Kelly, Neale; Forsstroem, Hans [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). DG Research
Research in the field of risk assessment and management has had a prominent role in the Commission's nuclear research programme, especially in the area of radiation protection. In the 1980s, the research had a largely technical focus. Through the 1990s, this focus shifted and greater attention was given to broader, less technical, issues, in particular those concerned with risk perception and communication, risk governance and the role of public participation in the process. This trend will continue within the Commission's 6th Framework Programme (FP6) given the increasing recognition of the importance of these broader socio-economic issues for decision making related to both nuclear and other technologies. The paper summarises the main outcomes of Commission sponsored research in the above areas, how this has influenced research currently being carried out in the Sth Framework Programme (FP5) and that being considered for inclusion in FP6. Two aspects are given particular attention: firstly, research into risk governance (both in the nuclear field in general and the waste management area in particular), especially the importance of social trust and participation of all relevant stakeholders in terms of achieving efficient and acceptable decisions when addressing complex, contentious issues; secondly, research into the social and psychological factors that influenced the efficacy and acceptance of measures taken to mitigate the long term impact of areas in the Former Soviet Union contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. There are important lessons here for the management of any future accident that may affect Europe, especially the need for those affected locally to have a role in the decision process and to be able to exercise at least partial control over their own welfare. While this research was largely carried out in a 'nuclear' context, its findings are more generally applicable.
The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...
Full Text Available Warnings about climate change invariably stress water-related effects. Such effects are typically framed as both unpredictable and disruptive, and are thus said to create large new risks to the water sector demanding adaptive responses. This article examines how such responses are mediated by, and also compromised by, two dominant trends in the evolution of water governance institutions: (1 the rise of an “integrated” paradigm of water resources management, which has encouraged the development of more complex and interconnected water institutions, and (2 the rapidly changing political economy of water financing and investment. Each of these trends carries its own strong presumptions about what constitutes water-related risk and how such risk is properly managed. The article uses the specific example of large dam projects to illustrate how these ongoing trends in water governance shape and complicate the prospect of managing climate-water risks.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of corporate governance on risk taking of private insurance firms and banks in Iran. The proposed study of this paper considers the financial information of 13 banks and 19 private insurance firms over the period 2006-2011 in Iran. The study investigates the effects of five variables including size, CEO duality task, composition of the board of directors, ownership concentration and having an internal auditing system on risk taking of private banks and insurance firms in Iran. Using some panel data and regression analysis, the study confirms the positive effect of the ownership concentration as well as negative impact of non-bound board members on risk taking.
Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.
The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.
Full Text Available The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.
Mazri, Chabane; Florin, Marie-Valentine
This appendix to IRGC's main report "guidelines for emerging risk governance" provides (a) a review of existing framework for the governance of emerging risks and (b) a review of theoretical foundations of IRGC's guidelines.
The study examines the relative effect of risk management and corporate governance on bank performance in Nigeria. The study utilizes both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected using structured questionnaire that were administered in Four-hundred and eighty (480) employees of Wema Bank Plc ...
This presentation conceptualizes and categorizes the various relationships between dangerous events, the emergence of risk communications and the effects on governance (the taking of collectively binding decisions in a community by a diversity of actors, inside and outside government) from
Andersen, Torben Juul; Shaw, Gregory L.
Purpose: – The article brings attention to the importance of corporate values and concrete leadership enactment of those values as a necessary condition for effective risk management outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: – The content is based on practice-based research experiences supported...... by relevant literatures on risk governance and values-based management complemented with insights from case analyses and empirical studies. Findings: – The paper explains why formal risk management approaches have limitations and outlines how the presence of official policies and codes of conduct...... failed to do the job when the leadership in reality gave first priority to profits at the expense of the stated environmental values. The prioritized code of the US Coast Guard is used to illustrate the circumstances where core values support effective crisis, disaster and risk management outcomes...
Renn, O.; Roco, M. C.
After identifying the main characteristics and prospects of nanotechnology as an emerging technology, the paper presents the general risks associated with nanotechnology applications and the deficits of the risk governance process today, concluding with recommendations to governments, industry, international organizations and other stakeholders. The International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) has identified a governance gap between the requirements pertaining to the nano- rather than the micro-/macro- technologies. The novel attributes of nanotechnology demand different routes for risk-benefit assessment and risk management, and at present, nanotechnology innovation proceeds ahead of the policy and regulatory environment. In the shorter term, the governance gap is significant for those passive nanostructures that are currently in production and have high exposure rates; and is especially significant for the several `active' nanoscale structures and nanosystems that we can expect to be on the market in the near future. Active nanoscale structures and nanosystems have the potential to affect not only human health and the environment but also aspects of social lifestyle, human identity and cultural values. The main recommendations of the report deal with selected higher risk nanotechnology applications, short- and long-term issues, and global models for nanotechnology governance.
We examine the effectiveness of the financial sector rescue packages provided by the national governments during the 2008 financial crisis. This study questions the implicit assumption that government interventions have an uniform effect on the default risk of individual banks. After testing the
Daniel T H Manurung
Full Text Available Abstract: Assessing Enterprise Risk Management through Corporate Governance and Ownership Concentration. The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of corporate governance and concentrated of ownership with enterprise risk management. This research uses multiple regression analysis as a testing tool. The sample that is used in this study is 50 manufacturing companies which is listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The year that is used as the basis of sampling is 2013-2014. The result of this reseacrh is a significant effect on corporate governance in Enterprise risk management. While, variable of concentration of ownership has no significant influence in enterprise risk management.
Full Text Available To date, research which integrates corporate governance and risk management has been limited. Yet, risk exposure and management are increasingly becoming the core function of modern business enterprises in various sectors and industries domestically and globally. Risk identification and management are crucial in any business strategy design and implementation. From the investors’ point of view, knowledge of the risk profile, risk appetite and risk management are key elements in making sound portfolio investment decisions. This paper examines the relationships between corporate governance mechanisms and risk disclosure behavior using a sample of Canadian publicly-traded companies (TSX 230. Results show that Canadian public companies are more likely to disclose risk management information over and above the mandatory risk disclosures, if they are larger in size and if their boards of directors have more independent members. Minority voting control ownership structures appear to negatively impact risk disclosure and CEO incentive compensation shows mixed results. The paper concludes that more research is needed to further assess the impact of various governance mechanisms on corporate risk management and disclosure behavior.
P. Matczak; P. Matczak; J. Lewandowski; A. Choryński; M. Szwed; Z. W. Kundzewicz; Z. W. Kundzewicz
The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differen...
Full Text Available This paper brings forth the contribution of corporate governance to risk management system at the enterprise level. The research is a complex one, integrating both quantitative and qualitative information. The quantitative information consists of balance sheet and profit and loss account data while the qualitative one includes dummy variables reflecting the agency and monitoring costs which govern the relationship between managers and shareholders.
Full Text Available Climate engineering is a potential alternative method to curb global warming, and this discipline has garnered considerable attention from the international scientific community including the Chinese scientists. This manuscript provides an overview of several aspects of climate engineering, including its definition, its potential impacts and risk, and its governance status. The overall conclusion is that China is not yet ready to implement climate engineering. However, it is important for China to continue conducting research on climate engineering, particularly with respect to its feasible application within China, its potential social, economic, and environmental impacts, and possible international governance structures and governing principles, with regard to both experimentation and implementation.
Beijer, P.; Kooper, M.; Panka, E.; Kwiatkowska, A.
Information Governance is a logical and necessary development in organizations to benefit from the information society. This subject is becoming increasingly topical, mainly from a risk and compliance perspective, so a critical inquiry is appropriate. In this article the authors consider a number of
Small, Mitchell; Stern, Paul; Bomberg, Elizabeth; Christopherson, Susan; Goldstein, Bernard D.; Israel, Andrei L.; Robert B Jackson; Krupnick, Alan; Mauter, Meagan S.; Nash, Jennifer; North, D. Warner; Olmstead, Sheila M.; Prakash, Aseem; Rabe, Barry; Richardson, Nathan
A broad assessment is provided of the current state of knowledge regarding the risks associated with shale gas development and their governance. For the principal domains of risk, we identify observed and potential hazards and promising mitigation options to address them, characterizing current knowledge and research needs. Important unresolved research questions are identified for each area of risk; however, certain domains exhibit especially acute deficits of knowledge and attention, includ...
Hillman, Alexandra; Tadd, Win; Calnan, Sian; Calnan, Michael; Bayer, Antony; Read, Simon
Drawing on perspectives from the governmentality literature and the sociology of risk, this article explores the strategies, tools and mechanisms for managing risk in acute hospital trusts in the United Kingdom. The article uses qualitative material from an ethnographic study of four acute hospital trusts undertaken between 2008 and 2010 focusing on the provision of dignified care for older people. Extracts from ethnographic material show how the organisational mechanisms that seek to manage risk shape the ways in which staff interact with and care for patients. The article bridges the gap between the sociological analysis of policy priorities, management strategy and the organisational cultures of the NHS, and the everyday interactions of care provision. In bringing together this ethnographic material with sociological debates on the regulation of healthcare, the article highlights the specific ways in which forms of governance shape how staff care for their patients challenging the possibility of providing dignified care for older people. PMID:23356787
Full Text Available Public sector bodies maintain a large amount of data from various domains. This data represents a potential resource that organizations and individuals can use to enhance their own datasets or which can be used to develop new and innovative products and services. In order to foster the reuse of the data held by the public sector bodies a number of countries around the world has started to publish its data according to the Open Data principles. In this paper we present a set of benefits that can be achieved by publishing Open Government Data (OGD and a set of risks that should be assessed when a dataset is considered for opening up. Benefits and risks presented in this paper were mostly identified during two of our OGD activities.
Small, Mitchell J; Stern, Paul C; Bomberg, Elizabeth; Christopherson, Susan M; Goldstein, Bernard D; Israel, Andrei L; Jackson, Robert B; Krupnick, Alan; Mauter, Meagan S; Nash, Jennifer; North, D Warner; Olmstead, Sheila M; Prakash, Aseem; Rabe, Barry; Richardson, Nathan; Tierney, Susan; Webler, Thomas; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Zielinska, Barbara
A broad assessment is provided of the current state of knowledge regarding the risks associated with shale gas development and their governance. For the principal domains of risk, we identify observed and potential hazards and promising mitigation options to address them, characterizing current knowledge and research needs. Important unresolved research questions are identified for each area of risk; however, certain domains exhibit especially acute deficits of knowledge and attention, including integrated studies of public health, ecosystems, air quality, socioeconomic impacts on communities, and climate change. For these, current research and analysis are insufficient to either confirm or preclude important impacts. The rapidly evolving landscape of shale gas governance in the U.S. is also assessed, noting challenges and opportunities associated with the current decentralized (state-focused) system of regulation. We briefly review emerging approaches to shale gas governance in other nations, and consider new governance initiatives and options in the U.S. involving voluntary industry certification, comprehensive development plans, financial instruments, and possible future federal roles. In order to encompass the multiple relevant disciplines, address the complexities of the evolving shale gas system and reduce the many key uncertainties needed for improved management, a coordinated multiagency federal research effort will need to be implemented.
Renn, Ortwin [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)
The paper introduces an integrated analytic framework for risk governance which provides guidance for the development of comprehensive assessment and management strategies to cope with risks, in particular at the global level. The framework integrates scientific, economic, social and cultural aspects and includes the effective engagement of stakeholders. The concept of risk governance comprises a broad picture of risk: not only does it include what has been termed 'risk management' or 'risk analysis, it also looks at how risk-related decision-making unfolds when a range of actors is involved, requiring co-ordination and possibly reconciliation between a profusion of roles, perspectives, goals and activities. The framework's risk process breaks down into three main phases: 'pre-assessment', 'appraisal', and 'management'. A further phase, comprising the 'characterisation' and 'evaluation' of risk, is placed between the appraisal and management phases and, depending on whether those charged with the assessment or those responsible for management are better equipped to perform the associated tasks, can be assigned to either of them - thus concluding the appraisal phase or marking the start of the management phase. The risk process has 'communication' as a companion to all phases of addressing and handling risk and is itself of a cyclical nature. However, the clear sequence of phases and steps offered by this process is primarily a logical and functional one and will not always correspond to reality. The paper will address in particular the role of public participation and stakeholder involvement.
Li, Huicong; Zhang, Hongliang; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Qiu, Aichao
External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China's insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010-2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China's shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China's insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China's insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.
Full Text Available External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.
Dijkman, A.; Terwoert, J.; Hollander, A.
This literature review on Risk Governance is part of a TNO research programme on the safety of innovative substances and technologies in the workplace. The purpose of this review is to investigate how risk governance can be applied in the workplace when dealing with uncertainties regarding the
Full Text Available At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework from the civil society perspective, particularly the role of local governance in disaster risk reduction (DRR. Seven regions of the country were identified for evaluation, where people have suffered losses from disasters during the last three decades. Three approaches were used: administration of questionnaires; consultations with local communities; and four case studies. It was found that there was significant scope for improvement on individual local governance indicators, and that effective progress depends on:1. level of achievement in the decentralisation process currently under way.2. adoption of a participatory approach to DRR.3. clear distribution of roles in the DRR process.4. adequate allocation of necessary financial and human resources.5. enhancement of capacity of local communities to prepare for and respond to all types of disasters.Creation of an independent body to carry out fundamental research, forecast new and emerging hazards and manage all disasters in the country will contribute greatly to moving things forward.
Angelica Stratulat; Monica Susanu
.... Under these circumstances, future uncertainties and risks cause revolutionary mutations in approaching most of the economic and social paradigms that humankind were too long accustomed to, so that...
The EU governance of food safety and GM food and feed has gone through significant changes since the BSE crisis and food scares during the 1990s. This work focuses on one particular new feature; the role of stakeholders representing the food chain: biotech associations, farmer organizations, food and feed processors, consumer organizations and environmental NGOs. These stakeholders are not merely lobbyists exerting influence on EU institutions; they are knowledge producers with a certain expe...
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations, coordinated by Mindy R. Levit . 3 Government spending’s contribution...Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases, by D. Andrew Austin and Mindy R. Levit . The FY2014 Government Shutdown: Economic Effects Congressional...the labor force through the furlough of non-excepted federal employees.17 Estimates of the number of federal employees furloughed vary widely, and
On the base of the conducted research the article proposes the essence of the term «corporate governance» as a system of norms, rules, methods, principles and modern management tools, the use of which provides effective functioning of an enterprise and the balance of the stakeholders. It is substantiated that it is expedient to use the social-economic approach for the corporate governance effectiveness evaluation. The author offers the directions of organization corporate governance evaluatio...
Full Text Available Management has won much its status of science as it is the scientific approach of solving many problems that the leadership of any entity currently has and, as such, it continues to fuel many controversies and debates. Management is the process meant to coordinate, to plan and to control the activities in an organization so as it is able to ensure its goals with maximum efficiency. Under these circumstances, future uncertainties and risks cause revolutionary mutations in approaching most of the economic and social paradigms that humankind were too long accustomed to, so that also the management processes and procedures system is exposed to corresponding changes. Operational Risk Management is not an integrated process but rather a set of fragmented activities that treat and resolve a variety of risks facing the firm/company as a whole, which determines facing the process from a holistic perspective of the whole business.
May 21, 2013 ... The coastal city of Cape Town in South Africa's Western Cape faces a unique set of challenges as its past and future meet. Its sprawling and underserviced townships — a legacy of South Africa's history of apartheid — are at risk as climate change adds to sea level rise, the intensity of storms, and rainfall ...
Holm, Claus; Laursen, Peter Birkholm
be perceived as the experts regarding internal control and risk management and that this must be engrained as part of the service rendered, i.e. part of the value adding nature of an audit. At the same time they must improve the transparency of the audit standards and the communication processes of audit...
Full Text Available On the base of the conducted research the article proposes the essence of the term «corporate governance» as a system of norms, rules, methods, principles and modern management tools, the use of which provides effective functioning of an enterprise and the balance of the stakeholders. It is substantiated that it is expedient to use the social-economic approach for the corporate governance effectiveness evaluation. The author offers the directions of organization corporate governance evaluation within the social-economic approach. The author proposes to investigate the effectiveness of corporate governance within the social, economic and organizational effectiveness. Implementation of the offered process of the enterprise’s corporate governance evaluation allows defining state of enterprise and areas of imbalance of stakeholders’ interests in the development of an organization. The received information about the effectiveness of the corporate governance can be used to analyze state and prospects of further development of an enterprise. Implementation of the effective corporate governance system is aimed on the achievement of enterprise’s activity profitability, stable financial state, balance of stakeholders’ interests, and high level of corporate culture of the functioning structure. Also the evaluation of the corporate governance effectiveness within the social-economic approach makes it possible to determine the conformity of the management actions and owners of an organization to the strategic objectives within the strategy of development.
van der Vegt, R G
This article is a retrospective analysis of liquefied natural gas development (LNG) in Gladstone, Australia by using the structure of the risk governance framework developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC). Since 2010 the port of Gladstone has undergone extensive expansion to facilitate the increasing coal export as well as the new development of three recently completed LNG facilities. Significant environmental and socio-economic impacts and concerns have occurred as a result of these developments. The overall aim of the article, therefore, is to identify the risk governance deficits that arose and to formulate processes capable of improving similar decision-making problems in the future. The structure of the IRGC framework is followed because it represents a broad analytical approach for considering risk assessment and risk governance in Gladstone in ways that include, but also go beyond, the risk approach of the ISO 31000:2009 standard that was employed at the time. The IRGC risk framework is argued to be a consistent and comprehensive risk governance framework that integrates scientific, economic, social, and cultural aspects and advocates the notion of inclusive risk governance through stakeholder communication and involvement. Key aspects related to risk preassessment, risk appraisal, risk tolerability and acceptability, risk management, and stakeholder communication and involvement are considered. The results indicate that the risk governance deficits include aspects related to (i) the risk matrix methodology, (ii) reflecting uncertainties, (iii) cumulative risks, (iv) the regulatory process, and (v) stakeholder communication and involvement. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.
The focus of the present study is on the allocation of responsibilities for addressing environmental risks in transboundary water governance. Effective environmental management in transboundary situations requires coordinated and cooperative action among diverse individuals and organizations.
Szajkowska, A.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.
Anna Szajkowska and Bernd van der Meulen analyse in their contribution, Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis, the scope of application of risk analysis and the precautionary principle in EU food safety regulation. To what extent does this technocratic,
Aven, Terje; Renn, Ortwin
In this article, we discuss issues of risk management and risk governance with respect to petroleum operations in the Barents Sea area. We will focus on the decision problems related to whether or not to open the Barents Sea for petroleum activities in special vulnerable areas. We will explore to what extent the International Risk Governance Council risk governance framework provides valuable insights for and assistance to the decisionmaker and other stakeholders (including the industry and NGOs). The study covers issues related to risk assessment and appraisal, risk acceptance and tolerability, the use of the precautionary principle, risk perception, stakeholder involvement, risk communication, and risk management. The overall aim of the article is to point to areas where the risk governance could have been and can be improved for these and similar decision problems. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Wiseman, Hannah J
The development of natural gas and oil from unconventional formations in the United States has grown substantially in recent years and has created governance challenges. In light of this recent growth, and increasing attention to global shale gas resources, the successes and failures of governance efforts in this country serve as important lessons for other nations that have their own unconventional petroleum resources and are beginning to move forward with development, thus calling for a more in-depth examination of the laws governing shale gas development and their implementation. Governance includes both the substance of laws and the activities of entities that implement and influence laws, and in the case of oil and gas, states are primarily responsible for risk governance. Nongovernmental actors and industry also work with states to shape and implement regulations and standards. This Policy Analysis introduces the role of various actors in U.S. shale gas governance, explaining why the states are primarily responsible for risk governance, and explores the capacity of states to conduct governance, examining the content of their laws and the strength of their regulatory entities. The Analysis concludes that states are, to a degree, addressing the changing risks of development. Gaps remain in the substance of regulations, however, and many states appear to lack adequate support or policies for training industry in compliance matters, monitoring activity at sites, prioritizing certain types of regulatory violations that pose the highest risks, enforcing laws, and ensuring that the public is aware of inspections and enforcement and can therefore monitor state activity.
... «corporate governance» as a system of norms, rules, methods, principles and modern management tools, the use of which provides effective functioning of an enterprise and the balance of the stakeholder...
Roberto Moro Visconti
Full Text Available Global recession, started in 2008, is still proving an unresolved perfect storm and the financial crisis has affected also the real economy, creating widespread social unrest. Microfinance institutions (MFIs in developing countries seem however less affected by the worldwide turmoil, due to their segmentation and resilience to external shocks. Recession has a big impact on governance mechanisms, altering the equilibriums among different stakeholders and increasing the risk of investment returns; any governance improvement is highly welcome and recommended. No governance, no money for growth or bare survival. In the confused phase we are living in, at the moment there are not evident winners, but the underbanked poorest, unless properly supported, once again risk being the ultimate losers.
Wong, Catherine Mei Ling
This article focuses on the fluid nature of risk problems and the challenges it presents to establishing acceptability in risk governance. It introduces an actor-network theory (ANT) perspective as a way to deal with the mutable nature of risk controversies and the configuration of stakeholders. To translate this into a practicable framework, the article proposes a hybrid risk governance framework that combines ANT with integrative risk governance, deliberative democracy, and responsive regulation. This addresses a number of the limitations in existing risk governance models, including: (1) the lack of more substantive public participation throughout the lifecycle of a project; (2) hijacking of deliberative forums by particular groups; and (3) the treatment of risk problems and their associated stakeholders as immutable entities. The framework constitutes a five-stage process of co-selection, co-design, co-planning, and co-regulation to facilitate the co-production of collective interests and knowledge, build capacities, and strengthen accountability in the process. The aims of this article are twofold: conceptually, it introduces a framework of risk governance that accounts for the mutable nature of risk problems and configuration of stakeholders. In practice, this article offers risk managers and practitioners of risk governance a set of procedures with which to operationalize this conceptual approach to risk and stakeholder engagement. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Anginer, D.; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, H.P.; Ma, K.
This paper finds that shareholder-friendly corporate governance is positively associated with bank insolvency risk, as proxied by the Z-score and the Merton’s distance to default measure, for an international sample of banks over the 2004-2008 period. Banks are special in that ‘good’ corporate
Anginer, D.; Demirguc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.; Ma, K.
This paper finds that shareholder-friendly corporate governance is positively associated with bank insolvency risk, as proxied by the Z-score and the Merton’s distance to default measure, for an international sample of banks over the 2004-2008 period. Banks are special in that ‘good’ corporate
Full Text Available Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to public health the world over. Global health governance strategies need to address the erosion of antimicrobial effectiveness on three levels. Firstly, mechanisms to provide incentives for the pharmaceutical industry to develop antimicrobials for diseases threatening the developing world need to be sought out. Secondly, responsible use of antimicrobials by both clinicians and the animal food growing industry needs to be encouraged and managed globally. And lastly, in-country and international monitoring of changes in antimicrobial effectiveness needs to be stepped up in the context of a global health governance strategy.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine possible indicators that affect local unit credit risk and investigate their effect on default (credit risk of local government units in Croatia. No system for the estimation of local unit credit risk has been established in Croatia so far causing many practical problems in local unit borrowing. Because of the specific nature of the operations of local government units and legislation that does not allow local government units to go into bankruptcy, conventional methods for estimating credit risk are not applicable, and the set of standard potential determinants of credit risk has to be expanded with new indicators. Thus in the paper, in addition to the usual determinants of credit risk, the hypothesis of the influence of political factors on local unit credit risk in Croatia is also tested out, with the use of a Tobit model. Results of econometric analysis show that credit risk of local government units in Croatia is affected by the political structure of local government, the proportion of income tax and surtax in operating revenue, the ratio of net operating balance, net financial liabilities and direct debt to operating revenue, as well as the ratio of debt repayment and cash, and direct debt and operating revenue.
James O. Alabede
public governance quality on tax compliance behavior of individual taxpayers as well as the moderating effect of financial condition and risk preference on tax compliance and its determinants. This study extended tax compliance model to incorporate public governance quality and moderating effects of financial condition and risk preference.
Bestari Dwi Handayani
The purpose of this study was to examine corporate governance mechanism. This study also examines the effect of mediation of ERM on relationships corporate governance mechanism and the value of company. The population of this research is financial sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Sample selection using purposive sampling. This study uses path analysis in hypothesis testing and Sobel test for testing mediation ERM. The results of this study indicate that there is signif...
Jayawardane, S.; Larik, J.E.; Jackson, E.
Cyberspace permeates global social and economic relations in the 21st Century. It is an integral part of the critical infrastructure on which modern societies depend and has revolutionized how we communicate and socialize. The governance of cyberspace is, therefore, an indispensable component of
The purpose of this book is to act as a guide to good governance by exploring its various aspects and the key elements of success. It is intended to be used by anybody who is a member of a board, particularly in the nonprofit sector. This book is intended to help board members maximize their effectiveness both individually and collectively.…
Bestari Dwi Handayani
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine corporate governance mechanism. This study also examines the effect of mediation of ERM on relationships corporate governance mechanism and the value of company. The population of this research is financial sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Sample selection using purposive sampling. This study uses path analysis in hypothesis testing and Sobel test for testing mediation ERM. The results of this study indicate that there is significant influence between corporate governance mechanisms (managerial ownership, institutional ownership, independent commissioner and audit committee with the value of company. This study provides evidence that ERM mediating influence between institutional ownership, independent directors and audit committee with company’s value, but not significant in mediating the effect of managerial ownership. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji mekanisme corporate governance. Penelitian ini juga menguji pengaruh mediasi dari ERM pada hubungan mekanisme corporate governance dan nilai perusahaan tersebut. Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan sektor keuangan yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. Teknik pemilihan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis jalur (path analysis dalam pengujian hipotesis dan sobel test untuk pengujian mediasi ERM. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh signifikan antara mekanisme corporate governance (kepemilikan manajerial, kepemilikan institusional, komisaris independen, dan komite audit dengan nilai perusahaan. Penelitian ini memberikan bukti bahwa ERM memediasi pengaruh antara kepemilikan institusional, komisaris independen, dan komite audit terhadap nilai perusahaan. Namun tidak signifikan dalam memediasi pengaruh kepemilikan manajerial.
Jamieson, Isaac A.
It is proposed that to help facilitate progress in electromagnetic field (EMF) risk governance and actively address potential concerns whilst encouraging environmentally-sound technical advancement, the ground rules of stakeholder participation / debate may benefit from being radically overhauled to encourage more openness, trust, understanding, transparency and innovation. It is further proposed that two-way communication should be actively promoted, as should proactive thinking and informed discussions of risk (which address realistically the concerns of all parties). The creation/development/adoption of enhanced best practice solutions and precautionary principle measures should also be encouraged.
Subramanian, V.; Semenzin, E.; Hristozov, D.; Zabeo, A.; Malsch, I.; McAlea, E.; Murphy, F.; Mullins, M.; Harmelen, T. van; Ligthart, T.; Linkov, I.; Marcomini, A.
The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and
Elson, Raymond J.; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.
The recession of 2008 and the demise of established financial firms served as a reminder that effective corporate governance is important to ensure that businesses remain as going concern. One key area is the implementation of effective enterprise-wide risk management practices. The resulting regulatory oversight enacted through the Dodd Frank Act…
Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J
Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves.
Hurlbert, Margot; Gupta, Joyeeta
As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to climate change, droughts, and floods and what governance structures facilitate adaptation? This research interrogates and analyzes through content analysis, supplemented by semi-structured qualitative interviews, the policy response to climate change, drought, and flood in relation to agricultural producers in four case studies in river basins in Chile, Argentina, and Canada. First, an epistemological explanation of risk and uncertainty underscores a brief literature review of adaptive governance, followed by policy framing in relation to risk and uncertainty, and an analytical model is developed. Pertinent findings of the four cases are recounted, followed by a comparative analysis. In conclusion, recommendations are made to improve policies and expand adaptive governance to better account for uncertainty and risk. This article is innovative in that it proposes an expanded model of adaptive governance in relation to "risk" that can help bridge the barrier of uncertainty in science and policy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
rozli, alyaa asyiqin
This paper examines the relationships between corporate government and firm performance and its impact on firm performance and risk of real estate investment trust (AmFIRST REIT). Researchers have to assumed what is the different forms of corporate government and firm performance there is no interact in their effect on its impact on firm performance and risk of real estate investment trust (AmFIRST REIT). The data obtained from annual report of AmFIRST REIT starting from 2011-2015. Focus on r...
Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte
social sciences. The implementation of a multi-risk approach can be strengthened through the creation of multi-risk platforms and multi-risk commissions, which can liaise between risk management experts and local communities and to unify numerous actions on natural hazard management. However, the multi-risk approach cannot be a subsidiary to a single risk approach, and both have to be pursued. References: IRGC. (2011). Concept note: Improving the management of emerging risks: Risks from new technologies, system interactions, and unforeseen or changing circumstances. International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), Geneva. Kappes, M. S., Keiler, M., Elverfeldt, von K., & Glade, T, (2012). Challenges of analyzing multi-hazard risk: A review. Natural Hazards, 64(2), 1925-1958. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0294-2. Komendantova N, Scolobig A, Vinchon C (2013). Multi-risk approach in centralized and decentralized risk governance systems: Case studies of Naples, Italy and Guadeloupe, France. International Relations and Diplomacy, 1(3):224-239 (December 2013) Scolobig, A., Vichon, C., Komendantova, N., Bengoubou-Valerius, M., & Patt, A. (2013). Social and institutional barriers to effective multi-hazard and multi-risk decision-making governance. D6.3 MATRIX project. Selva, J. (2013). Long-term multi-risk assessment: statistical treatment of interaction among risks. Natural Hazards, 67(2),701-722. UNISDR. (2013). Implementing the HYOGO framework for action in Europe: Regional synthesis report 2011-2013. Verweij, M., & Thompson, M. (Eds.). (2006). Clumsy solutions for a complex world: Governance, politics, and plural perceptions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. White, G., Kates, R., & Burton, I. (2001). Knowing better and losing even more: the use of knowledge in hazards management. Environmental Hazards, 3, 81-92.
Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Malsch, Ineke; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin; van Harmelen, Toon; Ligthart, Tom; Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio
The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit-risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.
The focus of the present study is on the allocation of responsibilities for addressing environmental risks in transboundary water governance. Effective environmental management in transboundary situations requires coordinated and cooperative action among diverse individuals and organizations. Currently, little insight exists on how to foster collective action such that individuals and organizations take the responsibility to address transboundary environmental risks. On the basis of 4 cases o...
Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special- Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions
Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.
The focus of the present study is on the allocation of responsibilities for addressing environmental risks in transboundary water governance. Effective environmental management in transboundary situations requires coordinated and cooperative action among diverse individuals and organizations. Currently, little insight exists on how to foster collective action such that individuals and organizations take the responsibility to address transboundary environmental risks. On the basis of 4 cases of transboundary water governance, it will be shown how certain allocation principles are more likely to encourage cooperative action. The main lesson from these case studies is that the allocation of responsibilities should be seen as a risk distribution problem, including considerations of effectiveness, efficiency, and fairness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:371-375. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.
Ager, Alan A; Evers, Cody R; Day, Michelle A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Barros, Ana M G; Nielsen-Pincus, Max
We characterized wildfire transmission and exposure within a matrix of large land tenures (federal, state, and private) surrounding 56 communities within a 3.3 million ha fire prone region of central Oregon US. Wildfire simulation and network analysis were used to quantify the exchange of fire among land tenures and communities and analyze the relative contributions of human versus natural ignitions to wildfire exposure. Among the land tenures examined, the area burned by incoming fires averaged 57% of the total burned area. Community exposure from incoming fires ignited on surrounding land tenures accounted for 67% of the total area burned. The number of land tenures contributing wildfire to individual communities and surrounding wildland urban interface (WUI) varied from 3 to 20. Community firesheds, i.e. the area where ignitions can spawn fires that can burn into the WUI, covered 40% of the landscape, and were 5.5 times larger than the combined area of the community core and WUI. For the major land tenures within the study area, the amount of incoming versus outgoing fire was relatively constant, with some exceptions. The study provides a multi-scale characterization of wildfire networks within a large, mixed tenure and fire prone landscape, and illustrates the connectivity of risk between communities and the surrounding wildlands. We use the findings to discuss how scale mismatches in local wildfire governance result from disconnected planning systems and disparate fire management objectives among the large landowners (federal, state, private) and local communities. Local and regional risk planning processes can adopt our concepts and methods to better define and map the scale of wildfire risk from large fire events and incorporate wildfire network and connectivity concepts into risk assessments.
Alan A Ager
Full Text Available We characterized wildfire transmission and exposure within a matrix of large land tenures (federal, state, and private surrounding 56 communities within a 3.3 million ha fire prone region of central Oregon US. Wildfire simulation and network analysis were used to quantify the exchange of fire among land tenures and communities and analyze the relative contributions of human versus natural ignitions to wildfire exposure. Among the land tenures examined, the area burned by incoming fires averaged 57% of the total burned area. Community exposure from incoming fires ignited on surrounding land tenures accounted for 67% of the total area burned. The number of land tenures contributing wildfire to individual communities and surrounding wildland urban interface (WUI varied from 3 to 20. Community firesheds, i.e. the area where ignitions can spawn fires that can burn into the WUI, covered 40% of the landscape, and were 5.5 times larger than the combined area of the community core and WUI. For the major land tenures within the study area, the amount of incoming versus outgoing fire was relatively constant, with some exceptions. The study provides a multi-scale characterization of wildfire networks within a large, mixed tenure and fire prone landscape, and illustrates the connectivity of risk between communities and the surrounding wildlands. We use the findings to discuss how scale mismatches in local wildfire governance result from disconnected planning systems and disparate fire management objectives among the large landowners (federal, state, private and local communities. Local and regional risk planning processes can adopt our concepts and methods to better define and map the scale of wildfire risk from large fire events and incorporate wildfire network and connectivity concepts into risk assessments.
This paper presents strategies for effective governance in Nigeria with emphasis on the University of Benin.The question of good and effective governance has captured the attention of University Managers. Governing Councils of Universities have also made this issue a critical prerequisite in their quest for excellence.
Full Text Available The global financial crisis from 2008 was considered a trigger to reshape the financial systems and to enhance the risk management practices. Considering the developments and new guidelines that are now used it can be observed a “positive” effect of the crisis, in particular to strengthen the risk management culture and governance in all aspects. Comparing to 2008 year, the improvements that have been made to the risk management systems can be easily observed in the financial institutions. For the scope of the article, the subject of this review will be focused on the internal audit function. The main aspect is to capture the new practices that are now used in order to contribute to a performing internal governance system. A case study will be presented in order to better understand how the internal audit function is designed and acting as a “line” of defence in the internal governance system. Also, it is in the scope of the article to issue some recommendations for future developments of the audit function in order to better manage its mission and the objectives. A risk based model used in the planning activities is presented. The financial institutions improved significantly their internal governance system. The internal audit function is now better integrated in the internal structures and clear lines of communication were settled. As the conclusion of the article is illustrating, the internal governance was frequently not sufficiently developed causing a failure in the risk management systems from the systemically financial institutions. The content of the article has practical applicability, as the results and the recommendations could be used in the design of an audit function within a financial institution.
Full Text Available The article examines regulatory strategies in the field of ecological disaster management with reference to the sociology of risk. The risk perspective draws attention to the fact that political strategies of regulation are to be understood as processes of risk transformation. The behavior of regulatory agencies is related to their perception of risks and opportunities. From this point of view, efforts in the field of disaster management appear as processes that turn perceived environmental threats into risks and opportunities for the agencies involved. The article shows the course of such a governance process which transforms environmental disasters into organizational risks and opportunities. This leads to the following research question: Which types of organizations favor strategies of risk avoidance and which organizations rather allow active pursuit of opportunities? The empirical part of this study is based on data obtained by field research in a multi-level negotiation system set up for managing hazardous wastes. Empirical findings support the assumption that organizational stability is a central condition for active pursuit of opportunities whereas organizational instability supports an orientation towards the avoidance of organizational risk. El artículo examina las estrategias reguladoras en el ámbito de la gestión de los desastres ecológicos, haciendo referencia a la sociología del riesgo. La perspectiva de riesgo pone su atención sobre el hecho de que las estrategias políticas de regulación se deben entender como procesos de transformación de riesgos. El comportamiento de las agencias reguladoras se relaciona con su percepción de los riesgos y oportunidades. Desde este punto de vista, los esfuerzos en el campo de la gestión de catástrofes se convierten en procesos que transforman las amenazas medioambientales (percibidas en riesgos y oportunidades para las agencias involucradas. El artículo muestra el desarrollo de este
Bradley, Letitia T.
This study applied 3 theoretical frameworks--Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's four frames, the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School Boards, and effective governance characteristics--to examine the impact of the Masters in Governance(MIG) training offered by the California School Boards Association on the ability of school board…
Spanaki, K; Papazafeiropoulou, A
Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) as an integrated concept has gained great interest recently among researchers in the Information Systems (IS) field. The need for more effective and efficient business processes in the area of financial controls drives enterprises to successfully implement GRC systems as an overall goal when they are striving for enterprise value of their integrated systems. The GRC implementation process is a significant parameter influencing the success of operational p...
Full Text Available This study uses stakeholder theory to explore how corporate governance [CG] characteristics influence corporate social responsibility disclosure [CSRD] in the context of a global financial crisis [GFC]. Empirical data are drawn from Portugal, a country strongly affected by the GFC. Portuguese companies are characterized by high ownership concentration. The largest shareholder is often the CEO and Board Chair (a phenomenon known as CEO duality. We analyse the association between CSRD (measured by a 40-item disclosure index and CG variables (board size, CEO duality, board independence, ownership concentration and presence of an audit committee or CSR committee for 48 of the 51 listed companies in Portugal. The control variables are company size and industry type. We find that CSRD is affected positively by board size, CEO duality, company size and industry type. This accords with suggestions implicit in stakeholder theory that a larger board will represent a broader diversity of stakeholders and will promote better monitoring, more assertive stakeholder management, greater transparency, and increased levels of CSRD. Larger companies and companies close-to-consumers are associated with high levels of CSRD, ostensibly because they are more visible and subject to greater societal monitoring during a period of financial crisis. We reveal that in a country characterized by high ownership concentration, CEO duality has a positive effect on CSRD.
Kaufmann, M.; Wiering, M.A.
Flood risks are managed differently across Europe. While a number of research studies aim to understand these differences, they tend to pay little attention to the social constructionist aspects of flood risk governance, i.e. the meaning that societies give to flood risk and governance. This paper
Full Text Available Growing importance of information technology (IT, as a strategic factor for organizations in achieving their objectives, have raised the concern of organizations in establishing and implementing effective IT governance. This study seeks to empirically examine the individual IT governance mechanisms that influence the overall effectiveness of IT governance. The data were obtained by using web based survey from 176 members of ISACA (Information Systems and Audit Control Association Australia. This study examines the influences of six proposed IT governance mechanisms on the overall effectiveness of IT governance. Using Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression techniques, the current study finds significant positive relationships between the overall level of effective IT governance and the following four IT governance mechanisms: the existence of ethics/ culture of compliance in IT, corporate communication systems, an IT strategy committee, and the involvement of senior management in IT.
Full Text Available Over the past decade or so, a series of new or revitalised strategies have been promoted to govern the highly uncertain threats that risk appears no longer able to prevent. Most owe their ascendancy to the lessons of 9/11, and the ‘bureaucratising of imagination’ that US sources have proposed as a response, by centring the possible, or even merely imaginable, rather than the statistically probable. Precaution, preparedness and speculative pre-emption have been particularly prominent, although new hybrid statistical and speculative techniques have broadened risk techniques to cope with labile conditions of high uncertainty. But while diverse, each establishes a negative and defensive framework of ‘freedom from’ that has been associated with creating a ’neurotic subject’. In the past decade, programs of resilience, and particularly resiliency training, have been developed with the aim of creating subjects able to thrive and prosper under conditions of extreme uncertainty. They constitute a form of governance promoting a positive ‘freedom to’. Reflecting many of the assumptions and goals of neo-liberal politics, resiliency has already emerged as a principal technology for military and business, and may be the answer to the neo-liberal dream of a society of extreme entrepreneurs. Durante la última década, se han promovido varias estrategias nuevas o renovadas destinadas a gestionar amenazas que el riesgo ya no parece capaz de prevenir. La mayoría deben su predominancia a las lecciones aprendidas tras el 11-S, y la “burocratización de la imaginación” que las fuentes estadounidenses han propuesto como respuesta, predominando lo posible, o incluso simplemente lo imaginable, por encima de lo estadísticamente probable. Han predominado la precaución, preparación y especulación preventivas, aunque las nuevas técnicas estadísticas y especulativas híbridas han ampliado las técnicas de riesgo para hacer frente a las
Kheifets, Leeka; Swanson, John; Kandel, Shaiela; Malloy, Timothy F
Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) have been present in industrialized countries since the late 19th century and a considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated as to potential health effects. The mainstream scientific view is that even if there is a risk, it is unlikely to be of major public-health significance. EMFs from cellular communications and other radio-frequency technologies have increased rapidly in the last decade. This technology is constantly changing, which makes continued research both more urgent and more challenging. While there are no persuasive data suggesting a health risk, research and particularly exposure assessment is still immature. The principal risk-governance issue with power frequencies is how to respond to weak and uncertain scientific evidence that nonetheless causes public concern. For radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, the issue is how to respond to large potential consequences and large public concern where only limited scientific evidence exists. We survey these issues and identify deficits in risk governance. Deficits in problem framing include both overstatement and understatement of the scientific evidence and of the consequences of taking protective measures, limited ability to detect early warnings of risk, and attempted reassurance that has sometimes been counterproductive. Other deficits relate to the limited public involvement mechanisms, and flaws in the identification and evaluation of tradeoffs in the selection of appropriate management strategies. We conclude that risk management of EMFs has certainly not been perfect, but for power frequencies it has evolved and now displays many successful features. Lessons from the power-frequency experience can benefit risk governance of the radio-frequency EMFs and other emerging technologies.
Full Text Available E-government public services in Romania must follow unitary procedures considering the new requirements of the European Union from the Digital Agenda for Europe Strategy 2020. E-government 2.0 has to be implemented because of the cultural and behavioral transformations in the interaction between governments and users of e-services. E-government 2.0 projects use tools and techniques of social media to accomplish their goals. This article examines the possible risk categories and the risk management procedures needed to mitigate risks in future Romanian e-government projects, according to the strategic lines of development for the Digital Agenda. We propose a risk management plan for the e-government lines of action within the strategic lines of development that includes identifying, assessing, and mitigating the risks. New and modernized government services through e-government 2.0 projects that apply risk management will bring a significant improvement in how citizens and businesses relate to government and will increase the use of e-government services.
Dongen, D.; Claassen, L.; Smid, T.; Timmermans, D.R.M.
Trust in government policy affects the way people perceive and handle risks. In our study, we investigated the relationships between trust in government policy regarding electromagnetic fields (EMF), perceived risk and perceived benefits of public and personal EMF sources, perceived control over
Stassen, K.R.; Leroy, P.
PURPOSE: Risk governance is being successfully inserted into scientific and political agendas as a way to understand and address complex problems, such as health problems that have both social and ecological dimensions. However, to date, the debate on risk governance has remained rather
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment reporting requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers. 405.5 Section 405.5 Commodity and... OF 1934 REPORTS AND AUDIT § 405.5 Risk assessment reporting requirements for registered government...
Lewis, Christopher M.; Mody, Ashoka
To manage their exposure arising from guarantees to infrastructure projects, governments need to adopt modern risk management techniques. The authors introduce an integrated risk management system that draws on recent advances in the private sector. Adapted for use in the public sector, the system enables governments to budget for expected losses and to set aside reserves against unexpecte...
Ménard, Claude; Saleth, R. Maria
http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/88/documents/ger/GreenEconomyReport.pdf; This chapter aims to provide some answers using both theoretical considerations as well as practical illustrations at the sub sectoral levels of urban water supply and irrigation as well as at the water sector as a whole. It examines different possibilities to deal with governance issues appropriately using several criteria, particularly feasibility, performance efficiency, transparency of the process, and accou...
The present study entitled ''Emergency Response and Nuclear Risk Governance: nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents'' deals with issues of the protection of the population and the environment against hazardous radiation (the hazards of nuclear energy) and the harmful effects of radioactivity during nuclear power plant accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to both the identification and remediation of shortcomings and deficits in the management of severe nuclear accidents like those that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 and at Fukushima in 2011 as well as to the improvement and harmonization of plans and measures taken on an international level in nuclear emergency management. This thesis is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on embedding the subject in a specifically global governance concept, which includes, as far as Nuclear Risk Governance is concerned, the global governance of nuclear risks. Due to their characteristic features the following governance concepts can be assigned to these risks: Nuclear Safety Governance is related to safety, Nuclear Security Governance to security and NonProliferation Governance to safeguards. The subject of investigation of the present study is as a special case of the Nuclear Safety Governance, the Nuclear Emergency governance, which refers to off-site emergency response. The global impact of nuclear accidents and the concepts of security, safety culture and residual risk are contemplated in this context. The findings (accident sequences, their consequences and implications) from the analyses of two reactor accidents prior to Fukushima (Three Mile Iceland in 1979, Chernobyl in 1986) are examined from a historical analytical perspective and the state of the Nuclear Emergency governance and international cooperation aimed at improving nuclear safety after Chernobyl is portrayed by discussing, among other topics, examples of &apos
This book provides auditors and risk managers with a primer on social media. It discusses what social media is, how it is being used as a tool within corporations, and how it should be monitored. In addition, it discusses the various risks involved with the use of social media (e.g., reputation/brand risk; compliance risks; proprietary information risks; employee privacy risks; and vendor risks). It also discusses compliance with Federal Trade Commission guidelines (e.g., education and disclosure requirements as well as audit and record keeping requirements).
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is considered as the key factor of economic growth and development in modern day. Entrepreneurship takes place either individually or organizationally and they normally undertake the risk of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs experience the most severe conditions when they deal with a government, which is completely unfamiliar with some rules. If a government supports an entrepreneur one with the required characteristics, then entrepreneurship is facilitated largely for both individuals and organizations. This article provides definitions, features and the effective factors on realization of an entrepreneur government with respect to significance of such a government. To this end, a list of factors that may lead to realization of entrepreneur government was derived from previous studies and then the fuzzy TOPSIS method and collected opinions of experts were applied to facilitate the determination of each of these factors. Finally, a list of influential factors was presented with regards to effective factors on realization of entrepreneur government.
This study examines the impact the California School Boards Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program has on effective school board governance practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between effective school boards and a commitment to seek and attend school board training. This…
Sitinjak, Mauritz P I
This study aimed to examine the effect of corporate governance mechanism on the implementation of enterprise risk management. Variable corporate governance mechanism in this study consisted of, independent board, board size and audit committee size. The population in this research is manufacturing companies that listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2013-2014 period. Sample selection is done by purposive sampling method so that samples obtained for this study amounted to 89 companies. Data an...
surveys in some local government areas (LGAs) of. INTRODUCTION. Trachoma is chronic conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that is spread by flies, fomites, and fingers in parts of the world where poor environmental and personal hygiene exists. The chronic nature of the disease leads to scarring of the tarsal ...
Williams, Patricia A H
It is no small task to manage the protection of healthcare data and healthcare information systems. In an environment that is demanding adaptation to change for all information collection, storage and retrieval systems, including those for of e-health and information systems, it is imperative that good information security governance is in place. This includes understanding and meeting legislative and regulatory requirements. This chapter provides three models to educate and guide organisations in this complex area, and to simplify the process of information security governance and ensure appropriate and effective measures are put in place. The approach is risk based, adapted and contextualized for healthcare. In addition, specific considerations of the impact of cloud services, secondary use of data, big data and mobile health are discussed.
Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wil Ly Teo
Full Text Available Information Technology (IT governance has risen in importance in recent years, driven by various trends in IT development. With rapid growth in the country and the globalization of the IT sector, there is growing interest in IT governance in Malaysia. This study aims to explore whether IT practitioners with different job functions, education levels, education areas of specialization, certifications and experience levels have different perceptions of IT governance effectiveness in their organization. The results reveal differences in perceived IT governance effectiveness between different job function groups, but not between groups with different education levels, certification or experience levels. The findings for education area of specialization are not conclusive. The findings of this study will help IT managers to identify areas of focus to maximize effectiveness of IT governance initiatives through their IT staff. The implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper.
JAN ZÁVODNÝ POSPÍŠIL
Full Text Available The paper describes relationship between sustainable development and regional government efficiency. Author defines first sustainable development, its principles and relationship to the public administration area. With usage of systematic review is later defined efficiency in public administration. Based on this information is analyzed relationship between sustainable development and the effectiveness of the management system of regional government.
JAN ZÁVODNÝ POSPÍŠIL
The paper describes relationship between sustainable development and regional government efficiency. Author defines first sustainable development, its principles and relationship to the public administration area. With usage of systematic review is later defined efficiency in public administration. Based on this information is analyzed relationship between sustainable development and the effectiveness of the management system of regional government.
The purpose of the study was to determine how the California School Board Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program leads to more effective school board leadership and governance. This study employed the framework of authors Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal, the CSBA, and the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School…
announced fifty-one cases of paralysis ( Guillain - Barre syndrome), with four deaths, which had been reported from fourteen 309 states. That was only the...illustrated by Barr v. Brezina 190 Construction Co., a 1972 decision by the Tenth Circuit Court-of Appeals. In Barr , defendant contractor constructed a...nevertheless, the government instructed the contractor to proceed according to the design. Barr ,an active duty member of the military, subsequently
Greenberg, Michael R; Sinha, Reya
A survey was conducted of approximately 200 Asian Indian Americans and 200 other residents of New Jersey in order to understand the risk management priorities that they want government to have. We found that Asian Indian Americans, especially younger women, focused on personal/family risks, such as alcohol and drug abuse, sexual abuse, and domestic violence. The New Jersey comparison group, in contrast, placed war/terrorism and loss of health care services and insurance at the top of their priorities for government. These results suggest stressful acculturation-related issues within the Asian Indian community. Both populations want more risk management from government than they believe government is currently providing. Respondents who wanted more from government tended to dread the risk, be fearful of the consequences, trust government, and have a feeling of personal efficacy. Within the Asian Indian American sample, wide variations were observed by language spoken at home and religious affiliation. Notably, Muslims and Hindi language speakers tended not to trust government and hence wanted less government involvement. This study supports our call for studies of recent migrant populations and Johnson's for testing ethnic identity and acculturation as factors in risk judgments.
Pourakbar, M.; Zuidwijk, R.A.; Veenstra, A.; Lucassen, I.
This paper aims at studying the coordination of governmental actors, such as customs, and supply chain partners in order to mitigate risks. To do so the concepts of supply chain visibility and data pipeline are briefly revisited. Then the result of a survey, highlighting the risk coordination
Krom, de M.P.M.M.
During the 1990s, many European countries faced one or more food crises, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), E. coli, dioxin residues, and foot-and-mouth disease. These crises were marked by a growing public recognition of food-related risks and the changing nature of these risks, and
de Vries, G.; Verhoeven, I.; Boeckhout, M.
In the past decade, Renn and others have drawn up classifications of the various types of risk problems. In these taxonomies, degree of incertitude serves as a main distinguishing mark. However, because risk problems may migrate between different categories, these classifications provide unreliable
Grieger, Khara Deanne; Wickson, Fern; Andersen, Henning Boje
While public engagement is internationally considered to be crucial for successful governance of nanotechnologies (NT), it has not necessarily been clear what the relationship is (or should be) between these engagement efforts and the more traditional governance practice of scientific risk...... assessment. This paper therefore carries out a literature review to capture and analyse how governance strategies have focused on public engagement for NT and how such engagement relates to processes of risk analysis. To further investigate these issues, we focus on a specific NT application as a case study...... for improving the links between public engagement and risk assessment and specifically call for more work on the case of nano-remediation....
Kaufmann, Maria; Wiering, Mark
Flood risks are managed differently across Europe. While a number of research studies aim to understand these differences, they tend to pay little attention to the social constructionist aspects of flood risk governance, i.e. the meaning that societies give to flood risk and governance. This paper aims to address this gap by understanding differences in flood risk management approaches (FRMA) from a discursive-institutional perspective. Based on this perspective, an analytical framework was developed to systematically analyse and compare discourses pertaining to flood risk and its governance in six European member states (England (the United Kingdom), Flanders (Belgium), France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden). Correspondingly, this paper demonstrates how the hegemonic discursive-institutional patterns of flood risk governance differ between the six European countries. These differences may influence the capability of countries to learn from each other, adopt new FRMAs or cooperate with each other. Moreover, the paper argues that differences in discourses partially account for the differences in FRMAs between countries, combined with other factors. Additionally, broader implications are discussed. For example, the research findings imply that some discourses tend to favour or disfavour other discourses, and that they additionally also tend to favour particular FRMAs; e.g. the flood risk discourse pertaining to high manageability of risks seems to favour a governance discourse of collectivity and central governance. The different insights imply that further research is necessary to understand the complex interaction of discourses and institutional arrangements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In 2005 the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction introduced the ‘Hyogo Framework for Action’ (HFA aimed at mainstreaming disaster risk reduction. Subsequently, the ‘Global Network for Disaster Reduction’ (GNDR was formed to support the implementation of the HFA. The GNDR initiated a country-based, international research project called ‘Views from the Frontline’ (VFL in order to measure progress at local level in terms of compliance with the HFA. The VFL 2011 project focused on local risk governance, which is critical for effective implementation of policy and provision of resources at grassroots level. This article provides insight into the findings for South Africa. The project made use of quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was gathered by means of a survey and/or questionnaire consisting of 20 questions on ‘indicators’ which assessed progress toward the goals of the HFA. The surveys also provided for qualitative commentary. The target population for this research consisted of local government officials and community representatives. Based on the quantitative scores for all the different indicators, the research showed that South Africa could still improve significantly in terms of compliance with the HFA. More attention must be given to operationalise the HFA at local level, a culture of safety must be fostered, local actors and communities must be involved directly and consulted, indigenous knowledge must be recognised, and significant capacity development for disaster risk reduction is necessary.
Takamura, Eduardo; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos A.; Mangum, Kevin; Wasiak, Fran
As the first interplanetary mission managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) had three IT security goals for its ground system: COMPLIANCE, (IT) RISK REDUCTION, and COST REDUCTION. In a multiorganizational environment in which government, industry and academia work together in support of the ground system and mission operations, information security governance, risk management, and compliance (GRC) becomes a challenge as each component of the ground system has and follows its own set of IT security requirements. These requirements are not necessarily the same or even similar to each other's, making the auditing of the ground system security a challenging feat. A combination of standards-based information security management based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF), due diligence by the Mission's leadership, and effective collaboration among all elements of the ground system enabled MAVEN to successfully meet NASA's requirements for IT security, and therefore meet Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) mandate on the Agency. Throughout the implementation of GRC on MAVEN during the early stages of the mission development, the Project faced many challenges some of which have been identified in this paper. The purpose of this paper is to document these challenges, and provide a brief analysis of the lessons MAVEN learned. The historical information documented herein, derived from an internal pre-launch lessons learned analysis, can be used by current and future missions and organizations implementing and auditing GRC.
Begg, C.; Walker, G.
CapHaz-Net - capacity building for natural hazards in Europe: towards more resilient societies - sees efforts to reduce vulnerability to natural hazards as a social endeavor. One of the findings from this project is the importance of as well as the advantages and pitfalls of participation within the natural hazard management process. Although participation is seen to be important it is still only a small part of the overall management process. However, as European societies see shifts in risk governance from the state to the local level, how are these participation processes likely to change? This paper takes these findings and looks at England as a case study. This case study focuses on the Big Society which promises to be the change that will remedy what Prime Minister David Cameron sees as a broken society. The idea has been put into practice through the Localism Act. The Act seeks not to totally repeal state control but to make decision-making processes more democratic. This includes less bureaucracy for local government to deal with and more space for innovation when dealing with local issues and support for volunteers, mutuals, co-ops, charities and social enterprises to get involved in decision-making and provision of services. But how is this shift going to be everything that it promises to be? And, what does this shift mean for flood risk management? Moreover, how are local people engaged to become involved in shaping the decisions that affect them? By conducting interviews with key stakeholders, this research aims at gaining an understanding of forms of participation that exist in the British context and the public reaction to such opportunities. In turn, this research aims to understand the boundaries of localism in regards to the delivery of flood risk management.
McAlea, Eamonn; Mullins, Martin
This book aims to address how nanotechnology risks are being addressed by scientists, particularly in the areas of human health and the environment and how these risks can be measured in financial terms for insurers and regulators. It provides a comprehensive overview of nanotechnology risk measurement and risk transfer methods, including a chapter outlining how Bayesian methods can be used. It also examines nanotechnology from a legal perspective, both current and potential future outcomes. The global market for nanotechnology products was valued at $22.9 billion in 2013 and increased to about $26 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach about $64.2 billion by 2019, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.8% from 2014 to 2019. Despite the increasing value of nanotechnologies and their widespread use, there is a significant gap between the enthusiasm of scientists and nanotechnology entrepreneurs working in the nanotechnology space and the insurance/regulatory sector. Scientists are scarcely aware...
Stone, Vicki; Führ, Martin; Feindt, Peter H
Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance approach...
The article analyses the problems of EU risk regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not
Wiersema, Richard E
... war against transnational terrorism. The paper presents a theory that posits the mechanisms by which protracted war may have demonstrated its corrosive effect on representative government, examines 3 historical case studies, then posits...
defense industry, fielding, contracting, interoperability, organizational behavior, risk management, cost estimating, and many others. Approaches...Finance from Cameron University and an MBA from Drury University. [email@example.com] Allen Green—Engineer and Program Manager, SAIC, Inc...report published by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) stated the following: To better ensure Warfighter capabilities are delivered when
Ntim, Collins G.; Lindop, Sarah; Thomas, Dennis A.
The 2007/2008 global financial crisis has reignited the debate regarding the need for effective corporate governance (CG) through sound risk management and reporting practices. This paper, therefore, examines the crucial policy question of whether the quality of firm-level CG has any effect on the quality and extent of corporate risk disclosures (CRD) in South Africa (SA) with particular focus on the pre- and post-2007/2008 global financial crisis period. Using one of the largest datasets to-...
Shi, Peijun; Li, Ning; Ye, Qian; Dong, Wenjie; Han, Guoyi; Fang, Weihua
..., Typhoon Sidr in Bangladesh in 2007, and Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005. Strengthening the study on integrated disaster risk governance has become a pressing issue of sustainable development...
Mona Verma Makhija
Two important aspects of political risk analysis that have not received much attention in the literature are (a) the reasons why multinational firms experience different types of intervention, and (b) the timing of intervention. In order to address these issues, this research develops a conceptual model of political risk based on the premise that host government intervention is related to specific objectives of the government vis-à-vis multinational firms. Information reflecting the attainmen...
Pillay, Vaneshree Mogeshree
The South African national government implemented enterprise risk management (ERM) to facilitate a strong public sector, able to contribute to economic development and social upliftment across South Africa. ERM principles can improve organisational performance by maximising opportunities to achieve strategic objectives, and minimising the risks in achieving them. This article reports on an exploratory study to identify issues impeding ERM buy-in in a South African government organisation, usi...
Faber, Michael Havbro
The focus of the present paper regards the identification and treatment of critical issues in the process of societal decision making concerning management of global and catastrophic risks. Taking basis in recent works by the author, the paper in particular addresses: 1) Which are the most relevant...... hazards in a holistic global perspective and how may these be categorised in view of strategies for their treatment?; 2) How might robust societal decisions on risk management subject to large uncertainties be formally supported?; 3) How may available economic resources be prioritised for the purpose...
National Research Council Staff
... on the Institutional Means for Assessment of Risks to Public Health Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1983 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of rec...
and knowledge of trachoma prevention remained significantly protective (OR < 1, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The risk factors for trachoma are endemic in the study areas, and active control measures are needed. The burden of the disease is, however, clustered with most LGAs having a low burden of both the active and blinding ...
Assmuth, Timo; Hildén, Mikael; Benighaus, Christina
To call for integration in risk assessment and governance as a self-evident goal is deceptively easy. For more insight, we ask: what level and kind of integration and for what purposes is needed and sufficient? What opportunities and obstacles can be identified for integrative treatment of risks? What causes and impacts are there of developments in risk integration? To answer these questions we investigate the socio-political processes and factors surrounding integrated risk assessment and risk governance through a combination of literature reviews and original research. We emphasize regulatory assessment and governance of risks associated with chemicals in the EU, but we link them with other areas to better grasp options and problems in integration. We relate the problems to political factors and barriers in sector and vertical integration, including deviating interests, and further to conflicting information, concepts and mindsets. Risk assessment and risk governance involve varying notions of risks and knowledge, with tensions between stressor- or impact-oriented, exclusive or inclusive, positivist or relativist, and fixed or reflexive notions and approaches. These tensions influence the trajectories of integration between sectors, actors and regions, constraining the fulfillment of ideals of integrated governance. We conclude that risk assessment and governance can be integrated, harmonized and innovated to a limit only, but this limit is variable and flexible, and provides opportunities especially if attention is paid to the socio-political contexts, value choices and decision structures in each case. Generally, the results underline a reflexive approach whereby the meanings, framings and implications of risk integration are probed in open processes of deliberation and negotiation, as a learning process to transcend the formal and prescriptive modes of regulation and knowledge generation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In this work, we consider the spatial homogenization of a coupled transport and fluid–structure interaction model, to the end of deriving a system of effective equations describing the flow, elastic deformation and transport in an active poroelastic medium. The ‘active’ nature of the material results from a morphoelastic response to a chemical stimulant, in which the growth time scale is strongly separated from other elastic time scales. The resulting effective model is broadly relevant to the study of biological tissue growth, geophysical flows (e.g. swelling in coals and clays) and a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. absorbant hygiene products). The key contribution of this work is the derivation of a system of homogenized partial differential equations describing macroscale growth, coupled to transport of solute, that explicitly incorporates details of the structure and dynamics of the microscopic system, and, moreover, admits finite growth and deformation at the pore scale. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Biot-type system, augmented with additional terms pertaining to growth, coupled to an advection–reaction–diffusion equation. The resultant system of effective equations is then compared with other recent models under a selection of appropriate simplifying asymptotic limits. PMID:28293138
Anja Linder; Carlos Santiso
Accurately evaluating country risk and assessing the quality of governance in emerging market economies has become a priority of international corporations, investment banks and multilateral financial institutions. The rating system of the Political Risk Services (PRS) Group, the International Country Risk Guide (ICRG), constitutes one of the most influential time-series databases of country risk analysis. This study assesses the accuracy and predictive powers of the ICRG model, evaluating it...
Dale, Allan P; Vella, Karen; Pressey, Robert L; Brodie, Jon; Gooch, Margaret; Potts, Ruth; Eberhard, Rachel
The state and trend of the Great Barrier Reef's (GBR's) ecological health remains problematic, influencing United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) statements regarding GBR governance. While UNESCO's concerns triggered separate strategic assessments by the Australian and Queensland governments, there has been no independent and integrated review of the key risks within the overall system of governance influencing GBR outcomes. As a case study of international significance, this paper applies Governance Systems Analysis (GSA), a novel analytical framework that identifies the governance themes, domains and subdomains most likely to influence environmental and socio-economic outcomes in complex natural systems. This GBR-focussed application of GSA identifies governance subdomains that present high, medium, or low risk of failure to produce positive outcomes for the Reef. This enabled us to determine that three "whole of system" governance problems could undermine GBR outcomes. First, we stress the integrative importance of the Long Term Sustainability Plan (LTSP) Subdomain. Sponsored by the Australian and Queensland governments, this subdomain concerns the primary institutional arrangements for coordinated GBR planning and delivery, but due to its recent emergence, it faces several internal governance challenges. Second, we find a major risk of implementation failure in the achievement of GBR water quality actions due to a lack of system-wide focus on building strong and stable delivery systems at catchment scale. Finally, we conclude that the LTSP Subdomain currently has too limited a mandate/capacity to influence several high-risk subdomains that have not been, but must be more strongly aligned with Reef management (e.g. the Greenhouse Gas Emission Management Subdomain). Our analysis enables exploration of governance system reforms needed to address environmental trends in the GBR and reflects on the potential application of GSA in
Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.
Kaufmann, M.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W.J. van; Gilissen, H.K.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van
The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood risk management, due to its special physical location in the delta of four major river systems. This low-lying country is historically characterised by a ‘fight against water’. The Flood Risk Governance Arrangement of the Netherlands is characterised by
Emerging Powers and Effective Governance in Fragile States. New and emerging development organizations are providing assistance to countries experiencing tensions and challenges after periods of conflict. This research will test whether their development assistance approaches are more effective at addressing the ...
A. N. Rjahovskaja
Full Text Available The efficiency of state regulation of the economy by the example of the Russian power industry and utilities, the reasons for the negative results, the validity of the concepts, analyzes the conceptual elements of the reform, the expected and the resulting effect, the reasons for failure and return to the state in the housing sector. Particular attention is given to certain aspects of the functioning of self-regulation institute inRussia.
Stephanus Remond Waworuntu
Full Text Available To determine the effects of corporate governance on earnings management, this paper analyzed 171 annualreports from issued 2006 to 2009 by 57 non-financial, joint stock companies implementing GCG (GoodCorporate Governance practices, which were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. Six corporategovernance variables (board composition, independent commissioners, separate chairman/CEO roles, auditcommittee, managerial share ownership, and audit quality as well as three control variables (leverage, size,and ROA were used. The results showed that two corporate governance variables significantly influencedearnings management practices (separate chairman/CEO roles and managerial share ownership; the othervariables had no effect because these companies used GCG practices only to follow regulations rather than tomonitor and control.
Amano, Tatsuya; Székely, Tamás; Sandel, Brody; Nagy, Szabolcs; Mundkur, Taej; Langendoen, Tom; Blanco, Daniel; Soykan, Candan U; Sutherland, William J
Understanding global patterns of biodiversity change is crucial for conservation research, policies and practices. However, for most ecosystems, the lack of systematically collected data at a global level limits our understanding of biodiversity changes and their local-scale drivers. Here we address this challenge by focusing on wetlands, which are among the most biodiverse and productive of any environments and which provide essential ecosystem services, but are also amongst the most seriously threatened ecosystems. Using birds as an indicator taxon of wetland biodiversity, we model time-series abundance data for 461 waterbird species at 25,769 survey sites across the globe. We show that the strongest predictor of changes in waterbird abundance, and of conservation efforts having beneficial effects, is the effective governance of a country. In areas in which governance is on average less effective, such as western and central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, waterbird declines are particularly pronounced; a higher protected area coverage of wetland environments facilitates waterbird increases, but only in countries with more effective governance. Our findings highlight that sociopolitical instability can lead to biodiversity loss and undermine the benefit of existing conservation efforts, such as the expansion of protected area coverage. Furthermore, data deficiencies in areas with less effective governance could lead to underestimations of the extent of the current biodiversity crisis.
Amano, Tatsuya; Székely, Tamás; Sandel, Brody; Nagy, Szabolcs; Mundkur, Taej; Langendoen, Tom; Blanco, Daniel; Soykan, Candan U.; Sutherland, William J.
Understanding global patterns of biodiversity change is crucial for conservation research, policies and practices. However, for most ecosystems, the lack of systematically collected data at a global level limits our understanding of biodiversity changes and their local-scale drivers. Here we address this challenge by focusing on wetlands, which are among the most biodiverse and productive of any environments and which provide essential ecosystem services, but are also amongst the most seriously threatened ecosystems. Using birds as an indicator taxon of wetland biodiversity, we model time-series abundance data for 461 waterbird species at 25,769 survey sites across the globe. We show that the strongest predictor of changes in waterbird abundance, and of conservation efforts having beneficial effects, is the effective governance of a country. In areas in which governance is on average less effective, such as western and central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, waterbird declines are particularly pronounced; a higher protected area coverage of wetland environments facilitates waterbird increases, but only in countries with more effective governance. Our findings highlight that sociopolitical instability can lead to biodiversity loss and undermine the benefit of existing conservation efforts, such as the expansion of protected area coverage. Furthermore, data deficiencies in areas with less effective governance could lead to underestimations of the extent of the current biodiversity crisis.
Full Text Available Risk-based regulation and risk governance gain momentum in most sectorial ecosystems, should they be the finance, the healthcare or the telecommunications ecosystems. Although there is a profusion of tools to address this issue at the corporate level, worth is to note that no solution fulfils this function at the ecosystem level yet. Therefore, in this article, the Business Service Ecosystem (BSE metamodel is semantically extended, considering the Capability as a Service (CaaS theory, in order to raise the enterprise risk management from the enterprise level up to the ecosystem level. This extension allows defining a concrete ecosystem metamodel which is afterwards mapped with an information system risk management model to support risk governance at the ecosystem level. This mapping is illustrated and validated on the basis of an application case for the Luxembourgish financial sector applied to the most important concepts from the BSE: capability, resource, service and goal.
Newig, Jens; Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Jager, Nicolas W
The importance of designing suitable participatory governance processes is generally acknowledged. However, less emphasis has been put on how decision-makers design such processes, and how they learn about doing so. While the policy learning literature has tended to focus on the substance of policy, little research is available on learning about the design of governance. Here, we explore different approaches to learning among German policymakers engaged in implementing the European Floods Directive. We draw on official planning documents and expert interviews with state-level policymakers to focus on learning about the procedural aspects of designing and conducting participatory flood risk management planning. Drawing on the policy learning and evidence-based governance literatures, we conceptualise six types of instrumental 'governance learning' according to sources of learning (endogenous and exogenous) and modes of learning (serial and parallel). We empirically apply this typology in the context of diverse participatory flood risk management planning processes currently unfolding across the German federal states. We find that during the first Floods Directive planning cycle, policymakers have tended to rely on prior experience in their own federal states with planning under the Water Framework Directive to inform the design and carrying out of participatory processes. In contrast, policymakers only sporadically look to experiences from other jurisdictions as a deliberate learning strategy. We argue that there is scope for more coordinated and systematic learning on designing effective governance, and that the latter might benefit from more openness to experimentation and learning on the part of policymakers.
Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands. The Asian Highlands, including the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, are the source of most major rivers in Asia and sustain nearly three billion people living downstream. Global warming and related climatic changes are predicted to impact river flows, soil moisture ...
... effectiveness and efficiency. Over the last 2 years, we have made good progress and have saved taxpayer dollars by cutting waste and increasing the efficiency of Government operations by curbing uncontrolled... doing everything in its power to stop wasteful practices and earn a high return on every tax dollar that...
The Effects of Good Governance and Education on Economic Stability and Growth in Nigeria. ... Economic and Policy Review ... Therefore there is the need for Nigerians to demonstrate a commitment to the democratic principles and economic goals, and to develop the skills and values needed to sustain a constitutional ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the effects of decentralization on health financing and governance policies in Mexico from the perspective of users and providers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in four states that were selected according to geopolitical and administrative criteria. Four indicators were assessed: changes and effects on governance, financing sources and funds, the final destination of resources, and fund allocation mechanisms. Data collection was performed using in-depth interviews with health system key personnel and community leaders, consensus techniques and document analyses. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed by thematic segmentation. RESULTS: The results show different effectiveness levels for the four states regarding changes in financing policies and community participation. Effects on health financing after decentralization were identified in each state, including: greater participation of municipal and state governments in health expenditure, increased financial participation of households, greater community participation in low-income states, duality and confusion in the new mechanisms for coordination among the three government levels, absence of an accountability system, lack of human resources and technical skills to implement, monitor and evaluate changes in financing. CONCLUSIONS: In general, positive and negative effects of decentralization on health financing and governance were identified. The effects mentioned by health service providers and users were related to a diversification of financing sources, a greater margin for decisions around the use and final destination of financial resources and normative development for the use of resources. At the community level, direct financial contributions were mentioned, as well as in-kind contributions, particularly in the form of community work.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the effects of decentralization on health financing and governance policies in Mexico from the perspective of users and providers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in four states that were selected according to geopolitical and administrative criteria. Four indicators were assessed: changes and effects on governance, financing sources and funds, the final destination of resources, and fund allocation mechanisms. Data collection was performed using in-depth interviews with health system key personnel and community leaders, consensus techniques and document analyses. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed by thematic segmentation. RESULTS: The results show different effectiveness levels for the four states regarding changes in financing policies and community participation. Effects on health financing after decentralization were identified in each state, including: greater participation of municipal and state governments in health expenditure, increased financial participation of households, greater community participation in low-income states, duality and confusion in the new mechanisms for coordination among the three government levels, absence of an accountability system, lack of human resources and technical skills to implement, monitor and evaluate changes in financing. CONCLUSIONS: In general, positive and negative effects of decentralization on health financing and governance were identified. The effects mentioned by health service providers and users were related to a diversification of financing sources, a greater margin for decisions around the use and final destination of financial resources and normative development for the use of resources. At the community level, direct financial contributions were mentioned, as well as in-kind contributions, particularly in the form of community work.
Full Text Available In the 21st century humans face with the great risk how to protect themselves from disasters of different kinds. Emergencies happened in many countries and caused a great suffering of humans. The main question of stakeholders is: ‘’how to protect human health and environment in an adequate way’’. Emergency management is an issue which is included in numerous education institutions all over the globe and the action of various national and international organizations. Therefore it is interesting that in the process of fostering emergency management many countries neglect the need of creating more effective tools for response, preparedness and recovery in environmental emergencies. The paper is based on analyzes of Serbian approach in the governance of emergency situation followed by incommensurate environmental risks. Serbia had to accept International environmental emergency help after the floods in 2014. The Joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP / Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA Environment Unit (JEU helped Serbia to mitigate consequences of horrified environmental emergency in “Stolice” mine near city Krupanj. This assistance was needed because Serbia did not have enough capacity to struggle with the consequences of breaking the dam and contamination of soil and rivers. This study shows that a similar disaster in the future could be solved only by strengthening multilateral response of different actors at local and national level. After all, Serbia is at the beginning of the path, and need to highlight strategic challenges in the governance of emergency situation followed by environmental emergencies. Only with full implementation of positive practice of the international community Serbia could avoid long term impact on life support functions, nature and humans.
Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas
The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.
Kaufmann, M.; van Doorn - Hoekveld, W.J.; Gilissen, H.K.; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.
The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood risk management, due to its special physical location in the delta of four major river systems. This low-lying country is historically characterised by a ‘fight against water’. The Flood Risk Governance Arrangement of the Netherlands is characterised by a strong focus on reducing flood probability and governmental responsibility. A key characteristic is the statutory right to flood protection from the state. The arrangement of actors, rules, resou...
Full Text Available This special feature presents several papers generated under the EU-funded ‘Cross Sectoral Commons Governance in Southern Africa’ (CROSCOG project. The feature builds on knowledge generated in case studies which explored existing integrated resource knowledge and governance practices of rural people living in Southern African commons. In earlier generations, especially during the pre-colonial periods, most Southern African societies developed quite effective indigenous institutions for the management of entire landscapes and their component ecosystems, when this was in their interest. Few of these integrated Southern African systems are effective today as they have gone through massive changes, for example due to colonial influences, the increased role of the market and/or conflicts over use and access to natural resources. Meanwhile, most efforts to rebuild or affirm (the management of the commons through various initiatives, have been specific to certain resources or localised areas. Conversely, the smaller number of ecosystem-wide land use planning initiatives that sought to enhance overall environmental health have been dominated by technical, anti-political approaches that failed to understood the differential roles of resources in the spectrum of local livelihoods, and failed to achieve the required broader reinforcement of local governance. This introduction and the papers it introduces explore opportunities and challenges with respect to integrating scale – landscapes, ecosystems, and governing systems – into the local commons.
Weimer, M.; van Asselt, M.B.A.; Versluis, E.; Vos, E.
This chapter analyzes the difficulties of creating a viable legal framework for ‘cloned food’ in the EU combining a legal perspective with insights from the interdisciplinary research on risk governance. Animal cloning offers an instructive example for the challenges of designing regulatory
Shahim, A.; Batenburg, R.; Vermunt, G.
Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) has become critical for organizations and so is the need to support this by ICT. This paper positions GRC into an integrated strategic perspective, providing guidelines to assess maturity and defining paths for achieving strategic alignment. The approach is
Bichsel, Jacqueline; Feehan, Patrick
Higher education IT governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) programs are in the development stage. Few institutions have all three programs in place, and many institutions are unclear where they should start when instituting or maturing their IT GRC programs. In addition, they are often uncertain as to whether GRC programs should be developed in…
This paper explores the issues underlying the credit risk governance mechanism of banking institutions in emerging economies. This is an important area of study given the essential role that banks play in the financial markets of emerging economies and the widespread banking reforms that these economies have implemented. The aim of this study is…
Silvija Vlah Jerić
Full Text Available Over the past few decades, data mining techniques, especially artificial neural networks, have been used for modelling many real-world problems. This paper aims to test the performance of three methods: (1 an artificial neural network (ANN, (2 a hybrid artificial neural network and genetic algorithm approach (ANN-GA, and (2 the Tobit regression approach in determining the credit risk of local government units in Croatia. The evaluation of credit risk and prediction of debtor bankruptcy have long been regarded as an important topic in accounting and finance literature. In this research, credit risk is modelled under a regression approach unlike typical credit risk analysis, which is generally viewed as a classification problem. Namely, a standard evaluation of credit risk is not possible due to a lack of bankruptcy data. Thus, the credit risk of a local unit is approximated using the ratio of outstanding liabilities maturing in a given year to total expenditure of the local unit in the same period. The results indicate that the ANN-GA hybrid approach performs significantly better than the Tobit model by providing a significantly smaller average mean squared error. This work is beneficial to researchers and the government in evaluating a local government unit’s credit score.
Parkash Gupta, Surya
The development in the public as well as the private sectors is controlled and regulated, directly or indirectly by the governments at federal, provincial and local levels. If this development goes haphazard and unplanned, without due considerations to environmental constraints and potential hazards; it is likely to cause disasters or may get affected by disasters. Therefore, it becomes an ethical responsibility of the people involved in governance sector to integrate disaster risk reduction with development in their administrative territories through enforcement of appropriate policies, guidelines and regulatory mechanisms. Such mechanisms should address the social, scientific, economic, environmental, and legal requirements that play significant role in planning, implementation of developmental activities as well as disaster management. The paper focuses on defining the ethical responsibilities for the governance sector for integrating disaster risk reduction with development. It highlights the ethical issues with examples from two case studies, one from the Uttarakhand state and the other Odhisa state in India. The case studies illustrates how does it make a difference in disaster risk reduction if the governments own or do not own ethical responsibilities. The paper considers two major disaster events, flash floods in Uttarakhand state and Cyclone Phailin in Odhisa state, that happened during the year 2013. The study points out that it makes a great difference in terms of consequences and response to disasters when ethical responsibilities are owned by the governance sector. The papers attempts to define these ethical responsibilities for integrating disaster risk reduction with development so that the governments can be held accountable for their acts or non-actions.
Halton, Kate; Hall, Lisa; Gardner, Anne; MacBeth, Deborough; Mitchell, Brett G
Effective clinical governance is necessary to support improvements in infection control. Historically, the focus has been on ensuring that infection control practice and policy is based on evidence, and that there is use of surveillance and auditing for self-regulation and performance feedback. There has been less exploration of how contextual and organizational factors mediate an infection preventionists (IP's) ability to engage with evidence-based practice and enact good clinical governance. A cross sectional Web-based survey of IPs in Australia and New Zealand was undertaken. Questions focused on engagement in evidence-based practice and perceptions about the context, culture, and leadership within the infection control team and organization. Responses were mapped against dimensions of Scally and Donaldson's clinical governance framework. Three hundred surveys were returned. IPs appear well equipped at an individual level to undertake evidence-based practice. The most serious set of perceived challenges to good clinical governance related to a lack of leadership or active resistance to infection control within the organization. Additional challenges included lack of information technology solutions and poor access to specialist expertise and financial resources. Focusing on strengthening contextual factors at the organizational level that otherwise undermine capacity to implement evidence-based practice is key to sustaining current infection control successes and promoting further practice improvements. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Through the critical application of social theory, this paper will scrutinise how the operations of risk management help to constitute midwives׳ understandings of childbirth in a particular way. Drawing from rich ethnographic data, collected in the southeast of England, the paper presents empirical evidence to critically explore how institutional concerns around risk and risk management impact upon the way midwives can legitimately imagine and manage labour and childbirth. Observational field notes, transcribed interviews with various midwives, along with material culture in the form of documentary evidence will be used to explore the unintended consequences of clinical governance and its risk management technologies. Through this analysis the fear factor of risk in midwifery talk and practice will be introduced to provide an insight into how risk management impacts midwifery practice in the UK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Paterson, Andrew; Oppenheim, Jerrold; Dubravka Pineda, Maria
Building a better energy future will be expensive, in part, because it will require modernizing energy infrastructure and bringing more innovative technologies to deliver energy more efficiently to consumers with less environmental impact. With the extended recession and turmoil in credit markets in 2008, some states have turned to public benefit funds to address critical risks in adopting innovative energy technologies and systems. This paper updates valuable observations for governing PBFs to promote wider adoption of innovative energy technologies enabling a better balance of risk and return in concert with other policy tools by negotiating mitigation of early adopter risks.
badron, nur fateha
Corporate governance is an important tools in a company so the company will be manage in a good way and based on the MCCG 2012. It also will help the company to manage their risk. Performance of a company is important as they will show how is the company be manage. Other than that it will help the company get investment from other investor. In this assignment we will see if the corporate governance give a good or bad impact to the company. We also will see if the company are expos...
In the past few years, the EU has been establishing a new regulatory framework for GMOs, a central issue in the governance of risk that came under fierce attack in the mid-1990s. The primary question addressed in this article is whether this new framework will be able to solve the legitimacy...... problem of GMO governance at the EU level. Focusing on theories concerning input–output legitimacy and democracy and the role of expertise, this article examines the level of involvement of stakeholders in the process leading to the new rules; the predominant mechanisms of representation that have been...
Full Text Available Analysis of people perception and analysis of the coping strategy to landslides are the two elements that are es-sential to determine the level of preparedness of communities to landslides. To know the preparedness of government and other stakeholders in facing landslide, the analysis risk governance framework was required. A survey using questionnaires with random sampling was applied to assess the level of people perception and people coping strategy related to landslide. Analysis of risk governance frame work was done at the district and sub-district level. ἀe study found that people perception related with landslide dominated by high and moderate level. Age and education are two factors that inḀuence the people’s perception to landslide. Local people applied four types coping strategy, which are: economic, structural, social and cultural coping strategy. Totally, 51.6% respondents have high level, 33.3% have moderate level and only 15.1% respondents that have low level of coping strategy. ἀe factors that inḀuence the level of coping strategy are education, income and building type. Analysis of risk governance framework is limited to the three components including stakeholder involvement, risk management and risk communication. Based on the data analysis, the level of stakeholder involvement at the district scope was categorized on the moderate till high and the level of stakeholder involvement at sub-district level was categorized on the high level. Generally, the risk management of Karanganyar was categorized on the moderate level and high level and the risk management in Tawangmangu was categorized on the moderate level. ἀere are some elements must be improved on the risk governance framework, those are data management, the pattern of relationships among stakeholders, increased participation of NGOs, constructed and updated landslide risk map, enhancement of microᴀnance role in helping the com-munity when disaster strikes
The intensifying nature and extent of disasters together with the associated devastation and astronomical costs required to manage the rippling effects of disasters, enunciates the national and international focus on disaster risk reduction. Further the ever evolving and complex dynamics of risk as the decisive contributor to disasters has heightened the urgency to pursue effective disaster risk assessment as a prerequisite to inform the disaster risk management planning and disaster risk red...
Easterling, W. E.
The repurposing of Bell Laboratories by new owner Lucent Technologies to become a mission-focused applied research facility effectively terminated fundamental, high-risk research everywhere but in research universities. The now almost ten year old NAS study that produced the watershed report Rising Above the Gathering Storm warned that the US research establishment encompassing industry, government, academia and nongovernment organizations has lost its way in promoting fundamental high-risk research of the kind that has historically led to the transformational scientific breakthroughs that radically changed and improved our quality of life for more than a century. Low-risk, incremental research dominates industry and most government funding agendas, including NSF (and including NSF's "transformational research" agenda!). Unprecedented challenges such as understanding and dealing with the consequences of climate change will require fundamental new ideas and technologies that do not exist. Adapting future ecosystems and human systems to climate variability and change needs new social models of cooperation, new biotechnologies and new environmental mangement strategies that do not now exist. A case can be made that history provides no strong templates for such a future. I argue that research universities, working in close partnerships with government, provides a fertile seedbed for the kinds of scientific knowledge and thinking that could produce "game changing" strategies for dealing with climate change. Government has the resources and the ability to convert and scale new ideas into usable knowledge, research universities have the ingenuity and disciplinary spectra to think up new ideas and test them for proof of concept. Co-locating a government presence within a research university has the potential to integrate a research enterprise that is not afraid to fail a few times before potentially hitting paydirt with an institution that can accelerate the translation of
Wachinger, Gisela; Renn, Ortwin; Begg, Chloe; Kuhlicke, Christian
This article reviews the main insights from selected literature on risk perception, particularly in connection with natural hazards. It includes numerous case studies on perception and social behavior dealing with floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcano eruptions, wild fires, and landslides. The review reveals that personal experience of a natural hazard and trust--or lack of trust--in authorities and experts have the most substantial impact on risk perception. Cultural and individual factors such as media coverage, age, gender, education, income, social status, and others do not play such an important role but act as mediators or amplifiers of the main causal connections between experience, trust, perception, and preparedness to take protective actions. When analyzing the factors of experience and trust on risk perception and on the likeliness of individuals to take preparedness action, the review found that a risk perception paradox exists in that it is assumed that high risk perception will lead to personal preparedness and, in the next step, to risk mitigation behavior. However, this is not necessarily true. In fact, the opposite can occur if individuals with high risk perception still choose not to personally prepare themselves in the face of a natural hazard. Therefore, based on the results of the review, this article offers three explanations suggesting why this paradox might occur. These findings have implications for future risk governance and communication as well as for the willingness of individuals to invest in risk preparedness or risk mitigation actions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H
Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Shepherd, Christena C.
It is well documented that government agencies do not have the same incentive as the private sector to focus on process effectiveness and continual improvement of those processes. It is also well documented whenever government agencies fail to deliver efficient, effective, consistent, and fair services to the citizens. In spite of the various "reinventing government" and "effectiveness initiatives" of the past decades, and in spite of the efforts on the part of many agencies to improve, government in general still lags behind industry in creating a culture of effective processes and systems. While the tragic events that unfolded recently in Flint, Michigan, teach us that running government "like a business" does not always take the needs of the citizenry into account, there are many lessons and techniques from the private sector that government agencies can use to improve. The incentive to improve, while mandated by various administrations1, needs to come from within the workforce, in order to effectively take root. The best, most effective incentive is to reduce, control or eliminate risk. Government agencies face some of the same risks as the private sector, while some are unique. While ISO 310002 has been around since 2009, risk has taken on increased visibility within the private sector with the advent of the emphasis on risk-based thinking in ISO 9001:20153. The relationship between risk-based thinking and effective processes is simple and direct. Those processes that are well thought out and standardized (i.e. Plan-Do-Check-Act), will have taken into account the applicable policy, statutory, regulatory, safety, quality and technical parameters, which may not occur to someone performing the process with minimal experience or training; and thus protect the employees, the public and the agency from statutory and regulatory violations; delay in providing services; non-delivery of services; harm to public or employee safety and health; cost overruns; breaches in
Thomas, P. J.
A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the "motivational density", to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion.
Full Text Available This paper explores the necessary and sufficient conditions of good Corporate Governance practices for high risk disclosure by firms in their Corporate Governance Annual Report. Additionally, we explore whether those recipes have changed during the financial crisis. With a sample of 271 Spanish listed companies, we applied fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to a database of financial and non-financial data. We report that Board of Directors independence, size, level of activity and gender diversity, CEO duality, Audit Committee independence, being audited by the Big Four auditing firms and the presence of institutional investors are associated with high risk disclosure. The conditions included in almost every combination are the presence of institutional investors and being audited by the Big Four. We found similar combinations for 2006 and 2012, while the analysis for 2009 showed the lowest number of causal configurations.
Klessmann, C.; De Jager, D.; Gephart, M.; Winkel, T.
This paper presents a first estimate of the costs and risks of a potential import of renewable energy statistics by the Dutch Government in order to meet the binding renewable energy (RE) target of 14% by 2020. Recently, the new government has announced that it will increase the ambition from 14% to 16%. Progress so-far has been slow however and meeting these targets requires near to maximum realisable deployment rates of all relevant technologies. It points at the necessity to increase national policy measures (spatial, political, financial, etc.) for all renewable energy technologies or alternatively, to apply the cooperation mechanisms and/or import RES statistics from other countries. It is generally assumed that imported RE statistics, through the cooperation mechanisms of the European RES Directive, will have lower costs than supporting the potentially more expensive domestic technologies that would be needed to meet the targets fully by domestic production. This paper shows that this assumption is questionable, and that the risks of pursuing an import-strategy may be significant. The analysis shows that the use of statistical transfers, which in principle may be a viable option for realising part of the Dutch RE target, is linked to high uncertainties. Important aspects contributing to these uncertainties are: The effectiveness and efficiency of policies in the European Member States to meet domestic RE targets by and up to 2020, and hence the related surplus/shortfall of RE production and resulting market prices for statistical transfers; The price setting mechanisms that will be established between Member States, including the anticipated cost of infringement in case of non-fulfilment of the 2020 targets. Imports will likely be charged against the market prices for (statistical) transfers, not against the cost prices of RE technologies. The price of statistical transfers can be expected to be higher in the case of a clear 'buyer market' in which
Spanaki, K; Papazafeiropoulou, A
Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) has become an emerging field within the IS academic community. Motivated by this research direction, the study capitalizes on the theoretical background of Enterprise Systems (ES) and extends the focus on GRC systems? implementation (enterprise value and lifecycle). Building upon expert views on GRC IS implementation projects, the analysis indicates that the three value drivers of integration; optimization and information should be considered throughout t...
Kötter, Falko; Kochanowski, Monika; Drawehn, Jens
Governance, risk and compliance (GRC) are current research topics in business process management (BPM). However, the state of the art in research and practice does not match. In this work, we investigate the practice of GRC in BPM tools based on a survey of 14 software providers. Identifying commonly shared features and components we determine the state of the art of GRC support in BPM tools. We found software providers agree in their definitions of GRC. Today’s tools provide mature solutions...
Lupien, John R
Food systems are rapidly changing as world population grows, increasing urbanization occurs, consumer tastes and preferences change and differ in various countries and cultures, large scale food production increases, and food imports and exports grow in volume and value. Consumers in all countries have become more insistent that foods available in the marketplace are of good quality and safe, and do not pose risks to them and their families. Publicity about food risk problems and related risks, including chemical and microbiological contamination of foods, mad-cow disease, avian flu, industrial chemical contamination all have made consumers and policy makers more aware of the need of the control of food safety risk factors in all countries. To discuss changes in food systems, and in consumer expectations, that have placed additional stress on the need for better control of food safety risks. Food producers, processors, and marketers have additional food law and regulations to meet; government agencies must increase monitoring and enforcement of adequate food quality and safety legislation and coordinate efforts between agriculture, health, trade, justice and customs agencies; and academia must take action to strengthen the education of competent food legislation administrators, inspectorate, and laboratory personnel for work in government and industry, including related food and food safety research . Both Government and the food industry must assure that adequate control programs are in place to control the quality and safety of all foods, raw or processed, throughout the food chain from production to final consumption. This includes appropriate laboratory facilities to perform necessary analysis of foods for risk and quality factors, and to carry out a wide range of food science, toxicological and related research.
Though soil pollution policies in North America and the European Union increasingly use risk-based standards, the construction and application of such standards are often deficient in taking account of actual risks. Standards refer to total concentrations of substances and not to the biologically
An apparent "crisis" of youth at-risk is a key marker in contemporary debates about young people among a range of intellectuals, social commentators and experts in various domains and centres of expertise. Drawing on aspects of the reflexive modernization, governmentality and feminist literatures, this paper explores how risk discourses emerge as…
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the management of social me-dia at the local government level, the availability of opportunities for citizen dialogue on govern-ment websites, and the impact that social net-working applications have on e-government. The results of the current study converge with prior research on the growing awareness amongst government practitioners regarding the relevance of social media, the use of social media for feed-back on service quality, and privacy and security commitments in e-government. The literature on the use of information technology to transform government, the potential for online government information to contribute to citizen engagement, and the rapid growth in local government use of social media is relevant to this discussion.
Full Text Available The term "smart city" has been strongly promoted since the late 1990s, yet its concrete meaning remains blurry. In this article, we shed light on two elements that many “smart cities” claim to pursue: open data and collaborative/participatory governance. Notably, we investigate whether smart city models that are based on an open data approach constitute a suitable environment for collaborative governance processes. Therefore, we introduce a comprehensive model of collaborative governance which allows us to derive theoretical assumptions regarding the influence of open data on collaborative processes in a smart city context. Based on a case study model, we try to find empirical evidence for our assumptions in three cities. However, only minor evidence for an existing influence can be found, which we explain with insufficient understanding about the potentials of open data and therefore lacking strategies how to use them for fostering collaborative processes.
Full Text Available The accountancy principles are sine qua non for a faithful image, nevertheless when it is about evaluation, accountancy is considered a source of uncertainty. The principle of being prudent is the pillar of accountancy having a view to protect the invested capital, although under the conditions of organizations development and of the desire to better results, which inevitably implies risk, this would infringe initiatives and change. Even more, prudence offers a continuity in organization activity, becoming accountancy fundamentals in the principles of corporation governance, the organization management respectively, by accepting the benefits of risk management, of financial management and internal control under the monitor of internal audit. The activity continuity is not only an accountancy principle but also an absolutely necessary element to quarantee the financial information. The principle of continuity also confers the accountancy science a provisional role because it extends its action from a simple elaboration of financial statements to the assurance of financial information to prevent difficulties, the finding and removal of risk and offering the necessary factors for an efficient provisional management. A good governance within a company reduces risks, increases performance, opens the way to financial markets, improves the marketing capacity for goods and services, the management style, shows transparency and social responsability.
Full Text Available Research Question/Issue: This paper will examine the role of reputation regarding corporate governance in terms of performance, risk control and the possible role of legislature or behaviors in this field (in particular with regards to the recent Green Paper “Companies in the EU: a management of governance”, COM (2011 164 final, of the 5th April 2011, of the European Commission. Research Findings/Insights: Image, reputation, positive or negative opinion, notoriety of the companies and their managers are regarded as an element of their performance. It is accepted that public opinion, inherently linked to the reputation risk is an essential element of corporate governance. Regarding the need of a long term matter, particularly after the financial crisis, a short period of time is enough to transform a positive public opinion into a negative one. In addition, the assessment of public opinion is complex. Everyone can freely form an “opinion”. The opinion may be private and public. Public opinion refers to society, to citizens and to the people. Its classic means of expression are freedom of the press and freedom of speech. This question is particularly crucial regarding the role of the companies to the “society” as recently defined by the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the committee of the Regions, A renewed EU strategy 2011-14 for Corporate Social Responsibility, the European Commission and the European Parliament (Brussels, 25.10.2011 COM (2011 681 final. Theoretical/Academic Implications: How to manage good corporate governance reputation ?As from 1979, the Anglo-Saxon doctrine has acutely highlighted the role of reputation risk regarding corporate governance but what is the situation within the EU? Has legislature, in Europe (and for example, in France, sufficiently acknowledged the concept of reputation risk control? – A long term period
Sedda, L; Morley, D W; Braks, M A H; De Simone, L; Benz, D; Rogers, D J
In the context of public health, risk governance (or risk analysis) is a framework for the assessment and subsequent management and/or control of the danger posed by an identified disease threat. Generic frameworks in which to carry out risk assessment have been developed by various agencies. These include monitoring, data collection, statistical analysis and dissemination. Due to the inherent complexity of disease systems, however, the generic approach must be modified for individual, disease-specific risk assessment frameworks. The analysis was based on the review of the current risk assessments of vector-borne diseases adopted by the main Public Health organisations (OIE, WHO, ECDC, FAO, CDC etc…). Literature, legislation and statistical assessment of the risk analysis frameworks. This review outlines the need for the development of a general public health risk assessment method for vector-borne diseases, in order to guarantee that sufficient information is gathered to apply robust models of risk assessment. Stochastic (especially spatial) methods, often in Bayesian frameworks are now gaining prominence in standard risk assessment procedures because of their ability to assess accurately model uncertainties. Risk assessment needs to be addressed quantitatively wherever possible, and submitted with its quality assessment in order to enable successful public health measures to be adopted. In terms of current practice, often a series of different models and analyses are applied to the same problem, with results and outcomes that are difficult to compare because of the unknown model and data uncertainties. Therefore, the risk assessment areas in need of further research are identified in this article. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed: (1 to evaluate the proportion of each diabetic foot (DF risk category, according to the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF consensus, in patients attending the diabetic clinic in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital (SPGH and (2 to examine some of the factors that may be associated with the progression to higher risk categories such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile.Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional chart review of patients who had attended the diabetic clinic in SPGH from January 2013 to December 2013 was performed. Patients were included if they had undergone a foot examination. Patients with amputation due to accident were excluded. The DF risk category was assessed by determining the proportion of patients in each of four risk categories, as described by the IWGDF consensus.Results: The study encompassed 144 records from patients reviewed for foot examination from January to December 2013. Patients’ ages were between 16 and 85 years, 46 (40% were male and 98 (60% were female. The majority (122, [85%] of patients were in DF risk category 0, whilst a limited number of patients were classified in risk category 1 (10, [6.9%], risk category 2 (7, [4.9%] and risk category 3 (5, [3.5%]. Most of the patients had the type 2 diabetes mellitus (139, [97%; 95% CI 92% − 99%]. Patients’ ages were associated with the progressively higher DF risk categories. The adjusted odd ratio was 1.1 (95% CI 1.03−1.14; p = 0.004.Conclusion: The present study revealed that about 15% of patients attending the SPGH diabetic clinic were categorised in higher risk groups for diabetic foot; patients’ ages were linked to the higher DF risk categories.
Brenton-Rule, Evan C; Barbieri, Rafael F; Lester, Philip J
Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material, a significantly higher risk of exotic species interceptions was associated with countries that are poorly regulated, have more forest cover and have surprisingly low corruption. Corruption and indicators such as political stability or adherence to rule of law were important in vehicle or timber import pathways. These results will be of considerable value to policy makers, primarily by shifting quarantine procedures to focus on countries of high risk based on their socio-economic status. Further, using New Zealand as an example, we demonstrate how a ninefold reduction in incursions could be achieved if socio-economic indicators were used to select trade partners. International trade deals that ignore governance and development indicators may facilitate introductions and biodiversity loss. Development and governance within countries clearly have biodiversity implications beyond borders. © 2016 The Author(s).
Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.
As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to
Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2011
The long history of volunteerism in America has its roots in colonial religious and educational enterprises. From the beginning, colleges and universities have been independently governed rather than subject to national or state control. This autonomy is a uniquely American tradition. Over the centuries, the work of academic governing…
Wentholt, M.T.A.; Rowe, G.; König, A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Frewer, L.J.
Evidence of a decline in public trust associated with food risk governance over recent years has called into question the appropriateness of the current dominant risk analysis framework. Within the EU-funded SAFE FOODS project a novel risk analysis framework has been developed that attempts to
Weimer, M.; Joerges, C.; Glinski, C.
This paper analyzes the problems of EU risk regulation of agricultural biotechnology through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conductive to
This paper analyzes the problems of EU risk regulation of agricultural biotechnology through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conductive to
Full Text Available Cyber security is an issue of foremost interest for policy makers in the world’s governments, corporations, NGOs, academic institutions, and other associations, however remedy for the myriad cyber threats and vulnerabilities continues to elude technologists and policy makers alike. In this paper, we consider the concept of cyber risk intelligence, a general concept of understanding the varied phenomena that impact an organization’s capacity to secure its digital communications and resources from eavesdropping, theft or attack. We also consider the deeper economics of information held and transmitted in digital form and how those economics may alter thinking on modeling of risk. Finally, we offer guidance of how organizations and entire sectors of business activity may want to alter their thinking on cyber security issues beyond a technological framing to an informational one aligned with business activities
Full Text Available Flood mitigation is a strategy that is growing in importance across Europe. This growth corresponds with an increasing emphasis on the need to learn to live with floods and make space for water. Flood mitigation measures aim at reducing the likelihood and magnitude of flooding and complement flood defenses. They are being put in place through the implementation of actions that accommodate (rather than resist water, such as natural flood management or adapted housing. The strategy has gained momentum over the past 20 years in an effort to improve the sustainability of flood risk management (FRM and facilitate the diversification of FRM in the pursuit of societal resilience to flooding. Simultaneously, it is increasingly argued that adaptive forms of governance are best placed to address the uncertainty and complexity associated with social-ecological systems responding to environmental challenges, such as flooding. However, there have been few attempts to examine the extent to which current flood risk governance, and flood mitigation specifically, reflect these aspired forms of adaptive governance. Drawing from EU research into flood risk governance, conducted within the STAR-FLOOD project, we examine the governance of flood mitigation in six European countries: Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Using in-depth policy and legal analysis, as well as interviews with key actors, the governance and implementation of flood mitigation in these countries is evaluated from the normative viewpoint of whether, and to what extent, it can be characterized as adaptive governance. We identify five criteria of adaptive governance based on a comprehensive literature review and apply these to each country to determine the "distance" between current governance arrangements and adaptive governance. In conclusion, the flood mitigation strategy provides various opportunities for actors to further pursue forms of adaptive governance. The
Full Text Available Central to policies relating to risk governance at the regional and local levels is the interaction between the public and private sectors also referred to as networked governance. At the same time, the role of political actors in general and policy entrepreneurs in particular, in terms of policy change, has gained considerable traction in recent policy scholarship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in governance arrangements resulting in the formation of a coordination network in regional flood risk management-the first of its kind in Sweden. Our research is guided by the following questions: first, would the policy change (the establishment of the networkshave taken place if a policy entrepreneur were not part of the policy transfer process? Second, what is the role of policy entrepreneurship in the implementation of the policy after its nationwide adoption? Third, what other factors played a role in the variation of the results in the implemented policy that is, the enforced networks? We find the role of a policy entrepreneur key in the policy transfer from the regional to the national level. In order to investigate the resultant networks, we draw from B. Guy Peters (1998 and his conceptualization of factors which affect the politics of coordination. In addition to the presence of a policy entrepreneur, we compare: (i pluriformity of network members;(ii member interdependence; (iii redundancy of structures, and (iv degree of formality (in terms of meetings. Our findings suggest that entrepreneurs contribute to the variation in the functionality of the enforced river groups, though other factors play a significant role as well.Most importantly, perhaps, we did not identify entrepreneurs in any of the river groups which were not functional.
than two percent of the computers the government procures. Markoff suggests that hardware can be in effect a Trojan horse wherein it is procured...designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system, without the owner’s consent. Malware is commonly taken to include computer viruses , worms, Trojan ...creating and distributing viruses on other computers , posting confidential business information on the Internet, and disrupting a country’s critical
Mobile government (in short: m-government) is just at the beginning of its rise as a future trend of e-government. Considering technical advancements such as mobile Internet, smartphones, and tablet-PCs, m-government represents a tremendous new potential for the communication between governments ...
CONCLUSION: Health sector funding partnership, positively impacts on maternal and child health services. Government's total commitment, backed with legislation, and community mobilization, will sustain the scheme. Keywords: Government/Community Healthcare Co-Financing, Maternal and Child Healthcare, South ...
Kweh Qian Long
Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of ESG on the corporate performance government-linked companies (GLCs in Malaysia. For the period 2006-2012, ESG disclosure data were extracted from the Sustainalytics ESG performance reports, while financial data were obtained from the Bloomberg database. Data development analysis (DEA was used to estimate efficiency in the first stage; a regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between ESG and efficiency in the second stage. The empirical results of this study show that GLCs focused more on governance disclosures, followed by social and environmental aspects. Moreover, governance will improve firm efficiency, but social and environmental factors have no similar effect. In conclusion, this study provides insight on the limited literature on ESG and informs the relevant stakeholders on the important ESG components for financial and investment decisions.
Full Text Available The interactive new media (INM are a powerful information technology (IT with contradictory consequences for the nature of work, creativity, and innovation. Digital interactivity shortens both time and distance within and across global networks. It reduces labor time and transaction costs, eases the shift from manual to mental labor, and raises efficiency, productivity, and profits. It facilitates quick responses to changing conditions and new opportunities, and it encourages experimentation, risk taking, discovery, and innovation. IT and INM constitute the technical infrastructure of advanced business and consulting services like advertising, management consulting, and accounting. They are popular components of the globalizing culture industry. But INM are also instruments of discretionary governance and neoliberal governmentality. They have an unaccountable influence on financial, actuarial, cybernetic and ideological forms of power, and they serve to extend the mechanisms of indirect and anonymous social control into everyday life. The INM are widely adopted for purposes of discretionary governance and risk management, but tend to escape autonomous social and democratic regulation. The paper examines the effects of INM on small project teams as well as on aspects of neoliberal experimentality such as informalism and flexibility at work, the hacker work ethic, social networking, and techno-libertarianism. The conclusion reconsiders the intrinsic tension between neoliberal experimentality and governmentality.
Feby Intan Trinanda
Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh reputasi auditor, keberadaan risk management committee, ukuran perusahaan, dan struktur kepemilikan publik terhadap pengungkapan enterprise risk management. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah perusahaan property dan real estate yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI tahun 2012-2013 berjumlah 48 perusahaan. Teknik pengambilan sampel dengan purposive sampling. Sampel yang masuk kriteria sebanyak 24 perusahaan dengan 48 unit analisis. Metode analisis penelitan ini menggunakan regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa reputasi auditor, dan struktur kepemilikan publik berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap pengungkapan enterprise risk management. Sedangkan keberadaan risk management committee, dan ukuran perusahaan tidak memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap pengungkapan enterprise risk management. Penelitian selanjutnya sebaiknya mengidentifikasi variabel lain yang memiliki pengaruh terhadap pengungkapan enterprise risk management. This study ains to analyze the effect of auditor reputation, risk management committee, firm size, and public ownership structure on enterprise risk management disclosure. The population of this study is all property and real estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX year of 2012 to 2013, amount to 48 companies. The study uses purposive sampling. The companies that meet requirements stated by this study were 24 companies with 48 data in term of financial reports. Methods of data analyze used in this study is multiple linear regression. The results of this study show that auditor reputation and public ownership structure has significant effect on enterprise risk management disclosure. Meanwhile, risk management committee and firm size do not have significant effect of enterprise risk management disclosure. Other researchers should identify other variable that have potential influence on firm value, such as public
Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.
Nabil Alnaser; Osama Samih Shaban; Ziad Al-Zubi
The primary goal of corporate governance is to create a balance of power-sharing among shareholders, directors, and management to enhance shareholder value and protect the interests of other stakeholders. Effective corporate governance structure improves investor confidence, it ensures corporate accountability, enhances the reliability and quality of public financial information, and enhances the integrity and efficiency of the capital market. The study has covered 10 public companies in Jord...
Adjekum, Afua; Ienca, Marcello; Vayena, Effy
Trust is a ubiquitous term used in emerging technology (e.g., Big Data, precision medicine), innovation policy, and governance literatures in particular. But what exactly is trust? Even though trust is considered a critical requirement for the successful deployment of precision medicine initiatives, nonetheless, there is a need for further conceptualization with regard to what qualifies as trust, and what factors might establish and sustain trust in precision medicine, predictive analytics, and large-scale biology. These new fields of 21st century medicine and health often deal with the "futures" and hence, trust gains a temporal and ever-present quality for both the present and the futures anticipated by new technologies and predictive analytics. We address these conceptual gaps that have important practical implications in the way we govern risk and unknowns associated with emerging technologies in biology, medicine, and health broadly. We provide an in-depth conceptual analysis and an operative definition of trust dynamics in precision medicine. In addition, we identify three main types of "trust facilitators": (1) technical, (2) ethical, and (3) institutional. This three-dimensional framework on trust is necessary to building and maintaining trust in 21st century knowledge-based innovations that governments and publics invest for progressive societal change, development, and sustainable prosperity. Importantly, we analyze, identify, and deliberate on the dimensions of precision medicine and large-scale biology that have carved out trust as a pertinent tool to its success. Moving forward, we propose a "points to consider" on how best to enhance trust in precision medicine and predictive analytics.
Susan D. Kocher
Full Text Available Wildfire is a natural part of forested Mediterranean systems. As humans continue to live and build housing in these areas, wildfire is a constant threat to homes and lives. The goal of this paper is to describe aspects of land-use planning that are used to reduce wildfire risk in institutionally divergent regions; southern France and California. By reviewing relevant legislation and planning documents and conducting in person interviews with fire and planning professionals, we identify the institutions which participate in land use planning to reduce fire risk and the key laws and regulations that guide planning decisions. Our results indicate that France has a more centralized system for planning for fire, with national level entities heavily involved in local land use planning. California, on the other hand sees almost no federal oversite, and, while state law requires local plans to include wildfire risk, most fine grain decisions are left to local planners and decision makers. In both regions, however, we see a reliance on technical support provided from outside local jurisdictions. Increased coordination between local, regional, and national governments could improve land use planning in both locations.
Pedro Pinto dos Santos
Full Text Available O International Risk Governance Council (IRGC é uma organização independente cuja missão é ajudar a compreender e a gerir riscos globais emergentes que têm impacto na segurança, saúde humana, ambiente, economia e na sociedade. O IRGC focaliza a sua acção no desenvolvimento de conceitos e estratégias de governação do risco, sendo esta uma área crucial perante a necessidade de tomar decisões relacionadas com o risco e de conseguir uma maximização da confiança das comunidades nos processos e na...
Full Text Available The relationship between Information Technology (IT Governance, Risk Management and Compliance (GRC and organisation business values continues to interest academics and practitioners (IT Governance Institute, 2003. Like governance, risk management and compliance generally, IT GRC is about the decision rights and accountabilities that encourage desirable behaviour in the use of IT (IT Governance Institute, 2003. A case study approach was used in an organisation with many business units. The organisation selected is a mining company, RioZim, situated in Zimbabwe. Data was collected from business units on IT issues and business values. The interviews centred on the IT GRC practices based on responsibility and authority for IT decision making. The results suggest that IT GRC does not adequately support business values. The study revealed that business values should drive IT GRC and IT GRC should be the responsibility of executives and all business units.
Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.
Patricia J. Zweig
Full Text Available Community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM is an emancipatory approach that aims to empower local communities in reducing their own risks. A community risk assessment (CRA is an essential element of CBDRM, incorporating highly participatory processes of hazard identification and vulnerability analysis. By incorporating local knowledge and insights, together with those contributed by other external role players, the nature of local risks can be more accurately identified, giving consideration to their causal factors, the nature of their realised impacts or potential effects on a local community and the challenges posed in addressing them. Reflecting on the process and outcomes of a CRA conducted in an informal settlement in the Cape Town metropolitan area, this article describes how one such risk assessment contributed to building local agency through a process of collaborative engagement. Offered as an example of possible best practice, it illustrates both the immediate and potentially longer term benefits to be derived from such a collaborative process, suggesting that a community-based risk assessment may contribute significantly to building more resilient communities. It concludes with a consideration of the challenges of sustaining longer term risk reduction efforts.
Al-Sagarat, Ahmad Yahya; Al Kalaldeh, Mahmoud Taher
Adolescence is a developmental stage associated with many behavioural fluctuations and health risks behaviours. In this study, various health risk behaviours among Government school students in Jordan were assessed. This cross-sectional descriptive study recruited 1256 students from 20 secondary schools all over the country. Students completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS, 2009-2012). The study was conducted in the period between Feb 2016 and Aug 2016. Chi-square (x2) was used to examine differences among the demographic variables. Students scored low in eating breakfast, eating fruit, vegetables, and milk products. However, students scored moderately in hand and mouth hygiene. Students showed minimal incidences of physical attack and physical fight. Although suicidal attempts were not significantly reported, complaining from worries, feeling of sadness and hopelessness were moderately scored. The majority of physical activities were reported from walking or riding bicycles. However, three hours per day was the average of time spent on sitting activities. Students scored lowest in school absenteeism and the majority described their classmates as kind and helpful. Parental control on students' home activities was regarded. In comparison with 2004 and 2007 statistics, students revealed improvements in physical activity, and reduced physical attacks and injuries. Future researchers are encouraged to discover factors associated with these changes.
Private investment in a manned space station is considered as an alternative to complete government sponsorship of such a program. The implications of manned space operations are discussed from a business perspective. The most significant problems and risks which would be faced by a private company involved in a space station enterprise are outlined and possible government roles in helping to overcome these difficulties suggested. Economic factors such as inflation and the rate of interest are of primary concern, but less obvious conditions such as antitrust and appropriate regulatory laws, government appropriations for space activities, and national security are also considered.
To determine the nature and extent of this, the management of the most severe veld fires during 2008 in the Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province was researched with reference to the nature and extent of the integrated public governance achieved. The agricultural extension officers' ability to establish interest groups ...
A. de Jong (Abe); A.M. van der Poel (Marieke); M. Wolfswinkel (Michiel)
textabstractWe examine 865 acquisitions by Dutch industrial firms over the period 1993–2004. Theoretical work based on principal–agent problems predicts that managers of exchange-listed corporations may pursue acquisitions even when these do not add value for the shareholders. Corporate governance
Adel Shakeeb Mohsen
Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the effect of oil price, external debt and population on the government investment in Syria over the period 1970-2010. The Johansen cointegration test showed that oil price, external debt and population have a positive and significant long run relationship with government investment. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional long-run causality relationships between oil price, external debt, population, and government investment. There are also unidirectional short-run causality relationships running from oil price and population to government investment, and bidirectional short-run causality relationship between external debt and government investment. The study result indicates that, external debt have the biggest effect on the government investment, as well as oil price and population can play an important role in supporting the government investment in the country.
Antonio Francisco de Almeida da Silva Junior
Full Text Available During the crisis of 2008, several Brazilian companies have accumulated losses that worth billions, as the result of a high foreign exchange rate exposure and failures in risk management and Corporate Governance. The aim of this research is to identify the strategic factors that contributed to two very similar companies to follow different paths in the financial crisis of 2008. To better understanding the subject, it was made a brief analysis of the foundations of the Corporate Governance, the requirements listed by BM&FBOVESPA and the principles of the financial risk management. The research identified that the practice of risk management is crucial in implementing best practices of corporate governance and that despite numerous initiatives of various institutions and regulators in establishing self-regulatory mechanisms to ensure the use of these practices, there are still flaws able to allow companies previously considered solid incurring in strategies that may jeopardize its existence.
Full Text Available This study investigated the association between corporate governance mechanisms and corporate risk disclosure (CRD in the annual reports for a sample of 109 Kuwaiti listed non-financial companies in 2012. The study used a manual content analysis to measure risk disclosure by counting the number of risk-related sentences in annual reports. A multiple regression analysis was used to test the impact of board size, non-executive directors, percentage of family members on board, role duality, and audit committee on CRD. The quantity of risk disclosures in the Kuwaiti companies' annual reports was very limited. The results showed that the larger board size has a positive impact on CRD. However, the findings also indicated the existence of role duality lead to lower risk disclosure. Other corporate governance mechanisms did not explain variation in CRD.
Now more than ever, organizations must plan, response and recognize all forms of risks that they face. "Fundamentals of Risk Management", now in its second edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject of commercial and business risk for anyone studying for a career in risk as well as a broad range of risk professionals. It examines the key components of risk management and its application with examples to demonstrate its benefit to organisations in the public and private sector. The second edition has been completely updated to take into account the greater influence of ISO 3100, the emergence of Governance Risk and Compliance (GRC) and the wide use of the bowtie method to illustrate risk management. In addition, there is now a chapter on the skills and competencies required by an effective risk manager.
Faria, V E
Since some argue that the recent and marked fertility decline experienced in Brazil is related to institutional changes resulting from public policies promoted by the federal government since 1964, the author attempts to shed light upon the role played by such policies upon fertility regulation. Fertility in Brazil and the main explanatory theories are first discussed. The paper then considers the role played by the growth of the consumer society, social security coverage, mass media, and the medicalization of society upon changing patterns of fertility regulation in Brazil. The discussion of government policies and fertility regulation includes consideration of consumer credit policy, social security benefit policy, telecommunications policy, and health care policy. One salient conclusion of the analysis is that the lack of a policy to provide fertility regulation mechanisms other than through the marketplace hurts relatively poor populations.
Jonsson, Josefin P.; Wetzel, Carina (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, Kjell; Lidberg, Maria (Karita Research AB, Box 6048, SE-187 06 Taeby (Sweden))
There is a large knowledge base about governance issues but how to implement the new processes of transparency and participation is not self-evident. In other words there is a common demand for bridging the gap between research and implementation for the governance of nuclear waste management. There are legal, organizational, historical and cultural factors that set conditions which have to be understood for effective implementation. We must also understand how deliberative methods and the transparency approach relate to each other, and to formal decision-making in representative democracy. Therefore, the ARGONA project intends to demonstrate how participation and transparency link to the political and legal systems and how new approaches can be implemented in nuclear waste management programmes. For this purpose, the project includes: Studies of the context within which processes of participation and transparency take place, in order to understand how the processes can be used in the waste management programs. Studies of theory - in order to build participation and transparency on a firm ground; Case studies - to understand how different processes work; Implementation - to make a difference, learn and demonstrate. The project now approaches its finalization and it is foreseen that the reporting, in addition to 25 deliverables to the European Commission, will include a full final report, a summary final report and recommendations with proposed guidelines that can be considered by national actors of nuclear waste programmes as well as the European Commission
Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Forest Enhancement (REDD+ has become a central focus of global climate change mitigation efforts. Even though the international demand for forest-based carbon sequestration is the key driver of REDD+, forest protection strategies must be implemented on the ground. This cross-scale nature of REDD+ explains why scholars and policy makers increasingly favor nested governance arrangements over either fully centralized or fully decentralized REDD+ governance. The focus of the literature on nested REDD+ governance has mostly been on monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon emission reductions across sub-national, national, and international levels. We build on Ostrom’s principle of ‘nested enterprises’ to argue that REDD+ must be designed to systematically and formally link national policy reforms with the organization and execution of sub-national (regional and local forest conservation efforts led by forest users. We also contribute new insights on the political dimensions of nestedness in REDD+, with important roles for inter-community forestry associations and forest rights movements.
Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret
We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…
Friesen, Shaye K; Kelsey, Shelley; Legere, J A Jim
Lessons learned play an important role in emergency management (EM) and organizational agility. Virtually all aspects of EM can derive benefit from a lessons learned program. From major security events to exercises, exploiting and applying lessons learned and "best practices" is critical to organizational resilience and adaptiveness. A robust lessons learned process and methodology provides an evidence base with which to inform decisions, guide plans, strengthen mitigation strategies, and assist in developing tools for operations. The Canadian Safety and Security Program recently supported a project to define a comprehensive framework that would allow public safety and security partners to regularly share event response best practices, and prioritize recommendations originating from after action reviews. This framework consists of several inter-locking elements: a comprehensive literature review/environmental scan of international programs; a survey to collect data from end users and management; the development of a taxonomy for organizing and structuring information; a risk-informed methodology for selecting, prioritizing, and following through on recommendations; and standardized templates and tools for tracking recommendations and ensuring implementation. This article discusses the efforts of the project team, which provided "best practice" advice and analytical support to ensure that a systematic approach to lessons learned was taken by the federal community to improve prevention, preparedness, and response activities. It posits an approach by which one might design a systematic process for information sharing and event response coordination-an approach that will assist federal departments to institutionalize a cross-government lessons learned program.
Laes, Erik (Flemish Inst. for Technological Research (VITO)/Univ. of Antwerp, Div. Transition Energy and Environment, Mol (Belgium)), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Eggermont, Gilbert (Free Univ. of Brussels (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)); Bombaerts, Gunter ((Belgium))
The Belgian nuclear waste management organisation (NIRAS-ONDRAF) has recently started up a public debate on the strategic waste management options for the intermediate- and high-level radioactive waste (cat. B and C waste). This public debate takes place in the context of a (mandatory) strategic environmental impact assessment (SEA) procedure. The paper proposes a critical investigation of four interrelated aspects of this procedure from the point of view of 'good governance': assessment of the remaining uncertainties, guardianship of the democratic process, the organisation of expertise and the interpretation of transgenerational ethics and distributive justice in the new crisis context of globalization and failure of electricity liberalisation. We argue that - in spite of the overall soundness of the geological disposal option - many uncertainties remain: a new technical concept needs to be demonstrated and international financial management needs to be organised. On the process side we argue that although NIRAS-ONDRAF can take up a role as initiator of a public participation process, it can hardly act as a guardian of this process. The debate must be lifted above the local level, opened up to new actors with an active role of the safety authorities and guarded by a non-involved organisation. A condition for success is the creation of critical awareness and the capacity to manage controversy in future with critical expertise. Referring to the RISCOM model for transparent risk communication, we suggest some improvements to the process that is currently taking place
Full Text Available Yungui Plateau in Southwestern China is regarded as one of the major bio- and cultural diversity centers in the world because it contains a remarkable variety of ecological niches and ethnic groups. Due to its unique mountain geographic landscape and domination by a monsoon climate, it has high vulnerabilities and is frequently hit by various climatic and geological hazards such as droughts, floods, earthquakes, and landslides. In the past two decades, while the region has enjoyed rapid social and economic development, vegetation degradation, water pollution and soil loss, as well as other environmental problems, have become major concerns in the region. In January 2008, nearly half of China was hit by an unprecedented series of hazards of low temperature, persistent rain, snow, and a series of ice storms with South China suffering the most. In this paper, with a comprehensive overview of the causes and consequences of the disaster, a disaster chain in Yungui Plateau is identified and environmental, social, economic and political factors are analyzed under a framework of integrated risk governance.
Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...
Climate change is the cause of a variety of new environmental risks, which profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. Maintaining fragile regions, such as the Arctic and protecting them against threats is in this context of utmost importance, as their ecosystems provide many valuable goods and services human well-being depends upon. This thesis offers a definition of climate change induced risks and outlines how they are being governed under existing international, regional and domestic law pe...
Eugene M. Lewit; Coate, Douglas; Grossman, Michael
We examine the impact of three sets of government regulations on the demand for cigarettes by teenagers in the United States. These are: (1) the excise tax on cigarettes, (2) the Fairness Doctrine of the Federal Communications Commission, which resulted in the airing of anti-smoking messages on radio and television from July 1, 1967 to January 1, 1971,and (3) the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970, which banned pro-smoking cigarette advertising on radio and television after January 1...
Full Text Available In this article, the authors seek to emphasize the risk factors that may occur due to not implementing or faultyimplementation of corporate governance for credit institutions, and its role in fraud prevention and detection. To avoidinappropriate governance, top management should have special preoccupations for the development of strategies,developing internal control policies by which to determine and evaluate the risks of the organization. Corporategovernance starts with a broad range of beneficiaries (stakeholders who contribute with resources to an organization(investments, taxes, charitable contributions, etc. Those members are the direct and indirect beneficiaries of theorganizational unit to be regulated. Corporate governance involving several parties: the leadership board, the internalauditors or those of the external environment. In some cases, regulatory authorities or professional associations,contribute to this process.
Full Text Available The evolving concept of e-governance has become one of the leading praxis of the 21st Century. This again reinforces, not just the importance of governance in human societies, but the need to redefine, reappraise, reinvent and redirect the path of governance towards effective and efficient service delivery. The paradigm of Science and Technology therefore presents the leading edge in our contemporary world thereby validating the viability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in governance at diverse levels of operations. This paper, employs secondary data and presents the position that in the light of the fact that e-governance covers areas such as government, citizens and businesses/interest groups, the central place of leadership that will authenticate trust and confidence in the effective delivery of the e-governance protocols therefore becomes an imperative. In the gamut of literature on leadership, this paper identifies authentic leadership as a necessary condition that will facilitate effectiveness and efficiency of e-governance. This paper concludes that since there is a human dimension to the process of e-governance, creating innovative pathways for its effectiveness in Africa calls for authentic leadership which emphasizes constructive and developmental interactions between leaders and followers.
This thesis studies the role of fiscal policy over the business cycle based on a combination of empirical macroeconometric techniques and macroeconomic theory. The focus of the analysis to be conducted is on the impact of government expenditure policies, public debt, and sovereign default risk on
Forman, S; Plante, C; Murray, G; Rey, B; Belton, D; Evans, B; Steinmetz, P
Livestock contributes significantly to the world economy. However, animal diseases and food safety are still major constraints on livestock-sector productivity, economic growth, the reduction of poverty and food security. Efficient and effective governance of Veterinary Services throughout the world is a fundamental requirement for addressing the global animal health and related public health threats. Recent work by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) through the application of the Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) and related Gap Analysis (both of which form part of the PVS Pathway) has indicated that a significant proportion of the national Veterinary Services worldwide do not meet the essential requirements for good governance. This shortcoming poses a significant risk for many developing countries and their trading partners when considered in the context of the growing trade in animal-source foods, and the burgeoning global livestock population. Well-managed, transparent and credible Veterinary Services, in both the public and private sector, are essential for mitigating animal disease risks and ensuring sustainable incomes for vulnerable producers. They are also vital for limiting the public health risks posed by zoonotic diseases. This paper is intended to highlight the impact of governance on the delivery of veterinary services in a development context and the benefits generated by improving veterinary governance. It recognises 'global public good' elements embedded in the good governance of Veterinary Services, and it could also provide an operational development investment roadmap that builds on the OIE PVS Pathway, and innovative financing options based on government commitments supported by donor programmes.
Torenvlied, René; van den Bekerom, P.; Akkerman, A.
The present paper tests the effects of governance structure on organizational performance. While most studies in public management are concerned with the impact of different types of managerial behavior on organizational performance, the context of the governance structure is mostly neglected. The Dutch institutional context is distinctly different from the U.S. context and characterized by schools clustered in boards with specific governance characteristics: legal form, denomination, multipl...
O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S
We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone.
Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effect of corruption on the allocation of government expenditures by function. Equations using pooled panel dataset for 21 OECD countries between 1998 and 2011 were tested, and the findings show that government expenditure on defense and general public services increase, while government expenditures on education, health, recreation, culture and religion decline with higher levels of corruption. This paper presents new results and new evidence on the link between corruption and allocation of government expenditures in OECD countries.
Patrucco, A.S.; Scalera, V.G.; Luzzini, D.
Governing offshoring has become a major challenge for firms that run operations outside the home country. International business (IB) and supply chain management (SCM) literature offer different insights on the topic, focusing especially on possible governance modes and the drivers of this choice,
Muhammad Danial Ariff Burhanudin
Full Text Available The persistent increase of government debt in Malaysia in the recent years has raised con-cerns as to whether the borrowings have spurred the economy or became a drag on econom-ic growth. The present paper investigates the real effect of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach for the period of 1970-2015. The results show there are positive significant long- and short-run relationships between government debt and sustainable economic growth. There is also a unidirectional causality running from government debt to sustainable economic growth. The findings indicate that Malaysia’s government debt is an important macroeconomic element for sustainability of economic growth in Malaysia. There is no evidence, however, to con-clude that the level of government debt had any adverse impacts on sustainable economic growth.
Herring, D.; Lipschultz, F.
As people and organizations grapple with a changing climate amid a range of other factors simultaneously shifting, there is a need for credible, legitimate & salient scientific information in useful formats. In addition, an assessment framework is needed to guide the process of planning and implementing projects that allow communities and businesses to adapt to specific changing conditions, while also building overall resilience to future change. We will discuss how the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) can improve people's ability to understand and manage their climate-related risks and opportunities, and help them make their communities and businesses more resilient. In close coordination with the U.S. Climate Data Initiative, the CRT is continually evolving to offer actionable authoritative information, relevant tools, and subject matter expertise from across the U.S. federal government in one easy-to-use location. The Toolkit's "Climate Explorer" is designed to help people understand potential climate conditions over the course of this century. It offers easy access to downloadable maps, graphs, and data tables of observed and projected temperature, precipitation and other decision-relevant climate variables dating back to 1950 and out to 2100. Since climate is only one of many changing factors affecting decisions about the future, it also ties climate information to a wide range of relevant variables to help users explore vulnerabilities and impacts. New topic areas have been added, such as "Fisheries," "Regions," and "Built Environment" sections that feature case studies and personal experiences in making adaptation decisions. A curated "Reports" section is integrated with semantic web capabilities to help users locate the most relevant information sources. As part of the USGCRP's sustained assessment process, the CRT is aligning with other federal activities, such as the upcoming 4th National Climate Assessment.
Torenvlied, René; van den Bekerom, P.; Akkerman, A.
The present paper tests the effects of governance structure on organizational performance. While most studies in public management are concerned with the impact of different types of managerial behavior on organizational performance, the context of the governance structure is mostly neglected. The
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess whether the Government of Kenya's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (Kenya CT-OVC can reduce the risk of HIV among young people by postponing sexual debut. The program provides an unconditional transfer of US$20 per month directly to the main caregiver in the household. An evaluation of the program was implemented in 2007-2009 in seven districts. Fourteen Locations were randomly assigned to receive the program and fourteen were assigned to a control arm. A sample of households was enrolled in the evaluation in 2007. We revisited these households in 2011 and collected information on sexual activity among individuals between 15-25 years of age. We used logistic regression, adjusted for the respondent's age, sex and relationship to caregiver, the age, sex and schooling of the caregiver and whether or not the household lived in Nairobi at baseline, to compare rates of sexual debut among young people living in program households with those living in control households who had not yet entered the program. Our results, adjusted for these covariates, show that the program reduced the odds of sexual debut by 31 percent. There were no statistically significant effects on secondary outcomes of behavioral risk such as condom use, number of partners and transactional sex. Since the CT-OVC provides cash to the caregiver and not to the child, and there are no explicit conditions associated with receipt, these impacts are indirect, and may have been achieved by keeping young people in school. Our results suggest that large-scale national social cash transfer programs with poverty alleviation objectives may have potential positive spillover benefits in terms of reducing HIV risk among young people in Eastern and Southern Africa.
Capon, Adam; Gillespie, James; Rolfe, Margaret; Smith, Wayne
Policy makers and regulators are constantly required to make decisions despite the existence of substantial uncertainty regarding the outcomes of their proposed decisions. Understanding stakeholder views is an essential part of addressing this uncertainty, which provides insight into the possible social reactions and tolerance of unpredictable risks. In the field of nanotechnology, large uncertainties exist regarding the real and perceived risks this technology may have on society. Better evidence is needed to confront this issue. We undertook a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of the Australian public and a parallel survey of those involved in nanotechnology from the academic, business and government sectors. Analysis included comparisons of proportions and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanotechnology risks both to health and in a range of products. We examined views on four trust actors. The general public's perception of risk was significantly higher than that expressed by other stakeholders. The public bestows less trust in certain trust actors than do academics or government officers, giving its greatest trust to scientists. Higher levels of public trust were generally associated with lower perceptions of risk. Nanotechnology in food and cosmetics/sunscreens were considered riskier applications irrespective of stakeholder, while familiarity with nanotechnology was associated with a reduced risk perception. Policy makers should consider the disparities in risk and trust perceptions between the public and influential stakeholders, placing greater emphasis on risk communication and the uncertainties of risk assessment in these areas of higher concern. Scientists being the highest trusted group are well placed to communicate the risks of nanotechnologies to the public.
Full Text Available European countries, especially urban areas, face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of Flood Risk Management Strategies (FRMSs makes countries more flood resilient. The latter requires innovations in existing Flood Risk Governance Arrangements, development of new arrangements and the coordination of these arrangements, but it also requires these arrangements to be tailored to their physical and institutional context. Within the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD (2012-2016, a comparative analysis and evaluation of flood risk governance in Belgium, England, France, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden has been conducted. The project identified at least seven key issues that are relevant for all researched countries (and probably also beyond. These key issues deal with the topics of (i diversifying Flood Risk Management Strategies (ii establishing connectivity between actors, levels and sectors through what we coin “bridging mechanisms” (iii achieving coproduction between public and private actors; (iv improving fragmented and often non-enforceable rule systems; (v optimising available resources for FRM; (vi operationalising the notion of “diversification of FRM strategies” in a country-specific way; (vii follow general design principles for improving FRM that are sufficiently tailored to local circumstances. Drawing on all project deliverables, this paper will briefly review each key issue, discuss salient similarities and differences between the countries and point at ways forward.
Alsbury, Thomas L., Ed.; Gore, Phil, Ed.
"Improving School Board Effectiveness" offers a clarifying and essential look at the evolving role of school boards and how they contribute to efforts to improve student learning. It examines how board members can establish effective district priorities, and it explores those board policies and actions that result in shared, districtwide…
Samuel Antwi; Frederick Binfor
The research has investigated the effect of corporate governance on strategic change in rural banks in the Eastern Region of Ghana. It was also examined the importance of governance mechanism and strategic decisions on weaknesses and threats to the banks effective operation. It has examined the understanding of ownership, board, and the top management team in strategic change on banks values. It has also revealed the relationship between strategic/policy changes and the bank performance in th...
Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, we proposed a new empirical method by combining generalized autoregressive score functions and a copula model with high-frequency data to model the conditional time-varying joint distribution of the government bond yields between Poland/Czech Republic/Hungary, and Germany. Capturing the conditional time-varying joint distribution of these bond yields allowed us to precisely measure the dependence of the government securities markets. In particular, we found a high dependence of these government securities markets in the long term, but a low dependence in the short term. In addition, we report that the Czech Republic showed the highest dependence with Germany, while Hungary showed the lowest. Moreover, we found that the systemic risk dynamics were consistent with the idea that the global financial crisis not only had spillover effects on countries with weak economic fundamentals (e.g., Hungary, which had the highest systemic risk, but also had contagion effects for both CEEC-3 countries and Germany. Finally, we confirm that three major market events, namely the EU accession, the global financial crisis, and the European debt crisis, caused structural changes to the dynamic correlation.
Wiering, Mark; Kaufmann, M.; Mees, H.; Schellenberger, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hegger, D. L. T.; Larrue, C.; Matczak, P.
Abstract: Floods are challenging the resilience of societies all over the world. In many countries there are discussions on diversifying the strategies for flood risk management, which implies some sort of policy change. To understand the possibilities of such change, a thorough understanding of the forces of stability and change of underlying governance arrangements is required. It follows from the path dependency literature that countries which rely strongly on flood infrastructures, as par...
Ju, Youngkee; Lim, Jeongsub; Shim, Minsun; You, Myoungsoon
An appropriate level of risk perception should be a critical issue in modern "risk society." There have been many studies on the influences on risk perception. This study investigates whether risk communication scholar Dr. Peter Sandman's outrage factors intensify journalistic attention to health risks from food consumption. A content analysis of a health institution's press releases was conducted to examine 15 outrage factors of food risks conveyed in the governmental risk communication. In addition, the news stories covering the food risks informed by the press releases were calculated to evaluate the relation between outrage factors of a risk and the number of news stories covering the risk. Results showed that controllability was the most salient outrage factor, followed by trust, voluntariness, familiarity, and human origin; the greater the outrage score of a risk, the more news stories of the risk. For individual outrage factors, a risk with an implication of catastrophic potential was associated with an increase of news stories. Food providers' distrustful behaviors also influenced journalistic attention to the food risks. The implication of the findings to health message designers is discussed.
Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Vaillant, L. [Centre d' etude sur l' evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine nucleaire - CEPN, 18, route du Panorama, BP 48, 92263 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S. [Mutadis, 3, rue de la Fidelite, 75010 Paris (France); Oudiz, A.; Bourgoignon, F.; Milochevitch, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); PATERSON, J. [University of Westminster, School of Law, 4 Little Titchfield Street, London W1W 7UW (United Kingdom); Brownless, G.; Bandle, T. [Health and Safety Laboratory - HSL, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Hansson, S.O.; Hayenhjelm, M. [Kungliga Tekniska hoegskolan - KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Philosophy Unit, Department of Infrastructure and Planning, Fiskartorpsv 15A, SE-100 44, Stockholm (Sweden)
The objective of the RISKGOV Project is to analyse and identify quality criteria for the governance of industrial activities giving rise to risks to people and the environment from radioactive and chemical discharges during normal operations. For this purpose, RISKGOV aims at: 1) analysing and comparing the elements contributing to the quality of governance systems associated with environmental discharges from nuclear and chemical installations; 2) providing a series of criteria to assess the quality of the governance of risk activities. In total, 8 case studies were conducted, covering radioactive and chemical releases related to local and international contexts and referring to innovative risk governance processes in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom: - The role of local liaison committees with regard to the management of discharges of installations: - France: Local liaison committee of the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, - Sweden: Local liaison committees of the Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant and the Rohm and Hass Chemical installation, - The dialogue process during the preparation of re-authorisation of radioactive discharges: - France: COGEMA-La Hague facility, - United-Kingdom: Devonport Royal Dockyard, - The dialogue process in a regional context: - France: Management of air quality around the industrial site of Etang de Berre, - The dialogue process in an international context: - Implementation of the OSPAR Convention for chemical and radioactive releases, - The abandonment of the Brent Spar offshore platform. The analysis was performed by a multidisciplinary research team and based notably on interviews with key stakeholders directly involved in these innovative risk governance processes. The following dimensions were addressed: a) The guiding principles of the decision-making process; b) The role of expertise; c) The stakeholders involvement process; d) The factors integrated into the decision-framing and decision-taking processes; e) The
Davies, Andy; Chapman, Ysanne; Boyd, Mary
The notion of role clarity, and its impact on clinical governance, has not been previously considered within academic literature. The purpose of this research article was to add to theoretical knowledge surrounding the clinical governance and the effect that role clarity has on governance operationally. The context of Irish health care and Irish hospital boards is used to explore this phenomenon. A mixed-methods approach was used to appreciate the central phenomenon. The doctoral dissertation this article was drawn from identified that the adoption of similar or consistent structures and processes between Irish acute care hospitals would aid efficiencies, both human and cost, on multiple levels. Ultimately, the article concludes that role clarity is a significant component in the determination of effective health care. Hospital boards and their individual members should be cognizant of the implications of role clarity and its impact on effective and efficient clinical governance.
Despite considerable international literature acknowledging issues associated with the effectiveness of university academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates), there is little current empirical research exploring why difficulties might exist and what (if anything) might be done about them. This article reports the findings…
Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J
The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Collins C Ngwakwe
Full Text Available This paper examines the possible influence of violent protests on the effectiveness of governance in South Africa. South Africa continues to experience huge number of labour as well as popular municipal service delivery protests. The popular social view with ensuing protests has often pointed at governance inefficiency as the cause of violent protests. This paper adopts a slightly different view in its analysis of violent protests and instead looks at possible influence of violence as possible instigator of ineffective governance. The paper is conceptually rooted in reviews – combined with simple regression test of possible relationship between violent protest and governance effectiveness. The authors also present an examination of probable relationship between violent protests and governance effectiveness using observation of macro-economic data trends from the World Bank. The findings reveal a probable weakening in governance effectiveness or its perception thereof as a result of violent protests. Amongst others, violent protests produces a psyche of perpetual victimhood that leads to further violence resulting in less value attached to lives, destruction of economic property, increases pollution, production stoppages for goods and services and in turn depletes government revenue generation and frustrates international investors. We postulate that under condition explained above, government effectiveness in managing public resources becomes weakened and may lead to wastage and inefficiency as the resources and revenues employed in controlling violent protests are unplanned and do not often lead to constructive and sustainable public policy. We suggest that this condition therefore may result in reduction in economic growth which in turn perpetuates the same weaknesses that led to society protests and violence.
Full Text Available South Africa’s population has risen from 40.5 million in 1996 to 44.8 million in 2001 and to 51.77 in 2011. Africans are in majority making 79.2% of the whole population. About 22.3% of blacks have received no schooling with the unemployment rate of the blacks at 28.1%. Most of these unemployed and uneducated blacks are found in rural areas. This compelled government to introduce Developmental Local government. Developmental Local government refers to the layer of public service that has the capacity to deliver and account to the people in a responsive, accountable, and efficient manner. It is also described as a sphere that encourages community participation in matters of governance and developmental initiatives. However, Developmental Local government is hindered by continuous growth of population which is likely to lead to overpopulation. Overpopulation is characterised by lack of basic resources such as water and food. Developmental Local government on the other hand is expected to deliver on these needs. Lack of fulfilment of goals of Developmental Local government is attributed to lack of effective communication between local government and community members. Although population growth is not attributed only to high birth rate, governments around the continent have introduced measures to encourage healthy reproductive life. However, this needs community members that are self-motivated to be active participants in government initiatives. This is not achievable as there is an indication of lack of effective communication. This paper’s main focus is the provision of effective communication model at local sphere which will see community members working together with government on matters of their own development including initiatives to preserve limited resources amid the challenges of overpopulation. This paper is based on the qualitative study on effectiveness of communication in Mutale local municipality on the enhancement of
Meng, M.; Dabrowski, M.M.; Hein, Carola
Based on the framework of governance adapted from the work of Patsy Healey and drawing on the case of Guangzhou, which is regarded as the most vulnerable city in China to flooding and waterlogging, this paper adds to the literature on urban climate change adaptation. It does so by shedding light on
Full Text Available Electricity is a vital factor underlying modern living standards, but there are many developing countries with low levels of electricity access and use. We seek to systematically identify the crucial elements underlying transitions toward greater electrification in developing countries. We use a cross-sectional regression approach with national-level data up to 2012 for 135 low- and middle-income countries. The paper finds that the effectiveness of governments is the most important governance attribute for encouraging the transition to increased electrification in developing countries, on average. The results add to the growing evidence on the importance of governance for development outcomes. Donors seeking to make more successful contributions to electrification may wish to target countries with more effective governments.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the political effects of the tragedy of Romanian Club Collective resulted in street demonstrations which led to the dismissal of the Ponta government and establishment consisting of the new government composed of technicians, led by Prime Minister Dacian Cioloș. Political executive in the government program, aimed transparency, depoliticization and cutting red tape in public administration. Starting discussions about regionalization and rationalization of public expenditure, as well as organization of local and parliamentary elections is the purpose of the current government, while the political parties have the opportunity to reform, as required by the tragedy caused by the club Collective. Political parties understood that reforming the political class can not be done only by a transitional apolitical government and in this regard they have validated and voted on this government composed of experts, which is supported in Parliament. The government technocrats program and decisions will be analyzed in this article, highlighting the technical dimension of the political decision.
Full Text Available Operational risk management in banking has assumed such importance during the last decade. It has become increasingly important to measure, manage, and assess the impact of operational risk in the economics of banking. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an effective operational risk management provides mitigating effects on capital-at-risk in banking. The paper provides evidences that an implementation of an operational risk transfer strategy reduces bank capital requirement. The paper adopts the loss distribution approach, the Monte Carlo simulation, and copula methodologies to estimate the regulatory capital and simulate an operational risk transfer strategy in banking.
Full Text Available Research has shown that risk tolerance increases when multiple decisions and associated outcomes are presented together in a broader ``bracket'' rather than one at a time. The present studies disentangle the influence of problem bracketing (presenting multiple investment options together from that of outcome bracketing (presenting the aggregated outcomes of multiple decisions, factors which have been deliberately confounded in previous research. In the standard version of the bracketing task, in which participants decide how much of an initial endowment to invest into each in a series of repeated, identical gambles, we find a problem bracketing effect but not an outcome bracketing effect. However, this pattern of results does not generalize to the cases of non-identical gambles nor discrete choice, where we fail to find the standard bracketing effect.
Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas
Full Text Available The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24 banks or 72 observations during 2011-2013. The results showed that 23 banks had low risk and low to moderate risk, and only one bank had moderate risk. The results also showed that inherent risk profile rating is equivalent to capital adequacy. In other words, inherent risk profile of these banks have complied with Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012. Furthermore, this study indicated that GCG has significant and positive influence on the company value, while the inherent risk has no influence on the company value. Overall, this study suggest that go public banks in Indonesia are one of good alternative means of investment for its soundness as reflected by the fulfillment of minimum capital ratio required by the regulator.
Penning-Rowsell, E.C.; de Vries, W.S.; Parker, D.J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Simmonds, D.; Trifonova, E.; Hissel, F.; Monbaliu, J.; Lendzion, J.; Ohle, N.; Diaz, P.; Bouma, T.
The nature of coastal risk management is changing, away from an engineering-dominated approach seeking to defend against the sea, to one where risks are managed using a portfolio of measures usually incorporating an acceptance of a finite standards of protection. Inherent in the modern approach is
The aim of the research is to analyze how the service quality of Indonesian government affect student’s satisfaction in the education field. Data collection was conducted in September 2016 through distributing questionnaires to 132 students at private universities in south Tangerang city. Sampling used incidental sampling method, while data analysis is descriptive, qualitative and quantitative, which were analyzed with the Importance Performance Analysis. The survey results revealed that the satisfaction level of the students of South Tangerang good enough to service of the Government in higher education sector with a value of 83.61 using Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI). Nevertheless, there are several factors that should be prioritized for immediate enhanced, namely: government’s ability to respond effectively to solve the problems in the academic world, fairness of the government in providing assistance to both state and private universities and attention of the government to higher education.
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of employees' and special Government... Employment and Financial Interests § 200.735-123 Effect of employees' and special Government employees... statements required of employees and special Government employees are in addition to, and not in substitution...
Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon
This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.
Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that “suicide can be prevented”. Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan.
Full Text Available Flood risk management in the context of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM is becoming widely accepted as an approach to improving resilience in light of increasing flood risks due to climate change and other factors. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the governance arrangements needed for effectively implement integrated approaches to managing flood risk. We compare how IWRM and flood risk management have been operationalized within “top-down” and “bottom-up” governance arrangements in the European Union and the United States. We focus in particular on two case study regions, the Catalan coastal region in Spain and the San Francisco Bay Area in California, which have strong similarities in economy, climate, and environmental values, but different institutional settings. Our findings contribute empirical evidence of the need for a balance between “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches. While the San Francisco Bay Area’s strongly collaborative and participatory approach has generated new connections among flood managers and other stakeholders, the lack of a central entity with the capacity and mandate for on-going coordination and region-wide risk assessments appears to constrain its ability to support integrated and adaptive management. The European Union’s top-down approach and the presence of a central authority at the river basin scale have led to a consolidated regional plan in Catalonia encompassing all phases of flood risk management, but the degree of engagement and opportunities for knowledge-sharing among participants may be more limited.
The study examines the effects of oil spillage on soil fertility in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, with the aim of determining the effects of oil spillage on physical and chemical properties of the soils. Soil samples were collected from two experimental sites namely: oil polluted and non oil polluted plots in the study ...
Di Iorio, C T; Carinci, F; Oderkirk, J
The European Union (EU) Data Protection Regulation will have profound implications for public health, health services research and statistics in Europe. The EU Commission's Proposal was a breakthrough in balancing privacy rights and rights to health and healthcare. The European Parliament, however, has proposed extensive amendments. This paper reviews the amendments proposed by the European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs and their implications for health research and statistics. The amendments eliminate most innovations brought by the Proposal. Notably, derogation to the general prohibition of processing sensitive data shall be allowed for public interests such as the management of healthcare services,but not health research, monitoring, surveillance and governance. The processing of personal health data for historical, statistical or scientific purposes shall be allowed only with the consent of the data subject or if the processing serves an exceptionally high public interest, cannot be performed otherwise and is legally authorised. Research, be it academic, government,corporate or market research, falls under the same rule.The proposed amendments will make difficult or render impossible research and statistics involving the linkage and analysis of the wealth of data from clinical,administrative, insurance and survey sources, which have contributed to improving health outcomes and health systems performance and governance; and may illegitimise efforts that have been made in some European countries to enable privacy-respectful data use for research and statistical purposes. If the amendments stand as written, the right to privacy is likely to override the right to health and healthcare in Europe.
Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Schaer, Caroline
, as large segments of the urban population in West Africa are not offered the public services, infrastructure and protective regulations needed in order to respond to floods. Through an empirically grounded approach, the article shows that the ability to respond to floods is formed largely outside the realm...... of the state in a poor peri-urban municipality of Pikine, Dakar. The authors show how the organization of collective services pertaining to flood response and climate change adaptation is maintained through co-production among service users and providers entailing a mixture of diverse governance modes...
Full Text Available Effective IT governance helps ensure that IT supports business goals, optimizes business investment in IT, and appropriately manages IT-related risks and opportunities. Organizations that realize the IT is no longer a support process and embeds value and risks need a structured approach for better managing Information Technology, enable its capability to deliver added value enterprise wide and for setting up a risk management program to address new risks arising for usage of IT in business processes. In order to assess if IT Governance is in line with industry practices, IT Auditors need a good understanding of processes and applicable standards, particular audit work programs and experience in assessing potential problem indicators.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the Helsinki Declaration was introduced in 1964 as a code of practice for clinical research, it has generally been agreed that research governance is also needed in the field of public health and health promotion research. Recently, a range of factors led to the development of more stringent bureaucratic procedures, governing the conduct of low-risk population-based health research in the United Kingdom. Methods Our paper highlights a case study of the application process to medical research ethics committees in the United Kingdom for a study of the promotion of physical activity by health care providers. The case study presented here is an illustration of the challenges in conducting low-risk population-based health research. Results Our mixed-methods approach involved a questionnaire survey of and semi-structured interviews with health professionals (who were all healthy volunteers. Since our study does not involve the participation of either patients or the general population, one would expect the application to the relevant research ethics committees to be a formality. This proved not to be the case! Conclusion Research ethics committees could be counter-productive, rather than protecting the vulnerable in the research process, they can stifle low-risk population-based health research. Research ethics in health services research is first and foremost the responsibility of the researcher(s, and we need to learn to trust health service researchers again. The burden of current research governance regulation to address the perceived ethical problems is neither appropriate nor adequate. Senior researchers/academics need to educate and train students and junior researchers in the area of research ethics, whilst at the same time reducing pressures on them that lead to unethical research, such as commercial funding, inappropriate government interference and the pressure to publish. We propose that non-invasive low-risk
Full Text Available There is a great awareness among the researchers to carry out researches on corporate governance and it contributes to the firms’ competitive advantage and business success. In today’s turbulent economic environment, competitiveness has become more important than ever for a firm’s survival and success. However, there is a gap in studies focusing on corporate governance and capital structure in the context of Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to empirically investigate whether attributes of corporate governance affect decisions on capital structure of listed companies in Sri Lanka. The sample of the study consisted of 138 non-financial listed companies for five-year period from 2009 to 2013. Board size, board composition, leadership structure, board committees, and managerial ownership were used as corporate governance variables whereas debt ratio as the measure of capital structure and return on assets (ROA and firm size as control variables. The variables were empirically tested by multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that there is no significant effect of corporate governance attributes except board composition & board committee on capital structure. The variable of board composition has a significant positive effect and board committee has a negative effect on capital structure.
This abstract relates to the following paper: Klumpes P. , Ledlie C. , Fahey F. , Kakar G. and Styles S. Incentives facing UK-listed companies to comply with the risk reporting provisions of the UK corporate governance code...
Full Text Available The full value of benefits rendered from healthy watersheds is difficult to estimate, and ecosystem service (ES valuation sometimes necessarily occurs in the form of costs incurred or avoided. Along these lines, social-ecological systems including Payment for Watershed Services (PWS are increasing in frequency and can help land management entities to bridge budget shortfalls for funding needed watershed restoration forestry treatments. The Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project (FWPP is a bond-financed wildfire risk mitigation partnership and PWS program in Northern Arizona, the only forest management project that utilizes a municipal bond as the financial mechanism in conjunction with a partnership governance structure to invest in federal land management. The purpose of this research was to describe this new governance structure to understand the potential benefits to communities and federal land management agencies for protecting watershed services. Data were derived from document review and key informant interviews (n = 9. FWPP institutional design and governance structures were tailored to maximize community strengths and encompassed several advantages over traditional federal land management models; these advantages include increased collaboration and institutional support, financial security, and public approval. The FWPP represents an innovative PWS system that can help showcase unique community and federal forest management partnerships that benefit watershed health in western US communities.
Navare, Jyoti; Gemikonakli, Orhan
Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information stored in and/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were not immune to attacks; they were also "hacked" and overtaken by intruders. Incidents of recent years have also shown that national/regional crisis may also trigger cyber attacks at large scale. Experts forecast that cyber wars are likely to take the stage as tension mounts between developed societies. New risks such as cyber-attacks, network terrorism and disintegration of traditional infrastructures has somewhat blurred the boundaries of operation and control. This paper seeks to consider the risk management and governance and looking more specifically at implications for emerging economies.
Engeman, Cassandra D. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Sociology (United States); Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Satterfield, Terre A. [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States); Holden, Patricia A. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Harthorn, Barbara Herr, E-mail: email@example.com [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States)
Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders' perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated 'lack of information' as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders' reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.
Full Text Available We examine effects of government spending on postdoctoral researchers' (postdocs productivity in biomedical sciences, the largest population of postdocs in the US. We analyze changes in the productivity of postdocs before and after the US government's 1997 decision to increase NIH funding. In the first round of analysis, we find that more government spending has resulted in longer postdoc careers. We see no significant changes in researchers' productivity in terms of publication and conference presentations. However, when the population is segmented by citizenship, we find that the effects are heterogeneous; US citizens stay longer in postdoc positions with no change in publications and, in contrast, international permanent residents (green card holders produce more conference papers and publications without significant changes in postdoc duration. Possible explanations and policy implications of the analysis are discussed.
, the textbook risk profile of centre-right parties’ electorates allows them to cut back on labour market-related schemes since these parties get negligible support from workers and low income voters. Conducting a comparative case study of recent Danish and Swedish centre-right governments, this article analyses......-related welfare schemes. Second, I argue that the leeway on labour market-related schemes is contingent on the actual risk profile of the centre-right’s electorate, and thereby move beyond the stylised assumptions from recent literature. In this respect, the Danish centre-right did, in contrast to its Swedish......Recent theoretical advances in the welfare state literature have outlined the differences between labour market- and life course-related schemes as centre-right parties have difficulties in enacting retrenchment on life course-related schemes because they concern every voter. In contrast...
Felicia Gabriela UNGUREANU
Full Text Available Internal Audit, compared with verification of transactions and compliance with established procedures, identify risks and assess the effectiveness of risk management.Internal audit based on risk analysis assesses the adequacy and effectiveness of internal control in all areas of activity, helps management in its task by analyzing the causes and consequences, with recommendations concerning the activities examined, whereas both shareholders and existing and potential investors are interested in how the entity is governed.
Full Text Available As external development partners have put on hold their financial support for Moldova, contracting loans from China sparks an increasing interest. Because debates on this topic take place with very little information available, in this article we have made a synthesis of official data disseminated by the Chinese authorities, estimations made by the OECD and other organizations, records from the archive of the National Bank of Moldova, documents from the state register of legal acts, as well as of data published by the press. The results show that, although loans provided by the Chinese government are not an alternative to the loans offered by the IMF and other traditional creditors for budget and balance of payments support, they have a range of peculiar advantages and can be a convenient means of financing projects in the area of energy, industry, and agriculture.
Eklund, Johanna; Cabeza, Mar
Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool for biodiversity conservation and play a central role in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Recently, the effectiveness of PAs has been questioned, and assessing how effective they are in enabling the future persistence of biodiversity is not trivial. Here, we focus on terrestrial PAs and clarify the terminology related to PA effectiveness, distinguishing between management and ecological aspects. We suggest that the quality of governance affects both aspects of effectiveness but recognize a lack of synthetic understanding of the topic. We present a conceptual framework linking the underlying mechanisms by which the quality of governance affects conservation outcomes in PAs and how this relates to conservation planning. We show that it is crucial to separate pressure and response and how these together will lead to the observed conservation outcomes. We urge for more focused attention on governance factors and in particular more empirical research on how to address causality and how to account for the quality of governance when prioritizing actions. Our framework is linked to the classic concepts of systematic conservation planning and clarifies the strategies available to achieve a comprehensive and effective network of PAs. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.
Martell, Meritxell; Duro, L.; Bruno, J. [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)
Continuing societal concerns limit the application of deep geological disposal in many countries. Wider societal involvement at a variety of governance levels in an open, inclusive and transparent manner is a top-level concern in all European and national organisations involved in radioactive waste management. Nevertheless, current approaches to governance of spent fuel reveal two weaknesses. Firstly, local and regional communities lack access to an authoritative yet independent platform of experts to address their concerns and information needs in a systematic way and which could provide them with the sufficient knowledge base as to be able to take sound decisions concerning the long-term. Secondly, the difficulties to maintain sufficient level of knowledge and capabilities at educational institutions become a challenge to ensure long-term solutions for the management of radioactive waste. The EC 6th FP Integrated Project 'Fundamental Processes of Radionuclide Migration' (FUNMIG) places a special emphasis on knowledge transfer, dissemination of knowledge and training. Within the framework of FUNMIG, one of the instruments for knowledge production and use is the establishment of a Science Shop at the European level. This Science Shop provides independent, participatory research support in response to concerns expressed by civil society on nuclear issues. The FUNMIG Consortium involves 51 organisations from 15 European countries which are eager to develop formalised channels of communication with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and citizens' groups in need of expertise on the nuclear field. The Science Shop will further ease the transparency of knowledge production and raise public awareness of the problems associated with radioactive waste management.
Management Strategies in an Uncertain World, Palisades, New York, April 12-13, 2002, 12. 183 Lennart Sjoberg, Bjorg -Elin Moen, Torbjorn Rundmo, Explaining...Make Decisions. Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press. 1998. Lennart Sjoberg, Bjorg -Elin Moen, Torbjorn Rundmo. Explaining Risk Perception: An Evaluation
Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential
Kohei Arai; Youm Jong Sun
Case study on validation of effeteness of Business Procedure Reengineering: BPR for local government in Saga prefecture, Japan is conducted. As the results, if it found that BPR is effective. The local government, environment established a government CIO room introduction of a number system was a long-cherished wish is determined in 2013, it is possible to promote e- government and e-municipality and the banner of great incredibly plan called "world-leading creative nation" is being put into ...
Ajakaye, Oluwaremilekun G; Adedeji, Oluwatola I; Ajayi, Paul O
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease and its distribution, in space and time, can be influenced by environmental factors such as rivers, elevation, slope, land surface temperature, land use/cover and rainfall. The aim of this study is to identify the areas with suitable conditions for schistosomiasis transmission on the basis of physical and environmental factors derived from satellite imagery and spatial analysis for Akure North Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo State. Nigeria. This was done through methodology multicriteria evaluation (MCE) using Saaty's analytical hierarchy process (AHP). AHP is a multi-criteria decision method that uses hierarchical structures to represent a problem and makes decisions based on priority scales. In this research AHP was used to obtain the mapping weight or importance of each individual schistosomiasis risk factor. For the purpose of identifying areas of schistosomiasis risk, this study focused on temperature, drainage, elevation, rainfall, slope and land use/land cover as the factors controlling schistosomiasis incidence in the study area. It is by reclassifying and overlaying these factors that areas vulnerable to schistosomiasis were identified. The weighted overlay analysis was done after each factor was given the appropriate weight derived through the analytical hierarchical process. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the study area was also determined by parasitological analysis of urine samples collected through random sampling. The results showed varying risk of schistosomiasis with a larger portion of the area (82%) falling under the high and very high risk category. The study also showed that one community (Oba Ile) had the lowest risk of schistosomiasis while the risk increased in the four remaining communities (Iju, Igoba, Ita Ogbolu and Ogbese). The predictions made by the model correlated strongly with observations from field study. The high risk zones corresponded to known endemic communities. This
Christina D. Romer; David H. Romer
...; indeed, the point estimates suggest that tax cuts increase spending. The results also indicate that the main effect of tax cuts on the government budget is to induce subsequent legislated tax increases. Examination of four episodes of major tax cuts reinforces these conclusions.
Y. Feng (Ying)
markdownabstractHow to assess and improve the effectiveness of corporate governance to accommodate the demands of strategic decision making has been one of the top concerns among both scholars and practitioners. While extensive research has taken an economic view when investigating corporate
Hamlin, Robert G.; Serventi, Susan A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a "partnership-research" study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour within the "local government" setting of the Wolverhampton City Council Social Care Department, and to describe how the research supports and challenges the organisation's existing…
Schreuder, B.E.C.; Ward, D.E.
This case study describes the efforts by both non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies to develop an alternative system for delivering animal health services in Afghanistan, during a period in which there was effectively no government. The authors examine the period from the
Fugini, Maria Grazia; Valles, Ramon Salvador
This book explores the factors that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of electronic government (e-Government) by analyzing two employment- service systems in Italy and Catalonia: the Borsa Lavoro Lombardia Portal (Lombardy Employment Services Portal) and the Servei d'Ocupació de Catalunya (Catalan Employment Services Portal). The evaluation methodology used in the case studies and the related set of technical, social, and economic indicators are clearly described. The technological and organizational features of the systems of the two systems are then compared and their impacts assessed
Zhang Yuan; Li Ming-De; Zhang Hong-Bang
The rapid development of media technology makes the modern society become a “social media” or even “over social media”, the rise of social media makes it beyond the tool attribute, and become an important force in the reconstruction of contemporary society, the risk of concomitant. The anomie and breach of Social media regularly staged, weakened its positive social function, forcing us to think about the social responsibility of social media,which are reflections on the lack of responsibility...
Safdar Husain Tahir
Full Text Available This study observed empirically the impact of corporate governance index on dividend payout policy by using the data of seventeen textile firms listed in Karachi Stock Exchange. The data covered the five years period from 2009 to 2013. The data were gathered from financial statements of all the sample firms. Multiple regression models were used to check the impact of corporate governance on dividend policy. No effect of corporate governance index on firm dividend policy was found, and the largest shareholders also had no impact on dividend pay-out policy. The association between payout policy and stock value was found to be significant positive. Gross profit margin and operating profit margin had significant positive impact on firm’s dividend payout policy. There is a significant correlation between firm performance and payout policy.
Full Text Available Improving government performance has been a key goal of regulatory reforms. Cost effectiveness, co-operation and bottom-up approach, flexibility, dynamics, responsiveness are important attributes of reforms. Improvements in regulatory performance include targets to reduce administrative burdens, and information technology is one of the tools that could be used for achieving that goal. The paper presents the use of information communication technology (ICT in government procedures and its impact on the cost-efficiency of government. The research focuses on investment in ICT to simplify tax procedures in Slovenia. Results show that ICT expenditure is higher than cost savings for tax administration and taxpayers. Nevertheless, several non-financial benefits are also important and should be considered.
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the changes in accounting surplus (loss, equity and assets, and liabilities as a result of accounting policy changes from the Australian Accounting Standards (AAS to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Australian local government entities. Using the reconciliation notes disclosed by 117 local government entities, evidence is provided on the effects of IFRS adoption by identifying the key items that of difference between IFRS and AASB. The results show some differences between two sets of accounts prepared under these different accounting standards. While the average surplus (loss of local councils has decreased, their equities, assets and liabilities have increased, with no major significant changes in their overall financial position, except for liabilities. These results indicate the possible consequences of the adoption of IFRS by local government entities in other countries on performance indicators who have or are yet to implement these standards.
Barkemeyer, Ralf; Preuss, Lutz; Lee, Lindsay
The increasing involvement of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in global governance has been both applauded for its potential to make governance more effective and criticized for lacking democratic legitimization. Hence we investigate the effectiveness of one transnational governance regime, corporate sustainability reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). We found that the GRI has been successful in terms of output effectiveness by promoting the dissemination of sustaina...
Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms. PMID:26703709
Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Jebens, Martin
of the EU Floods Directive and of municipal level climate adaptation plans in Denmark, we explore shortcomings in the ways we coordinate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation (CCA) between scientists, decision- and policymakers, and the public inrelation to coastal flooding...... and vulnerabilities in the coastal zone. Major topics are: i) No political and financial links between DRM, where budgets are reduced for preparedness etc, and CCA where there is only a vague political opinion on how to proceed; ii) The gap must be closed between academia based provision of tools and maps...
Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms.
Raza, Sajjad; Sheikh, Muhammad Adil; Hussain, Muhammad Fawwad Ahmed; Siddiqui, Saad Ebrahim; Muhammad, Rabia; Aziz, Sina; Qamar, Salima; Saleem, Mohammad Azfar; Waki, Nida; Faruqi, Hina; Zia, Aisha
To determine the prevalence of major risk factors including dietary modification, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP) and physical activity in medical students of government teaching hospitals of Karachi. A cross sectional study was conducted on students of Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan through a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Non-probability purposive sampling was used. Smoking, hypertension, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), overweight and low physical activity levels are risk factors the presence of which can lead to development of CVD. Prevalence of these risk factors was determined by asking appropriate questions and through measurement of BMI and blood pressure for overweight and hypertension respectively. Awareness of risk factors was determined through knowledge of the effect of various food substances on development of CVD and of adoption of dietary changes keeping in mind the risk of developing CVD. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. A total of 132 medical students were included in the study of which 57 (43.2%) and 75 (56.8%) were male and female respectively with mean age of 20.85 +/- 1.21 years. About 15.9% of students had elevated blood pressure i.e. > or = 140/90 mmHg. Twenty eight percent of the total students were found to be underweight and 17.4% were overweight, 5% had some history of CVD, 56.8% had family history of CVD, 9.4% were smokers and 29.5% had high physical activity level. About 87.1% had modified their diet for preventing CVD. Most of the students had adequate knowledge about the cardiovascular risk factors Majority of students were not overweight. A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; family history and elevated blood pressure was present. Awareness in terms of knowledge was satisfactory but implementation in terms of diet modification and adequate physical activity was lacking.
Lebanon faces the risk of powerful earthquakes with potentially devastating effects. However, the Lebanese people in general have not yet recognized this risk, as current educational programs and government officials have failed to inform them about it. This article discusses the essential role that Lebanese institutions of higher education should…
Grandl, Paul R.; Youngblood, Alisha D.; Componation, Paul; Gholston, Sampson
In January 2004, President Bush announced a new vision for space exploration. This included retirement of the current Space Shuttle fleet by 2010 and the development of new set of launch vehicles. The President's vision did not include significant increases in the NASA budget, so these development programs need to be cost conscious. Current trade study procedures address factors such as performance, reliability, safety, manufacturing, maintainability, operations, and costs. It would be desirable, however, to have increased insight into the cost factors behind each of the proposed system architectures. This paper reports on a set of component trade studies completed on the upper stage engine for the new launch vehicles. Increased insight into architecture costs was developed by including a Net Present Value (NPV) method and applying a set of associated risks to the base parametric cost data. The use of the NPV method along with the risks was found to add fidelity to the trade study and provide additional information to support the selection of a more robust design architecture.
Wendl, Mary J; Cramer, Mary E
Agricultural Centers are a coalition of organizations and individual members with a common purpose: to improve the health and safety of the agricultural community. Successful leadership and governance are essential in accomplishing these goals. This article examined the effectiveness of a midwestern Agricultural Health and Safety Center (Ag Center) leadership and governance structure. The Internal Coalition Outcomes Hierarchy (ICOH) framework and the Internal Coalition Effectiveness (ICE©) instrument were used, with field visit interviews conducted to gain further insight. Combined comparative findings from both research methods showed that scores in each of the categories increased. Adjustments led to stronger collaborative leadership, vital to successful population health improvement programs. This study showcases coalition qualities in a broader environment, capturing a clearer depiction of leadership and member interaction. Field visit interviews confirmed that this midwestern Ag Center continued to have strong levels of effectiveness in each of the conceptual constructs of a coalition.
Hyland, Philip E.; McLaughlin, Christopher G.; Boduszek, Daniel; Prentice, Garry R.
The study set out to examine intentions to engage in counselling among at-risk Irish government employees and the differential utility of two alternative theory of planned behaviour (TPB) models of behaviour to explain intentions to participate in counselling. Individuals (N = 259) employed in a front-line, at-risk occupation for the Irish…
Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Van Mierlo, M.C.L.M.; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.
A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular
Olga Cecilia Díaz Flórez
Full Text Available This article contextualize social and educational policies in the forms of government intervention characterized by a pragmatism at keeps the suction set "friendly approaches to the market" which will swing less to greater coordination between them. These reforms, which are governed by the growth stimulated by the market are based on government practices, which combine two important strategies that provide flexibility: the global frame design with different ways to achieve the focused objectives in the growth and use of OMCs operating with a degree of variability which are monitored through regular monitoring ongoing for several organizations and social partners. Thus, the purpose of this discussion is to understand the place of politics in contemporary forms of government, analyzing both the scope as the questions related to the reform process driven by the Bologna Declaration. Besides this, the debate deepens the affectations of policies generated in countries like Colombia, showing how one of its most visible effects is presented by the guidelines for skills and the mass evaluation, conceived as a strategic place, as a kind of hinge, which seeks to articulate the world education with the productive sector. To illustrate some of the effects produced by these strategies of government, the text also thematizes the new issues raised, particularly the level of hierarchy, stratification and inequality derived from forms of social regulation undertaken in higher education that took place in Colombia in the last decade. In conclusion presents a few current guidelines from the environment experienced in recent years in the country, showing that a reform in higher education confirms this trend .; but it managed to contain this movement thanks to the active role of the student movement which secured the transforming role of education, the nature of the common good that belongs to all of society making possible the opportunity to provide a dignified life
Lützen, Marie; Friis-Hansen, Peter
, as a result, the community will undoubtedly observe an increase in navigational safety. However, to the authors? knowledge, no study has so far rigorously quantified the risk reducing effect of using AIS as an integrated part of the navigational system. The objective of this study is to fill this gap....... The risk reducing effect of AIS is quantified by building a Bayesian network facilitating an evaluation of the effect of AIS on the navigational officer?s reaction ability in a potential, critical collision situation. The time-dependent change in the risk reducing effect on ship collisions is analysed...... during the implementation phase until the full enforcement of AIS in July 2008. The evaluation is performed for vessels navigating in world-wide operational routes. Furthermore, two different bridge systems are compared, a conventional bridge and a bridge equipped for solo watch keeping. It is found...
Elena A. Frolova
Full Text Available In the paper the author's view on the role of government in promoting social responsibility of business and the individual is described. The main features of the socio-economic situation in Russia today are presented (horizontal and vertical mobility of the population, a small number of organizations and the extra-centralized public authorities, the predominance of personal relations between economic agents. The necessity of increasing the role of individuals and businesses in the social system is substantiated and the basic directions of activity are suggested (prosocial preferences, interpersonal trust, redistribution of social responsibility. Transparency and accountability of public authorities are very powerful tool to improve the quality of governance and it is one of the important conditions for the social responsibility, as well as to economic performance in modern Russia. The legitimacy of government is a multidimensional issue. And if we take into account the Russian features it is necessary to point out public control and enforcement, quality of formal institutions, and effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms. Also governance is important to enhance quality of regulation.
Jul 2, 2014 ... Anton Cartwright is the co-leader of an IDRC-funded project that studied how cities like Cape Town can best implement effective decision-making processes within the context of climate change adaptation and high levels of informality. Cities often tend to respond to climate change with complicated, ...
Boussalis, Constantine; Nelson, Hal T; Swaminathan, Siddharth
We present what we believe is the first empirical research that accounts for subnational government capacity in estimating malaria incidence. After controlling for relevant extrinsic factors, we find evidence of a negative effect of state government capacity on reported malaria cases in Indian states over the period 1993-2002. Government capacity is more successful in predicting malaria incidence than potentially more direct indicators such as state public health expenditures and economic development levels. We find that high government capacity can moderate the deleterious health effects of malaria in rice producing regions. Our research also suggests that government capacity may have exacerbated the effectiveness of the World Bank Malaria Control Project in India over the period studied. We conclude by proposing the integration of government capacity measures into existing planning efforts, including vulnerability mapping tools and disease surveillance efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Zuurmond, Arre
To enhance the quality of their online service delivery, many government organizations seek to transform their organization beyond merely setting up a front office. This transformation includes elements such as the formation of service delivery chains, the adoption of a management strategy supporting process orientation and the implementation of enterprise architecture. This paper explores whether undertaking this transformation has a positive effect on the quality of online service delivery, using data gathered from seventy local governments. We found that having an externally oriented management strategy in place, adopting enterprise architecture, aligning information systems to business and sharing activities between processes and departments are positively related to the quality of online service delivery. We recommend that further research should be carried out to find out whether dimensions of organizational development too have an effect on online service delivery in the long term.
Full Text Available This study aims to explore how environmental, social and governance (ESG consistency impacts the firm performance, specifically, the relationship between ESG performance and economic performance (EP. This study posits that the company’s commitment and effectiveness towards the creation of consistent competitive advantage in environmental, social and governance dimensions constitutes an intangible value that leads improvements in corporate performance. This work uses a panel dataset for listed firms of the EU-15 countries during the period 2002 to 2011 and applies Generalized method of moments (GMM estimator system in order to address the potential unobserved heterogeneity and dynamic endogeneity. The main results reveal that the global effect of ESG performance on EP for those firms that present interdimensional consistency is greater than the rest, except for higher levels of ESG performance.
Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen; Alexander, Melody W.
This study examined the user-interface characteristics and effectiveness of the e-government-to-business (G2B) sites of the 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. A group of 306 online users were trained to assess the sites. The findings indicate that the majority of the state G2B sites included the user-interface characteristics that provided online…
Full Text Available Existing research on the relationship between market concentration and innovation has produced conflicting findings. In addition, the emerging literature on the relationship between corporate governance and innovation tends to focus only on partial effects of corporate governance on innovation. We aim to contribute to the debate by investigating both partial and combined effects of corporate governance and market concentration on innovation. Utilising a dataset for 1,400 non-financial US-listed companies and two-way cluster-robust estimation methodology, we report several findings. First, the relationship between market concentration and innovation is non-linear. Secondly, the relationship has a U-shape in the case of input measure of innovation (research and development - R&D – expenditures; but it has an inverted-U shape when net book-value of brands and patents is used as output measure of innovation. Third, corporate governance indicators such as anti-takeover defences and insider control tend to have a negative partial effect on R&D expenditures but a positive partial effect on net book-value of brands and patents. Finally, when interacted with market concentration, anti-takeover defences and insider control act as complements to market concentration. Hence, firms with strong anti-take-over defences and under insider control tend to spend more on R&D but are less able to generate valuable brands and patents as market concentration increases. These results are based on two-way cluster-robust estimation, which takes account of both serial and cross-sectional dependence in the error terms.
Full Text Available Economic growth is still the main goal and an important indicator of the success of regional economic development. Kutai Kartanegara regency has fluctuation level of economic growth and the economic growth on average over the study period is moderately high (approaching double digits/average 9.43% over the study period compare with 4 districts/major cities in East Kalimantan as well as national economic growth. The purpose of this study is to determine how much the influence of investment, worker and government expenditure on economic growth of Kutai Kartanegara regency. This study uses theory of regional economic growth Solow-swan basing on Cobb Douglas production function with consideration of its ability to show the relationship balance between production result and combination of factor production used. The data use is Gross Regional Domestic Product (PDRB data according to constant prices and the amount of worker that is published by Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS of Kutai Kartanegara regency, government expenditure data based on Regional Budget (APBD of Kutai Kartanegara regency and private investment data from Regional Investment Agency (BPMD of Kutai Kartanegara regency began in 2007-2011 (time series. Regression analysis used is OLS with the assistance of EVIEWS 7 software. The study results show that private investment variable has negative effect but not significant to local economic growth and level of error is α 5%, but worker variable has significant positive effect and government expenditure variable has positive effect but not significant.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the structural formation of the Sustainability Analysis Framework (SAF, which has proved to be an effective knowledge communication tool in the largest state administration in Australia, the Government of New South Wales. The SAF, devised by the author, has been implemented across thirty-eight state agencies and demonstrates that a whole of government Sustainability perspective is achievable. The level of the NSW Government's commitment to this process is evidenced by the fact that it was coordinated at the highest levels of the administration and engaged high-level input from a comprehensive portfolio of its agencies. The SAF's successful deployment across this significant bureaucracy shows that the generally applicable mechanism is effective in data collation, information sharing, knowledge organisation and the communication of Sustainability practice and wisdom. At the heart of the paper is the author's contention that one of the key problems which jeopardises our common future on Earth is the lack of effective tools to communicate Sustainability thinking and practice. In the course of the project, upon which this paper is based, the author identified the need for a visually and conceptually accessible mechanism to accelerate the uptake of Sustainability practice in a whole of organization context. In designing the SAF, which has successfully bridged this knowledge communication gap, the author employed two of humanity's fundamental learning tools – the diagram and the story.
Carron, Maud; Alarcon, Pablo; Karani, Maurice; Muinde, Patrick; Akoko, James; Onono, Joshua; Fèvre, Eric M; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan
Livestock food systems play key subsistence and income generation roles in low to middle income countries and are important networks for zoonotic disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use a value chain framework to characterize the broiler chicken meat system of Nairobi, its governance and sanitary risks. A total of 4 focus groups and 8 key informant interviews were used to collect cross-sectional data from: small-scale broiler farmers in selected Nairobi peri-urban and informal settlement areas; medium to large integrated broiler production companies; traders and meat inspectors in live chicken and chicken meat markets in Nairobi. Qualitative data were collected on types of people operating in the system, their interactions, sanitary measures in place, sourcing and selling of broiler chickens and products. Framework analysis was used to identify governance themes and risky sanitary practices present in the system. One large company was identified to supply 60% of Nairobi's day-old chicks to farmers, mainly through agrovet shops. Broiler meat products from integrated companies were sold in high-end retailers whereas their low value products were channelled through independent traders to consumers in informal settlements. Peri-urban small-scale farmers reported to slaughter the broilers on the farm and to sell carcasses to retailers (hotels and butcheries mainly) through brokers (80%), while farmers in the informal settlement reported to sell their broilers live to retailers (butcheries, hotels and hawkers mainly) directly. Broiler heads and legs were sold in informal settlements via roadside vendors. Sanitary risks identified were related to lack of biosecurity, cold chain and access to water, poor hygiene practices, lack of inspection at farm slaughter and limited health inspection in markets. Large companies dominated the governance of the broiler system through the control of day-old chick production. Overall government control was described as
Full Text Available A hallmark of contemporary global governance is its complex nature. Understanding the implications of the array of “governors” and their efforts is paramount for scholars of global law and global politics. Most analyses have treated fragmented governance as a piece, arguing about its general effects. I concentrate instead on variation within fragmented situations, seeking to understand the conditions under which complexity yields more or less effective governance. I propose an analytical scheme for gauging effectiveness focused on how the array of governance efforts in an issue area relate to one another. I then compare these efforts in two issue arenas: small arms and private military and security services. Despite a similar complexity, similar array of actors trying to exert influence, and similar timing, complexity in small arms generated what most see as less effective results while in military and security services it has generated what seems to be a more promising path toward effective governance mechanisms. This difference is best explained with insights from pragmatism and network theory. When a broader range of relevant governors engage pragmatically to form linked networks governance is more likely. When governors engage ideologically and break off ties governance is less likely. Pragmatic engagement among the variety of relevant governors, including the US, is most likely to generate effective global governance. Una característica distintiva del gobierno mundial contemporáneo es su naturaleza compleja. Entender las implicaciones de la serie de "gobernadores" y sus esfuerzos es fundamental para los estudiosos del derecho internacional y la política mundial. La mayoría de los análisis han tratado el gobierno fragmentado como una pieza, discutiendo sobre sus efectos generales. El análisis se centra en cambio en la variación dentro de situaciones fragmentadas, buscando entender las condiciones en las que la complejidad produce
for effective risk management, repudiating a unilateral decision by the management, but integrating the .... Story, it has always been condemnable and. Okereke, C. I. – Effective Risk Management in Modern Industrial Organizations in Nigeria .... negatively affected indigenous enterprises. Foreign technicians are preferred to ...
Kuijper, D.P.J.; Bubnicki, J.W.; Churski, Marcin; Mols, Bjorn; Hooft, Van Pim
Large mammalian carnivores create areas perceived as having high and low risk by their ungulate prey. Human activities can indirectly shape this landscape of fear by altering behavior and spatial distribution of carnivores. We studied how red deer perceive the landscape of fear in an old-growth
Grimes, Caris E; Law, Rebekah; Dare, Anna; Day, Nigel; Reshamwalla, Sophie; Murowa, Michael; George, Peter M; Kamara, Thaim B; Mkandawire, Nyengo C; Leather, Andrew J M; Lavy, Christopher B D
District hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are in need of investment if countries are going to progress towards universal health coverage, and meet the sustainable development goals and the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery time-bound targets for 2030. Previous studies have suggested that government hospitals are likely to be highly cost-effective and therefore worthy of investment. A retrospective analysis of the inpatient logbooks for two government district hospitals in two sub-Saharan African hospitals was performed. Data were extracted and DALYs were calculated based on the diagnosis and procedures undertaken. Estimated costs were obtained based on the patient receiving ideal treatment for their condition rather than actual treatment received. Total cost per DALY averted was 26 (range 17-66) for Thyolo District Hospital in Malawi and 363 (range 187-881) for Bo District Hospital in Sierra Leone. This is the first published paper to support the hypothesis that government district hospitals are very cost-effective. The results are within the same range of the US$32.78-223 per DALY averted published for non-governmental hospitals.
Full Text Available This paper presents an overlapping generations model for a small open economy. The model is calibrated to fit data for Turkey. Simulations suggest that for a fairly open economy such as Turkey, credibility and liquidity constraints matter and the choice of income taxation rate, the mix of government spending and the long-run government debt/GDP ratio can all significantly affect the economic growth. The paper also examines the effectiveness of fiscal policy under different levels of liquidity constraint in an open economy within a dynamic framework. It shows that liquidity constraints can affect the outcome of any fiscal policy. Hence fiscal policy is even more important for the less developed economies of the world.
Full Text Available This paper deals with processes and outcomes of sustainable bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna. It draws on an on-going research project concerning inclusive innovation in forest-based bioenergy and biogas in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Italy. The goal is to explore how local governance impacts on inclusive innovation processes and triple bottom sustainability of bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna and, ultimately, to contribute to the debate on the bioeconomy. It thus compares the case of biogas and forest-based bioenergy production. The study adopts an analytical framework called Grounded Innovation (GRIP and the local governance approach. The study uses qualitative methods and particularly semi-structured interviews and governance analysis. The key results show different outcomes on both inclusive innovation and triple bottom-line dimensions. Biogas has not fostered inclusiveness and triple bottom line sustainability benefits, contrary to forest-based bioenergy. The findings indicate that the minor role of local actors, particularly municipalities, in favour of industrial and national interests may jeopardise the sustainability of biobased industries. Besides, policies limited to financial incentives may lead to a land-acquisition rush, unforeseen local environmental effects and exacerbate conflicts.
Giuntini, Ronald E.; Storm, Richard E.
The development of a model for the cost-effective management of space venture risks is discussed. The risk assessment and control program of insurance companies is examined. A simplified system development cycle which consists of a conceptual design phase, a preliminary design phase, a final design phase, a construction phase, and a system operations and maintenance phase is described. The model incorporates insurance safety risk methods and reliability engineering, and testing practices used in the development of large aerospace and defense systems.
Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.
This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…
This study applied 3 theoretical frameworks--Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's four frames, the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School Boards, and effective governance characteristics--to examine the impact of the Masters in Governance (MIG) training offered by the California School Boards Association on the ability of school board…
Bogue, Richard J; Joseph, M Lindell; Sieloff, Christina Leibold
This study validates an instrument for measuring the effectiveness of nursing practice councils and offers a framework for measuring and understanding shared governance. Empowerment results from the vertical alignment of nursing group power with nursing unit power practices. The field lacks an instrument for measuring nurses' practice of power. Two studies (n1 = 119; n2 = 248) are used to validate the Nursing Practice Council effectiveness scale (NPCes). NPCes is a valid and reliable index of nursing practice council effectiveness. This study suggests specific diagnostic tools to understand two levels for actualized power, one at the group or departmental level and one at the unit level. NPCes and the Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations (SKAGPO) can be used together to improve examination of shared governance. Examining group power as well as unit-level practices may give a more complete view of barriers to nurse empowerment. Changing nursing power and practices in an organization may be made more effective by engaging and monitoring vertical alignment of strategies fostering power competencies among nurse leaders and simultaneously supporting nursing practice councils as a means of exercising nurse authority at the unit level.
Schmidt-Entling, Martin H; Siegenthaler, Eva
Predators influence prey through consumption, and through trait-mediated effects such as emigration in response to predation risk (risk effects). We studied top-down effects of (sub-) adult wolf spiders (Lycosidae) on arthropods in a meadow. We compared risk effects with the overall top-down effect (including consumption) by gluing the chelicers of wolf spiders to prevent them from killing the prey. In a field experiment, we created three treatments that included either: (i) intact ('predation') wolf spiders; (ii) wolf spiders with glued chelicers ('risk spiders'); or (iii) no (sub-) adult wolf spiders. Young wolf spiders were reduced by their (sub-) adult congeners. Densities of sheetweb spiders (Linyphiidae), a known intraguild prey of wolf spiders, were equally reduced by the presence of risk and predation wolf spiders. Plant- and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) showed the inverse pattern of higher densities in the presence of both risk and predation wolf spiders. We conclude that (sub-) adult wolf spiders acted as top predators, which reduced densities of intermediate predators and thereby enhanced herbivores. Complementary to earlier studies that found trait-mediated herbivore suppression, our results demonstrate that herbivores can be enhanced through cascading risk effects by top predators.
Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush
To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. Global modeling study. 183 countries. Full adult population in each country. A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years. Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction was best in South Asia (I$116/DALY); across the world
Luminiţa Maria Crăciun
, of giving a sense of responsibility to the public and private sectors, of imposing, observing and materializing a real commitment for preventing and fighting corruption, the risk of which may be a threat to national security. Human governance creates a favorable environment for human development and elimination of poverty. If the preoccupations of the governance institutions are centered on the interests, needs, and fundamental rights of the population, progress may be achieved in the fight against poverty. If a country tries to apply economic policies in order to promote a beneficial increase to the poor ones, along with programs meant to help reach the targeted goals, the effects may be attenuated or annulled, when the governance institutions are ineffective or passive. The conclusion is that the governance is the missing link between the efforts of struggle against poverty and reaching the objective of poverty reduction.
Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom
We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....
Bai, Ge; Luo, Li
This investigation analyzes the management of medical schools merged with comprehensive universities through internet search and research review to reveal management model and effect of the merger. The conclusion is safely reached that governance models are divided into two different patterns: centralized management and decentralized management. Eight universities, representing the two models, were selected and evaluated comprehensively. Among them, the universities that carried out decentralized management have greater development after the merger based on a quality comparison concerning freshmen, faculty, teaching, and research between the two patterns. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effect of financial performance of local governments towards the disclosure compliance of financial information on the website, as well as the political environment as a moderating variable for the effect of the financial performance of local governments towards disclosure compliance of financial infor-mation on the website. The study was conducted at the local government in Sulawesi with the sample consisting of 53 governments. The data were analyzed by partial least square (PLS. The results showed that good financial performance of local governments can encourage disclosure compliance of financial information on the website. This study also found that the political environment cannot moderate the effect of the financial performance towards the disclosure compliance of financial information on the website. This is due to the people who are interested more in paper-based reporting. The implication of this study was to encourage related re-search as well as encouraging local governments to use website as a media for finan-cial information reporting. Gorontalo district government is local government, which has excellent financial performance with complete disclosure of financial information on the website.
Full Text Available Recent literature on Corporate Annual Reports (CAR underlines that, in order to meet the changing needs of CAR users, more narrative (forward looking information should be provided, with a focus on those factors that are liable for longer term value of banks financial performance. This papes investigates the Management Commentary portion (MC and specifically the effect of Corporate Governance Information (CGI on banks’ reporting performance mechanisms such as board structure, audit function, bank size and common equity. Return on Assets (ROA ratio is used as a proxy to measure financial performance. The data sample comprises of 86 worldwide banks during the period of deep economic crisis (2008-2011. Novelty of the study is the search for the effect of core characteristics of corporate governance on banks’ performance during the financial crisis period. The research uses a Panel Estimated Generalized Least Squares (EGLS regression model in order to examine the aforementioned effect. The results of this research suggest that boards’ independence strongly supports banks’ efficiency and operations, as well as external audit contributes positively to banks’ efficiency during the crisis period.
Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N
Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hasan Salih Suliman Al-Qudah
Full Text Available Hospital care broadly covers and encompasses complete range of personal health service like promotion of health service, prevention of disease, early detection of disease, diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation of the patient. This study will try to identify the" Effective and Efficient Training Programs in Jeddah government hospitals: Case Study of Saudi Arabia”. The study will examine the demographic aspects of employees (Gender and experience and the value of what can deferent training programmes can have deep impact on their performance. The total study sample was 291 of identify employees, but 275 were suitable for statistical analysis, descriptive and analytical approach was also used to achieve the study objectives. The study major finding that there was a medium degree of effective and efficient training programs held’s in Jeddah public hospitals, also the study found that there are no statistically significant differences at α ≤ 0.05 related to training of human resources. The study has recommended the need to improve employee’s skills in Jeddah government hospitals through actual employees participation at any training courses on a regular basis, also there is a need for continue training program for employee’s to qualify them at any future development in the deferent department of the hospital.
Santos, Leonel Cerqueira; Santos Jr, Carlos Denner dos
Abstract This study proposes an analysis of non-operational mechanisms that can impact the effectiveness of information technology governance in the Brazilian public administration. A questionnaire was sent to information technology managers and experienced professionals in the area of information technology governance, who work in public organizations. Based on the collected data, we used the structural equations technique to verify the impact of the following mechanisms on the effectiveness...
Samuel Anindyo Widhoyoko
Full Text Available This research discussed the accounting scandal in the perspective of governance, risk, and compliance using Governance, Risk, and Compliance (GRC framework. Unlike other fraud’s framework, GRC framework combinedthree different aspects of business sustainability of reporting. The purpose of the research was to highlight early business fraud that usually initiated by the company in boosting up the revenue during the Initial public offering(IPO processes. When other research discussed the business’ fraud schemes through the document alteration, this research focused on a case showing how a business could make the wrong statement to the investors through real and lawful future contracts with unqualified audit opinion. Structurally, this research was done through the action research method in pointing out all the directors’ failures in their function to hold the fiduciary duty to exercise their responsibility. Based on the analysis with the accordance with the framework used, it is highlighted that directors in the aspect of (1 governance decisive, they fail to set proportional target, provide ethical value, and react positively to maintain the company sustainability; (2 compliance submissive, they do not submit the accounting standards through undisclosed third-party agreement, misrepresentation of revenue recognition, and mistreatment of expense omission; (3 risk preventive, they fail to assess the risk occurs from legal aspect of conflict of interest, long-term contractual and engagement risks, and insufficient future cash flow.
Full Text Available The Natura 2000 network is the cornerstone of the EU Biodiversity Strategy aimed at halting the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Yet in many EU Member States the level of development and execution of management plans and conservation measures of Natura 2000 sites is often very low due to scarce financial resources; for this reason management effectiveness is rarely achieved. This paper presents initial insights from the Life+ MGN project and highlights the costs and benefits associated with 2 out of 21 Natura 2000 study sites in Italy in order to present a new governance approach relying on the qualitative and quantitative valuation of Ecosystem Services (ES. Preliminary results suggest that the quantification of costs and benefits related to the Natura 2000 network is crucial for reaching Natura 2000 conservation objectives and measuring management effectiveness.
Jennings, W.; Bevan, S.; Timmermans, A.; Breeman, G.E.; Brouard, S.; Chaqués-Bonafont, L.; Green-Pedersen, C.; John, P.; Mortensen, P.B.; Palau Roque, A.
The distribution of attention across issues is of fundamental importance to the political agenda and outputs of government. This article presents an issue-based theory of the diversity of governing agendas where the core functions of government—defense, international affairs, the economy, government
Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.
The importance of good governance for the health of populations has hardly been researched even though major donors and international financial institutions make their aid and loans increasingly conditional upon reforms that ensure 'good governance'. We analyse the role of governance in improving
Al-Bulushi, Yaqoob Dur Mohammed
The Oman government developed a vision to transform the nation into a sustainable knowledge society by supporting information and communication technologies to improve government services (ITA, n.d.). According to a United Nations (2012) report, Oman ranks 64th worldwide in e-government readiness, the lowest compared to other countries in the…
Managing projects in a digital government. ... Critical Success Factors (CSFs) and Enterprise analysis methodologies were employed to reduce the inherent risks. These effective management and technical ... Keywords: Digital Government, System Development, Project Management, Project Risk, Gantt and PERT charts ...
Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.
Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.
Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.
Wratt, D.; Mullan, B.; Salinger, J. [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research NIWA, Newmarket, Auckland (New Zealand); Allan, S.; Morgan, T. [MWH New Zealand, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kenny, G. [Earthwise Consulting, Hastings (New Zealand)
Climate change is a real and internationally recognised outcome of increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It will have effects over the next decades that are predictable with some level of certainty, but which will vary from place to place throughout New Zealand. The climate will also change from year to year and decade to decade due to natural processes. For example, some parts of the country often have dry summers and autumns when an El Nino climate pattern is present. Both natural fluctuations and human-induced climate changes need to be considered when developing adaptation plans and policies, rather than just 'greenhouse warming' effects on their own. Councils already address extreme weather events and climate variations as they develop plans and provide services. Climate change effects need also to be considered as part of these regulatory, assessment and planning activities. It is not necessary to develop a set of procedures for dealing separately with effects and impacts of climate change - they can be built into existing practices. Over time, climate change responses will involve iterative planning processes, keeping up-to-date with new information, monitoring changes, and reviewing the effectiveness of responses. The response to climate change involves international, national, regional, district and community consideration and action. The Guidance Manual aims to assist local government in working with its communities and making appropriate decisions.
Full Text Available There have been many corporate collapses and financial crises in recent years linked to a lack of effective corporate governance. The South African King IV Code of Corporate Governance recommends that corporate governing bodies should be comprised of an appropriate balance of knowledge, diversity, and independence for discharging their duties objectively and more efficiently. This study examines the effect of corporate governance structures on firm financial performance. The secondary data of selected Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI Index-listed mining firms’ sustainability reports, and integrated annual financial statements are used. Using panel data analysis of the random effects model, we determined the relationship between board independence and board size and the return on equity (ROE for the period 2010–2015. Results indicate a weak negative correlation between ROE and board size, and a weak, but positive, correlation between ROE and board independence. Additionally, there is a positive, but weak, correlation between ROE and sales growth, but a negative and weak relationship between ROE and firm size. The study suggests that effective corporate governance through a small effective board and monitoring by an independent board result in increased firm financial performance. We recommend that South African companies see compliance with the recommendations of the King IV Code on Corporate Governance not as a liability, but an ethical investment that may likely yield financial benefit in the long-term. Although complying with corporate governance principles does not necessarily translate into a significant economic benefit, firms should, however, continue to adopt corporate governance for ethical reasons to meet stakeholder’s social and environmental needs for sustainable development.
Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.
Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.
Dong, Lili; Chapman, David W.
This study investigates the effectiveness of Chinese international education assistance through an examination of student experience in the Chinese Government Scholarship Program, an important mechanism of Chinese foreign aid. Grounded in Pascarella's (1985) model of the impact of college on students, the study investigates participants' level of satisfaction with their higher education experience in China and their perception of the role of the scholarship program in promoting positive relationships between China and the scholarship students' home countries. Findings indicate that participants are generally satisfied with their experiences in China and are positive about the impact of the program in building friendships with their home countries. The authors discuss the implications of these findings in terms of China's emerging prominence as a provider of international development assistance.
S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)
textabstractThe main purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic relationship between government revenues and government expenditures in Iran as a developing oil export based economy. Moreover, I want to know how government expenditures and revenues respond to oil price (revenue) shocks. I
Jaeger, Paul T.
Examines how Constitutional principles, specifically the doctrines of Federalism and the separation of powers, relate to e-government policies and practices. Suggests that the move toward e-government, with emphasis on the simplification of access to government information and services, must be considered with regard to Federalism and separation…
Full Text Available The construct of guanxi has become an interesting topic for analyzing how to do business more effectively and successfully in China’s economic transition period. Drawing on the guanxi strategy theory, this study examines when government guanxi (guanxi with the government and its officials and business guanxi (guanxi with the business sectors matter to new venture performance under two typical turbulent environments (institutional turbulence and market turbulence. According to empirical results using original data from 146 new ventures in clusters driven by China’s local governments, both government guanxi and business guanxi were positively related to new venture performance, and market turbulence was an important contextual factor influencing performance benefits of guanxi. However, the results reveal no moderating effects of institutional turbulence on direct relationships. Furthermore, the study provides a better conceptual and empirical understanding of why market turbulence is a double-edged sword for performance implications of guanxi in the rapidly changing business environment.
Moran, Dane; Shrime, Mark G; Nang, Sam; Vycheth, Iv; Vuthy, Din; Hong, Raksmey; Padula, William V; Park, Kee B
Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common and potentially deadly occurrence following a severe traumatic brain injury. Our aim was to determine whether craniotomy is cost-effective when indicated for the treatment of EDH when a trained neurosurgeon is available. A decision tree was used to model the cost-effectiveness of craniotomy available versus craniotomy unavailable for the management of traumatic EDH from a Cambodian societal and provider perspective. Costs and effectiveness parameters were obtained from patient data at a large government hospital in Cambodia. Outcomes were measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost per QALY and budget impact were calculated for each intervention at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $9787.80/QALY (3× GDP per capita PPP). The time horizon reflected full life span, and costs and QALYs were discounted at 3%. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Compared to craniotomy unavailable for EDH ($945.80; 11.78 QALYs), craniotomy available came at a higher cost and greater effectiveness ($1520.73; 12.78 QALYs), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $574.93. One-way analysis demonstrated that craniotomy unavailable became more cost-effective than craniotomy available when the percent chance of having a GOS of 4 or 5 was 60% for patients with an EDH where craniotomy was indicated but not performed. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that craniotomy available was more cost-effective than conservative management in 84.4% of simulations at the WTP threshold. Craniotomy is a cost-effective treatment for patients with a traumatic EDH who meet criteria for operation when trained neurosurgeons are available onsite.
Theopista N. Wandira Kaggwa; David Onen; Joseph Kimoga
This study investigated the effect of training in school governance and curriculum management on the performance of head teachers in managing public primary schools in the Greater Masaka Region of Uganda. The study was driven by the public outcry over the deteriorating standards of primary education in the region despite Government efforts to improve the managerial performance of school heads. The researchers employed a descriptive, cross-sectional sample survey research design. Data were col...
While the dominance of Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) as a sourcing strategy would seem to indicate successful and well-informed practice, frequent examples of unraveled engagements highlight the associated risks. Successful instances of outsourcing suggest that governance mechanisms effectively manage the related risks. This…
Buse, Kent; Tanaka, Sonja; Hawkes, Sarah
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent a significant threat to human health and well-being, and carry significant implications for economic development and health care and other costs for governments and business, families and individuals. Risks for many of the major NCDs are associated with the production, marketing and consumption of commercially produced food and drink, particularly those containing sugar, salt and transfats (in ultra-processed products), alcohol and tobacco. The problems inherent in primary prevention of NCDs have received relatively little attention from international organizations, national governments and civil society, especially when compared to the attention paid to secondary and tertiary prevention regimes (i.e. those focused on provision of medical treatment and long-term clinical management). This may in part reflect that until recently the NCDs have not been deemed a priority on the overall global health agenda. Low political priority may also be due in part to the complexity inherent in implementing feasible and acceptable interventions, such as increased taxation or regulation of access, particularly given the need to coordinate action beyond the health sector. More fundamentally, governing determinants of risk frequently brings public health into conflict with the interests of profit-driven food, beverage, alcohol and tobacco industries. We use a conceptual framework to review three models of governance of NCD risk: self-regulation by industry; hybrid models of public-private engagement; and public sector regulation. We analyse the challenges inherent in each model, and review what is known (or not) about their impact on NCD outcomes. While piecemeal efforts have been established, we argue that mechanisms to control the commercial determinants of NCDs are inadequate and efforts at remedial action too limited. Our paper sets out an agenda to strengthen each of the three governance models. We identify reforms that will be needed
Mary Modupe Fasoranti
Full Text Available The paper examined the effects of government expenditures on infrastructure on the growth of the Nigerian economy. The data sourced majorly from the various issues of Central Bank statistical bulletin was analyzed with the aid of econometric methods. Data collected included government expenditures on education, environment and housing, health services, transport and communication, agriculture, security, inflation rate and gross domestic product. Data treatment methods used was the unit root test, co-integration and vector error correction estimation. Simple multiple regression model was used to obtain the results used for the analysis. Results showed a long run relationship between the growth of the economy and government expenditures in education, environment and housing, health services, water resources, inflation rate, agriculture, security, transport and communication. The paper observed that government expenditures on health services, transport and communication imparted negatively on growth while expenditures in agriculture and security were not significant in the growth of the economy. To increase the growth rate of the economy, the government must adopt stringent controls on its expenditures on infrastructure so as to reduce fraud, fund diversion and mismanagement. Moreover, monitoring and evaluation of government spending must be given top priority. This will help to ensure that the targets of government spending are reached.
its origins in a - some say 1st - generation of warfare, where armies were concentrated and could be controlled by political masters who were also acclaimed as warfare "geniuses". With subsequent generations of warfare, however, the control of war cannot be replaced by a control of military...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars? ...
Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy
Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...
Salih Börteçine Avci
Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of corporate governance, supply chain network governance and competencies such as sales and logistics competence on buyers’ intention to relationship continuity. A total number of 258 questionnaires were distributed to Turkish manufacturing firms, selected using cross-sectional sampling method from the Istanbul and Edirne Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Turkey. The data of survey was analysed using PLS-SEM model with WARP PLS 5.0 software. Our findings indicate that corporate governance and supply chain network governance seem to have a positive effect on sales competence and logistics competence, and together, they influence buyers’ intention to relationship continuity. In this respect, the outcomes of this study may provide valuable insights for the third-party logistics (3PL literature in terms of buyers’ intention to relationship continuity.
Melville, M B; Lykes, M B
The effects of government-sponsored terrorism, characteristic of the contemporary Central American civil wars, are particularly devastating to children. In Guatemala, the Mayan population felt the worst of a systematic and brutal counterinsurgency, where over 400 rural villages were destroyed between 1981 and 1983. This research is intended to elucidate selected characteristics of the psychosocial trauma of civil war as experienced by Guatemalan Mayan children, to describe some of the sociocultural effects of civil war on the children's Mayan ethnic identity and to identify those factors that helped them to survive severe trauma and loss. Specifically, during the summer of 1988, 32 children in Guatemala and 36 exiled in Mexico, between the ages of 8 and 16, participated in research designed to compare the negative effects of civil war and the adaptive capabilities of children who have experienced the trauma of the loss of immediate family members, the witnessing of violent crimes and the displacement from their homes. In addition to a semi-structure, open-ended interview and taped personal story/testimonies, several traditional psychological instruments were used to facilitate our understanding of the overall well-being of these children who have been affected by systematic violence. The long-term effects of this trauma cannot be fully anticipated, but the results suggest that these children suffer an abiding fear and face many uncertainties. The children in the orphanages in Guatemala have few expectations for the future and those in refugee camps in Mexico see a bleak future with few opportunities besides survival. The training and preparation of community mental health workers is a realistic possibility with positive effects for the psychic health of the children.
Augustine, Catherine H.; Epstein, Diana; Vuollo, Mirka
Many urban school district students are dropping out and few of the remaining ones reach state or district achievement goals. These problems make governing urban schools both difficult and important. In 2005-06, the governance structure of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was examined, debated, criticized, and praised by several…
Supanakorn-Davila, Supawan; Bolliger, Doris U.
Online training has become popular in the professional development of government employees in Thailand. One large government agency developed an online program to provide training to its employees across the country using two systems: an Internet and Intranet-based system. With the new program implemented, the evaluation of the instructional…
Doskey, Steven Craig
This research presents an innovative means of gauging Systems Engineering effectiveness through a Systems Engineering Relative Effectiveness Index (SE REI) model. The SE REI model uses a Bayesian Belief Network to map causal relationships in government acquisitions of Complex Information Systems (CIS), enabling practitioners to identify and…
Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.
Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the effect on the quality of accounting information published by Canadian firms of board of directors’ characteristics compared to that of governance indices that measure board quality. We find that the majority of board characteristics have an important and significant effect on the levels of earnings management and accounting conservatism. On the other hand, in the case of the studied attributes of the quality of accounting information, we find that the effect of governance indices that assess the quality of boards of directors is not clearly established. Particularly, our results reveal that individual measures of the characteristics of boards of directors allow for a better detection and explanation of the quality of accounting information than do multi-factor commercial and academic governance indices.
Madhu M Mitha
Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12–13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12–13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Results: Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001. A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. Conclusion: The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand how Corporate Governance affects investor’s reaction in capital market by profitability as a moderating variable. This research uses secondary data obtained from Indonesian Stock Exchange. Investor’s reaction is measured by Cumulative Abnormal Return, which happened around the time of annual report publication. Corporate Governance are measured by Institutional ownership, ownership by board of commissioner, audite commite, and independent commissioner. Profitability as moderating variabel is measured by Return on Asset. This research was done to 25 companies which were listed in Indeks LQ 45 in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2015-2016. Data analysis techniques used in this research are regresion analysis and moderated regresion analysis (MRA. The result shows that corporate governance (Institutional ownership, ownership by board of commissioner, audite commite, and independent commissioner negatively affect Cumulative Abnormal Return. Profitability as a moderating variable was able to explain the relationship of corporate governance (ownership by board of commissioner and audite commite affect significantly to Cumulative Abnormal Return partially. Corporate governance does not have any impact to Cumulative Abnormal Return value, because of the implementation of corporate governance in Indonesia is not provide optimum results mean while in the process of considering corporate governance practices take time to know the benefits.
Sparovek, Gerd; Barretto, Alberto Giaroli de Oliveira Pereira; Matsumoto, Marcelo; Berndes, Göran
The 2012 revision of the Brazilian Forest Act changed the relative importance of private and public governance for nature conservation and agricultural production. We present a spatially explicit land-use model for Brazilian agricultural production and nature conservation that considers the spatial distribution of agricultural land suitability, technological and management options, legal command, and control frameworks including the Atlantic Forest Law, the revised Forest Act, and the Amazonian land-titling, "Terra Legal," and also market-driven land use regulations. The model is used to analyze land use allocation under three scenarios with varying priorities among agricultural production and environmental protection objectives. In all scenarios, the legal command and control frameworks were the most important determinants of conservation outcomes, protecting at least 80% of the existing natural vegetation. Situations where such frameworks are not expected to be effective can be identified and targeted for additional conservation (beyond legal requirements) through voluntary actions or self-regulation in response to markets. All scenarios allow for a substantial increase in crop production, using an area 1.5-2.7 times the current cropland area, with much of new cropland occurring on current pastureland. Current public arrangements that promote conservation can, in conjunction with voluntary schemes on private lands where conversion to agriculture is favored, provide important additional nature conservation without conflicting with national agricultural production objectives.
Hatchett, J P L [Laboratory for Mathematical Neuroscience, RIKEN BSI, Hirosawa 2-1, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kuehn, R [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
We study a credit-risk model which captures effects of economic interactions on a firm's default probability. Economic interactions are represented as a functionally defined graph, and the existence of both cooperative and competitive business relations is taken into account. We provide an analytic solution of the model in a limit where the number of business relations of each company is large, but the overall fraction of the economy with which a given company interacts may be small. While the effects of economic interactions are relatively weak in typical (most probable) scenarios, they are pronounced in situations of economic stress, and thus lead to a substantial fattening of the tails of loss distributions in large loan portfolios. This manifests itself in a pronounced enhancement of the value at risk computed for interacting economies in comparison with their non-interacting counterparts.
R. E. Kenward; M. J. Whittingham; S. Arampatzis; B. D. Manos; T. Hahn; A. Terry; R. Simoncini; J. Alcorn; O. Bastian; M. Donlan; K. Elowe; F. Franzén; Z. Karacsonyi; M. Larsson; D. Manou; I. Navodaru; O. Papadopoulou; J. Papathanasiou; A. von Raggamby; R. J. A. Sharp; T. Söderqvist; Å. Soutukorva; L Vavrova; N. J. Aebischer; N. Leader-Williams; C. Rutz; Elinor Ostrom
.... Here, we use a newly-developed analytic framework to conduct analyses of a suite of case studies, linking different governance strategies to standardized scores for delivering ecosystem services...
Cloete, Jacob PL
Full Text Available The authors report on research aimed at gaining an improved understanding of how issues such as language, literacy and previous exposure to technology affect citizens' ability to access government services of different complexity via ordinary...
Nor Azizah Zainal Abidin
Full Text Available The Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 not only introduced the term of corporate governance but also drew attention of the public about the weaknesses of Malaysian corporate governance practice. After 1998, Malaysian government decided to adopt corporate reform that could enhance the quality of good corporate management practice. Thisreform is clearly stated in the code and rules of corporate governance. The purpose of this research is to study the significance of implementing the code and rules of corporategovernance since the public already realize the close relationship between business and politics. Three companies were chosen as indicators for this study. As a result, it was found that companies which are involved in corporate malpractice but have goodrelationship with states will always be excluded from the legal corporate action.
Sepúlveda Galeas, Mauricio Alejandro; Departamento de Psicología. Facultad de Ciecicias Sociales. Universidad de Chile; Drove Aldana, Tamara Andrea; Universidad Diego Portales
This article addresses the issue of risk in the field of drugs from a genealogical and discursive perspective, using the concept of governmentality as a category of analysis. The meaning, use and connotations of risk in the regulation of drugs in Chile between 1990 and 2013 are examined within this context. Although this is primarily a socio-historical construct, it has usually been conceived in ahistorical terms and expressed in a depoliticized speech. This examination does not limit risk ma...
Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...
Nanotechnology involves the ability to control matter at the scale of a nanometer--one billionth of a meter. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. In this context, the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO): (1) identified examples of current and potential uses of nanomaterials, (2) determined what is known about the potential human health and environmental risks from nanomaterials, (3) assessed actions the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken to better understand and regulate the risks posed by nanomaterials as well as its authorities to do so, and (4) identified approaches that other selected national authorities and U.S. states have taken to address the potential risks associated with nanomaterials. The GAO analyzed selected laws and regulations, reviewed information on the EPA's Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program, and consulted with EPA officials and legal experts to obtain their perspectives on the EPA's authorities to regulate nanomaterials.
Wynes, Seth; Nicholas, Kimberly A.
Current anthropogenic climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, based on 148 scenarios from 39 sources. We recommend four widely applicable high-impact (i.e. low emissions) actions with the potential to contribute to systemic change and substantially reduce annual personal emissions: having one fewer child (an average for developed countries of 58.6 tonnes CO2-equivalent (tCO2e) emission reductions per year), living car-free (2.4 tCO2e saved per year), avoiding airplane travel (1.6 tCO2e saved per roundtrip transatlantic flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.8 tCO2e saved per year). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like comprehensive recycling (four times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing household lightbulbs (eight times less). Though adolescents poised to establish lifelong patterns are an important target group for promoting high-impact actions, we find that ten high school science textbooks from Canada largely fail to mention these actions (they account for 4% of their recommended actions), instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential emissions reductions. Government resources on climate change from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia also focus recommendations on lower-impact actions. We conclude that there are opportunities to improve existing educational and communication structures to promote the most effective emission-reduction strategies and close this mitigation gap.
Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude
Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....
Khan, Muhammad Ehsan
FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes Behavioral Assumptions Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern Incomplete Contracting Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp
Martijn, N; Hulstijn, J; de Bruijne, MLC; Tan, Y; Janssen, M.; Mäntymäki, M.; Hidders, J.; Klievink, B.; Lamersdorf, W.; Van Loenen, B.; Zuiderwijk, A.
In many of today’s enterprises, data management and data quality are poor. Over the last few years, a new solution strategy has emerged, known as data governance: an overarching methodology that defines who is responsible for what data at what point in a business process. Although positive effects
Full Text Available The aim of this empirical study is to analyse the impact of Corporate Governance on Capital Structure Decisions in Saudi Arabian commercial banking sector. The components of corporate governance whose impact has been analysed on the capital structure are board size, independence of directors, ownership structure, ownership of management, board meetings. Multiple regression analysis, Correlation matrix and Descriptive Statistics is used to assess the relationship among corporate governance components and capital structure of Saudi commercial banks for the years 2010 and 2011. The results shows that ownership structure and board size are positively correlated which is coherent with most of the previous studies. Managerial ownership and board independence are negatively correlated and board meeting held in a year is also negatively correlated but is statistically insignificant. Moreover the study found that on average the Saudi banks uses 68 % debt capital. The research study is supposed to facilitate regulatory authorities like CMA for improving the implementation of rules and regulations in order to make corporate governance tools work more efficiently in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The research study evaluates the effects of corporate governance components on capital structure decisions of Saudi commercial banks.
van Gelderen, Saskia C; Zegers, Marieke; Boeijen, Wilma; Westert, Gert P; Robben, Paul B; Wollersheim, Hub C
Hospital boards are legally responsible for safe healthcare. They need tools to assist them in their task of governing patient safety. Almost every Dutch hospital performs internal audits, but the effectiveness of these audits for hospital governance has never been evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the organisation of internal audits and their effectiveness for hospitals boards to govern patient safety. A mixed-methods study consisting of a questionnaire regarding the organisation of internal audits among all Dutch hospitals (n=89) and interviews with stakeholders regarding the audit process and experienced effectiveness of audits within six hospitals. Response rate of the questionnaire was 76% and 43 interviews were held. In every responding hospital, the internal audits followed the plan-do-check-act cycle. Every hospital used interviews, document analysis and site visits as input for the internal audit. Boards stated that effective aspects of internal audits were their multidisciplinary scope, their structured and in-depth approach, the usability to monitor improvement activities and to change hospital policy and the fact that results were used in meetings with staff and boards of supervisors. The qualitative methods (interviews and site visits) used in internal audits enable the identification of soft signals such as unsafe culture or communication and collaboration problems. Reported disadvantages were the low frequency of internal audits and the absence of soft signals in the actual audit reports. This study shows that internal audits are regarded as effective for patient safety governance, as they help boards to identify patient safety problems, proactively steer patient safety and inform boards of supervisors on the status of patient safety. The description of the Dutch internal audits makes these audits replicable to other healthcare organisations in different settings, enabling hospital boards to complement their systems to govern patient
Farooq, Omar; Seffar, Mohammed
What causes investors to trade in certain stocks more than the others? We answer this question by documenting significant relationship between various proxies of corporate governance mechanisms and liquidity in the MENA region. Our results show that higher analyst following, lower ownership...... concentration, and having big-four auditors as external auditors lead to higher liquidity. All of these factors are considered to be the proxies of better corporate governance mechanisms. We argue that better corporate governance mechanisms lower the extent of adverse selection problems and therefore lead...... to higher liquidity. Our results indicate that managers can improve information environment of a firm, if they want to increase tradability of their stocks. Interestingly, our results show a negative relationship between dividend payout ratio and liquidity. Consistent with Banerjee et al. (2007), we argue...
Full Text Available This research paper empirically investigates the extent to which the quality of governance measured through six dimensions developed by World Bank has a positive influence on the corporate ethics, or in other words, the ethical behaviour of firms in their interaction with public officials, politicians and other companies. By using a dual approach, from geographical and income group classification, this study analyses data from official reports issued by World Bank and World Economic Forum for a final sample of 140 countries, trying to highlight the positive relationship that might exist between governance clusters and ethical behaviour of firms. For the purpose of the paper, a multiple regression analysis was performed. The research results confirm that there are strong positive correlations between most of the governance indicators and companies’ ethical behaviour, even if there are some differences between various geographical areas, and also between different income categories economies, in terms of the intensity of this influence.
Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed
How do differences in country-level governance and enforcement mechanisms affect firms? Using a large dataset from the MENA region, we document that differences in legal traditions translate into differences in cost of debt. Our results show that firms headquartered in the common law countries have...... lower cost of debt than firms headquartered in the civil law countries. Our results also show that bulk of the difference in cost of debt between firms headquartered across the two legal regimes can be explained by the corporate governance mechanisms. Our results have implication for firms in the civil...... law countries in a way that they highlight that higher cost of debt in the civil law countries can be offset by improving firm-level corporate governance mechanisms....
Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L
Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioural intervention amongst female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use amongst FSWs randomized to this intervention. FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana's Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioural intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Registration predicted increased condom use amongst FSWs enrolled in a behavioural intervention. Public health programmes designed to improve condom use amongst FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviours. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.
van der Weerd, W.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Beaujean, D.J.M.A.; Oudhoff, J.; van Steenbergen, J.E.
Background: During the course of an influenza pandemic, governments know relatively little about the possibly changing influence of government trust, risk perception, and receipt of information on the public's intention to adopt protective measures or on the acceptance of vaccination. This study
Mulliken, Jennifer S; Russak, Julie E; Rigel, Darrell S
Total cumulative sun exposure is associated with the development of squamous cell and basal cell cancers, whereas intense intermittent sun exposure is associated with the development of melanoma. Exposure to UV radiation is the only known modifiable cause of melanoma, but the role of sunscreen in melanoma prevention remains somewhat controversial. This article discusses how UV radiation contributes to the pathogenesis of melanoma, how sunscreen modulates the action of UV radiation on the skin, and the effect of sunscreen on the risk of developing melanoma. A review of available sunscreen agents and their sun-protective properties is also included. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suwana M.A.J; Purnomosidhi B; Mardiati E
The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of earning management on corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and external auditor toward corporate social responsibility disclosure...
Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e......-government/e-governance and provide guidance for research, development and application of this emerging field. The papers are arranged in topical sections on challenges, performance, strategy, knowledge, and technology....
Marissing, E. van; Bolt, G.S.; Kempen, R. van
Problems in distressed neighbourhoods in Western European cities are nowadays often linked to a decline in social cohesion. Recently, some authors have discussed the link between the concept of social cohesion and the concept of urban governance. One of the important questions they raise is
Parvin, Ruxana Hossain; Salam, Shaikh Flint
Across the globe, governments of different countries have recognized the importance and value of digital technologies in language learning. This article is based on the pilot project of Save the Children using information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Through this initiative, interactive multimedia software based on national…
Cramer, J.M.; Loeber, A.
An increasing number of firms try to implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of sustainable development. This article considers these efforts in the light of the changing relation between the state, society and the corporate sector, as a result of which governance
Raval, Harini; Kaul, C.; McKenney, Susan; Looi, C.K.; Polman, J.L.; Cress, U.; Reimann, P.
Although English is mandatorily introduced as a second language early in majority of government primary schools in India, its quality remains dismal due to lack of appropriate curricula, poor ESL teacher competencies and weak professional development opportunities. In an effort to promote the
... these new tools, and share their thoughts on improving the environment for small business contracting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having...
Schaer, Caroline; Hahonou, Eric Komlavi
, as large segments of the urban population in West Africa are not offered the public services, infrastructure and protective regulations needed in order to respond to floods. Through an empirically grounded approach, the article shows that the ability to respond to floods is formed largely outside the realm......Disastrous and recurring floods have impacted West African urban centres over the last decade, accentuating already existing vulnerabilities in poor neighbourhoods. Climate change-induced changing weather patterns and more extreme weather events are only part of the explanation for this situation...... of the state in a poor peri-urban municipality of Pikine, Dakar. The authors show how the organization of collective services pertaining to flood response and climate change adaptation is maintained through co-production among service users and providers entailing a mixture of diverse governance modes...
Wiering, M.A.; Kaufmann, M.; Mees, H.; Schellenberger, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hegger, D.L.T.; Larrue, C.; Matczak, P.
Floods are challenging the resilience of societies all over the world. In many countries there are discussions on diversifying the strategies for flood risk management, which implies some sort of policy change. To understand the possibilities of such change, a thorough understanding of the forces of
Wiering, Mark; Kaufmann, M.; Mees, H.; Schellenberger, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hegger, D.L.T.; Larrue, C.; Matczak, P.
Abstract Floods are challenging the resilience of societies all over the world. In many countries there are discussions on diversifying the strategies for flood risk management, which implies some sort of policy change. To understand the possibilities of such change, a thorough understanding of the
Enterprise risk management strategies were used to develop a regulatory and operational framework for a new multi-partner Research Institute that will house up to 900 staff from four different institutions in Queensland, Australia. The Institute will operate in a business environment while functioning as a research resource for the higher…
Full Text Available BackgroundThere is a large controversy in the literature about the inter-relations between perceived risk, knowledge and risk behavior in different settings, and people at HIV risk are not an exception.Aim To assess additive and multiplicative effect of perceived HIV risk and HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs.MethodWe enrolled 162 street based IDUs to this analysis. Data came from a national survey of IDUs in Iran, with a cross sectional design. Socio-demographics (employment, education, marital status, HIV knowledge, perceived HIV risk and four different sexual risk behavior were registered. In the first step, using spearman test, the association of HIV knowledge and risk behavior were tested, then possible moderating effect of perceived HIV risk on this association was determined.ResultsAlthough among IDUs with low perceived HIV risk, HIV knowledge was negatively associated with sexual risk behavior (P<0.05 for all, this association was not significant among IDUs with high perceived HIV risk (P>0.05 for all. Thus perceived HIV risk moderated the association between HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior.ConclusionPerceived risk should be taken into consideration when studying the effect of HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of IDUs. Findings may help us better understand negative effects of fear arousing interventions as a part of HIV prevention media campaigns.
Hegger, D.L.T.; Driessen, P.P.J.; bakker, marloes; Dieperink, C.
European countries, especially urban areas, face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of Flood Risk Management Strategies (FRMSs) makes countries
Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: email@example.com [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)
Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by
International Finance Corporation; UN Global Compact
Corporate citizenship - a commitment to ethical behavior in business strategy, operations, and culture - has been on the periphery of corporate governance and board leadership, linked mainly to corporate reputation. However, in today’s globalized and interconnected world, investors, creditors, and other stakeholders have come to recognize that environmental, social, and governance responsi...
Full Text Available The European Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks is likely to cause changes to flood policy in Germany and other member states. With its risk governance approach, it introduces a holistic and catchment-oriented flood risk management and tries to overcome shortcomings of the past, such as the event-driven construction of mainly structural measures. However, there is leeway for interpretation in implementing the directive. The present paper gives an overview on the implementation of the floods directive in Germany and is divided into two qualitative empirical case studies. Case Study I investigates the level of acceptance of the floods directive among decision-makers in the German part of the Rhine river basin. Findings show that the federal states respond differently to the impulse given by the floods directive. Whereas some decision-makers opt for a pro-forma implementation, others take it as a starting point to systematically improve their flood policy. Case Study II presents recommendations for a successful implementation of flood risk management plans that have been developed within a project for the water authority in Bavaria and might be interesting for other federal/member states. For a participation of the interested parties on the level of shared decision-making, the planning process has to work on sub-management-plan level (15–20 communities. The water resources authority has to adopt a multi-faceted role (expert, responsible or interested party depending on the discussed topics.
personnel that “this is just the way it is done in Afghanistan.” As a result of the dishonesty by local government actors, coalition forces are finding...as Purdah ( gender separation) were still impeding the process of providing health care, the tribes continued to accept the Western- 44 style
Brey, Raul; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis
We provide more evidence on the functional relationship between willingness-to-pay for risk reductions and age (the senior discount). We overcome many of the limitations of previous literature that has dealt with this issue, namely, the influence of the assumptions used in statistical models on the final results. Given our large sample size (n = 6024) we can use models that are very demanding on data. We use parametric (linear, quadratic, dummies), semi-nonparametric, and non-parametric models. We also compare the marginal and the total approach and show that they provide similar results. We also overcome one of the limitations of the total approach, that is, we include the effects of socioeconomic characteristics that are correlated with age (education and income). Our main result is that all these different approaches produce very similar results, namely, they show an inverted-U relation between the value of a statistical life (VSL) and age. Those results can hardly be attributed to problems of collinearity, omitted variables or statistical assumptions. We find a clear senior discount effect. This effect seems concentrated on those who have lower education and income levels. We also find that the value of a statistical life year (VSLY) increases with age.
In the past three decades, the electric energy industry made great contribution to support rapid social and economic development in China, and meanwhile has been grown at the highest rate in the human history owing to the economic reform. In its new national development plan, more investment has been put into installation of both electricity generating capacity and transmitting capacity in order to meet fast growing demand of electric energy. However, energy resources, both fossil fuel and renewable types, and energy consumption and load centers in China are not evenly distributed in both spatial and temporal dimensions. Moreover, dominated by coal as its primary energy source, the whole eastern China is now entering an environmental crisis in which pollutants emitted by coal power plants contribute a large part. To balance the regional differences in energy sources and energy consumption while meeting the steadily increasing demands for electric energy for the whole country, in addition to increase electric generating capacity, building large-scale, long-distance ultra high voltage power grids is the top priority for next five years. China is a country prone to almost all kinds of natural disasters due to its vast, complex geographical and climatic conditions. In recent years, frequent natural disasters, especially extreme weather and climate events, have threatened the safety, reliability and stability of electric energy system in China. Unfortunately, with fast growth rate but lacking of risk assessing and prevention mechanism, many infrastructure constructions, including national power grids, are facing integrated and complex economic, social, institutional and ecological risks. In this paper, based on a case analysis of the Great Ice Storm in southern China in January 2008, risks of building a resilient power grid to deal with increasing threats from extreme weathers are discussed. The paper recommends that a systematic approach based on the social
Full Text Available This paper reports on the results of an empirical study into the integration of strategic information systems planning and business-IT alignment, IT evaluation, and the proactive management of business benefits in large organisations, and to consider the linkages evident between these processes. An argument is developed which suggests that at the heart of good IT governance practice is an integrated cycle of building a business case, alignment and prioritisation of IT investments with business objectives and imperatives, evaluation, system acquisition, and post implementation proactive benefits realisation.
Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter
This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....
Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte
This entry is concerned with demonstrating the increasingly important interface between government organization and communication. Government organization can be approached in terms of state centrism, where the emphasis is on government organization understood as state authority and power......, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... between power, communication, and organizational forms, and suggest the usefulness of viewing government organization in terms of polycentrism, highlighting communication and organizing processes in a wider perspective. The entry focuses particularly on two major strands of literature: deliberative...
Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J
The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can...
Rose, Caspar; Sherman, David; Haraszuk, Anni
financial controls and risk management ensures that the systems of risk management are robust and defensible. This agenda should be integrated into the audit committee oversight and cannot merely reflect a check the box exercise. Instead, as illustrated by the Tata Capital Framework, it must reflect...... the core values and lead to sound actions in the entire organization that helps protect the brand value and maintain trust among all Tata Capital's stakeholders....
Berglöf, Erik; Claessens, Stijn
Enforcement more than regulations, laws-on-the-books, or voluntary codes is key to effective corporate governance, at least in transition and developing countries. Corporate governance and enforcement mechanisms are intimately linked as they affect firms' ability to commit to their stakeholders, in particular to external investors. The authors provide a framework for understanding these li...
The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced ...
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the ......This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...
Although hospitals vary in terms of their governance structures, little research has focused on the effectiveness of these governance mechanisms through the study of executive contracting. Using a sample of 80 non-for-profit private hospitals in the Netherlands, I investigate whether differences in governance structures of hospitals are informative for explaining the variations in chief executive pay. After controlling for important economic determinants of CEO compensation in hospitals (i.e., type and size of the hospital, CEO type and job complexity, market conditions and performance attributes), the results suggest that CEOs on average earn more (1) when the hospital's supervisory board members receive more remuneration (a higher absolute as well as an excessive remuneration) and (2) when supervisory board members have a lower level of expertise. The findings suggest that supervisory boards are more effective in controlling agency problems (i.e., aligning CEO pay to economic conditions) when their members have more expertise, but at the same time that the monitoring function is hampered when supervisory board members receive a large (excessive) remuneration.
Abebe, Gumataw K; Chalak, Ali; Abiad, Mohamad G
Food safety is a key public health issue worldwide. This study aims to characterise existing governance mechanisms - governance structures (GSs) and food safety management systems (FSMSs) - and analyse the alignment thereof in detecting food safety hazards, based on empirical evidence from Lebanon. Firm-to-firm and public baseline are the dominant FSMSs applied in a large-scale, while chain-wide FSMSs are observed only in a small-scale. Most transactions involving farmers are relational and market-based in contrast to (large-scale) processors, which opt for hierarchical GSs. Large-scale processors use a combination of FSMSs and GSs to minimise food safety hazards albeit potential increase in coordination costs; this is an important feature of modern food supply chains. The econometric analysis reveals contract period, on-farm inspection and experience having significant effects in minimising food safety hazards. However, the potential to implement farm-level FSMS is influenced by formality of the contract, herd size, trading partner choice, and experience. Public baseline FSMSs appear effective in controlling food safety hazards; however, this may not be viable due to the scarcity of public resources. We suggest public policies to focus on long-lasting governance mechanisms by introducing incentive schemes and farm-level FSMSs by providing loans and education to farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kolle, Stein Olav
The study analyzes cost and utility-cost effective use of government funds for voluntary conservation and government initiated conservation of forest in Norway from 2005 to 2013, to better understand bias in voluntary conservation when compared to government initiated conservation of forested areas. This is accomplished by estimating a mean opportunity cost for a decare of productive forest for the counties included in the analysis, and to compute solutions to a optimization pr...
Gerst, Michael D; Cox, Michael E; Locke, Kim A; Laser, Mark; Kapuscinski, Anne R
Predominant forms of food and energy systems pose multiple challenges to the environment as current configurations tend to be structured around centralized one-way through-put of materials and energy. In addition, these configurations can introduce vulnerability to input material price and supply shocks as well as contribute to localized food insecurity and lost opportunities for less environmentally harmful forms of local economic development. One proposed form of system transformation involves locally integrating “unclosed” material and energy loops from food and energy systems. Such systems, which have been termed integrated food-energy systems (IFES), have existed in diverse niche forms but have not been systematically studied with respect to technological, governance, and environmental differences. As a first step in this process, we have constructed a taxonomy of IFES archetypes by using exploratory data analysis on a collection of IFES cases. We find that IFES may be classified hierarchically first by their primary purpose—food or energy production—and subsequently by degree and direction of vertical supply chain coordination. We then use this taxonomy to delineate potential governance challenges and pose a research agenda aimed at understanding what role IFES may play in food and energy system transformation and ultimately what policies may encourage IFES adoption.
Full Text Available This study adds to the field of public administration by focusing on the nexus between government decision and bank performance scores highlighting the administrative regulatory dimensions of improvements. To this end, this research paper covers a unique database comprising all listed banks that operate on emerging European markets in the period 2005-2011. Country specific characteristics are presented in the light of public administration quality which includes the dimension of governance quality on the one side, andthe quality and administrative burden on business environment on the other.Bank performance is defined under two different approaches (accounting vs. market based taking into account different stakeholders interest (state and central bank authority vs. investors.We account for profit persistency by using a Prais-Winsten regression that allows for both autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity in data. The results call attention to the fact that in emerging European markets regulatory glitches have a positive impact upon bank performance. Market imperfections are a source of profitability as they generate a reliable supply of market share appropriation and thus monopoly power. Also, administrative commitment towards increasing the quality of public services and policies endorsed by diminishing the level of corruption will accelerate private development and thus banking profitability.
van Winsen, F.; DE MEY, Yann; Lauwers, L.; Van Passel, Steven; Vancauteren, Mark; Wauters, E.
The importance of risk perception and risk attitude for understanding individual’s risk behaviour are independently well described in literature, but rarely combined in an integrated approach. In this study, we propose a model assuming the choice to implement certain risk management strategies to be directly driven by both perceptions of risks and risk attitude. Other determinants influence the intention to apply different risk strategies mainly indirectly, mediated by risk perception and ris...
Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Degen, Gisela H; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P
The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be subjected to the well-evaluated health risk characterization approach used for many years including adverse outcome pathways. Many of the points arguing for a specific approach for risk characterization of chemicals with hormonal activity are based on highly speculative conclusions. These conclusions are not well supported when evaluating the available information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.
Rice, Lee; Rahman, Shawon
The need for information security within small to mid-size companies is increasing. The risks of information security breach, data loss, and disaster are growing. The impact of IT outages and issues on the company are unacceptable to any size business and their clients. There are many ways to address the security for IT departments. The need to address risks of attacks as well as disasters is important to the IT security policies and procedures. The IT departments of small to medium companies...
Full Text Available Sovereignty-sharing has placed European countries in a position to resolve their common problems through law, not war. As a result, the EU member states now live in peace together and take peace, justice and order for granted. The system of global governance is dysfunctional – some states are failing and the Security Council lacks legitimacy. Humanity does not have a mechanism to resolve its global problems through law, making it difficult – if not impossible – to resolve global problems such as famine, hunger, climate change, war and terrorism, nuclear proliferation, regulation of corporations – including banks, destruction of fish stocks, and population. Sharing of sovereignty at the global level can address these problems, starting in the area of food security, then proceeding to climate management and other fields. Shared sovereignty can eliminate famine and hunger globally.
Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)
Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.
The leadership literature distinguishes two modes of governance, which can also be applied to the governance of universities: transactional and transformational. Transactional governance encompasses all forms of managerial governance, including selective incentives and monitoring capacity. The theoretical underpinning of this mode can be found in…
G. van der Walt
Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.
Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A.; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Degen, Gisela H.; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L.; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G.; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P.
The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be
Bright, Jonathan; Döring, Holger; Little, Conor
Are holders of important ministerial positions more likely to survive in cabinet than their colleagues who hold less important positions? This study examines the relationship between the importance of a ministerial position and the length of time ministers are able to survive in government....... It is based on an original dataset of cabinet ministers in seven West European countries from 1945 to 2011. Employing a little-used measure of ministerial survival based on overall time in government, it is found that holders of important ministerial positions are more durable than their colleagues who hold...... less important ministerial positions. Age, prior government experience and the size of the party to which the minister belongs are also associated with consistently significant effects. Further, the study explores the determinants of survival for two types of risk – exiting government with one’s party...
Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George
This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This talk addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single ``hits`` in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth`s magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when ``hit`` by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore B. subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground-based accelerators with beams at low energies in the same LET range, is that high-energy particles can exert their influence a surprising distance from their trajectory and the inactivation cross sections are some twenty times larger than expected. Clearly, beams from high-energy heavy-ion accelerators should be used to confirm these results. For those end points that can also be caused by low-LET beams such as high-energy protons, it is important to measure their action cross sections as well. The ratio of the cross sections for a high-LET beam to that of a low-LET beam is an interesting experimental ratio and, we suggest, of more intrinsic interest than the RBE. It is a measure of the ``biological`` importance of one particle type relative to another particle type. This ratio will be introduced and given the name RPPE (Relative Per Particle Effectiveness). Values of RPPE will be discussed.
This talk addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single hits'' in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth's magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when hit'' by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore B. subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground-based accelerators with beams at low energies in the same LET range, is that high-energy particles can exert their influence a surprising distance from their trajectory and the inactivation cross sections are some twenty times larger than expected. Clearly, beams from high-energy heavy-ion accelerators should be used to confirm these results. For those end points that can also be caused by low-LET beams such as high-energy protons, it is important to measure their action cross sections as well. The ratio of the cross sections for a high-LET beam to that of a low-LET beam is an interesting experimental ratio and, we suggest, of more intrinsic interest than the RBE. It is a measure of the biological'' importance of one particle type relative to another particle type. This ratio will be introduced and given the name RPPE (Relative Per Particle Effectiveness). Values of RPPE will be discussed.
Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy
The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...
Blanpied, M. L.; Perry, S. C.; Carriere, J.; DeShon, H. R.; Oden, K.; Vaz, R.; Williams, R. A.; Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Choy, G. L.; Hoover, S. M.; Mueller, C. S.; LaGrassa, N.; Miller, G.; Osburn, M.
Felt earthquakes have occurred in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Irving area since 2008, raising concern about seismic risks and potential links to petroleum industry activities - and leading to a productive, long-standing interaction between earthquake scientists and local government officials. City staff, including emergency managers, formed the Dallas Irving Earthquake Working Group (DIEWG) in early 2015 to share information, learn about their new hazard, and coordinate public messages and response planning. The DIEWG has held regular meetings that included academic and government experts including scientists from Southern Methodist University (SMU) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). SMU apprised DIEWG of monitoring and research results, and responded to media inquiries. USGS provided information about seismic hazard and the likelihood of damaging earthquakes, and worked with FEMA Regions VI & VIII to provide impact planning scenarios for plausible earthquakes of M4.8 and M5.6. USGS briefed DIEWG before the release of an assessment of the likelihood of damage from natural and induced earthquakes, as local officials needed to understand the information and its implications in order to translate for their constituents. DIEWG has now asked USGS to help to develop tabletop response exercises. Through these interactions, local officials and scientists increased understanding of each other's roles, capabilities and limitations. The interactions have also improved DIEWG members' understanding of earthquake risk and impact, supported hazard mitigation planning, influenced infrastructure and building code decisions, and informed conversations with residents and media. Input from DIEWG has improved scientists' translation of complex information for use in planning, and identified persistent misunderstandings about concepts and terminology that are relevant to many earthquake information products. A key aspect of this success has been the repeated personal interaction over time.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether effective boards of directors in addressing shareholder interests also prove to be effective in guaranteeing the interests of the rest of the firm's stakeholders. We measure board effectiveness based on the shareholder perspective, and test whether it is valid for the stakeholder perspective. The novelty of this paper precisely lies in its approach, given that it considers both perspectives of corporate governance at a time. Using the transparency of sustainability reports as a proxy for the stakeholder perspective in an international sample of 2366 companies, the paper shows that effective boards are more likely to address the interests of both the shareholders and the rest of the firm's stakeholders. Furthermore, we propose a measure of board effectiveness by gathering several board characteristics. Our results contribute to research on corporate governance and corporate social responsibility reporting, and it has implications for policy makers.
Ali, Mohamed Omar
Master's thesis in Industrial Economics After new or upgrade projects the offshore installation gets maintenance or support through the life cycle management organization at Siemens. Small to medium modification projects are executed by the life cycle management. Risk assessment on these projects show different risks when it comes to estimation and pricing of projects, planning and executing, resource management, competence and knowledge.
Ali, Mohamed Omar
After new or upgrade projects the offshore installation gets maintenance or support through the life cycle management organization at Siemens. Small to medium modification projects are executed by the life cycle management. Risk assessment on these projects show different risks when it comes to estimation and pricing of projects, planning and executing, resource management, competence and knowledge.
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity for pregnant women and newborns. Identifying pregnant women with risk factors for GDM based on the clinical suspicion is a popular approach. However, the effectiveness of the use of a structured checklist of risk ...
Public inquiries and 'risk communication' do not provide sufficient leverage for risk reductions as they lack strong basis on the organizational culture. This paper stresses the need for a safety culture that offers an expository medium for effective risk management, repudiating a unilateral decision by the management, but ...
Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.
the developing world, adhere to good governance practices, and uphold the public interest. The IDRC Act specifies that at least 11 of the Governors must have experience in international development or a background in the natural or social sciences, or in tech- nology. These stipulations are reflected in a profile of skills.
Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...
Transportation agencies across the United States are faced with the challenge of effectively : adapting infrastructure to withstand the predicted effects of climate change. This challenge is : magnified by a nationwide funding shortage, uncertainty a...
Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.
Buchecker, M.; Salvini, G.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Semenzin, E.; Maidl, E.; Marcomini, A.
Over the last few decades, Europe has suffered from a number of severe flood events and, as a result, there has been a growing interest in probing alternative approaches to managing flood risk via prevention measures. A literature review reveals that, although in the last decades risk evaluation has been recognized as key element of risk management, and risk assessment methodologies (including risk analysis and evaluation) have been improved by including social, economic, cultural, historical and political conditions, the theoretical schemes are not yet applied in practice. One main reason for this shortcoming is that risk perception literature is mainly of universal and theoretical nature and cannot provide the necessary details to implement a comprehensive risk evaluation. This paper therefore aims to explore a procedure that allows the inclusion of stakeholders' perceptions of prevention measures in risk assessment. It proposes to adopt methods of risk communication (both one-way and two-way communication) in risk assessment with the final aim of making flood risk management more effective. The proposed procedure not only focuses on the effect of discursive risk communication on risk perception, and on achieving a shared assessment of the prevention alternatives, but also considers the effects of the communication process on perceived uncertainties, accepted risk levels, and trust in the managing institutions. The effectiveness of this combined procedure has been studied and illustrated using the example of the participatory flood prevention assessment process on the Sihl River in Zurich, Switzerland. The main findings of the case study suggest that the proposed procedure performed well, but that it needs some adaptations for it to be applicable in different contexts and to allow a (semi-) quantitative estimation of risk perception to be used as an indicator of adaptive capacity.
Raymond G. Mabaso
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR, a common cause of visual impairment (VI and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness.Aim: To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years.Setting: The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.Methods: This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined.Results: Participants (N = 225 included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years; 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8% and DR (7.1% were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity.Conclusion: Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.
Burkiewicz, Jill S; Vesta, Kimi S; Hume, Anne L
To review approaches and tools that pharmacists may use in communicating evidence of risk to older patients and their caregivers. Relevant publications related to tools to communicate evidence to patients were identified through a systematic MEDLINE and Internet search engines using key words: evidence-based medicine/practice, patient, and risk communication. Additional articles were identified through use of the PubMed "related articles" feature and a review of citations of previously identified articles. Relevant English language publications were reviewed, with particular focus on articles about older adults. Communicating evidence from clinical trials to patients remains a challenge because of patient- and clinician-related barriers. Communicating with older adults faces additional challenges: perceptions of patient involvement in care and uncertainty of drug benefit-to-risk ratio because of the potential increase in adverse events. This is especially true in this population because of their multiple medical conditions. To actively involve patients in health care decisions, an ordered approach to teaching risks and benefits can be valuable. Evidence presented as a general risk estimate should be reinforced with specific numbers to depict patient-specific risk. Understanding may be strengthened with visual aids such as risk ladders or perspective scales. Each step in the process serves as a framework and should consider patients' individual values and beliefs. For patients to fully understand medications' risks and benefits, clinicians must use a systematic approach to present data from clinical trials and reinforce patients' comprehension using visual aids. Ultimately, these approaches and tools aim to support patient involvement in health care decisions.
van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Van De Giesen, N.
Water stress is one of the most important environmental factors that influence plant water dynamics. To prevent excessive water loss and physiological damage, plants can regulate transpiration by adjusting the stomatal aperture. This enhances survival, but also reduced photosynthesis and productivity. During periods of low water availability, stomatal regulation is a trade-off between optimization of either survival or production. Water stress defence mechanisms lead to significant changes in plant dynamics, e.g. leaf and stem water content. Recent research has shown that water content in a corn canopy can change up to 30% diurnally as a result of water stress, which has a considerable influence on radar backscatter from a corn canopy . This highlighted the potential of water stress detection using radar. To fully explore the potential of water stress monitoring using radar, we need to understand the driving forces governing plant water potential. For this study, the recently developed the Finite-Element Tree-Crown Hydrodynamic model version 2 (FETCH2) model is applied to a corn canopy. FETCH2 is developed to resolve the hydrodynamic processes within a plant using the porous media analogy, allowing investigation of the influence of environmental stress factors on plant dynamics such as transpiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf and stem water content. The model is parameterized and evaluated using a detailed dataset obtained during a three-month field experiment in Flevoland, the Netherlands, on a corn canopy.  van Emmerik, T., S. Steele-Dunne, J. Judge and N. van de Giesen: "Impact of Diurnal Variation in Vegetation Water Content on Radar Backscatter of Maize During Water Stress", Geosciences and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 52, issue 7, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2014.2386142, 2015.
Full Text Available Grassland degradation intensifies human-environment conflicts and adversely affects local residents’ livelihoods. To reduce grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia, China, the government has enforced (since 1998 a series of grassland conservation and management policies that restrict the use of grasslands. To ease the impact on the residents’ livelihoods, the national and regional governments have offered a series of top-down arrangements to stimulate sustainable use of the grasslands. Simultaneously, local households spontaneously developed bottom-up countermeasures. To determine the effects of these processes, we interviewed members of 135 households using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. We analyzed the effects on household dependence on local grasslands and on perceptions of the future of grassland use. Our findings show that the implementation of the grassland conservation policies significantly affected household livelihoods, which in turn affected household use of natural assets (primarily the land, their agricultural assets (farming and grazing activities and their financial assets (income and consumption, resulting in fundamental transformation of their lifestyles. The households developed adaptation measures to account for the dependence of their livelihood on local ecosystems by initializing strategies, such as seeking off-farm work, leasing pasture land, increasing purchases of fodder for stall-fed animals and altering their diet and fuel consumption to compensate for their changing livelihoods.
The effect of management style upon resident students' evaluations of student advisors was examined. Student ratings of the 9.9 managers, considered to be the most effective of the five basic approaches found in Blake and Mouton, were compared to the ratings of advisors using other styles. The 17 student advisors in the York College residence…
Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of earning management on corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and external auditor toward corporate social responsibility disclosure. This study finds that the increase of ownership structure (foreign ownership and institutional ownership will increase corporate social responsibility disclosure. However corporate governance mechanism and external auditor is not affecting corporate social responsibility disclosure. Furthermore, this study provides additional empirical evidence for agency theory especially agency cost, that corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and Big Four audit firm do not have an effective role as agency cost to prevent or decrease earning management practice.
Opdahl, S.; Alsaker, M D K; Janszky, I; Romundstad, P R; Vatten, L J
Background: Pregnancy may reduce breast cancer risk through induction of persistent changes of the mammary gland that make the breast less susceptible to carcinogenic factors. It is not known to what extent the effects of parity are independent of other breast cancer risk factors. Methods: In a Norwegian cohort of 58 191 women (2890 breast cancers), we assessed whether the effects of parity on postmenopausal breast cancer risk may be modified by menstrual and anthropometric factors. We calcul...
Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind
The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... in China. Drawing on the framework of the theory of temporary organizations, we analyze data from interviews and participant observations to single out the characteristics of inter-organizational collaboration afforded by OSM. The findings outline the features of collaboration practices afforded by OSM...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...
Original title: De school bestuurd. Until now, little was known about school boards in primary and secondary schools. This study presents a national overview of the way in which these school boards interpret and fulfil their role. More and different demands have been placed on school boards in recent years, for example with regard to transparency of governance and public accountability. In a national survey of school boards, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP explored what they...
Adopting Service Governance provides a useful umbrella for a number of frameworks including ITIL®, TOGAF®, COBIT®, ITSM, BSM, Business Analysis, Programme Management, Management of Value, Management of Portfolios and Management of Risk by establishing the top-down governance of an organisation through services.
Statin side effects: Weigh the benefits and risks Statin side effects can be uncomfortable, making it seem ... medications. By Mayo Clinic Staff Doctors often prescribe statins for people with high cholesterol to lower their ...
Bakker, Marije; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena; Giebels, Ellen
This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in
Construction managers in a bid to effectively manage risks prone projects have adopted several methods, one of which is contingency sum. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of contingency sum as a risk management tool for construction projects in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The objectives are to establish ...
Bakker, M.H.; Kerstholt, J.H.; Giebels, E.
This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in
One major problem many organizations are facing is balancing the risk-management practices of the organization with overall information technology (IT) effectiveness. The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative correlational study was to assess the constructs and correlations associated with enterprise risk management and IT effectiveness.…
Full Text Available We examine the relation between corporate governance and bankruptcy risk as an underlying force affecting a bond’s yield. The level of corporate governance is captured by the G-index, along with the explicit groups of governance provisions. We estimate bankruptcy risk by Z-score, by cash-flow-score, by O-score, through Merton structural model default probabilities, and by S&P credit ratings. After addressing endogeneity and while controlling for firm-specific factors, based on the four objective methodologies we find that corporate governance is inversely related to bankruptcy risk. Yet, rating agencies take a mixed approach towards this association likely because of the conflicting impact of different governance provisions.
Chee Huei Phing
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.
Graziano, Paolo R; Halpern, Charlotte
International audience; Far from reopening classic debates on EU modes of governance, this special issue uses the governance notion as an organizing concept in order to examine the governing of the EU in times of crisis. More specifically, we argue that focusing on modes ofgovernance contributes to the understanding of ‘where the power lies in the EU system’ especially when an external shock – such as the crisis – hits the EU governance system. A systematic investigation is not possible given...
Full Text Available The opportunities of investment brought along by the global economic integrity might turn into a threat in an instant and undermine the underlying structures of national economies. It is necessary to analyze the conflict risk properly in terms of both portfolio investment and finance strategies. This is an important step to be included in the process of arriving to a rational decision. In that way, the existing investment risks could be priced more efficiently. It is proved on Collier and Starr models that there is a correlation between the conflict risk and unemployment, economic recession, inflation and fiscal discipline. In brief, the breakdown in the economic parameters increases the conflict risk and a progress occurring in the opposite way, decreases that risk. In this study, it is discussed the effects of the conflict risk for foreign investment availabilities. Keywords: Foreign direct investment; volatile effect; conflict risk; investment climate
Rasmussen, Mattias Borg
Abandonment has become a performative idiom in Andean Peru, where it retains its purchase despite the investments of the state. Local development is tied to the desire to be governed. In spite of prolonged state presence, the villages’ relationship to authorities is continuously and persistently ...... morally grounded claims to local authorities. The idiom of abandonment is therefore both effective and affective as a critique of governance and a claim to citizenship.......Abandonment has become a performative idiom in Andean Peru, where it retains its purchase despite the investments of the state. Local development is tied to the desire to be governed. In spite of prolonged state presence, the villages’ relationship to authorities is continuously and persistently...... figured as one of abandonment: villages are abandoned because someone is deliberately holding them in such unfortunate conditions. To figure abandonment in village politics is to draw on this idiom as an effective means of both communicating the historical experience of governance and putting forward...
Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..
Climate and agriculture are inextricably linked: the climate affects agricultural production and is itself affected by agricultural emissions. Agriculture is responsible for 30 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. How agriculture is practised therefore has significant potential for mitigating climate change, for providing food security and for improving the livelihoods of millions of food producers worldwide. There is growing interest in the use of market governance mechanisms for tackling climate change by giving the financial incentives to make the kinds of changes that are required. But how widely are these mechanisms being used in agriculture, and are they effective in reducing emissions? What impact do they have on adaptation and other aspects of sustainable development? Are they able to balance the competing demands of producers and consumers, the environment and food security? The key messages emerging from this study are that economic measures have a vital part to play within this regulatory context, but they need to be designed with care. To be effective, emissions from food production and consumption must be addressed together. If not, emissions reduced in one region will simply be displaced elsewhere. A balance needs to be struck by applying a mix of approaches – regulatory, economic, voluntary, and information: no single measure will be effective in achieving emissions reductions on its own. 'Soft' measures, such as voluntary agreements and information have a part to play in providing an enabling context for action, but they must be backed up by 'harder' regulatory or economic measures. Regulation, in the form of a cap on emissions, is a prerequisite for other market governance measures to function well. To be effective, MGMs need to consider the social, cultural and economic context within which they operate.
characterized by 'new risks' (Beck, 1992; Giddens, 1991; Latour, 1991) such as nuclear ... Organization is a social entity that is goal-oriented, with a deliberately structured activity system and identifiable boundary (Daft, 1992) consisting a group of people in a division of ..... Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Physicians can employ communication techniques to improve patient diagnoses, outcomes, and satisfaction and ultimately to decrease their risk of malpractice suit. The skills outlined in this article form the basis of the Miles Program for Physician-Patient Communication of which the author is a participant.
van der Vat, Marnix; Femke, Schasfoort; Rhee Gigi, Van; Manfred, Wienhoven; Nico, Polman; Joost, Delsman; den Hoek Paul, Van; Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens
It is widely acknowledged that drought management should move from a crisis to a risk-based approach. A risk-based approach to managing water resources requires a sound drought risk analysis, quantifying the probability and impacts of water shortage due to droughts. Impacts of droughts are for example crop yield losses, hydropower production losses, and water shortage for municipal and industrial use. Many studies analyse the balance between supply and demand, but there is little experience in translating this into economic metrics that can be used in a decision-making process on investments to reduce drought risk. We will present a drought risk analysis method for the Netherlands, with a focus on the underlying economic method to quantify the welfare effects of water shortage for different water users. Both the risk-based approach as well as the economic valuation of water shortage for various water users was explored in a study for the Dutch Government. First, an historic analysis of the effects of droughts on revenues and prices in agriculture as well as on shipping and nature was carried out. Second, a drought risk analysis method was developed that combines drought hazard and drought impact analysis in a probabilistic way for various sectors. This consists of a stepwise approach, from water availability through water shortage to economic impact, for a range of drought events with a certain return period. Finally, a local case study was conducted to test the applicability of the drought risk analysis method. Through the study, experience was gained into integrating hydrological and economic analyses, which is a prerequisite for drought risk analysis. Results indicate that the risk analysis method is promising and applicable for various sectors. However, it was also found that quantification of economic impacts from droughts is time-consuming, because location- and sector-specific data is needed, which is not always readily available. Furthermore, for some
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher
In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid scheme...... and a reform of the student aid scheme to identify the effect of direct costs on college enrollment. To allow for heterogeneous responses due to borrowing constraints, we use detailed information on parents' assets. We find that enrollment is less responsive than found in other studies and that the presence...... of borrowing constraints only deters college enrollment to a minor extent....
Mishra, Sandeep; Gregson, Margaux; Lalumière, Martin L
Prospect theory suggests that people are risk-averse when facing gains, but risk-prone when facing losses, a pattern known as the framing effect. Although framing effects have been widely demonstrated, few studies have investigated framing effects under conditions of need. Risk-sensitivity theory predicts that decision makers should prefer high-risk options in situations of high need, when lower risk options are unlikely to meet those needs. In two experiments, we examined (1) whether framing effects occurred in behavioural tasks involving risky decision making from description and decision making from experience, (2) whether participants' risky decision making conformed to the predictions of risk-sensitivity theory, and (3) whether decision framing interacted with conditions of need to influence decision making under risk. The results suggest that under all circumstances, risky decision making conformed to the predictions of risk-sensitivity theory. Framing effects were at least partially demonstrable under all experimental conditions. Finally, negative frames interacted with situations of high need to produce particularly elevated levels of risky choice. Together, the results suggest that risk-sensitivity theory can augment prospect theory to explain choice under conditions of need. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kyng, Morten
policies for apps that are medical devices.In this paper, we approach the problem of how to govern healthcare and medical apps by addressing the risks the use of these apps pose, while at the same time inviting for development of new apps. To do so we (i) analyze four cases of healthcare app governance/regulation...
... public. Government should be participatory. Public engagement enhances the Government's effectiveness and... the Chief Technology Officer, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget...
Proper, Eve; Willmer, Wesley K.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Caboni, Timothy C.
This article examines the factors that influence presidents' perceptions of board effectiveness in relation to their boards' fundraising role. Data from a survey of small college presidents are used to see what factors influence each of four areas of satisfaction: deciding policy, making financial contributions, referring donor prospects and…
Claessens, S.; Ueda, K.
Between the early-1970s and the mid-1990s, the U.S. banking sector was deregulated and U.S. workers gained more statuary basic protections. The effects of these two reforms on productive activity have largely been studied separately in the finance and labor literatures. Yet they only have separable
Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.
This paper examines corporate governance practices in Costa Rica. First, it estimates corporate governance charter measures using firm-level data for 87 Costa Rican firms and studies their impact on the firms` performance; here, the mean of the corporate governance charters for the publicly traded firms is equal to 56. 14. Second, new evidence is presented on de jure and de facto corporate governance charter measures at the firm level and on their effect on the performance of the firm. The re...
Innovation happens at EPA, but it also takes place at many other government agencies including NASA, DARPA, HHS, OPM, and USGS through projects such as SBIR, innovation labs, innovation offices, and high-risk, high-reward scientific research.
Malmsjö, Malin; Ingemansson, Richard; Sjögren, Johan
: Vacuum-assisted closure has been adopted as the first-line treatment for poststernotomy mediastinitis as a result of the excellent clinical outcome achieved with its use. Scientific evidence regarding the mechanisms by which vacuum-assisted closure promotes wound healing has started to emerge, although knowledge regarding the effects on heart and lung function is still limited. The organs in the mediastinum are hemodynamically crucial, and in patients with poststernotomy mediastinitis, vulnerable bypass grafts and reduced cardiac function must be taken into consideration during vacuum-assisted closure therapy. This article provides an overview of the effects of vacuum-assisted closure on heart and lung function and summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms by which vacuum-assisted closure therapy promotes wound healing.
Malina, Robert M
Year-round training in a single sport beginning at a relatively young age is increasingly common among youth. Contributing factors include perceptions of Eastern European sport programs, a parent's desire to give his or her child an edge, labeling youth as talented at an early age, pursuit of scholarships and professional contracts, the sporting goods and services industry, and expertise research. The factors interact with the demands of sport systems. Limiting experiences to a single sport is not the best path to elite status. Risks of early specialization include social isolation, overdependence, burnout, and perhaps risk of overuse injury. Commitment to a single sport at an early age immerses a youngster in a complex world regulated by adults, which is a setting that facilitates manipulation - social, dietary, chemical, and commercial. Youth sport must be kept in perspective. Participants, including talented young athletes, are children and adolescents with the needs of children and adolescents.
Effective leadership by setting values and participative decision- making process is key not only to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the institution but also in building the organizational culture. The formal and informal arrangements in the institution to co-ordinate the academic and administrative planning and implementation reflects the institutions efforts in achieving its vision. This paper focus on the vision, mission and the objectives identified for a higher educa...
Spooner, D.E.; Vaughn, C.C.; Galbraith, H.S.
Changing environments can have divergent effects on biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships at alternating trophic levels. Freshwater mussels fertilize stream foodwebs through nutrient excretion, and mussel species-specific excretion rates depend on environmental conditions. We asked how differences in mussel diversity in varying environments influence the dynamics between primary producers and consumers. We conducted field experiments manipulating mussel richness under summer (low flow, high temperature) and fall (moderate flow and temperature) conditions, measured nutrient limitation, algal biomass and grazing chironomid abundance, and analyzed the data with non-transgressive overyielding and tripartite biodiversity partitioning analyses. Algal biomass and chironomid abundance were best explained by trait-independent complementarity among mussel species, but the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels (algae and grazers) depended on seasonal differences in mussel species' trait expression (nutrient excretion and activity level). Both species identity and overall diversity effects were related to the magnitude of nutrient limitation. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity of a resource-provisioning (nutrients and habitat) group of species influences foodweb dynamics and that understanding species traits and environmental context are important for interpreting biodiversity experiments. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Full Text Available Wetting phenomena plays a crucial role in a wide range of technological applications. Spreading of liquids on solids involving phase change is encountered in many areas ranging from biological systems to industrial applications such as coatings, printing, painting and spraying. The fundamental study on wetting of membrane precursors namely hydrotalcite sols on a porous silica surface with different types of precursor material was successfully carried out. Relationship between the contact angle of a hydrotalcite droplet on silica surface and the Marangoni effect was also investigated. The presence of PVA in hydrotalcite sols was found to influence the rheological properties of the sols significantly, resulting in higher viscosity and ultimately leading to lower contact angle on solid surfaces. The degree of hydrotalcite's philicity on a substrate was improved by the addition of PVA solution. In this study, the spreading of a liquid droplet on a solid surface controlled by a surface tension gradient, due to Marangoni effect was found to drive better spreading of the liquid droplet. Marangoni Number, Ma was found to be proportionally related with the surface tension of the sols but inversely proportional to contact angles of the sols. Marangoni forces that decreased the contact angle, promoted spreading of hydrotalcite droplets on the selected glass substrates. Keywords: contact angle, hydrotalcite, marangoni effect, spreading, wetting evolution
Wu, Chi-Shin; Ting, Te-Tien; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Chang, I-Shou; Lin, Keh-Ming
This study aimed to examine whether benzodiazepine (BZD) discontinuation would decrease the risk of dementia. A population-based nested case-control study of dementia was used. All subjects aged 45 years or older and enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between 1997 and 2007 were randomly selected. A total of 8,434 cases had been identified with dementia at least three times in ambulatory claims or with one record in inpatient claims. They were individually matched with two comparison subjects (N = 16,706) by age, gender, and index date. The lengths of discontinuation, cumulative BZD dose, and potential confounding factors, including medical and psychiatric disorders, were measured and used for further analysis. Compared with nonusers, current users had an increased risk of dementia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.46-2.99). The dementia risk for former users was reduced as the duration of discontinuation lengthened (3 years aOR = 1.08, 95% CI, 0.98-1.20). The decreasing trend was significant (p discontinuation lengthened. Further investigations are needed to replicate this association and explore the underlying mechanism that links long-term BZD use, BZD discontinuation, and the pathogenesis of neurocognitive dysfunction.
over industrial capitalism, which is nothing more than, on the one hand, to lean towards the maximum profitability for the shareholders, to raise the value of everything on the market without moral considerations, to, force the actors to look for permanent risk and to adapt more flexible hierarchical relations in the administration of the company; and on the other, the marginalization of the working class. Governance has reached the political matters turning itself into the model of public management par excellence, it means that the government, diminished to it’s basic form guides a civil society, which acquires an important role in the creation and follow-up of the different policies, that is to say, that the government acquires a flexible form of regulation, it is there where political governance leads us, to the alleged self-regulation of private interests that added-together are able to shape the general interest. Indeed it is a question of a new form of domination marked by a political failing, where the civil society plays in opposition to the State. Governance is leaning towards a fearsome trap to the democracy, insofar as it is presented as an extension of democracy embodied in a better participation of civil society, destroying the public person formed by the union of all others and the becoming representative of particular interests.
Roco, Mihail C.
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene
Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...
Daniel F. García; Adrián Fernández
Today, computer systems are more and more complex and support growing security risks. The security managers need to find effective security risk assessment methodologies that allow modeling well the increasing complexity of current computer systems but also maintaining low the complexity of the assessment procedure. This paper provides a brief analysis of common security risk assessment methodologies leading to the selection of a proper methodology to fulfill these requirements. Then, a detai...
One of risk measurements – Value-at-Risk (VaR) was analyzed in this work. Complete definition of VaR is presented and three classical calculation methods of it are examined: parametric, historical simulations, and Monte-Carlo generations. The main advantages and disadvantages of the application of VaR are reviewed. Correlation effect for two assets risk diversification is examined and Markowitz method for calculation of efficient frontier is presented. Analyzed methods were implemented in the...
Pantano, Daniele; Neubauer, Nicole; Navratilova, Jana; Scifo, Lorette; Civardi, Chiara; Stone, Vicki; von der Kammer, Frank; Müller, Philipp; Sobrido, Marcos Sanles; Angeletti, Bernard; Rose, Jerome; Wohlleben, Wendel
Here we compare the standard European benchmark of wood treatment by molecularly dissolved copper amine (Cu-amine), also referred to as aqueous copper amine (ACA), against two nanoenabled formulations: copper(II)oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in an acrylic paint to concentrate Cu as a barrier on the wood surface, and a suspension of micronized basic copper carbonate (CuCO 3 ·Cu(OH) 2 ) for wood pressure treatment. After characterizing the properties of the (nano)materials and their formulations, we assessed their effects in vitro against three fungal species: Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and Trametes versicolor, finding them to be mediated only partially by ionic transformation. To assess the use phase, we quantify both release rate and form. Cu leaching rates for the two types of impregnated wood (conventional and nanoenabled) are not significantly different at 172 ± 6 mg/m 2 , with Cu being released predominantly in ionic form. Various simulations of outdoor aging with release sampling by runoff, during condensation, by different levels of mechanical shear, all resulted in comparable form and rate of release from the nanoenabled or the molecular impregnated woods. Because of dissolving transformations, the nanoenabled impregnation does not introduce additional concern over and above that associated with the traditional impregnation. In contrast, Cu released from wood coated with the CuO acrylate contained particles, but the rate was at least 100-fold lower. In the same ranking, the effectiveness to protect against the wood-decaying basidiomycete Coniophora puteana was significant with both impregnation technologies but remained insignificant for untreated wood and wood coated by the acrylic CuO. Accordingly, a lifecycle-based sustainability analysis indicates that the CuO acrylic coating is less sustainable than the technological alternatives, and should not be developed into a commercial product.
Longman, Thea; Turner, Robin M; King, Madeleine; McCaffery, Kirsten J
To examine the effects of communicating uncertainty in quantitative health risk estimates on participants' understanding, risk perception and perceived credibility of risk information source. 120 first year psychology students were given a hypothetical health-care scenario, with source of risk information (clinician, pharmaceutical company) varied between subjects and uncertainty (point, small range and large range risk estimate format) varied within subjects. The communication of uncertainty in the form of both a small and large range resulted in a reduction in accurate understanding and increased perceptions of risk when a large range was communicated compared to a point estimate. It also reduced perceptions of credibility of the information source, though for the clinician this was only the case when a large range was presented. The findings suggest that even for highly educated adults, communicating uncertainty as a range risk estimate has the potential to negatively affect understanding, increase risk perceptions and decrease perceived credibility. Communicating uncertainty in risk using a numeric range should be carefully considered by health-care providers. More research is needed to develop alternative strategies to effectively communicate the uncertainty in health risks to consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji peringkat perusahaan berdasarkan ASEAN corporate governance scorecard, sebagai variabel pemoderasi, atas pengaruh kepemilikan asing terhadap nilai perusahaan di ASEAN. Sample penelitian terdiri dari 491 perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di pasar modal Thailand, Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia tahun 2012-2013. Dengan analisis white-regression, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa peringkat 50 tertinggi ASEAN corporate governance scorecard memoderasi pengaruh kepemilikan asing terhadap nilai perusahaan. Skor tinggi ASEAN corporate governance scorecard; sebagai peningkatan hak pemegang saham, kesetaran pemegang saham, peran pemangku kepentingan, pengungkapan dan transparansi, serta tanggung jawab dewan; meningkatkan peran pemegang saham asing dalam meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Manajemen dapat membuat kebijakan mengenai kepemilikan asing juga corporate governance yang optimal, sehingga manajemen dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan pemegang saham melalui peningkatan nilai perusahaan. Investor yang tertarik berinvestasi di luar negeri, khususnya di ASEAN, harus memperhatikan kondisi corporate governance perusahaan, sehingga kesejahteraan investor dapat meningkat.Kata Kunci: ASEAN corporate governance scorecard, kepemilikan asing, nilai perusahaan.
reporting has specifically enhanced integrated thinking regarding strategy, risks and opportunities. This will provide the preparers of ... gain a holistic view of the effect integrated reporting has on integrated thinking about strategy, risks and .... gains, improve productivity and enhance brand loyalty towards the organisation.
Full Text Available Assessment of health risk level is the major methodological approach for hygienic monitoring planning, for cause-effect basis of interrelation between environmental pollution and health. Pollution with heavy metals (cadmium, nickel of Zavodskoy district in Saratov results in increasing risk and this requires development of health protection ways and approaches
The effects of pioglitazone alone and in combination with either sulphonylurea or metformin on the atherogenic risk predictor indices of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were studied using five groups (A, B, C, D and E) of rabbits. Results of the mean values of plasma glucose, lipoproteins and atherogenic risk predictor ...
Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero
outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book....... The underlying logic is built on the principles of financial economics where benefits derive from reducing bankruptcy costs and increasing future cash inflows. This provides a stringent framework for analyzing the effect of different risk management actions and behaviors in effective risk-taking organizations......This book promotes good risk governance and risk management practices to corporate managers, executives, and directors wherever they operate around the world. The major corporate scandals have their roots in governance failure pointing to the link between risk governance and good performance...
Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero
This book promotes good risk governance and risk management practices to corporate managers, executives, and directors wherever they operate around the world. The major corporate scandals have their roots in governance failure pointing to the link between risk governance and good performance...... outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book....... The underlying logic is built on the principles of financial economics where benefits derive from reducing bankruptcy costs and increasing future cash inflows. This provides a stringent framework for analyzing the effect of different risk management actions and behaviors in effective risk-taking organizations...
Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero
outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book......This book promotes good risk governance and risk management practices to corporate managers, executives, and directors wherever they operate around the world. The major corporate scandals have their roots in governance failure pointing to the link between risk governance and good performance....... The underlying logic is built on the principles of financial economics where benefits derive from reducing bankruptcy costs and increasing future cash inflows. This provides a stringent framework for analyzing the effect of different risk management actions and behaviors in effective risk-taking organizations...
Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero
. The underlying logic is built on the principles of financial economics where benefits derive from reducing bankruptcy costs and increasing future cash inflows. This provides a stringent framework for analyzing the effect of different risk management actions and behaviors in effective risk-taking organizations......This book promotes good risk governance and risk management practices to corporate managers, executives, and directors wherever they operate around the world. The major corporate scandals have their roots in governance failure pointing to the link between risk governance and good performance...... outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book...
Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...
Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...
Full Text Available It has now become quite obvious that the Internet has brought significant changes to our society and a break on how we lived before its emergence. It is still too early to assess the impact on society of the new services at our disposal, such as the capacity to communicate faster and cheaper on a global scale, access information and, perhaps more importantly, to produce and disseminate information in a way that is accessible to all.It is clear that the advent of the Information Society implies changes in our society that constitute a point of no return. However, contrary to what happened when we entered the Industrial Age about three centuries ago, when the changing process was slow and led by older individuals, these days the entrance into the Information Society is taking place rapidly and the decisive players are younger people. The global nature of the Internet, the possibility of producing and distributing any type of content in digital form at almost zero cost, as well as the vast number of people who use the web, have highlighted the need for new forms of intervention in a sector where there are many types of players. It is in this context that the problem of Internet Governance becomes a very current issue, inasmuch as one feels the need to guarantee a diversity of rights and duties, which may appear difficult to reconcile.This paper presents a brief overview of the main players and initiatives which, in the field of Internet Governance, have tried to contribute to turning this network into a factor for social development and democraticity on a global scale.
Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Travaglia, Joanne F
To map the emergence of, and define, clinical governance; to discuss current best practices, and to explore the implications of these for boards of directors and executives wishing to promote a clinical governance approach in their health services. Review and analysis of the published and grey literature on clinical governance from 1966 to 2006. Medline and CINAHL databases, key journals and websites were systematically searched. Central issues were identified in the literature as key to effective clinical governance. These include: ensuring that links are made between health services' clinical and corporate governance; the use of clinical governance to promote quality and safety through a focus on quality assurance and continuous improvement; the creation of clinical governance structures to improve safety and quality and manage risk and performance; the development of strategies to ensure the effective exchange of data, knowledge and expertise; and the sponsoring of a patient-centred approach to service delivery. A comprehensive approach to clinical governance necessarily includes the active participation of boards and executives in sponsoring and promoting clinical governance as a quality and safety strategy. Although this is still a relatively recent development, the signs are promising.
Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Zhu, Jie
50% in magnitude during …financial crises. No such changes are observed during NBER recessions, so in this sense …financial crises are special. Applications to a number of major developed and emerging international stock markets confirm the increase in the leverage effect, whereas the international......We investigate the impact of financial crises on two fundamental features of stock returns, namely, the risk-return tradeoff and the leverage effect. We apply the fractionally integrated exponential GARCH-in-mean (FIEGARCH-M) model for daily stock return data, which includes both features...... and allows the co-existence of long memory in volatility and short memory in returns. We extend this model to allow the financial parameters governing the volatility-in-mean effect and the leverage effect to change during financial crises. An application to the daily U.S. stock index return series from 1926...
Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Zhu, Jie
% in magnitude during financial crises. No such changes are observed during NBER recessions, so in this sense financial crises are special. Applications to a number of major developed and emerging international stock markets confirm the increase in the leverage effect, whereas the international evidence......We investigate the impact of financial crises on two fundamental features of stock returns, namely, the risk-return tradeoff and the leverage effect. We apply the fractionally integrated exponential GARCH-in-mean (FIEGARCH-M) model for daily stock return data, which includes both features...... and allows the co-existence of long memory in volatility and short memory in returns. We extend this model to allow the financial parameters governing the volatility-in-mean effect and the leverage effect to change during financial crises. An application to the daily U.S. stock index return series from 1926...
Mielke, Howard W
In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: "Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century". We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson's statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.
Full Text Available One of the realities brought forward by the financial crisis is that the corporate Governance, based until now mainly on self-regulation, has not been as effective as possible. A better management of organizations is important not only in order to reduce the possibility of occurrence of a new crisis in the future, but also for organizations to be more competitive. Currently we do not have a definition of corporate governance that is unanimously accepted. At global level, there are a variety of definitions for this term, depending on national, cultural or legislative characteristics. In this article we present the concept of corporate governance as being a complex process occurring at the level of the management of the organization, which integrates control, risk management and internal audit in a formula that is meant to determine the level of performance for the organizational achievements.
Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Chou, Yu-Wei; Leu, Jun-Der; Chao Chen, Der; Tsaur, Tsen-Shu
This study aimed to explore the mediating effects of IT governance (ITG)-value delivery in the relationships among the quality of vendor service, the quality of consultant services, ITG-value delivery and enterprise resource planning (ERP) performance. The sampling of this research was acquired from a questionnaire survey concerning ERP implementations in Taiwan. In this survey, 4366 questionnaires were sent to manufacturing and service companies listed in the TOP 5000: The Largest Corporations in Taiwan 2009. The results showed that an ERP system will exhibit a decreased error rate and improved performance if ERP system vendors and consultants provide good service quality. The results also demonstrated that significant relationships exist among the quality of vendor service, the quality of consultant services and value delivery. The contribution of this article is twofold. First, it found that value delivery provides an effective measure of ERP performance under an ITG framework. Second, it provides evidence of the partial mediating effects of value delivery between service quality and ERP performance. In other words, if enterprises want to improve ERP performance, they need to consider factors such as value delivery and the quality of a vendor/consultant's service.
Full Text Available This report summarizes the challenges of and requirements for effective governance of the water, energy and food nexus. With global dynamics such as climate change, urbanization and changing consumption patterns, governing resources in a coherent manner becomes both more complex and more relevant for sustainable development. Governance challenges include nexus economics (costs and benefits of different approaches to resource management, institutional design (like questions of how decision-making should be best distributed and good governance (how to make sure that nexus governance adheres to certain agreed upon principles and values. In terms of economics, a balance between sector specific actions and nexus governance is required. For effective decision-making it is important that power among different institutions is both distributed and coordinated. Good nexus governance requires targets that can be monitored to make sure that basic principles are followed and to examine whether progress toward sustainable development is being made.
Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas
The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.
Gilbert, R.J.; Stiglitz, J.E.
This volume is a collection of surveys that describe the application of the economics of uncertainty to the analysis of risk in particular components of the market for energy supplies. The first survey deals with geological uncertainty--uncertainty in the total amount, location, and cost of resource deposits; it examines in some detail the distinction between the social and private value of exploration information. Two surveys deal with the extraction of an exhaustible resource under uncertainty: one is concerned with the effects of risk--in the size and timing of discoveries and in the introduction of substitute sources of supply--on the optimal rate of extraction in an idealized economy; the other examines the effects of risk on the rate of extraction for different structures of the market, e.g., competition versus monopoly. Two surveys are included on the economics of technical change with exhaustible resources: one is a macroeconomic analysis of the determinants of a research program; the other looks more carefully at the organization of research activity and the effects of market structure on the pace of research. An important source of market risk is uncertainty about future policy actions of the many government agencies affecting the energy industry: included is a survey of policy uncertainty, concentrating on the role of expectations in the formation of energy prices and the use of standards versus taxes as regulatory devices. Finally, there is a separate survey of resource allocation during periods of shortages and the benefit/cost tradeoffs associated with assured supplies.
McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie
The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…
Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Maloney, Richard F; Joseph, Liana N; Bennett, Joseph R; Di Fonzo, Martina M I; Probert, William J M; O'Connor, Shaun M; Densem, Jodie P; Possingham, Hugh P
Conservation outcomes are uncertain. Agencies making decisions about what threat mitigation actions to take to save which species frequently face the dilemma of whether to invest in actions with high probability of success and guaranteed benefits or to choose projects with a greater risk of failure that might provide higher benefits if they succeed. The answer to this dilemma lies in the decision maker's aversion to risk--their unwillingness to accept uncertain outcomes. Little guidance exists on how risk preferences affect conservation investment priorities. Using a prioritization approach based on cost effectiveness, we compared 2 approaches: a conservative probability threshold approach that excludes investment in projects with a risk of management failure greater than a fixed level, and a variance-discounting heuristic used in economics that explicitly accounts for risk tolerance and the probabilities of management success and failure. We applied both approaches to prioritizing projects for 700 of New Zealand's threatened species across 8303 management actions. Both decision makers' risk tolerance and our choice of approach to dealing with risk preferences drove the prioritization solution (i.e., the species selected for management). Use of a probability threshold minimized uncertainty, but more expensive projects were selected than with variance discounting, which maximized expected benefits by selecting the management of species with higher extinction risk and higher conservation value. Explicitly incorporating risk preferences within the decision making process reduced the number of species expected to be safe from extinction because lower risk tolerance resulted in more species being excluded from management, but the approach allowed decision makers to choose a level of acceptable risk that fit with their ability to accommodate failure. We argue for transparency in risk tolerance and recommend that decision makers accept risk in an adaptive management
Bozeman, Barry; Coker, Karen
This study, based on a national survey of U.S. government laboratories, assesses the degree of success laboratories have had in transferring technology to industry, taking into account the laboratories' differing receptivity to market influences. Three success criteria are considered here, two based on self-evaluations and a third based on the number of technology licenses issued from the laboratory. The two self-evaluations are rooted in different types of effectiveness, `getting technology out the door,' in one case, and, in the other, having a demonstrable commercial impact. A core hypothesis of the study is that the two types of effectiveness will be responsive to different factors and, in particular, the laboratories with a clearer market orientation will have a higher degree of success on the commercial impact and technology license criteria. Overall, the results seem to suggest that multifaceted, multimission laboratories are likely to enjoy the most success in technology transfer, especially if they have relatively low levels of bureaucratization and either ties to industry (particularly direct financial ties) or a commercial orientation in the selection of projects.
Full Text Available Abstract Taking the perspective of brand priming theory, this study proposes that brands associated with an audacious personality trait may influence consumers to be take more risks in making subsequent decisions. Two experiments, run in sport brands contexts, showed that individuals exposed to brands with high (vs. low audacity traits demonstrated a higher rate of risk taking in financial decisions. The studies also showed that this effect is moderated by individuals’ experience with the financial market. This moderation suggests that there was an activation of a goal not just semantic activation, but through the brand priming. This research provides insights into how today's consumers deal with brand priming effects in risky choice settings. From a managerial perspective, it can help managers to understand the likely effects of brand priming on behavior and better predict the probability of risk aversion or risk seeking outcomes.
Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.
Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...