nonrelativistic particles is presented, in which Time is regarded as a quantum-mechanical observable, canonically conjugated to Energy. The validity of the Hartman effect (independence of the Tunnelling Time of the opaque barrier width, with superluminal group velocities as a consequence) is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited. On the basic of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent microwave and optics experimental results on tunnelling time is proposed. Attention is devoted to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling. (author)

  17. 'On the doctor's orders': A pilot study of the effects of website marketing for medical specialist providers under gatekeeping arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2017-01-01

    Websites from medical specialist providers are becoming increasingly marketing oriented, but there exists a paucity of empirical research on the effects. This experimental study explored effects of exposure to real websites from medical specialist providers among Dutch adults under physician

  18. Methodological considerations in observational comparative effectiveness research for implantable medical devices: an epidemiologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Jessica J; Ritchey, Mary Elizabeth; Mi, Xiaojuan; Chen, Chih-Ying; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H; Setoguchi, Soko

    2014-11-01

    Medical devices play a vital role in diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases and are an integral part of the health-care system. Many devices, including implantable medical devices, enter the market through a regulatory pathway that was not designed to assure safety and effectiveness. Several recent studies and high-profile device recalls have demonstrated the need for well-designed, valid postmarketing studies of medical devices. Medical device epidemiology is a relatively new field compared with pharmacoepidemiology, which for decades has been developed to assess the safety and effectiveness of medications. Many methodological considerations in pharmacoepidemiology apply to medical device epidemiology. Fundamental differences in mechanisms of action and use and in how exposure data are captured mean that comparative effectiveness studies of medical devices often necessitate additional and different considerations. In this paper, we discuss some of the most salient issues encountered in conducting comparative effectiveness research on implantable devices. We discuss special methodological considerations regarding the use of data sources, exposure and outcome definitions, timing of exposure, and sources of bias. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationshi...

  20. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Maisha Kelly Freeman; Pilar Z Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders); drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included med...

  1. Effects of common chronic medical conditions on psychometric tests used to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred...... diagnostic test battery in cirrhosis is often the Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests but the effect on these of other medical conditions is not known. We aimed to examine the effects of common chronic (non-cirrhosis) medical conditions on the CRT and PSE tests. We...

  2. Effect of medication burden on persistent use of lipid-lowering drugs among patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Teisha A; Cooke, Catherine E; Wang, Jingshu; Shaya, Fadia T; Lee, Helen Y

    2008-11-01

    To determine the effect of medication burden on persistent use of newly added lipid-lowering (LL) drugs among patients with hypertension. This retrospective database study used medical and pharmacy claims from a mid-Atlantic managed care organization. The cohort was obtained from continuous member enrollment in pharmacy and medical benefits from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2005. Prescription claims were obtained for 18 months following the date of the first filled LL prescription (ie, index date). Patients were stratified into patients who changed LL drug or strength (group 1) and patients who did not change LL drug or strength (group 2). The primary outcome measure was persistence to newly added LL therapy. Persistence was defined by the length of time a member remained on therapy following the index date. The secondary outcome measure was the medication possession ratio (MPR). The MPR was calculated as the ratio of the sum of the days' supply of prescription filled divided by the number of days filled, plus the days' supply for the final prescription fill. Associations between the daily medication burden, defined as the number of unique drug products, and the outcome measures were analyzed. In the cohort of 3058 patients, the mean medication burden was 2.9 medications. Medication burden was positively associated with persistence and MPR through 18 months. Patients who had greater medication burden had longer persistence (P 80%) (P attention should focus on patients who have changes to their LL regimen compared with patients who continue on the same LL prescription.

  3. Effects of a direct refill program for automated dispensing cabinets on medication-refill errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmons, Pieter J; Dalton, Ashley J; Daniels, Charles E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a direct refill program for automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) on medication-refill errors were studied. This study was conducted in designated acute care areas of a 386-bed academic medical center. A wholesaler-to-ADC direct refill program, consisting of prepackaged delivery of medications and bar-code-assisted ADC refilling, was implemented in the inpatient pharmacy of the medical center in September 2009. Medication-refill errors in 26 ADCs from the general medicine units, the infant special care unit, the surgical and burn intensive care units, and intermediate units were assessed before and after the implementation of this program. Medication-refill errors were defined as an ADC pocket containing the wrong drug, wrong strength, or wrong dosage form. ADC refill errors decreased by 77%, from 62 errors per 6829 refilled pockets (0.91%) to 8 errors per 3855 refilled pockets (0.21%) (p error type detected before the intervention was the incorrect medication (wrong drug, wrong strength, or wrong dosage form) in the ADC pocket. Of the 54 incorrect medications found before the intervention, 38 (70%) were loaded in a multiple-drug drawer. After the implementation of the new refill process, 3 of the 5 incorrect medications were loaded in a multiple-drug drawer. There were 3 instances of expired medications before and only 1 expired medication after implementation of the program. A redesign of the ADC refill process using a wholesaler-to-ADC direct refill program that included delivery of prepackaged medication and bar-code-assisted refill significantly decreased the occurrence of ADC refill errors.

  4. The effectiveness of risk management program on pediatric nurses' medication error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Bayat, Fariba; Salehi, Tahmineh; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2013-09-01

    Medication therapy is one of the most complex and high-risk clinical processes that nurses deal with. Medication error is the most common type of error that brings about damage and death to patients, especially pediatric ones. However, these errors are preventable. Identifying and preventing undesirable events leading to medication errors are the main risk management activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a risk management program on the pediatric nurses' medication error rate. This study is a quasi-experimental one with a comparison group. In this study, 200 nurses were recruited from two main pediatric hospitals in Tehran. In the experimental hospital, we applied the risk management program for a period of 6 months. Nurses of the control hospital did the hospital routine schedule. A pre- and post-test was performed to measure the frequency of the medication error events. SPSS software, t-test, and regression analysis were used for data analysis. After the intervention, the medication error rate of nurses at the experimental hospital was significantly lower (P error-reporting rate was higher (P medical environment, applying the quality-control programs such as risk management can effectively prevent the occurrence of the hospital undesirable events. Nursing mangers can reduce the medication error rate by applying risk management programs. However, this program cannot succeed without nurses' cooperation.

  5. Heath effects and medical application of non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusslin, F.; Van Deventer, E.; Shannoun, F.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term effects (Cancer) Childhood leukemia ELF magnetic fields classified as Group 2B Possibly Carcinogenic based on limited human data (epidemiologic studies) of childhood leukemia and inadequate animal data Other exposures and outcomes considered inadequate to classify IARC Monograph (vol. 80, 2002) WHO EHC Monograph (vol. 238, 2007) Breast cancer The evidence has been weakened considerably and does not support an association Adult brain cancer and leukaemia. Short-term effects Established biological effects from acute exposure at high levels (well above 100 µT) that are explained by recognized biophysical mechanisms Consistent epidemiological evidence suggests that an increased risk for childhood leukaemia is associated with chronic low intensity ELF magnetic field exposure However, the evidence for a causal association is weak and the impact on public health uncertain.Thermal effects Radiofrequency waves can cause tissue heating, so-called thermal effects Heating >1oC activates physiological processes, which can influence activity of the nervous system, influence fertility, fetal development, cause cataracts All established health effects of RF exposure are clearly related to heating Non-thermal effects (?)While RF energy can interact with body tissues at levels too low to cause any significant heating, no study has shown adverse health effects at exposure levels below international guideline limits

  6. Medical-biological aspects of radiation effects in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, E; Ustenko, K; Uskalova, D; Savina, N

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that γ-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna . These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of transgenerational effects in Daphnia . We have also shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia . Our data demonstrated that multicellular crustacean D. magna represent a very useful experimental model for analyse of long-term effects of ionising radiation at the organismal level. (paper)

  7. Effects of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy on hospitals competition under non-price regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-Yan

    2016-11-15

    Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation. We establish a three-stage duopoly model with quantity and quality competition. In the model, qualitative difference and asymmetric medical insurance subsidy among hospitals are considered. The government decides subsidy (or reimbursement) ratios in the first stage. Hospitals choose the quality in the second stage and then support the quantity in the third stage. We obtain our conclusions by mathematical model analyses and all the results are achieved by backward induction. The importance of medical quality to patients has stronger influence on the small hospital, while subsidy has greater effect on the large hospital. Meanwhile, the importance of medical quality to patients strengthens competition, but subsidy effect weakens it. Besides, subsidy ratios difference affects the relationship between subsidy and hospital competition. Furthermore, we capture the optimal reimbursement ratio based on social welfare maximization. More importantly, this paper finds that the higher management efficiency of the medical insurance investment funds is, the higher the best subsidy ratio is. This paper states that subsidy is a two-edged sword. On one hand, subsidy stimulates medical demand. On the other hand, subsidy raises price and inhibits hospital competition. Therefore, government must set an appropriate subsidy ratio difference between large and small hospitals to maximize the total social welfare. For a developing country with limited medical resources

  8. Multi-planed unified switching topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2017-07-04

    An apparatus and method for extending the scalability and improving the partitionability of networks that contain all-to-all links for transporting packet traffic from a source endpoint to a destination endpoint with low per-endpoint (per-server) cost and a small number of hops. An all-to-all wiring in the baseline topology is decomposed into smaller all-to-all components in which each smaller all-to-all connection is replaced with star topology by using global switches. Stacking multiple copies of the star topology baseline network creates a multi-planed switching topology for transporting packet traffic. Point-to-point unified stacking method using global switch wiring methods connects multiple planes of a baseline topology by using the global switches to create a large network size with a low number of hops, i.e., low network latency. Grouped unified stacking method increases the scalability (network size) of a stacked topology.

  9. Finite Unified Theories and the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, Sven; Zoupanos, George

    2012-01-01

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) realising an old field theory dream, and moreover have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. Based on this theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTs have been constructed. Here we review two FUT models based on the SU(5) gauge group, which can be seen as special, restricted and thus very predictive versions of the MSSM. We show that from the requirement of correct prediction of quark masses and other experimental constraints a light Higgs-boson mass in the range M_h ~ 121 - 126 GeV is predicted, in striking agreement with recent experimental results from ATLAS and CMS. The model furthermore naturally predicts a relatively heavy spectrum with colored supersymmetric particles above ~ 1.5 TeV in agreement with the non-observation of those particles at the LHC.

  10. Can the laws of physics be unified ?

    CERN Document Server

    Langacker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics describes our current understanding of nature's fundamental particles and their interactions, yet gaps remain. For example, it does not include a quantum theory of gravity, nor does it explain the existence of dark matter. Once complete, however, the standard model could provide a unified description of the very building blocks of the universe. Researchers have been chasing this dream for decades, and many wonder whether such a dream can ever be made a reality. Can the Laws of Physics Be Unified? is a short introduction to this exciting frontier of physics. The book is accessibly written for students and researchers across the sciences, and for scientifically minded general readers. Paul Langacker begins with an overview of the key breakthroughs that have shaped the standard model, and then describes the fundamental particles, their interactions, and their role in cosmology. He goes on to explain field theory, internal symmetries, Yang-Mills theories, strong and electro...

  11. Unified-field theory: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Beginning with the expounding of Einstein understanding of advantages and disadvantages of general relativity theory, the authors proceed to consideration of what the complete unified theory have to be according to Einstein. The four theories which can be considered as ''unified'', namely weyl and Calutsa ones, worked out a half of century ago, and twistor twisting and supersymmetry theories, nowadays attracting attention, are briefly described and discussed. The authors come to a conclusion that achievements in elementary-particle physics have to affect any future theory, that this theory has to explain the principle contradictions between classical and quantum field theories, and that finally it can lead to change of the modern space-time model as a four-dimensional variety

  12. Towards a Unified Global ICT Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun

    2006-01-01

    A successful evolution towards a unified global WAN platform allowing for the coexistence and interoperability of all kind of services requires careful planning of the next generation global cooperative wired and wireless information infrastructure. The absence of commonly agreed upon and adopted...... to be solved can be found in the interrelation between communication, connectivity and convergence. This paper will focus on steps to be taken in planning the physical infrastructure as a prerequisite for a successful evolution....

  13. Unified geometric description of black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jose L.; Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.

  14. The group manifold approach to unified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, T.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures start with a synopsis of historical results in the construction of unified theories of gravity. The author keeps some mathematical rigour throughout the lectures. He gives a provisional description of supermanifolds and a set of formal rules intended to manipulate superforms or supermanifolds. Super Lie groups are discussed as well as the dimensional reduction of gravity theories, the Kaluza-Klein theory. A formal introduction of supersymmetry is given. (Auth.)

  15. Unifying Ancient and Modern Geometries Through Octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Kurt, Levent; Khalfan, Amish

    2016-01-01

    We show the first unified description of some of the oldest known geometries such as the Pappus’ theorem with more modern ones like Desargues' theorem, Monge's theorem and Ceva's theorem, through octonions, the highest normed division algebra in eight dimensions. We also show important applications in hadronic physics, giving a full description of the algebra of color applicable to quark physics, and comment on further applications. (paper)

  16. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  17. Towards a unified theory of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    In a unified theory of human reciprocity, the strong and weak forms are similar because neither is biologically altruistic and both require normative motivation to support cooperation. However, strong reciprocity is necessary to support cooperation in public goods games. It involves inflicting costs on defectors; and though the costs for punishers are recouped, recouping costs requires complex institutions that would not have emerged if weak reciprocity had been enough.

  18. A Unified Framework for Systematic Model Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    A unified framework for improving the quality of continuous time models of dynamic systems based on experimental data is presented. The framework is based on an interplay between stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling, statistical tests and multivariate nonparametric regression. This co......-batch bioreactor, where it is illustrated how an incorrectly modelled biomass growth rate can be pinpointed and an estimate provided of the functional relation needed to properly describe it....

  19. Complete detoxification is the most effective treatment of medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Louise Ninett; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-01-01

    /month by 46% (95% CI 34-58) compared with 22% (95% CI 11-34) in program-B ( p = 0.005), and 70% in program A versus 42% in program B were reverted to episodic headache ( p = 0.04). Migraine-days/month were reduced by 7.2 in program A ( p 0.001) and 3.6 in program B ( p = 0.002) after 6 months. Conclusion......Background There is lack of evidence on how to detoxify medication-overuse headache. Aim To compare the effect of complete stop of acute medication with restricted intake. Methods Medication-overuse headache patients were included in a prospective, outpatient study and randomized to two months...... Both detoxification programs were very effective. Detoxification without analgesics or acute migraine-medication was the most effective program. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02903329)....

  20. Effect of nurse-led medication reviews in psychiatric patients - an interventional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Mainz, Jan; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    will contribute with information regarding the effect of pharmacological training of nurses and possibly improve medication safety for psychiatric patients. Results from this study could serve as evidence, when hospital management makes decisions on how to accede the need for medication reviews as part...... nurses are the health professionals spending most time directly with the patient and very few studies investigate nurses’ role and potential in improving the appropriateness of medication. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of educating nurses in general pharmacology...... and conducting systematic medication reviews using computer based screening. The effect is evaluated in a controlled interventional study. METHODS: An interventional study including 2 acute psychiatric wards. In one ward nurses’ will receive pharmacological training and the other ward will function as a control...

  1. Interruption of People in Human-Computer Interaction: A General Unifying Definition of Human Interruption and Taxonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFarlane, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    .... This report asserts that a single unifying definition of user-interruption and the accompanying practical taxonomy would be useful theoretical tools for driving effective investigation of this crucial...

  2. Biological and medical effects of UV radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazena, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effecsts of UV radiation on human health are discussed. UV radiation is taken up through the skin and eyes. In the case of the eyes, the only known effects are damaging ones (e.g. cataracts). Irradiation of the skin, on the other hand, may either have a prophylactic and therapeutic effect or cause health problems if the exposure is too frequent and/or the dose too high. Positive effects are: Stimulation of the vitamin-D-3 synthesis and the autoimmune system, economisation of blood circulation, higher fitness, and the development of a UV protection system in the skin. Negative effects are: UV erythema, disturbances of the unspecific resistance and the immune system, and photocarcinogenesis. (orig.) [de

  3. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  4. Cannabis - its clinical effects | Solomons | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The range of clinical, intoxicating, psychological and psychiatric effects of cannabis ('dagga') are reviewed. Controversial subjects, such as the entities of toxic cannabis psychosis and the cannabis amotivational syndrome, are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 102-104.

  5. Health anxiety and medical utilization: The moderating effect of age among patients in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Griggs, Jackson O; Cunningham, Scott C; Kelley, Lance P

    2017-10-01

    Health anxiety is commonly seen in medical clinics and is related to the overutilization of primary care services, but existing studies have not yet considered the possible moderating effect of age. We examined if age moderated the association between health anxiety and medical utilization. A secondary aim was to examine potential racial/ethnic differences in health anxiety. An ethnoracially diverse group of patients (N=533) seeking treatment from a primary care clinic completed a self-report measure of health anxiety. Three indices of medical utilization were assessed using medical records, including the number of: (a) clinic visits over the past two years, (b) current medications, and (c) lab tests over the past two years. Age moderated the effect of health anxiety on multiple indices of medical utilization. Supplemental analyses found that the moderating effect of age was specific to a somatic/body preoccupation, rather than health worry, dimension of health anxiety. Mean-level differences in health anxiety were either not supported (health anxiety composite, somatic/body preoccupation) or were small in magnitude (health worry) among self-identifying Black, Latino, and White participants. Results indicate that assessing for health anxiety could be particularly important for older adult patients who frequently seek out medical services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of distance learning via SMS on academic achievement and satisfaction of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Mobarakeh, Shadi Reissizadeh; Omid, Athar

    2018-01-01

    Recently, medical education has made significant progress, and medical teachers are trying to find methods that have most impressive effects on learning. One of the useful learning methods is student active participation. One of the helpful teaching aids in this method is mobile technology. The present study aimed to determine the effect of sending educational questions through short message service (SMS) on academic achievement and satisfaction of medical students and compare that with lecture teaching. In an semi-experimental, two chapters of urology reference book, Smiths General Urology 17 th edition, were taught to 47 medical students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in urology course in 2013 academic year. Kidney tumors chapter was educated by sending questions through SMS, and bladder tumors part was taught in a lecture session. For each method, pretest and posttest were held, each consisting of thirty multiple choice questions. To examine the knowledge retention, a test session was held on the same terms for each chapter, 1 month later. At the end, survey forms were distributed to assess student's satisfaction with SMS learning method. Data were analyzed through using SPSS 20. The findings demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the two learning methods in the medication test scores. Evaluation of the satisfaction showed 78.72% of participants were not satisfied. The results of the study showed that distance learning through SMS in medical students could lead to increase knowledge, however, it was not effective on their satisfaction.

  7. Coset realization of unifying W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, R.; Huebel, R.

    1994-06-01

    We construct several quantum coset W-algebras, e.g. sl(2,R)/U(1) and sl(2,R)+sl(2,R)/sl(2,R), and argue that they are finitely nonfreely generated. Furthermore, we discuss in detail their role as unifying W-algebras of Casimir W-algebras. We show that it is possible to give coset realizations of various types of unifying W-algebras, e.g. the diagonal cosets based on the symplectic Lie algebras sp(2n) realize the unifying W-algebras which have previously been introduced as 'WD -n '. In addition, minimal models of WD -n are studied. The coset realizations provide a generalization of level-rank-duality of dual coset pairs. As further examples of finitely nonfreely generated quantum W-algebras we discuss orbifolding of W-algebras which on the quantum level has different properties than in the classical case. We demonstrate in some examples that the classical limit according to Bowcock and Watts of these nonfreely finitely generated quantum W-algebras probably yields infinitely nonfreely generated classical W-algebras. (orig.)

  8. Comparative effectiveness of generic versus brand-name antiepileptic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Polinski, Jennifer M; Hutchins, David; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment persistence and rates of seizure-related events in patients who initiate antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy with a generic versus a brand-name product. We used linked electronic medical and pharmacy claims data to identify Medicare beneficiaries who initiated one of five AEDs (clonazepam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, zonisamide). We matched initiators of generic versus brand-name versions of these drugs using a propensity score that accounted for demographic, clinical, and health service utilization variables. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to compare rates of seizure-related emergency room (ER) visit or hospitalization (primary outcome) and ER visit for bone fracture or head injury (secondary outcome) between the matched generic and brand-name initiators. We also compared treatment persistence, measured as time to first 14-day treatment gap, between generic and brand-name initiators. We identified 19,760 AED initiators who met study eligibility criteria; 18,306 (93%) initiated a generic AED. In the matched cohort, we observed 47 seizure-related hospitalizations and ER visits among brand-name initiators and 31 events among generic initiators, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.96). Similar results were observed for the secondary clinical endpoint and across sensitivity analyses. Mean time to first treatment gap was 124.2 days (standard deviation [sd], 125.8) for brand-name initiators and 137.9 (sd, 148.6) for generic initiators. Patients who initiated generic AEDs had fewer adverse seizure-related clinical outcomes and longer continuous treatment periods before experiencing a gap than those who initiated brand-name versions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF TRADITIONAL AND INTERACTIVE LECTURE METHODS FOR TEACHING BIOCHEMISTRY AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS IN GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE, IDUKKI, KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Sajeevan K. C; Lyson Lonappan; Sajna MV; Geetha Devi M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Traditional lecture is the most common type of teaching learning method used in professional colleges of India. Interactive lecture seems to be an important and feasible teaching learning method to increase the effect of learning in medical education. MATERIALS & METHODS The study was performed from July 2015 to October 2015 among first year medical students in Government Medical College, Idukki. All fifty first year MBBS students of 2014 batch were divided into grou...

  10. Managing the oral side-effects of medications used to treat multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, N; Pateman, K; Taing, M W; Pradhan, A; Ford, P J

    2017-09-01

    Many medications used to manage multiple sclerosis (MS) affect oral health. This review aimed to identify the oral side-effects of the current drugs recommended in Australia to treat MS and make dental practitioners aware of the range of symptoms. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat MS. For each medication, the generic name, class, route of administration, dosage and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMs) database. Meyler's Side-effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify any additional oral adverse reactions to medications used to treat MS. Fourteen drugs were identified for the treatment of MS progression and 13 drugs for the treatment of MS symptoms. For these medications, 18 oral side-effects were documented: xerostomia was the most common, followed by dysgeusia, dysphagia, mouth ulceration and sinusitis. Anticholinergic drugs caused xerostomia while immunosuppressants resulted in more infection-related side-effects. Dental practitioners should be aware of the range of symptoms likely to be reported by this population. Clinicians are encouraged to continue providing dental care for their patients who develop MS and refer complex cases to specialists. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Differentiated effects of deep brain stimulation and medication on somatosensory processing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kousik Sarathy; Højlund, Andreas; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg; Sunde, Niels Aagaard; Johansen, Lars Gottfried; Beniczky, Sándor; Østergaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and dopaminergic medication effectively alleviate the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but their effects on the sensory symptoms of PD are still not well understood. To explore early somatosensory processing in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) from thirteen DBS-treated PD patients and ten healthy controls during median nerve stimulation. PD patients were measured during DBS-treated, untreated and dopaminergic-medicated states. We focused on early cortical somatosensory processing as indexed by N20m, induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz and 55-100Hz) and induced beta suppression (13-30Hz). PD patients' motor symptoms were assessed by UPDRS-III. Using Bayesian statistics, we found positive evidence for differentiated effects of treatments on the induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz) with highest gamma in the dopaminergic-medicated state and lowest in the DBS-treated and untreated states. In contrast, UPDRS-III scores showed beneficial effects of both DBS and dopaminergic medication on the patients' motor symptoms. Furthermore, treatments did not affect the amplitude of N20m. Our results suggest differentiated effects of DBS and dopaminergic medication on cortical somatosensory processing in PD patients despite consistent ameliorating effects of both treatments on PD motor symptoms. The differentiated effect suggests differences in the effect mechanisms of the two treatments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of regular medication on the outcome of paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients admitted with paracetamol overdose frequently receive one or more types of regular medication that may affect the outcome of the paracetamol intoxication. AIM: To describe the use of regular medication in patients with paracetamol poisoning and to evaluate its effects...... on morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Seven hundred and thirty-seven consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and the use of regular medication was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, severe hepatic dysfunction and severe...... hepatocellular injury was evaluated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Regular medication was received by 332 patients (45%). Medication with benzodiazepines (105 cases), antidepressants (100 cases), neuroleptics (75 cases), paracetamol (58 cases), oral contraceptives (51 cases), beta-agonists (40 cases), opioid...

  13. The Effects of Interruptions on Oncologists' Patient Assessment and Medication Ordering Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Trbovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions are causal factors in medication errors. Although researchers have assessed the nature and frequency of interruptions during medication administration, there has been little focus on understanding their effects during medication ordering. The goal of this research was to examine the nature, frequency, and impact of interruptions on oncologists' ordering practices. Direct observations were conducted at a Canadian cancer treatment facility to (1 document the nature, frequency, and timing of interruptions during medication ordering, and (2 quantify the use of coping mechanisms by oncologists. On average, oncologists were interrupted 17 % of their time, and were frequently interrupted during safety-critical stages of medication ordering. When confronted with interruptions, oncologists engaged/multitasked more often than resorting to deferring/blocking. While some interruptions are necessary forms of communication, efforts must be made to reduce unnecessary interruptions during safety-critical tasks, and to develop interventions that increase oncologists' resiliency to inevitable interruptions.

  14. The unified theory of repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2006-10-01

    Repression has become an empirical fact that is at once obvious and problematic. Fragmented clinical and laboratory traditions and disputed terminology have resulted in a Babel of misunderstandings in which false distinctions are imposed (e.g., between repression and suppression) and necessary distinctions not drawn (e.g., between the mechanism and the use to which it is put, defense being just one). "Repression" was introduced by Herbart to designate the (nondefensive) inhibition of ideas by other ideas in their struggle for consciousness. Freud adapted repression to the defensive inhibition of "unbearable" mental contents. Substantial experimental literatures on attentional biases, thought avoidance, interference, and intentional forgetting exist, the oldest prototype being the work of Ebbinghaus, who showed that intentional avoidance of memories results in their progressive forgetting over time. It has now become clear, as clinicians had claimed, that the inaccessible materials are often available and emerge indirectly (e.g., procedurally, implicitly). It is also now established that the Ebbinghaus retention function can be partly reversed, with resulting increases of conscious memory over time (hypermnesia). Freud's clinical experience revealed early on that exclusion from consciousness was effected not just by simple repression (inhibition) but also by a variety of distorting techniques, some deployed to degrade latent contents (denial), all eventually subsumed under the rubric of defense mechanisms ("repression in the widest sense"). Freudian and Bartlettian distortions are essentially the same, even in name, except for motive (cognitive vs. emotional), and experimentally induced false memories and other "memory illusions" are laboratory analogs of self-induced distortions.

  15. Medical effects and risks of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, Fred A

    2012-01-01

    Effects and risk from exposure to ionising radiation depend upon the absorbed dose, dose rate, quality of radiation, specifics of the tissue irradiated and other factors such as the age of the individual. Effects may be apparent almost immediately or may take decades to be manifest. Cancer is the most important stochastic effect at absorbed doses of less than 1 Gy. The risk of cancer induction varies widely across different tissues; however, the risk of fatal radiation-induced cancer for a general population following chronic exposure is about 5% Sv −1 . Quantification of cancer risk at doses of less than 0.1 Gy remains problematic. Hereditary risks from irradiation that might result in effects to offspring of humans appear to be much lower and any such potential risks can only be estimated from animal models. At high doses (over 1 Gy) cell killing and modification causes deterministic effects such as skin burns, and bone marrow depression, in which case immunosuppression becomes a critical issue. Acute whole body penetrating gamma irradiation at doses in excess of 2 Gy results in varying degrees of acute radiation sickness and doses over 10 Gy are usually lethal as a result of combined organ injury. (note)

  16. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share

  17. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprawls, P [Sprawls Educational Foundation, Montreat, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL EFFECTS OF PLANT FLAVONOID QUERCETIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Štochmaľová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoid compounds in vegetable-based diets bring a significant contribution to the role of fruits and vegetables as health-promoting foods. This review summarizes the available data concerning physiological and therapeutical effect of plan flavonoid quercetin. Quercetin has a number of beneficial influence on health because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetes properties. Effects of quercetin have been explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signal transduction systems. Despite the available data reviewed here, the targets, effects, absorption, metabolism and areas of practical application of quercetin are still poorly understood, therefore further studies in this areas are required.

  19. Perceived treatment effectiveness, medication compliance, and complementary and alternative medicine use among veterans with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Christopher N; Perron, Brian E; Kilbourne, Amy M; Teh, Carrie Farmer

    2010-03-01

    Recent research shows a high rate of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among persons with mental disorders, although correlates and patterns of CAM use are relatively unknown. This study tested whether CAM use is associated with perceived effectiveness of conventional treatment (i.e., psychotropic medication and psychotherapy) and medication compliance among persons with bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 435) were included as part of a naturalistic cohort study. Measures of CAM utilization, medication compliance, and perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotropic medications and psychotherapy were based on previously established questionnaires. Associations were tested using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Bivariate analyses showed that patients who did not perceive psychotherapy as effective at improving social, family, or job functioning reported greater CAM use. However, medication compliance was not significantly associated with use of CAM. Patients who used oral (e.g., herbal therapies) or cognitive (e.g., meditation) CAM were more likely to report that their medications were not effective at relieving manic or depressive symptoms. Users of cognitive CAM were more likely to report that their medications did not help with social, job, or family functioning, and that they did not prevent recurrences of manic or depressive episodes. None of the bivariate associations remained significant in multivariate analyses. Prior research has suggested that persons who are dissatisfied with treatment for medical conditions are more likely to use CAM therapies. However, the results of this study do not show CAM therapies to be associated with perceived effectiveness of treatments for mental health problems among this sample of persons with serious mental illnesses. This suggests that motivations for CAM use may vary by population and condition. Because few correlates of CAM use among persons with serious mental illnesses are known

  20. A Unified Approach to the Analysis of Multicarrier DS-CDMA over Nakagami-$M$ Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L-L.; Hanzo, L.

    2001-01-01

    A class of unified multicarrier DS-CDMA (MC DS-CDMA) schemes is defined and its performance is considered over multipath Nakagami-$M$ fading channels. The spacing between two adjacent subcarriers of the unified MC DS-CDMA scheme is a variable, allowing us to gain insight into the effects of the spacing on the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC DS-CDMA systems. This unified MC DS-CDMA scheme includes the subclasses of multitone DS-CDMA and orthogonal MC DS-CDMA as special cases. The optimu...

  1. Effectiveness of a group-based intervention to change medication beliefs and improve medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Ende, C.H. van den; Lankveld, W.G. van; Broeder, A.A. den; Hoogen, F.H. van den; Mosselaar, B. van de; Dulmen, S. van; Bemt, B.J. van den

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of a group-based intervention on the balance between necessity beliefs and concern beliefs about medication and on medication non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Non-adherent RA patients using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

  2. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert

    2016-06-01

    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  3. A unified architecture for biomedical search engines based on semantic web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Vahid; Matash Borujerdi, Mohammad Reza

    2011-04-01

    There is a huge growth in the volume of published biomedical research in recent years. Many medical search engines are designed and developed to address the over growing information needs of biomedical experts and curators. Significant progress has been made in utilizing the knowledge embedded in medical ontologies and controlled vocabularies to assist these engines. However, the lack of common architecture for utilized ontologies and overall retrieval process, hampers evaluating different search engines and interoperability between them under unified conditions. In this paper, a unified architecture for medical search engines is introduced. Proposed model contains standard schemas declared in semantic web languages for ontologies and documents used by search engines. Unified models for annotation and retrieval processes are other parts of introduced architecture. A sample search engine is also designed and implemented based on the proposed architecture in this paper. The search engine is evaluated using two test collections and results are reported in terms of precision vs. recall and mean average precision for different approaches used by this search engine.

  4. General practitioners' beliefs about effectiveness and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications: qualitative and quantitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners' (GPs negative beliefs about nicotine dependence medications may act as barriers to prescribing them. Methods Study1: Twenty-five GPs from 16 practices across London were interviewed in this qualitative study. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes. Study 2: A convenience sample of 367 GPs completed an internet-based survey. Path-analysis was used to examine the relations between beliefs and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications. Results Study 1: Whilst nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and bupropion were generally perceived as effective and cost-effective, the effectiveness of NRT was seen as critically dependent on behavioural support for smoking cessation. This dependence appeared to be influenced by perceptions that without support smokers would neglect psychological aspects of smoking and use NRT incorrectly. GPs perceived bupropion as dangerous and were concerned about its side-effects. Study 2: GPs' beliefs had medium (NRT, f2 = .23 to large (bupropion, f2=.45; NRT without support, f2=.59 effects on their intentions to prescribe medications. Beliefs about effectiveness of NRT and bupropion and the perceived danger of bupropion were the key predictors of intentions to prescribe NRT and bupropion, respectively. Beliefs about neglecting psychological aspects of smoking and incorrect use had indirect effects on intentions to prescribe NRT without support, operating via beliefs about effectiveness. Conclusion GPs vary in their beliefs about the effectiveness and safety of smoking cessation medications. Their intentions to prescribe these medications vary in line with these beliefs. Interventions aimed at increasing the likelihood with which GPs prescribe these medications may be more effective if they addressed these beliefs.

  5. Groundwater Chemistry and Assessment of Its Effect on Health from the Aspect of Medical Geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Varol

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Geology and medicine are the oldest two sciences. Nowadays, medical geology is appeared to associate the researches related to environmental problems studied by geology and medical sciences. In the medical geology, researches related to effect of groundwater on human health is the most important subject. In this paper, elements which are the constituent of groundwater and health problems originated from those elements were explained. In addition, components polluting the groundwater widely were presented in detail. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 351-356

  6. Review on the administration and effectiveness of team-based learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A Ra; Kim, Sun

    2013-12-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an active learning approach. In recent years, medical educators have been increasingly using TBL in their classes. We reviewed the concepts of TBL and discuss examples of international cases. Two types of TBL are administered: classic TBL and adapted TBL. Combining TBL and problem-based learning (PBL) might be a useful strategy for medical schools. TBL is an attainable and efficient educational approach in preparing large classes with regard to PBL. TBL improves student performance, team communication skills, leadership skills, problem solving skills, and cognitive conceptual structures and increases student engagement and satisfaction. This study suggests recommendations for administering TBL effectively in medical education.

  7. Adverse Side Effects of Psychotropic Medication and Challenging Behavior: Pilot Work Assessing Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G; Schieber, Elizabeth; McMahon, Meara; Beard, Lisa; Wilkinson, Alyssa; Carpenter, Jaimie

    2017-12-01

    Psychotropic medications are often prescribed to reduce challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Functional analyses (FAs) have demonstrated utility in assessing medication impact on behavior; however, the impact of adverse side effects (ASE) on challenging behavior is under-assessed. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, similar to FAs, to explore potential medication ASE impact on challenging behavior in seven individuals with IDD. Results revealed response rate differences in designed ASE conditions for most participants. Outcomes support further development and use of this methodology to assess the presence and impact of ASEs.

  8. The effects of direct-to-consumer advertising on medication use among Medicaid children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Luceta; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Bradford, W David; Menachemi, Nir; Morrisey, Michael; Kilgore, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Asthma medication adherence is low, particularly among Medicaid enrollees. There has been much debate on the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on health care use, but the impact on medication use among children with asthma has been unexamined. The study sample included 180,584 children between the ages of 5 and 18 with an asthma diagnosis from a combined dataset of Medicaid Analytic eXtract and national advertising data. We found that DTCA expenditure during the study period was significantly associated with an increase in asthma medication use. However, the effectiveness declined after a certain level.

  9. The practice and effect of combined duty of administrative management, medical treatment and nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min HU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of combined duty mode on discovery and control of medical nursing hidden trouble. Method: In order to make sure that patients are in the first place, we should take the mode of combined duty of administrative management, medical treatment and nursing. Results:The incidence of nursing errors and defects reduced, and patients’ satisfaction improved. the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05.Results: Combined duty can the reduce medical nursing defects, improve the efficiency of quality health care services and the management efficiency.

  10. The framing effect in medical decision-making: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Yonghua; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    The framing effect, identified by Tversky and Kahneman, is one of the most striking cognitive biases, in which people react differently to a particular choice depending whether it is presented as a loss or as a gain. Numerous studies have subsequently demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision-making. Compared to daily decisions, medical decisions are of low frequency but of paramount importance. The framing effect is a well-documented bias in a variety of studies, but research is inconsistent regarding whether and how variables influence framing effects in medical decision-making. To clarify the discrepancy in the previous literature, published literature in the English language concerning the framing effect was retrieved using electronic and bibliographic searches. Two reviewers examined each article for inclusion and evaluated the articles' methodological quality. The framing effect in medical decision-making was reviewed in these papers. No studies identified an influence of framing information upon compliance with health recommendations, and different studies demonstrate different orientations of the framing effect. Because so many variables influence the presence or absence of the framing effect, the unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Further research is needed to determine why the framing effect is induced and how it can be precluded.

  11. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisha Kelly Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders; drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included medical marijuana with a subheading for adverse effect. Only articles in adult patients were considered. In addition, medical marijuana or cannabis plus one of the following search terms were searched: drug interactions, herb-drug interactions, drug-related side effects and adverse drug reactions, substance-related disorders, addiction, and abuse. A free-text search was also conducted to identify articles not included in the MeSH term search. A bibliographic search was also conducted. Articles were included if they addressed adverse effects of medical marijuana for the treatment of a condition. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled clinical trials, and case reports were included in the review if the primary focus of the article related to the adverse effect profile of inhaled medical marijuana. Medical marijuana efficacy studies were not assessed. In the absence of this information, case reports or reports of inhaled recreational marijuana use was used. Studies were excluded if published in languages other than English. In addition, studies highlighting mechanisms of action, studies of pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic effects were excluded, unless these effects were due to drug-drug interactions. Prescription products containing marijuana or derivatives were excluded from evaluation. An Internet search was conducted to locate the most up-to-date information on the laws concerning medical marijuana. Key findings: A PubMed search revealed 58 articles and 28 of

  13. The Effectiveness of Streaming Video on Medical Student Learning: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, Patrick D.; Jackson, Matt; Robinson, Leah

    2009-01-01

    Information technology helps meet today’s medical students’ needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Video streaming is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the content’s delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. A 5-year retrospective study was conducted using three groups of students (n_1736) to determine if the availability of streaming vide...

  14. Health Information Technology Continues to Show Positive Effect on Medical Outcomes: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Beane, Amanda

    2018-02-05

    Health information technology (HIT) has been introduced into the health care industry since the 1960s when mainframes assisted with financial transactions, but questions remained about HIT's contribution to medical outcomes. Several systematic reviews since the 1990s have focused on this relationship. This review updates the literature. The purpose of this review was to analyze the current literature for the impact of HIT on medical outcomes. We hypothesized that there is a positive association between the adoption of HIT and medical outcomes. We queried the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) by PubMed databases for peer-reviewed publications in the last 5 years that defined an HIT intervention and an effect on medical outcomes in terms of efficiency or effectiveness. We structured the review from the Primary Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA), and we conducted the review in accordance with the Assessment for Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). We narrowed our search from 3636 papers to 37 for final analysis. At least one improved medical outcome as a result of HIT adoption was identified in 81% (25/37) of research studies that met inclusion criteria, thus strongly supporting our hypothesis. No statistical difference in outcomes was identified as a result of HIT in 19% of included studies. Twelve categories of HIT and three categories of outcomes occurred 38 and 65 times, respectively. A strong majority of the literature shows positive effects of HIT on the effectiveness of medical outcomes, which positively supports efforts that prepare for stage 3 of meaningful use. This aligns with previous reviews in other time frames. ©Clemens Scott Kruse, Amanda Beane. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 05.02.2018.

  15. An analytical look at the effects of compression on medical images

    OpenAIRE

    Persons, Kenneth; Palisson, Patrice; Manduca, Armando; Erickson, Bradley J.; Savcenko, Vladimir

    1997-01-01

    This article will take an analytical look at how lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) and wavelet image compression techniques affect medical image content. It begins with a brief explanation of how the JPEG and wavelet algorithms work, and describes in general terms what effect they can have on image quality (removal of noise, blurring, and artifacts). It then focuses more specifically on medical image diagnostic content and explains why subtle pathologies, that may be difficult for...

  16. Nurses experiences with deaf patient and recommendations for an effective communication with deaf in medical facility

    OpenAIRE

    Boukalová, Naděžda

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis whose name is Nurses experiences with deaf patient and recommendations for an effective communication with deaf in medical facility was conceived as pilot research. This thesis consists of two parts, theoretical and experimental. Theoretical part has several chapters, which deal with anatomy of ear, physiology of hearing, deaf in Czech Republic and communication. The last part of this chapter describes certain situations, where is possible to meet the deaf at medical faci...

  17. The effect of illustrations on patient comprehension of medication instruction labels

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Stephen W; Tram, Carolyn QN; Knarr, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Labels with special instructions regarding how a prescription medication should be taken or its possible side effects are often applied to pill bottles. The goal of this study was to determine whether the addition of illustrations to these labels affects patient comprehension. Methods Study participants (N = 130) were enrolled by approaching patients at three family practice clinics in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked to interpret two sets of medication instruction...

  18. Patient satisfaction with ambulatory care in Germany: effects of patient- and medical practice-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auras, Silke; Ostermann, Thomas; de Cruppé, Werner; Bitzer, Eva-Maria; Diel, Franziska; Geraedts, Max

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to illustrate the effect of the patients' sex, age, self-rated health and medical practice specialization on patient satisfaction. Secondary analysis of patient survey data using multilevel analysis (generalized linear mixed model, medical practice as random effect) using a sequential modelling strategy. We examined the effects of the patients' sex, age, self-rated health and medical practice specialization on four patient satisfaction dimensions: medical practice organization, information, interaction, professional competence. The study was performed in 92 German medical practices providing ambulatory care in general medicine, internal medicine or gynaecology. In total, 9888 adult patients participated in a patient survey using the validated 'questionnaire on satisfaction with ambulatory care-quality from the patient perspective [ZAP]'. We calculated four models for each satisfaction dimension, revealing regression coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all independent variables, and using Wald Chi-Square statistic for each modelling step (model validity) and LR-Tests to compare the models of each step with the previous model. The patients' sex and age had a weak effect (maximum regression coefficient 1.09, CI 0.39; 1.80), and the patients' self-rated health had the strongest positive effect (maximum regression coefficient 7.66, CI 6.69; 8.63) on satisfaction ratings. The effect of medical practice specialization was heterogeneous. All factors studied, specifically the patients' self-rated health, affected patient satisfaction. Adjustment should always be considered because it improves the comparability of patient satisfaction in medical practices with atypically varying patient populations and increases the acceptance of comparisons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Effects of breast cancer on chronic disease medication adherence among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Melissa L; Steinberg, Michael B; Hirshfield, Kim M; Rhoads, George G; Bandera, Elisa V; Lin, Yong; Demissie, Kitaw

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of breast cancer on chronic disease medication adherence among older women. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked data and a 5% random sample of Medicare enrollees were used. Stage I-III breast cancer patients diagnosed in 2008 and women without cancer were eligible. Three cohorts of medication users 66+ years were identified using diagnosis codes and prescription fill records: diabetes, hypertension, and lipid disorders. For each cohort, breast cancer patients were frequency matched to comparison women by age and geographic area. Medication adherence was measured by the proportion of days covered and medication persistence. During the post-baseline period, the percentage of breast cancer patients who were non-adherent was 26.2% for diabetes medication, 28.9% for lipid-lowering medication, and 14.2% for hypertension medication. Breast cancer patients experienced an increased odds of diabetes medication non-adherence [odds ratio (OR) = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07 to 1.95] and were more likely to be non-persistent with diabetes medication (hazard ratio = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.66) relative to women without cancer. The study failed to show a difference between breast cancer and comparison women in the odds of non-adherence to hypertensive (OR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.71 to 1.05) or lipid-lowering medication (OR = 0. 91; 95%CI: 0.73 to 1.13) with a proportion of days covered threshold of 80%. Special attention should be given to the coordination of primary care for older breast cancer patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The psychoactive effects of psychiatric medication: the elephant in the room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, Joanna; Cohen, David; Porter, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The psychoactive effects of psychiatric medications have been obscured by the presumption that these medications have disease-specific actions. Exploiting the parallels with the psychoactive effects and uses of recreational substances helps to highlight the psychoactive properties of psychiatric medications and their impact on people with psychiatric problems. We discuss how psychoactive effects produced by different drugs prescribed in psychiatric practice might modify various disturbing and distressing symptoms, and we also consider the costs of these psychoactive effects on the mental well-being of the user. We examine the issue of dependence, and the need for support for people wishing to withdraw from psychiatric medication. We consider how the reality of psychoactive effects undermines the idea that psychiatric drugs work by targeting underlying disease processes, since psychoactive effects can themselves directly modify mental and behavioral symptoms and thus affect the results of placebo-controlled trials. These effects and their impact also raise questions about the validity and importance of modern diagnosis systems. Extensive research is needed to clarify the range of acute and longer-term mental, behavioral, and physical effects induced by psychiatric drugs, both during and after consumption and withdrawal, to enable users and prescribers to exploit their psychoactive effects judiciously in a safe and more informed manner.

  1. Five different types of framing effects in medical situation: a preliminary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Li, Hongzheng; Miao, Danmin; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Considerable reports concerned the framing effect in medical situations. But quite few of them noticed to explore the differences among the various kinds of framing effects. In the present study, five different types of framing effects were examined and the effect sizes of them were compared. Medical decision making problems concerning medicine effect evaluation, patient's compliance, treatment and doctor options selection were established. All the problems were described in both positive and negative frames. 500 undergraduates as participants were randomly divided into ten groups. Participants from each group were asked to finish one decision making task. ALL THE FRAMES THAT WERE EXAMINED LEADED TO SIGNIFICANT FRAMING EFFECTS: When the Asia Disease Problem was described in a positive frame, the participants preferred the conservative frame than the risky one, while if in a negative frame, the preference reversed (P make more positive evaluations, compared with described as "of 100 patients taking this kind of medicine, 30 patients didn't become better" (P frame and the former one resulted in a better compliance (P framing effect was also tested to be significant (P framing effects were small to big in effect size. Medical decision making can be affected by frame descriptions. Attentions should be paid on the standardization of description in medical practice.

  2. A Systematic Hardware Sharing Method for Unified Architecture Design of H.264 Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitransform techniques have been widely used in modern video coding and have better compression efficiency than the single transform technique that is used conventionally. However, every transform needs a corresponding hardware implementation, which results in a high hardware cost for multiple transforms. A novel method that includes a five-step operation sharing synthesis and architecture-unification techniques is proposed to systematically share the hardware and reduce the cost of multitransform coding. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, a unified architecture is designed using the method for all of the six transforms involved in the H.264 video codec: 2D 4 × 4 forward and inverse integer transforms, 2D 4 × 4 and 2 × 2 Hadamard transforms, and 1D 8 × 8 forward and inverse integer transforms. Firstly, the six H.264 transform architectures are designed at a low cost using the proposed five-step operation sharing synthesis technique. Secondly, the proposed architecture-unification technique further unifies these six transform architectures into a low cost hardware-unified architecture. The unified architecture requires only 28 adders, 16 subtractors, 40 shifters, and a proposed mux-based routing network, and the gate count is only 16308. The unified architecture processes 8 pixels/clock-cycle, up to 275 MHz, which is equal to 707 Full-HD 1080 p frames/second.

  3. Investigating strategies used by hospital pharmacists to effectively communicate with patients during medication counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Bernadette A M; Watson, Bernadette M; Barras, Michael A; Cottrell, William Neil

    2017-10-01

    Medication counselling opportunities are key times for pharmacists and patients to discuss medications and patients' concerns about their therapy. Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) describes behavioural, motivational and emotional processes underlying communication exchanges. Five CAT strategies (approximation, interpretability, discourse management, emotional expression and interpersonal control) permit identification of effective communication. To invoke CAT to investigate communication strategies used by hospital pharmacists during patient medication counselling. This was a theory-based, qualitative study using transcribed audiorecordings of patients and hospital pharmacists engaged in medication counselling. Recruited pharmacists practised in inpatient or outpatient settings. Eligible patients within participating pharmacists' practice sites were prescribed at least three medications to manage chronic disease(s). The extent to which pharmacists accommodate, or not, to patients' conversational needs based on accommodative behaviour described within CAT strategies. Twelve pharmacists engaged four patients (48 total interactions). Exemplars provided robust examples of pharmacists effectively accommodating or meeting patients' conversational needs. Non-accommodation mainly occurred when pharmacists spoke too quickly, used terms not understood by patients and did not include patients in the agenda-setting phase. Multiple strategy use resulted in communication patterns such as "information-reassurance-rationale" sandwiches. Most pharmacists effectively employed all five CAT strategies to engage patients in discussions. Pharmacists' communication could be improved at the initial agenda-setting phase by asking open-ended questions to invite patients' input and allow patients to identify any medication-related concerns or issues. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effectiveness, tolerability and practical application of the newer generation anti-obesity medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S MacDaniels

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of five newer anti-obesity medications to guide clinical decision making, examining bupropion–naltrexone combination, liraglutide, lorcaserin, orlistat, and phentermine–topiramate combination. Methods: A brief literature review and internet search for high-powered, randomized and placebo-controlled drug trials was conducted. Drug trial information was established for five currently approved anti-obesity medications. Secondarily, a statistical comparison of medications through Number Needed to Treat (NNT and Number Needed to Harm (NNH analyses were attempted as a way to provide a clinical analysis across these varied medications. Finally, a commentary about clinical application is issued for each agent accounting for typical side-effects, serious side-effects, mechanism of action and ease of use. Results: All five agents are currently approved oral medications to lower weight. The NNT range was 3–12, and NNH range was 4–17. The agent with the best NNT is phentermine–topiramate combination (NNT=3 and the agent with the best NNH is bupropion–naltrexone combination (NNH=17. Conclusion: When considering each patient’s clinical presentation, knowledge of each drug’s mechanism of action, side-effect profile, efficacy, and NNT and NNH values can help in selecting an anti-obesity medication to augment his or her weight loss efforts.

  5. 75 FR 20854 - Medical Device Use in the Home Environment: Implications for the Safe and Effective Use of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...] Medical Device Use in the Home Environment: Implications for the Safe and Effective Use of Medical Device... related to the safe and effective use of medical device technology in the home environment. The workshop... the home environment. FDA will solicit feedback on: 1. The agency's current working definition of...

  6. Model of unified gauge fields; Le modele des champs de jauge unifies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite Lopes, J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the physical ideas which represents the basis for the unified gauge field model. Despite of the difficulties that we presently have for embodying in a natural manner muons and hadrons in that model, we have the feeling that we are on the way which seems to lead to the construction of a theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Fermi weak interaction field are manifestations of a unique subjacent physical entity - the unified gauge fields. (author) 22 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Unexpected collateral effects of simulation-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Feinglass, Joe; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2011-12-01

    Internal medicine residents who complete simulation-based education (SBE) in central venous catheter (CVC) insertion acquire improved skills that yield better patient care outcomes. The collateral effects of SBE on the skills of residents who have not yet experienced SBE are unknown. In this retrospective, observational study, the authors used a checklist to test the internal jugular and subclavian CVC insertion skills of 102 Northwestern University second- and third-year internal medicine residents before they received simulation training. The authors compared, across consecutive academic years (2007-2008, 2008-2009, 2009-2010), mean pretraining scores and the percent of trainees who met or surpassed a minimum passing score (MPS). Mean internal jugular pretest scores improved from 46.7% (standard deviation = 20.8%) in 2007 to 55.7% (±22.5%) in 2008 and 70.8% (±22.4%) in 2009 (P < .001). Mean subclavian pretest scores changed from 48.3% (±25.5%) in 2007 to 45.6% (±31.0%) in 2008 and 63.6% (±27.3%) in 2009 (P = .04). The percentage of residents who met or surpassed the MPS before training for internal jugular insertion was 7% in 2007, 16% in 2008, and 38% in 2009 (P = .004); for subclavian insertion, the percentage was 11% in 2007, 19% in 2008, and 38% in 2009 (P = .028). SBE for senior residents had an effect on junior trainees, as evidenced by pretraining CVC insertion skill improvement across three consecutive years. SBE for a targeted group of residents has implications for skill acquisition among other trainees.

  8. Awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease among medical interns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Gur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical curriculum does not provide required space for oral health; hence, many medical interns are unfamiliar with the oral cavity and oral health research. Aims: To study the level of awareness regarding systemic effects of periodontal disease among medical interns. Settings and design: A cross-sectional qualitative study recruiting medical interns from two medical institutions affiliated to two different universities in Southern India. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out in two medical institutions affiliated to two different universities in Southern India. A total of 143 interns participated in the study. Each participant was given a self-administered, pre-tested, multiple choice question-type questionnaire to solve on the spot. In order to summarise the awareness level, respondents were graded on a five-level scale as poor, fair, good, very good, and excellent. Statistical analysis used: Percentages, proportions. Results: A total of 67 respondents (47% had fair; 60(42%, poor; and 18(11%, good level of awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease. Only 23(16%, 17(12%, 12(8%, 6(4% and 4(3% respondents were aware that the periodontal disease may be the possible risk factor for coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction, diabetes mellitus, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and preterm labour (low birth-weight infants, respectively. Only 12 respondents (8% would seek dentist′s opinion for all patients with systemic diseases related to dental disease. Conclusions: Medical interns had inadequate awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease. Therefore, an integrated teaching of medical and dental sciences is recommended.

  9. 77 FR 60704 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... regulations provide that FDA publish a quarterly list of available safety and effectiveness summaries of PMA...-0638] Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval... Administration (FDA) is publishing a list of premarket approval applications (PMAs) that have been approved. This...

  10. Effectiveness of a computer based medication calculation education and testing programme for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Karen; Burston, Sarah; Wallis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an on-line, medication calculation education and testing programme. The outcome measures were medication calculation proficiency and self efficacy. This quasi-experimental study involved the administration of questionnaires before and after nurses completed annual medication calculation testing. The study was conducted in two hospitals in south-east Queensland, Australia, which provide a variety of clinical services including obstetrics, paediatrics, ambulatory, mental health, acute and critical care and community services. Participants were registered nurses (RNs) and enrolled nurses with a medication endorsement (EN(Med)) working as clinicians (n=107). Data pertaining to success rate, number of test attempts, self-efficacy, medication calculation error rates and nurses' satisfaction with the programme were collected. Medication calculation scores at first test attempt showed improvement following one year of access to the programme. Two of the self-efficacy subscales improved over time and nurses reported satisfaction with the online programme. Results of this study may facilitate the continuation and expansion of medication calculation and administration education to improve nursing knowledge, inform practise and directly improve patient safety. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical and biological effects of radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation is extensively used for the sterilization of plastic materials, pharmaceuticals and biological tissue grafts. The pharmaceuticals may be solid, liquid, or suspension in a liquid or a solution. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation, generally used for sterilization, primarily interacts with these materials through the Compton process. The resulting damage may be direct or indirect. In aqueous systems the primary species produced compete for interaction among themselves and the dissolved solutes. The nature, the G-values and the reactions of the primary species very much depend on the pH of the solution. The important chemical changes in plastic materials are gas liberation, change in concentration of double bonds, cross-linking, degradation and oxidation. These chemical changes lead to some physical changes like crystallinity, specific conductivity and permeability. The reactions in biological systems are very complex and are influenced by the presence or absence of water and oxygen. Water produces indirect damage and the radiation effect is generally more in the presence of oxygen. Most microorganisms are relatively radioresistant. Various tissues of an animal differ in their response to radiation. Catgut is not stable to irradiation. Lyophilized human serum is stable to irradiation whereas, when irradiated in aqueous solutions, several changes are observed. Generally, pharmaceuticals are considerably more stable in the dry solid state to ionizing radiations than in aqueous solutions or in any other form of molecular aggregation. (author)

  12. Medical assessment of the health effects of short leisure trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Makino, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kitamura, Kazuyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2004-12-01

    Using responses to questionnaires and results of saliva samples from 40 women, the authors assessed the effects on health of participation in a short leisure trip (2 nights, 3 d) to Kyushu Island in Japan. They addressed transportation, sightseeing, and group activities during the tour, which might differ from participants' usual activities. Levels of the salivary endocrinological stress markers cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In each of the groups with characteristics considered healthy and related to lifestyle, patterns of behavior, perceived stressors, and stress reactions, a decrease in the cortisol levels and an increase in the CgA levels were apparent during the tour. The baseline for stress hormone changes was the levels on awakening on Day 1 (i.e., immediately before the tour). These findings suggest that even short periods of travel can bring about a reduction in di-stress and acquisition of eu-stress, experienced as feeling uplifted or fulfilled.

  13. A systematic review of the effectiveness of flipped classrooms in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Lui, Angela M; Martinelli, Susan M

    2017-06-01

    There are inconsistent claims made about the effectiveness of the flipped classroom (FC) in medical education; however, the quality of the empirical evidence used to back up these claims is not evident. The aims of this review are to examine the scope and quality of studies on the FC teaching approach in medical education and to assess the effects of FCs on medical learning. A literature search was conducted using the major electronic databases in 2016. Peer-reviewed papers were screened and reviewed according to explicit inclusion criteria. The scope and quality of all resultant studies were evaluated. Studies identified as using controlled designs were further synthesised to assess the effects of FCs on learning. A total of 118 articles were obtained. Full texts of 82 articles were reviewed. Nine of the included 46 articles used a controlled design when examining the effects of the FC. There were generally positive perceptions of the FC approach. However, the effects of FCs on changes in knowledge and skills were less conclusive as the effect sizes ranged from d = -0.27 to 1.21, with a median of 0.08. The varying direction and magnitude of the effect sizes, together with their 95% confidence interval, which contained zero, suggested the lack of strong evidence for the effectiveness of FCs in promoting knowledge acquisition above and beyond the traditional learning methods. There has been a recent increase of research rigor and variety in measures of effectiveness in studies on the FC in medical education. The FC is a promising teaching approach to increase learners' motivation and engagement. More solid evidence on its effect on changes in knowledge and skills are warranted. Further studies should also examine the long-term effects of FCs with regard to knowledge retention and transfer of knowledge to professional practice and patient care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  14. Leptogenesis in unified theories with Type II see-saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan; King, Steve F.

    2006-01-01

    In some classes of flavour models based on unified theories with a type I see-saw mechanism, the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino is in conflict with the lower bound from the requirement of successful thermal leptogenesis. We investigate how lifting the absolute neutrino mass scale by adding a type II see-saw contribution proportional to the unit matrix can solve this problem. Generically, lifting the neutrino mass scale increases the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino while the decay asymmetry is enhanced and washout effects are reduced, relaxing the lower bound on the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino from thermal leptogenesis. For instance in classes of unified theories where the lightest right-handed neutrino dominates the type I see-saw contribution, we find that thermal leptogenesis becomes possible if the neutrino mass scale is larger than about 0.15 eV, making this scenario testable by neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in the near future

  15. Unifying the field: developing an integrative paradigm for behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, G H; Forsyth, J P; Schauss, S L

    1993-06-01

    The limitations of early conditioning models and treatments have led many behavior therapists to abandon conditioning principles and replace them with loosely defined cognitive theories and treatments. Systematic theory extensions to human behavior, using new concepts and processes derived from and built upon the basic principles, could have prevented the divisive debates over whether psychological dysfunctions are the results of conditioning or cognition and whether they should be treated with conditioning or cognitive techniques. Behavior therapy could also benefit from recent advances in experimental cognitive psychology that provide objective behavioral methods of studying dysfunctional processes. We suggest a unifying paradigm for explaining abnormal behavior that links and integrates different fields of study and processes that are frequently believed to be incompatible or antithetical such as biological vulnerability variables, learned behavioral repertoires, and that also links historical and current antecedents of the problem. An integrative paradigmatic behavioral approach may serve a unifying function in behavior therapy (a) by promoting an understanding of the dysfunctional processes involved in different disorders and (b) by helping clinicians conduct functional analyses that lead to theory-based, individualized, and effective treatments.

  16. Numerical integration of some new unified plasticity-creep formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The usual constitutive description of metals at high temperature treats creep as a phenomenon which must be added to time independent phenomena. A new approach is now being advocated by some people, principally metallurgists. They all treat the inelastic strain as a unified quantity, incapable of being separated into time dependent and time independent parts. This paper examines the behavior of the differential formulations reported in the literature together with one proposed by the author. These formulations are capable of representing primary and secondary creep, cyclic hardening to a stable cyclic stress-strain loop, a conventional plasticity behavior, and a Bauchinger effect which may be creep induced and discernable either at fast or slow loading rates. The new unified formulations seem to lead to very non-linear systems of equations which are very well behaved in some regions and very stiff in other regions where the word 'stiff' is used in the mathematical sense. Simple conventional methods of integrating incremental constitutive equations are observed to be totally inadequate. A method of numerically integrating the equations is presented. (Auth.)

  17. Synchronization of the unified chaotic systems using a sliding mode controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zribi, Mohamed; Smaoui, Nejib; Salim, Haitham

    2009-01-01

    The unified chaotic system incorporates the behaviors of the Lorenz, the Chen and the Lue chaotic systems. This paper deals with the synchronization of two identical unified chaotic systems where the slave system is assumed to have a single input. A sliding mode controller is proposed to synchronize the two systems. The asymptotic convergence to zero of the errors between the states of the master and the slave systems is shown. Simulations results are presented to illustrate the proposed controller; they indicate that the designed controller is able to synchronize the unified chaotic systems. Also, simulation results show that the proposed control scheme is robust to random bounded disturbances acting on the master system. Moreover, the proposed scheme is applied to the secure communications field, where simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme is effective.

  18. Unified Probabilistic Models for Face Recognition from a Single Example Image per Person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Liao; Li Shen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique of unified probabilistic models for face recognition from only one single example image per person. The unified models, trained on an obtained training set with multiple samples per person, are used to recognize facial images from another disjoint database with a single sample per person. Variations between facial images are modeled as two unified probabilistic models: within-class variations and between-class variations. Gaussian Mixture Models are used to approximate the distributions of the two variations and exploit a classifier combination method to improve the performance. Extensive experimental results on the ORL face database and the authors' database (the ICT-JDL database) including totally 1,750facial images of 350 individuals demonstrate that the proposed technique, compared with traditional eigenface method and some well-known traditional algorithms, is a significantly more effective and robust approach for face recognition.

  19. Cosmotopological relation for a unified field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bij, J. J. van der

    2007-01-01

    I present an argument, based on the topology of the universe, why there are three generations of fermions. The argument implies a preferred unified gauge group of SU(5), but with SO(10) representations of the fermions. The breaking pattern SU(5)→SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) is preferred over the pattern SU(5)→SU(4)xU(1). On the basis of the argument one expects an asymmetry in the early universe microwave data, which might have been detected already

  20. General unifying features of controlled quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechen, Alexander; Brif, Constantin; Wu, Rebing; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel

    2010-01-01

    Many proposals have been put forth for controlling quantum phenomena, including open-loop, adaptive feedback, and real-time feedback control. Each of these approaches has been viewed as operationally, and even physically, distinct from the others. This work shows that all such scenarios inherently share the same fundamental control features residing in the topology of the landscape relating the target physical observable to the applied controls. This unified foundation may provide a basis for development of hybrid control schemes that would combine the advantages of the existing approaches to achieve the best overall performance.

  1. Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    and specialization of classes (inheritance) are considered different abstractions. We present a new programming language, Lapis, that unifies inheritance and program specialization at the conceptual, syntactic, and semantic levels. This paper presents the initial development of Lapis, which uses inheritance...... with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e#ciently implemented...

  2. TOWARDS A UNIFIED VIEW OF METAHEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ghazali Talbi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This talk provides a complete background on metaheuristics and presents in a unified view the main design questions for all families of metaheuristics and clearly illustrates how to implement the algorithms under a software framework to reuse both the design and code. The key search components of metaheuristics are considered as a toolbox for: - Designing efficient metaheuristics (e.g. local search, tabu search, simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, particle swarm optimization, scatter search, ant colonies, bee colonies, artificial immune systems for optimization problems. - Designing efficient metaheuristics for multi-objective optimization problems. - Designing hybrid, parallel and distributed metaheuristics. - Implementing metaheuristics on sequential and parallel machines.

  3. Sliding mode control for uncertain unified chaotic systems with input nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, T.-Y.; Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Yang, Y.-S.; Chang, J.-F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of unified chaotic systems subject to uncertainties and input nonlinearity. Using the sliding mode control technique, a robust control law is established which stabilizes the uncertain unified chaotic systems even when the nonlinearity in the actuators is present. A novel adaptive switching surface is introduced to simplify the task of assigning the stability of the closed-loop system in the sliding mode motion. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control design

  4. The mediating effect of calling on the relationship between medical school students’ academic burnout and empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Chae

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study is aimed at identifying the relationships between medical school students’ academic burnout, empathy, and calling, and determining whether their calling has a mediating effect on the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. Methods A mixed method study was conducted. One hundred twenty-seven medical students completed a survey. Scales measuring academic burnout, medical students’ empathy, and calling were utilized. For statistical analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. For qualitative approach, eight medical students participated in a focus group interview. Results The study found that empathy has a statistically significant, negative correlation with academic burnout, while having a significant, positive correlation with calling. Sense of calling proved to be an effective mediator of the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. Conclusion This result demonstrates that calling is a key variable that mediates the relationship between medical students’ academic burnout and empathy. As such, this study provides baseline data for an education that could improve medical students’ empathy skills.

  5. The mediating effect of calling on the relationship between medical school students' academic burnout and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Jeong, So Mi; Chung, Yoon-Sok

    2017-09-01

    This study is aimed at identifying the relationships between medical school students' academic burnout, empathy, and calling, and determining whether their calling has a mediating effect on the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. A mixed method study was conducted. One hundred twenty-seven medical students completed a survey. Scales measuring academic burnout, medical students' empathy, and calling were utilized. For statistical analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. For qualitative approach, eight medical students participated in a focus group interview. The study found that empathy has a statistically significant, negative correlation with academic burnout, while having a significant, positive correlation with calling. Sense of calling proved to be an effective mediator of the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. This result demonstrates that calling is a key variable that mediates the relationship between medical students' academic burnout and empathy. As such, this study provides baseline data for an education that could improve medical students' empathy skills.

  6. Evaluating the short-term effects of a communication skills program for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mee; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-09-01

    Regardless of the growing importance of communication skills as a core clinical competence, few studies have determined the effects of communication skills courses in undergraduate medical curricula in Asian medical schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a communication skills program for preclinical medical students. A communication skills course was provided to 111 second-year medical students in a medical college in Korea. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills was evaluated by a questionnaire survey. To examine the improvement in observed communication skills, the students' encounters with standardized patients (SPs) were assessed at the first session and at the final course assessment. A structured checklist, consisting of 25 communication skills items, was used for the assessment. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills increased significantly after completion of the course (pcommunication skills scores also improved significantly at the end of the course; the mean scores of the first SPs encounters was 49.6 (standard deviation [SD], 11.1), and those of cases A and B at the final assessment were 61.5 (SD, 8.4) and 69.6 (SD, 7.8), respectively (F61=269.54, pcommunication skills course was beneficial in developing and improving communication skills competency in preclinical medical students. Further studies should be followed to examine whether the acquisition of communication skills during preclinical studies can be sustained into clerkship and actual practice.

  7. Fusibility of medical glass in hospital waste incineration: Effect of glass components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.G.; An, C.G.; Li, C.Y.; Fei, Z.W.; Jin, Y.Q.; Yan, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Medical glass, which is the principal incombustible component in hospital wastes, has a bad influence on combustion. In a rotary kiln incinerator, medical glass melts and turns into slag, possibly adhering to the inner wall. Prediction of the melting characteristics of medical glass hence is important for preventing slagging. The effect of various glass components on fusibility has been investigated experimentally; that of Na 2 O is the most marked. The softening temperature and flow temperature decrease 19.8 o C and 34.0 o C, respectively, with a rise of Na 2 O content in the Basic Content (standard composition of medical glass) of 1%. Correlations between fusion temperatures and glass components have been investigated; predictive functions of four characteristic melting temperatures have been obtained by simplifying the multi-variant series and were verified by testing glass samples. Relative errors of fusion temperatures (computed vs. measured) are mostly less than 5%.

  8. Implementation of smart technology to improve medication adherence in patients with cardiovascular disease: is it effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskes, Roderick W; Van der Velde, Enno T; Schoones, Jan W; Schalij, Martin J

    2018-02-01

    Medication adherence is of key importance in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Studies consistently show that a substantial proportion of patients is non-adherent. Areas covered: For this review, telemedicine solutions that can potentially improve medication adherence in patients with cardiovascular disease were reviewed. A total of 475 PubMed papers were reviewed, of which 74 were assessed. Expert commentary: Papers showed that evidence regarding telemedicine solutions is mostly conflictive. Simple SMS reminders might work for patients who do not take their medication because of forgetfulness. Educational interventions and coaching interventions, primarily delivered by telephone or via a web-based platform can be effective tools to enhance medication adherence. Finally, it should be noted that current developments in software engineering may dramatically change the way non-adherence is addressed in the nearby future.

  9. Workplace violence and its effect on burnout and turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiying; Lin, Shaowei; Ruan, Qishuang; Li, Huangyuan; Wu, Siying

    2016-11-01

    The present study was to evaluate workplace violence and examine its effect on job burnout and turnover attempt among medical staff in China. A total of 2,020 medical employees were selected from Fujian province by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of the Workplace Violence Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were used to measure the workplace violence and job burnout, respectively. Other potential influencing factors for job burnout and turnover attempt were collected using a structured questionnaire. The incidence of workplace violence among medical staff was 48.0%. Workplace violence had a positive correlation with emotional exhaustion and cynicism and a negative correlation with professional efficacy. Workplace violence, marital status, employment type, working time (≥ 10 h/day), performance recognition, and life satisfaction were significant predictors for turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

  10. The effect of medical marijuana laws on crime: evidence from state panel data, 1990-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morris

    Full Text Available Debate has surrounded the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes for decades. Some have argued medical marijuana legalization (MML poses a threat to public health and safety, perhaps also affecting crime rates. In recent years, some U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, reigniting political and public interest in the impact of marijuana legalization on a range of outcomes.Relying on U.S. state panel data, we analyzed the association between state MML and state crime rates for all Part I offenses collected by the FBI.Results did not indicate a crime exacerbating effect of MML on any of the Part I offenses. Alternatively, state MML may be correlated with a reduction in homicide and assault rates, net of other covariates.These findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes.

  11. The effect of medical malpractice liability on rate of referrals received by specialist physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Spurr, Stephen J; Nan, Bin; Fendrick, A Mark

    2013-10-01

    Using nationally representative data from the United States, this paper analyzed the effect of a state’s medical malpractice environment on referral visits received by specialist physicians. The analytic sample included 12,839 ambulatory visits to specialist care doctors in office-based settings in the United States during 2003–2007. Whether the patient was referred for the visit was examined for its association with the state’s malpractice environment, assessed by the frequency and severity of paid medical malpractice claims, medical malpractice insurance premiums and an indicator for whether the state had a cap on non-economic damages. After accounting for potential confounders such as economic or professional incentives within practices, the analysis showed that statutory caps on non-economic damages of $250,000 were significantly associated with lower likelihood of a specialist receiving referrals, suggesting a potential impact of a state’s medical malpractice environment on physicians’ referral behavior.

  12. Psychiatric side effects of ketamine in hospitalized medical patients administered subanesthetic doses for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Keith G

    2014-08-01

    To assess the psychiatric side effects of ketamine when administered in subanesthetic doses to hospitalized patients. It is hypothesized that such effects occur frequently. In this retrospective study, the medical records of 50 patients hospitalized on medical and surgical units at our facility who had continuous intravenous infusions of ketamine for pain or mild sedation were reviewed. Patient progress in the days following the start of ketamine infusion was reviewed and response to ketamine was noted. Twenty-two percent of the patients were noted to have some type of psychiatric reaction to ketamine, including agitation, confusion, and hallucinations. These reactions were relatively short lived, namely, occurring during or shortly after the infusions. No association was found between patient response to ketamine and gender, age, or infusion rate. Awareness of the psychiatric side effects of ketamine is an important consideration for clinicians administering this medication either for pain control or for depressive illness.

  13. Effectiveness of an online curriculum for medical students on genetics, genetic testing and counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P. Metcalf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is increasingly important that physicians have a thorough understanding of the basic science of human genetics and the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI associated with genetic testing and counseling. Methods: The authors developed a series of web-based courses for medical students on these topics. The course modules are interactive, emphasize clinical case studies, and can easily be incorporated into existing medical school curricula. Results: Results of a ‘real world’ effectiveness trial indicate that the courses have a statistically significant effect on knowledge, attitude, intended behavior and self-efficacy related to genetic testing (p<0.001; N varies between 163 and 596 for each course. Conclusions: The results indicate that this curriculum is an effective tool for educating medical students on the ELSI associated with genetic testing and for promoting positive changes in students' confidence, counseling attitudes and behaviors.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including a p...... of such consultations initiated by the GPs. CONCLUSIONS: Medical audit had no observed effect on AIDS prevention in general practice. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Oct......OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including....... One hundred and thirty-three GPs completed the project. The main outcome measures were the number of consultations involving AIDS prevention and the number of talks about AIDS initiated by the GP, and some elements of the content were registered on a chart. RESULTS: No statistically significant...

  15. The effects of patients initiated aggression on Chinese medical students' career planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhonghui; Li, Jing; Chen, Yuhua; Cui, Kaijun

    2017-12-28

    Patient initiated aggression is common among Chinese health-care workers, reaching over 10,000 incidents annually (Jinyang web. http://6d.dxy.cn/article/55497 . 2013), and the tense doctor-patient relationship generates stress among medical students. Because of the paucity of data (few surveys pay attention to the effects of violence perpetrated by patients on medical students), this study aimed to characterize patient initiated aggression against medical students. In this cross-sectional survey conducted at a medical school in West China in 2015, 157 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire and the Short Form-36, which assesses quality of life. The associations between patient initiated aggression exposure and medical students' career planning or quality of life were assessed using a chi-square test. Of the 157 medical students, 48 (30.6%) reported having suffered patient initiated aggression at least once during the previous year in the form of mental abuse (20.4%), offensive threat (14.6%), physical violence (8.3%), sexual harassment (verbal: 8.3% or physical: 1.6%), and extreme violence (physical violence leading to surgical treatment or hospitalization) (0.6%). Insufficient communication was the primary reason cited (27.2%). Emotional attack (mental abuse and offensive threat) occurrence differed among age groups (χ 2  = 9.786, P = 0.020) and was ubiquitous among those aged >30 years old. Women were more likely than men to suffer physical violence (χ 2  = 6.796, P = 0.009). Patient initiated aggression was not significantly associated with medical students' career planning or quality of life. In this study, patient initiated aggression, albeit common, as in the rest of China, did not appear to be associated with medical students' career planning or quality of life. However, the characteristics described can inform policymaking and the design of programs to minimize patient initiated aggression occurrence.

  16. Effectiveness of a group-based intervention to change medication beliefs and improve medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Lankveld, Wim G; den Broeder, Alfons A; van den Hoogen, Frank H; van de Mosselaar, Birgit; van Dulmen, Sandra; van den Bemt, Bart J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of a group-based intervention on the balance between necessity beliefs and concern beliefs about medication and on medication non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Non-adherent RA patients using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were randomized to an intervention or control arm. The intervention consisted, amongst others, of two motivational interviewing-guided group sessions led by the same pharmacist. Control patients received brochures about their DMARDs. Questionnaires were completed up to 12 months follow-up. 123 patients (mean age: 60 years, female: 69%) were randomized. No differences in necessity beliefs and concern beliefs about medication and in medication non-adherence were detected between the intervention and control arm, except at 12 months' follow-up: participants in the intervention arm had less strong necessity beliefs about medication than participants in the control arm (b: -1.0 (95% CI: -2.0, -0.1)). This trial did not demonstrate superiority of our intervention over the control arm in changing beliefs about medication or in improving medication adherence over time. Absent intervention effects might have been due to, amongst others, selection bias and a suboptimal treatment integrity level. Hence, targeting beliefs about medication in clinical practice should not yet be ruled out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Medical Marijuana on Migraine Headache Frequency in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Danielle N; Anderson, Sarah L; Gedde, Margaret; Borgelt, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    No clinical trials are currently available that demonstrate the effects of marijuana on patients with migraine headache; however, the potential effects of cannabinoids on serotonin in the central nervous system indicate that marijuana may be a therapeutic alternative. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the effects of medical marijuana on the monthly frequency of migraine headache. Retrospective chart review. Two medical marijuana specialty clinics in Colorado. One hundred twenty-one adults with the primary diagnosis of migraine headache who were recommended migraine treatment or prophylaxis with medical marijuana by a physician, between January 2010 and September 2014, and had at least one follow-up visit. The primary outcome was number of migraine headaches per month with medical marijuana use. Secondary outcomes were the type and dose of medical marijuana used, previous and adjunctive migraine therapies, and patient-reported effects. Migraine headache frequency decreased from 10.4 to 4.6 headaches per month (pmedical marijuana. Most patients used more than one form of marijuana and used it daily for prevention of migraine headache. Positive effects were reported in 48 patients (39.7%), with the most common effects reported being prevention of migraine headache with decreased frequency of migraine headache (24 patients [19.8%]) and aborted migraine headache (14 patients [11.6%]). Inhaled forms of marijuana were commonly used for acute migraine treatment and were reported to abort migraine headache. Negative effects were reported in 14 patients (11.6%); the most common effects were somnolence (2 patients [1.7%]) and difficulty controlling the effects of marijuana related to timing and intensity of the dose (2 patients [1.7%]), which were experienced only in patients using edible marijuana. Edible marijuana was also reported to cause more negative effects compared with other forms. The frequency of migraine headache was decreased with medical

  18. Relationship between the framing effect and individual differences in medical students and psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Kornilova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Framing effect is rarely studied in relation to individual differences. In cognitive psychology, it reflects distortions in decision-making depending on the context (phrasing of statements about alternatives, and framing is found within medical professional samples. Objective. The objective of the study are asfollows: 1. to identify the differences in the students of medical and non-medical universities and susceptibility to framing,2. establish in both groups similarities of individual decision-making styles (coping with uncertainty if any in self-assessments (intelligence, risk taking and personality and in willingness to take risks and tolerance/intolerance to uncertainty, 3. to identify the specific relationship between susceptibility to the framing effect (FE in medical students with their personal properties. Design. The paper describes the study of framing on medicine (n = 78 and psychology students (n = 122. It is demonstrated that in Kahneman and Tversky’s “Asian disease problem”, the psychology students show reframing effect while medical students don’t show difference in answers. Participants who choose different answers in negative phrasing of the issue differ in self-esteemed risk taking and intolerance for uncertainty; but there is no difference in positive version of the problem. Differences in personality profiles of the future members of medical and non-medical students have been established, both in terms of the personality variables and their associations to the dynamic regulatory systems. Medical students are characterized with less procrastination and higher risk readiness. Self-esteemed risk is correlated with risk readiness in both samples (and negatively connected to rationality within the psychology student sample. Unexpectedly, risk preparedness is also correlated with intolerance for uncertainty in both groups. Medical students are characterized by specific correlation between risk readiness and

  19. Deja vu: The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Déjà vu : The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited A Monograph by Lieutenant...DD-MM-YYYY) 19-05-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUL 2010 – MAY 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Déjà vu : The Unified...i SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Lieutenant Colonel Edward Francis Martignetti Title of Monograph: Déjà vu : The Unified

  20. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  1. Framing effects in medical situations: distinctions of attribute, goal and risky choice frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Yuan; Miao, Danmin; Li, Rui; Xiao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    To verify whether three different framing effects (risky choice, attribute and goal) exist in simulated medical situations and to analyse any differences. Medical decision-making problems were established, relating to medical skill evaluation, patient compliance and a selection of treatment options. All problems were described in positive and negative frame conditions. Significantly more positive evaluations were made if the doctor's medical records were described as 'of 100 patients, 70 patients became better' compared with those described as 'of 100 patients, 30 patients didn't become better'. Doctor's advice described in a negative frame resulted in significantly more decisions to comply, compared with advice described in a positive frame. Treatment options described in terms of survival rates resulted in significantly more adventurous choices compared with options described in terms of mortality rates. Decision-making reversal appeared in the risky choice and attribute frames, but not the goal frame. Framing effects were shown to exist in simulated medical situations, but there were significant differences among the three kinds of such effects.

  2. A unified view of "how allostery works".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    The question of how allostery works was posed almost 50 years ago. Since then it has been the focus of much effort. This is for two reasons: first, the intellectual curiosity of basic science and the desire to understand fundamental phenomena, and second, its vast practical importance. Allostery is at play in all processes in the living cell, and increasingly in drug discovery. Many models have been successfully formulated, and are able to describe allostery even in the absence of a detailed structural mechanism. However, conceptual schemes designed to qualitatively explain allosteric mechanisms usually lack a quantitative mathematical model, and are unable to link its thermodynamic and structural foundations. This hampers insight into oncogenic mutations in cancer progression and biased agonists' actions. Here, we describe how allostery works from three different standpoints: thermodynamics, free energy landscape of population shift, and structure; all with exactly the same allosteric descriptors. This results in a unified view which not only clarifies the elusive allosteric mechanism but also provides structural grasp of agonist-mediated signaling pathways, and guides allosteric drug discovery. Of note, the unified view reasons that allosteric coupling (or communication) does not determine the allosteric efficacy; however, a communication channel is what makes potential binding sites allosteric.

  3. DataSpread: Unifying Databases and Spreadsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendre, Mangesh; Sun, Bofan; Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Xinyan; Chang, Kevin ChenChuan; Parameswaran, Aditya

    2015-08-01

    Spreadsheet software is often the tool of choice for ad-hoc tabular data management, processing, and visualization, especially on tiny data sets. On the other hand, relational database systems offer significant power, expressivity, and efficiency over spreadsheet software for data management, while lacking in the ease of use and ad-hoc analysis capabilities. We demonstrate DataSpread, a data exploration tool that holistically unifies databases and spreadsheets. It continues to offer a Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet front-end, while in parallel managing all the data in a back-end database, specifically, PostgreSQL. DataSpread retains all the advantages of spreadsheets, including ease of use, ad-hoc analysis and visualization capabilities, and a schema-free nature, while also adding the advantages of traditional relational databases, such as scalability and the ability to use arbitrary SQL to import, filter, or join external or internal tables and have the results appear in the spreadsheet. DataSpread needs to reason about and reconcile differences in the notions of schema, addressing of cells and tuples, and the current "pane" (which exists in spreadsheets but not in traditional databases), and support data modifications at both the front-end and the back-end. Our demonstration will center on our first and early prototype of the DataSpread, and will give the attendees a sense for the enormous data exploration capabilities offered by unifying spreadsheets and databases.

  4. SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermisek, Radovan

    The origin of the fermion mass hierarchy is one of the most challenging problems in elementary particle physics. In the standard model fermion masses and mixing angles are free parameters. Supersymmetric grand unified theories provide a beautiful framework for physics beyond the standard model. In addition to gauge coupling unification these theories provide relations between quark and lepton masses within families, and with additional family symmetry the hierarchy between families can be generated. We present a predictive SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model with D 3 x U(1) family symmetry. The hierarchy in fermion masses is generated by the family symmetry breaking D 3 x U(1) → ZN → nothing. This model fits the low energy data in the charged fermion sector quite well. We discuss the prediction of this model for the proton lifetime in light of recent SuperKamiokande results and present a clear picture of the allowed spectra of supersymmetric particles. Finally, the detailed discussion of the Yukawa coupling unification of the third generation particles is provided. We find a narrow region is consistent with t, b, tau Yukawa unification for mu > 0 (suggested by b → sgamma and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon) with A0 ˜ -1.9m16, m10 ˜ 1.4m16, m16 ≳ 1200 GeV and mu, M1/2 ˜ 100--500 GeV. Demanding Yukawa unification thus makes definite predictions for Higgs and sparticle masses.

  5. Unifying hydrotropy under Gibbs phase rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-13

    The task of elucidating the mechanism of solubility enhancement using hydrotropes has been hampered by the wide variety of phase behaviour that hydrotropes can exhibit, encompassing near-ideal aqueous solution, self-association, micelle formation, and micro-emulsions. Instead of taking a field guide or encyclopedic approach to classify hydrotropes into different molecular classes, we take a rational approach aiming at constructing a unified theory of hydrotropy based upon the first principles of statistical thermodynamics. Achieving this aim can be facilitated by the two key concepts: (1) the Gibbs phase rule as the basis of classifying the hydrotropes in terms of the degrees of freedom and the number of variables to modulate the solvation free energy; (2) the Kirkwood-Buff integrals to quantify the interactions between the species and their relative contributions to the process of solubilization. We demonstrate that the application of the two key concepts can in principle be used to distinguish the different molecular scenarios at work under apparently similar solubility curves observed from experiments. In addition, a generalization of our previous approach to solutes beyond dilution reveals the unified mechanism of hydrotropy, driven by a strong solute-hydrotrope interaction which overcomes the apparent per-hydrotrope inefficiency due to hydrotrope self-clustering.

  6. A unified dynamics for micro and macrosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1985-12-01

    An explicit model allowing a unified description of micro and macrosystems is exhibited. Firstly, a modified quantum dynamics for the description of macroobjects is constructed and it is shown that it forbids the occurrence of linear superpositions of states localized in far away spatial regions and induces an evolution agreeing with classical mechanics. This dynamics also allows a description of the evolution in terms of trajectories. To set up a unified description of all physical phenomena, a modification of the dynamics, with respect to the standard Hamiltonian one, is then postulated also for microscopic systems. It is shown that one can consistently deduce from it the previously considered dynamics for the centre of mass of macroscopic systems. Choosing in an appropriate way the parameters of the so obtained model one can show that the standard quantum theory for microobjects, the quantum mechanical wave packet reduction with fixed pointer positions, and the classical behaviour for macroobjects can be all derived in a consistent way. Moreover, in the case of a macroscopic system one can obtain, by means of appropriate approximations, a description of the evolution in terms of a phase-space density distribution obeying a Fokker-Planck diffusion equation. (author)

  7. Group theory for unified model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, R.

    1981-01-01

    The results gathered here on simple Lie algebras have been selected with attention to the needs of unified model builders who study Yang-Mills theories based on simple, local-symmetry groups that contain as a subgroup the SUsup(w) 2 x Usup(w) 1 x SUsup(c) 3 symmetry of the standard theory of electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. The major topics include, after a brief review of the standard model and its unification into a simple group, the use of Dynkin diagrams to analyze the structure of the group generators and to keep track of the weights (quantum numbers) of the representation vectors; an analysis of the subgroup structure of simple groups, including explicit coordinatizations of the projections in weight space; lists of representations, tensor products and branching rules for a number of simple groups; and other details about groups and their representations that are often helpful for surveying unified models, including vector-coupling coefficient calculations. Tabulations of representations, tensor products, and branching rules for E 6 , SO 10 , SU 6 , F 4 , SO 9 , SO 5 , SO 8 , SO 7 , SU 4 , E 7 , E 8 , SU 8 , SO 14 , SO 18 , SO 22 , and for completeness, SU 3 are included. (These tables may have other applications.) Group-theoretical techniques for analyzing symmetry breaking are described in detail and many examples are reviewed, including explicit parameterizations of mass matrices. (orig.)

  8. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalia, Tejas; Shukla, Anuj; Bapi, Raju S

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus, attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  9. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Savalia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit versus explicit and goal-directed versus habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops ─ basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops ─ mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  10. Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    A unified time analysis of photon and nonrelativistic particle tunnellings is presented, in which time is regarded as a quantum observable, canonically conjugated to energy. Within this approach, one can introduce self-consistent definitions of the tunnelling times, on the basis of conventional quantum mechanics (or one-dimensional quantum electrodynamics) only. The validity of the Hartman effect [which states the tunnelling duration to be independent of the (opaque) barrier width, with superluminal group velocities of the tunnelling packet as a consequence] is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. However, some noticeable generalizations of (and deviations from) the Hartman effect are, as well, briefly investigated. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited; on the basis of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent interesting microwave and optical experimental results on tunnelling times is proposed. Attention is devoted, at last, to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling

  11. Perturbative estimates of lepton mixing angles in unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan; King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Many unified models predict two large neutrino mixing angles, with the charged lepton mixing angles being small and quark-like, and the neutrino masses being hierarchical. Assuming this, we present simple approximate analytic formulae giving the lepton mixing angles in terms of the underlying high energy neutrino mixing angles together with small perturbations due to both charged lepton corrections and renormalisation group (RG) effects, including also the effects of third family canonical normalization (CN). We apply the perturbative formulae to the ubiquitous case of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing at the unification scale, in order to predict the theoretical corrections to mixing angle predictions and sum rule relations, and give a general discussion of all limiting cases. We also discuss the implications for the sum rule relations of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  12. Computer interfacing of the unified systems for personnel supervising in nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staicu, M.

    1997-01-01

    The dosimetric supervising of the personnel working in nuclear units is based on the information supplied by: 1) the dosimetric data obtained by the method of thermoluminescence; 2) the dosimetric data obtained by the method of photo dosimetry: 3) the records from medical periodic control. To create a unified system of supervising the following elements were combined: a) an Automatic System of TLD Reading and Data Processing (SACDTL). The data from this system are transmitted 'on line' to the computer; b) the measuring line of the optical density of exposed dosimetric films. The interface achieved within the general ensemble SACDTL could be adapted to this line of measurement. The transmission of the data from the measurement line to the computer is made 'on line'; c) the medical surveillance data for each person transmitted 'off line' to the database computer. The unified system resulting from the unification of the three supervising systems will achieve the following general functions: - registering of the personnel working in the nuclear field; - recording the dosimetric data; - processing and presentation of the data; - issuing of measurement bulletins. Thus, by means of unified database, dosimetric intercomparison and correlative studies can be undertaken. (author)

  13. Chaos Q-S synchronization between Rossler system and the new unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the Q-S synchronization between two different chaotic systems: the Rossler system and the new unified Lorenz-Chen-Lu system based on the backstepping design method and Lyapunov stability theory. Moreover numerical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller

  14. Optimal design of the cable metro with unified intermediate supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-12-01

    slope of the surface relief also has discrete-step type. The transition to a larger height unified intermediate supports determines the need for installation of supports with a large pitch. Its value then begins to decrease monotonically with further increase of the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief until it needs to transition to the new size of supports. Synchronous change in the optimal values of the height and step of the installation of intermediate supports, depending on the angle of the longitudinal slope of the sur-face relief leads to the fact that the optimal cost characteristics of the cable metro lines are smooth functions. It has an extreme character with a minimum at angles of inclination of the surface elevation ~5 degrees, which is associated with the form of sagging of the load-bearing ropes. Unification of intermediate supports has little effect on the optimal cost characteristics of the cable metro lines. Even for a sufficiently large step of the unification the largest difference in op-timal value is almost insignificant: it lies in the range of 2...3%, increasing with increasing the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief and unit cost of the intermediate support. Unification of intermediate supports according to the height and their step practically does not affect the optimal value for horizontal tension on the load-bearing ropes. It determined mainly by the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief. Deviation of horizontal tension on the load-bearing ropes for the nonstandard supports and the unified supports within the range of angles of inclination of the terrain surface 0...60 degrees is not more than 0.5 to 0.8 %.

  15. Effect of teaching and checklist implementation on accuracy of medication history recording at hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Marianne; Barstad, Ingeborg; Mathiesen, Liv; Mowe, Morten; Molden, Espen

    2016-02-01

    Medication discrepancies at hospital admission is an extensive problem and knowledge is limited regarding improvement strategies. To investigate the effect of teaching and checklist implementation on accuracy of medication history recording during hospitalization. Patients admitted to an internal medicine ward were prospectively included in two consecutive periods. Between the periods, non-mandatory teaching lessons were provided and a checklist assisting medication history recording implemented. Discrepancies between the recorded medications at admission and the patient's actual drug use, as revealed by pharmacist-conducted medication reconciliation, were compared between the periods. The primary endpoint was difference between the periods in proportion of patients with minimum one discrepancy. Difference in median number of discrepancies was included as a secondary endpoint. 56 and 119 patients were included in period 1 (P1) and period 2 (P2), respectively. There was no significant difference in proportion of patients with minimum one discrepancy in P2 (68.9 %) versus P1 (76.8 %, p = 0.36), but a tendency of lower median number of discrepancies was observed in P2 than P1, i.e. 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.087). More powerful strategies than non-mandatory teaching activities and checklist implementation are required to achieve sufficient improvements in medication history recording during hospitalization.

  16. The effect of gender on medical students' aspirations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Jess; Tully, Mary Patricia; Dornan, Tim

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of gender on medical students' aspirations. The study design included purposive sampling and interim data interpretation to guide recruitment of medical students with a wide spectrum of opinions. Data were collected through audio-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth exploratory interviews, which were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analysis was carried out by a female medical student researcher. Her evolving interpretation was constantly compared against the original data by male (doctor) and female (pharmacist) staff researchers in a systematic search for internal corroboration or disconfirmation. Causal associations consistently present in the data are reported. Six male and six female medical students in Years 3 and 4 shared a wish to achieve a work-life balance that allowed them to devote time to bringing up children while contributing usefully to society as doctors. However, women were readier to compromise professional attainment within their personal work-life balances. Their readiness derived from gendered stereotypes of women's social and professional roles, a lack of female professional role models, womens' greater awareness of the tensions between career and family, various other informal social influences, and a lack of positive career advice to counterbalance these influences. Better career advice and more flexible work opportunities are needed if the two-thirds of medical students who are women are to contribute specialist as well as generalist expertise to the medical workforce.

  17. Effect of ambulatory medicine tutorial on clinical performance of 5th year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Pandejpong, Denla

    2013-02-01

    The present study provided a group learning activity called "Ambulatory Medicine Tutorial-AMT" for 5th year medical students in order to facilitate learning experience at ambulatory setting and to improve medical students' clinical performance. This research aimed specifically to study the effect of AMT. Two groups of twenty 5th-year medical students were enrolled during their ambulatory medicine blocks. Each medical student was assigned to have 8 ambulatory sessions. AMT was assigned to one group while the other group only used conventional learning activity. At the end of the present study, total internal medicine scores, patient satisfaction surveys, and data on average time spent on each clinical encounter were collected and compared. The AMT group received a higher total internal medicine score as compared to the conventional group (76.2 +/- 3.6 vs. 72.9 +/- 2.8, p = 0.003). The AMT group could reduce average time spent on each clinical encounter within their first-6 ambulatory sessions while the conventional group could acquire the same skill later in their last 2 ambulatory sessions. There was no significant difference found on comparing patient satisfaction scores between the 2 groups. AMT helped improving medical students' outcomes as shown from higher total internal medicine score as well as quicker improvement during real-life clinical encounters, AMT could be a good alternative learning activity for medical students at ambulatory setting.

  18. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  19. Effectiveness of an e-Learning Platform for Image Interpretation Education of Medical Staff and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Akio; Hayashi, Norio; Negishi, Tohru; Watanabe, Haruyuki

    2018-05-09

    Medical staff must be able to perform accurate initial interpretations of radiography to prevent diagnostic errors. Education in medical image interpretation is an ongoing need that is addressed by text-based and e-learning platforms. The effectiveness of these methods has been previously reported. Here, we describe the effectiveness of an e-learning platform used for medical image interpretation education. Ten third-year medical students without previous experience in chest radiography interpretation were provided with e-learning instructions. Accuracy of diagnosis using chest radiography was provided before and after e-learning education. We measured detection accuracy for two image groups: nodular shadow and ground-glass shadow. We also distributed the e-learning system to the two groups and analyzed the effectiveness of education for both types of image shadow. The mean correct answer rate after the 2-week e-learning period increased from 34.5 to 72.7%. Diagnosis of the ground glass shadow improved significantly more than that of the mass shadow. Education using the e-leaning platform is effective for interpretation of chest radiography results. E-learning is particularly effective for the interpretation of chest radiography images containing ground glass shadow.

  20. Medical therapy v. PCI in stable coronary artery disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Tomlinson, George; Ko, Dennis T; Dzavik, Vladimir; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with either drug-eluting stents (DES) or bare metal stents (BMS) reduces angina and repeat procedures compared with optimal medical therapy alone. It remains unclear if these benefits are sufficient to offset their increased costs and small increase in adverse events. Cost utility analysis of initial medical therapy v. PCI with either BMS or DES. . Markov cohort decision model. Data Sources. Propensity-matched observational data from Ontario, Canada, for baseline event rates. Effectiveness and utility data obtained from the published literature, with costs from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative. Patients with stable coronary artery disease, confirmed after angiography, stratified by risk of restenosis based on diabetic status, lesion size, and lesion length. Time Horizon. Lifetime. Perspective. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Interventions. Optimal medical therapy, PCI with BMS or DES. Lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). of Base Case Analysis. In the overall population, medical therapy had the lowest lifetime costs at $22,952 v. $25,081 and $25,536 for BMS and DES, respectively. Medical therapy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 10.1 v. 10.26 QALYs for BMS, producing an ICER of $13,271/QALY. The DES strategy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of only 10.20 QALYs and was dominated by the BMS strategy. This ranking was consistent in all groups stratified by restenosis risk, except diabetic patients with long lesions in small arteries, in whom DES was cost-effective compared with medical therapy (ICER of $18,826/QALY). Limitations. There is the possibility of residual unobserved confounding. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an initial BMS strategy is cost-effective.

  1. Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of team-based learning on medical education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjian; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Yanhui; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Lu; Ji, Xiaoming; Chu, Haiyan; Wu, Wei; Lu, Chuncheng; Wang, Shouyu; Wang, Shoulin; Zhao, Liping; Li, Zhong; Zhu, Huijuan; Wang, Jianming; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2018-04-10

    Team-based learning (TBL) has been adopted as a new medical pedagogical approach in China. However, there are no studies or reviews summarizing the effectiveness of TBL on medical education. This study aims to obtain an overall estimation of the effectiveness of TBL on outcomes of theoretical teaching of medical education in China. We retrieved the studies from inception through December, 2015. Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Wanfang Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Database were searched. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was applied for the estimation of the pooled effects. Heterogeneity assumption was detected by I 2 statistics, and was further explored by meta-regression analysis. A total of 13 articles including 1545 participants eventually entered into the meta-analysis. The quality scores of these studies ranged from 6 to 10. Altogether, TBL significantly increased students' theoretical examination scores when compared with lecture-based learning (LBL) (SMD = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.53-3.40). Additionally, TBL significantly increased students' learning attitude (SMD = 3.23, 95% CI: 2.27-4.20), and learning skill (SMD = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.33-4.07). The meta-regression results showed that randomization, education classification and gender diversity were the factors that caused heterogeneity. TBL in theoretical teaching of medical education seems to be more effective than LBL in improving the knowledge, attitude and skill of students in China, providing evidence for the implement of TBL in medical education in China. The medical schools should implement TBL with the consideration on the practical teaching situations such as students' education level.

  2. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  3. The effect of chronotype (morningness/eveningness on medical students' academic achievement in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder O. Mirghani, M.D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is increasing awareness about the effects of circadian misalignment on health and work. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of chronotype on academic achievement among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 140 medical students (64 who averaged an A grade and 76 who averaged a C grade completing the clinical phase at the medical college of Omdurman University, Sudan. The participants were asked to sign a written informed consent and to keep a diary detailing their bedtime, wake-up time, sleep latency, and sleep duration during working days and weekends. Then, the participants were invited to respond to a questionnaire. The chronotype was calculated from the mid-sleep time during the weekend and sleep debt. Various sleep parameters were then compared between the two groups. A t-test and logistic regression analysis were used to test the statistical significance. Results: The medical students with average grades were more of the evening chronotype than the students with excellent grades (p  0.05. Conclusion: Students whose average grade was a C were more likely to have a later bedtimes during weekdays and weekends, sleep more during weekends, and were more evening. Keywords: Academic performance, Chronotype, Medical students, Sleep duration, Sleep pattern

  4. A concept ideation framework for medical device design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Thomas J; Grosse, Ian R; Krishnamurty, Sundar

    2015-06-01

    Medical device design is a challenging process, often requiring collaboration between medical and engineering domain experts. This collaboration can be best institutionalized through systematic knowledge transfer between the two domains coupled with effective knowledge management throughout the design innovation process. Toward this goal, we present the development of a semantic framework for medical device design that unifies a large medical ontology with detailed engineering functional models along with the repository of design innovation information contained in the US Patent Database. As part of our development, existing medical, engineering, and patent document ontologies were modified and interlinked to create a comprehensive medical device innovation and design tool with appropriate properties and semantic relations to facilitate knowledge capture, enrich existing knowledge, and enable effective knowledge reuse for different scenarios. The result is a Concept Ideation Framework for Medical Device Design (CIFMeDD). Key features of the resulting framework include function-based searching and automated inter-domain reasoning to uniquely enable identification of functionally similar procedures, tools, and inventions from multiple domains based on simple semantic searches. The significance and usefulness of the resulting framework for aiding in conceptual design and innovation in the medical realm are explored via two case studies examining medical device design problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of control and self-medication of chronic gout in a developing country.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmawan, John; Rasker, Johannes J.; Nuralim, Hendri

    2003-01-01

    Objective:: We describe a 10 year observation of the effect of control of hyperuricemia compared with self-medication alone in patients with chronic gout. Methods: We studied 299 consecutively self-referred Malayo-Polynesian men with chronic gout, mean age 35 ± 14.3 SD years. Subjects comprised 228

  6. Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, A. F.; van de Ven, J.; Merién, A. E. R.; de Wit-Zuurendonk, L. D.; Houterman, S.; Mol, B. W.; Oei, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Fransen A, van de Ven J, Merien A, de Wit-Zuurendonk L, Houterman S, Mol B, Oei S. Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2012;119:13871393. Objective To determine whether obstetric team

  7. Effectiveness of e-learning in continuing medical education for occupational physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, Nathalie I. R.; de Croon, Einar M.; Smits, Paul B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Background Within a clinical context e-learning is comparable to traditional approaches of continuing medical education (CME). However, the occupational health context differs and until now the effect of postgraduate e-learning among occupational physicians (OPs) has not been evaluated. Aim To

  8. 78 FR 17415 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... its decision. The regulations provide that FDA publish a quarterly list of available safety and..., FDA-2012-M-1183, and FDA-2012-M-1184] Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a list of premarket approval applications...

  9. The Impact of Perceived Adverse Effects on Medication Changes in Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    Background: Given the importance of patient safety and well-being, we quantified the likelihood and type of medication changes observed after 5 possible adverse effects (AE) perceived by heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 18 months

  10. Perceived medication adverse effects and coping strategies reported by chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, R.H.E.; Denig, P.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Jaarsma, T.

    Data on medication adverse effects (AEs) in chronic heart failure (CHF) are primarily based on results from clinical trials. Little is known about AEs perceived by CHF patients in daily practice and how patients deal with these subjective AEs. To describe the scope and nature of perceived AEs of CHF

  11. Effects of Crew Resource Management Training on Medical Errors in a Simulated Prehospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart, Elliot D.

    2012-01-01

    This applied dissertation investigated the effect of crew resource management (CRM) training on medical errors in a simulated prehospital setting. Specific areas addressed by this program included situational awareness, decision making, task management, teamwork, and communication. This study is believed to be the first investigation of CRM…

  12. Schizophrenia and comorbid cannabis use disorders: Brain structure, function and the effect of antipsychotic medications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of the studies described in this thesis was to increase our understanding of schizophrenia, co-morbid cannabis use disorders and the effects of different antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia and a comorbid cannabis use disorder. Therefore we studied the clinical

  13. Serious games and blended learning : Effects on performance and motivation in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.W. Dankbaar MSc (Mary)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract In medical education and health care, with its exponential growth in knowledge and increasing demands on the needed competencies of doctors, there is a need for new and more cost-effective training models. Blended and online learning are powerful learning concepts,

  14. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. Evaporation of formaldehyde from formalin-treated cadavers in the anatomy dissection rooms can produce high exposure. This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical students, staff ...

  15. Evaluation of treatment effects in obese children with co-morbid medical or psychiatric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for effective treatments for pediatric overweight is well known. We evaluated the applicability of an evidence-based treatment in an applied clinic setting that includes children with severe obesity and comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions. Forty-eight overweight children and their fa...

  16. Stress and Its Effects on Medical Students: A Cross-sectional Study at a College of Medicine in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulghani, Hamza M.; AlKanhal, Abdulaziz A.; Mahmoud, Ebrahim S.; Ponnamperuma, Gominda G.; Alfaris, Eiad A.

    2011-01-01

    Medical education is perceived as being stressful, and a high level of stress may have a negative effect on cognitive functioning and learning of students in a medical school. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of stress among medical students and to observe an association between the levels of stress and their academic performance, including the sources of their stress. All the medical students from year one to year five levels from the College of Medicine, ...

  17. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  18. General practitioners' perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions: an exploration of underlying constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions shown to be effective through clinical trials are not readily implemented in clinical practice. Unfortunately, little is known regarding how clinicians construct their perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions. This study aims to explore general practitioners' perceptions of the nature of 'effectiveness'. Methods The design was qualitative in nature using the repertory grid technique to elicit the constructs underlying the perceived effectiveness of a range of medical interventions. Eight medical interventions were used as stimuli (diclophenac to reduce acute pain, cognitive behaviour therapy to treat depression, weight loss surgery to achieve weight loss, diet and exercise to prevent type 2 diabetes, statins to prevent heart disease, stopping smoking to prevent heart disease, nicotine replacement therapy to stop smoking, and stop smoking groups to stop smoking. The setting involved face-to-face interviews followed by questionnaires in London Primary Care Trusts. Participants included a random sample of 13 general practitioners. Results Analysis of the ratings showed that the constructs clustered around two dimensions: low patient effort versus high patient effort (dimension one, and small impact versus large impact (dimension two. Dimension one represented constructs such as 'success requires little motivation', 'not a lifestyle intervention', and 'health-care professional led intervention'. Dimension two represented constructs such as 'weak and/or minimal evidence of effectiveness', 'small treatment effect for users', 'a small proportion of users will benefit' and 'not cost-effective'. Constructs within each dimension were closely related. Conclusions General practitioners judged the effectiveness of medical interventions by considering two broad dimensions: the extent to which interventions involve patient effort, and the size of their impact. The latter is informed by trial evidence, but

  19. Validation of a Teaching Effectiveness Assessment in Psychiatry Continuing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Brian A; Frye, Mark A; Vickers Douglas, Kristin S; Staab, Jeffrey P; Bright, Robert P; Schleck, Cathy D; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Mahapatra, Saswati; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M

    2017-07-06

    Little is known about factors associated with effective continuing medical education (CME) in psychiatry. The authors aimed to validate a method to assess psychiatry CME teaching effectiveness and to determine associations between teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of presentations, presenters, and participants. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Mayo Clinic Psychiatry Clinical Reviews and Psychiatry in Medical Settings. Presentations were evaluated using an eight-item CME teaching effectiveness instrument, its content based on previously published instruments. Factor analysis, internal consistency and interrater reliabilities, and temporal stability reliability were calculated. Associations were determined between teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of presentations, presenters, and participants. In total, 364 participants returned 246 completed surveys (response rate, 67.6%). Factor analysis revealed a unidimensional model of psychiatry CME teaching effectiveness. Cronbach α for the instrument was excellent at 0.94. Item mean score (SD) ranged from 4.33 (0.92) to 4.71 (0.59) on a 5-point scale. Overall interrater reliability was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.91), and temporal stability was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.77-0.97). No associations were found between teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of presentations, presenters, and participants. This study provides a new, validated measure of CME teaching effectiveness that could be used to improve psychiatry CME. In contrast to prior research in other medical specialties, CME teaching effectiveness scores were not associated with use of case-based or interactive presentations. This outcome suggests the need for distinctive considerations regarding psychiatry CME; a singular approach to CME teaching may not apply to all medical specialties.

  20. The effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics model for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battulga, Bayanmunkh; Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-07-09

    Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures.

  1. Medicalização social e medicina alternativa e complementar: pluralização terapêutica do Sistema Único de Saúde Medicalización social y medicina alternativa y complementaria: pluralización terapéutica del Sistema Único de Salud Social medicalization and alternative and complementary medicine: the pluralization of health services in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Dalcanale Tesser

    2008-10-01

    campo de la salud, cuya tendencia es transformar cualquier saber/práctica estructurada del proceso salud-enfermedad en mercadurías o procedimientos para consumo, reforzando la heteronomía y la medicalización.Social medicalization transforms people's habits, discourages them from finding their own solutions to certain health problems and places an excess demand on the Unified Health System. With regard to healthcare provision, an alternative to social medicalization is the pluralization of treatment provided by health institutions namely through the recognition and provision of alternative and complementary practices and medicines. The objective of the article was to analyze the potentials and difficulties of alternative and complementary practices and medicines based on clinical and institutional experiences and on the specialist literature. The research concludes that the potential of such a strategy to "demedicalize" is limited and should be included in the remit of the Unified Health System. The article highlights that the Biosciences retain a political and epistemiological hegemony over medicine and that the area of healthcare is dominated by market principles, whereby there is a trend towards the transformation of any kind of knowledge or structured practice related to health-illness processes into goods or procedures to be consumed, and this only reinforces heteronomy and medicalization.

  2. Benefits of the effective dose equivalent concept at a medical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, R.J.; Classic, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    A primary objective of the recommendations of the International Committee on Radiological Protection Publication 26 is to insure that no source of radiation exposure is unjustified in relation to its benefits. This objective is consistent with goals of the Radiation Safety Committee and Institutional Review Board at medical centers where research may involve radiation exposure of human subjects. The effective dose equivalent concept facilitates evaluation of risk by those who have little or no knowledge of quantities or biological effects of radiation. This paper presents effective dose equivalent data used by radiation workers and those who evaluate human research protocols as these data relate to personal dosimeter reading, entrance skin exposure, and target organ dose. The benefits of using effective dose equivalent to evaluate risk of medical radiation environments and research protocols are also described

  3. A systematic review of the effect of different models of after-hours primary medical care services on clinical outcome, medical workload, and patient and GP satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Ruth; Day, Susan; Dunt, David

    2003-06-01

    The organization of after-hours primary medical care services is changing in many countries. Increasing demand, economic considerations and changes in doctors' attitudes are fueling these changes. Information for policy makers in this field is needed. However, a comprehensive review of the international literature that compares the effects of one model of after-hours care with another is lacking. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the international literature to determine what evidence exists about the effect of different models of out-of-hours primary medical care service on outcome. Original studies and systematic reviews written since 1976 on the subject of 'after-hours primary medical care services' were identified. Databases searched were Medline/Premedline, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, Current Contents, Cochrane Reviews, DARE, EBM Reviews and EconLit. For each paper where the optimal design would have been an interventional study, the 'level' of evidence was assessed as described in the National Health and Medical Research Council Handbook. 'Comparative' studies (levels I, II, III and IV pre-/post-test studies) were included in this review. Six main models of after-hours primary care services (not mutually exclusive) were identified: practice-based services, deputizing services, emergency departments, co-operatives, primary care centres, and telephone triage and advice services. Outcomes were divided into the following categories: clinical outcomes, medical workload, and patient and GP satisfaction. The results indicate that the introduction of a telephone triage and advice service for after-hours primary medical care may reduce the immediate medical workload. Deputizing services increase immediate medical workload because of the low use of telephone advice and the high home visiting rate. Co-operatives, which use telephone triage and primary care centres and have a low home visiting rate, reduce immediate medical workload. There is little

  4. "Surgery interrupted": The effect of multitasking on cognitive and technical tasks in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C H; Schneider, E; Shostrom, V; Schenarts, P J

    2017-02-01

    Today's medical learners are Millennials, and reportedly, multitasking pros. We aim to evaluate effect of multitasking on cognitive and technical skills. 16 medical students completed a mock page and laceration closure separately on day 1 and day 13, and in parallel on day 14. Suturing was graded using GRS and mock pages scored. Total time, suturing and loading times, and percent correct on mock page were compared. Percent correct on mock page improved from days 1-13 and 14 (p multitasking results in longer times to complete the complex component of the technical task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A unified wall function for compressible turbulence modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, K. C.; Chan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence modelling near the wall often requires a high mesh density clustered around the wall and the first cells adjacent to the wall to be placed in the viscous sublayer. As a result, the numerical stability is constrained by the smallest cell size and hence requires high computational overhead. In the present study, a unified wall function is developed which is valid for viscous sublayer, buffer sublayer and inertial sublayer, as well as including effects of compressibility, heat transfer and pressure gradient. The resulting wall function applies to compressible turbulence modelling for both isothermal and adiabatic wall boundary conditions with the non-zero pressure gradient. Two simple wall function algorithms are implemented for practical computation of isothermal and adiabatic wall boundary conditions. The numerical results show that the wall function evaluates the wall shear stress and turbulent quantities of wall adjacent cells at wide range of non-dimensional wall distance and alleviate the number and size of cells required.

  6. Porters versus rowers: a unified stochastic model of motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, S; Huse, D A

    1993-06-01

    We present a general phenomenological theory for chemical to mechanical energy transduction by motor enzymes which is based on the classical "tight-coupling" mechanism. The associated minimal stochastic model takes explicitly into account both ATP hydrolysis and thermal noise effects. It provides expressions for the hydrolysis rate and the sliding velocity, as functions of the ATP concentration and the number of motor enzymes. It explains in a unified way many results of recent in vitro motility assays. More importantly, the theory provides a natural classification scheme for the motors: it correlates the biochemical and mechanical differences between "porters" such as cellular kinesins or dyneins, and "rowers" such as muscular myosins or flagellar dyneins.

  7. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  8. Dependence as a unifying construct in defining Alzheimer's disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Trent; Feldman, Howard; Fillit, Howard; Sano, Mary; Schmitt, Frederick; Aisen, Paul; Leibman, Christopher; Mucha, Lisa; Ryan, J Michael; Sullivan, Sean D; Spackman, D Eldon; Neumann, Peter J; Cohen, Joshua; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in relation to patient dependence and offers a unifying conceptual framework for dependence in AD. Clinicians typically characterize AD by symptomatic impairments in three domains: cognition, function, and behavior. From a patient's perspective, changes in these domains, individually and in concert, ultimately lead to increased dependence and loss of autonomy. Examples of dependence in AD range from a need for reminders (early AD) to requiring safety supervision and assistance with basic functions (late AD). Published literature has focused on the clinical domains as somewhat separate constructs and has given limited attention to the concept of patient dependence as a descriptor of AD progression. This article presents the concept of dependence on others for care needs as a potential method for translating the effect of changes in cognition, function, and behavior into a more holistic, transparent description of AD progression. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Roshangar; Fariba Salek Ranjbarzadeh; Reza Piri; Mahdi Karimi Shoar; Leila Rasi Marzabadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP) students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical c...

  10. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  11. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Lim, C.S. [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman' s Christian University, Tokyo, 167-8585 (Japan); Lin, Chia-Min [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112 (Japan); Mimura, Yukihiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp, E-mail: lin@chuo-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  12. Unifying flipped SU(5) in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.M.; Dorsner, Ilja

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that embedding a four-dimensional flipped SU(5) model in a five-dimensional SO(10) model preserves the best features of both flipped SU(5) and SO(10). The missing partner mechanism, which naturally achieves both doublet-triplet splitting and suppression of d=5 proton decay operators, is realized as in flipped SU(5), while the gauge couplings are unified as in SO(10). The masses of down quarks and charged leptons, which are independent in flipped SU(5), are related by the SO(10). Distinctive patterns of quark and lepton masses can result. The gaugino mass M 1 is independent of M 3 and M 2 , which are predicted to be equal

  13. Covariant extensions and the nonsymmetric unified field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, K.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of generally covariant extension of Lorentz invariant field equations, by means of covariant derivatives extracted from the nonsymmetric unified field, is considered. It is shown that the contracted curvature tensor can be expressed in terms of a covariant gauge derivative which contains the gauge derivative corresponding to minimal coupling, if the universal constant p, characterizing the nonsymmetric theory, is fixed in terms of Planck's constant and the elementary quantum of charge. By this choice the spinor representation of the linear connection becomes closely related to the spinor affinity used by Infeld and Van Der Waerden (Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys. Math. Kl.; 9:380 (1933)) in their generally covariant formulation of Dirac's equation. (author)

  14. SUGERE - a unified system for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Jordao, Elizabete

    2005-01-01

    Generation and disposal of wastes has been responsible for many economical, ecological and public health problems. In order to manage hazardous wastes in an environment friendly manner, many technical and administrative procedures should be implemented, including prevention, control of generation, and final disposal. A software named SUGERE - a unified system for waste management - is being developed. It is an easy to use tool that integrates all the steps involved in hazardous and radioactive waste management. This system is intended to help generators, transporters and owners of treatment, storage and disposal facilities to manage hazardous and radioactive wastes, by assuring compliance with environmental laws and consumer requirements. This paper presents the current status of the SUGERE software, developed using Borland Delphi package. The nuclear industry is used as a reference for developing this work. (author)

  15. UniPOPS: Unified data reduction suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Salter, Christopher J.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Cram, Thomas R.; Morgan, Lorrie; Vance, Bob; Hudson, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    UniPOPS, a suite of programs and utilities developed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), reduced data from the observatory's single-dish telescopes: the Tucson 12-m, the Green Bank 140-ft, and archived data from the Green Bank 300-ft. The primary reduction programs, 'line' (for spectral-line reduction) and 'condar' (for continuum reduction), used the People-Oriented Parsing Service (POPS) as the command line interpreter. UniPOPS unified previous analysis packages and provided new capabilities; development of UniPOPS continued within the NRAO until 2004 when the 12-m was turned over to the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The submitted code is version 3.5 from 2004, the last supported by the NRAO.

  16. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics invites its readers to a guided exploration of the theoretical ideas that shape our contemporary understanding of the physical world at the fundamental level. Its central themes, comprising space-time geometry and the general relativistic account of gravity, quantum field theory and the gauge theories of fundamental forces, and statistical mechanics and the theory of phase transitions, are developed in explicit mathematical detail, with an emphasis on conceptual understanding. Straightforward treatments of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are supplemented with introductory accounts of more speculative theories, including supersymmetry and string theory. This third edition of the Tour includes a new chapter on quantum gravity, focusing on the approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity, while new sections provide extended discussions of topics that have become prominent in recent years, such as the Higgs boson, massive neutrinos, cosmological perturba...

  17. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n s = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton

  18. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  19. Cosmological implications of grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanopoulos, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    These lectures, mainly devoted to the cosmological implications of GUTs, also include the essential ingredients of GUTs and some of their important applications to particle physics. Section 1 contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification. A detailed expose of GUTs is attempted in sect. 2, including their basci principles and their consequences for particle physics. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU 5 is analysed in some detail and it will be used throughout these lectures as the GUT prototype. Finally, sect. 3 contains the most important cosmological implications of GUTs, including baryon number generation in the early Universe (in rather lengthy detail), dissipative processes in the very early Universe, grand unified monopoles, etc. (orig./HSI)

  20. OPC from data access to unified architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jurgen; Burke, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    OPC stands for Openness, Productivity, and Collaboration, symbolizing the new possibilities opening up in automation technology. The main objective of the new OPC generation Unified Architecture is to facilitate global interoperability and to define an information and data-exchange mechanism that is service oriented, multivendor, and cross-platform capable – from the field device on the shop floor to the ERP system on the factory level. This book includes information on: - the birth, objectives, and fundamentals of OPC and OPC UA, - the technical specifications that currently exist and those that are in preparation, - the procedures for designing and implementing components, - a transparent presentation of the technology through application possibilities and examples, and - the outlook for the future of OPC and OPC UA. Important perspectives and updates in this new edition include - the new era and the exciting application possibilities developing with OPC UA, - the new OPC UA specifications, - the devel...