WorldWideScience

Sample records for effective resistance metric

  1. Resisting anchoring effects: The roles of metric and mapping knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The biasing influence of anchors on numerical estimates is well established, but the relationship between knowledge level and the susceptibility to anchoring effects is less clear. In two studies, we addressed the potential mitigating effects of having knowledge in a domain on vulnerability to anchoring effects in that domain. Of critical interest was a distinction between two forms of knowledge-metric and mapping knowledge. In Study 1, participants who had studied question-relevant information-that is, high-knowledge participants-were less influenced by anchors than were participants who had studied irrelevant information. The results from knowledge measures suggested that the reduction in anchoring was tied to increases in metric rather than mapping knowledge. In Study 2, participants studied information specifically designed to influence different types of knowledge. As we predicted, increases in metric knowledge-and not mapping knowledge-led to reduced anchoring effects. Implications for debiasing anchoring effects are discussed.

  2. Toward an ozone standard to protect vegetation based on effective dose: a review of deposition resistances and a possible metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massman, W. J.

    Present air quality standards to protect vegetation from ozone are based on measured concentrations (i.e., exposure) rather than on plant uptake rates (or dose). Some familiar cumulative exposure-based indices include SUM06, AOT40, and W126. However, plant injury is more closely related to dose, or more appropriately to effective dose, than to exposure. This study develops and applies a simple model for estimating effective ozone dose that combines the plant canopy's rate of stomatal ozone uptake with the plant's defense to ozone uptake. Here the plant defense is explicitly parameterized as a function of gross photosynthesis and the model is applied using eddy covariance (ozone and CO 2) flux data obtained at a vineyard site in the San Joaquin Valley during the California Ozone Deposition Experiment (CODE91). With the ultimate intention of applying these concepts using prognostic models and remotely sensed data, the pathways for ozone deposition are parameterized (as much as possible) in terms of canopy LAI and the surface friction velocity. Results indicate that (1) the daily maximum potential for plant injury (based on effective dose) tends to coincide with the daily peak in ozone mixing ratio (ppbV), (2) potentially there are some significant differences between ozone metrics based on dose (no plant defense) and effective dose, and (3) nocturnal conductance can contribute significantly to the potential for plant ozone injury.

  3. Effective dimension in some general metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Mayordomo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of effective dimension for a general metric space. Effective dimension was defined by Lutz in (Lutz 2003 for Cantor space and has also been extended to Euclidean space. Our extension to other metric spaces is based on a supergale characterization of Hausdorff dimension. We present here the concept of constructive dimension and its characterization in terms of Kolmogorov complexity. Further research directions are indicated.

  4. Metrics. [measurement for effective software development and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, Frank

    1991-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for practical software performance measurement, or 'metrics', in which major innovations have recently occurred. Metrics address such aspects of software performance as whether a software project is on schedule, how many errors can be expected from it, whether the methodology being used is effective and the relative quality of the software employed. Metrics may be characterized as explicit, analytical, and subjective. Attention is given to the bases for standards and the conduct of metrics research.

  5. Rainbow Rindler metric and Unruh effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Gaurav; Komal, Baby; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    The energy of a particle moving on a space-time, in principle, can affect the background metric. The modifications to it depend on the ratio of energy of the particle and the Planck energy, known as rainbow gravity. Here, we find the explicit expressions for the coordinate transformations from rainbow Minkowski space-time to accelerated frame. The corresponding metric is also obtained which we call as rainbow Rindler metric. So far we are aware of that no body has done it in a concrete manner. Here, this is found from the first principle and hence all the parameters are properly identified. The advantage of this is that the calculated Unruh temperature is compatible with the Hawking temperature of the rainbow black hole horizon, obtained earlier. Since the accelerated frame has several importance in revealing various properties of gravity, we believe that the present result will not only fill that gap, but also help to explore different aspects of rainbow gravity paradigm.

  6. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  7. Cosmology in massive gravity with effective composite metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    This paper is dedicated to scrutinizing the cosmology in massive gravity. A matter field of the dark sector is coupled to an effective composite metric while a standard matter field couples to the dynamical metric in the usual way. For this purpose, we study the dynamical system of cosmological solutions by using phase analysis, which provides an overview of the class of cosmological solutions in this setup. This also permits us to study the critical points of the cosmological equations together with their stability. We show the presence of stable attractor de Sitter critical points relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. Furthermore, we study the tensor, vector and scalar perturbations in the presence of standard matter fields and obtain the conditions for the absence of ghost and gradient instabilities. Hence, massive gravity in the presence of the effective composite metric can accommodate interesting dark energy phenomenology, that can be observationally distinguished from the standard model according to the expansion history and cosmic growth.

  8. Metric Power and the Academic Self: Neoliberalism, Knowledge and Resistance in the British University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeena Feldman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the experience of being an academic in the UK in the contemporary climate of neoliberal capitalism and ‘metric power’ (Beers 2016. Drawing on existing literature and our own practice, the first portion of the paper explores the relationship between neoliberalism, metrics and knowledge. We then examine how neoliberal mantras and instruments impact the university’s structures and processes, and reflect on consequences for the academic self. We take as a starting point the context of increasing workloads and the pressure on academics to excel in multiple roles, from ‘world-leading’ researchers to ‘excellent’ teachers and ‘service providers’ to professional administrators performing recruitment and (selfmarketing tasks. Neoliberal academia, we suggest, promotes a meritocratic ideology of individual achievement that frames success and failure as purely personal ‘achievements’, which encourages a competitive ethos and chronic self-criticism. This article insists that these problems need to be understood in the context of neoliberal policy-making and the corporatisation of knowledge, including funding cuts and grant imperatives, the low status of teaching, the cynical instrumentation of university league tables, and increased institutional reliance on precarious academic labour. The article goes on to focus on responses that resist, challenge or, in some cases, compound, the problems identified in part one. Responses by dissatisfied academics range in style and approach – some decide against an academic career; others adopt a strategy of individual withdrawal within the system by trying to create and protect spaces of independence – for example, by refusing to engage beyond officially required minimums. This article argues that opportunities for positive systemic change can be found in collective efforts to oppose the status quo and to create alternatives for how academic labour is organised. Therein

  9. Effecting IT infrastructure culture change: management by processes and metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    This talk describes the processes and metrics used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory to bring about the required IT infrastructure culture change to update and certify, as Y2K compliant, thousands of computers and millions of lines of code.

  10. Use of metrics in an effective ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, B.B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting an processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific open-quotes indicators.close quotes To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. Justification is needed to defend the indicators selected and maybe even stronger justification is needed for those indicators that are available, but not chosen as a metric. Historically, the many different sources of information resided in a plethora of locations. Even the same type of metric had data located in different areas and could not be easily totaled for the entire Site. This required the end user to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that a customer can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer's most frequently asked questions. IL is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally, it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, open-quotes user friendly,close quotes software and contains information from RIR's, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics. These include quarterly performance indicator reports, monthly radiological incident reports, monthly external dose history and goals tracking reports, and the future use of performance indexing

  11. Common metrics. Comparing the warming effect of climate forcers in climate policy; Common metrics. Laempenemiseen vaikuttavien paeaestoejen yhteismitallistaminen ilmastopolitiikassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, T. J.; Ekholm, T.; Savolainen, I.

    2012-11-15

    Climate policy needs a relatively simple method to compare the warming effect of different greenhouse gases (GHGs). Otherwise it would be necessary to negotiate a different reduction target for each gas. At the moment, Global Warming Potential (GWP) concept is used to compare different GHGs. Numerical values of GWP factors have been updated alongside with scientific understanding and majority seems content to the GWP. From 2005 onwards there have been many proposals of optional metrics. The most well known is Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) concept which measures the change of temperature as does global climate policies. The decision between metrics is a multicriteria decision which should include at least the coherence with climate policy and cost efficiency. The GWP concept may be a little more difficult to understand than the GTP but it is more cost efficient. Alongside with new metrics, scientists and politicians have started to discuss of new emission which have an effect on warming. These Short Lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs) have either warming or cooling effect. Their effect can be presented with GWP and GTP but the uncertainties in the emission factors are large. In total, SLCFs reduce overall emissions of EU approximately 1% in year 2000. NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} (cooling) and black carbon (warming) emissions were the biggest factors. EU is planning to reduce the SLCF emissions to achieve health and environmental benefits, but at the same time this reduces the effect of EU's climate policies by approximately 10%. Uncertainties in the estimates are large. (orig.)

  12. Effective use of metrics in an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, B.B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include; external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific ''indicators''. To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. This required the end users to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that customers can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer's most frequently asked questions. It is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, ''user friendly'', software and contains information from RIR's, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics

  13. Robust Design Impact Metrics: Measuring the effect of implementing and using Robust Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebro, Martin; Olesen, Jesper; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the performance of an organisation’s product development process can be challenging due to the limited use of metrics in R&D. An organisation considering whether to use Robust Design as an integrated part of their development process may find it difficult to define whether it is relevant......, and afterwards measure the effect of having implemented it. This publication identifies and evaluates Robust Design-related metrics and finds that 2 metrics are especially useful: 1) Relative amount of R&D Resources spent after Design Verification and 2) Number of ‘change notes’ after Design Verification....... The metrics have been applied in a case company to test the assumptions made during the evaluation. It is concluded that the metrics are useful and relevant, but further work is necessary to make a proper overview and categorisation of different types of robustness related metrics....

  14. Reproducibility and repeatability of semi-quantitative 18F-fluorodihydrotestosterone (FDHT) uptake metrics in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastases: a prospective multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Kramer, Gem M; Scott, Andrew M; Weickhardt, Andrew; Meier, Andreas A; Parada, Nicole; Beattie, Bradley J; Humm, John L; Staton, Kevin D; Zanzonico, Pat B; Lyashchenko, Serge K; Lewis, Jason S; Yaqub, Maqsood; Sosa, Ramon E; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J; Davis, Ian D; Ackermann, Uwe; Pathmaraj, Kunthi; Schuit, Robert C; Windhorst, Albert D; Chua, Sue; Weber, Wolfgang A; Larson, Steven M; Scher, Howard I; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Hoekstra, Otto; Morris, Michael J

    2018-04-06

    18 F-fluorodihydrotestosterone ( 18 F-FDHT) is a radiolabeled analogue of the androgen receptor's primary ligand that is currently being credentialed as a biomarker for prognosis, response, and pharmacodynamic effects of new therapeutics. As part of the biomarker qualification process, we prospectively assessed its reproducibility and repeatability in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Methods: We conducted a prospective multi-institutional study of mCRPC patients undergoing two (test/re-test) 18 F-FDHT PET/CT scans on two consecutive days. Two independent readers evaluated all examinations and recorded standardized uptake values (SUVs), androgen receptor-positive tumor volumes (ARTV), and total lesion uptake (TLU) for the most avid lesion detected in each of 32 pre-defined anatomical regions. The relative absolute difference and reproducibility coefficient (RC) of each metric were calculated between the test and re-test scans. Linear regression analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate repeatability of 18 F-FDHT metrics. The coefficient of variation (COV) and ICC were used to assess inter-observer reproducibility. Results: Twenty-seven patients with 140 18 F-FDHT-avid regions were included. The best repeatability among 18 F-FDHT uptake metrics was found for SUV metrics (SUV max , SUVmean, and SUVpeak), with no significant differences in repeatability found among them. Correlations between the test and re-test scans were strong for all SUV metrics (R2 ≥ 0.92; ICC ≥ 0.97). The RCs of the SUV metrics ranged from 21.3% for SUVpeak to 24.6% for SUV max The test and re-test ARTV and TLU, respectively, were highly correlated (R2 and ICC ≥ 0.97), although variability was significantly higher than that for SUV (RCs > 46.4%). The PSA levels, Gleason score, weight, and age did not affect repeatability, nor did total injected activity, uptake measurement time, or differences in

  15. Passive ranging effectiveness and related metrics in realistic flight scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Francesco; Conte, Roberto; Fortunato, Luca

    2017-10-01

    Passive ranging is the process of estimating the distance between an observer (own-ship) and one or more objects (targets) by using passive sensors and angle measurements only, without electromagnetic or acoustic emissions. It is the baseline technique to complete the three dimensional tracking capability of IRST systems, able to automatically search, detect and track targets with generally higher angular resolution than Radars in completely silent mode. As well-known from literature, range is univocally linked to angle only data, when specific relative dynamics occur. In other cases, when such univocal relation does not hold, range estimation is still considered an open research topic. In this paper we select a set of informative cases, derived from our experience in analyzing real sorties data and compare four popular algorithms on the basis of a set of new metrics that, in our opinion, captures the system performance in terms of usability and reliability. Ranging algorithms performance is usually evaluated by means of distance-based metrics (as RMSE) which focus on accuracy of the estimation. Usability and reliability are taken into account here by introducing what we call the Average Range Declaration Length (ARDL) and the Truth-Representative Score (TRS).

  16. Using community-level metrics to monitor the effects of marine protected areas on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soykan, Candan U; Lewison, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to protect species, communities, and their associated habitats, among other goals. Measuring MPA efficacy can be challenging, however, particularly when considering responses at the community level. We gathered 36 abundance and 14 biomass data sets on fish assemblages and used meta-analysis to evaluate the ability of 22 distinct community diversity metrics to detect differences in community structure between MPAs and nearby control sites. We also considered the effects of 6 covariates-MPA size and age, MPA size and age interaction, latitude, total species richness, and level of protection-on each metric. Some common metrics, such as species richness and Shannon diversity, did not differ consistently between MPA and control sites, whereas other metrics, such as total abundance and biomass, were consistently different across studies. Metric responses derived from the biomass data sets were more consistent than those based on the abundance data sets, suggesting that community-level biomass differs more predictably than abundance between MPA and control sites. Covariate analyses indicated that level of protection, latitude, MPA size, and the interaction between MPA size and age affect metric performance. These results highlight a handful of metrics, several of which are little known, that could be used to meet the increasing demand for community-level indicators of MPA effectiveness. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. [Applicability of traditional landscape metrics in evaluating urban heat island effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ai-Lian; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-08-01

    By using 24 landscape metrics, this paper evaluated the urban heat island effect in parts of Beijing downtown area. QuickBird (QB) images were used to extract the landscape type information, and the thermal bands from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images were used to extract the land surface temperature (LST) in four seasons of the same year. The 24 landscape pattern metrics were calculated at landscape and class levels in a fixed window with 120 mx 120 m in size, with the applicability of these traditional landscape metrics in evaluating the urban heat island effect examined. Among the 24 landscape metrics, only the percentage composition of landscape (PLAND), patch density (PD), largest patch index (LPI), coefficient of Euclidean nearest-neighbor distance variance (ENN_CV), and landscape division index (DIVISION) at landscape level were significantly correlated with the LST in March, May, and November, and the PLAND, LPI, DIVISION, percentage of like adjacencies, and interspersion and juxtaposition index at class level showed significant correlations with the LST in March, May, July, and December, especially in July. Some metrics such as PD, edge density, clumpiness index, patch cohesion index, effective mesh size, splitting index, aggregation index, and normalized landscape shape index showed varying correlations with the LST at different class levels. The traditional landscape metrics could not be appropriate in evaluating the effects of river on LST, while some of the metrics could be useful in characterizing urban LST and analyzing the urban heat island effect, but screening and examining should be made on the metrics.

  18. A comparison of metrics to evaluate the effects of hydro-facility passage stressors on fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison H.; Goldman, Amy E.; Wagner, Katie A.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2017-03-01

    Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy, and countries worldwide are considering expanding hydropower to new areas. One of the challenges of hydropower deployment is mitigation of the environmental impacts including water quality, habitat alterations, and ecosystem connectivity. For fish species that inhabit river systems with hydropower facilities, passage through the facility to access spawning and rearing habitats can be particularly challenging. Fish moving downstream through a hydro-facility can be exposed to a number of stressors (e.g., rapid decompression, shear forces, blade strike and collision, and turbulence), which can all affect fish survival in direct and indirect ways. Many studies have investigated the effects of hydro-turbine passage on fish; however, the comparability among studies is limited by variation in the metrics and biological endpoints used. Future studies investigating the effects of hydro-turbine passage should focus on using metrics and endpoints that are easily comparable. This review summarizes four categories of metrics that are used in fisheries research and have application to hydro-turbine passage (i.e., mortality, injury, molecular metrics, behavior) and evaluates them based on several criteria (i.e., resources needed, invasiveness, comparability among stressors and species, and diagnostic properties). Additionally, these comparisons are put into context of study setting (i.e., laboratory vs. field). Overall, injury and molecular metrics are ideal for studies in which there is a need to understand the mechanisms of effect, whereas behavior and mortality metrics provide information on the whole body response of the fish. The study setting strongly influences the comparability among studies. In laboratory-based studies, stressors can be controlled by both type and magnitude, allowing for easy comparisons among studies. In contrast, field studies expose fish to realistic passage environments but the comparability is

  19. Short-term effects of multiple ozone metrics on daily mortality in a megacity of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Yan, Meilin; Ma, Wenjun; Ban, Jie; Liu, Tao; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Zhaorong

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have widely demonstrated association between ambient ozone and mortality, though controversy remains, and most of them only use a certain metric to assess ozone levels. However, in China, few studies have investigated the acute effects of ambient ozone, and rare studies have compared health effects of multiple daily metrics of ozone. The present analysis aimed to explore variability of estimated health effects by using multiple temporal ozone metrics. Six metrics of ozone, 1-h maximum, maximum 8-h average, 24-h average, daytime average, nighttime average, and commute average, were used in a time-series study to investigate acute mortality associated with ambient ozone pollution in Guangzhou, China, using 3 years of daily data (2006-2008). We used generalized linear models with Poisson regression incorporating natural spline functions to analyze the mortality, ozone, and covariate data. We also examined the association by season. Daily 1- and 8-h maximum, 24-h average, and daytime average concentrations yielded statistically significant associations with mortality. An interquartile range (IQR) of O3 metric increase of each ozone metric (lag 2) corresponds to 2.92 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 5.66), 3.60 % (95 % CI, 0.92 to 8.49), 3.03 % (95 % CI, 0.57 to 15.8), and 3.31 % (95 % CI, 0.69 to 10.4) increase in daily non-accidental mortality, respectively. Nighttime and commute metrics were weakly associated with increased mortality rate. The associations between ozone and mortality appeared to be more evident during cool season than in the warm season. Results were robust to adjustment for co-pollutants, weather, and time trend. In conclusion, these results indicated that ozone, as a widespread pollutant, adversely affects mortality in Guangzhou.

  20. Time-dependent Elastic Deformation in Crystal: Insights from Metric Description and Berry Phase Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Niu, Qian

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that elastic deformation in crystal can be described in the language of a metric. However, how the metric couples to the one-electron Hamiltonian in a deformed crystal is not very clear. By coordinate transformation from a Cartesian frame to lattice frame where all coordinates of ions are fixed, the metric emerges naturally both in the kinetic energy and potential energy of an electron. Besides, the velocity field of ions is also manifested in the Hamiltonian, which resembles the role of a vector potential. When the deformation slowly varies both in space and time, the wave-packet method can be used to study the Berry phase effect of deformation. This method applies to finite-strain cases and is accurate up to the first order of strain gradient. Different deformation effects are discussed, such as piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and curving effect of a two-dimensional material

  1. Developing Metrics for Effective Teaching in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Rebecca G.; McKim, Billy R.; Smith, Amy R.; Aschenbrener, Mollie S.; Enns, Kellie

    2016-01-01

    Research on effective teaching has been conducted in a variety of settings for more than 40 years. This study offers direction for future effective teaching research in secondary agricultural education and has implications for career and technical education. Specifically, 142 items consisting of characteristics, behaviors, and/or techniques…

  2. Linking customer and financial metrics to shareholder value : The leverage effect in customer-based valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, C.; Skiera, B.; Wiesel, T.

    Customers are the most important assets of most companies, such that customer equity has been used as a proxy for shareholder value. However, linking customer metrics to shareholder value without considering debt and non-operating assets ignores their effects on relative changes in customer equity

  3. Metrics to describe the effects of landscape pattern on hydrology in a lotic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.; Cohen, M. J.; Kaplan, D. A.; Acharya, S.; Larsen, L.; Nungesser, M.

    2013-12-01

    Strong reciprocal interactions exist between landscape patterns and ecological processes. Hydrology is the dominant abiotic driver of ecological processes in wetlands, particularly flowing wetlands, but is both the control on and controlled by the geometry of vegetation patterning. Landscape metrics are widely used to quantitatively link pattern and process. Our goal here was to use several candidate spatial pattern metrics to predict the effects of wetland vegetation pattern on hydrologic regime, specifically hydroperiod, in the ridge-slough patterned landscape of the Everglades. The metrics focus on the capacity for longitudinally connected flow, and thus the ability of this low-gradient patterned landscape to route water from upstream. We first explored flow friction cost (FFC), a weighted spatial distance procedure wherein ridges have a high flow cost than sloughs by virtue of their elevation and vegetation structure, to evaluate water movement through different landscape configurations. We also investigated existing published flow metrics, specifically the Directional Connectivity Index (DCI) and Landscape Discharge Competence (LDC), that seek to quantify connectivity, one of the sentinel targets of ecological restoration. Hydroperiod was estimated using a numerical hydrologic model (SWIFT 2D) in real and synthetic landscapes with varying vegetation properties ( patch anisotropy, ridge density). Synthetic landscapes were constrained by the geostatistical properties of the best conserved patterned, and contained five anisotropy levels and seven ridge density levels. These were used to construct the relationship between landscape metrics and hydroperiod. Then, using historical images from 1940 to 2004, we applied the metrics toback-cast hydroperiod. Current vegetation maps were used to test scale dependency for each metric. Our results suggest that both FFC and DCI are good predictors of hydroperiod under free flowing conditions, and that they can be used

  4. The representation of the anomalous Einstein effects with the aid of an effective metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, H.J.; Gottloeber, S.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility of an excess of solar gravitooptical Einstein effects relative to certain theoretical predictions. The anomaly of the Einstein shift is described with the aid of a metric which depends on the solar radiation field, taking into account an approach reported by Treder (1971). It is found that the anomalies of the Einstein effects are frequency dependent. In agreement with radio-astronomical data and the results of radar measurements, there is no excess at low frequencies. It is pointed out that an anomalous Einstein shift with the obtained characteristics, which involves the displacement of the spectral frequencies of the light in proportion to the difference of the square roots of the spectral energy densities at the places of the emission and absorption of the photons, should be detectable in principle also in laboratory measurements.

  5. Effective metrics and a fully covariant description of constitutive tensors in electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Sebastian; Visser, Matt

    2017-12-01

    Using electromagnetism to study analogue space-times is tantamount to considering consistency conditions for when a given (meta-) material would provide an analogue space-time model or—vice versa—characterizing which given metric could be modeled with a (meta-) material. While the consistency conditions themselves are by now well known and studied, the form the metric takes once they are satisfied is not. This question is mostly easily answered by keeping the formalisms of the two research fields here in contact as close to each other as possible. While fully covariant formulations of the electrodynamics of media have been around for a long while, they are usually abandoned for (3 +1 )- or six-dimensional formalisms. Here we use the fully unified and fully covariant approach. This enables us even to generalize the consistency conditions for the existence of an effective metric to arbitrary background metrics beyond flat space-time electrodynamics. We also show how the familiar matrices for permittivity ɛ , permeability μ-1, and magnetoelectric effects ζ can be seen as the three independent pieces of the Bel decomposition for the constitutive tensor Za b c d, i.e., the components of an orthogonal decomposition with respect to a given observer with four-velocity Va. Finally, we use the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse and the closely related pseudodeterminant to then gain the desired reconstruction of the effective metric in terms of the permittivity tensor ɛa b, the permeability tensor [μ-1]a b, and the magnetoelectric tensor ζa b, as an explicit function geff(ɛ ,μ-1,ζ ).

  6. A framework for evaluating OSH program effectiveness using leading and trailing metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzelbacher, Steve; Jin, Yan

    2011-06-01

    Many employers and regulators today rely primarily on a few past injury/ illness metrics as criteria for rating the effectiveness of occupational safety and health (OSH) programs. Although such trailing data are necessary to assess program success, they may not be sufficient for developing proactive safety, ergonomic, and medical management plans. The goals of this pilot study were to create leading metrics (company self-assessment ratings) and trailing metrics (past loss data) that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of OSH program elements that range from primary to tertiary prevention. The main hypothesis was that the new metrics would be explanatory variables for three standard future workers compensation (WC) outcomes in 2003 (rates of total cases, lost time cases, and costs) and that the framework for evaluating OSH programs could be justifiably expanded. For leading metrics, surveys were developed to allow respondents to assess OSH exposures and program prevention elements (management leadership/ commitment, employee participation, hazard identification, hazard control, medical management, training, and program evaluation). After pre-testing, surveys were sent to companies covered by the same WC insurer in early 2003. A total of 33 completed surveys were used for final analysis. A series of trailing metrics were developed from 1999-2001 WC data for the surveyed companies. Data were analyzed using a method where each main 2003 WC outcome was dichotomized into high and low loss groups based on the median value of the variable. The mean and standard deviations of survey questions and 1999-2001 WC variables were compared between the dichotomized groups. Hypothesis testing was performed using F-test with a significance level 0.10. Companies that exhibited higher musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) WC case rates from 1999-2001 had higher total WC case rates in 2003. Higher levels of several self-reported OSH program elements (tracking progress in controlling

  7. The Use of Performance Metrics for the Assessment of Safeguards Effectiveness at the State Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachner K. M.; George Anzelon, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Yana Feldman, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Mark Goodman,Department of State, Washington, DC Dunbar Lockwood, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC Jonathan B. Sanborn, JBS Consulting, LLC, Arlington, VA.

    2016-07-24

    In the ongoing evolution of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the state level, many safeguards implementation principles have been emphasized: effectiveness, efficiency, non-discrimination, transparency, focus on sensitive materials, centrality of material accountancy for detecting diversion, independence, objectivity, and grounding in technical considerations, among others. These principles are subject to differing interpretations and prioritizations and sometimes conflict. This paper is an attempt to develop metrics and address some of the potential tradeoffs inherent in choices about how various safeguards policy principles are implemented. The paper carefully defines effective safeguards, including in the context of safeguards approaches that take account of the range of state-specific factors described by the IAEA Secretariat and taken note of by the Board in September 2014, and (2) makes use of performance metrics to help document, and to make transparent, how safeguards implementation would meet such effectiveness requirements.

  8. Improving robustness of complex networks via the effective graph resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Pournaras, Evangelos; Kooij, Robert E.; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2014-09-01

    Improving robustness of complex networks is a challenge in several application domains, such as power grids and water management networks. In such networks, high robustness can be achieved by optimizing graph metrics such as the effective graph resistance, which is the focus of this paper. An important challenge lies in improving the robustness of complex networks under dynamic topological network changes, such as link addition and removal. This paper contributes theoretical and experimental findings about the robustness of complex networks under two scenarios: (i) selecting a link whose addition maximally decreases the effective graph resistance; (ii) protecting a link whose removal maximally increases the effective graph resistance. Upper and lower bounds of the effective graph resistance under these topological changes are derived. Four strategies that select single links for addition or removal, based on topological and spectral metrics, are evaluated on various synthetic and real-world networks. Furthermore, this paper illustrates a novel comparison method by considering the distance between the added or removed links, optimized according to the effective graph resistance and the algebraic connectivity. The optimal links are different in most cases but in close proximity.

  9. Effects of certain key metrics of hydroentanglement system on properties of nonwoven fabrics made with commercially cleaned greige cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of certain key process metrics of a commercial-grade hydroentanglement system on properties of the nonwoven fabrics made with cleaned Upland greige cotton lint. The metrics studied, among others, were the hydroentangling water pressure, the strip orif...

  10. Driving Strategic Value from IT : Aligning scorecards and Metrics to determine strategic effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Liljenström, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the challenges of aligning scorecards and KPI´s to measure the effectiveness of the IT strategy and the development of a performance measurement model. The case study was based on an exploratory research model, analyzing and integrating the most suitable metrics and scorecards for the case company. Collecting data and applying the required information to answer the research question formed the basis for the study. The following conclusions were derived from the study. T...

  11. Learning a Novel Detection Metric for the Detection of O’Connell Effect Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kyle; Haber, Rana; Knote, Matthew; Caballero-Nieves, Saida Maria; Peter, Adrian; Petit, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    With the advent of digital astronomy, new benefits and new challenges have been presented to the modern day astronomer. No longer can the astronomer rely on manual processing, instead the profession as a whole has begun to adopt more advanced computational means. Here we focus on the construction and application of a novel time-domain signature extraction methodology and the development of a supporting supervised pattern detection algorithm for the targeted identification of eclipsing binaries which demonstrate a feature known as the O’Connell Effect. A methodology for the reduction of stellar variable observations (time-domain data) into Distribution Fields (DF) is presented. Push-Pull metric learning, a variant of LMNN learning, is used to generate a learned distance metric for the specific detection problem proposed. The metric will be trained on a set of a labelled Kepler eclipsing binary data, in particular systems showing the O’Connell effect. Performance estimates will be presented, as well the results of the detector applied to an unlabeled Kepler EB data set; this work is a crucial step in the upcoming era of big data from the next generation of big telescopes, such as LSST.

  12. Does the Vilkovisky-De Witt effective action in quantum gravity depend on the configuration space metric?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The dependence on the configuration space metric of the Vilkovisky-De Witt effective action in quantum gravity is discussed. As an example d-dimensional Einstein gravity on the flat background R d or R k x T d-k is considered, where the one-loop Vilkovisky-De Witt effective action with the one-parameter dependent configuration space metric is calculated. The dependence on the configuration space metric of the Vilkovisky-De Witt EA in gravity on the space R 4 x S 1 , has been investigated for the first time by Huggins, Kunstatter, Leivo and Toms. (orig.)

  13. A unifying framework for metrics for aggregating the climate effect of different emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Richard S. J.; Berntsen, Terje K.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-gas approaches to climate change policies require a metric establishing ‘equivalences’ among emissions of various species. Climate scientists and economists have proposed four kinds of such metrics and debated their relative merits. We present a unifying framework that clarifies the relationships among them. We show, as have previous authors, that the global warming potential (GWP), used in international law to compare emissions of greenhouse gases, is a special case of the global damage potential (GDP), assuming (1) a finite time horizon, (2) a zero discount rate, (3) constant atmospheric concentrations, and (4) impacts that are proportional to radiative forcing. Both the GWP and GDP follow naturally from a cost-benefit framing of the climate change issue. We show that the global temperature change potential (GTP) is a special case of the global cost potential (GCP), assuming a (slight) fall in the global temperature after the target is reached. We show how the four metrics should be generalized if there are intertemporal spillovers in abatement costs, distinguishing between private (e.g., capital stock turnover) and public (e.g., induced technological change) spillovers. Both the GTP and GCP follow naturally from a cost-effectiveness framing of the climate change issue. We also argue that if (1) damages are zero below a threshold and (2) infinitely large above a threshold, then cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis lead to identical results. Therefore, the GCP is a special case of the GDP. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change uses the GWP, a simplified cost-benefit concept. The UNFCCC is framed around the ultimate goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations. Once a stabilization target has been agreed under the convention, implementation is clearly a cost-effectiveness problem. It would therefore be more consistent to use the GCP or its simplification, the GTP.

  14. Effective dose efficiency: an application-specific metric of quality and dose for digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T; Dobbins, James T III; Ravin, Carl E, E-mail: samei@duke.edu [Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2011-08-21

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and the effective DQE (eDQE) are relevant metrics of image quality for digital radiography detectors and systems, respectively. The current study further extends the eDQE methodology to technique optimization using a new metric of the effective dose efficiency (eDE), reflecting both the image quality as well as the effective dose (ED) attributes of the imaging system. Using phantoms representing pediatric, adult and large adult body habitus, image quality measurements were made at 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp using the standard eDQE protocol and exposures. ED was computed using Monte Carlo methods. The eDE was then computed as a ratio of image quality to ED for each of the phantom/spectral conditions. The eDQE and eDE results showed the same trends across tube potential with 80 kVp yielding the highest values and 120 kVp yielding the lowest. The eDE results for the pediatric phantom were markedly lower than the results for the adult phantom at spatial frequencies lower than 1.2-1.7 mm{sup -1}, primarily due to a correspondingly higher value of ED per entrance exposure. The relative performance for the adult and large adult phantoms was generally comparable but affected by kVps. The eDE results for the large adult configuration were lower than the eDE results for the adult phantom, across all spatial frequencies (120 and 140 kVp) and at spatial frequencies greater than 1.0 mm{sup -1} (80 and 100 kVp). Demonstrated for chest radiography, the eDE shows promise as an application-specific metric of imaging performance, reflective of body habitus and radiographic technique, with utility for radiography protocol assessment and optimization.

  15. Metric Tensor Vs. Metric Extensor

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, V. V.; Moya, A. M.; Rodrigues Jr, Waldyr A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we give a comparison between the formulation of the concept of metric for a real vector space of finite dimension in terms of \\emph{tensors} and \\emph{extensors}. A nice property of metric extensors is that they have inverses which are also themselves metric extensors. This property is not shared by metric tensors because tensors do \\emph{not} have inverses. We relate the definition of determinant of a metric extensor with the classical determinant of the corresponding matrix as...

  16. Brief educational interventions to improve performance on novel quality metrics in ambulatory settings in Kenya: A multi-site pre-post effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom, Robert Ryan; Onguka, Stephanie; Halestrap, Peter; McAlhaney, Maureen; Adam, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The quality of primary care delivered in resource-limited settings is low. While some progress has been made using educational interventions, it is not yet clear how to sustainably improve care for common acute illnesses in the outpatient setting. Management of urinary tract infection is particularly important in resource-limited settings, where it is commonly diagnosed and associated with high levels of antimicrobial resistance. We describe an educational programme targeting non-physician health care providers and its effects on various clinical quality metrics for urinary tract infection. We used a series of educational interventions including 1) formal introduction of a clinical practice guideline, 2) peer-to-peer chart review, and 3) peer-reviewed literature describing local antimicrobial resistance patterns. Interventions were conducted for clinical officers (N = 24) at two outpatient centers near Nairobi, Kenya over a one-year period. The medical records of 474 patients with urinary tract infections were scored on five clinical quality metrics, with the primary outcome being the proportion of cases in which the guideline-recommended antibiotic was prescribed. The results at baseline and following each intervention were compared using chi-squared tests and unpaired two-tailed T-tests for significance. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess for possible confounders. Clinician adherence to the guideline-recommended antibiotic improved significantly during the study period, from 19% at baseline to 68% following all interventions (Χ2 = 150.7, p quality score also improved significantly from an average of 2.16 to 3.00 on a five-point scale (t = 6.58, p quality of care for routine acute illnesses in the outpatient setting. Measurement of quality metrics allows for further targeting of educational interventions depending on the needs of the providers and the community. Further study is needed to expand routine measurement of quality metrics and to identify

  17. Effects of Pulse Density on Digital Terrain Models and Canopy Metrics Using Airborne Laser Scanning in a Tropical Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Hofstad Hansen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS is increasingly being used to enhance the accuracy of biomass estimates in tropical forests. Although the technological development of ALS instruments has resulted in ever-greater pulse densities, studies in boreal and sub-boreal forests have shown consistent results even at relatively small pulse densities. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of reduced pulse density on (1 the digital terrain model (DTM, and (2 canopy metrics derived from ALS data collected in a tropical rainforest in Tanzania. We used a total of 612 coordinates measured with a differential dual frequency Global Navigation Satellite System receiver to analyze the effects on DTMs at pulse densities of 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.025 pulses·m−2. Furthermore, canopy metrics derived for each pulse density and from four different field plot sizes (0.07, 0.14, 0.21, and 0.28 ha were analyzed. Random variation in DTMs and canopy metrics increased with reduced pulse density. Similarly, increased plot size reduced variation in canopy metrics. A reliability ratio, quantifying replication effects in the canopy metrics, indicated that most of the common metrics assessed were reliable at pulse densities >0.5 pulses·m−2 at a plot size of 0.07 ha.

  18. Topics in Metric Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, William Edward

    This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.

  19. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  20. The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Sales: A Meta-Analytic Review of Platform, Product, and Metric Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babic, A.; Sotgiu, Francesca; de Valck, K.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has significantly affected the way consumers make purchase decisions. Empirical studies have established an effect of eWOM on sales but disagree on which online platforms, products, and eWOM metrics moderate this effect. The authors conduct a

  1. Measuring the effects of health information technology on quality of care: a novel set of proposed metrics for electronic quality reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lisa M; Dhopeshwarkar, Rina; Barrón, Yolanda; Wilcox, Adam; Pincus, Harold; Kaushal, Rainu

    2009-07-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs), in combination with health information exchange, are being promoted in the United States as a strategy for improving quality of care. No single metric set exists for measuring the effectiveness of these interventions. A set of quality metrics was sought that could be retrieved electronically and would be sensitive to the changes in quality that EHRs with health information exchange may contribute to ambulatory care. A literature search identified quality metric sets for ambulatory care. Two rounds of quantitative rating of individual metrics were conducted. Metrics were developed de novo to capture additional expected effects of EHRs with health information exchange. A 36-member national expert panel validated the rating process and final metric set. Seventeen metric sets containing 1,064 individual metrics were identified; 510 metrics met inclusion criteria. Two rounds of rating narrowed these to 59 metrics and then to 18. The final 18 consisted of metrics for asthma, cardiovascular disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, medication and allergy documentation, mental health, osteoporosis, and prevention. Fourteen metrics were developed de novo to address test ordering, medication management, referrals, follow-up after discharge, and revisits. The novel set of 32 metrics is proposed as suitable for electronic reporting to capture the potential quality effects of EHRs with health information exchange. This metric set may have broad utility as health information technology becomes increasingly common with funding from the federal stimulus package and other sources. This work may also stimulate discussion on improving how data are entered and extracted from clinically rich, electronic sources, with the goal of more accurately measuring and improving care.

  2. Evaluating Texture Compression Masking Effects Using Objective Image Quality Assessment Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Wesley; Olano, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Texture compression is widely used in real-time rendering to reduce storage and bandwidth requirements. Recent research in compression algorithms has explored both reduced fixed bit rate and variable bit rate algorithms. The results are evaluated at the individual texture level using mean square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, or visual image inspection. We argue this is the wrong evaluation approach. Compression artifacts in individual textures are likely visually masked in final rendered images and this masking is not accounted for when evaluating individual textures. This masking comes from both geometric mapping of textures onto models and the effects of combining different textures on the same model such as diffuse, gloss, and bump maps. We evaluate final rendered images using rigorous perceptual error metrics. Our method samples the space of viewpoints in a scene, renders the scene from each viewpoint using variations of compressed textures, and then compares each to a ground truth using uncompressed textures from the same viewpoint. We show that masking has a significant effect on final rendered image quality, masking effects and perceptual sensitivity to masking varies by the type of texture, graphics hardware compression algorithms are too conservative, and reduced bit rates are possible while maintaining final rendered image quality.

  3. What is "fallback"?: metrics needed to assess telemetry tag effects on anadromous fish behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Muth, Robert M.; Finn, John T.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Telemetry has allowed researchers to document the upstream migrations of anadromous fish in freshwater. In many anadromous alosine telemetry studies, researchers use downstream movements (“fallback”) as a behavioral field bioassay for adverse tag effects. However, these downstream movements have not been uniformly reported or interpreted. We quantified movement trajectories of radio-tagged anadromous alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts (USA) and tested blood chemistry of tagged and untagged fish held 24 h. A diverse repertoire of movements was observed, which could be quantified using (a) direction of initial movements, (b) timing, and (c) characteristics of bouts of coupled upstream and downstream movements (e.g., direction, distance, duration, and speed). Because downstream movements of individual fish were almost always made in combination with upstream movements, these should be examined together. Several of the movement patterns described here could fall under the traditional definition of “fallback” but were not necessarily aberrant. Because superficially similar movements could have quite different interpretations, post-tagging trajectories need more precise definitions. The set of metrics we propose here will help quantify tag effects in the field, and provide the basis for a conceptual framework that helps define the complicated behaviors seen in telemetry studies on alewives and other fish in the field.

  4. Characterizing social media metrics of scholarly papers: The effect of document properties and collaboration patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Haustein, S.; Costas, R.; Lariviere, V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of new metrics based on social media platforms--grouped under the term "altmetrics"--have recently been introduced as potential indicators of research impact. Despite their current popularity, there is a lack of information regarding the determinants of these metrics. Using publication and citation data from 1.3 million papers published in 2012 and covered in Thomson Reuters' Web of Science as well as social media counts from Altmetric.com, this paper analyses the main patterns of fi...

  5. Metric learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bellet, Aurelien; Sebban, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Similarity between objects plays an important role in both human cognitive processes and artificial systems for recognition and categorization. How to appropriately measure such similarities for a given task is crucial to the performance of many machine learning, pattern recognition and data mining methods. This book is devoted to metric learning, a set of techniques to automatically learn similarity and distance functions from data that has attracted a lot of interest in machine learning and related fields in the past ten years. In this book, we provide a thorough review of the metric learnin

  6. Effects of metric hierarchy and rhyme predictability on word duration in The Cat in the Hat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Mara

    2018-05-01

    Word durations convey many types of linguistic information, including intrinsic lexical features like length and frequency and contextual features like syntactic and semantic structure. The current study was designed to investigate whether hierarchical metric structure and rhyme predictability account for durational variation over and above other features in productions of a rhyming, metrically-regular children's book: The Cat in the Hat (Dr. Seuss, 1957). One-syllable word durations and inter-onset intervals were modeled as functions of segment number, lexical frequency, word class, syntactic structure, repetition, and font emphasis. Consistent with prior work, factors predicting longer word durations and inter-onset intervals included more phonemes, lower frequency, first mention, alignment with a syntactic boundary, and capitalization. A model parameter corresponding to metric grid height improved model fit of word durations and inter-onset intervals. Specifically, speakers realized five levels of metric hierarchy with inter-onset intervals such that interval duration increased linearly with increased height in the metric hierarchy. Conversely, speakers realized only three levels of metric hierarchy with word duration, demonstrating that they shortened the highly predictable rhyme resolutions. These results further understanding of the factors that affect spoken word duration, and demonstrate the myriad cues that children receive about linguistic structure from nursery rhymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brief educational interventions to improve performance on novel quality metrics in ambulatory settings in Kenya: A multi-site pre-post effectiveness trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ryan Korom

    Full Text Available The quality of primary care delivered in resource-limited settings is low. While some progress has been made using educational interventions, it is not yet clear how to sustainably improve care for common acute illnesses in the outpatient setting. Management of urinary tract infection is particularly important in resource-limited settings, where it is commonly diagnosed and associated with high levels of antimicrobial resistance. We describe an educational programme targeting non-physician health care providers and its effects on various clinical quality metrics for urinary tract infection.We used a series of educational interventions including 1 formal introduction of a clinical practice guideline, 2 peer-to-peer chart review, and 3 peer-reviewed literature describing local antimicrobial resistance patterns. Interventions were conducted for clinical officers (N = 24 at two outpatient centers near Nairobi, Kenya over a one-year period. The medical records of 474 patients with urinary tract infections were scored on five clinical quality metrics, with the primary outcome being the proportion of cases in which the guideline-recommended antibiotic was prescribed. The results at baseline and following each intervention were compared using chi-squared tests and unpaired two-tailed T-tests for significance. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess for possible confounders.Clinician adherence to the guideline-recommended antibiotic improved significantly during the study period, from 19% at baseline to 68% following all interventions (Χ2 = 150.7, p < 0.001. The secondary outcome of composite quality score also improved significantly from an average of 2.16 to 3.00 on a five-point scale (t = 6.58, p < 0.001. Interventions had different effects at different clinical sites; the primary outcome of appropriate antibiotic prescription was met 83% of the time at Penda Health, and 50% of the time at AICKH, possibly reflecting differences in onboarding

  8. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  9. Metric qualities of the cognitive behavioral assessment for outcome evaluation to estimate psychological treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Giorgio; Michielin, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Sanavio, Ezio; Bottesi, Gioia; Bettinardi, Ornella; Zotti, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral assessment for outcome evaluation was developed to evaluate psychological treatment interventions, especially for counseling and psychotherapy. It is made up of 80 items and five scales: anxiety, well-being, perception of positive change, depression, and psychological distress. The aim of the study was to present the metric qualities and to show validity and reliability of the five constructs of the questionnaire both in nonclinical and clinical subjects. Four steps were completed to assess reliability and factor structure: criterion-related and concurrent validity, responsiveness, and convergent-divergent validity. A nonclinical group of 269 subjects was enrolled, as was a clinical group comprising 168 adults undergoing psychotherapy and psychological counseling provided by the Italian public health service. Cronbach's alphas were between 0.80 and 0.91 for the clinical sample and between 0.74 and 0.91 in the nonclinical one. We observed an excellent structural validity for the five interrelated dimensions. The clinical group showed higher scores in the anxiety, depression, and psychological distress scales, as well as lower scores in well-being and perception of positive change scales than those observed in the nonclinical group. Responsiveness was large for the anxiety, well-being, and depression scales; the psychological distress and perception of positive change scales showed a moderate effect. The questionnaire showed excellent psychometric properties, thus demonstrating that the questionnaire is a good evaluative instrument, with which to assess pre- and post-treatment outcomes.

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies of single event effect induced by atmospheric muons on nano-metric technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cavoli, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the domain of the microelectronics. It consists in the study of the impact of the 3D morphology of the energy deposit on the Single Event Effect (SEE) modeling, induced by atmospheric muons. Over a first phase, the approach has consisted in the modeling of the energy deposit induced by protons in nano-metric volumes. For that purpose the use of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 has allowed us to simulate and stock in a database the tracks characteristics of the energy deposit induced by protons. Once the approach validated for the protons, simulations of the energy deposit induced by muons have been realized. A CCD camera has been used in order to measure the radiative atmospheric environment and to constrain the modeling of the energy deposit induced by muons. This study highlights and quantify the contribution of the radial distribution of the energy deposit induced by protons in nano-metric volumes for the SEE prediction. On the other hand, the study shows that the contribution of the radial distribution of the energy deposit induced by muons in nano-metric volumes has a negligible impact on the SEE modeling. It will be interesting to realize measurements of the energy deposit induced by muons in nano-metric technologies under particle accelerator. This will allow to bring experimental data still nonexistent necessary to the development of new physical models more accurate on the modeling of the energy deposit induced by muons. (author)

  11. Metrication manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, A.F.A.; Digby, R.B.; Thong, S.P.; Lacey, F.

    1978-04-01

    In April 1978 a meeting of senior metrication officers convened by the Commonwealth Science Council of the Commonwealth Secretariat, was held in London. The participants were drawn from Australia, Bangladesh, Britain, Canada, Ghana, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Trinidad and Tobago. Among other things, the meeting resolved to develop a set of guidelines to assist countries to change to SI and to compile such guidelines in the form of a working manual

  12. Fault Management Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  13. Patron Time-Use May Be an Effective Metric for Presenting Library Value to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Glusker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test a metric for library use, that could be comparable to metrics used by competing government departments, for ease of understanding by policy makers. Design – Four types of data were collected and used: Time-diaries, exit surveys, gate counts, and circulation statistics. Setting – A large public library in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects – Time-diary subjects were 445 patrons checking out materials; exit survey subjects were 185 patrons leaving the library. Methods – A paper-based time diary, prototypes of which were tested, was given to patrons who checked out library materials during a one-week period. These patrons were charged with recording the use of the checked-out items during the entire three-week loan period. From this information, the average number of hours spent with various types of loaned material (print and audio/DVD was calculated. The average number of hours spent per item type was then applied to the circulation statistics for those items, across a month, to get a total of hours spent using all circulated material during that month. During the same one-week period of time-diary distribution, exit surveys were conducted by library staff with patrons leaving the library, asking them how long they had spent in the library during their current visit. The average number of minutes per visit was calculated and then applied to the gate count for the month, to get a total number of minutes/hours spent “resident” in the library that month. Adding the totals, a grand total of patron time-use hours was calculated. A monetary value was applied per hour, using the results of a contingent valuation study from Missoula, Montana (Dalenberg et al., 2004, in order to convert hours of library benefit into a dollar figure. Main Results – There was a 24% response rate for the time diaries (106/445. The diary entries yielded an average of 3.5 hours of time-use per print item, and 1.9 hours per DVD. The range for

  14. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena [UZ Gasthuisberg, Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W. [UZ Gasthuisberg, Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA

  15. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: measurement and comparison against established metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Struelens, Lara; Marshall, Nicholas W

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d') calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter. The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d' were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d' using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra. The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm(-1) ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm(-1) varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d' based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA, the FOMs indicated Mo/Mo (grid out) as

  16. Characterizing social media metrics of scholarly papers: the effect of document properties and collaboration patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Haustein

    Full Text Available A number of new metrics based on social media platforms--grouped under the term "altmetrics"--have recently been introduced as potential indicators of research impact. Despite their current popularity, there is a lack of information regarding the determinants of these metrics. Using publication and citation data from 1.3 million papers published in 2012 and covered in Thomson Reuters' Web of Science as well as social media counts from Altmetric.com, this paper analyses the main patterns of five social media metrics as a function of document characteristics (i.e., discipline, document type, title length, number of pages and references and collaborative practices and compares them to patterns known for citations. Results show that the presence of papers on social media is low, with 21.5% of papers receiving at least one tweet, 4.7% being shared on Facebook, 1.9% mentioned on blogs, 0.8% found on Google+ and 0.7% discussed in mainstream media. By contrast, 66.8% of papers have received at least one citation. Our findings show that both citations and social media metrics increase with the extent of collaboration and the length of the references list. On the other hand, while editorials and news items are seldom cited, it is these types of document that are the most popular on Twitter. Similarly, while longer papers typically attract more citations, an opposite trend is seen on social media platforms. Finally, contrary to what is observed for citations, it is papers in the Social Sciences and humanities that are the most often found on social media platforms. On the whole, these findings suggest that factors driving social media and citations are different. Therefore, social media metrics cannot actually be seen as alternatives to citations; at most, they may function as complements to other type of indicators.

  17. Characterizing social media metrics of scholarly papers: the effect of document properties and collaboration patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Stefanie; Costas, Rodrigo; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    A number of new metrics based on social media platforms--grouped under the term "altmetrics"--have recently been introduced as potential indicators of research impact. Despite their current popularity, there is a lack of information regarding the determinants of these metrics. Using publication and citation data from 1.3 million papers published in 2012 and covered in Thomson Reuters' Web of Science as well as social media counts from Altmetric.com, this paper analyses the main patterns of five social media metrics as a function of document characteristics (i.e., discipline, document type, title length, number of pages and references) and collaborative practices and compares them to patterns known for citations. Results show that the presence of papers on social media is low, with 21.5% of papers receiving at least one tweet, 4.7% being shared on Facebook, 1.9% mentioned on blogs, 0.8% found on Google+ and 0.7% discussed in mainstream media. By contrast, 66.8% of papers have received at least one citation. Our findings show that both citations and social media metrics increase with the extent of collaboration and the length of the references list. On the other hand, while editorials and news items are seldom cited, it is these types of document that are the most popular on Twitter. Similarly, while longer papers typically attract more citations, an opposite trend is seen on social media platforms. Finally, contrary to what is observed for citations, it is papers in the Social Sciences and humanities that are the most often found on social media platforms. On the whole, these findings suggest that factors driving social media and citations are different. Therefore, social media metrics cannot actually be seen as alternatives to citations; at most, they may function as complements to other type of indicators.

  18. Characterizing Social Media Metrics of Scholarly Papers: The Effect of Document Properties and Collaboration Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Stefanie; Costas, Rodrigo; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    A number of new metrics based on social media platforms—grouped under the term “altmetrics”—have recently been introduced as potential indicators of research impact. Despite their current popularity, there is a lack of information regarding the determinants of these metrics. Using publication and citation data from 1.3 million papers published in 2012 and covered in Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science as well as social media counts from Altmetric.com, this paper analyses the main patterns of five social media metrics as a function of document characteristics (i.e., discipline, document type, title length, number of pages and references) and collaborative practices and compares them to patterns known for citations. Results show that the presence of papers on social media is low, with 21.5% of papers receiving at least one tweet, 4.7% being shared on Facebook, 1.9% mentioned on blogs, 0.8% found on Google+ and 0.7% discussed in mainstream media. By contrast, 66.8% of papers have received at least one citation. Our findings show that both citations and social media metrics increase with the extent of collaboration and the length of the references list. On the other hand, while editorials and news items are seldom cited, it is these types of document that are the most popular on Twitter. Similarly, while longer papers typically attract more citations, an opposite trend is seen on social media platforms. Finally, contrary to what is observed for citations, it is papers in the Social Sciences and humanities that are the most often found on social media platforms. On the whole, these findings suggest that factors driving social media and citations are different. Therefore, social media metrics cannot actually be seen as alternatives to citations; at most, they may function as complements to other type of indicators. PMID:25780916

  19. The International Safeguards Technology Base: How is the Patient Doing? An Exploration of Effective Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanfein, Mark J; Gouveia, Fernando S

    2010-07-01

    The term “Technology Base” is commonly used but what does it mean? Is there a common understanding of the components that comprise a technology base? Does a formal process exist to assess the health of a given technology base? These are important questions the relevance of which is even more pressing given the USDOE/NNSA initiatives to strengthen the safeguards technology base through investments in research & development and human capital development. Accordingly, the authors will establish a high-level framework to define and understand what comprises a technology base. Potential goal-driven metrics to assess the health of a technology base will also be explored, such as linear demographics and resource availability, in the hope that they can be used to better understand and improve the health of the U.S. safeguards technology base. Finally, through the identification of such metrics, the authors will offer suggestions and highlight choices for addressing potential shortfalls.

  20. The International Safeguards Technology Base: How is the Patient Doing? An Exploration of Effective Metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanfein, Mark J.; Gouveia, Fernando S.

    2010-01-01

    The term 'Technology Base' is commonly used but what does it mean? Is there a common understanding of the components that comprise a technology base? Does a formal process exist to assess the health of a given technology base? These are important questions the relevance of which is even more pressing given the USDOE/NNSA initiatives to strengthen the safeguards technology base through investments in research and development and human capital development. Accordingly, the authors will establish a high-level framework to define and understand what comprises a technology base. Potential goal-driven metrics to assess the health of a technology base will also be explored, such as linear demographics and resource availability, in the hope that they can be used to better understand and improve the health of the U.S. safeguards technology base. Finally, through the identification of such metrics, the authors will offer suggestions and highlight choices for addressing potential shortfalls.

  1. When can we measure stress noninvasively? Postdeposition effects on a fecal stress metric confound a multiregional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Jennifer L; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of stress hormone metabolites in fecal samples has become a common method to assess physiological stress in wildlife populations. Glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) measurements can be collected noninvasively, and studies relating this stress metric to anthropogenic disturbance are increasing. However, environmental characteristics (e.g., temperature) can alter measured GCM concentration when fecal samples cannot be collected immediately after defecation. This effect can confound efforts to separate environmental factors causing predeposition physiological stress in an individual from those acting on a fecal sample postdeposition. We used fecal samples from American pikas (Ochotona princeps) to examine the influence of environmental conditions on GCM concentration by (1) comparing GCM concentration measured in freshly collected control samples to those placed in natural habitats for timed exposure, and (2) relating GCM concentration in samples collected noninvasively throughout the western United States to local environmental characteristics measured before and after deposition. Our timed-exposure trials clarified the spatial scale at which exposure to environmental factors postdeposition influences GCM concentration in pika feces. Also, fecal samples collected from occupied pika habitats throughout the species' range revealed significant relationships between GCM and metrics of climate during the postdeposition period (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation during the month of sample collection). Conversely, we found no such relationships between GCM and metrics of climate during the predeposition period (prior to the month of sample collection). Together, these results indicate that noninvasive measurement of physiological stress in pikas across the western US may be confounded by climatic conditions in the postdeposition environment when samples cannot be collected immediately after defecation. Our results reiterate the importance

  2. Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Drud

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented of the effects of one-dimensional distributed series resistance in solar cells. A general perturbation theory is developed, including consistently the induced spatial variation of diode current density and leading to a first-order equivalent lumped resistance...

  3. Deep Transfer Metric Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  4. Field installation versus local integration of photovoltaic systems and their effect on energy evaluation metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasah, Suleiman A.; Pearlmutter, David; Feuermann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this study we employ Life-Cycle Assessment to evaluate the energy-related impacts of photovoltaic systems at different scales of integration, in an arid region with especially high solar irradiation. Based on the electrical output and embodied energy of a selection of fixed and tracking systems and including concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and varying cell technology, we calculate a number of energy evaluation metrics, including the energy payback time (EPBT), energy return factor (ERF), and life-cycle CO 2 emissions offset per unit aperture and land area. Studying these metrics in the context of a regionally limited setting, it was found that utilizing existing infrastructure such as existing building roofs and shade structures does significantly reduce the embodied energy requirements (by 20–40%) and in turn the EPBT of flat-plate PV systems due to the avoidance of energy-intensive balance of systems (BOS) components like foundations. Still, high-efficiency CPV field installations were found to yield the shortest EPBT, the highest ERF and the largest life-cycle CO 2 offsets—under the condition that land availability is not a limitation. A greater life-cycle energy return and carbon offset per unit land area is yielded by locally-integrated non-concentrating systems, despite their lower efficiency per unit module area. - Highlights: ► We evaluate life-cycle energy impacts of PV systems at different scales. ► We calculate the energy payback time, return factor and CO 2 emissions offset. ► Utilizing existing structures significantly improves metrics of flat-plate PV. ► High-efficiency CPV installations yield best return and offset per aperture area. ► Locally-integrated flat-plate systems yield best return and offset per land area.

  5. The metric system: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Susan M.

    On 13 Jul. 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory's policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell's memo announced the Laboratory's intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory's conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on 25 Jul. 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation's conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.

  6. Engineering performance metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.

    1993-03-01

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  7. Metric Tannakian Duality

    OpenAIRE

    Daenzer, Calder

    2011-01-01

    We incorporate metric data into the framework of Tannaka-Krein duality. Thus, for any group with left invariant metric, we produce a dual metric on its category of unitary representations. We characterize the conditions under which a "double-dual" metric on the group may be recovered from the metric on representations, and provide conditions under which a metric agrees with its double-dual. We also consider some applications to T-duality and quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance.

  8. Next-Generation Metrics: Responsible Metrics & Evaluation for Open Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilsdon, J.; Bar-Ilan, J.; Peters, I.; Wouters, P.

    2016-07-01

    Metrics evoke a mixed reaction from the research community. A commitment to using data to inform decisions makes some enthusiastic about the prospect of granular, real-time analysis o of research and its wider impacts. Yet we only have to look at the blunt use of metrics such as journal impact factors, h-indices and grant income targets, to be reminded of the pitfalls. Some of the most precious qualities of academic culture resist simple quantification, and individual indicators often struggle to do justice to the richness and plurality of research. Too often, poorly designed evaluation criteria are “dominating minds, distorting behaviour and determining careers (Lawrence, 2007).” Metrics hold real power: they are constitutive of values, identities and livelihoods. How to exercise that power to more positive ends has been the focus of several recent and complementary initiatives, including the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA1), the Leiden Manifesto2 and The Metric Tide3 (a UK government review of the role of metrics in research management and assessment). Building on these initiatives, the European Commission, under its new Open Science Policy Platform4, is now looking to develop a framework for responsible metrics for research management and evaluation, which can be incorporated into the successor framework to Horizon 2020. (Author)

  9. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  10. Effecting Change in a Resistant Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Patricia F.; Gould, Edward

    In an effort to overcome organizational resistance to change, Victor Valley College, in Victorville, California, has utilized a seven-part strategy to enable leaders to empower others and effect change. Step 1 requires the development of a visionary plan, so that changes have a meaningful context. Step 2 calls for an assessment of the campus…

  11. Random Kaehler metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Frank, E-mail: frank.ferrari@ulb.ac.be [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine, CP 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Klevtsov, Semyon, E-mail: semyon.klevtsov@ulb.ac.be [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine, CP 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Zelditch, Steve, E-mail: zelditch@math.northwestern.edu [Department of Mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a new method to define and calculate path integrals over metrics on a Kaehler manifold. The main idea is to use finite dimensional spaces of Bergman metrics, as an approximation to the full space of Kaehler metrics. We use the theory of large deviations to decide when a sequence of probability measures on the spaces of Bergman metrics tends to a limit measure on the space of all Kaehler metrics. Several examples are considered.

  12. Electropolishing effect on roughness metrics of ground stainless steel: a length scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakar, Doron; Harel, David; Hirsch, Baruch

    2018-03-01

    Electropolishing is a widely-used electrochemical surface finishing process for metals. The electropolishing of stainless steel has vast commercial application, such as improving corrosion resistance, improving cleanness, and brightening. The surface topography characterization is performed using several techniques with different lateral resolutions and length scales, from atomic force microscopy in the nano-scale (process in the micro and meso lateral scales. Both stylus and optical profilometers are used, and multiple cut-off lengths of the standard Gaussian filter are adopted. While the commonly used roughness amplitude parameters (Ra, Rq and Rz) fail to characterize electropolished textures, the root mean square slope (RΔq) is found to better describe the electropolished surfaces and to be insensitive to scale.

  13. More Than Numbers: Effects of Social Media Virality Metrics on Intention to Help Unknown Others in the Context of Bone Marrow Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Won, Roselyn J; Abo, Melissa M; Na, Kilhoe; White, Tiffany N

    2016-06-01

    A bone marrow transplant is often the only key to recovery and survival for patients suffering from blood cancers. Social media platforms have allowed nonprofit organizations as well as family members and friends of patients in need of a matching donor to make their solicitation messages go viral and reach out to the broadest possible audience to increase the likelihood of finding a matching donor. Noting that social media audiences are exposed not only to the content of a social media message but also to the metrics representing the virality of the message (i.e., how many times the content has been shared), we conducted an online experiment to investigate the effects of virality metrics on perceived social norms and behavioral intention to join a bone marrow registry. In doing so, we considered the potential moderating role of perceived threat posed by blood cancers. The experiment was conducted with 152 participants who met the general eligibility guidelines set by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). The results of the experiment showed that exposure to high virality metrics led to greater perceived injunctive norms. The results also revealed that the effect of virality metrics on perceived injunctive norms was significant among those perceiving low levels of blood cancer threat. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that high virality metrics led to greater intention to join a bone marrow registry through perceived injunctive norms only when perceived threat of blood cancers was low. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  15. Function valued metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Mirzavaziri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of an ℱ-metric, as a function valued distance mapping, on a set X and we investigate the theory of ℱ-metrics paces. We show that every metric space may be viewed as an F-metric space and every ℱ-metric space (X,δ can be regarded as a topological space (X,τδ. In addition, we prove that the category of the so-called extended F-metric spaces properly contains the category of metric spaces. We also introduce the concept of an `ℱ-metric space as a completion of an ℱ-metric space and, as an application to topology, we prove that each normal topological space is `ℱ-metrizable.

  16. Large Buffering Effect of the Duodenal Bulb in Duodenal Switch: a Wireless pH-Metric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhali, Z; Hedberg, J; Hedenström, H; Sundbom, M

    2017-07-01

    Bariatric procedures result in massive weight loss, however, not without side effects. Gastric acid is known to cause marginal ulcers, situated in the small bowel just distal to the upper anastomosis. We have used the wireless BRAVO™ system to study the buffering effect of the duodenal bulb in duodenal switch (DS), a procedure in which the gastric sleeve produces a substantial amount of acid. We placed a pre- and a postpyloric pH capsule in 15 DS-patients (seven men, 44 years, BMI 33) under endoscopic guidance and verified the correct location by fluoroscopy. Patients were asked to eat and drink at their leisure, and to register their meals for the next 24 h. All capsules but one could be successfully placed, without complications. Total registration time was 17.2 (1.3-24) hours prepyloric and 23.1 (1.2-24) hours postpyloric, with a corresponding pH of 2.66 (1.74-5.81) and 5.79 (4.75-7.58), p pH between the two locations was reduced from 3.55 before meals to 1.82 during meals, p pH pH-metric technique, we could demonstrate that the duodenal bulb had a large buffering effect, thus counteracting the large amount of gastric acid passing into the small bowel after duodenal switch. This physiologic effect could explain the low incidence of stomal ulcers.

  17. Metric Tannakian duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenzer, Calder

    2013-08-01

    We incorporate metric data into the framework of Tannaka-Krein duality. Thus, for any group with left invariant metric, we produce a dual metric on its category of unitary representations. We characterize the conditions under which a "double-dual" metric on the group may be recovered from the metric on representations, and provide conditions under which a metric agrees with its double-dual. We also explore a diverse class of possible applications of the theory, including applications to T-duality and to quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance.

  18. Effects of toroidicity on resistive tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Manickam, J.; Strauss, H.R.; Grimm, R.; McGuire, K.

    1983-03-01

    A reduced set of resistive MHD equations is solved numerically in three dimensions to study the stability of tokamak plasmas. Toroidal effects are included self-consistently to leading and next order in inverse aspect ratio, epsilon. The equations satisfy an energy integral. In addition, the momentum equation yields the Grad-Shafranov equation correct to all orders in epsilon. Low beta plasma are studied using several different q-profiles. In all cases, the linear growth rates are reduced by finite toroidicity. Excellent agreement with resistive PEST is obtianed. In some cases, toroidal effects lead to complete stabilization of the mode. Nonlinear results show smaller saturated island widths for finite aspect ratio compared to the cylindrical limit. If the current channel is wide enough so as to produce steep gradients towards the outside of the plasma, both the finite aspect ratio cases and cylindrical cases disrupt

  19. Effects of Traditional Advertising and Social Messages on Brand-Building Metrics and Customer Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Lisette; Gensler, Sonja; Leeflang, Pieter

    This study examines the relative effectiveness of traditional advertising, impressions generated through firm-to-consumer (F2C) messages on Facebook, and the volume and valence of consumer-to-consumer (C2C) messages on Twitter and web forums for brand-building and customer acquisition efforts. The

  20. Menopause: highlighting the effects of resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R D; Prestes, J; Pereira, G B; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A

    2010-11-01

    The increase in lifespan and in the proportion of elderly women has increased the focus on menopause induced physiological alterations. These modifications are associated with the elevated risk of several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, among others. Because of estrogen levels decline, many tissue and organs (muscular, bone, adipose tissue and liver) are affected. Additionally, body composition suffers important modifications. In this sense, there is a growing body of concern in understanding the physiological mechanisms involved and establishing strategies to prevent and reverse the effects of menopause. The hormone reposition therapy, diet and physical exercise have been recommended. Among the diverse exercise modalities, resistance training is not commonly used as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of menopause. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze the physiological alterations on several organs and systems induced by menopause and ovariectomy (experimental model to reproduce menopause), as well as, to study the effects of resistance training in preventing and reverting these modifications. In conclusion, resistance training promotes beneficial effects on several organs and systems, mainly, on muscular, bone and adipose tissue, allowing for a better quality of life in this population.

  1. Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, Wayne C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linker, David T

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: A standard metric to estimate absolute treatment effects is numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT), which implicitly assumes that all benefits reverse at trial-end. However, in-trial survival benefits typically do not reverse until long after trial-end, so that NNT will substantially underestimate l...

  2. Intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Han

    2004-01-01

    Using the idea of intuitionistic fuzzy set due to Atanassov [Intuitionistic fuzzy sets. in: V. Sgurev (Ed.), VII ITKR's Session, Sofia June, 1983; Fuzzy Sets Syst. 20 (1986) 87], we define the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces as a natural generalization of fuzzy metric spaces due to George and Veeramani [Fuzzy Sets Syst. 64 (1994) 395] and prove some known results of metric spaces including Baire's theorem and the Uniform limit theorem for intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

  3. REDUCING CSF PARTIAL VOLUME EFFECTS TO ENHANCE DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING METRICS OF BRAIN MICROSTRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Lauren E; Conturo, Thomas E; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Cabeen, Ryan P; Akbudak, Erbil; Paul, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Technological advances over recent decades now allow for in vivo observation of human brain tissue through the use of neuroimaging methods. While this field originated with techniques capable of capturing macrostructural details of brain anatomy, modern methods such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that are now regularly implemented in research protocols have the ability to characterize brain microstructure. DTI has been used to reveal subtle micro-anatomical abnormalities in the prodromal phase ofº various diseases and also to delineate "normal" age-related changes in brain tissue across the lifespan. Nevertheless, imaging artifact in DTI remains a significant limitation for identifying true neural signatures of disease and brain-behavior relationships. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contamination of brain voxels is a main source of error on DTI scans that causes partial volume effects and reduces the accuracy of tissue characterization. Several methods have been proposed to correct for CSF artifact though many of these methods introduce new limitations that may preclude certain applications. The purpose of this review is to discuss the complexity of signal acquisition as it relates to CSF artifact on DTI scans and review methods of CSF suppression in DTI. We will then discuss a technique that has been recently shown to effectively suppress the CSF signal in DTI data, resulting in fewer errors and improved measurement of brain tissue. This approach and related techniques have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of "normal" brain aging and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Considerations for next-level applications are discussed.

  4. Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Robovetter Completeness and Effectiveness for Data Release 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    calculate accurate occurrence rates, the completeness and effectiveness of the Robovetter must be characterized. We define these terms as applied to the Robovetter, following Thompson et al. (2017), as:1. Completeness: The fraction of transiting planets detected by the pipeline that are classified as planet candidates by the Robovetter.2. Effectiveness: The fraction of false positives detected by the pipeline that are classified as false positives by the Robovetter.The remainder of this document describes products that can be used to quantitatively assess Robovetter completeness and effectiveness for an arbitrary set of Kepler stars.

  5. Stability of nano-metric colloidal dispersions of titanium: effect of surface complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyre, Veronique

    1996-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the adsorption of small organic molecules at the surface of nano-particles of mineral oxides (zirconia), and of its effects on the stability of the colloidal dispersion. Adsorption has been quantified by adsorption isotherms and surface titrations. Processes and mechanisms are thus discussed with respect to pH. The influence of various protecting molecules (acetyl acetone, but also acetic acid, citric acid and diethanolamine) has been studied, and notably highlighted the role of the outer face of the complexing agent in the assessment of reactions between particles which govern the compression and re-dispersability properties of protected dispersions. This study is performed by osmotic pressure measurements and by X-ray diffusion at small angles, completed by statistical mechanics calculations [fr

  6. The effect of electrode contact resistance and capacitive coupling on Complex Resistivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The effect of electrode contact resistance and capacitive coupling on complex resistivity (CR) measurements is studied in this paper. An equivalent circuit model for the receiver is developed to describe the effects. The model shows that CR measurements are severely affected even at relatively lo...... with the contact resistance artificially increased by resistors. The results emphasize the importance of keeping contact resistance low in CR measurements....

  7. Multiple metrics of diversity have different effects on temperate forest functioning over succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuoqiang; Wang, Shaopeng; Gazol, Antonio; Mellard, Jarad; Lin, Fei; Ye, Ji; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Xugao; Loreau, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Biodiversity can be measured by taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity. How ecosystem functioning depends on these measures of diversity can vary from site to site and depends on successional stage. Here, we measured taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity, and examined their relationship with biomass in two successional stages of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest in northeastern China. Functional diversity was calculated from six plant traits, and aboveground biomass (AGB) and coarse woody productivity (CWP) were estimated using data from three forest censuses (10 years) in two large fully mapped forest plots (25 and 5 ha). 11 of the 12 regressions between biomass variables (AGB and CWP) and indices of diversity showed significant positive relationships, especially those with phylogenetic diversity. The mean tree diversity-biomass regressions increased from 0.11 in secondary forest to 0.31 in old-growth forest, implying a stronger biodiversity effect in more mature forest. Multi-model selection results showed that models including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and single functional traits explained more variation in forest biomass than other candidate models. The models with a single functional trait, i.e., leaf area in secondary forest and wood density in mature forest, provided better explanations for forest biomass than models that combined all six functional traits. This finding may reflect different strategies in growth and resource acquisition in secondary and old-growth forests.

  8. Overall Bike Effectiveness as a Sustainability Metric for Bike Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bike sharing systems (BSS have been widely accepted as an urban transport scheme in many cities around the world. The concept is recently expanded and followed by many cities to offer citizen a “green” and flexible transportation scheme in urban areas. Many works focus on the issues of bike availability while the bike performance, i.e., life cycle issues and its sustainability, for better management has been abandoned. As a consequence, mismanagement of BSS would lead to cost inefficiency and, the worst case, end with operation termination. This study proposes a design science approach by developing an Overall Bike Effectiveness (OBE framework. By incorporating the concept of overall equipment analysis (OEE, the proposed framework is used to measure the bike utilization. Accordingly, the OBE is extended into Theoretical OBE to measure the sustainability of the early-stage of BSS. The framework has been verified and evaluated using a real dataset of BSS. The proposed method provides valuable results for benchmarking, life cycle analysis, system expansion and strategy planning toward sustainability. The paper concludes with a discussion to show the impact of the proposed approach into the real practices of BSS including an outlook toward sustainability of BSS.

  9. Some Metric Properties of Planar Gaussian Free Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Subhajit

    In this thesis we study the properties of some metrics arising from two-dimensional Gaussian free field (GFF), namely the Liouville first-passage percolation (Liouville FPP), the Liouville graph distance and an effective resistance metric. In Chapter 1, we define these metrics as well as discuss the motivations for studying them. Roughly speaking, Liouville FPP is the shortest path metric in a planar domain D where the length of a path P is given by ∫Pe gammah(z)|dz| where h is the GFF on D and gamma > 0. In Chapter 2, we present an upper bound on the expected Liouville FPP distance between two typical points for small values of gamma (the near-Euclidean regime). A similar upper bound is derived in Chapter 3 for the Liouville graph distance which is, roughly, the minimal number of Euclidean balls with comparable Liouville quantum gravity (LQG) measure whose union contains a continuous path between two endpoints. Our bounds seem to be in disagreement with Watabiki's prediction (1993) on the random metric of Liouville quantum gravity in this regime. The contents of these two chapters are based on a joint work with Jian Ding. In Chapter 4, we derive some asymptotic estimates for effective resistances on a random network which is defined as follows. Given any gamma > 0 and for eta = {etav}v∈Z2 denoting a sample of the two-dimensional discrete Gaussian free field on Z2 pinned at the origin, we equip the edge ( u, v) with conductance egamma(etau + eta v). The metric structure of effective resistance plays a crucial role in our proof of the main result in Chapter 4. The primary motivation behind this metric is to understand the random walk on Z 2 where the edge (u, v) has weight egamma(etau + etav). Using the estimates from Chapter 4 we show in Chapter 5 that for almost every eta, this random walk is recurrent and that, with probability tending to 1 as T → infinity, the return probability at time 2T decays as T-1+o(1). In addition, we prove a version of subdiffusive

  10. Effects of ultraviolet disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater: inactivation, antibiotic resistance profiles and antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong-Miao; Xu, Li-Mei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhuang, Kai; Liu, Qiang-Qiang

    2017-04-29

    To evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant and subjected to UV disinfection. The effect of UV disinfection on the antibiotic resistance profiles and the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of antibiotic-resistant E. coli was evaluated by a combination of antibiotic susceptibility analysis and molecular methods. Results indicated that multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) E. coli were more resistant at low UV doses and required a higher UV dose (20 mJ cm -2 ) to enter the tailing phase compared with those of antibiotic-sensitive E. coli (8 mJ cm -2 ). UV disinfection caused a selective change in the inhibition zone diameters of surviving antibiotic-resistant E. coli and a slight damage to ARGs. The inhibition zone diameters of the strains resistant to antibiotics were more difficult to alter than those susceptible to antibiotics because of the existence and persistence of corresponding ARGs. The resistance of MAR bacteria to UV disinfection at low UV doses and the changes in inhibition zone diameters could potentially contribute to the selection of ARB in wastewater treatment after UV disinfection. The risk of spread of antibiotic resistance still exists owing to the persistence of ARGs. Our study highlights the acquisition of other methods to control the spread of ARGs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Software Metrics Capability Evaluation Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budlong, Faye

    1995-01-01

    ...: disseminating information regarding the U.S. Air Force Policy on software metrics, providing metrics information to the public through CrossTalk, conducting customer workshops in software metrics, guiding metrics technology adoption programs...

  12. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  13. Metrics That Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Julia C; Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, performance metrics are seen as key components for accurately measuring and improving health care value. Disappointment in the ability of chosen metrics to meet these goals is exemplified in a recent Institute of Medicine report that argues for a consensus-building process to determine a simplified set of reliable metrics. Overall health care goals should be defined and then metrics to measure these goals should be considered. If appropriate data for the identified goals are not available, they should be developed. We use examples from our work in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) on validating waiting time and mental health metrics to highlight other key issues for metric selection and implementation. First, we focus on the need for specification and predictive validation of metrics. Second, we discuss strategies to maintain the fidelity of the data used in performance metrics over time. These strategies include using appropriate incentives and data sources, using composite metrics, and ongoing monitoring. Finally, we discuss the VA's leadership in developing performance metrics through a planned upgrade in its electronic medical record system to collect more comprehensive VHA and non-VHA data, increasing the ability to comprehensively measure outcomes.

  14. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  15. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M

    2017-01-01

    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  16. Frequency of Extreme Heat Event as a Surrogate Exposure Metric for Examining the Human Health Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Romeo Upperman

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigation of the impact of climate change on human health, particularly chronic diseases, is hindered by the lack of exposure metrics that can be used as a marker of climate change that are compatible with health data. Here, we present a surrogate exposure metric created using a 30-year baseline (1960-1989 that allows users to quantify long-term changes in exposure to frequency of extreme heat events with near unabridged spatial coverage in a scale that is compatible with national/state health outcome data. We evaluate the exposure metric by decade, seasonality, area of the country, and its ability to capture long-term changes in weather (climate, including natural climate modes. Our findings show that this generic exposure metric is potentially useful to monitor trends in the frequency of extreme heat events across varying regions because it captures long-term changes; is sensitive to the natural climate modes (ENSO events; responds well to spatial variability, and; is amenable to spatial/temporal aggregation, making it useful for epidemiological studies.

  17. Software Metrics: Measuring Haskell

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Chris; Thompson, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Software metrics have been used in software engineering as a mechanism for assessing code quality and for targeting software development activities, such as testing or refactoring, at areas of a program that will most benefit from them. Haskell has many tools for software engineering, such as testing, debugging and refactoring tools, but software metrics have mostly been neglected. The work presented in this paper identifies a collection of software metrics for use with Haskell programs. Thes...

  18. -Metric Space: A Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Khojasteh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of -metric as a generalization of a metric by replacing the triangle inequality with a more generalized inequality. We investigate the topology of the spaces induced by a -metric and present some essential properties of it. Further, we give characterization of well-known fixed point theorems, such as the Banach and Caristi types in the context of such spaces.

  19. Adaptive Metric Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Lee-Ad; Kontorovich, Aryeh; Krauthgamer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We study adaptive data-dependent dimensionality reduction in the context of supervised learning in general metric spaces. Our main statistical contribution is a generalization bound for Lipschitz functions in metric spaces that are doubling, or nearly doubling. On the algorithmic front, we describe an analogue of PCA for metric spaces: namely an efficient procedure that approximates the data's intrinsic dimension, which is often much lower than the ambient dimension. Our approach thus leverag...

  20. Metric graphic sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, I. J. L.; Rosario, J. B.

    2017-10-01

    For an ordered subset W = {w 1, w 2, …, wk } of vertices in a connected graph G and a vertex v of G, the metric representation of v with respect to W is the k-vector r(v|W) = (d(v, w 1), d(v, w 2), …, d(v, wk )), where d(v, wi ) is the distance of the vertices v and wi in G. The set W is called a resolving set of G if r(u|W) = r(v|W) implies u = v. The metric dimension of G, denoted by β(G), is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G, and a resolving set of G with cardinality equal to its metric dimension is called a metric basis of G. A set T of vectors is called a positive lattice set if all the coordinates in each vector of T are positive integers. A positive lattice set T consisting of n k-vectors is called a metric graphic set if there exists a simple connected graph G of order n + k with β(G) = k such that T = {r(ui |S) : ui ∈ V (G)\\S, 1 ≤ i ≤ n} for some metric basis S = {s 1, s 2, …, sk } of G. If such G exists, then we say G is a metric graphic realization of T. In this paper, we introduce the concept of metric graphic sets anchored on the concept of metric dimension and provide some characterizations. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for any positive lattice set consisting of 2 k-vectors to be a metric graphic set. We provide an upper bound for the sum of all the coordinates of any metric graphic set and enumerate some properties of positive lattice sets consisting of n 2-vectors that are not metric graphic sets.

  1. Prognostic Performance Metrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter presents several performance metrics for offline evaluation of prognostics algorithms. A brief overview of different methods employed for performance...

  2. Overview of journal metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihong Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of metrics used for the quantitative evaluation of scholarly journals are reviewed. The impact factor and related metrics including the immediacy index and the aggregate impact factor, which are provided by the Journal Citation Reports, are explained in detail. The Eigenfactor score and the article influence score are also reviewed. In addition, journal metrics such as CiteScore, Source Normalized Impact per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank, h-index, and g-index are discussed. Limitations and problems that these metrics have are pointed out. We should be cautious to rely on those quantitative measures too much when we evaluate journals or researchers.

  3. Assessment of a prognostic model, PSA metrics and toxicities in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer using data from Project Data Sphere (PDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert J.; Abdallah, Kald; Pintilie, Melania; Joshua, Anthony M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Prognostic models in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may have clinical utility. Using data from PDS, we aimed to 1) validate a contemporary prognostic model (Templeton et al., 2014) 2) evaluate prognostic impact of concomitant medications and PSA decrease 3) evaluate factors associated with docetaxel toxicity. Methods We accessed data on 2,449 mCRPC patients in PDS. The existing model was validated with a continuous risk score, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and corresponding time-dependent Area under the Curve (tAUC). The prognostic effects of concomitant medications and PSA response were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. One year tAUC was calculated for multivariable prognostic model optimized to our data. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess associations with grade 3/4 adverse events (G3/4 AE) at baseline and after cycle 1 of treatment. Results Despite limitations of the PDS data set, the existing model was validated; one year AUC, was 0.68 (95% CI 95% CI, .66 to .71) to 0.78 (95%CI, .74 to .81) depending on the subset of datasets used. A new model was constructed with an AUC of .74 (.72 to .77). Concomitant medications low molecular weight heparin and warfarin were associated with poorer survival, Metformin and Cox2 inhibitors were associated with better outcome. PSA response was associated with survival, the effect of which was greatest early in follow-up. Age was associated with baseline risk of G3/4 AE. The odds of experiencing G3/4 AE later on in treatment were significantly greater for subjects who experienced a G3/4 AE in their first cycle (OR 3.53, 95% CI 2.53–4.91, p < .0001). Conclusion Despite heterogeneous data collection protocols, PDS provides access to large datasets for novel outcomes analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate its utility for validating existing models and novel model generation including the utility of concomitant medications in

  4. Theoretical study of potential performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors: Dependence on channel dimensions and contact resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Deok-kee

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we examine the performance limitations of graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (GNRFETs) with various channel dimensions and electrode contact resistances. To do this, we formulate a self-consistent non-equilibrium Green's function method in conjunction with the Poisson equation. We model the behavior of GNRFETs with nanometer dimensions and relatively large bandgaps operating as metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and calculate their performance including contact resistance effects typically occurring at the graphene nanoribbon (GNR) channel and electrodes. We propose a metric for GNRFETs to compete with the current silicon CMOS high performance or low power devices and explain that this can vary significantly depending on the contact resistance.

  5. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state......) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...

  6. Effect of temperature on structure and corrosion resistance for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electroless nickel plating, etc. It is well known that electroless plating is an effective cor- rosion resistance method [5–7]. In recent years, NiWP alloy coatings prepared by electroless plating have been widely used to provide some excellent properties like high corrosion resistance and wear resistance, and to obtain uniform ...

  7. Effects of Screening on the Thermal Resistivity And Compressibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Models for computing thermal resistivity, compressibility ratio, and screening parameter of metals was developed and used to study the effects of screening on the thermal resistivity and compressibility ratio of metals. The results obtained revealed that the thermal resistivity of metals increases with an increase in the electron ...

  8. Mapping resistance to powdery mildew in barley reveals a large-effect nonhost resistance QTL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, Cynara C.T.; Vermeulen, Jasper P.; Vels, Anton; Himmelbach, Axel; Mascher, Martin; Niks, Rients E.

    2018-01-01

    Key message: Resistance factors against non-adapted powdery mildews were mapped in barley. Some QTLs seem effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others also play a role in defense against the adapted form. The durability and effectiveness of nonhost resistance suggests promising practical

  9. Project Management Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MARSANU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Metrics and indicators used for the evaluation of the IT projects management have the advantage of providing rigorous details about the required effort and the boundaries of the IT deliverables. There are some disadvantages, as well, due to the fact the input data contains errors and the value of metrics depends on the quality of data used in models.

  10. Project Management Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Radu MARSANU

    2010-01-01

    Metrics and indicators used for the evaluation of the IT projects management have the advantage of providing rigorous details about the required effort and the boundaries of the IT deliverables. There are some disadvantages, as well, due to the fact the input data contains errors and the value of metrics depends on the quality of data used in models.

  11. Computational visual distinctness metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Baena, J.; Toet, A.; Fdez-Vidal, X.R.; Garrido, A.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, R.

    1998-01-01

    A new computational visual distinctness metric based on principles of the early human visual system is presented. The metric is applied to quantify (1) the visual distinctness of targets in complex natural scenes and (2) the perceptual differences between compressed and uncompressed images. The new

  12. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  13. Metrics for Probabilistic Geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosi, Alessandra; Hauberg, Søren; Vellido, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the geometrical structure of probabilistic generative dimensionality reduction models using the tools of Riemannian geometry. We explicitly define a distribution over the natural metric given by the models. We provide the necessary algorithms to compute expected metric tensors where...

  14. Privacy Metrics and Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for

  15. Metrics for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of cosmetology students, this instructional package on cosmetology is part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement terms, and tools currently in use. Each of the…

  16. Tracker Performance Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie

    2002-01-01

    ... (sometimes referred to as confidence) state. The TPM can also be used as a measure of algorithm performance to compare against the Trackability Metric. The Trackability Metric was developed by AMCOM to determine how "trackable" a set of data should be. The TPM will be described and results presented.

  17. Metrics for Secretarial, Stenography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of secretarial, stenography students, this instructional package is one of three for the business and office occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  18. Modeling of Body Weight Metrics for Effective and Cost-Efficient Conventional Factor VIII Dosing in Hemophilia A Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna McEneny-King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The total body weight-based dosing strategy currently used in the prophylactic treatment of hemophilia A may not be appropriate for all populations. The assumptions that guide weight-based dosing are not valid in overweight and obese populations, resulting in overdosing and ineffective resource utilization. We explored different weight metrics including lean body weight, ideal body weight, and adjusted body weight to determine an alternative dosing strategy that is both safe and resource-efficient in normal and overweight/obese adult patients. Using a validated population pharmacokinetic model, we simulated a variety of dosing regimens using different doses, weight metrics, and frequencies; we also investigated the implications of assuming various levels of endogenous factor production. Ideal body weight performed the best across all of the regimens explored, maintaining safety while moderating resource consumption for overweight and obese patients.

  19. The Metric Lens : Visualizing Metrics and Structure on Software Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Hassan, AE; Zaidman, A; DiPenta, M

    2008-01-01

    We present the metric lens, a new visualization of method-level code metrics atop UML class diagrams, which allows performing metric-metric and metric-structure correlations on large diagrams. Me demonstrate air interactive visualization tool in which users can quickly specify a wide palette of

  20. The Effect of Clear Speech on Temporal Metrics of Rhythm in Spanish-Accented Speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Alison; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Akhund, Ali; Moeyaert, Mariola

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of temporal rhythm in native American English talkers and Spanish-accented English talkers producing clear (hyperarticulated) speech and typical, conversational-style speech. Five acoustic measures of comparative vocalic and consonantal interval duration ("temporal metrics") were obtained from speech samples of 40 adult men and women (half native and half Spanish-accented talkers). In conversational-style speech, vocalic-based metrics differed significantly between native and Spanish-accented talkers, consistent with phonotactic differences between the two native languages. In clear speech, however, all metric values from the Spanish-accented talkers became more English-like and no longer differed significantly from those observed in the native English talkers. Post-hoc analysis revealed that native English talkers increased the duration of both weak and strong vowels in clear speech, whereas the Spanish-accented talkers increased the duration of strong vowels without changing the duration of weak vowels. Listener ease of understanding, as perceived by monolingual English speakers, was significantly improved in clear- compared with conversational-style speech for all talkers. The acoustic data help to explain the changes that result from use of clear speech in nonnative speakers. Together with the improved listener ease of understanding, these data strongly support the further exploration of clear speech as a clinical tool to improve prosody and hence, interpersonal communication, in nonnative speakers.

  1. Enhancing Authentication Models Characteristic Metrics via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we derive the universal characteristic metrics set for authentication models based on security, usability and design issues. We then compute the probability of the occurrence of each characteristic metrics in some single factor and multifactor authentication models in order to determine the effectiveness of these ...

  2. SU-E-I-28: Introduction and Investigation of Effective Diameter Ratios as a New Patient Size Metric for Use in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamoureux, R [Gainesville, FL (United States); Sinclair, L [Portland, OR (United States); Mench, A [Salem Health, Tualatin, OR (United States); Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Bidari, S [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Cormack, B [UF Health, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rill, L [Univ Florida, Jacksonville Beach, FL (United States); Arreola, M [University of Florida Health Science Center, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To introduce and investigate effective diameter ratios as a new patient metric for use in computed tomography protocol selection as a supplement to patient-specific size parameter data. Methods: The metrics of outer effective diameter and inner effective diameter were measured for 7 post-mortem subjects scanned with a standardized chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP) protocol on a 320-slice MDCT scanner. The outer effective diameter was calculated by obtaining the anterior/posterior and lateral dimensions of the imaged anatomy at the middle of the scan range using Effective Diameter= SQRT(AP height*Lat Width). The inner effective diameter was calculated with the same equation using the AP and Lat dimensions of the anatomy excluding the adipose tissue. The ratio of outer to inner effective diameter was calculated for each subject. A relationship to BMI, weight, and CTDI conversion coefficients was investigated. Results: For the largest subject with BMI of 43.85 kg/m2 and weight of 255 lbs the diameter ratio was calculated as 1.33. For the second largest subject with BMI of 33.5 kg/m2 and weight of 192.4 lbs the diameter ratio was measured as 1.43, indicating a larger percentage of adipose tissue in the second largest subject’s anatomical composition. For the smallest subject at BMI of 17.4 kg/m2 and weight of 86 lbs a similar tissue composition was indicated as a subject with BMI of 24.2 kg/m2 and weight of 136 lbs as they had the same diameter ratios of 1.11. Conclusion: The diameter ratio proves to contain information about anatomical composition that the BMI and weight alone do not. The utility of this metric is still being examined but could prove useful for determining MDCT techniques and for giving a more in depth detail of the composition of a patient’s body habitus.

  3. Effects of atmospheric moisture on rock resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R.

    1973-01-01

    This study examines the changes in resistivity of rock samples as induced by atmospheric moisture. Experiments were performed on samples of hematitic sandstone, pyrite, and galena. The sandstone underwent a change in resistivity of four orders of magnitude when it was measured in a vacuum of 500 ntorr and in air of 37% relative humidity. Pyrite and galena showed no variations in resistivity when they were measured under the same conditions. These results, plus others obtained elsewhere, indicate that rocks of the resistive type are affected in their electrical properties by atmospheric moisture, whereas rocks of the conductive type are not. The experimental evidence obtained is difficult to reconcile with a model of aqueous electrolytic conduction on the sample surface. It is instead suggested that adsorbed water molecules alter the surface resistivity in a manner similar to that observed in semiconductors and insulators.

  4. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudobova, Dagmar; Dostalova, Simona; Blazkova, Iva; Michalek, Petr; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Sklenar, Matej; Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Gumulec, Jaromir; Tmejova, Katerina; Konecna, Marie; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Masarik, Michal; Kynicky, Jindrich; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-01-01

    There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health. PMID:24651395

  5. Simple emission metrics for climate impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aamaas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of climate change, emissions of different species (e.g., carbon dioxide and methane are not directly comparable since they have different radiative efficiencies and lifetimes. Since comparisons via detailed climate models are computationally expensive and complex, emission metrics were developed to allow a simple and straightforward comparison of the estimated climate impacts of emissions of different species. Emission metrics are not unique and variety of different emission metrics has been proposed, with key choices being the climate impacts and time horizon to use for comparisons. In this paper, we present analytical expressions and describe how to calculate common emission metrics for different species. We include the climate metrics radiative forcing, integrated radiative forcing, temperature change and integrated temperature change in both absolute form and normalised to a reference gas. We consider pulse emissions, sustained emissions and emission scenarios. The species are separated into three types: CO2 which has a complex decay over time, species with a simple exponential decay, and ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOC which indirectly effect climate via various chemical interactions. We also discuss deriving Impulse Response Functions, radiative efficiency, regional dependencies, consistency within and between metrics and uncertainties. We perform various applications to highlight key applications of emission metrics, which show that emissions of CO2 are important regardless of what metric and time horizon is used, but that the importance of short lived climate forcers varies greatly depending on the metric choices made. Further, the ranking of countries by emissions changes very little with different metrics despite large differences in metric values, except for the shortest time horizons (GWP20.

  6. Effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A S; Lancer, J M; Moir, A A; Stevens, J C

    1985-01-01

    The effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow was investigated by rhinomanometry in 25 healthy subjects before and after ingestion of aspirin or vitamin C in a double blind crossover trial. Aspirin caused a significant increase in nasal resistance compared with vitamin C. The effect of aspirin may be due to its inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins.

  7. General perceptual contrast metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberg, Anna; Hasler, David

    2003-06-01

    A combined achromatic and chromatic contrast metric for digital images and video is presented in this paper. Our work is aimed at tuning any parametric rendering algorithm in an automated way by computing how much details an observer perceives in a rendered scene. The contrast metric is based on contrast analysis in spatial domain of image sub-bands constructed by pyramidal decomposition of the image. The proposed contrast metric is the sum of the perceptual contrast of every pixel in the image at different detail levels corresponding to different viewing distances. The novel metric shows high correlation with subjective experiments. Important applications involve optimal parameter set of any image rendering and contrast enhancement technique or auto exposure of an image capturing device.

  8. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  9. Tracker Performance Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie

    2002-01-01

    .... We have developed the Tracker Performance Metric (TPM) specifically for this purpose. It was designed to measure the output performance, on a frame-by-frame basis, using its output position and quality...

  10. A metric for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Gary P.

    1994-05-01

    The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.

  11. IT Project Management Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many software and IT projects fail in completing theirs objectives because different causes of which the management of the projects has a high weight. In order to have successfully projects, lessons learned have to be used, historical data to be collected and metrics and indicators have to be computed and used to compare them with past projects and avoid failure to happen. This paper presents some metrics that can be used for the IT project management.

  12. IT Project Management Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2007-01-01

    Many software and IT projects fail in completing theirs objectives because different causes of which the management of the projects has a high weight. In order to have successfully projects, lessons learned have to be used, historical data to be collected and metrics and indicators have to be computed and used to compare them with past projects and avoid failure to happen. This paper presents some metrics that can be used for the IT project management.

  13. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  14. Distance Metric Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    estimation [13, 2], and manifold learning [19]. Such unsupervised methods do not have the benefit of human input on the distance metric, and overly rely...to be defined that is related to the task at hand. Many supervised and semi- supervised distance metric learning approaches have been developed [17... Unsupervised PCA seeks to identify a set of axes that best explain the variance contained in the data. LDA takes a supervised approach, minimiz- ing the intra

  15. Characterising risk - aggregated metrics: radiation and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.

    1998-01-01

    The characterisation of risk is an important phase in the risk assessment - risk management process. From the multitude of risk attributes a few have to be selected to obtain a risk characteristic or profile that is useful for risk management decisions and implementation of protective measures. One way to reduce the number of attributes is aggregation. In the field of radiation protection such an aggregated metric is firmly established: effective dose. For protection against environmental noise the Health Council of the Netherlands recently proposed a set of aggregated metrics for noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. The presentation will discuss similarities and differences between these two metrics and practical limitations. The effective dose has proven its usefulness in designing radiation protection measures, which are related to the level of risk associated with the radiation practice in question, given that implicit judgements on radiation induced health effects are accepted. However, as the metric does not take into account the nature of radiation practice, it is less useful in policy discussions on the benefits and harm of radiation practices. With respect to the noise exposure metric, only one effect is targeted (annoyance), and the differences between sources are explicitly taken into account. This should make the metric useful in policy discussions with respect to physical planning and siting problems. The metric proposed has only significance on a population level, and can not be used as a predictor for individual risk. (author)

  16. Effects of cost metric on cost-effectiveness of protected-area network design in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, J C; Lockwood, J L; Maslo, B; Fenn, K H; Leu, K

    2016-04-01

    A common goal in conservation planning is to acquire areas that are critical to realizing biodiversity goals in the most cost-effective manner. The way monetary acquisition costs are represented in such planning is an understudied but vital component to realizing cost efficiencies. We sought to design a protected-area network within a forested urban region that would protect 17 birds of conservation concern. We compared the total costs and spatial structure of the optimal protected-area networks produced using three acquisition-cost surrogates (area, agricultural land value, and tax-assessed land value). Using the tax-assessed land values there was a 73% and 78% cost savings relative to networks derived using area or agricultural land value, respectively. This cost reduction was due to the considerable heterogeneity in acquisition costs revealed in tax-assessed land values, especially for small land parcels, and the corresponding ability of the optimization algorithm to identify lower-cost parcels for inclusion that had equal value to our target species. Tax-assessed land values also reflected the strong spatial differences in acquisition costs (US$0.33/m(2)-$55/m(2)) and thus allowed the algorithm to avoid inclusion of high-cost parcels when possible. Our results add to a nascent but growing literature that suggests conservation planners must consider the cost surrogate they use when designing protected-area networks. We suggest that choosing cost surrogates that capture spatial- and size-dependent heterogeneity in acquisition costs may be relevant to establishing protected areas in urbanizing ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Radiation Effects of Commercial Resistive Random Access Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie; Wilcox, Edward; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Figueiredo, Marco; Buchner, Stephen; Khachatrian, Ani; Roche, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We present results for the single-event effect response of commercial production-level resistive random access memories. We found that the resistive memory arrays are immune to heavy ion-induced upsets. However, the devices were susceptible to single-event functional interrupts, due to upsets from the control circuits. The intrinsic radiation tolerant nature of resistive memory makes the technology an attractive consideration for future space applications.

  18. Inducing Weinhold's metric from Euclidean and Riemannian metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Berry, R.S.; Ihrig, E.; Salamon, P.

    1987-01-01

    We show that Weinhold's metric cannot be introduced on the equation of state surface from a Euclidean metric in the ambient space of all extensive state variables, whereas it can be induced if the ambient space is assumed only to have a Riemannian metric. This metric, however, is not unique. (orig.)

  19. Robust Transfer Metric Learning for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengming; Fu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Metric learning has attracted increasing attention due to its critical role in image analysis and classification. Conventional metric learning always assumes that the training and test data are sampled from the same or similar distribution. However, to build an effective distance metric, we need abundant supervised knowledge (i.e., side/label information), which is generally inaccessible in practice, because of the expensive labeling cost. In this paper, we develop a robust transfer metric learning (RTML) framework to effectively assist the unlabeled target learning by transferring the knowledge from the well-labeled source domain. Specifically, RTML exploits knowledge transfer to mitigate the domain shift in two directions, i.e., sample space and feature space. In the sample space, domain-wise and class-wise adaption schemes are adopted to bridge the gap of marginal and conditional distribution disparities across two domains. In the feature space, our metric is built in a marginalized denoising fashion and low-rank constraint, which make it more robust to tackle noisy data in reality. Furthermore, we design an explicit rank constraint regularizer to replace the rank minimization NP-hard problem to guide the low-rank metric learning. Experimental results on several standard benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed RTML by comparing it with the state-of-the-art transfer learning and metric learning algorithms.

  20. Structure effect on wear resistance of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, A.I.; Sidorova, L.I.; Tolstenko, E.V.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of wear resistance on hardness of steels with different microstructure is studied under conditions of gas-abrasion wear of surface layers. It is found out that at the same hardness the wear resistance of α-alloys is higher than that of γ-alloys in spite of considerable surface hardening of austenitic alloys. Fracture of surface in the process of abrasive wear occurs after achievement of definite values of microhardness and the width of a diffraction line for each structural class of alloys [ru

  1. Effect of physiological age on radiation resistance of some bacteria that are highly radiation resistant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.C.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological age-dependent variation in radiation resistance was studied for three bacteria that are highly radiation resistant: Micrococcus radiodurans, Micrococcus sp. isolate C-3, and Moraxella sp. isolate 4. Stationary-phase cultures of M. radiodurans and isolate C-3 were much more resistant to gamma radiation than were log-phase cultures. This pattern of relative resistance was reversed for isolate 4. Resistance of isolate 4 to UV light was also greater during log phase, although heat resistance and NaCl tolerance after heat stresses were greater during stationary phase. Radiation-induced injury of isolate 4 compared with injury of Escherichia coli B suggested that the injury process, as well as the lethal process, was affected by growth phase. The hypothesis that growth rate affects radiation resistance was tested, and results were interpreted in light of the probable confounding effect of methods used to alter growth rates of bacteria. These results indicate that dose-response experiments should be designed to measure survival during the most resistant growth phase of the organism under study. The timing is particularly important when extrapolations of survival results might be made to potential irradiation processes for foods. 17 references

  2. Effect of temperature on structure and corrosion resistance for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of plating temperatures between 60 and 90◦C on structure and corrosion resistance for elec- troless NiWP coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate was investigated. Results show that temperature has a significant influence on the surface morphology and corrosion resistance of the NiWP alloy ...

  3. Effect of pressure on electrical resistance of WSe single crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of pressure on electrical resistance of WSe. 2 ... Pressure dependence of resistance; transition metal dichalcogenides; WSe2 single crys- ... friction and wear. With lamellar solids such as TMDCs, shearing takes place more easily when loads are high. So lamellar solids are well-suited to extreme pressure lubrication.

  4. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  5. Effect of temperature on structure and corrosion resistance for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of plating temperatures between 60 and 90 ∘ C on structure and corrosion resistance for electroless NiWP coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate was investigated. Results show that temperature has a significant influence on the surface morphology and corrosion resistance of the NiWP alloy coating.

  6. Anomaly effects of arrays for 3d geoelectrical resistivity imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The effectiveness of using a net of orthogonal or parallel sets of two-dimensional (2D) profiles for three- dimensional (3D) geoelectrical resistivity imaging has been evaluated. A series of 2D apparent resistivity data were generated over two synthetic models which represent geological or environmental conditions for a ...

  7. Anomaly effects of arrays for 3d geoelectrical resistivity imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of using a net of orthogonal or parallel sets of two-dimensional (2D) profiles for threedimensional (3D) geoelectrical resistivity imaging has been evaluated. A series of 2D apparent resistivity data were generated over two synthetic models which represent geological or environmental conditions for a typical ...

  8. gene effects for resistance to groundnut rossette disease in exotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-25

    Feb 25, 2016 ... Opposite and significant signs of dominance [d] and dominance × dominance [l] components indicated the importance of duplicate epitasis in the latter crosses in the control of GRD resistance, which revealed a complex nature of inheritance of GRD resistance. Key Words: Arachis hypogaea, gene effects, ...

  9. Effect of electrode shape on grounding resistances - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaskovicova, Sonia; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    Although electric resistivity tomography (ERT) is now regarded as a standard tool in permafrost monitoring, high grounding resistances continue to limit the acquisition of time series over complete freeze-thaw cycles. In an attempt to alleviate the grounding resistance problem, we have tested three...... electrode designs featuring increasing sizes and surface area, in the laboratory and at three different field sites in Greenland. Grounding resistance measurements showed that changing the electrode shape (using plates instead of rods) reduced the grounding resistances at all sites by 28%-69% during...... unfrozen and frozen ground conditions. Using meshes instead of plates (the same rectangular shape and a larger effective surface area) further improved the grounding resistances by 29%-37% in winter. Replacement of rod electrodes of one entire permanent permafrost monitoring array by meshes resulted...

  10. Effects of Pavement Skid Resistance on Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Transport (MOT in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had collected a massive amount of friction measurements using a Mu-meter covering most of the major highway network in the kingdom. Traffic accident data of 89 high accident rate locations from four main different highway classes were extracted from the MOT accident records. Pavement skid resistance for the selected locations was determined from the pavement skid resistance records. The objective of this paper is to utilize these data to investigate the effects of pavement skid resistance on traffic accidents. The analysis included establishing relationships between skid resistance and accident number, accident significance and accident density. It was determined that a decreasing skid resistance leads to an increase in traffic accidents. Acritical value of skid resistance was also established based on number, significance and density of accidents.

  11. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  12. Pleiotropic Effects of DDT Resistance on Male Size and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostant, Wayne G; Bowyer, Jemima; Coupland, Jack; Facey, James; Hosken, David J; Wedell, Nina

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. This could be because resistant males are generally smaller, but DDT-R may also alter courtship behaviours. Here we tested for body size and courtship effects of DDT-R on mating success in competitive and non-competitive mating trials respectively. We also assessed relative aggression in resistant and susceptible males because aggression can also influence mating success. While the effect of DDT-R on male size partly contributed to reduced mating success, resistant males also had lower rates of courtship and were less aggressive than susceptible males. These differences contribute to the observed DDT-R mating costs. Additionally, these pleiotropic effects of DDT-R are consistent with the history and spread of resistance alleles in nature.

  13. Permanence of metric fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyril Tintarev

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies energy functionals on quasimetric spaces, defined by quadratic measure-valued Lagrangeans. This general model of medium, known as metric fractals, includes nested fractals and sub-Riemannian manifolds. In particular, the quadratic form of the Lagrangean satisfies Sobolev inequalities with the critical exponent determined by the (quasimetric homogeneous dimension, which is also involved in the asymptotic distribution of the form's eigenvalues. This paper verifies that the axioms of the metric fractal are preserved by space products, leading thus to examples of non-differentiable media of arbitrary intrinsic dimension.

  14. The Noncommutative Ward Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Maceda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the moduli-space metric in the static nonabelian charge-two sector of the Moyal-deformed CP^1 sigma model in 1+2 dimensions. After carefully reviewing the commutative results of Ward and Ruback, the noncommutative Kähler potential is expanded in powers of dimensionless moduli. In two special cases we sum the perturbative series to analytic expressions. For any nonzero value of the noncommutativity parameter, the logarithmic singularity of the commutative metric is expelled from the origin of the moduli space and possibly altogether.

  15. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  16. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  17. A filled duration illusion in music: Effects of metrical subdivision on the perception and production of beat tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H; Bruttomesso, Meijin

    2010-01-13

    This study replicates and extends previous findings suggesting that metrical subdivision slows the perceived beat tempo (Repp, 2008). Here, musically trained participants produced the subdivisions themselves and were found to speed up, thus compensating for the perceived slowing. This was shown in a synchronization-continuation paradigm (Experiment 1) and in a reproduction task (Experiment 2a). Participants also judged the tempo of a subdivided sequence as being slower than that of a preceding simple beat sequence (Experiment 2b). Experiment 2 also included nonmusician participants, with similar results. Tempo measurements of famous pianists' recordings of two variation movements from Beethoven sonatas revealed a strong tendency to play the first variation (subdivided beats) faster than the theme (mostly simple beats). A similar tendency was found in musicians' laboratory performances of a simple theme and variations, despite instruc-tions to keep the tempo constant (Experiment 3a). When playing melodic sequences in which only one of three beats per measure was subdivided, musicians tended to play these beats faster and to perceive them as longer than adjacent beats, and they played the whole sequence faster than a sequence without any subdivisions (Experiments 3b and 3c). The results amply demonstrate a filled duration illusion in rhythm perception and music performance: Intervals containing events seem longer than empty intervals and thus must be shortened to be perceived as equal in duration.

  18. A filled duration illusion in music: Effects of metrical subdivision on the perception and production of beat tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H.; Bruttomesso, Meijin

    2010-01-01

    This study replicates and extends previous findings suggesting that metrical subdivision slows the perceived beat tempo (Repp, 2008). Here, musically trained participants produced the subdivisions themselves and were found to speed up, thus compensating for the perceived slowing. This was shown in a synchronization-continuation paradigm (Experiment 1) and in a reproduction task (Experiment 2a). Participants also judged the tempo of a subdivided sequence as being slower than that of a preceding simple beat sequence (Experiment 2b). Experiment 2 also included nonmusician participants, with similar results. Tempo measurements of famous pianists’ recordings of two variation movements from Beethoven sonatas revealed a strong tendency to play the first variation (subdivided beats) faster than the theme (mostly simple beats). A similar tendency was found in musicians’ laboratory performances of a simple theme and variations, despite instruc-tions to keep the tempo constant (Experiment 3a). When playing melodic sequences in which only one of three beats per measure was subdivided, musicians tended to play these beats faster and to perceive them as longer than adjacent beats, and they played the whole sequence faster than a sequence without any subdivisions (Experiments 3b and 3c). The results amply demonstrate a filled duration illusion in rhythm perception and music performance: Intervals containing events seem longer than empty intervals and thus must be shortened to be perceived as equal in duration. PMID:20689669

  19. Massless and massive quanta resulting from a mediumlike metric tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model of the ''primordial'' scalar field theory is presented in which the metric tensor is a generalization of the metric tensor from electrodynamics in a medium. The radiation signal corresponding to the scalar field propagates with a velocity that is generally less than c. This signal can be associated simultaneously with imaginary and real effective (momentum-dependent) masses. The requirement that the imaginary effective mass vanishes, which we take to be the prerequisite for the vacuumlike signal propagation, leads to the ''spontaneous'' splitting of the metric tensor into two distinct metric tensors: one metric tensor gives rise to masslesslike radiation and the other to a massive particle. (author)

  20. An Underwater Color Image Quality Evaluation Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Sowmya, Arcot

    2015-12-01

    Quality evaluation of underwater images is a key goal of underwater video image retrieval and intelligent processing. To date, no metric has been proposed for underwater color image quality evaluation (UCIQE). The special absorption and scattering characteristics of the water medium do not allow direct application of natural color image quality metrics especially to different underwater environments. In this paper, subjective testing for underwater image quality has been organized. The statistical distribution of the underwater image pixels in the CIELab color space related to subjective evaluation indicates the sharpness and colorful factors correlate well with subjective image quality perception. Based on these, a new UCIQE metric, which is a linear combination of chroma, saturation, and contrast, is proposed to quantify the non-uniform color cast, blurring, and low-contrast that characterize underwater engineering and monitoring images. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed UCIQE metric and its capability to measure the underwater image enhancement results. They show that the proposed metric has comparable performance to the leading natural color image quality metrics and the underwater grayscale image quality metrics available in the literature, and can predict with higher accuracy the relative amount of degradation with similar image content in underwater environments. Importantly, UCIQE is a simple and fast solution for real-time underwater video processing. The effectiveness of the presented measure is also demonstrated by subjective evaluation. The results show better correlation between the UCIQE and the subjective mean opinion score.

  1. Effective Antibiotic Resistance Mitigation during Cheese Fermentation ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinhui; Li, Yingli; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling antibiotic-resistant (ART) bacteria in cheese fermentation is important for food safety and public health. A plant-maintained culture was found to be a potential source for ART bacterial contamination in cheese fermentation. Antibiotics had a detectable effect on the ART population from contamination in the finished product. The decrease in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in retail cheese samples from 2010 compared to data from 2006 suggested the effectiveness of targ...

  2. Analyzing the effects of urban expansion on land surface temperature patterns by landscape metrics: a case study of Isfahan city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanian, Maliheh; Soffianian, Ali Reza; Koupai, Saeid Soltani; Pourmanafi, Saeid; Momeni, Mehdi

    2018-03-03

    Urban expansion can cause extensive changes in land use and land cover (LULC), leading to changes in temperature conditions. Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters that should be considered in the study of urban temperature conditions. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of changes in LULC due to the expansion of the city of Isfahan on LST using landscape metrics. To this aim, two Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images, which had been acquired, respectively, on August 2, 1985, and July 4, 2015, were used. The support vector machine method was then used to classify the images. The results showed that Isfahan city had been encountered with an increase of impervious surfaces; in fact, this class covered 15% of the total area in 1985, while this value had been increased to 30% in 2015. Then LST zoning maps were created, indicating that the bare land and impervious surfaces categories were dominant in high temperature zones, while in the zones where water was present or NDVI was high, LST was low. Then, the landscape metrics in each of the LST zones were analyzed in relation to the LULC changes, showing that LULC changes due to urban expansion changed such landscape properties as the percentage of landscape, patch density, large patch index, and aggregation index. This information could be beneficial for urban planners to monitor and manage changes in the LULC patterns.

  3. Arbitrary Metrics Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the arbitrariness of a metric is distinct from the pursuit of validity, rational zero points, data transformations, standardization, and the types of statistical procedures one uses to analyze interval-level versus ordinal-level data. A variety of theoretical, methodological, and statistical tools can assist researchers who wish to make…

  4. Universal hypermultiplet metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, Sergei V.

    2001-01-01

    Some instanton corrections to the universal hypermultiplet moduli space metric of the type IIA string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau threefold arise due to multiple wrapping of BPS membranes and five-branes around certain cycles of Calabi-Yau. The classical universal hypermultipet metric is locally equivalent to the Bergmann metric of the symmetric quaternionic space SU(2,1)/U(2), whereas its generic quaternionic deformations are governed by the integrable SU(∞) Toda equation. We calculate the exact (non-perturbative) UH metrics in the special cases of (i) the D-instantons (the wrapped D2-branes) in the absence of five-branes, and (ii) the five-brane instantons with vanishing charges, in the absence of D-instantons. The solutions of the first type preserve the U(1)xU(1) classical symmetry, while they can be interpreted as the gravitational dressing of the hyper-Kaehler D-instanton solutions. The solutions of the second type preserve the non-abelian SU(2) classical symmetry, while they can be interpreted as the gradient flows in the universal hypermultiplet moduli space

  5. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  6. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  7. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  8. New quality metrics for digital image resizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongseok; Kumara, Soundar

    2007-09-01

    Digital image rescaling by interpolation has been intensively researched over past decades, and still getting constant attention from many applications such as medical diagnosis, super-resolution, image blow-up, nano-manufacturing, etc. However, there are no consented metrics to objectively assess and compare the quality of resized images. Some existing measures such as peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) or mean-squared error (MSE), widely used in image restoration area, do not always coincide with the opinions from viewers. Enlarged digital images generally suffer from two major artifacts: blurring, zigzagging, and those undesirable effects especially around edges significantly degrade the overall perceptual image quality. We propose two new image quality metrics to measure the degree of the two major defects, and compare several existing interpolation methods using the proposed metrics. We also evaluate the validity of image quality metrics by comparing rank correlations.

  9. Environmental metrics for community health improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Benjamin; Frumkin, Howard

    2010-07-01

    Environmental factors greatly affect human health. Accordingly, environmental metrics are a key part of the community health information base. We review environmental metrics relevant to community health, including measurements of contaminants in environmental media, such as air, water, and food; measurements of contaminants in people (biomonitoring); measurements of features of the built environment that affect health; and measurements of "upstream" environmental conditions relevant to health. We offer a set of metrics (including unhealthy exposures, such as pollutants, and health-promoting assets, such as parks and green space) selected on the basis of relevance to health outcomes, magnitude of associated health outcomes, corroboration in the peer-reviewed literature, and data availability, especially at the community level, and we recommend ways to use these metrics most effectively.

  10. Quality metrics for sensor images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, AL

    1993-01-01

    Methods are needed for evaluating the quality of augmented visual displays (AVID). Computational quality metrics will help summarize, interpolate, and extrapolate the results of human performance tests with displays. The FLM Vision group at NASA Ames has been developing computational models of visual processing and using them to develop computational metrics for similar problems. For example, display modeling systems use metrics for comparing proposed displays, halftoning optimizing methods use metrics to evaluate the difference between the halftone and the original, and image compression methods minimize the predicted visibility of compression artifacts. The visual discrimination models take as input two arbitrary images A and B and compute an estimate of the probability that a human observer will report that A is different from B. If A is an image that one desires to display and B is the actual displayed image, such an estimate can be regarded as an image quality metric reflecting how well B approximates A. There are additional complexities associated with the problem of evaluating the quality of radar and IR enhanced displays for AVID tasks. One important problem is the question of whether intruding obstacles are detectable in such displays. Although the discrimination model can handle detection situations by making B the original image A plus the intrusion, this detection model makes the inappropriate assumption that the observer knows where the intrusion will be. Effects of signal uncertainty need to be added to our models. A pilot needs to make decisions rapidly. The models need to predict not just the probability of a correct decision, but the probability of a correct decision by the time the decision needs to be made. That is, the models need to predict latency as well as accuracy. Luce and Green have generated models for auditory detection latencies. Similar models are needed for visual detection. Most image quality models are designed for static imagery

  11. Effect of surface fissure on apparent resistivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailhac, P.; Gance, J.; Malet, J.

    2013-12-01

    Fissures are features of interest, prone to create preferential flow path, modifying locally the soil hydrogeological behavior. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a suitable tool to monitor such preferential flow path. However, this technique is not efficient in the presence of surface fissure, due to a bad resistivity recovering around the fissure vicinity during the inversion process. Therefore, we propose a description of fissure effect on raw apparent resistivity on three resistivity arrays. The purposes of the study are multiple. First, we aim at making ERT users aware of surface fissure effect, and propose a first help to interpret basically resistivity pseudo sections. Second, we propose to ERT users to automatically conduct a surface fissure survey on the studied profile, in order to consider each fissure in a forward DC model and to suppress their effect. Finally, this study is only a first step toward 2D fissure shape inversion, and time-lapse monitoring of fissure drying and filling. In this study, we create a fissure model based on different geomorphological descriptors. After describing the FEM-DC forward modeling strategy, we investigate the fissure effect on pseudo section of apparent resistivity for a Wenner-Schlumberger (WS), a dipole-dipole (DD) and a gradient (GRAD) array. We determine a fissure detectability threshold for each array and perform a sensitivity analysis on the different fissure parameters (position, width, depth, dip angles...). The crack filling or drying effect is also investigated. The possibility to remove fissure effect and to propose a first interpretation of time-lapse data is illustrated on real data. This study show again the higher sensitivity of the DD array compared to the GRAD and WS arrays. Not only the maximal amplitude in the pseudo section is higher for the DD array, but also the anomaly pattern created by the fissure is much larger for this acquisition geometry. The minimal depth detectable for the DD

  12. Sum rules for effective resistances in infinite graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowsky, Greg; Palacios, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Extending work of Foster, Doyle, and others, we show how the Foster theorems, a family of results concerning effective resistances on finite graphs, can in certain cases be extended to infinite graphs. A family of sum rules is then obtained, which allows one to easily calculate the sum of the resistances over all paths of a given length. The results are illustrated with some of the most common grids in the plane, including the square, triangular, and hexagonal grids.

  13. Quality metrics in endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Ramirez, Francisco C

    2013-04-01

    Endoscopy has evolved in the past 4 decades to become an important tool in the diagnosis and management of many digestive diseases. Greater focus on endoscopic quality has highlighted the need to ensure competency among endoscopists. A joint task force of the American College of Gastroenterology and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has proposed several quality metrics to establish competence and help define areas of continuous quality improvement. These metrics represent quality in endoscopy pertinent to pre-, intra-, and postprocedural periods. Quality in endoscopy is a dynamic and multidimensional process that requires continuous monitoring of several indicators and benchmarking with local and national standards. Institutions and practices should have a process in place for credentialing endoscopists and for the assessment of competence regarding individual endoscopic procedures.

  14. Feasibility of a cost-effective, video analysis software-based mobility protocol for objective spine kinematics and gait metrics: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Justin C; Petrizzo, Anthony; Rizzo, John-Ross; Bianco, Kristina; Maier, Stephen; Errico, Thomas J; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a high-throughput, easily implemented, cost-effective, video analysis software-based mobility protocol to quantify spine kinematics. This prospective cohort study of clinical biomechanics implemented 2-dimensional (2D) image processing at a tertiary-care academic institution. Ten healthy, able-bodied volunteers were recruited for 2D videography of gait and functional motion. The reliability of a 2D video analysis software program for gait and range of motion metrics was evaluated over 2 independent experimental sessions, assessing for inter-trial, inter-session, and inter-rater reliability. Healthy volunteers were evaluated for simple forward and side bending, rotation, treadmill stride length, and more complex seated-to-standing tasks. Based on established intraclass correlation coefficients, results indicated that reliability was considered good to excellent for simple forward and side bending, rotation, stride length, and more complex sit-to-standing tasks. In conclusion, a cost-effective, 2D, video analysis software-based mobility protocol represents a feasible and clinically useful approach for objective spine kinematics and gait metrics. As the complication rate of operative management in the setting of spinal deformity is weighed against functional performance and quality of life measures, an objective analysis tool in combination with an appropriate protocol will aid in clinical assessments and lead to an increased evidence base for management options and decision algorithms. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  16. Metrics and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Carpenter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An important and timely plenary session at the 2015 UKSG Conference and Exhibition focused on the role of metrics in research assessment. The two excellent speakers had slightly divergent views.Todd Carpenter from NISO (National Information Standards Organization argued that altmetrics aren’t alt anymore and that downloads and other forms of digital interaction, including social media reference, reference tracking, personal library saving, and secondary linking activity now provide mainstream approaches to the assessment of scholarly impact. James Wilsdon is professor of science and democracy in the Science Policy Research Unit at the University of Sussex and is chair of the Independent Review of the Role of Metrics in Research Assessment commissioned by the Higher Education Funding Council in England (HEFCE. The outcome of this review will inform the work of HEFCE and the other UK higher education funding bodies as they prepare for the future of the Research Excellence Framework. He is more circumspect arguing that metrics cannot and should not be used as a substitute for informed judgement. This article provides a summary of both presentations.

  17. Symmetries of the dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.

    1998-01-01

    The geometric duality between the metric g μν and a Killing tensor K μν is studied. The conditions were found when the symmetries of the metric g μν and the dual metric K μν are the same. Dual spinning space was constructed without introduction of torsion. The general results are applied to the case of Kerr-Newmann metric

  18. Effects of raltegravir or elvitegravir resistance signature mutations on the barrier to dolutegravir resistance in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Takahiro; Suyama-Kagitani, Akemi; Kawauchi-Miki, Shinobu; Miki, Shigeru; Wakasa-Morimoto, Chiaki; Akihisa, Erika; Nakahara, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Underwood, Mark R; Sato, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Tamio; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2015-05-01

    The recently approved HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) dolutegravir (DTG) (S/GSK1349572) has overall advantageous activity when tested in vitro against HIV-1 with raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG) resistance signature mutations. We conducted an in vitro resistance selection study using wild-type HIV-1 and mutants with the E92Q, Y143C, Y143R, Q148H, Q148K, Q148R, and N155H substitutions to assess the DTG in vitro barrier to resistance. No viral replication was observed at concentrations of ≥ 32 nM DTG, whereas viral replication was observed at 160 nM RAL or EVG in the mutants. In the Q148H, Q148K, or Q148R mutants, G140S/Q148H, E138K/Q148K, E138K/Q148R, and G140S/Q148R secondary mutations were identified with each INSTI and showed high resistance to RAL or EVG but limited resistance to DTG. E138K and G140S, as secondary substitutions to Q148H, Q148K, or Q148R, were associated with partial recovery in viral infectivity and/or INSTI resistance. In the E92Q, Y143C, Y143R, and N155H mutants, no secondary substitutions were associated with DTG. These in vitro results suggest that DTG has a high barrier to the development of resistance in the presence of RAL or EVG signature mutations other than Q148. One explanation for this high barrier to resistance is that no additional secondary substitution of E92Q, Y143C, Y143R, or N155H simultaneously increased the fold change in 50% effective concentration (EC50) to DTG and infectivity. Although increased DTG resistance via the Q148 pathway and secondary substitutions occurs at low concentrations, a higher starting concentration may reduce or eliminate the development of DTG resistance in this pathway in vitro. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Monochromatic metrics are generalized Berwald

    OpenAIRE

    Bartelmeß, Nina; Matveev, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    We show that monochromatic Finsler metrics, i.e., Finsler metrics such that each two tangent spaces are isomorphic as normed spaces, are generalized Berwald metrics, i.e., there exists an affine connection, possibly with torsion, that preserves the Finsler function

  20. Spacetime Metrics from Gauge Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Minguzzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I present an approach to gravity in which the spacetime metric is constructed from a non-Abelian gauge potential with values in the Lie algebra of the group U(2 (or the Lie algebra of quaternions. If the curvature of this potential vanishes, the metric reduces to a canonical curved background form reminiscent of the Friedmann S3 cosmological metric.

  1. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  2. An Improved Metric Learning Approach for Degraded Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the matching problem of the elements in different data collections, an improved coupled metric learning approach is proposed. First, we improved the supervised locality preserving projection algorithm and added the within-class and between-class information of the improved algorithm to coupled metric learning, so a novel coupled metric learning method is proposed. Furthermore, we extended this algorithm to nonlinear space, and the kernel coupled metric learning method based on supervised locality preserving projection is proposed. In kernel coupled metric learning approach, two elements of different collections are mapped to the unified high dimensional feature space by kernel function, and then generalized metric learning is performed in this space. Experiments based on Yale and CAS-PEAL-R1 face databases demonstrate that the proposed kernel coupled approach performs better in low-resolution and fuzzy face recognition and can reduce the computing time; it is an effective metric method.

  3. Class Cohesion Metrics for Software Engineering: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Izadkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Class cohesion or degree of the relations of class members is considered as one of the crucial quality criteria. A class with a high cohesion improves understandability, maintainability and reusability. The class cohesion metrics can be measured quantitatively and therefore can be used as a base for assessing the quality of design. The main objective of this paper is to identify important research directions in the area of class cohesion metrics that require further attention in order to develop more effective and efficient class cohesion metrics for software engineering. In this paper, we discuss the class cohesion assessing metrics (thirty-two metrics that have received the most attention in the research community and compare them from different aspects. We also present desirable properties of cohesion metrics to validate class cohesion metrics.

  4. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalita Saha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years.Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

  5. How to measure top-down vs. bottom-up effects: A new population metric and its calibration on Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polishchuk, L.; Vijverberg, J.; Voronov, D.A.; Mooij, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the role of top–down (predation) and bottom–up (food) effects in food webs has led to the understanding that the variability of these effects in space and time is a fundamental feature of natural systems. Consequently, our measurement tools must allow us to evaluate the effects from a

  6. The Effect of Eight Weeks Resistance Training on Leptin and Insulin Resistance in Obese Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khalili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leptin , the main peptide secreted by adipose tissue, is considered an alarming factor in the regulation of body fat content . With regard to the physiological effect of exercise as one of the potential regulators of leptin secretion from adipose tissue , this study was performed to examine the effects of resistance exercise on leptin. Materials & Methods: Twenty inactive and obese female students (10 controls and 10 experi-mentals participated in this study. The subjects in the experimental group performed an 8 week resistance training program (chest press, leg press, lat pull down, leg curl, bicep curl, leg extension with 60 - 70 percent of 1RM. ELISA was used to measure leptin. Results: The results of this study showed that 8 weeks of resistance training significantly decreased BMI (31.32 kg/m2 versus 29.73 kg/m2 , P=0.0001, weight body (80.5kg versus 76.25kg, P=0.0001, WHR (0.93 ver-sus0.89, P=0.0001 and body fat percent (27.48 versus 24.85, P=0.0001 in EG. Statistically significant differ-ences were not seen in leptin (P=0.939, insulin (P=0.336, glucose (P=0.264 and insulin resistance (P=0.306 between CG and EG. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that , there was no significant difference in leptin levels and insulin resistance between the control and experimental groups, after 8 weeks of resistance training. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:59-65

  7. A Unification of G-Metric, Partial Metric, and b-Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawab Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the concepts of G-metric, partial metric, and b-metric spaces, we define a new concept of generalized partial b-metric space. Topological and structural properties of the new space are investigated and certain fixed point theorems for contractive mappings in such spaces are obtained. Some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results.

  8. Random Kähler metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Frank; Klevtsov, Semyon; Zelditch, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a new method to define and calculate path integrals over metrics on a Kähler manifold. The main idea is to use finite dimensional spaces of Bergman metrics, as an approximation to the full space of Kähler metrics. We use the theory of large deviations to decide when a sequence of probability measures on the spaces of Bergman metrics tends to a limit measure on the space of all Kähler metrics. Several examples are considered.

  9. Effects of prestressing on impact resistance of concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, H.; Kishi, N.; Matsuoka, K.G.; Mikami, T.; Nomachi, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of prestressing on impact resistance of concrete beams using two types of prestressed concrete (PC) tendons are discussed based on experimental results. Aramids Fiber Reinforced Plastic rods and PC steel strand were used as PC tendons. To clarify the effects of prestressing on concrete beam impact resistance, dynamic behavior of prestressed and/or non-prestressed concrete beams with different PC tendon arrangements were considered. Impact test were performed using a 200 kg f free falling steel weight on to the center of beam. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Effect of Air Gap Entrapped in Firefighter Protective Clothing on Thermal Resistance and Evaporative Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Hualing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat and water vapor transfer behavior of thermal protective clothing is greatly influenced by the air gap entrapped in multilayer fabric system. In this study, a sweating hot plate method was used to investigate the effect of air gap position and size on thermal resistance and evaporative resistance of firefighter clothing under a range of ambient temperature and humidity. Results indicated that the presence of air gap in multilayer fabric system decreased heat and water vapor transfer abilities under normal wear. Moreover, the air gap position slightly influenced the thermal and evaporative performances of the firefighter clothing. In this study, the multilayer fabric system obtained the highest thermal resistance, when the air space was located at position B. Furthermore, the effect of ambient temperature on heat and water vapor transfer properties of the multilayer fabric system was also investigated in the presence of a specific air gap. It was indicated that ambient temperature did not influence the evaporative resistance of thermal protective clothing. A thermographic image was used to test the surface temperature of multilayer fabric system when an air gap was incorporated. These results suggested that a certain air gap entrapped in thermal protective clothing system could affect wear comfort.

  11. Standard for metric practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This standard gives guidance for application of the modernized metric system in the United States. The International System of Units, developed and maintained by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (abbreviated CGPM from the official French name Conference Generale des Poids et Measures) is intended as a basis for worldwide standardization of measurement units. The name International System of Units and the international abbreviation SI 2 were adopted by the 11th CGPM in 1960. SI is a complete, coherent system that is being universally adopted

  12. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Wayne L

    2012-01-01

    Inactive adults experience a 3% to 8% loss of muscle mass per decade, accompanied by resting metabolic rate reduction and fat accumulation. Ten weeks of resistance training may increase lean weight by 1.4 kg, increase resting metabolic rate by 7%, and reduce fat weight by 1.8 kg. Benefits of resistance training include improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities, and self-esteem. Resistance training may assist prevention and management of type 2 diabetes by decreasing visceral fat, reducing HbA1c, increasing the density of glucose transporter type 4, and improving insulin sensitivity. Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, by reducing resting blood pressure, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Resistance training may promote bone development, with studies showing 1% to 3% increase in bone mineral density. Resistance training may be effective for reducing low back pain and easing discomfort associated with arthritis and fibromyalgia and has been shown to reverse specific aging factors in skeletal muscle.

  13. Exploring model-based target discrimination metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witus, Gary; Weathersby, Marshall

    2004-08-01

    Visual target discrimination has occurred when the observer can say "I see a target THERE!" and can designate the target location. Target discrimination occurs when a perceived shape is sufficiently similar one or more of the instances the observer has been trained on. Marr defined vision as "knowing what is where by seeing." Knowing "what" requires prior knowledge. Target discrimination requires model-based visual processing. Model-based signature metrics attempt to answer the question "to what extent does the target in the image resemble a training image?" Model-based signature metrics attempt to represent the effects of high-level top-down visual cognition, in addition to low-level bottom-up effects. Recent advances in realistic 3D target rendering and computer-vision object recognition have made model-based signature metrics more practical. The human visual system almost certainly does NOT use the same processing algorithms as computer vision object recognition, but some processing elements and the overall effects are similar. It remains to be determined whether model-based metrics explain the variance in human performance. The purpose of this paper is to explain and illustrate the model-based approach to signature metrics.

  14. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  15. Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise programmes on smoking. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Abstract. Previous research on the cessation of smoking and the prevention of smoking recidivism using exercise training has mainly focused on aerobic training (AER).

  16. Effect of composition on the polarization and ohmic resistances of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 3. Effect of composition on the polarization and ohmic resistances of LSM/YSZ composite cathodes in solid oxide fuel cell. B SHRI PRAKASH S SENTHIL KUMAR S T ARUNA. Volume 40 Issue 3 June 2017 pp 441-452 ...

  17. Cost effective lateral force resisting concrete frame designs for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effective lateral force resisting concrete frame designs for low, mid and high rise buildings. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... With high demand for concrete material in the building market, the goal of Portland Cement Association has be-en to increase the market share of concrete usage by promoting ...

  18. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Abstract Background and purpose: Children with hemophilia are at risk for reduced bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength and functional ability as a result of reduced leisure-time activity and less involvement in intense activities. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ...

  19. Effect of Thiazolidinedione Amide on Insulin Resistance, Creactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Thiazolidinedione Amide on Insulin Resistance, Creactive Protein and Endothelial Function in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Wen-Yu Zhong, Hui Peng, Hua Li, Hui Shang, Yong-Qing Wei, Zheng-Hui Fang, Xing-Bo Zhao ...

  20. Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii torr. with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente, R Prabhaharan, B Murillo-Amador, F Ruiz-Espinoza, M Puente, RD Valdez-Cepeda ...

  1. Completion of a Dislocated Metric Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumati Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a construction for the completion of a dislocated metric space (abbreviated d-metric space; we also prove that the completion of the metric associated with a d-metric coincides with the metric associated with the completion of the d-metric.

  2. Social Media Metrics Importance and Usage Frequency in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds Skulme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper was to explore which social media marketing metrics are most often used and are most important for marketing experts in Latvia and can be used to evaluate marketing campaign effectiveness. Methodology/methods: In order to achieve the aim of this paper several theoretical and practical research methods were used, such as theoretical literature analysis, surveying and grouping. First of all, theoretical research about social media metrics was conducted. Authors collected information about social media metric grouping methods and the most frequently mentioned social media metrics in the literature. The collected information was used as the foundation for the expert surveys. The expert surveys were used to collect information from Latvian marketing professionals to determine which social media metrics are used most often and which social media metrics are most important in Latvia. Scientific aim: The scientific aim of this paper was to identify if social media metrics importance varies depending on the consumer purchase decision stage. Findings: Information about the most important and most often used social media marketing metrics in Latvia was collected. A new social media grouping framework is proposed. Conclusions: The main conclusion is that the importance and the usage frequency of the social media metrics is changing depending of consumer purchase decisions stage the metric is used to evaluate.

  3. Understanding Traditional Research Impact Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joseph S; Sebastian, Arjun S; Kaye, I David; Wagner, Scott C; Morrissey, Patrick B; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-05-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher has been judged by the number of publications he or she has published in peer-review, indexed, high impact journals. However, to quantify the impact of research in the wider scientific community, a number of traditional metrics have been used, including Impact Factor, SCImago Journal Rank, Eigenfactor Score, and Article Influence Score. This article attempts to provide a broad overview of the main traditional impact metrics that have been used to assess scholarly output and research impact. We determine that there is no perfect all-encompassing metric to measure research impact, and, in the modern era, no single traditional metric is capable of accommodating all facets of research impact. Academics and researchers should be aware of the advantages and limitations of traditional metrics and should be judicious when selecting any metrics for an objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact.

  4. Tomographic reconstruction of quantum metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudato, Marco; Marmo, Giuseppe; Mele, Fabio M.; Ventriglia, Franco; Vitale, Patrizia

    2018-02-01

    In the framework of quantum information geometry we investigate the relationship between monotone metric tensors uniquely defined on the space of quantum tomograms, once the tomographic scheme is chosen, and monotone quantum metrics on the space of quantum states, classified by operator monotone functions, according to the Petz classification theorem. We show that different metrics can be related through a change in the tomographic map and prove that there exists a bijective relation between monotone quantum metrics associated with different operator monotone functions. Such a bijective relation is uniquely defined in terms of solutions of a first order second degree differential equation for the parameters of the involved tomographic maps. We first exhibit an example of a non-linear tomographic map that connects a monotone metric with a new one, which is not monotone. Then we provide a second example where two monotone metrics are uniquely related through their tomographic parameters.

  5. Random metric spaces and universality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershik, A M

    2004-01-01

    The notion of random metric space is defined, and it is proved that such a space is isometric to the Urysohn universal metric space with probability one. The main technique is the study of universal and random distance matrices; properties of metric (in particular, universal) spaces are related to properties of distance matrices. Examples of other categories in which randomness and universality coincide (graphs, and so on) are given

  6. Effects of sol aging on resistive switching behaviors of HfO{sub x} resistive memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh, E-mail: cchsu@yuntech.edu.tw [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliu 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliu 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate School of Electronic Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliu 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sun, Jhen-Kai; Tsao, Che-Chang; Chen, Yu-Ting [Graduate School of Electronic Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliu 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-03-01

    This work investigates effects of long-term sol-aging time on sol-gel HfO{sub x} resistive random access memories (RRAMs). A nontoxic solvent of ethanol is used to replace toxic 2-methoxyethanol, which is usually used in sol-gel processes. The top electrodes are fabricated by pressing indium balls onto the HfO{sub x} surface rather than by using conventional sputtering or evaporation processes. The maximum process temperature is limited to be 100 ℃. Therefore, influences of plasma and high temperature on HfO{sub x} film can be avoided. Under this circumstance, effects of sol aging time on the HfO{sub x} films can be more clearly studied. The current conduction mechanisms in low and high electric regions of the HfO{sub x} RRAM are found to be dominated by Ohmic conduction and trap-filled space charge limited conduction (TF-SCLC), respectively. When the sol aging time increases, the resistive switching characteristic of the HfO{sub x} layer becomes unstable and the transition voltage from Ohmic conduction to TF-SCLC is also increased. This suggests that an exceedingly long aging time will give a HfO{sub x} film with more defect states. The XPS results are consistent with FTIR analysis and they can further explain the unstable HfO{sub x} resistive switching characteristic induced by sol aging.

  7. Two classes of metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Garrido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The class of metric spaces (X,d known as small-determined spaces, introduced by Garrido and Jaramillo, are properly defined by means of some type of real-valued Lipschitz functions on X. On the other hand, B-simple metric spaces introduced by Hejcman are defined in terms of some kind of bornologies of bounded subsets of X. In this note we present a common framework where both classes of metric spaces can be studied which allows us to see not only the relationships between them but also to obtain new internal characterizations of these metric properties.

  8. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  9. Metrical and histological investigation of the effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Burcu Ayse; Sokucu, Oral; Ozkut, Mahmud M; Inan, Sevinc

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 820-nm diode laser on osteoclastic and osteoblastic cell proliferation-activity and RANKL/OPG release during orthodontic tooth movement. Thirty-eight albino Wistar rats were used for this experiment. Maxillary incisors of the subjects were moved orthodontically by a helical spring with force of 20 g. An 820-nm Ga-Al-As diode laser with an output power of 100 mW and a fiber probe with spot size of 2 mm in diameter were used for laser treatment and irradiations were performed on 5 points at the distal side of the tooth root on the first, second, and 3rd days of the experiment. Total laser energy of 54 J (100 mW, 3.18 W/cm(2), 1717.2 J/cm(2)) was applied to group II and a total of 15 J (100 mW, 3.18 W/cm(2), 477 J/cm(2)) to group III. The experiment lasted for 8 days. The number of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, inflammatory cells and capillaries, and new bone formation were evaluated histologically. Besides immunohistochemical staining of PCNA, RANKL and OPG were also performed. No statistical difference was found for the amount of tooth movement in between the control and study groups (p > 0.05). The number of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, inflammatory cells, capillary vascularization, and new bone formation were found to be increased significantly in group II (p low-level laser irradiation accelerates the bone remodeling process by stimulating osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell proliferation and function during orthodontic tooth movement.

  10. Nonlinearity of resistive impurity effects on van der Pauw measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, D. W.

    2006-09-01

    The dependence of van der Pauw resistivity measurements on local macroscopic inhomogeneities is shown to be nonlinear. A resistor grid network models a square laminar specimen, enabling the investigation of both positive and negative local perturbations in resistivity. The effect of inhomogeneity is measured both experimentally, for an 11×11 grid, and computationally, for both 11×11 and 101×101 grids. The maximum "shortlike" perturbation produces 3.1±0.2 times the effect predicted by the linear approximation, regardless of its position within the specimen, while all "openlike" perturbations produce a smaller effect than predicted. An empirical nonlinear correction for f(x ,y) is presented which provides excellent fit over the entire range of both positive and negative perturbations for the entire specimen.

  11. Software metrics: Software quality metrics for distributed systems. [reliability engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Software quality metrics was extended to cover distributed computer systems. Emphasis is placed on studying embedded computer systems and on viewing them within a system life cycle. The hierarchy of quality factors, criteria, and metrics was maintained. New software quality factors were added, including survivability, expandability, and evolvability.

  12. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  13. The application of winning key metrics in a metallurgical firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mikušová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on creating a system of metrics and its application in a metallurgical firm. Its aim is to highlight the dangers associated with the creation and application of an effective system of metrics. Its objective is also to demonstrate the process (initial steps in the development of this system in the real family metallurgical firm. In the experimental part an example of causal links among key metrics in the chosen metallurgical firm is presented. Risks associated with the selection of appropriate metrics are presented for discussion.

  14. On Indistinguishability Operators, Fuzzy Metrics and Modular Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-José Miñana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of indistinguishability operator was introduced by Trillas, E. in 1982, with the aim of fuzzifying the crisp notion of equivalence relation. Such operators allow for measuring the similarity between objects when there is a limitation on the accuracy of the performed measurement or a certain degree of similarity can be only determined between the objects being compared. Since Trillas introduced such kind of operators, many authors have studied their properties and applications. In particular, an intensive research line is focused on the metric behavior of indistinguishability operators. Specifically, the existence of a duality between metrics and indistinguishability operators has been explored. In this direction, a technique to generate metrics from indistinguishability operators, and vice versa, has been developed by several authors in the literature. Nowadays, such a measurement of similarity is provided by the so-called fuzzy metrics when the degree of similarity between objects is measured relative to a parameter. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the notion of indistinguishability operator in such a way that the measurements of similarity are relative to a parameter and, thus, classical indistinguishability operators and fuzzy metrics can be retrieved as a particular case. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the new operators and metrics. Concretely, we prove the existence of a duality between them and the so-called modular metrics, which provide a dissimilarity measurement between objects relative to a parameter. The new duality relationship allows us, on the one hand, to introduce a technique for generating the new indistinguishability operators from modular metrics and vice versa and, on the other hand, to derive, as a consequence, a technique for generating fuzzy metrics from modular metrics and vice versa. Furthermore, we yield examples that illustrate the new results.

  15. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  16. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Metric representation of DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B

    2000-07-01

    A metric representation of DNA sequences is borrowed from symbolic dynamics. In view of this method, the pattern seen in the chaos game representation of DNA sequences is explained as the suppression of certain nucleotide strings in the DNA sequences. Frequencies of short nucleotide strings and suppression of the shortest ones in the DNA sequences can be determined by using the metric representation.

  18. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  19. Metrics for Stage Lighting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of stage lighting technology students, this instructional package is one of five for the arts and humanities occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  20. [Effect of transgenic insect-resistant rice on biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Zhen

    2011-05-01

    Rice is the most important food crops in maintaining food security in China. The loss of China's annual rice production caused by pests is over ten million tons. Present studies showed that the transgenic insect-resistant rice can substantially reduce the application amount of chemical pesticides. In the case of no pesticide use, the pest density in transgenic rice field is significantly lower than that in non-transgenic field, and the neutral insects and natural enemies of pests increased significantly, indicating that the ecological environment and biodiversity toward the positive direction. The gene flow frequency from transgenic rice is dramatically reduced with the distance increases, reaching less than 0.01% at the distance of 6.2 m. Application of transgenic insect-resistant rice in China has an important significance for ensuring food security, maintaining sustainable agricultural development, and protecting the ecological environment and biodiversity. This review summarized the research progress in transgenic insect-resistant rice and its effect on biodiversity. The research directions and development trends of crop pest controlling in future are discussed. These help to promote better use of transgenic insect-resistant rice.

  1. Aspirin resistance: effect of clinical, biochemical and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Richard; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2011-05-01

    Aspirin is one of the cornerstones of treatment for cardiovascular disease. However, some patients may be 'resistant' to its effect: this is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality. Measuring response to aspirin is often difficult and there is no accepted definition of aspirin resistance. Many assays are available to test aspirin sensitivity but most are not specific to aspirin and the degree of agreement between different assays is poor. Each assay has its own advantages and disadvantages, and there is currently no one assay that can be recommended for routine clinical practise. There are also many potential modifiers of aspirin response including aspirin dose, non-compliance, disease severity, genetic factors, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, smoking and interacting drugs. Treating the underlying cause may improve aspirin sensitivity but current data are contradictory with no large clinical trials that have addressed this. Further work is required in this area to determine whether and how aspirin resistance is important clinically, what the best measurement is phenotypically and how this should be used in clinical practise, and whether there are any genetic predisposing factors. This will require well designed prospective studies which take into account the numerous confounding factors that can modify aspirin resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of a sitting vs supine posture on normative esophageal pressure topography metrics and Chicago Classification diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Read, A; Nicodème, F; Roman, S; Kahrilas, P J; Pandolfino, J E

    2012-10-01

    Although, the current protocol for high resolution manometry (HRM) using the Chicago Classification is based on the supine posture, some practitioners prefer a sitting posture. Our aims were to establish normative esophageal pressure topography data for the sitting position and to determine the effect of applying those norms to Chicago Classification diagnoses. Esophageal pressure topography studies including test swallows in both a supine and sitting position of 75 healthy volunteers and 120 patients were reviewed. Integrated relaxation pressure (IRP), distal contractile integral (DCI), contractile front velocity (CFV), and distal latency were measured and compared between postures. Normative ranges were established from the healthy volunteers and the effect of applying sitting normative values to the patients was analyzed. Normative values of IRP, DCI, and CFV all decreased significantly in the sitting posture. Applying normative sitting metrics to patient studies [27% reduction in IRP (15 to 11 mmHg), 69% reduction in DCI (8000-2500 mmHg-s-cm)] reclassified 13/120 (11%) patients as having abnormal esophagogastric junction relaxation and 26/120 (22%) as hypercontractile. Three patients with an abnormal supine IRP normalized when sitting with elimination of a vascular artifact. Clinical HRM studies should include both a supine and sitting position to minimize misdiagnoses attributable to anatomical factors. However, until outcome studies demonstrating the significance of isolated abnormalities of IRP or DCI in the sitting position are available, the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders should continue to be based on supine swallows using normative data from the supine posture. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The effect of a sitting versus supine posture on normative esophageal pressure topography metrics and Chicago Classification diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinglian; Read, Andrew; Nicodème, Frédéric; Roman, Sabine; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Pandolfino, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Although, the current protocol for high resolution manometry (HRM) using the Chicago Classification is based on the supine posture, some practitioners prefer a sitting posture. Our aims were to establish normative esophageal pressure topography (EPT) data for the sitting position and to determine the effect of applying those norms to Chicago Classification diagnoses. Method EPT studies including test swallows in both a supine and sitting position of 75 healthy volunteers and 120 patients were reviewed. Integrated relaxation pressure (IRP), distal contractile integral (DCI), contractile front velocity (CFV) and distal latency (DL) were measured and compared between postures. Normative ranges were established from the healthy volunteers and the effect of applying sitting normative values to the patients was analyzed. Result Normative values of IRP, DCI and CFV all decreased significantly in the sitting posture. Applying normative sitting metrics to patient studies (27% reduction in IRP (15 to 11 mmHg), 69% reduction in DCI (8,000 to 2500 mmHg-s-cm)) reclassified 13/120 (11%) patients as having abnormal EGJ relaxation and 26/120 (22%) as hypercontractile. Three patients with an abnormal supine IRP normalized when sitting with elimination of a vascular artifact. Conclusion Clinical HRM studies should include both a supine and sitting position to minimize misdiagnoses attributable to anatomical factors. However, until outcome studies demonstrating the significance of isolated abnormalities of IRP or DCI in the sitting position are available, the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders should continue to be based on supine swallows using normative data from the supine posture. PMID:22897486

  4. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  5. Metrics for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise

    1998-07-01

    An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.

  6. Weyl metrics and wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Gary W.; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2017-05-01

    We study solutions obtained via applying dualities and complexifications to the vacuum Weyl metrics generated by massive rods and by point masses. Rescaling them and extending to complex parameter values yields axially symmetric vacuum solutions containing singularities along circles that can be viewed as singular matter sources. These solutions have wormhole topology with several asymptotic regions interconnected by throats and their sources can be viewed as thin rings of negative tension encircling the throats. For a particular value of the ring tension the geometry becomes exactly flat although the topology remains non-trivial, so that the rings literally produce holes in flat space. To create a single ring wormhole of one metre radius one needs a negative energy equivalent to the mass of Jupiter. Further duality transformations dress the rings with the scalar field, either conventional or phantom. This gives rise to large classes of static, axially symmetric solutions, presumably including all previously known solutions for a gravity-coupled massless scalar field, as for example the spherically symmetric Bronnikov-Ellis wormholes with phantom scalar. The multi-wormholes contain infinite struts everywhere at the symmetry axes, apart from solutions with locally flat geometry.

  7. Effectiveness analysis of resistance and tolerance to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detilleux Johann C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tolerance and resistance provide animals with two distinct strategies to fight infectious pathogens and may exhibit different evolutionary dynamics. However, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in the case of animal diseases under commercial constraints. Methods The paper proposes a method to simultaneously describe (1 the dynamics of transmission of a contagious pathogen between animals, (2 the growth and death of the pathogen within infected hosts and (3 the effects on their performances. The effectiveness of increasing individual levels of tolerance and resistance is evaluated by the number of infected animals and the performance at the population level. Results The model is applied to a particular set of parameters and different combinations of values. Given these imputed values, it is shown that higher levels of individual tolerance should be more effective than increased levels of resistance in commercial populations. As a practical example, a method is proposed to measure levels of animal tolerance to bovine mastitis. Conclusions The model provides a general framework and some tools to maximize health and performances of a population under infection. Limits and assumptions of the model are clearly identified so it can be improved for different epidemiological settings.

  8. Effect and Safety of Shihogyejitang for Drug Resistant Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Herbal medicine has been widely used to treat drug resistant epilepsy. Shihogyejitang (SGT has been commonly used to treat epilepsy. We investigated the effect and safety of SGT in children with drug resistant epilepsy. Design. We reviewed medical records of 54 patients with epilepsy, who failed to respond to at least two antiepileptic drugs and have been treated with SGT between April 2006 and June 2014 at the Department of Pediatric Neurology, I-Tomato Hospital, Korea. Effect was measured by the response rate, seizure-free rate, and retention rate at six months. We also checked adverse events, change in antiepileptic drugs use, and the variables related to the outcome. Results. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that, after six months, 44.4% showed a >50% seizure reduction, 24.1% including seizure-free, respectively, and 53.7% remained on SGT. Two adverse events were reported, mild skin rash and fever. Focal seizure type presented significantly more positive responses when compared with other seizure types at six months (p=0.0284, Fisher’s exact test. Conclusion. SGT is an effective treatment with excellent tolerability for drug resistant epilepsy patients. Our data provide evidence that SGT may be used as alternative treatment option when antiepileptic drug does not work in epilepsy children.

  9. The effects of high resistance-few repetitions and low resistance-high repetitions resistance training on climbing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Espen; Andersen, Vidar; Saeterbakken, Atle Hole

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different strength training intensities on climbing performance, climbing-specific tests and a general strength test. Thirty lower grade and intermediate-level climbers participated in a 10-week training programme. The participants were randomized into three groups: high resistance-few repetitions training groups (HR-FR), low resistance-high repetitions training groups (LR-HR) and a control group (CON) which continued climbing/training as usual. Post-testing results demonstrated statistical tendencies for climbing performance improvements in the HR-FR and LR-HR (p = 0.088-0.090, effect size = 0.55-0.73), but no differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.950). For the climbing-specific tests, no differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.507-1.000), but the HR-FR and LR-HR improved their time in both Dead-hang (p = 0.004-0.026) and Bent-arm hang (p training groups reduced their climbing sessions during the intervention compared to the CON group (p = 0.057-0.074). In conclusion, HR-FR and LR-HR training programmes demonstrated an 11% and 12% non-significant improvement in climbing performance despite a 50% reduction in climbing sessions, but improved the results in strength and climbing-specific tests. None of the training intensities was superior compared to the others.

  10. Scalar metric fluctuations in space-time matter inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabitarte, Mariano; Bellini, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Using the Ponce de Leon background metric, which describes a 5D universe in an apparent vacuum: G-bar AB =0, we study the effective 4D evolution of both, the inflaton and gauge-invariant scalar metric fluctuations, in the recently introduced model of space-time matter inflation

  11. Inactivation Effect of Antibiotic-Resistant Gene Using Chlorine Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Furukawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the inactivation effects on the antibiotic-resistance gene (vanA of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE using chlorination, a disinfection method widely used in various water treatment facilities. Suspensions of VRE were prepared by adding VRE to phosphate-buffered saline, or the sterilized secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. The inactivation experiments were carried out at several chlorine concentrations and stirring time. Enterococci concentration and presence of vanA were determined. The enterococci concentration decreased as chlorine concentrations and stirring times increased, with more than 7.0 log reduction occurring under the following conditions: 40 min stirring at 0.5 mg Cl2/L, 20 min stirring at 1.0 mg Cl2/L, and 3 min stirring at 3.0 mg Cl2/L. In the inactivation experiment using VRE suspended in secondary effluent, the culturable enterococci required much higher chlorine concentration and longer treatment time for complete disinfection than the cases of suspension of VRE. However, vanA was detected in all chlorinated suspensions of VRE, even in samples where no enterococcal colonies were present on the medium agar plate. The chlorine disinfection was not able to destroy antibiotic-resistance genes, though it can inactivate and decrease bacterial counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB. Therefore, it was suggested that remaining ARB and/or antibiotic-resistance gene in inactivated bacterial cells after chlorine disinfection tank could be discharged into water environments.

  12. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  13. Applying of dilatometric effect for resistance welding automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O. F.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The important issue of resistance spot welding control to obtain high quality welded joints, especially in living tissue welding, is considered. The actual state of the issue is described and analyzed. In order to improve the quality of welded joints, the applying of dilatometric effect to control the resistance spot welding process, namely of shifting the welding electrodes, is suggested. To register the shifting, the use of modern inertial microelectromechanical sensors (MEMS is proposed. The experimental measuring system, which processes the MEMS-sensor signal and makes it suitable for use as a feedback signal, is developed. The structure and operational algorithm of the system are described. The abilities of measuring with MEMS-sensors the values of electrode shifting caused by dilatometric effect under resistance welding are assessed. These method and equipment are recommended for welding the metals, as well as for welding the living tissues. The results of preliminary studies prove the advisability and relevance of the suggested solutions.

  14. Effect of methylglyoxal on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko eHayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey has a complex chemistry, and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity varies with floral source, climate, and harvesting conditions. Methylglyoxal was identified as the dominant antibacterial component of manuka honey. Although it has been known that methylglyoxal has antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, there is not much information describing its activity against gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report the effect of methylglyoxal against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP using 53 clinically isolated strains. We also assessed the effect of deleting the five multidrug efflux systems in P. aeruginosa, as well as the efflux systems in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, on MICs of methylglyoxal. Our results indicate that methylglyoxal inhibits the growth of MDRP at concentrations of 128–512 µg/ml (1.7–7.1 mM and is not recognized by drug efflux systems.

  15. Effect of Macroscopic Impurities on Resistive Measurements in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    1997-03-01

    The authors extend their study of the effect of macroscopic impurities on resistive measurements to include specimens of finite thickness. The effect of such impurities is calculated for a rectangular parallelepiped with two current and two voltage contacts on the corners of one of its faces. The weighting function(D. W. Koon and C. J. Knickerbocker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 207 (1992).) displays singularities near these contacts, but these are shown to vanish in the two-dimensional limit, in agreement with previous results.

  16. Strontium titanate resistance modulation by ferroelectric field effect

    CERN Document Server

    Marré, D; Bellingeri, E; Pallecchi, I; Pellegrino, L; Siri, A S

    2003-01-01

    Among perovskite oxides strontium titanate (STO) SrTiO sub 3 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at very low carrier concentration and exhibits high mobility values at low temperature. We exploited such electrical properties and the structural compatibility of perovskite oxide materials in realizing ferroelectric field effect epitaxial heterostructures. By pulsed laser deposition, we grew patterned field effect devices, consisting of lanthanum doped STO and Pb(Zr,Ti)O sub 3. Such devices showed a resistance modulation up to 20%, consistent with geometrical parameters and carrier concentration of the semiconducting channel.

  17. A multi-metric assessment of environmental contaminant exposure and effects in an urbanized reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen B.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Baumann, Paul C.; DeWeese, Lawrence R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Coyle, James J.; Smith, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Charles River Project provided an opportunity to simultaneously deploy a combination of biomonitoring techniques routinely used by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, and the Contaminant Biology Program at an urban site suspected to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to these standardized methods, additional techniques were used to further elucidate contaminant exposure and potential impacts of exposure on biota. The purpose of the study was to generate a comprehensive, multi-metric data set to support assessment of contaminant exposure and effects at the site. Furthermore, the data set could be assessed to determine the relative performance of the standardized method suites typically used by the National Water Quality Assessment Program and the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, as well as the additional biomonitoring methods used in the study to demonstrate ecological effects of contaminant exposure. The Contaminant Effects Workgroup, an advisory committee of the U.S. Geological Survey/Contaminant Biology Program, identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the contaminant class of greatest concern in urban streams of all sizes. The reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts, was selected as the site for this study based on the suspected presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and the presence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). All of these fish have extensive contaminant-exposure profiles related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other environmental contaminants. This project represented a collaboration of universities, Department of the Interior bureaus including multiple components of the USGS (Biological Resources Discipline and Water Resources Discipline Science Centers, the

  18. A Metric for Heterotic Moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelas, Philip; de la Ossa, Xenia; McOrist, Jock

    2017-12-01

    Heterotic vacua of string theory are realised, at large radius, by a compact threefold with vanishing first Chern class together with a choice of stable holomorphic vector bundle. These form a wide class of potentially realistic four-dimensional vacua of string theory. Despite all their phenomenological promise, there is little understanding of the metric on the moduli space of these. What is sought is the analogue of special geometry for these vacua. The metric on the moduli space is important in phenomenology as it normalises D-terms and Yukawa couplings. It is also of interest in mathematics, since it generalises the metric, first found by Kobayashi, on the space of gauge field connections, to a more general context. Here we construct this metric, correct to first order in {α^{\\backprime}}, in two ways: first by postulating a metric that is invariant under background gauge transformations of the gauge field, and also by dimensionally reducing heterotic supergravity. These methods agree and the resulting metric is Kähler, as is required by supersymmetry. Checking the metric is Kähler is intricate and the anomaly cancellation equation for the H field plays an essential role. The Kähler potential nevertheless takes a remarkably simple form: it is the Kähler potential of special geometry with the Kähler form replaced by the {α^{\\backprime}}-corrected hermitian form.

  19. Not in one metric: Neuroticism modulates different resting state metrics within distinctive brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Claudio; Cristea, Ioana Alina; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Vanello, Nicola; Popita, Cristian; David, Daniel; Pietrini, Pietro

    2017-06-01

    Neuroticism is a complex personality trait encompassing diverse aspects. Notably, high levels of neuroticism are related to the onset of psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders. Personality traits are stable individual features; therefore, they can be expected to be associated with stable neurobiological features, including the Brain Resting State (RS) activity as measured by fMRI. Several metrics have been used to describe RS properties, yielding rather inconsistent results. This inconsistency could be due to the fact that different metrics portray different RS signal properties and that these properties may be differently affected by neuroticism. To explore the distinct effects of neuroticism, we assessed several distinct metrics portraying different RS properties within the same population. Neuroticism was measured in 31 healthy subjects using the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire; RS was acquired by high-resolution fMRI. Using linear regression, we examined the modulatory effects of neuroticism on RS activity, as quantified by the Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF, fALFF), regional homogeneity (REHO), Hurst Exponent (H), global connectivity (GC) and amygdalae functional connectivity. Neuroticism modulated the different metrics across a wide network of brain regions, including emotional regulatory, default mode and visual networks. Except for some similarities in key brain regions for emotional expression and regulation, neuroticism affected different metrics in different ways. Metrics more related to the measurement of regional intrinsic brain activity (fALFF, ALFF and REHO), or that provide a parsimonious index of integrated and segregated brain activity (HE), were more broadly modulated in regions related to emotions and their regulation. Metrics related to connectivity were modulated across a wider network of areas. Overall, these results show that neuroticism affects distinct aspects of brain resting state activity

  20. Colonoscopy quality: metrics and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Audrey H; Jacobson, Brian C

    2013-09-01

    Colonoscopy is an excellent area for quality improvement because it is high volume, has significant associated risk and expense, and there is evidence that variability in its performance affects outcomes. The best end point for validation of quality metrics in colonoscopy is colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, but a more readily accessible metric is the adenoma detection rate. Fourteen quality metrics were proposed in 2006, and these are described in this article. Implementation of quality improvement initiatives involves rapid assessments and changes on an iterative basis, and can be done at the individual, group, or facility level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  2. The biochar effect: plant resistance to biotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIGAL ELAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (charcoal is the solid co-product of pyrolysis, the thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis also yields gaseous and liquid biofuel products. There is a growing interest worldwide in the pyrolysis platform, for at least four reasons: (i pyrolysis can be a source of renewable biofuels; (ii many biomass waste materials can be treated by pyrolysis and thus converted into a fuel resource; (iii long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide which originated in the atmosphere may result from adding biochar to soil; and (iv biochar soil amendment contributes to improved soil fertility and crop productivity. Currently, however, very little biochar is utilized in agriculture, in part because its agronomic value in terms of crop response and soil health benefits have yet to be quantified, and because the mechanisms by which it improves soil fertility are poorly understood. The positive effects of biochar on crop productivity under conditions of extensive agriculture are frequently attributed to direct effects of biochar-supplied nutrients and to several other indirect effects, including increased water and nutrient retention, improvements in soil pH, increased soil cation exchange capacity, effects on P and S transformations and turnover, neutralization of phytotoxic compounds in the soil, improved soil physical properties, promotion of mycorrhizal fungi, and alteration of soil microbial populations and functions. Yet, the biochar effect is also evident under conditions of intensive production where many of these parameters are not limited. Biochar addition to soil alters microbial populations in the rhizosphere, albeit via mechanisms not yet understood, and may cause a shift towards beneficial microorganism populations that promote plant growth and resistance to biotic stresses. In addition to some scant evidence for biochar-induced plant protection against soilborne diseases, the induction of systemic resistance towards

  3. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  4. Reuse metrics and measurement: A framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifer, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    The lessons learned and experience gleaned are described by those who have started to implement the reuse metrics and measurement framework used in controlling the development of common avionics and software for its affiliated aircraft programs. The framework was developed to permit the measurement of the long term cost/benefits resulting from the creation and use of Reusable Software Objects (RSOs). The framework also monitors the efficiency and effectiveness of the Software Reuse Library (SRL). The metrics and measurement framework is defined which was established to allow some determinations and findings to be made relative to software reuse. Seven criteria are discussed which were used to guide the establishment of the proposed reuse framework. Object recapture and creation metrics are explained along with their normalized use in effort, productivity, and quality determination. A single and multiple reuse instance version of a popular cost model is presented which uses these metrics and the measurement scheme proposed to predict the software effort and duration under various reuse assumptions. Studies in using this model to predict actuals taken from the RCI data base of over 1000 completed projects is discussed.

  5. Chaos-based wireless communication resisting multipath effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun-Liang; Li, Chen; Ren, Hai-Peng; Grebogi, Celso

    2017-09-01

    In additive white Gaussian noise channel, chaos has been shown to be the optimal coherent communication waveform in the sense of using a very simple matched filter to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, Lyapunov exponent spectrum of the chaotic signals after being transmitted through a wireless channel has been shown to be unaltered, paving the way for wireless communication using chaos. In wireless communication systems, inter-symbol interference caused by multipath propagation is one of the main obstacles to achieve high bit transmission rate and low bit-error rate (BER). How to resist the multipath effect is a fundamental problem in a chaos-based wireless communication system (CWCS). In this paper, a CWCS is built to transmit chaotic signals generated by a hybrid dynamical system and then to filter the received signals by using the corresponding matched filter to decrease the noise effect and to detect the binary information. We find that the multipath effect can be effectively resisted by regrouping the return map of the received signal and by setting the corresponding threshold based on the available information. We show that the optimal threshold is a function of the channel parameters and of the information symbols. Practically, the channel parameters are time-variant, and the future information symbols are unavailable. In this case, a suboptimal threshold is proposed, and the BER using the suboptimal threshold is derived analytically. Simulation results show that the CWCS achieves a remarkable competitive performance even under inaccurate channel parameters.

  6. Effects of Ca antagonists on Ca fluxes in resistance vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, C.; Saida, K.; van Breemen, C.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers have examined contractions and 45 Ca fluxes induced by norepinephrine (NE) and 80 mM potassium (high K) depolarization and their inhibition by dilitazem in rabbit mesenteric resistance vessels. Contraction induced by both NE and high K depended almost completely on extracellular Ca. Dose-response curves for diltiazem inhibition of NE (10(-5) M) and high K contractions showed ED50 values of 1 X 10(-8) and 6 X 10(-7) M, respectively, indicating that the receptor-operated channel (ROC) was more sensitive than the potential-operated channel (POC) to the action of diltiazem. Diltiazem (10(-6) M) was shown to inhibit NE- and 80 mM K-stimulated 45 Ca influx effectively by 87 +/- 15 and 85 +/- 10%, respectively. Comparison of these data to those obtained from aorta suggest that although the sensitivity of the POC is approximately the same in aorta and mesenteric resistance vessels, the sensitivity of the ROC is much greater in the latter. This increased sensitivity is paralleled by a greatly decreased role of intracellular Ca release in NE contraction in mesenteric resistance vessels

  7. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  9. Comparing the effects of two distinct eccentric modalities to traditional resistance training in resistance trained, higher functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Dulson, Deborah; Merien, Fabrice; Plank, Lindsay; Harris, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    The effects of eccentric resistance exercise are of interest in the older adult cohort, but to our knowledge, there is no research on the relative effects of different eccentric modalities on a range of outcomes in higher functioning, resistance trained older adults. 33 resistance-trained older adults (aged 67±4.5years) were randomized into one of three supervised training groups: traditional (TRE), eccentric only (ERE) or eccentrically biased resistance exercise (EBRE) on a 45°, plate-loaded leg press machine. Participants trained twice per week with maximal strength, functional capacity, body composition and blood biomarkers measured before and after the eight-week intervention. Both eccentric and concentric strength, and important functional tasks for independent living significantly improved independent of group. Body composition and blood biomarkers were found to significantly improve in the EBRE group only however, no statistical differences were found between groups. Compared to traditional resistance training, the two eccentric modalities investigated here were equally effective for improvements in maximum muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition and metabolic biomarkers. When training the resistance trained older adult, very heavy isoinertial external loads (at least 70% of one repetition maximum) are effective irrespective of contraction mode. With heavy strength training, resistance trained older adults can continue to expect improvements in health and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management Infrastructure and Metrics Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Loomis , Charles

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the project management bodies, the software develop- ment process, and the tools to support them. It also contains a description of the metrics that will be collected over the lifetime of the project to gauge progress.

  11. Hyperbolic geometry for colour metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Ivar

    2014-05-19

    It is well established from both colour difference and colour order perpectives that the colour space cannot be Euclidean. In spite of this, most colour spaces still in use today are Euclidean, and the best Euclidean colour metrics are performing comparably to state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics. In this paper, it is shown that a transformation from Euclidean to hyperbolic geometry (i.e., constant negative curvature) for the chromatic plane can significantly improve the performance of Euclidean colour metrics to the point where they are statistically significantly better than state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics on standard data sets. The resulting hyperbolic geometry nicely models both qualitatively and quantitatively the hue super-importance phenomenon observed in colour order systems.

  12. Using TRACI for Sustainability Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, and product and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products, processes,...

  13. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  14. Effect of Bi on the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Meiyi; Zhou Bangxin; Li Qiang; Zhang Weipeng; Zhu Li; Zou Linghong; Zhang Jinlong; Peng Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate systematically the effect of Bi addition on the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys, different zirconium-based alloys, including Zr-4 (Zr-l.5Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr), S5 (Zr-0.8Sn-0.35Nb-0.4Fe-0.1Cr), T5 (Zr-0.7Sn-l.0Nb-0.3Fe-0.1Cr) and Zr-1Nb, were adopted to prepare the zirconium alloys containing Bi of 0∼0.5% in mass fraction. These alloys were denoted as Zr-4 + xBi, S5 + xBi, T5 + xBi and Zr-1Nb + xBi, respectively. The corrosion behavior of these specimens was investigated by autoclave testing in lithiated water with 0.01 M LiOH or deionized water at 360 ℃/18.6 MPa and in superheated steam at 400 ℃/10.3 MPa. The microstructure of the alloys was examined by TEM and the second phase particles (SPPs) were analyzed by EDS. Microstructure observation shows that the addition of Bi promotes the precipitation of Sn as second phase particles (SPPs) because Sn is in solid solution in α-Zr matrix in Zr-4, S5 and T5 alloys. The concentration of Bi dissolved in α-Zr matrix increase with the increase of Nb in the alloys, and the excess Bi precipitates as Bi-containing SPPs. The corrosion results show that the effect of Bi addition on the corrosion behavior of different zirconium-based alloys is very complicated, depending on their compositions and corrosion conditions. In the case of higher Bi concentration in α-Zr, the zirconium alloys exhibit better corrosion resistance. However, in the case of precipitation of Bi-containing SPPs, the corrosion resistance gets worse. This indicates that the solid solution of Bi in α-Zr matrix can improve the corrosion resistance, while the precipitation of the Bi-containing SPPs is harmful to the corrosion resistance. (authors)

  15. Effects of different correlation metrics and preprocessing factors on small-world brain functional networks: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liang

    Full Text Available Graph theoretical analysis of brain networks based on resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. These analyses often involve the selection of correlation metrics and specific preprocessing steps. However, the influence of these factors on the topological properties of functional brain networks has not been systematically examined. Here, we investigated the influences of correlation metric choice (Pearson's correlation versus partial correlation, global signal presence (regressed or not and frequency band selection [slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz versus slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz] on the topological properties of both binary and weighted brain networks derived from them, and we employed test-retest (TRT analyses for further guidance on how to choose the "best" network modeling strategy from the reliability perspective. Our results show significant differences in global network metrics associated with both correlation metrics and global signals. Analysis of nodal degree revealed differing hub distributions for brain networks derived from Pearson's correlation versus partial correlation. TRT analysis revealed that the reliability of both global and local topological properties are modulated by correlation metrics and the global signal, with the highest reliability observed for Pearson's-correlation-based brain networks without global signal removal (WOGR-PEAR. The nodal reliability exhibited a spatially heterogeneous distribution wherein regions in association and limbic/paralimbic cortices showed moderate TRT reliability in Pearson's-correlation-based brain networks. Moreover, we found that there were significant frequency-related differences in topological properties of WOGR-PEAR networks, and brain networks derived in the 0.027-0.073 Hz band exhibited greater reliability than those in the 0.01-0.027 Hz band. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence regarding the influences of correlation metrics

  16. Experiential space is hardly metric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Lukavský, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2008, č. 37 (2008), s. 58-58 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception. 24.08-28.08.2008, Utrecht] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : visual space perception * metric and non-metric perceptual judgments * ecological validity Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. Phantom metrics with Killing spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Sabra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study metric solutions of Einstein–anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1-dimensional space–time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  18. Implementing metrics for process improvement

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley, Angela

    1993-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of metrics to control the software development process, to demonstrate productivity and value, and to identify areas for process improvement. Research work completed to date is based on the implementation of metrics in a 'standard' software development environment, and follows either a top-down or bottom-up approach. With the advent of further European unity, many companies are producing localised products, ie products which are translated and adapted t...

  19. Protective effects of metformin on neointima formation in insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Pankratova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Lu J, Ji J, Meng H, Wang D, Jiang B, Liu L, Randell E, Adeli K, Meng QH. The protective effect and underlying mechanism of metformin on neointima formation in fructose-induced insulin resistant rats. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 Apr 5;12:58. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-58.

  20. Effect of electrode shape on grounding resistances - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Tomaskovicova, Sonia; Dahlin, Torleif

    2016-01-01

    Electrode grounding resistance is a major factor affecting measurement quality in electric resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements for cryospheric applications. Still, little information is available on grounding resistances in the geophysical literature, mainly because it is difficult to measure....... The focus-one protocol is a new method for estimating single electrode grounding resistances by measuring the resistance between a single electrode in an ERT array and all the remaining electrodes connected in parallel. For large arrays, the measured resistance is dominated by the grounding resistance...... of the electrode under test, the focus electrode. We have developed an equivalent circuit model formulation for the resistance measured when applying the focus-one protocol. Our model depends on the individual grounding resistances of the electrodes of the array, the mutual resistances between electrodes...

  1. Degraded visual environment image/video quality metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Dustin D.; Brown, Jeremy B.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    A number of image quality metrics (IQMs) and video quality metrics (VQMs) have been proposed in the literature for evaluating techniques and systems for mitigating degraded visual environments. Some require both pristine and corrupted imagery. Others require patterned target boards in the scene. None of these metrics relates well to the task of landing a helicopter in conditions such as a brownout dust cloud. We have developed and used a variety of IQMs and VQMs related to the pilot's ability to detect hazards in the scene and to maintain situational awareness. Some of these metrics can be made agnostic to sensor type. Not only are the metrics suitable for evaluating algorithm and sensor variation, they are also suitable for choosing the most cost effective solution to improve operating conditions in degraded visual environments.

  2. Epistasis between antibiotic resistance mutations and genetic background shape the fitness effect of resistance across species of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogwill, T; Kojadinovic, M; MacLean, R C

    2016-05-11

    Antibiotic resistance often evolves by mutations at conserved sites in essential genes, resulting in parallel molecular evolution between divergent bacterial strains and species. Whether these resistance mutations are having parallel effects on fitness across bacterial taxa, however, is unclear. This is an important point to address, because the fitness effects of resistance mutations play a key role in the spread and maintenance of resistance in pathogen populations. We address this idea by measuring the fitness effect of a collection of rifampicin resistance mutations in the β subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) across eight strains that span the diversity of the genus Pseudomonas We find that almost 50% of rpoB mutations have background-dependent fitness costs, demonstrating that epistatic interactions between rpoB and the rest of the genome are common. Moreover, epistasis is typically strong, and it is the dominant genetic determinant of the cost of resistance mutations. To investigate the functional basis of epistasis, and because rpoB plays a central role in transcription, we measured the effects of common rpoB mutations on transcriptional efficiency across three strains of Pseudomonas Transcriptional efficiency correlates strongly to fitness across strains, and epistasis arises because individual rpoB mutations have differential effects on transcriptional efficiency in different genetic backgrounds. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Epistasis between antibiotic resistance mutations and genetic background shape the fitness effect of resistance across species of Pseudomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojadinovic, M.; MacLean, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance often evolves by mutations at conserved sites in essential genes, resulting in parallel molecular evolution between divergent bacterial strains and species. Whether these resistance mutations are having parallel effects on fitness across bacterial taxa, however, is unclear. This is an important point to address, because the fitness effects of resistance mutations play a key role in the spread and maintenance of resistance in pathogen populations. We address this idea by measuring the fitness effect of a collection of rifampicin resistance mutations in the β subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) across eight strains that span the diversity of the genus Pseudomonas. We find that almost 50% of rpoB mutations have background-dependent fitness costs, demonstrating that epistatic interactions between rpoB and the rest of the genome are common. Moreover, epistasis is typically strong, and it is the dominant genetic determinant of the cost of resistance mutations. To investigate the functional basis of epistasis, and because rpoB plays a central role in transcription, we measured the effects of common rpoB mutations on transcriptional efficiency across three strains of Pseudomonas. Transcriptional efficiency correlates strongly to fitness across strains, and epistasis arises because individual rpoB mutations have differential effects on transcriptional efficiency in different genetic backgrounds. PMID:27170722

  4. Effect of chitosan on resist printing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of chitosan, types of resist agent, curing temperature and curing time were varied to determine their effects on resist-printed cotton fabrics. An optimal chitosan concentration of 1.6% resulted in the greatest resist effect on printed cotton fabrics. For mixtures, a 6:4 ratio of citric acid : chitosan and an 8:2 ...

  5. Effects of γ-rays on vegetable leaf and leaf tissue resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Fei; Luo Shishi; Feng Min; Wang Zegang; Ge Cailin; Guo Yifeng

    2003-01-01

    The change of the leaf tissue resistance and ion exosmosis of two kinds of vegetables by γ-rays were studied and the apparent characters were observed. The results showed as follows. The effect of γ-rays on vegetable firstly appears on leaf and the leaf is the sensitive part to γ-rays. The peak value of leaf tissue resistance changes paralleled to the ability of resistance to γ-rays, the higher the resistant ability is, the higher the peak value of the leaf tissue resistance will be. The peak value of leaf tissue resistance can be used as the index of the ability of vegetable resistance to γ-rays. Contrast with ion exosmosis, leaf tissue resistance showed different resistant abilities to γ-rays with different leaves of the same plant. The death dose of vegetable can be determined with the change of leaf tissue resistance and ion exosmosis

  6. Improved quantum backtracking algorithms using effective resistance estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Michael; Wan, Kianna

    2018-02-01

    We investigate quantum backtracking algorithms of the type introduced by Montanaro (Montanaro, arXiv:1509.02374). These algorithms explore trees of unknown structure and in certain settings exponentially outperform their classical counterparts. Some of the previous work focused on obtaining a quantum advantage for trees in which a unique marked vertex is promised to exist. We remove this restriction by recharacterizing the problem in terms of the effective resistance of the search space. In this paper, we present a generalization of one of Montanaro's algorithms to trees containing k marked vertices, where k is not necessarily known a priori. Our approach involves using amplitude estimation to determine a near-optimal weighting of a diffusion operator, which can then be applied to prepare a superposition state with support only on marked vertices and ancestors thereof. By repeatedly sampling this state and updating the input vertex, a marked vertex is reached in a logarithmic number of steps. The algorithm thereby achieves the conjectured bound of O ˜(√{T Rmax }) for finding a single marked vertex and O ˜(k √{T Rmax }) for finding all k marked vertices, where T is an upper bound on the tree size and Rmax is the maximum effective resistance encountered by the algorithm. This constitutes a speedup over Montanaro's original procedure in both the case of finding one and the case of finding multiple marked vertices in an arbitrary tree.

  7. Soil management effect on soil penetration resistance in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In environments characterized by steep slopes or arranged in terraces, among the shallow tillage systems, rototilling is extensively used. However, the effect of the repeated use of rototilling has a considerable influence on soil characteristics; it appears finely powdered, soft and without structure. In order to limit these inconveniences, an innovative self-propelled machine equipped with working tools as a spade, to be used in steep slopes or arranged in terraces areas, was designed by the Mechanics Section of the SAF (Scienze Agrarie e Forestali Department of the University of Palermo in cooperation with Agrotec company, Padua, Italy. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of three machines for shallow tillage: a chisel plough (CP, a rototilling (RT and a spading machine (SM on penetration resistance in semi-arid environments of the Mediterranean basin. No tillage was also included. Penetration resistance (PR was surveyed for all the treatments to a depth of 300 mm with an electronic dynamometer. The treatments consisted in the execution of a shallow tillage to a depth of 150 mm. SP treatment allowed us to obtain PR lower values throughout the tillage profile than RT, CP and NT. It follows that the type of machine used influences soil PR, and then the soil water storage capacity, key factor for the agricultural productions in semi-arid environments as in Sicily.

  8. Using collective Metrics to inspect Spatio-Temporal relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    temporal relationships between team mates. Four collective metrics (weighted Centroid, weighted Stretch Index, Surface Area and Effective Area of Play) were computed based on the location of the players at each second of a match.

  9. Multi-polar resistance switching and memory effect in copper phthalocyanine junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Shi-Zhu; Kang Shi-Shou; Li Qiang; Zhong Hai; Kang Yun; Yu Shu-Yun; Han Guang-Bing; Yan Shi-Shen; Mei Liang-Mo; Qin Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine junctions, fabricated by magnetron sputtering and evaporating methods, show multi-polar (unipolar and bipolar) resistance switching and the memory effect. The multi-polar resistance switching has not been observed simultaneously in one organic material before. With both electrodes being cobalt, the unipolar resistance switching is universal. The high resistance state is switched to the low resistance state when the bias reaches the set voltage. Generally, the set voltage increases with the thickness of copper phthalocyanine and decreases with increasing dwell time of bias. Moreover, the low resistance state could be switched to the high resistance state by absorbing the phonon energy. The stability of the low resistance state could be tuned by different electrodes. In Au/copper phthalocyanine/Co system, the low resistance state is far more stable, and the bipolar resistance switching is found. Temperature dependence of electrical transport measurements demonstrates that there are no obvious differences in the electrical transport mechanism before and after the resistance switching. They fit quite well with Mott variable range hopping theory. The effect of Al 2 O 3 on the resistance switching is excluded by control experiments. The holes trapping and detrapping in copper phthalocyanine layer are responsible for the resistance switching, and the interfacial effect between electrodes and copper phthalocyanine layer affects the memory effect. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Effect of Resistance Training on Serum Meteorin-like Hormone Level and Insulin Resistance Index in Overweight Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Adipose tissue's phenotypic alteration due to exercise training is a new theory. However, the cellular–molecular mechanisms for these phenotypic alterations are not yet clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks resistance training on Meteorin-like hormone level and insulin resistance index in overweight adolescent boys. Materials and Methods: Twenty overweight adolescent boys (average age 18.5±1 years old, average weight 81.1±4.5 kg, and BMI 27.7±0.7 kg/m2 participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: control (N=10 and resistance training (N=10. Subjects in training group performed six-week resistance training program 3 days/week. Anthropometrics parameters and fasting serum of Meteorin-like hormone levels, insulin and glucose were measured at the baseline and at the end of study. Results: The level of Meteorin-like hormone was significantly decreased in control group (p=0.008, but that of Meteorin-like hormone in resistance training was increased insignificantly (p=0.311. The variations of Meteorin-like hormone levels between two groups were significant (p=0.004. The changes of insulin resistance were increased in both groups which were statistically significant (p=0.032 and insignificant (p=0.632 for control and training groups respectively. We found a negative and insignificant correlation between changes in Meteorin-like hormone levels and changes in insulin resistance index (p=0.273. Conclusion: The results showed that six weeks’ resistance training has no effect on increasing Meteorin-like hormone serum level and improving insulin resistance index and body composition in overweight adolescent boys.

  11. Non-metric chaotic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enqvist, Kari [Physics Department, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki Institute of Physics, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Koivisto, Tomi [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Rigopoulos, Gerasimos, E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi, E-mail: T.S.Koivisto@astro.uio.no, E-mail: rigopoulos@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We consider inflation within the context of what is arguably the simplest non-metric extension of Einstein gravity. There non-metricity is described by a single graviscalar field with a non-minimal kinetic coupling to the inflaton field Ψ, parameterized by a single parameter γ. There is a simple equivalent description in terms of a massless field and an inflaton with a modified potential. We discuss the implications of non-metricity for chaotic inflation and find that it significantly alters the inflaton dynamics for field values Ψ∼>M{sub P}/γ, dramatically changing the qualitative behaviour in this regime. In the equivalent single-field description this is described as a cuspy potential that forms of barrier beyond which the inflation becomes a ghost field. This imposes an upper bound on the possible number of e-folds. For the simplest chaotic inflation models, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio receive small corrections dependent on the non-metricity parameter. We also argue that significant post-inflationary non-metricity may be generated.

  12. A Numerical Framework for Sobolev Metrics on the Space of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Statistical shape analysis can be done in a Riemannian framework by endowing the set of shapes with a Riemannian metric. Sobolev metrics of order two and higher on shape spaces of parametrized or unparametrized curves have several desirable properties not present in lower order metrics...... component analysis and clustering. Our framework is sufficiently general to be applicable to a wide class of metrics. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by analyzing a collection of shapes representing HeLa cell nuclei....

  13. INFORMATIVE ENERGY METRIC FOR SIMILARITY MEASURE IN REPRODUCING KERNEL HILBERT SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, information energy metric (IEM is obtained by similarity computing for high-dimensional samples in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS. Firstly, similar/dissimilar subsets and their corresponding informative energy functions are defined. Secondly, IEM is proposed for similarity measure of those subsets, which converts the non-metric distances into metric ones. Finally, applications of this metric is introduced, such as classification problems. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Effect of Rolling Resistance in Dem Models With Spherical Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubina Radek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rolling resistance is an artificial moment arising on the contact of two discrete elements which mimics resistance of two grains of complex shape in contact rolling relatively to each other. The paper investigates the influence of rolling resistance on behaviour of an assembly of spherical discrete elements. Besides the resistance to rolling, the contacts between spherical particles obey the Hertzian law in normal straining and Coulomb model of friction in shear.

  15. Symmetries of Taub-NUT dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.; Codoban, S.

    1998-01-01

    Recently geometric duality was analyzed for a metric which admits Killing tensors. An interesting example arises when the manifold has Killing-Yano tensors. The symmetries of the dual metrics in the case of Taub-NUT metric are investigated. Generic and non-generic symmetries of dual Taub-NUT metric are analyzed

  16. Effect of paint on vapour resistivity in plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villanueva, L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The vapour resistivity of plaster coatings such as paint and their effectiveness as water repellents were studied in several types of plaster. To this end, painted, unpainted and pigmented specimens were tested. Experimental values were collected on diffusion and vapour permeability, or its inverse, water vapour resistivity.The data obtained were very useful for evaluating moisture exchange between plaster and the surrounding air, both during initial drying and throughout the life of the material. They likewise served as a basis for ensuring the proper evacuation of water vapour in walls, and use of the capacity of the porous network in plaster products to regulate moisture content or serve as a water vapour barrier to avoid condensation.Briefly, the research showed that pigments, water-based paints and silicon-based water repellents scantly raised vapour resistance. Plastic paints, enamels and lacquers, however, respectively induced five-, ten- and twenty-fold increases in vapour resistivity, on average.Se estudia el fenómeno de la resistividad al vapor de los de yeso y el efecto impermeabilizante que producen los recubrimientos de pintura sobre diversos tipos de yeso y escayola. Para ello, se ensayan probetas desnudas y recubiertas con distintos tipos de pintura, así como coloreados en masa. Se obtienen valores experimentales de la difusividad o permeabilidad al vapor o su inverso la resistividad al vapor de agua.Los datos obtenidos son muy útiles para valorar el fenómeno del intercambio de humedad entre el yeso y el ambiente, tanto durante el proceso de su secado inicial, como en el transcurso de su vida. Así como para disponer soluciones adecuadas para la evacuación del vapor de agua a través de los cerramientos, para utilizar la capacidad de regulación de la humedad, que proporciona el entramado poroso de los productos de yeso, o para impedir el paso del vapor de agua y evitar condensaciones.Como resumen de la investigación, se

  17. Resistivity and thickness effects in dendritic web silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D. L.; Hwang, J. M.; Greggi, J.; Campbell, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    The decrease of minority carrier lifetime as resistivity decreases in dendritic-web silicon solar cells is addressed. This variation is shown to be consistent with the presence of defect levels in the bandgap which arise from extended defects in the web material. The extended defects are oxide precipitates (SiOx) and the dislocation cores they decorate. Sensitivity to this background distribution of defect levels increases with doping because the Fermi level moves closer to the majority carrier band edge. For high-resistivity dendritic-web silicon, which has a low concentration of these extended defects, cell efficiencies as high as 16.6 percent (4 sq cm, 40 ohm-cm boron-doped base, AM1.5 global, 100 mW/sq cm, 25 C JPL LAPSS1 measurement) and a corresponding electron lifetime of 38 microsec have been obtained. Thickness effects occur in bifacial cell designs and in designs which use light trapping. In some cases, the dislocation/precipitate defect can be passivated through the full thickness of web cells by hydrogen ion implantation.

  18. Effects of resistance training in individuals with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Cordeiro Aguiar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA, the most common form of arthritis, is considered the main cause of pain and disability in the elderly. Objective: To evaluate the effect of systematic muscle strength training on functional performance and quality of life in individuals with knee OA. Methods: Subjects with knee OA (n = 27, 46 - 76 years completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, and visual analog scale (VAS questionnaires, musculoskeletal assessments, and 10-repetition maximum and timed 10-meter walk tests both before and after training. The training consisted of an exercise resistance program and stretches for 12 weeks (three sessions of 80 each per week. Results: Twenty-two subjects completed the training. Reduced overall scores and WOMAC physical function indicated improved functional performance (p < 0.001 as well as increased gait speed (p < 0.001. The perception of pain decreased after training, as evidenced by the VAS, WOMAC pain domain, and SF-36 scores (p < 0.001. Quality of life improvements occurred primarily in the areas of pain, functional capacity, and SF-36 physical aspects. No change in body mass index was noted (p = 0.93. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the combination of resistance training for the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdominal muscles could be a viable alternative to improving functionality and quality of life in patients with knee OA. However, more studies are necessary to confirm our findings.

  19. Effect of composition on the polarization and ohmic resistances of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the ohmic resistance was highest for the same composition and amounted to 60% of the total resistance value. Compositional dependence of resistances has been explained based on the variations of the triple phase boundaries and width of the O 2 −ion migration path with the composition of the electrode.

  20. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Bona, Alvaro Della; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Methods Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2 mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Results Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. Significance While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. PMID:25687628

  1. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Della Bona, Alvaro; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metrical segmentation in Dutch: vowel quality or stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quené, H; Koster, M L

    1998-01-01

    Previous experiments using a word-spotting task suggest that English listeners use metrically strong syllables to segment continuous speech into discrete words (Cutler & Norris, 1988). The present study is concerned with this metrical segmentation strategy in Dutch. Although Dutch and English share general metrical properties, they differ in ways that may affect segmentation. First, the acoustic cues for metrically strong syllables are less salient in Dutch than in English; hence a metrical segmentation strategy is less likely to be applied by Dutch listeners. Second, vowel quality depends less on metrical structure in Dutch than in English; hence segmentation in Dutch is presumably triggered by other acoustic cues, namely, those related to stress. Experiment 1 shows that stress strongly affects Dutch listeners' ability and speed in spotting Dutch monosyllabic words in disyllabic nonwords. Experiment 2, however, finds the same stress effect when only the target words are presented, without a subsequent syllable triggering segmentation. A third experiment shows a small effect of vowel quality on error scores, but not on latencies. These results suggest that Dutch listeners do not apply a metrical segmentation strategy. The discrepancy between the two languages suggests that segmentation strategies may depend on language-specific regularities in the phonology and in the lexicon.

  3. Fringe effect of electrical capacitance and resistance tomography sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jiangtao; Yang, Wuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Because of the ‘soft-field’ nature, all electrical tomography sensors suffer from electric field distortion, i.e. the fringe effect. In electrical resistance tomography (ERT) sensors, small pin electrodes are commonly used. It is well known that the pin electrodes result in severe electric field distortion or the fringe effect, and the sensing region of such an ERT sensor spreads out of the pin electrode plane to a large volume. This is also true for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensors, even though it is less severe because of larger electrodes and grounded end guards used. However, when the length of electrodes in an ECT sensor without guards is reduced to almost the same dimension as those in an ERT sensor, the fringe effect is equally obvious. To investigate the fringe effect of ERT and ECT sensors with and without guards, simulations were carried out with different length of electrodes and the results are compared with the corresponding 2D simulation. It is concluded that ECT and ERT sensors with longer electrodes have less fringe effect. Because grounded end guards are effective in reducing the fringe effect of ECT sensors, we propose to apply grounded guards in ERT sensors and integrate ECT and ERT sensors together. Simulation results reveal that ERT sensors with grounded guards have less fringe effect. While commonly current excitation is used with ERT sensors, we propose voltage excitation instead to apply the grounded guards. The feasibility of this approach has been verified by experiment. Finally, a common structure for reducing the fringe effect is proposed for ECT and ERT sensors for the first time to simplify the sensor structure and reduce the mutual interference in ECT/ERT dual-modality measurements. (paper)

  4. Requirement Metrics for Risk Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Theodore; Huffman, Lenore; Wilson, William; Rosenberg, Linda; Hyatt, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is part of the Office of Mission Assurance of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SATC's mission is to assist National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects to improve the quality of software which they acquire or develop. The SATC's efforts are currently focused on the development and use of metric methodologies and tools that identify and assess risks associated with software performance and scheduled delivery. This starts at the requirements phase, where the SATC, in conjunction with software projects at GSFC and other NASA centers is working to identify tools and metric methodologies to assist project managers in identifying and mitigating risks. This paper discusses requirement metrics currently being used at NASA in a collaborative effort between the SATC and the Quality Assurance Office at GSFC to utilize the information available through the application of requirements management tools.

  5. Moduli spaces of riemannian metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Tuschmann, Wilderich

    2015-01-01

    This book studies certain spaces of Riemannian metrics on both compact and non-compact manifolds. These spaces are defined by various sign-based curvature conditions, with special attention paid to positive scalar curvature and non-negative sectional curvature, though we also consider positive Ricci and non-positive sectional curvature. If we form the quotient of such a space of metrics under the action of the diffeomorphism group (or possibly a subgroup) we obtain a moduli space. Understanding the topology of both the original space of metrics and the corresponding moduli space form the central theme of this book. For example, what can be said about the connectedness or the various homotopy groups of such spaces? We explore the major results in the area, but provide sufficient background so that a non-expert with a grounding in Riemannian geometry can access this growing area of research.

  6. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  7. Data Complexity Metrics for XML Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISRA, S.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Web services that are based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML technologies enable integration of diverse IT processes and systems and have been gaining extraordinary acceptance from the basic to the most complicated business and scientific processes. The maintainability is one of the important factors that affect the quality of the Web services that can be seen a kind of software project. The effective management of any type of software projects requires modelling, measurement, and quantification. This study presents a metric for the assessment of the quality of the Web services in terms of its maintainability. For this purpose we proposed a data complexity metric that can be evaluated by analyzing WSDL (Web Service Description Language documents used for describing Web services.

  8. Scale-dependent effects of land cover on water physico-chemistry and diatom-based metrics in a major river system, the Adour-Garonne basin (South Western France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudesque, Loïc, E-mail: loic.tudesque@univ-tlse3.fr [CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, ENFA, UMR5174 EDB (Laboratoire Évolution and Diversité Biologique), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, CNRS, UMR5174 EDB, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Tisseuil, Clément [CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, ENFA, UMR5174 EDB (Laboratoire Évolution and Diversité Biologique), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, CNRS, UMR5174 EDB, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Lek, Sovan, E-mail: sovan.lek@univ-tlse3.fr [CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, ENFA, UMR5174 EDB (Laboratoire Évolution and Diversité Biologique), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, CNRS, UMR5174 EDB, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-01-01

    The scale dependence of ecological phenomena remains a central issue in ecology. Particularly in aquatic ecology, the consideration of the accurate spatial scale in assessing the effects of landscape factors on stream condition is critical. In this context, our study aimed at assessing the relationships between multi-spatial scale land cover patterns and a variety of water quality and diatom metrics measured at the stream reach level. This investigation was conducted in a major European river system, the Adour-Garonne river basin, characterized by a wide range of ecological conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to disentangle the different relationships between land cover, water-chemistry and diatom metrics. Our results revealed a top-down “cascade effect” indirectly linking diatom metrics to land cover patterns through water physico-chemistry, which occurred at the largest spatial scales. In general, the strength of the relationships between land cover, physico-chemistry, and diatoms was shown to increase with the spatial scale, from the local to the basin scale, emphasizing the importance of continuous processes of accumulation throughout the river gradient. Unexpectedly, we established that the influence of land cover on the diatom metric was of primary importance both at the basin and local scale, as a result of discontinuous but not necessarily antagonist processes. The most detailed spatial grain of the Corine land cover classification appeared as the most relevant spatial grain to relate land cover to water chemistry and diatoms. Our findings provide suitable information to improve the implementation of effective diatom-based monitoring programs, especially within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive. - Highlights: •The spatial scale dependence of the “cascade effect” in a river system has been demonstrated. •The strength of the relationships between land cover and diatoms through

  9. Effect of ultraviolet illumination on metal oxide resistive memory

    KAUST Repository

    Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon

    2014-12-22

    We investigate the photoelectrical and resistive switching properties of Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor operated in unipolar mode under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The oxygen photodesorption under UV illumination explains the photoconduction observed in initial and high resistance states. Meanwhile, oxygen readsorption at surface-related defects justifies the different photoresponses dynamics in both states. Finally, UV illumination significantly reduces the variations of resistance in high resistance state, set voltage and reset voltage by 58%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, stabilizing Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor. Our findings in improved switching uniformity via UV light give physical insight into designing resistive memory devices.

  10. The uniqueness of the Fisher metric as information metric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2017), s. 879-896 ISSN 0020-3157 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Chentsov’s theorem * mixed topology * monotonicity of the Fish er metric Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10463-016-0562-0

  11. The uniqueness of the Fisher metric as information metric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2017), s. 879-896 ISSN 0020-3157 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Chentsov’s theorem * mixed topology * monotonicity of the Fisher metric Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10463-016-0562-0

  12. Probability measures on metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, K R

    2005-01-01

    In this book, the author gives a cohesive account of the theory of probability measures on complete metric spaces (which is viewed as an alternative approach to the general theory of stochastic processes). After a general description of the basics of topology on the set of measures, the author discusses regularity, tightness, and perfectness of measures, properties of sampling distributions, and metrizability and compactness theorems. Next, he describes arithmetic properties of probability measures on metric groups and locally compact abelian groups. Covered in detail are notions such as decom

  13. Invariant metrics for Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, G.; Dragt, A.J.; Neri, F.

    1991-05-01

    In this paper, invariant metrics are constructed for Hamiltonian systems. These metrics give rise to norms on the space of homeogeneous polynomials of phase-space variables. For an accelerator lattice described by a Hamiltonian, these norms characterize the nonlinear content of the lattice. Therefore, the performance of the lattice can be improved by minimizing the norm as a function of parameters describing the beam-line elements in the lattice. A four-fold increase in the dynamic aperture of a model FODO cell is obtained using this procedure. 7 refs

  14. Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin

    2012-05-08

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  15. Technical Privacy Metrics: a Systematic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Isabel; Eckhoff, David

    2015-01-01

    The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature makes an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, redundant new metrics are proposed frequently, and privacy studies are often incomparable. In this survey we allevia...

  16. Remarks on G-Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessem Samet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, Mustafa and Sims (2006 introduced and studied a new class of generalized metric spaces, which are called G-metric spaces, as a generalization of metric spaces. We establish some useful propositions to show that many fixed point theorems on (nonsymmetric G-metric spaces given recently by many authors follow directly from well-known theorems on metric spaces. Our technique can be easily extended to other results as shown in application.

  17. The Rationality of Four Metrics of Network Robustness: A Viewpoint of Robust Growth of Generalized Meshes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Yang

    Full Text Available There are quite a number of different metrics of network robustness. This paper addresses the rationality of four metrics of network robustness (the algebraic connectivity, the effective resistance, the average edge betweenness, and the efficiency by investigating the robust growth of generalized meshes (GMs. First, a heuristic growth algorithm (the Proximity-Growth algorithm is proposed. The resulting proximity-optimal GMs are intuitively robust and hence are adopted as the benchmark. Then, a generalized mesh (GM is grown up by stepwise optimizing a given measure of network robustness. The following findings are presented: (1 The algebraic connectivity-optimal GMs deviate quickly from the proximity-optimal GMs, yielding a number of less robust GMs. This hints that the rationality of the algebraic connectivity as a measure of network robustness is still in doubt. (2 The effective resistace-optimal GMs and the average edge betweenness-optimal GMs are in line with the proximity-optimal GMs. This partly justifies the two quantities as metrics of network robustness. (3 The efficiency-optimal GMs deviate gradually from the proximity-optimal GMs, yielding some less robust GMs. This suggests the limited utility of the efficiency as a measure of network robustness.

  18. Recombination An important effect in multigap resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Doroud, K; Hatzifotiadou, D; Rahighi, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    2009-01-01

    We have simulated the gas avalanche in a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The results were then compared with our data from the MRPC [1]. Up to now, the total amount of charge produced in a gas gap is considered to be given by the total number of positive ions generated by the gas avalanches. However, the total charge generated by the simulation program is much too large and is in conflict with our data. Our data indicate that nearly 100% of the negative ions recombine with the positive ions. The recombination effect dramatically reduces the amount of charge in the gas gap: a very important feature for MRPC technology especially for the rate capability.

  19. Recombination: An important effect in multigap resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroud, K.; Afarideh, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Rahighi, J.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have simulated the gas avalanche in a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The results were then compared with our data from the MRPC . Up to now, the total amount of charge produced in a gas gap is considered to be given by the total number of positive ions generated by the gas avalanches. However, the total charge generated by the simulation program is much too large and is in conflict with our data. Our data indicate that nearly 100% of the negative ions recombine with the positive ions. The recombination effect dramatically reduces the amount of charge in the gas gap: a very important feature for MRPC technology especially for the rate capability.

  20. Resistance of platelet proteins to effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodouz, K.N.; Habraken, J.W.; Moroff, G.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of blood components prevents lymphocyte-induced graft-versus-host disease after transfusion in immunocompromised individuals. In this report we demonstrate the resistance of blood platelet proteins to gamma radiation-induced protein cleavage and aggregate formation when platelet concentrates were treated with a dose of 5000 rad. Results of one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total platelet protein and cytoskeletal protein preparations indicate that platelet proteins are neither cleaved nor cross-linked under these conditions of irradiation. These results support those of a previous study that documented the lack of any adverse effect of 5000 rad gamma radiation on in vitro platelet properties

  1. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Allopurinol on Vascular Complications of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany M. El-Bassossy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of allopurinol (Allo on experimentally induced insulin resistance (IR and vascular complications. Rats were divided into four groups: control, IR, allopurinol-treated IR (IR-Allo, and allopurinol-treated control (Allo. IR was induced by adding fructose and high fat, high salt diet for 12 weeks. The results showed that Allo has alleviated the increased level of TNF-α and the systolic, diastolic, mean, and notch pressure observed in IR with no change in pulse pressure. In addition, Allo decreased the heart rate in the treated group compared to IR rats. On the other hand, it has no effect on increased levels of insulin, glucose, fructosamine, or body weight gain compared to IR group, while it increased significantly the insulin level and body weight without hyperglycemia in the control group. Moreover, Allo treatment ameliorated increased level of 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1. In conclusion, the results of the current study show that Allo has a protective effect on vascular complications of IR which may be attributed to the effect of Allo on decreasing the TNF-α, 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1 as well as increasing the level of insulin secretion.

  3. Effects of rational surface density on resistive g turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklemishev, A.D.; Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-01-01

    The Beklemishev-Horton theory states that the anomalous transport coefficient is proportional to the density of rational surfaces provided that the interaction between the modes localized around different rational surfaces is weak compared with modes of the same helicity. The authors examine the effects of the density of states ρ using resistive g turbulence in 2D (single-helicity) and 3D (multi-helicity) simulations. They find that the modes with different helicities do not equipartition the available energy, but rather the coalescence or inverse cascade effect is strong so that a few low order mode rational surfaces receive most of the energy. The quasilinear flattening at the surfaces is a strong effect and they use bifurcation theory to derive that the effective diffusivity increases as χ eff = χ 0 ρ/(1 - Cρ) where C is a constant determined by interaction integrals. For a sufficiently high density of states Cρ ≤ 1, the higher order nonlinear interaction must be taken into account

  4. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  5. Modelling nasal high flow therapy effects on upper airway resistance and resistive work of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cletus F; Geoghegan, Patrick H; Spence, Callum J; Jermy, Mark C

    2018-04-07

    The goal of this paper is to quantify upper airway resistance with and without nasal high flow (NHF) therapy. For adults, NHF therapy feeds 30-60 L/min of warm humidified air into the nose through short cannulas which do not seal the nostril. NHF therapy has been reported to increase airway pressure, increase tidal volume (V t ) and decrease respiratory rate (RR), but it is unclear how these findings affect the work done to overcome airway resistance to air flow during expiration. Also, there is little information on how the choice of nasal cannula size may affect work of breathing. In this paper, estimates of airway resistance without and with different NHF flow (applied via different cannula sizes) were made. The breathing efforts required to overcome airway resistance under these conditions were quantified. NHF was applied via three different cannula sizes to a 3-D printed human upper airway. Pressure drop and flow rate were measured and used to estimate inspiratory and expiratory upper airway resistances. The resistance information was used to compute the muscular work required to overcome the resistance of the upper airway to flow. NHF raises expiratory resistance relative to spontaneous breathing if the breathing pattern does not change but reduces work of breathing if peak expiratory flow falls. Of the cannula sizes used, the large cannula produced the greatest resistance and the small cannula produced the least. The work required to cause tracheal flow through the upper airway was reduced if the RR and minute volume are reduced by NHF. NHF has been observed to do so in COPD patients (Bräunlich et al., 2013). A reduction in I:E ratio due to therapy was found to reduce work of breathing if the peak inspiratory flow is less than the flow below which no inspiratory effort is required to overcome upper airway resistance. NHF raises expiratory resistance but it can reduce the work required to overcome upper airway resistance via a fall in inspiratory work of

  6. Effects of halides on plasmid-mediated silver resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Maynes, M; Silver, S

    1998-12-01

    Silver resistance of sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and resistance plasmid-containing J53(pMG101) was affected by halides in the growth medium. The effects of halides on Ag+ resistance were measured with AgNO3 and silver sulfadiazine, both on agar and in liquid. Low concentrations of chloride made the differences in MICs between sensitive and resistant strains larger. High concentrations of halides increased the sensitivities of both strains to Ag+.

  7. Economic Metrics for Commercial Reusable Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The success of any effort depends upon the effective initial definition of its purpose, in terms of the needs to be satisfied and the goals to be fulfilled. If the desired product is "A System" that is well-characterized, these high-level need and goal statements can be transformed into system requirements by traditional systems engineering techniques. The satisfaction of well-designed requirements can be tracked by fairly straightforward cost, schedule, and technical performance metrics. Unfortunately, some types of efforts, including those that NASA terms "Programs," tend to resist application of traditional systems engineering practices. In the NASA hierarchy of efforts, a "Program" is often an ongoing effort with broad, high-level goals and objectives. A NASA "project" is a finite effort, in terms of budget and schedule, that usually produces or involves one System. Programs usually contain more than one project and thus more than one System. Special care must be taken in the formulation of NASA Programs and their projects, to ensure that lower-level project requirements are traceable to top-level Program goals, feasible with the given cost and schedule constraints, and measurable against top-level goals. NASA Programs and projects are tasked to identify the advancement of technology as an explicit goal, which introduces more complicating factors. The justification for funding of technology development may be based on the technology's applicability to more than one System, Systems outside that Program or even external to NASA. Application of systems engineering to broad-based technology development, leading to effective measurement of the benefits, can be valid, but it requires that potential beneficiary Systems be organized into a hierarchical structure, creating a "system of Systems." In addition, these Systems evolve with the successful application of the technology, which creates the necessity for evolution of the benefit metrics to reflect the changing

  8. Effect of radiation decontamination on drug-resistant bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    More than 80% of food poisoning bacteria such as Salmonella are reported as antibiotic-resistant to at least one type antibiotic, and more than 50% as resistant to two or more. For the decontamination of food poisoning bacteria in foods, radiation resistibility on drug-resistant bacteria were investigated compared with drug-sensitive bacteria. Possibility on induction of drug-resistant mutation by radiation treatment was also investigated. For these studies, type strains of Escherichia coli S2, Salmonella enteritidis YK-2 and Staphylococcus aureus H12 were used to induce drug-resistant strains with penicillin G. From the study of radiation sensitivity on the drug-resistant strain induced from E. coli S2, D 10 value was obtained to be 0.20 kGy compared with 0.25 kGy at parent strain. On S. enteritidis YK-2, D 10 value was obtained to be 0.14 kGy at drug-resistant strain compared with 0.16 kGy at parent strain. D 10 value was also obtained to be 0.15 kGy at drug-resistant strain compared with 0.21 kGy at parent strain of St. aureus H12. Many isolates of E. coli 157:H7 or other type of E. coli from meats such as beef were resistant to penicillin G, and looked to be no relationship on radiation resistivities between drug-resistant strains and sensitive strains. On the study of radiation sensitivity on E. coli S2 at plate agars containing antibiotics, higher survival fractions were obtained at higher doses compared with normal plate agar. The reason of higher survival fractions at higher doses on plate agar containing antibiotics should be recovery of high rate of injured cells by the relay of cell division, and drug-resistant strains by mutation are hardly induced by irradiation. (author)

  9. Stabilization of ideal plasma resistive wall modes in cylindrical geometry: The effect of resistive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical model with finite beta having an external resonant ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability has been constructed. This resonant mode has a mode rational surface, where the safety factor q equals m/n, within the plasma. In this model, the perturbed radial magnetic field for the ideal mode is nonzero between the mode rational surface and the wall, even though it must vanish at the mode rational surface. This property of the mode is in common with the toroidal external kink. Results are presented showing that in the parameter range for which this ideal mode is stable with a conducting wall but unstable with the wall at infinity, a resistive wall mode persists. However, in the presence of plasma resistivity in a resistive layer about the mode rational surface, this resistive wall mode can be stabilized by a plasma rotation frequency of order a nominal resistive instability growth rate. Furthermore, the stabilization occurs in a large gap in wall position or beta. It is also shown that for the ideal resonant mode, as well as resistive plasma modes and nonresonant ideal plasma modes, there is a maximum value of plasma rotation above which there is no stability gap. Discussions are presented suggesting that these properties may hold for the toroidal external kink. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  10. Effects of pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile in non-athletic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shahidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some studies have reported the health-related benefits for the pomegranate seed oil (PSO, there is not enough information on its combined effect with exercise. Therefore, in this study the effect of supplementation with pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile was considered in non-athletes men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental double-blind randomized study non-athletic male (n=14 were divided into two groups: Exercise+Supplementation (n=7 and Exercise +Placebo (n=7. Both groups performed resistance training for 4 weeks (3 sessions per week. The experimental group consumed 2 capsules of pomegranate seed oil (400 mg and the control group received 2 placebo capsules daily. Glucose, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis formula (HOMA-IR. Results: While the average concentration of HDL-C in Supplement+Exercise group was significantly increased compared to pre-test, no significant increase was seen compared to Placebo + Exercise group (P<0.05. Between and within group comparison for the changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance was not significant. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training followed by PSO supplementation, except for HDL-C, has no significant effect on the other lipid profiles and insulin resistance in healthy non-athlete men.

  11. The effect of resistance exercise on sleep: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Ana; Mavros, Yorgi; Heisz, Jennifer J; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-06-01

    Impaired sleep quality and quantity are associated with future morbidity and mortality. Exercise may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve sleep, however, little is known on the effect of resistance exercise. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on sleep quantity and quality. Thirteen studies were included. Chronic resistance exercise improves all aspects of sleep, with the greatest benefit for sleep quality. These benefits of isolated resistance exercise are attenuated when resistance exercise is combined with aerobic exercise and compared to aerobic exercise alone. However, the acute effects of resistance exercise on sleep remain poorly studied and inconsistent. In addition to the sleep benefits, resistance exercise training improves anxiety and depression. These results suggest that resistance exercise may be an effective intervention to improve sleep quality. Further research is needed to better understand the effects of acute resistance exercise on sleep, the physiological mechanisms underlying changes in sleep, the changes in sleep architecture with chronic resistance exercise, as well its efficacy in clinical cohorts who commonly experience sleep disturbance. Future studies should also examine time-of-day and dose-response effects to determine the optimal exercise prescription for sleep benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socio-technical security metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollmann, D.; Herley, C.; Koenig, V.; Pieters, W.; Sasse, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Report from Dagstuhl seminar 14491. This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14491 “Socio-Technical Security Metrics”. In the domain of safety, metrics inform many decisions, from the height of new dikes to the design of nuclear plants. We can state, for example, that

  13. Separable metrics and radiating stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the space–time variables.

  14. Warped products and Einstein metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongtag [Department of Mathematics Education, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-19

    Warped product construction is an important method to produce a new metric with a base manifold and a fibre. We construct compact base manifolds with a positive scalar curvature which do not admit any non-trivial Einstein warped product, and noncompact complete base manifolds which do not admit any non-trivial Ricci-flat Einstein warped product. (letter to the editor)

  15. Geometry of Cuts and Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Deza; M. Laurent (Monique)

    1997-01-01

    htmlabstractCuts and metrics are well-known objects that arise - independently, but with many deep and fascinating connections - in diverse fields: in graph theory, combinatorial optimization, geometry of numbers, combinatorial matrix theory, statistical physics, VLSI design etc. This book offers a

  16. Linear and Branching System Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J., Hilston; de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; M.Z., Kwiatkowska; Telek, M.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    We extend the classical system relations of trace inclusion, trace equivalence, simulation, and bisimulation to a quantitative setting in which propositions are interpreted not as boolean values, but as elements of arbitrary metric spaces. Trace inclusion and equivalence give rise to asymmetrical

  17. Axiomatic Testing of Structure Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, axiomatic testing of software metrics is described. The testing is based on representation axioms from the measurement theory. In a case study, the axioms are given for the formal relational structure and the empirical relational structure. Two approaches of axiomatic testing are

  18. Axiomatic Testing of Structure Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    In this paper, axiomatic testing of software metrics will be described. The testing is based on representation axioms from the measurement theory. In a case study, the axioms are given for the formal relational structure and the empirical relational structure. Two approaches of axiomatic testing are

  19. Separable metrics and radiating stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-14

    Dec 14, 2016 ... Abstract. We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differ- ential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the ...

  20. Preparation Ferrule Design Effect on Endocrown Failure Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Michael; DuVall, Nicholas; Wajdowicz, Michael; Brewster, John; Roberts, Howard

    2017-10-06

    To evaluate the effect of preparation ferrule inclusion with fracture resistance of mandibular molar endocrowns. Recently extracted mandibular third molars were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 12) with the coronal tooth structure removed perpendicular to the root long axis approximately 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction with a slow-speed diamond saw. The pulp chamber was exposed using a diamond bur in a high-speed handpiece with pulpal remnants removed and canals instrumented using endodontic hand instruments. The chamber floor was restored using a resin core material with a two-step, self-etch adhesive and photopolymerized with a visible light-curing unit to create a 2 mm endocrown preparation pulp chamber extension. One and two millimeter ferrule height groups were prepared using a diamond bur in a high-speed handpiece following CAD/CAM guidelines. Completed preparation surface area was determined using a digital measuring microscope. Scanned preparations were restored with lithium disilicate restorations with a self-adhesive resin luting agent. All manufacturer recommendations were followed. Specimens were stored at 37°C/98% humidity and tested to failure after 24 hours at a 45° angle to the tooth long axis using a universal testing machine. Failure load was converted to MPa using the available bonding surface area with mean data analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn (p = 0.05). Calculated failure stress found no difference in failure resistance among the three groups; however, failure load results identified that the endocrown preparations without ferrule had significantly lower fracture load resistance. Failure mode analysis identified that all preparations demonstrated a high number of catastrophic failures. Under the conditions of this study, ferrule-containing endocrown preparations demonstrated significantly greater failure loads than standard endocrown restorations; however, calculated failure stress based on available surface area for adhesive

  1. Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sam K; Whitehead, James R; Brinkert, Ronald H; Caine, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Morton, SK, Whitehead, JR, Brinkert, RH, and Caine, DJ. Resistance training vs. static stretching: Effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3391-3398, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine how full-range resistance training (RT) affected flexibility and strength compared to static stretching (SS) of the same muscle-joint complexes in untrained adults. Volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to an RT or SS training group. A group of inactive volunteers (n = 12) served as a convenience control group (CON). After pretesting hamstring extension, hip flexion and extension, shoulder extension flexibility, and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects completed 5-week SS or RT treatments in which the aim was to stretch or to strength train the same muscle-joint complexes over similar movements and ranges. Posttests of flexibility and strength were then conducted. There was no difference in hamstring flexibility, hip flexion, and hip extension improvement between RT and SS, but both were superior to CON values. There were no differences between groups on shoulder extension flexibility. The RT group was superior to the CON in knee extension peak torque, but there were no differences between groups on knee flexion peak torque. The results of this preliminary study suggest that carefully constructed full-range RT regimens can improve flexibility as well as the typical SS regimens employed in conditioning programs. Because of the potential practical significance of these results to strength and conditioning programs, further studies using true experimental designs, larger sample sizes, and longer training durations should be conducted with the aim of confirming or disproving these results.

  2. Effects of resistive bodies on DC electrical soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfano

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Some deep DC electrical soundings, performed in alpine and apenninic areas with the continuous polar dipole-dipole spread, show apparent resistivity curves with positive slopes. Measured values of apparent resistivity reach 30000 Wm. Applying the "surface charges" method we developed three dimensional mathematical models, by means of which we can state simple rules for determining the minimum extensions of the deep resistive bodies, fundamental information for a more precise interpretation of the field results.

  3. Resources available for applying metrics in security and safety programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizzo, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating metrics into security surveys has been championed as a better way of substantiating program-related effectiveness and expenditures. Although security surveys have been aroundfor well over 40 years, rarely, if ever, have metric-related strategies been part of the equation, the author says. In this article, he cites several published articles and research findings available to security professionals and their surveyors that may give them the expertise and confidence they need to make use of this valuable tool.

  4. Social Media Metrics Importance and Usage Frequency in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ronalds Skulme

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper was to explore which social media marketing metrics are most often used and are most important for marketing experts in Latvia and can be used to evaluate marketing campaign effectiveness. Methodology/methods: In order to achieve the aim of this paper several theoretical and practical research methods were used, such as theoretical literature analysis, surveying and grouping. First of all, theoretical research about social media metrics was...

  5. A von Neumann algebra approach to quantum metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperberg, Greg; Weaver, Nik

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new definition of quantum metric spaces, or W*-metric spaces, in the setting of von Neumann algebras. Our definition effectively reduces to the classical notion in the atomic abelian case, has both concrete and intrinsic characterizations, and admits a wide variety of tractable examples. A natural application and motivation of our theory is a mutual generalization of the standard models of classical and quantum error correction.

  6. Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar...

  7. Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar...

  8. Resistance to Change among Veteran Teachers: Providing Voice for More Effective Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Effective implementation of change remains a crucial concern for educational leaders in the 21st Century. One of the factors affecting effective implementation of reform is resistance to change. Veteran teachers in particular present unique challenges, and stereotypically the greatest resistance, for effective implementation of change. This study…

  9. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckes, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

  10. Effects of Weight Resistance Training on Swimmers with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Víquez Ulate y Andrea Mora Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weight resistance training on strength in swimmers with Down Syndrome (DS. Seven swimmers with DS participated in the study: 6 men and 1 woman, 23.14 years of age ± 4.59 and with 6.14 years ± 2.34 years of swimming. Instruments: One repetition maximum (RM test to determine the individual’s maximum muscular strength. Procedure: the study was conducted for 10 weeks (2 weeks at baseline, 6 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks to see the effects of retention. Results: significantly positive changes were detected in the maximum strength of pectoral muscles (F=5.768; p=0.006, dorsal muscles (F = 26.770; p=7.45e-007, femoral biceps (F = 32.530; p=1.76e-007, quadriceps (F = 8.391; p=0.001, triceps (F = 11.217; p=0.0002 and these adjustments were maintained with no significant changes for two weeks, while the biceps muscle (F=4.145; p=0.021 behaved differently since it suffered no significant adjustments during the program.

  11. Effectiveness of resisted abdominal exercise versus resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise on cardio vascular endurance in sports men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Gopaladhas, Anilkumar Panigrah, Elanchezhian Chinnavan, Rishikesavan Ragupathy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ackground and Purpose: The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of resisted abdominal exercise and resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise on cardiovascular endurance to prescribe a fitness program. Study design and setting: Experimental study, YMCA Fitness Foundation Academy, Pachaiyappa Arts and Science College. Study Sample: 30 sports men. Inclusion criteria: Sportsmen with the age group of 18-30 years. Exclusion Criteria: Individuals with postural deviations like scoliosis, Kyphosis, cardiovascular diseases like history of rheumatic heart disease, obstructive lung diseases, vascular problem in lower limb. Tools: Step up and step down endurance test Procedure: 30 individuals are divided into two groups. Group-I was taught resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise. Group-II was taught resisted abdominal exercise. Pre-test values of step up and step down, endurance level of athletes were assessed and documented. Total duration of the study is 8 weeks. At the end of 8th week post-test endurance were reassessed using step test. Results: Paired t test was used to analyze the effect of cardiovascular endurance. The post test mean values of all the variables of group-I were improved than that of group-II (p<0.005. Conclusion: Resisted diaphragm breathing has shown improvement in cardiovascular endurance in sports men.

  12. Effect of resistance training on total, central and abdominal adiposity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance training had no impact on the measures of centrally located and abdominal adiposity. Body mass and BMI should be used with caution in risk calculations and measures of total adiposity in individuals engaging in resistance training due to this mode of training increasing lean mass (and thus body mass and BMI) ...

  13. Effect of composition on the polarization and ohmic resistances of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Keywords. Solid oxide fuel cell; composite cathodes; polarization resistance; ohmic resistance; impedance spectroscopy. 1. Introduction ... cathode electrode and increase in the number of TPB's. ORR in LSM or LSM/YSZ ...... participation of increased number of TPB's from the cathode. Increased number of ...

  14. Effect of biocides on biofilms of some multidrug resistant clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes to form biofilms was most affected. There was little inhibition of biofilm formation by the biocides on Staphylococcus aureus. This study has shown a relationship between biocide and multidrug resistance. Keywords: Biocides, Multi drug resistance, sodium hypochlorite, ...

  15. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  16. Resistance training and cardiac hypertrophy: unravelling the training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Dressendorfer, Rudolph; Taylor, Dylan; Mandic, Sandra; Humen, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is a popular method of conditioning to enhance sport performance as well as an effective form of exercise to attenuate the age-mediated decline in muscle strength and mass. Although the benefits of RT on skeletal muscle morphology and function are well established, its effect on left ventricular (LV) morphology remains equivocal. Some investigations have found that RT is associated with an obligatory increase in LV wall thickness and mass with minimal alteration in LV internal cavity dimension, an effect called concentric hypertrophy. However, others report that short- (18 years) RT does not alter LV morphology, arguing that concentric hypertrophy is not an obligatory adaptation secondary to this form of exertion. This disparity between studies on whether RT consistently results in cardiac hypertrophy could be caused by: (i) acute cardiopulmonary mechanisms that minimise the increase in transmural pressure (i.e. ventricular pressure minus intrathoracic pressure) and LV wall stress during exercise; (ii) the underlying use of anabolic steroids by the athletes; or (iii) the specific type of RT performed. We propose that when LV geometry is altered after RT, the pattern is usually concentric hypertrophy in Olympic weightlifters. However, the pattern of eccentric hypertrophy (increased LV mass secondary to an increase in diastolic internal cavity dimension and wall thickness) is not uncommon in bodybuilders. Of particular interest, nearly 40% of all RT athletes have normal LV geometry, and these athletes are typically powerlifters. RT athletes who use anabolic steroids have been shown to have significantly higher LV mass compared with drug-free sport-matched athletes. This brief review will sort out some of the factors that may affect the acute and chronic outcome of RT on LV morphology. In addition, a conceptual framework is offered to help explain why cardiac hypertrophy is not always found in RT athletes.

  17. Effects of Oxidation on Oxidation-Resistant Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carroll, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades that exhibit oxidation resistance through the formation of protective oxides on the surface of the graphite material. In the unlikely event of an oxygen ingress accident, graphite components within the VHTR core region are anticipated to oxidize so long as the oxygen continues to enter the hot core region and the core temperatures remain above 400°C. For the most serious air-ingress accident which persists over several hours or days the continued oxidation can result in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material during any air-ingress accident would mitigate the structural effects and keep the core intact. Previous air oxidation testing of nuclear-grade graphite doped with varying levels of boron-carbide (B4C) at a nominal 739°C was conducted for a limited number of doped specimens demonstrating a dramatic reduction in oxidation rate for the boronated graphite grade. This report summarizes the conclusions from this small scoping study by determining the effects of oxidation on the mechanical strength resulting from oxidation of boronated and unboronated graphite to a 10% mass loss level. While the B4C additive did reduce mechanical strength loss during oxidation, adding B4C dopants to a level of 3.5% or more reduced the as-fabricated compressive strength nearly 50%. This effectively minimized any benefits realized from the protective film formed on the boronated grades. Future work to infuse different graphite grades with silicon- and boron-doped material as a post-machining conditioning step for nuclear components is discussed as a potential solution for these challenges in this report.

  18. Effects of antibiotic resistance alleles on bacterial evolutionary responses to viral parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Sánchez, Flor I; Hall, Alex R

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance has wide-ranging effects on bacterial phenotypes and evolution. However, the influence of antibiotic resistance on bacterial responses to parasitic viruses remains unclear, despite the ubiquity of such viruses in nature and current interest in therapeutic applications. We experimentally investigated this by exposing various Escherichia coli genotypes, including eight antibiotic-resistant genotypes and a mutator, to different viruses (lytic bacteriophages). Across 960 populations, we measured changes in population density and sensitivity to viruses, and tested whether variation among bacterial genotypes was explained by their relative growth in the absence of parasites, or mutation rate towards phage resistance measured by fluctuation tests for each phage. We found that antibiotic resistance had relatively weak effects on adaptation to phages, although some antibiotic-resistance alleles impeded the evolution of resistance to phages via growth costs. By contrast, a mutator allele, often found in antibiotic-resistant lineages in pathogenic populations, had a relatively large positive effect on phage-resistance evolution and population density under parasitism. This suggests costs of antibiotic resistance may modify the outcome of phage therapy against pathogenic populations previously exposed to antibiotics, but the effects of any co-occurring mutator alleles are likely to be stronger. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Group covariance and metrical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, L.

    1983-01-01

    The a priori introduction of a Lie group of transformations into a physical theory has often proved to be useful; it usually serves to describe special simplified conditions before a general theory can be worked out. Newton's assumptions of absolute space and time are examples where the Euclidian group and translation group have been introduced. These groups were extended to the Galilei group and modified in the special theory of relativity to the Poincare group to describe physics under the given conditions covariantly in the simplest way. The criticism of the a priori character leads to the formulation of the general theory of relativity. The general metric theory does not really give preference to a particular invariance group - even the principle of equivalence can be adapted to a whole family of groups. The physical laws covariantly inserted into the metric space are however adapted to the Poincare group. 8 references

  20. Fuzzy polynucleotide spaces and metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Juan J; Torres, A; Georgiou, D N; Karakasidis, T E

    2006-04-01

    The study of genetic sequences is of great importance in biology and medicine. Mathematics is playing an important role in the study of genetic sequences and, generally, in bioinformatics. In this paper, we extend the work concerning the Fuzzy Polynucleotide Space (FPS) introduced in Torres, A., Nieto, J.J., 2003. The fuzzy polynucleotide Space: Basic properties. Bioinformatics 19(5); 587-592 and Nieto, J.J., Torres, A., Vazquez-Trasande, M.M. 2003. A metric space to study differences between polynucleotides. Appl. Math. Lett. 27:1289-1294: by studying distances between nucleotides and some complete genomes using several metrics. We also present new results concerning the notions of similarity, difference and equality between polynucleotides. The results are encouraging since they demonstrate how the notions of distance and similarity between polynucleotides in the FPS can be employed in the analysis of genetic material.

  1. Quality Metrics in Inpatient Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Amar

    2015-12-01

    Quality of care in the context of inpatient neurology is the standard of performance by neurologists and the hospital system as measured against ideal models of care. There are growing regulatory pressures to define health care value through concrete quantifiable metrics linked to reimbursement. Theoretical models of quality acknowledge its multimodal character with quantitative and qualitative dimensions. For example, the Donabedian model distils quality as a phenomenon of three interconnected domains, structure-process-outcome, with each domain mutually influential. The actual measurement of quality may be implicit, as in peer review in morbidity and mortality rounds, or explicit, in which criteria are prespecified and systemized before assessment. As a practical contribution, in this article a set of candidate quality indicators for inpatient neurology based on an updated review of treatment guidelines is proposed. These quality indicators may serve as an initial blueprint for explicit quality metrics long overdue for inpatient neurology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Lars Louis; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Pedersen, MT, Andersen, LL, Jørgensen, MB, Søgaard, K, and Sjøgaard, G. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms: Dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 229-235, 2013-The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-response of strength...... training for relieving musculoskeletal pain in female office workers. The relation between the dose of training in terms of total training volume (sets × repetitions × load reported in training diaries) during a 16-week strength training program and changes in pain (calculated as pain index, 0-100%, from...... index in SRT and APE decreased significantly from baseline to follow-up (-25%/-22%) compared with changes in REF (-15%). In the dose-response analysis within the SRT group (n = 125), the total volume of training (mean 18.056 kg, SD = 13.798) was negatively correlated with changes in pain index (ß = -0...

  3. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaozhe; Li, Zhan; Li, Xiaolu; Tian, Yaomei; Fan, Yingzi; Yu, Chaoheng; Zhou, Bailing; Liu, Yi; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT)-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001) and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin) on clinical bacterial strains ( Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii , and Escherichia coli ). The AZT-resistance genes ( ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA , and msrA ) were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L). When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7-AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus strain synergistically affected by DP7-AZT showed no noteworthy morphological changes, suggesting that a molecular-level mechanism plays an important role in the synergistic action of DP7-AZT. AMP DP7 plus the antibiotic AZT or VAN is more effective, especially against highly antibiotic-resistant strains.

  4. A stationary q-metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktarbay, S.; Quevedo, H.

    2014-10-01

    We present a stationary generalization of the static $q-$metric, the simplest generalization of the Schwarzschild solution that contains a quadrupole parameter. It possesses three independent parameters that are related to the mass, quadrupole moment and angular momentum. We investigate the geometric and physical properties of this exact solution of Einstein's vacuum equations, and show that it can be used to describe the exterior gravitational field of rotating, axially symmetric, compact objects.

  5. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and

  6. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, Shannon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Munoz, David [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  7. Novel metrics for growth model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Matthew R; Di, Junrui; Leroux, Andrew; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Xiao, Luo; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Checkley, William

    2018-01-01

    Literature surrounding the statistical modeling of childhood growth data involves a diverse set of potential models from which investigators can choose. However, the lack of a comprehensive framework for comparing non-nested models leads to difficulty in assessing model performance. This paper proposes a framework for comparing non-nested growth models using novel metrics of predictive accuracy based on modifications of the mean squared error criteria. Three metrics were created: normalized, age-adjusted, and weighted mean squared error (MSE). Predictive performance metrics were used to compare linear mixed effects models and functional regression models. Prediction accuracy was assessed by partitioning the observed data into training and test datasets. This partitioning was constructed to assess prediction accuracy for backward (i.e., early growth), forward (i.e., late growth), in-range, and on new-individuals. Analyses were done with height measurements from 215 Peruvian children with data spanning from near birth to 2 years of age. Functional models outperformed linear mixed effects models in all scenarios tested. In particular, prediction errors for functional concurrent regression (FCR) and functional principal component analysis models were approximately 6% lower when compared to linear mixed effects models. When we weighted subject-specific MSEs according to subject-specific growth rates during infancy, we found that FCR was the best performer in all scenarios. With this novel approach, we can quantitatively compare non-nested models and weight subgroups of interest to select the best performing growth model for a particular application or problem at hand.

  8. Measuring Sustainability: Deriving Metrics From Objectives (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The definition of 'sustain', to keep in existence, provides some insight into the metrics that are required to measure sustainability and adequately respond to assure sustainability. Keeping something in existence implies temporal and spatial contexts and requires metrics that g...

  9. Framework for Information Age Assessment Metrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Augustine, Thomas H; Broyles, James W

    2004-01-01

    ... all of these metrics. Specifically this paper discusses an Information Age Framework for Assessment Metrics and relates its elements to the fundamental facets of a C4ISR enterprise architecture...

  10. Effects of nonlinear resistance and aerobic interval training on cytokines and insulin resistance in sedentary men who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Mahmoud; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Azarbayjani, Mohammad A; Ebrahim, Khosrow

    2014-09-01

    Regular exercise training has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation, but there is limited research directly comparing different types of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of nonlinear resistance training (NRT) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on serum interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-20, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), and aerobic capacity in middle-aged men who are obese. Sedentary volunteers were assigned to NRT (n = 12), AIT (n = 12), and (CON, n = 10) control groups. The experimental groups performed 3 weekly sessions for 12 weeks, whereas the CON grouped maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Nonlinear resistance training consisted of 40-65 minutes of weight training at different intensities with flexible periodization. Aerobic interval training consisted of running on a treadmill (4 sets of 4 minutes at 80-90% of maximal heart rate, with 3-minute recovery intervals). Serum IL-10, IL-20, and TNF-α levels did not change significantly in response to training (all p > 0.05), but IL-10:TNF-α ratio increased significantly with AIT compared with CON (2.95 ± 0.84 vs. 2.52 ± 0.65; p = 0.02). After the training period, maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly in AIT and NRT compared with CON (both p resistance (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance) (both p ≤ 0.05; AIT: 0.84 ± 0.34, NRT: 0.84 ± 0.27, and CON: 1.62 ± 0.56) and fasting insulin levels (both p ≤ 0.05; AIT: 3.61 ± 1.48, NRT: 3.66 ± 0.92, and CON: 6.20 ± 2.64 μU·ml), but the AIT seems to have better anti-inflammatory effects (as indicated by the IL-10:TNF-α ratio) compared with NRT.

  11. Almost contact metric 3-submersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Watson

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available An almost contact metric 3-submersion is a Riemannian submersion, π from an almost contact metric manifold (M4m+3,(φi,ξi,ηii=13,g onto an almost quaternionic manifold (N4n,(Jii=13,h which commutes with the structure tensors of type (1,1;i.e., π*φi=Jiπ*, for i=1,2,3. For various restrictions on ∇φi, (e.g., M is 3-Sasakian, we show corresponding limitations on the second fundamental form of the fibres and on the complete integrability of the horizontal distribution. Concommitantly, relations are derived between the Betti numbers of a compact total space and the base space. For instance, if M is 3-quasi-Saskian (dΦ=0, then b1(N≤b1(M. The respective φi-holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvature tensors are studied and several unexpected results are obtained. As an example, if X and Y are orthogonal horizontal vector fields on the 3-contact (a relatively weak structure total space of such a submersion, then the respective holomorphic bisectional curvatures satisfy: Bφi(X,Y=B′J′i(X*,Y*−2. Applications to the real differential geometry of Yarg-Milis field equations are indicated based on the fact that a principal SU(2-bundle over a compactified realized space-time can be given the structure of an almost contact metric 3-submersion.

  12. Insulin Sensitivity Determines Effects of Insulin and Meal Ingestion on Systemic Vascular Resistance in Healthy Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Meijer, Rick I; Eringa, Etto C; Hoekstra, T.; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    OBJECTIVE: In addition to insulin's metabolic actions, insulin can dilate arterioles which increase blood flow to metabolically active tissues. This effect is blunted in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin's effect on SVR, determined by resistance arterioles, has, however, rarely been examined

  13. Effect of the ferrule on fracture resistance of teeth restored with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The ferrule effect in root treated teeth requiring cast posts and cores has been shown to greatly improve fracture resistance. Studies have also shown that in the case of a cast post and core, the longer the ferrule, the greater the fracture resistance. However few studies have considered the effect of different ...

  14. Indefinite metric and regularization of electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, M.

    1984-06-01

    The invariant regularization of Pauli and Villars in quantum electrodynamics can be considered as deriving from a local and causal lagrangian theory for spin 1/2 bosons, by introducing an indefinite metric and a condition on the allowed states similar to the Lorentz condition. The consequences are the asymptotic freedom of the photon's propagator. We present a calcultion of the effective charge to the fourth order in the coupling as a function of the auxiliary masses, the theory avoiding all mass divergencies to this order [fr

  15. Rotating Black Holes and the Kerr Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Roy Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Since it was first discovered in 1963 the Kerr metric has been used by relativists as a test-bed for conjectures on worm-holes, time travel, closed time-like loops, and the existence or otherwise of global Cauchy surfaces. More importantly, it has also used by astrophysicists to investigate the effects of collapsed objects on their local environments. These two groups of applications should not be confused. Astrophysical Black Holes are not the same as the Kruskal solution and its generalisations.

  16. Effect of oxygen on multidrug resistance in term human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javam, M; Audette, M C; Iqbal, M; Bloise, E; Gibb, W; Matthews, S G

    2014-05-01

    The placenta contains efflux transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), that limit the passage of xenobiotics, certain hormones and nutrients from the maternal to the fetal circulation. The expression of these transporters changes with gestational age, yet the mechanisms involved remain unknown. However, the changes in P-gp and BCRP transporter expression coincide with those of oxygen tension in the placenta, and oxygen tension has been shown to modulate P-gp and BCRP expression in other tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen tension on P-gp and BCRP expression in the term human placenta. Following equilibration in culture (96 h), term placental explants (n = 7) were cultured in 3% or 20% oxygen for 24 and 48 h. Culture medium was collected every 24 h to measure lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; explant viability) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; syncytiotrophoblast function). P-gp (encoded by ABCB1) and BCRP (encoded by ABCG2) protein and mRNA, as well as VEGFA mRNA were measured using western blot and qRT-PCR. P-gp localization was determined using immunofluorescence. Oxygen tension had a significant effect on P-gp expression, with ABCB1/P-gp mRNA and protein levels increased in the hypoxic condition (3% O2) after 48 h (p placenta in the third trimester may alter levels of placental P-gp, and in doing so alter fetal exposure to P-gp substrates, including xenobiotics and certain hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Object-Oriented Metrics Which Predict Maintainability

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Henry, Sallie M.

    1993-01-01

    Software metrics have been studied in the procedural paradigm as a quantitative means of assessing the software development process as well as the quality of software products. Several studies have validated that various metrics are useful indicators of maintenance effort in the procedural paradigm. However, software metrics have rarely been studied in the object oriented paradigm. Very few metrics have been proposed to measure object oriented systems, and the proposed ones have not been v...

  18. A proposal of knowledge engineering metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Britos, Paola Verónica; García Martínez, Ramón; Hauge, Ødwin

    2005-01-01

    Metrics used on development of expert systems is not a well investigated problem area. This article suggests some metrics to be used to measure the maturity of the conceptualization process and the complexity of the decision process in the problem domain. We propose some further work to be done with these metrics. Applying those metrics makes new and interesting problems, concerning the structure of knowledge to surface.

  19. Circumferential or sectored beam arrangements for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of primary lung tumors: Effect on target and normal-structure dose-volume metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Mara W.; Kato, Catherine M.; Carson, Kelly M.P.; Matsunaga, Nathan M.; Arao, Robert F.; Doss, Emily J.; McCracken, Charles L.; Meng, Lu Z.; Chen, Yiyi; Laub, Wolfram U.; Fuss, Martin; Tanyi, James A.

    2013-01-01

    To compare 2 beam arrangements, sectored (beam entry over ipsilateral hemithorax) vs circumferential (beam entry over both ipsilateral and contralateral lungs), for static-gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery techniques with respect to target and organs-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume metrics, as well as treatment delivery efficiency. Data from 60 consecutive patients treated using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for primary non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) formed the basis of this study. Four treatment plans were generated per data set: IMRT/VMAT plans using sectored (-s) and circumferential (-c) configurations. The prescribed dose (PD) was 60 Gy in 5 fractions to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) (maximum PTV dose ∼ 150% PD) for a 6-MV photon beam. Plan conformality, R 50 (ratio of volume circumscribed by the 50% isodose line and the PTV), and D 2 cm (D max at a distance ≥2 cm beyond the PTV) were evaluated. For lungs, mean doses (mean lung dose [MLD]) and percent V 30 /V 20 /V 10 /V 5 Gy were assessed. Spinal cord and esophagus D max and D 5 /D 50 were computed. Chest wall (CW) D max and absolute V 30 /V 20 /V 10 /V 5 Gy were reported. Sectored SBRT planning resulted in significant decrease in contralateral MLD and V 10 /V 5 Gy , as well as contralateral CW D max and V 10 /V 5 Gy (all p max and D 5 /D 50 for the spinal cord with sectored planning did not reach statistical significance for static-gantry IMRT, although VMAT metrics did show a statistically significant decrease (all p 50 significantly improved with IMRT-s/VMAT-c (p 2 cm significantly improved with VMAT-c (p < 0.001). Plan delivery efficiency improved with sectored technique (p < 0.001); mean monitor unit (MU)/cGy of PD decreased from 5.8 ± 1.9 vs 5.3 ± 1.7 (IMRT) and 2.7 ± 0.4 vs 2.4 ± 0.3 (VMAT). The sectored configuration achieves unambiguous dosimetric advantages over circumferential arrangement in terms

  20. Effect of composition on the polarization and ohmic resistances of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    % of the total resistance value. Compositional dependence of ..... C due to our experimental limitations. However, it would not have any ... TPB's are present) suggest the formation of face-to-face con- tacts between the cathode ...

  1. United States Metric Board. A Study of Metric Measurement and Legislation. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-10

    with change Board Board of Cosmetology Very little effect Board of Dental Examiners All data in metric terms IV.36 EXHIBIT J- CONT. CALIFORNIA STATE...avec fosse et monticule, portant 600, planted by the British Columbia-Yukon-North- le num.ro 600. pose par ]a Commission de ]a fron- west Territories... planted by the British Columbia-Yukon-North- le num~ro 600, pose par )a Commission de la fron- west Territories Boundary Commission approximately ti~re de

  2. The Three-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Blood Parameters, and Performance Metrics in CrossFit Trainees: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Kephart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80.3 ± 5.1 kg body mass, 22.9 ± 2.3% body fat, 1.37 back squat: body mass ratio were divided into a control group (CTL; n = 5 and a KD group (n = 7. KD participants were given dietary guidelines to follow over 12 weeks while CTL participants were instructed to continue their normal diet throughout the study, and all participants continued their CrossFit training routine for 12 weeks. Pre, 2.5-week, and 12-week anaerobic performance tests were conducted, and pre- and 12-week tests were performed for body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and ultrasound, resting energy expenditure (REE, blood-serum health markers, and aerobic capacity. Additionally, blood beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB levels were measured weekly. Blood BHB levels were 2.8- to 9.5-fold higher in KD versus CTL throughout confirming a state of nutritional ketosis. DXA fat mass decreased by 12.4% in KD (p = 0.053. DXA total lean body mass changes were not different between groups, although DXA dual-leg lean mass decreased in the KD group by 1.4% (p = 0.068, and vastus lateralis thickness values decreased in the KD group by ~8% (p = 0.065. Changes in fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were similar between groups, although LDL cholesterol increased ~35% in KD (p = 0.048. Between-group changes in REE, one-repetition maximum (1-RM back squat, 400 m run times, and VO2peak were similar between groups. While our n-sizes were limited, these preliminary data suggest

  3. Crowdsourcing metrics of digital collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Pääkkönen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the National Library of Finland (NLF there are millions of digitized newspaper and journal pages, which are openly available via the public website  http://digi.kansalliskirjasto.fi. To serve users better, last year the front end was completely overhauled with its main aim in crowdsourcing features, e.g., by giving end-users the opportunity to create digital clippings and a personal scrapbook from the digital collections. But how can you know whether crowdsourcing has had an impact? How much crowdsourcing functionalities have been used so far? Did crowdsourcing work? In this paper the statistics and metrics of a recent crowdsourcing effort are analysed across the different digitized material types (newspapers, journals, ephemera. The subjects, categories and keywords given by the users are analysed to see which topics are the most appealing. Some notable public uses of the crowdsourced article clippings are highlighted. These metrics give us indications on how the end-users, based on their own interests, are investigating and using the digital collections. Therefore, the suggested metrics illustrate the versatility of the information needs of the users, varying from citizen science to research purposes. By analysing the user patterns, we can respond to the new needs of the users by making minor changes to accommodate the most active participants, while still making the service more approachable for those who are trying out the functionalities for the first time. Participation in the clippings and annotations can enrich the materials in unexpected ways and can possibly pave the way for opportunities of using crowdsourcing more also in research contexts. This creates more opportunities for the goals of open science since source data becomes ­available, making it possible for researchers to reach out to the general public for help. In the long term, utilizing, for example, text mining methods can allow these different end-user segments to

  4. Validation in the Software Metric Development Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    In this paper the validation of software metrics will be examined. Two approaches will be combined: representational measurement theory and a validation network scheme. The development process of a software metric will be described, together with validities for the three phases of the metric

  5. Modeling and analysis of metrics databases

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to propose a comprehensive framework for quality and risk management in software development process based on analysis and modeling of software metrics data. Existing software metrics work has focused mainly on the type of metrics tobe collected ...

  6. Invariant Matsumoto metrics on homogeneous spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi Moghaddam, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider invariant Matsumoto metrics which are induced by invariant Riemannian metrics and invariant vector fields on homogeneous spaces, and then we give the flag curvature formula of them. Also we study the special cases of naturally reductive spaces and bi-invariant metrics. We end the article by giving some examples of geodesically complete Matsumoto spaces.

  7. Context-dependent ATC complexity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Borst, C.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated Air Traffic Control (ATC) complexity metrics in a search for a metric that could best capture workload. These studies have shown how daunting the search for a universal workload metric (one that could be applied in different contexts: sectors, traffic patterns,

  8. Towards a catalog format for software metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwers, E.; Visser, J.; Van Deursen, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades both the industry and the research community have proposed hundreds of metrics to track software projects, evaluate quality or estimate effort. Unfortunately, it is not always clear which metric works best in a particular context. Even worse, for some metrics there is little

  9. A Common Metric for Integrating Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Tom

    The choice of a common metric for the meta-analysis (quantitative synthesis) of correlational and experimental research studies is presented and justified. First, a background for the problem of identifying a common metric is presented. Second, the percentage of accounted variance (PAV) is described as the metric of choice, and reasons are given…

  10. Quality metrics in solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Kendra E; Ritchie, Lindsay J; Ertel, Emily; Bennett, Alexandria; Knoll, Greg A

    2018-03-20

    The best approach for determining whether a transplant program is delivering high-quality care is unknown. This review aims to identify and characterize quality metrics in solid organ transplantation. Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until February 1 2017. Relevant full text reports and conference abstracts that examined quality metrics in organ transplantation were included. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics and quality metrics from 52 full text reports and 24 abstracts. PROSPERO registration: CRD42016035353. 317 quality metrics were identified and condensed into 114 unique indicators with sufficient detail to be measured in practice, however, many lacked details on development and selection, were poorly defined, or had inconsistent definitions. The process for selecting quality indicators was described in only 5 publications and patient involvement was noted in only 1. Twenty-four reports used the indicators in clinical care, including 12 quality improvement studies. Only 14 quality metrics were assessed against patient and graft survival. >300 quality metrics have been reported in transplantation but many lacked details on development and selection, were poorly defined or had inconsistent definitions. Measures have focused on safety and effectiveness with very few addressing other quality domains such as equity and patient-centeredness. Future research will need to focus on transparent and objective metric development with proper testing, evaluation, and implementation in practice. Patients will need to be involved to ensure that transplantation quality metrics measure what is important to them.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  11. Advanced spatial metrics analysis in cellular automata land use and cover change modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, Alexander; Cabral, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for a more effective definition of cellular automata transition rules for landscape change modeling using an advanced spatial metrics analysis. This approach considers a four-stage methodology based on: (i) the search for the appropriate spatial metrics with minimal correlations; (ii) the selection of the appropriate neighborhood size; (iii) the selection of the appropriate technique for spatial metrics application; and (iv) the analysis of the contribution level of each spatial metric for joint use. The case study uses an initial set of 7 spatial metrics of which 4 are selected for modeling. Results show a better model performance when compared to modeling without any spatial metrics or with the initial set of 7 metrics.

  12. Landscape metrics for three-dimension urban pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how landscape pattern determines population or ecosystem dynamics is crucial for managing our landscapes. Urban areas are becoming increasingly dominant social-ecological systems, so it is important to understand patterns of urbanization. Most studies of urban landscape pattern examine land-use maps in two dimensions because the acquisition of 3-dimensional information is difficult. We used Brista software based on Quickbird images and aerial photos to interpret the height of buildings, thus incorporating a 3-dimensional approach. We estimated the feasibility and accuracy of this approach. A total of 164,345 buildings in the Liaoning central urban agglomeration of China, which included seven cities, were measured. Twelve landscape metrics were proposed or chosen to describe the urban landscape patterns in 2- and 3-dimensional scales. The ecological and social meaning of landscape metrics were analyzed with multiple correlation analysis. The results showed that classification accuracy compared with field surveys was 87.6%, which means this method for interpreting building height was acceptable. The metrics effectively reflected the urban architecture in relation to number of buildings, area, height, 3-D shape and diversity aspects. We were able to describe the urban characteristics of each city with these metrics. The metrics also captured ecological and social meanings. The proposed landscape metrics provided a new method for urban landscape analysis in three dimensions.

  13. Towards a Visual Quality Metric for Digital Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1998-01-01

    The advent of widespread distribution of digital video creates a need for automated methods for evaluating visual quality of digital video. This is particularly so since most digital video is compressed using lossy methods, which involve the controlled introduction of potentially visible artifacts. Compounding the problem is the bursty nature of digital video, which requires adaptive bit allocation based on visual quality metrics. In previous work, we have developed visual quality metrics for evaluating, controlling, and optimizing the quality of compressed still images. These metrics incorporate simplified models of human visual sensitivity to spatial and chromatic visual signals. The challenge of video quality metrics is to extend these simplified models to temporal signals as well. In this presentation I will discuss a number of the issues that must be resolved in the design of effective video quality metrics. Among these are spatial, temporal, and chromatic sensitivity and their interactions, visual masking, and implementation complexity. I will also touch on the question of how to evaluate the performance of these metrics.

  14. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

    2005-08-01

    With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

  15. Ring-push metric learning for person reidentification

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Botao; Yu, Shaohua

    2017-05-01

    Person reidentification (re-id) has been widely studied because of its extensive use in video surveillance and forensics applications. It aims to search a specific person among a nonoverlapping camera network, which is highly challenging due to large variations in the cluttered background, human pose, and camera viewpoint. We present a metric learning algorithm for learning a Mahalanobis distance for re-id. Generally speaking, there exist two forces in the conventional metric learning process, one pulling force that pulls points of the same class closer and the other pushing force that pushes points of different classes as far apart as possible. We argue that, when only a limited number of training data are given, forcing interclass distances to be as large as possible may drive the metric to overfit the uninformative part of the images, such as noises and backgrounds. To alleviate overfitting, we propose the ring-push metric learning algorithm. Different from other metric learning methods that only punish too small interclass distances, in the proposed method, both too small and too large inter-class distances are punished. By introducing the generalized logistic function as the loss, we formulate the ring-push metric learning as a convex optimization problem and utilize the projected gradient descent method to solve it. The experimental results on four public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Environmental variation alters the fitness effects of rifampicin resistance mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Danna R; Moss, Ethan; MacLean, R Craig

    2016-03-01

    The fitness effects of antibiotic resistance mutations in antibiotic-free conditions play a key role in determining the long-term maintenance of resistance. Although resistance is usually associated with a cost, the impact of environmental variation on the cost of resistance is poorly understood. Here, we test the impact of heterogeneity in temperature and resource availability on the fitness effects of antibiotic resistance using strains of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying clinically important rifampicin resistance mutations. Although the rank order of fitness was generally maintained across environments, fitness effects relative to the wild type differed significantly. Changes in temperature had a profound impact on the fitness effects of resistance, whereas changes in carbon substrate had only a weak impact. This suggests that environmental heterogeneity may influence whether the costs of resistance are likely to be ameliorated by second-site compensatory mutations or by reversion to wild-type rpoB. Our results highlight the need to consider environmental heterogeneity and genotype-by-environment interactions for fitness in models of resistance evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Characterization of Sr9h, a wheat stem rust resistance allele effective to Ug99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Matthew N; Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Jin, Yue; Chao, Shiaoman; Fetch, Thomas G; Pretorius, Zacharias A; Hiebert, Colin W

    2014-08-01

    Wheat stem rust resistance gene SrWeb is an allele at the Sr9 locus that confers resistance to Ug99. Race TTKSK (Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal fungus of stem rust, threatens global wheat production because of its broad virulence to current wheat cultivars. A recently identified Ug99 resistance gene from cultivar Webster, temporarily designated as SrWeb, mapped near the stem rust resistance gene locus Sr9. We determined that SrWeb is also present in Ug99 resistant cultivar Gabo 56 by comparative mapping and an allelism test. Analysis of resistance in a population segregating for both Sr9e and SrWeb demonstrated that SrWeb is an allele at the Sr9 locus, which subsequently was designated as Sr9h. Webster and Gabo 56 were susceptible to the Ug99-related race TTKSF+ from South Africa. Race TTKSF+ possesses unique virulence to uncharacterized Ug99 resistance in cultivar Matlabas. This result validated that resistance to Ug99 in Webster and Gabo 56 is conferred by the same gene: Sr9h. The emergence of pathogen virulence to several resistance genes that are effective to the original Ug99 race TTKSK, including Sr9h, suggests that resistance genes should be used in combinations in order to increase resistance durability.

  18. Combined effects of fretting and pollutant particles on the contact resistance of the electrical connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Kong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, when electrical connectors operate in vibration environments, fretting will be produced at the contact interfaces. In addition, serious environmental pollution particles will affect contact resistance of the connectors. The fretting will worsen the reliability of connectors with the pollutant particles. The combined effects of fretting and quartz particles on the contact resistance of the gold plating connectors are studied with a fretting test system. The results show that the frequencies have obvious effect on the contact resistance. The higher the frequency, the higher the contact resistance is. The quartz particles cause serious wear of gold plating, which make the nickel and copper layer exposed quickly to increase the contact resistance. Especially in high humidity environments, water supply certain adhesion function and make quartz particles easy to insert or cover the contact surfaces, and even cause opening resistance.

  19. Effect of resistance feedback on spin torque-induced switching of nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, Samir; Webb, Richard A.; Covington, Mark; Kaka, Shehzaad; Crawford, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    In large magnetoresistance devices spin torque-induced changes in resistance can produce GHz current and voltage oscillations which can affect magnetization reversal. In addition, capacitive shunting in large resistance devices can further reduce the current, adversely affecting spin torque switching. Here, we simultaneously solve the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with spin torque and the transmission line telegrapher's equations to study the effects of resistance feedback and capacitance on magnetization reversal of both spin valves and magnetic tunnel junctions. While for spin valves parallel (P) to anti-parallel (AP) switching is adversely affected by the resistance feedback due to saturation of the spin torque, in low resistance magnetic tunnel junctions P-AP switching is enhanced. We study the effect of resistance feedback on the switching time of magnetic tunnel junctions, and show that magnetization switching is only affected by capacitive shunting in the pF range.

  20. Some Equivalences between Cone b-Metric Spaces and b-Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poom Kumam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a b-metric on the cone b-metric space and then prove some equivalences between them. As applications, we show that fixed point theorems on cone b-metric spaces can be obtained from fixed point theorems on b-metric spaces.

  1. Metric preheating and limitations of linearized gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.; Tamburini, Fabrizio; Kaiser, David I.; Maartens, Roy

    1999-01-01

    During the preheating era after inflation, resonant amplification of quantum field fluctuations takes place. Recently it has become clear that this must be accompanied by resonant amplification of scalar metric fluctuations, since the two are united by Einstein's equations. Furthermore, this 'metric preheating' enhances particle production, and leads to gravitational rescattering effects even at linear order. In multi-field models with strong preheating (q>>1), metric perturbations are driven non-linear, with the strongest amplification typically on super-Hubble scales (k→0). This amplification is causal, being due to the super-Hubble coherence of the inflaton condensate, and is accompanied by resonant growth of entropy perturbations. The amplification invalidates the use of the linearized Einstein field equations, irrespective of the amount of fine-tuning of the initial conditions. This has serious implications on all scales - from large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies to primordial black holes. We investigate the (q,k) parameter space in a two-field model, and introduce the time to non-linearity, t nl , as the timescale for the breakdown of the linearized Einstein equations. t nl is a robust indicator of resonance behavior, showing the fine structure in q and k that one expects from a quasi-Floquet system, and we argue that t nl is a suitable generalization of the static Floquet index in an expanding universe. Backreaction effects are expected to shut down the linear resonances, but cannot remove the existing amplification, which threatens the viability of strong preheating when confronted with the CMB. Mode-mode coupling and turbulence tend to re-establish scale invariance, but this process is limited by causality and for small k the primordial scale invariance of the spectrum may be destroyed. We discuss ways to escape the above conclusions, including secondary phases of inflation and preheating solely to fermions. The exclusion principle

  2. Effect of resistant starch and aging conditions on the physicochemical properties of frozen soy yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Rahil; Khomeiri, Morteza; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Mazaheri-Tehrani, Mostafa; Aalami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of resistant starch concentration (0, 1, 2 %), aging time (2, 13, 24 h) and aging temperature (2, 4, 6 °C) on the physicochemical properties of frozen soy yogurt. The results showed that resistant starch increased viscosity because of its water binding properties. Resistant starch also increased foam stability, fat destabilization, and hardness, but it decreased overrun and meltdown rate. Viscosity, hardness and fat destabilization increased as aging...

  3. Effect of Asymmetrical Edge Disconnection on Equivalent Series Resistance of Metalized Polypropylene Capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sivakumar; S. Usa; M.A. Panneerselvam

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of asymmetrical partial edge disconnection on the Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) of Metalized polypropylene capacitors an experimental study has been made. Theoretical analysis made using PSPICE simulation package reveals that electrode resistance of individual turn rises from 10 to 30% depending on the location of the turn. This rise is not measureable at all the frequencies as ESR is frequency dependent and it includes resistance due to electrodes and ...

  4. Angles between Curves in Metric Measure Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bang-Xian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to study the angle between two curves in the framework of metric (and metric measure spaces. More precisely, we give a new notion of angle between two curves in a metric space. Such a notion has a natural interplay with optimal transportation and is particularly well suited for metric measure spaces satisfying the curvature-dimension condition. Indeed one of the main results is the validity of the cosine formula on RCD*(K, N metric measure spaces. As a consequence, the new introduced notions are compatible with the corresponding classical ones for Riemannian manifolds, Ricci limit spaces and Alexandrov spaces.

  5. On characterizations of quasi-metric completeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dag, H.; Romaguera, S.; Tirado, P.

    2017-07-01

    Hu proved in [4] that a metric space (X, d) is complete if and only if for any closed subspace C of (X, d), every Banach contraction on C has fixed point. Since then several authors have investigated the problem of characterizing the metric completeness by means of fixed point theorems. Recently this problem has been studied in the more general context of quasi-metric spaces for different notions of completeness. Here we present a characterization of a kind of completeness for quasi-metric spaces by means of a quasi-metric versions of Hu’s theorem. (Author)

  6. Investigation of the integrated effects of irradiating platinum resistance thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neverov, V.A.; Revyakin, Yu.L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of nuclear energy imposes increased demands on the reliability and quality of the information obtained from primary transducers which monitor the basic parameters of current reactor devices. One of these parameters is the temperature of different modules. This is mainly measured by thermoelectric transducers. Resistance thermometers now being adopted into measurement practice. These provide an initial accuracy of better than plus or minus 273 degrees C and also a normalized systematic error component caused by the action of the temperature. However, a systematic error component resulting from the action of the reactor radiation remains undetermined, and this greatly hinders the extensive use of resistance thermometers in reactor devices. Investigations were made using platinum resistance thermometers of different constructions designs. Irradiation took place in sealed ampules. Each of these contained three thermometers. The fluence achieved was varied by placing the ampules at different heights relative to the central plane of the active zone of the reactor. The irradiation temperature was determined by calculation, taking into account the radiative energy release where the irradiation occurred and the helium gap between the thermometer casing and the walls of an SM-2 reactor channel. Following irradiation in the reactor, the resistance thermometers were calibrated in a special thermometric device providing the minimum contact resistance, uniform heating of the samples, and stabilization of the temperature regime

  7. Circumferential or sectored beam arrangements for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of primary lung tumors: Effect on target and normal-structure dose-volume metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Mara W. [Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (United States); Kato, Catherine M. [Macalester College, St. Paul, MN (United States); Carson, Kelly M.P. [The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Matsunaga, Nathan M. [Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Arao, Robert F. [Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Doss, Emily J. [Department of Internal Medicine, Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Portland, OR (United States); McCracken, Charles L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Meng, Lu Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Chen, Yiyi [Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Laub, Wolfram U.; Fuss, Martin [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Tanyi, James A., E-mail: tanyij@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To compare 2 beam arrangements, sectored (beam entry over ipsilateral hemithorax) vs circumferential (beam entry over both ipsilateral and contralateral lungs), for static-gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery techniques with respect to target and organs-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume metrics, as well as treatment delivery efficiency. Data from 60 consecutive patients treated using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for primary non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) formed the basis of this study. Four treatment plans were generated per data set: IMRT/VMAT plans using sectored (-s) and circumferential (-c) configurations. The prescribed dose (PD) was 60 Gy in 5 fractions to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) (maximum PTV dose ∼ 150% PD) for a 6-MV photon beam. Plan conformality, R{sub 50} (ratio of volume circumscribed by the 50% isodose line and the PTV), and D{sub 2} {sub cm} (D{sub max} at a distance ≥2 cm beyond the PTV) were evaluated. For lungs, mean doses (mean lung dose [MLD]) and percent V{sub 30}/V{sub 20}/V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} Gy were assessed. Spinal cord and esophagus D{sub max} and D{sub 5}/D{sub 50} were computed. Chest wall (CW) D{sub max} and absolute V{sub 30}/V{sub 20}/V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy} were reported. Sectored SBRT planning resulted in significant decrease in contralateral MLD and V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy}, as well as contralateral CW D{sub max} and V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy} (all p < 0.001). Nominal reductions of D{sub max} and D{sub 5}/D{sub 50} for the spinal cord with sectored planning did not reach statistical significance for static-gantry IMRT, although VMAT metrics did show a statistically significant decrease (all p < 0.001). The respective measures for esophageal doses were significantly lower with sectored planning (p < 0.001). Despite comparable dose conformality, irrespective of planning configuration, R{sub 50} significantly improved with IMRT

  8. Effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography; Hiteiko tomography ni okeru konaisui no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Theoretical discussions were given on the effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography. The discussions performed incorporation of earth resistance as a method to consider borehole diameters in an FEM calculation using wire elements. The numerical experiment conducted a simulation on the following two objects: resistivity tomography in a horizontal multi-layer structure consisted of layers with resistivity ranging from 10 to 10000 ohm-m, and a model with a slanted low resistivity band existing in a background of 5000 ohm-m. As a result of the discussions, it was made clear that the effect of the boreholes can be corrected by giving earth resistance between the wire elements and natural ground. An improved potential calculating program indicated that the effect of the fluid-filled boreholes in the resistivity tomography generates false images with high resistivity along the bores if the resistivity has high contrast. Incorporating the wire elements into an inverse analysis model reduces the false images and improves the accuracy. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  9. Effects of ultraviolet light disinfection on tetracycline-resistant bacteria in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, H; Sullivan, B; Kaur, J; Karthikeyan, R

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitous use of antibiotics has led to an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, including strains that are multidrug-resistant, pathogenic, or both. There is also evidence to suggest that antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) spread to the environment, humans, and animals through wastewater effluents. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Wastewater effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Texas were evaluated for differences in tetracycline-resistant bacteria before and after UV treatment. The effects of photoreactivation or dark repair on the reactivation of bacteria present in WWTP effluent after UV disinfection were also examined. Culture-based methods were used to characterize viable heterotrophic, tetracycline-resistant heterotrophic, Escherichia coli, and tetracycline-resistant E. coli bacteria present before and after UV treatment. UV disinfection was found to be as effective at reducing concentrations of resistant heterotrophs and E. coli, as it was at reducing total bacterial concentrations. The lowest survival ratio following UV disinfection was observed in tetracycline-resistant E. coli showing particular susceptibility to UV treatment. Photoreactivation and dark repair rates were found to be comparable to each other for all bacterial populations.

  10. Web metrics for library and information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, David

    2014-01-01

    This is a practical guide to using web metrics to measure impact and demonstrate value. The web provides an opportunity to collect a host of different metrics, from those associated with social media accounts and websites to more traditional research outputs. This book is a clear guide for library and information professionals as to what web metrics are available and how to assess and use them to make informed decisions and demonstrate value. As individuals and organizations increasingly use the web in addition to traditional publishing avenues and formats, this book provides the tools to unlock web metrics and evaluate the impact of this content. The key topics covered include: bibliometrics, webometrics and web metrics; data collection tools; evaluating impact on the web; evaluating social media impact; investigating relationships between actors; exploring traditional publications in a new environment; web metrics and the web of data; the future of web metrics and the library and information professional.Th...

  11. Pleiotropic effects of herbicide-resistance genes on crop yield: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri

    2013-08-01

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered herbicide-resistant crop varieties (HRCVs)-encompassing 83% of all GM crops and nearly 8% of the worldwide arable area-is due to technical efficiency and higher returns. Other herbicide-resistant varieties obtained from genetic resources and mutagenesis have also been successfully released. Although the benefit for weed control is the main criteria for choosing HRCVs, the pleiotropic costs of genes endowing resistance have rarely been investigated in crops. Here the available data of comparisons between isogenic resistant and susceptible varieties are reviewed. Pleiotropic harmful effects on yield are reported in half of the cases, mostly with resistance mechanisms that originate from genetic resources and mutagenesis (atrazine in oilseed rape and millet, trifluralin in millet, imazamox in cotton) rather than genetic engineering (chlorsulfuron and glufosinate in some oilseed rape varieties, glyphosate in soybean). No effect was found for sethoxydim and bromoxynil resistance. Variable minor effects were found for imazamox, chlorsulfuron, glufosinate and glyphosate resistance. The importance of the breeding plan and the genetic background on the emergence of these effects is pointed out. Breeders' efforts to produce better varieties could compensate for the yield loss, which eliminates any possibility of formulating generic conclusions on pleiotropic effects that can be applied to all resistant crops. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Fanpage metrics analysis. "Study on content engagement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zoha; Suberamanian, Kumaran; Zanuddin, Hasmah Binti; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam Bin Md

    2016-08-01

    Social Media is now determined as an excellent communicative tool to connect directly with consumers. One of the most significant ways to connect with the consumers through these Social Networking Sites (SNS) is to create a facebook fanpage with brand contents and to place different posts periodically on these fanpages. In measuring social networking sites' effectiveness, corporate houses are now analyzing metrics in terms of calculating engagement rate, number of comments/share and likings in fanpages. So now, it is very important for the marketers to know the effectiveness of different contents or posts of fanpages in order to increase the fan responsiveness and engagement rate in the fan pages. In the study the authors have analyzed total 1834 brand posts from 17 international brands of Electronics companies. Data of 9 months (From December 2014 to August 2015) have been collected for analyses, which were available online in the Brand' fan pages. An econometrics analysis is conducted using Eviews 9, to determine the impact of different contents on fanpage engagement. The study picked the four most frequently posted content to determine their impact on PTA (people Talking About) metrics and Fanpage engagement activities.

  13. Electromagnetic properties of metric based media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A metric based constitutive relation is used to calculate the optical properties of the matter free space surrounding the sources for the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom, Kerr-Neumann, and Kerr-Taub-NUT singularity solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations. Information is obtained about effective indices of refraction, the behavior of polarization states, and properties of photon trajectories in the medium. The methodology is demonstrated by presenting some new results in regard to propagation of light through crystals. The new information describes the combinations of optical phenomena which break the two-fold degeneracy of light speeds. In the metric based constitutive relation approach the homogeneous wave equation treatment neglects derivatives in the constitutive quantities and corresponds to the geometrical optics limit. The singularity solutions are extensively analyzed in that approximation. The effective indices of refraction with respect to a flat space-time background are functions of the coordinates and are anisotropic with respect to the coordinate directions in a spherical-like frame field. However, in a particular coordinate direction all polarization states propagate with the same speed so that birefringent or optical activity properties are not predicted for the homogeneous limit

  14. Information Distances versus Entropy Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Information distance has become an important tool in a wide variety of applications. Various types of information distance have been made over the years. These information distance measures are different from entropy metric, as the former is based on Kolmogorov complexity and the latter on Shannon entropy. However, for any computable probability distributions, up to a constant, the expected value of Kolmogorov complexity equals the Shannon entropy. We study the similar relationship between entropy and information distance. We also study the relationship between entropy and the normalized versions of information distances.

  15. The Metric of Colour Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching...... and found the MacAdam ellipses which are often interpreted as defining the metric tensor at their centres. An important question is whether it is possible to define colour coordinates such that the Euclidean distance in these coordinates correspond to human perception. Using cubic splines to represent...

  16. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  17. The Effect of Oxygen on Bile Resistance in Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Morgan L; Pendarvis, Ken; Nanduri, Bindu; Edelmann, Mariola J; Jenkins, Haley N; Reddy, Joseph S; Wilson, Jessica G; Ding, Xuan; Broadway, Paul R; Ammari, Mais G; Paul, Oindrila; Roberts, Brandy; Donaldson, Janet R

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe that is the causative agent of the disease listeriosis. The infectious ability of this bacterium is dependent upon resistance to stressors encountered within the gastrointestinal tract, including bile. Previous studies have indicated bile salt hydrolase activity increases under anaerobic conditions, suggesting anaerobic conditions influence stress responses. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if reduced oxygen availability increased bile resistance of L. monocytogenes. Four strains representing three serovars were evaluated for changes in viability and proteome expression following exposure to bile in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Viability for F2365 (serovar 4b), EGD-e (serovar 1/2a), and 10403S (serovar 1/2a) increased following exposure to 10% porcine bile under anaerobic conditions (P 0.05) in bile resistance between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that oxygen availability does not influence resistance in this strain. The proteomic analysis indicated F2365 and EGD-e had an increased expression of proteins associated with cell envelope and membrane bioenergetics under anaerobic conditions, including thioredoxin-disulfide reductase and cell division proteins. Interestingly, HCC23 had an increase in several dehydrogenases following exposure to bile under aerobic conditions, suggesting that the NADH:NAD+ is altered and may impact bile resistance. Variations were observed in the expression of the cell shape proteins between strains, which corresponded to morphological differences observed by scanning electron microscopy. These data indicate that oxygen availability influences bile resistance. Further research is needed to decipher how these changes in metabolism impact pathogenicity in vivo and also the impact that this has on susceptibility of a host to listeriosis. PMID:27274623

  18. Metric Ranking of Invariant Networks with Belief Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Changxia [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China; Ge, Yong [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Song, Qinbao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China; Ge, Yuan [Anhui Polytechnic University, China; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The management of large-scale distributed information systems relies on the effective use and modeling of monitoring data collected at various points in the distributed information systems. A promising approach is to discover invariant relationships among the monitoring data and generate invariant networks, where a node is a monitoring data source (metric) and a link indicates an invariant relationship between two monitoring data. Such an invariant network representation can help system experts to localize and diagnose the system faults by examining those broken invariant relationships and their related metrics, because system faults usually propagate among the monitoring data and eventually lead to some broken invariant relationships. However, at one time, there are usually a lot of broken links (invariant relationships) within an invariant network. Without proper guidance, it is difficult for system experts to manually inspect this large number of broken links. Thus, a critical challenge is how to effectively and efficiently rank metrics (nodes) of invariant networks according to the anomaly levels of metrics. The ranked list of metrics will provide system experts with useful guidance for them to localize and diagnose the system faults. To this end, we propose to model the nodes and the broken links as a Markov Random Field (MRF), and develop an iteration algorithm to infer the anomaly of each node based on belief propagation (BP). Finally, we validate the proposed algorithm on both realworld and synthetic data sets to illustrate its effectiveness.

  19. Prioritizing Urban Habitats for Connectivity Conservation: Integrating Centrality and Ecological Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poodat, Fatemeh; Arrowsmith, Colin; Fraser, David; Gordon, Ascelin

    2015-09-01

    Connectivity among fragmented areas of habitat has long been acknowledged as important for the viability of biological conservation, especially within highly modified landscapes. Identifying important habitat patches in ecological connectivity is a priority for many conservation strategies, and the application of `graph theory' has been shown to provide useful information on connectivity. Despite the large number of metrics for connectivity derived from graph theory, only a small number have been compared in terms of the importance they assign to nodes in a network. This paper presents a study that aims to define a new set of metrics and compares these with traditional graph-based metrics, used in the prioritization of habitat patches for ecological connectivity. The metrics measured consist of "topological" metrics, "ecological metrics," and "integrated metrics," Integrated metrics are a combination of topological and ecological metrics. Eight metrics were applied to the habitat network for the fat-tailed dunnart within Greater Melbourne, Australia. A non-directional network was developed in which nodes were linked to adjacent nodes. These links were then weighted by the effective distance between patches. By applying each of the eight metrics for the study network, nodes were ranked according to their contribution to the overall network connectivity. The structured comparison revealed the similarity and differences in the way the habitat for the fat-tailed dunnart was ranked based on different classes of metrics. Due to the differences in the way the metrics operate, a suitable metric should be chosen that best meets the objectives established by the decision maker.

  20. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  1. Effects of sex steroids on components of the insulin resistance syndrome in transsexual subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.H.; Giltay, E.J.; Teerlink, T.; Scheffer, P.G.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J.C.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2003-01-01

    objective Sex differences are found in most components of the insulin resistance syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk profile. These differences are attributed to sex-specific sex steroid profiles, but the effects of sex steroids on the individual components of the insulin resistance

  2. Effects of sex steroids on components of the insulin resistance syndrome in transsexual subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Jolanda M H; Giltay, Erik J; Teerlink, Tom; Scheffer, Peter G; Asscheman, Henk; Seidell, Jacob C; Gooren, Louis J G

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sex differences are found in most components of the insulin resistance syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk profile. These differences are attributed to sex-specific sex steroid profiles, but the effects of sex steroids on the individual components of the insulin resistance

  3. Effects of gyrA and parC Mutations in Quinolones Resistant Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important of fluoroquinolones resistance mechanisms is the accumulation of mutations in the bacterial enzymes targeted by fluoroquinolones; DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV. The effect of gyrase and Topoisomerase IV enzymes mutations on quinolones resistance in clinical Gram negative bacteria in ...

  4. Effects of three novel resistant black raspberry selections on Amphorophora agathonica feeding behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a practical and cost-effective approach for growers to manage insect pests. Recently, three new sources of resistance in black raspberry (selections ORUS 3778-1, ORUS 3817-1, and ORUS 4109-1) against the large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora agathonica, were identified. We stu...

  5. Effects of halides on plasmid-mediated silver resistance in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Maynes, M.; Silver, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    1998-12-01

    Silver resistance of sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and resistance plasmid-containing J53(pMG101) was affected by halides in the growth medium. The effects of halides on Ag{sup +} resistance were measured with AgNO{sub 3} and silver sulfadiazine, both on agar and in liquid. Low concentrations of chloride made the differences in MICs between sensitive and resistant strains larger. High concentrations of halides increased the sensitivities of both strains to Ag{sup +}. The purpose of this report is to set out easy-to-use conditions for measuring silver sensitivity and resistance in familiar and widely used media, Luria-Bertani (LB) agar and broth, so as to facilitate wider identification of silver resistance in nature.

  6. effect of biocides on biofilms of some multidrug resistant clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    The multi drug resistant clinical isolates used in this study are Staphylococcus aureus,. Pseudomonas ... Bacterial isolates were obtained from urine, ..... Staphylococcus epidermidis from implant infections. Comparison of a PCR method that recognizes the presence of icagenes with two classic phenotypic methods. Journal.

  7. Preparation Ferrule Design Effect on EndoCrown Fracture Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Resistance Major Michael L. Einhorn APPROVED: Dean, Air Force Postgraduate Dental School II Acknowledgements: Special thanks to Col Howard Roberts...permission of the copyright owner. Signature Printed Name USAF Postgraduate Dental School Keesler AFB, MS Uniformed Services University -iv...6 Figure 6, Cemented Standardized e.max Restoration

  8. Effects of Microneedle Design Parameters on Hydraulic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R Lyle; Kosoglu, Mehmet A; Parker, Matthew; Rylander, Christopher G

    2011-09-01

    Microneedles have been an expanding medical technology in recent years due to their ability to penetrate tissue and deliver therapy with minimal invasiveness and patient discomfort. Variations in design have allowed for enhanced fluid delivery, biopsy collection, and the measurement of electric potentials. Our novel microneedle design attempts to combine many of these functions into a single length of silica tubing capable of both light and fluid delivery terminating in a sharp tip of less than 100 microns in diameter. This manuscript focuses on the fluid flow aspects of the design, characterizing the contributions to hydraulic resistance from the geometric parameters of the microneedles. Experiments consisted of measuring the volumetric flow rate of de-ionized water at set pressures (ranging from 69-621 kPa) through a relevant range of tubing lengths, needle lengths, and needle tip diameters. Data analysis showed that the silica tubing (~150 micron bore diameter) adhered to within ±5% of the theoretical prediction by Poiseuille's Law describing laminar internal pipe flow at Reynolds numbers less than 700. High hydraulic resistance within the microneedles correlated with decreasing tip diameter. The hydraulic resistance offered by the silica tubing preceding the microneedle taper was approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude less per unit length, but remained the dominating resistance in most experiments as the tubing length was >30 mm. These findings will be incorporated into future design permutations to produce a microneedle capable of both efficient fluid transfer and light delivery.

  9. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    friendly and affordable by local resource poor farmers. Though information is available on genotypic resistance to M. vitrata in cowpea, such information on pigeon pea and other legumes AYB inclusive is limited. Considering the nutritional values of AYB, there is need to adopt measures that will control this important pest of ...

  10. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  11. Effect of pressure on electrical resistance of WSe single crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The results of electrical resistance measurements under pressure on single crystals of. WSe2 are reported. Measurements up to 8.5 GPa are carried out using Bridgman anvil set up and beyond it using diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to a pressure of 27 GPa. There is no clear indication of any phase transition till the ...

  12. Effect of pressure on electrical resistance of WSe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of electrical resistance measurements under pressure on single crystals of WSe2 are reported. Measurements up to 8.5 GPa are carried out using Bridgman anvil set up and beyond it using diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to a pressure of 27 GPa. There is no clear indication of any phase transition till the highest ...

  13. Adverse effects profile of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study population, 72.6% of patients were HIV positive, and 85% were concomitantly on HAART and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment. Adverse events were significantly more common in patients who were HIV positive than in patients who were HIV negative with regard to peripheral neuropathy (p-value ...

  14. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  15. Effects of composite scale on high temperature oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haitao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloys with aluminum and silicon addition, alone and in combination, were melted using an intermediate frequency induction furnace with a non-oxidation method. By the oxidation weight gain method, the oxidation resistances of the test alloys were determined at 1,200 ìC for 500 hours. According to the oxidation weight gains, the oxidation kinetic curves were plotted and the functions were regressed by the least squares method. The results show that the oxidation kinetic curves follow the power function of y = axb (a>0, 0effects of scale compositions on oxidation resistance were studied further by analyses using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It is found that the composite scale compounds of Cr2O3, メ-Al2O3, SiO2 and FeCr2O4, with compact structure and tiny grains, shows complete oxidation resistance at 1,200 ìC. When the composite scale lacks メ-Al2O3 or SiO2, it becomes weak in oxidation resistance with a loose structure. By the criterion of standard Gibbs formation free energy, the model of the nucleation and growth of the composite scale is established. The forming of the composite scale is the result of the competition of being oxidized and reduced between aluminum, silicon and the matrix metal elements of iron, chromium and nickel. The protection of the composite scale is analyzed essentially by electrical conductivity and strength properties.

  16. Effect of resistance training using bodyweight in the elderly: Comparison of resistance exercise movement between slow and normal speed movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Oba, Naoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether a slow movement protocol can be applied to resistance training using bodyweight. In addition, the intervention program combined plyometric exercise with resistance exercise to improve physical function overall. A total of 39 active elderly adults participated in a 16-week intervention. The program consisted of five resistance exercises and four plyometric exercises using their own bodyweight with a single set for each exercise. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group carried out resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation (3-s concentric, 3-s eccentric and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition). The other group as a movement comparison followed the same regimen, but at normal speed (1-s eccentric and 1-s concentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition). Muscle size, strength and physical function were measured before and after the intervention period. After the intervention, strengths of upper and lower limbs, and maximum leg extensor power were significantly improved in both groups. Muscle size did not change in either group. There were no significant differences in any of the parameters between groups. The intervention program using only own bodyweight that comprised resistance exercise with slow movement and plyometric exercise can improve physical function in the elderly, even with single sets for each exercise. However, there was no enhanced muscle hypertrophic effect. Further attempts, such as increasing performing multiple sets, would be required to induce muscle hypertrophy. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 1270-1277. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. [Physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Dong; Hua, Wei-Guo; Chu, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ju

    2006-11-01

    To observe the physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice, and to evaluate the safety and beneficial effects of this regimen. One hundred and forty-four adult ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: standard feed AL group (ad libitum intake of standard feed), hunger-resistant food AL group (ad libitum intake of hunger-resistant food), standard feed IF group (feeding standard feed and fasting on alternate days), and hunger-resistant food IF group (feeding hunger-resistant food and fasting on alternate days). The experiment lasted for 4-8 weeks and all mice drank water freely. The quality of life, body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid, blood routine test, liver and kidney functions as well as the viscera indexes were examined. Compared to the standard feed AL group, the caloric taking and the increment of body-weight were reduced (Pfood AL group and the hunger-resistant food IF group, the values of fasting blood glucose were reduced in standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group (Pfood IF group (Pfood AL group, standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group. The regimen of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food is safe and beneficial to metabolic regulation, such as controlling body-weight and adjusting blood glucose and serum lipid. It is expected that development of this regimen will be helpful to the control of obesity and diabetes, etc.

  18. Metrics for building performance assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.

  19. The antihypertensive effects of aerobic versus isometric handgrip resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Garrett I; Taylor, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; MacDonald, Hayley V; Lamberti, Lauren; Chen, Ming-Hui; Farinatti, Paulo; Kraemer, William J; Panza, Gregory A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Deshpande, Ved; Ballard, Kevin D; Mujtaba, Mohammadtokir; White, C Michael; Pescatello, Linda S

    2017-02-01

    Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure (BP) on average 5-7 mmHg among those with hypertension; limited evidence suggests similar or even greater BP benefits may result from isometric handgrip (IHG) resistance exercise. We conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating the antihypertensive effects of an acute bout of aerobic compared with IHG exercise in the same individuals. Middle-aged adults (n = 27) with prehypertension and obesity randomly completed three experiments: aerobic (60% peak oxygen uptake, 30 min); IHG (30% maximum voluntary contraction, 4 × 2 min bilateral); and nonexercise control. Study participants were assessed for carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity pre and post exercise, and left the laboratory wearing an ambulatory BP monitor. SBP and DBP were lower after aerobic versus IHG (4.8 ± 1.8/3.1 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.01/0.04) and control (5.6 ± 1.8/3.6 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.02/0.04) over the awake hours, with no difference between IHG versus control (P = 0.80/0.83). Pulse wave velocity changes following acute exercise did not differ by modality (aerobic increased 0.01 ± 0.21 ms, IHG decreased 0.06 ± 0.15 ms, control increased 0.25 ± 0.17 ms, P > 0.05). A subset of participants then completed either 8 weeks of aerobic or IHG training. Awake SBP was lower after versus before aerobic training (7.6 ± 3.1 mmHg, P = 0.02), whereas sleep DBP was higher after IHG training (7.7 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.02). Our findings did not support IHG as antihypertensive therapy but that aerobic exercise should continue to be recommended as the primary exercise modality for its immediate and sustained BP benefits.

  20. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; Psalt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians: cluster randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Jakobsen, Markus D; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians.......To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians....

  2. Quality metrics for detailed clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SunJu; Huff, Stanley M; Kim, Yoon; Kalra, Dipak

    2013-05-01

    To develop quality metrics for detailed clinical models (DCMs) and test their validity. Based on existing quality criteria which did not include formal metrics, we developed quality metrics by applying the ISO/IEC 9126 software quality evaluation model. The face and content validity of the initial quality metrics were assessed by 9 international experts. Content validity was defined as agreement by over 70% of the panelists. For eliciting opinions and achieving consensus of the panelists, a two round Delphi survey was conducted. Valid quality metrics were considered reliable if agreement between two evaluators' assessments of two example DCMs was over 0.60 in terms of the kappa coefficient. After reliability and validity were tested, the final DCM quality metrics were selected. According to the results of the reliability test, the degree of agreement was high (a kappa coefficient of 0.73). Based on the results of the reliability test, 8 quality evaluation domains and 29 quality metrics were finalized as DCM quality metrics. Quality metrics were validated by a panel of international DCM experts. Therefore, we expect that the metrics, which constitute essential qualitative and quantitative quality requirements for DCMs, can be used to support rational decision-making by DCM developers and clinical users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality Research by Using Performance Evaluation Metrics for Software Systems and Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BULIGIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Software performance and evaluation have four basic needs: (1 well-defined performance testing strategy, requirements, and focuses, (2 correct and effective performance evaluation models, (3 well-defined performance metrics, and (4 cost-effective performance testing and evaluation tools and techniques. This chapter first introduced a performance test process and discusses the performance testing objectives and focus areas. Then, it summarized the basic challenges and issues on performance testing and evaluation of component based programs and components. Next, this chapter presented different types of performance metrics for software components and systems, including processing speed, utilization, throughput, reliability, availability, and scalability metrics. Most of the performance metrics covered here can be considered as the application of existing metrics to software components. New performance metrics are needed to support the performance evaluation of component based programs.

  4. Evaluation of metrics for benchmarking antimicrobial use in the UK dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Harriet L; Turner, Andrea; Morgans, Lisa; Massey, Jonathan; Schubert, Hannah; Rees, Gwen; Barrett, David; Dowsey, Andrew; Reyher, Kristen K

    2018-02-23

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance is of global concern across human and animal health. In 2016, the UK government committed to new targets for reducing antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock. Although a number of metrics for quantifying AMU are defined in the literature, all give slightly different interpretations. This paper evaluates a selection of metrics for AMU in the dairy industry: total mg, total mg/kg, daily dose and daily course metrics. Although the focus is on their application to the dairy industry, the metrics and issues discussed are relevant across livestock sectors. In order to be used widely, a metric should be understandable and relevant to the veterinarians and farmers who are prescribing and using antimicrobials. This means that clear methods, assumptions (and possible biases), standardised values and exceptions should be published for all metrics. Particularly relevant are assumptions around the number and weight of cattle at risk of treatment and definitions of dose rates and course lengths; incorrect assumptions can mean metrics over-represent or under-represent AMU. The authors recommend that the UK dairy industry work towards the UK-specific metrics using the UK-specific medicine dose and course regimens as well as cattle weights in order to monitor trends nationally. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Effects of electron acceptors on removal of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, resistance genes and class 1 integrons under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Heyang; Miller, Jennifer H; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; Pruden, Amy; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic biotechnologies can effectively remove antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but there is a need to better understand the mechanisms. Here we employ bioelectrochemical systems (BES) as a platform to investigate the fate of a native tetracycline and sulfonamide-resistant Escherichia coli strain and its ARGs. The E. coli strain carrying intI1, sulI and tet(E) was isolated from domestic wastewater and dosed into a tubular BES. The BES was first operated as a microbial fuel cell (MFC), with aeration in the cathode, which resulted in enhanced removal of E. coli and ARGs by ~2 log (i.e., order of magnitude) when switched from high current to open circuit operation mode. The BES was then operated as a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to exclude the effects of oxygen diffusion, and the removal of E. coli and ARGs during the open circuit configuration was again 1-2 log higher than that at high current mode. Significant correlations of E. coli vs. current (R(2)=0.73) and ARGs vs. E. coli (R(2) ranged from 0.54 to 0.87), and the fact that the BES substrate contained no electron acceptors, implied that the persistence of the E. coli and its ARGs was determined by the availability of indigenous electron acceptors in the BES, i.e., the anode electrode or the electron shuttles generated by the exoelectrogens. Subsequent experiments with pure-culture tetracycline and sulfonamide-resistant E. coli being incubated in a two-chamber MEC and serum bottles demonstrated that the E. coli could survive by respiring anode electrode and/or electron shuttles released by exoelectrogens, and ARGs persisted with their host E. coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of intact loop hydraulic resistance of PWR LOCA behavior in scaled experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, M.S.

    1977-09-01

    The scaling of experiments in the Water Reactor Safety Program has been on a power/volume basis. This scaling philosophy has resulted in good thermal modeling of the core, but, combined with core design considerations, compromises the modeling of the hydraulic resistance in the intact loop. Tests in LOFT, Semiscale MOD-1 and FLECHT-SET have been conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of scaling hydraulic resistance to core area ratio (low hydraulic resistance) or to core power ratio (high hydraulic resistance). The results of these tests, together with computer model results using RELAP4/MOD5, RE-FRAP, and FLOOD4, were studied to determine the effects of the scaling compromise. The review of available information has shown no significant results of varying intact loop hydraulic resistance.

  7. Two-Basket Approach and Emission Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Schmale, J.; von Schneidemesser, E.

    2013-12-01

    Cutting the emissions of Short-Lived Climate-Forcing Air Pollutants (SLCPs) gains increasing global attention as a mitigation policy option because of direct benefits for climate and co-benefits such as improvements in air quality. Including SLCPs as target components to abate within a single basket (e.g. the Kyoto Protocol) would, however, face issues with regard to: i) additional assumptions that are required to compare SLCP emissions and CO2 emissions within a basket in terms of climatic effects, especially because of the difference in lifetimes, ii) the accountability of non-climatic effects in the emission trading between SLCPs and CO2. The idea of a two-basket approach was originally proposed as a climatic analogue to the Montreal Protocol dealing with ozone depleting substances (Jackson 2009; Daniel et al. 2012; Smith et al. 2013). In a two-basket approach, emissions are allowed to be traded within a basket but not across the baskets. While this approach potentially ensures scientifically supported emission trading (e.g. (Smith et al. 2013)), this approach leaves open the important issue of how to determine the relative weight between two baskets. Determining the weight cannot be answered by science alone, as the question involves a value judgment as stressed in metric studies (e.g. (Tanaka et al. 2010; Tanaka et al. 2013)). We discuss emission metrics in the context of a two-basket approach and present policy implications of such an approach. In a two-basket approach, the weight between two baskets needs to be determined a priori or exogenously. Here, an opportunity arises to present synergetic policy options targeted at mitigating climate change and air pollution simultaneously. In other words, this could be a strategy to encourage policymakers to consider cross-cutting issues. Under a two-basket climate policy, policymakers would be exposed to questions such as: - What type of damages caused by climate change does one choose to avoid? - To what extent

  8. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaozhe Wu,1 Zhan Li,1 Xiaolu Li,2,3 Yaomei Tian,1 Yingzi Fan,1 Chaoheng Yu,1 Bailing Zhou,1 Yi Liu,4 Rong Xiang,5 Li Yang1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 2International Center for Translational Chinese Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Chengdu, 3Department of Plastic and Burn Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 4Department of Microbial Examination, Sichuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, 5Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001 and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin on clinical bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli. The AZT-resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, and msrA were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L. When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7–AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus

  9. Effects of silicon on plant resistance to environmental stresses: review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakhnina, T.; Borkowska, A.

    2013-03-01

    The role of exogenous silicon in enhancing plant resistance to various abiotic stressors: salinity, drought, metal toxicities and ultraviolet radiation are presented. The data on possible involvement of silicon in reducing the reactive oxygen species generation, intensity of lipid peroxidation, and in some cases, increasing the activity of enzymes of the reactive oxygen species detoxificators: superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase are analyzed.

  10. Family of boundary overlap metrics for the evaluation of medical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, Varduhi; Voiculescu, Irina

    2018-01-01

    All medical image segmentation algorithms need to be validated and compared, yet no evaluation framework is widely accepted within the imaging community. None of the evaluation metrics that are popular in the literature are consistent in the way they rank segmentation results: they tend to be sensitive to one or another type of segmentation error (size, location, and shape) but no single metric covers all error types. We introduce a family of metrics, with hybrid characteristics. These metrics quantify the similarity or difference of segmented regions by considering their average overlap in fixed-size neighborhoods of points on the boundaries of those regions. Our metrics are more sensitive to combinations of segmentation error types than other metrics in the existing literature. We compare the metric performance on collections of segmentation results sourced from carefully compiled two-dimensional synthetic data and three-dimensional medical images. We show that our metrics: (1) penalize errors successfully, especially those around region boundaries; (2) give a low similarity score when existing metrics disagree, thus avoiding overly inflated scores; and (3) score segmentation results over a wider range of values. We analyze a representative metric from this family and the effect of its free parameter on error sensitivity and running time.

  11. Effectiveness of Antipseudomonal Antibiotics and Mechanisms of Multidrug Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El ZOWALATYl, Mohamed E; Gyetvaii, Bpla

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading human pathogen that causes serious infections at various tissues and organs leading to life threatening health problems and possible deadly outcomes. Resistance patterns vary widely whether it is from hospitals or community acquired infections. Reporting resistance profiles to a certain antibiotics provide valuable information in a given setting, but may be extrapolated outside the sampling location. In the present study, P. aeruginosa isolates were screened to determine their susceptibilities against anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial agents and possible existing mechanisms of resistance were determined. Eighty-six isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered. Isolates representing different resistance profiles were screened for the existence of three different resistance mechanisms including drug inactivation due to metallo-β-lactamases, drug impermeability by outer membrane proteins and drug efflux. All tested isolates showed uniform susceptibility (100%, n = 86/86) to piperacillin, meropenem, amikacin, and polymyxin B. A single isolate was found to be imipenem resistant (99%, n = 85/86). The possible mechanisms of resistance of P. aeruginosa to imipenem involve active drug efflux pumps, outer membrane impermeability as well as drug inactivating enzymes. These findings demonstrate the fundamental importance of the in vitro susceptibility testing of antibiotics prior to antipseudomonal therapy and highlight the need for a continuous antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs to monitor the changing resistance patterns so that clinicians and health care officials are updated as to the most effective therapeutic agents to combat the serious outcomes of P. aeruginosa infections.

  12. Fast similarity search for learned metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Brian; Jain, Prateek; Grauman, Kristen

    2009-12-01

    We introduce a method that enables scalable similarity search for learned metrics. Given pairwise similarity and dissimilarity constraints between some examples, we learn a Mahalanobis distance function that captures the examples' underlying relationships well. To allow sublinear time similarity search under the learned metric, we show how to encode the learned metric parameterization into randomized locality-sensitive hash functions. We further formulate an indirect solution that enables metric learning and hashing for vector spaces whose high dimensionality makes it infeasible to learn an explicit transformation over the feature dimensions. We demonstrate the approach applied to a variety of image data sets, as well as a systems data set. The learned metrics improve accuracy relative to commonly used metric baselines, while our hashing construction enables efficient indexing with learned distances and very large databases.

  13. Effects of macroscopic inhomogeneities on resistive and Hall measurements on crosses, cloverleafs, and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, D. W.; Knickerbocker, C. J.

    1996-12-01

    The effect of macroscopic inhomogeneities on resistivity and Hall angle measurements is studied by calculating weighting functions (the relative effect of perturbations in a local transport property on the measured global average for the object) for cross, cloverleaf, and bar-shaped geometries. The ``sweet spot,'' the region in the center of the object that the measurement effectively samples, is smaller for crosses and cloverleafs than for the circles and squares already studied, and smaller for the cloverleaf than for the corresponding cross. Resistivity measurements for crosses and cloverleafs suffer from singularities and negative weighting, which can be eliminated by averaging two independent resistance measurements, as done in the van der Pauw technique. Resistivity and Hall measurements made on sufficiently narrow bars are shown to effectively sample only the region directly between the voltage probes.

  14. Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Cardiovascular Risk in Military Eligible Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    ... in military-eligible women. Although exercise is frequently recommended to enhance overall fitness, it is unclear as to whether endurance or resistance exercise is more effective in attenuating functional and cardiovascular declines in women...

  15. Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Cardiovascular Risk in Military Eligible Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    ... in military-eligible women. Although exercise is frequently recommended to enhance overall fitness, it is unclear as to whether endurance or resistance exercise is more effective in attenuating functional and cardiovascular declines in women...

  16. Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Cardiovascular Risk in Military Eligible Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    ... in military-eligible women. Although exercise is frequently recommended to enhance overall fitness, it is unclear as to whether endurance or resistance exercise is more effective in attenuating functional and cardiovascular declines in women...

  17. Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Cardiovascular Risk in Military Eligible Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    .... Although exercise is frequently recommended to enhance overall fitness, it is unclear as to whether endurance or resistance exercise is more effective in attenuating functional and cardiovascular declines in women...

  18. Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Cardiovascular Risk in Military Eligible Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poehlman, Eric

    2000-01-01

    ... in military-eligible women. Although exercise is frequently recommended to enhance overall fitness, it is unclear as to whether endurance or resistance exercise is more effective in attenuating functional and cardiovascular declines in women...

  19. Aggregation Effects and Population-Based Dynamics as a Source of Therapy Resistance in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel S; Cunningham, Jessica J; Gatenby, Robert A

    2017-03-01

    Evolution of resistance allows cancer cells to adapt and continue proliferating even when therapy is initially very effective. Most investigations of treatment resistance focus on the adaptive phenotypic properties of individual cells. We propose that the resistance of a single cell to therapy may extend beyond its own phenotypic and molecular properties and be influenced by the phenotypic properties of surrounding cells and variations in cell density. Similar variation exists in population densities of animals living in groups and can significantly affect the outcome of an external threat. We investigate aggregation effects in cancer therapy using Darwinian models that integrate phenotypic properties of individual cells and common population effects found in nature to simulate the dynamics of resistance and sensitivity in the diverse cellular environments within cancers. We demonstrate that the density of cancer cell populations can profoundly influence response to chemotherapy independent of the properties of individual cells. Most commonly, these aggregation effects benefit the tumor allowing cells to survive even with phenotypic properties that would render them highly vulnerable to therapy in the absence of population effects. We demonstrate aggregation effects likely play a significant role in conferring resistance to therapy on tumor cells that would otherwise be sensitive to treatment. The potential role of aggregation in outcomes from cancer therapy has not been previously investigated. Our results demonstrate these dynamics may play a key role in resistance to therapy and could be used to design evolutionarily-enlightened therapies that exploit aggregation effects to improve treatment outcomes.

  20. Metric approach to quantum constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P; Gustavsson, Anna C T

    2009-01-01

    A framework for deriving equations of motion for constrained quantum systems is introduced and a procedure for its implementation is outlined. In special cases, the proposed new method, which takes advantage of the fact that the space of pure states in quantum mechanics has both a symplectic structure and a metric structure, reduces to a quantum analogue of the Dirac theory of constraints in classical mechanics. Explicit examples involving spin-1/2 particles are worked out in detail: in the first example, our approach coincides with a quantum version of the Dirac formalism, while the second example illustrates how a situation that cannot be treated by Dirac's approach can nevertheless be dealt with in the present scheme.

  1. Metrics Are Needed for Collaborative Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Mohtashami; Cyril S. Ku; Thomas J. Marlowe

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for metrics for inter-organizational collaborative software development projects, encompassing management and technical concerns. In particular, metrics are needed that are aimed at the collaborative aspect itself, such as readiness for collaboration, the quality and/or the costs and benefits of collaboration in a specific ongoing project. We suggest questions and directions for such metrics, spanning the full lifespan of a collaborative project, from considering the suitabili...

  2. A Metric Observer for Induction Motors Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benbouzid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with metric observer application for induction motors. Firstly, assuming that stator currents and speed are measured, a metric observer is designed to estimate the rotor fluxes. Secondly, assuming that only stator currents are measured, another metric observer is derived to estimate rotor fluxes and speed. The proposed observer validity is checked throughout simulations on a 4 kW induction motor drive.

  3. The definitive guide to IT service metrics

    CERN Document Server

    McWhirter, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Used just as they are, the metrics in this book will bring many benefits to both the IT department and the business as a whole. Details of the attributes of each metric are given, enabling you to make the right choices for your business. You may prefer and are encouraged to design and create your own metrics to bring even more value to your business - this book will show you how to do this, too.

  4. Chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, H.A.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A perturbative scheme to analyze the evolution of both metric and scalar field perturbations in an expanding universe is developed. The scheme is applied to study chaotic inflation with initial metric and scalar field perturbations present. It is shown that initial gravitational perturbations with wavelength smaller than the Hubble radius rapidly decay. The metric simultaneously picks up small perturbations determined by the matter inhomogeneities. Both are frozen in once the wavelength exceeds the Hubble radius. (orig.)

  5. Demographic effects of deltamethrin resistance in the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, M D; Picollo, M I

    2016-12-01

    Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) Klug is the main vector of Chagas disease in Latin America. Resistance to deltamethrin was reported in Argentina and recently associated with reproductive and longevity trade-offs. The objectives of the present study were to describe the demographic consequences of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans and to establish possible target stages for chemical control in susceptible and resistant colonies. A stage-classified matrix model was constructed based on the average stage length for susceptible, resistant and reciprocal matings' progeny. The differences between colonies were analysed by prospective and retrospective analysis. The life table parameters indicated reduced fecundity, fertility and population growth in resistant insects. The retrospective analysis suggested the latter was associated with lower reproductive output and increased fifth-instar nymph stage length. The prospective analysis suggested that the adult stage should be the main target for insecticide control. Although, fifth-instar nymphs should also be targeted when resistance has been detected. The presented results show demographic effects of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans. While the older stages could be the main targets for chemical control, this approach is impeded by their higher tolerance to insecticides. It is concluded that the different mode of action insecticides would be more effective than a dose increase for the control of deltamethrin-resistant T. infestans. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. A method for direct contact resistance evaluation in low voltage coplanar organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S.; Cosseddu, P.; Bonfiglio, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a method for the extrapolation of contact resistance in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) from a single transfer characteristic curve in the linear regime is proposed. The method, namely DIrect Contact Resistance Extrapolation (DICRE), is based on the idea of making the current dependent only on contact resistance by setting the device in large over-threshold conditions. Constant contact resistance with respect to gate-to-source voltage is considered as an acceptable approximation, as confirmed by other examples in the literature. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by extrapolating the contact resistance of two different OFET structures (self-aligned and not self-aligned) and comparing the results with standard reference techniques, namely the Modified Transmission Line Method (M-TLM) and the Y function method. The results demonstrate that the DICRE method can be applied to low voltage devices without any damage to the gate insulator, even if the applied gate-to-source voltage drop is well beyond the values normally employed for transistor operation. The proposed method allows extrapolating a value of contact resistance comparable with the ones derived by TLM, with restrained variability. Moreover, the capability of properly recognizing the differences in contact resistance values between OFET structures with different features in terms of source/drain-gate overlap is reported. Finally, the possibility of correctly deriving the contact resistance dependence on drain-to-source voltage using DICRE is discussed.

  7. Effects of In Vitro Antibiotic Resistance on Treatment: Bismuth-Containing Regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Chiba

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth compounds remain useful for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. These include colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS, bismuth subsalicylate (BSS and, most recently, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC. CBS appears to prevent the development of imidazole resistance when coadministered with nitroimidazoles. Traditional triple therapy with bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline or amoxicillin (BMT/A only partially overcomes metronidazole resistance. However, the addition of a PPI to bismuth triple therapy largely overcomes established metronidazole resistance if treatment is given for at least one week or more. When RBC rather than PPI is used with clarithromycin, this dual regimen appears to be more effective in preventing the development of secondary clarithromycin resistance. The triple combination of RBC, metronidazole and clarithromycin appears to be effective against metronidazole resistant strains of H pylori. Thus, overall, there is some evidence that bismuth compounds may prevent the development of antibiotic resistance and that existing antibiotic resistance may at least be partially overcome in vitro and in vivo. With the growing emergence of H pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin, further research to clarify the role of bismuth compounds is required.

  8. The Effect of a Pulsed Magnetic Field on Domain Wall Resistance in Magnetic Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, R; Tehranchi, M M; Tabrizi, K Ghafoori [Department of Physics, G.C., Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19838-63113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Phirouznia, A, E-mail: Teranchi@cc.sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-01

    The effect of a pulsed magnetic field on domain wall magnetoresistance for an ideal one-dimensional magnetic nanowire with a domain wall has been investigated. The analysis has been based on the Boltzmann transport equation, within the relaxation time approximation. The results indicate that the domain wall resistance increase when enhancing the magnetic field. The evaluation of local magnetization has been considered in the presence of a pulsed magnetic field. The time evaluation of the magnetization also has an effect on the domain wall resistance. The resistance depends on the contribution of the Zeeman and exchange interactions.

  9. Quality metrics in neonatal and pediatric critical care transport: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Michael T; Schwartz, Hamilton P

    2013-06-01

    The transport of neonatal and pediatric patients to tertiary care medical centers for specialized care demands monitoring the quality of care delivered during transport and its impact on patient outcomes. Accurate assessment of quality indicators and patient outcomes requires the use of a standard language permitting comparisons among transport programs. No consensus exists on a set of quality metrics for benchmarking transport teams. The aim of this project was to achieve consensus on appropriate neonatal and pediatric transport quality metrics. Candidate quality metrics were identified through literature review and those metrics currently tracked by each program. Consensus was governed by nominal group technique. Metrics were categorized in two dimensions: Institute of Medicine quality domains and Donabedian's structure/process/outcome framework. Two-day Ohio statewide quality metrics conference. Nineteen transport leaders and staff representing six statewide neonatal/pediatric specialty programs convened to achieve consensus. Two hundred fifty-seven performance metrics relevant to neonatal/pediatric transport were identified. Eliminating duplicate and overlapping metrics resulted in 70 candidate metrics. Nominal group methodology yielded 23 final quality metrics, the largest portion representing Donabedian's outcome category (n = 12, 52%) and the Institute of Medicine quality domains of effectiveness (n = 7, 30%) and safety (n = 9, 39%). Sample final metrics include measurement of family presence, pain management, intubation success, neonatal temperature control, use of lights and sirens, and medication errors. Lastly, a definition for each metric was established and agreed upon for consistency among institutions. This project demonstrates that quality metrics can be achieved through consensus building and provides the foundation for benchmarking among neonatal and pediatric transport programs and quality improvement projects.

  10. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE QUALIS OF SOFTWARE TECHNICAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho Jorge Scarpi

    Full Text Available Objective: To recommend metrics to qualify software production and to propose guidelines for the CAPES quadrennial evaluation of the Post-Graduation Programs of Medicine III about this issue. Method: Identification of the development process quality features, of the product attributes and of the software use, determined by Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT, International Organization Standardization (ISO and International Electrotechnical (IEC, important in the perspective of the CAPES Medicine III Area correlate users, basing the creation proposal of metrics aiming to be used on four-year evaluation of Medicine III. Results: The in use software quality perception by the user results from the provided effectiveness, productivity, security and satisfaction that originate from its characteristics of functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability and portability (in use metrics quality. This perception depends on the specific use scenario. Conclusion: The software metrics should be included in the intellectual production of the program, considering the system behavior measurements results obtained by users' performance evaluation through out the favorable responses punctuation sum for the six in use metrics quality (27 sub-items, 0 to 2 points each and for quality perception proof (four items, 0 to 10 points each. It will be considered as very good (VG 85 to 94 points; good (G 75 to 84 points; regular (R 65 to 74 points; weak (W 55 to 64 points; poor (P <55 points.

  11. Einstein Gravity, Lagrange-Finsler Geometry, and Nonsymmetric Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu I. Vacaru

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We formulate an approach to the geometry of Riemann-Cartan spaces provided with nonholonomic distributions defined by generic off-diagonal and nonsymmetric metrics inducing effective nonlinear and affine connections. Such geometries can be modelled by moving nonholonomic frames on (pseudo Riemannian manifolds and describe various types of nonholonomic Einstein, Eisenhart-Moffat and Finsler-Lagrange spaces with connections compatible to a general nonsymmetric metric structure. Elaborating a metrization procedure for arbitrary distinguished connections, we define the class of distinguished linear connections which are compatible with the nonlinear connection and general nonsymmetric metric structures. The nonsymmetric gravity theory is formulated in terms of metric compatible connections. Finally, there are constructed such nonholonomic deformations of geometric structures when the Einstein and/or Lagrange-Finsler manifolds are transformed equivalently into spaces with generic local anisotropy induced by nonsymmetric metrics and generalized connections. We speculate on possible applications of such geometric methods in Einstein and generalized theories of gravity, analogous gravity and geometric mechanics.

  12. Research status on aerodynamic interference effects of wind-resistant performance of pylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Shengli; Lu, Yu; Wang, Dongwei; Chen, Huai

    2011-04-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects of wind-resistant performance for pylon is one of very important problems in numerical simulation studies of wind resistant of bridges. On the basis of looking through a great deal of related literatures at home and abroad, research history, contents, method and achievements of the aerodynamic interference effects are summarized, and the existing problem for galloping, buffeting and vortex-induced vibration of pylon and directions for the next research are pointed out.

  13. Preliminary experiment on the negative magneto-resistance effect in a weakly ionized discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, M.

    2002-04-01

    Compared with the interest in the magneto-resistance effect in solid conductors, the effect in a gas plasma has hardly been addressed. In this work, a theoretical result that a magneto-resistance in an infinite plasma decreases is examined experimentally in an actual discharge plasma. Furthermore, a modified expression for the ambipolar diffusion coefficient in the case where electrons are scattered by heavy neutral atoms is presented. (author)

  14. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  15. About the possibility of a generalized metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Ladik, J.

    1991-10-01

    The metric (the structure of the space-time) may be dependent on the properties of the object measuring it. The case of size dependence of the metric was examined. For this dependence the simplest possible form of the metric tensor has been constructed which fulfils the following requirements: there be two extremal characteristic scales; the metric be unique and the usual between them; the change be sudden in the neighbourhood of these scales; the size of the human body appear as a parameter (postulated on the basis of some philosophical arguments). Estimates have been made for the two extremal length scales according to existing observations. (author) 19 refs

  16. Bounds for phylogenetic network space metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew; Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2018-04-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for representation of reticulate evolution. Recently, a space of unrooted phylogenetic networks was introduced, where such a network is a connected graph in which every vertex has degree 1 or 3 and whose leaf-set is a fixed set X of taxa. This space, denoted [Formula: see text], is defined in terms of two operations on networks-the nearest neighbor interchange and triangle operations-which can be used to transform any network with leaf set X into any other network with that leaf set. In particular, it gives rise to a metric d on [Formula: see text] which is given by the smallest number of operations required to transform one network in [Formula: see text] into another in [Formula: see text]. The metric generalizes the well-known NNI-metric on phylogenetic trees which has been intensively studied in the literature. In this paper, we derive a bound for the metric d as well as a related metric [Formula: see text] which arises when restricting d to the subset of [Formula: see text] consisting of all networks with [Formula: see text] vertices, [Formula: see text]. We also introduce two new metrics on networks-the SPR and TBR metrics-which generalize the metrics on phylogenetic trees with the same name and give bounds for these new metrics. We expect our results to eventually have applications to the development and understanding of network search algorithms.

  17. Kerr-Schild metrics revisited. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, L.A.; Perjes, Z.

    1993-04-01

    The particular way Kerr-Schild metrics incorporate a congruence of null curves in space-time is a sure source of fascination. The Kerr-Schild pencil of metrics g ab +Δl a l b is investigated in the generic case when it maps an arbitrary vacuum space-time with metric g ab to a vacuum space-time. The theorem is proved that this generic case does not contain the shear-free subclass as a smooth limit. It is shown that one of the Kota-Perjes metrics is a solution in the shearing class. (R.P.) 15 refs

  18. ROUTING BASE CONGESTION CONTROL METRICS IN MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dalal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile adhoc network is self-configurable and adaptive. Due to node mobility we cannot predict load on the network which leads to congestion, one of the widely researched area in manets. A lot of congestion control techniques and metrics have been proposed to overcome it before its occurrence or after it has occurred. In this survey we identify the currently used congestion control metrics. Through this survey we also propose a congestion control metric RFR(resource free ratio which considers three most important parameters to provide congestion free route discovery. Further we show the results of node selection based on fuzzy logic calculations using the proposed metric.

  19. Comparing Evaluation Metrics for Sentence Boundary Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper compares alternative evaluation metrics including the NIST error rate, classification error rate per word boundary, precision and recall, ROC curves, DET curves, precision-recall curves...

  20. Alternative Evolutionary Paths to Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Cause Distinct Collateral Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Camilo; Trebosc, Vincent; Kemmer, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Beardmore, Robert; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Jansen, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Abstract When bacteria evolve resistance against a particular antibiotic, they may simultaneously gain increased sensitivity against a second one. Such collateral sensitivity may be exploited to develop novel, sustainable antibiotic treatment strategies aimed at containing the current, dramatic spread of drug resistance. To date, the presence and molecular basis of collateral sensitivity has only been studied in few bacterial species and is unknown for opportunistic human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, we assessed patterns of collateral effects by experimentally evolving 160 independent populations of P. aeruginosa to high levels of resistance against eight commonly used antibiotics. The bacteria evolved resistance rapidly and expressed both collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance. The pattern of such collateral effects differed to those previously reported for other bacterial species, suggesting interspecific differences in the underlying evolutionary trade-offs. Intriguingly, we also identified contrasting patterns of collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance among the replicate populations adapted to the same drug. Whole-genome sequencing of 81 independently evolved populations revealed distinct evolutionary paths of resistance to the selective drug, which determined whether bacteria became cross-resistant or collaterally sensitive towards others. Based on genomic and functional genetic analysis, we demonstrate that collateral sensitivity can result from resistance mutations in regulatory genes such as nalC or mexZ, which mediate aminoglycoside sensitivity in β-lactam-adapted populations, or the two-component regulatory system gene pmrB, which enhances penicillin sensitivity in gentamicin-resistant populations. Our findings highlight substantial variation in the evolved collateral effects among replicates, which in turn determine their potential in antibiotic therapy. PMID:28541480

  1. Effect of microbial activity on penetrometer resistance and elastic modulus of soil at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Muñoz-Romero, V; Ren, T; Ashton, R W; Morin, M; Clark, I M; Powlson, D S; Whalley, W R

    2017-07-01

    We explore the effect of microbial activity stimulated by root exudates on the penetrometer resistance of soil and its elastic modulus. This is important because it is a measure of the mechanical strength of soil and it correlates closely with the rate of elongation of roots. A sandy soil was incubated with a synthetic root exudate at different temperatures, for different lengths of time and with selective suppression of either fungi or bacteria. The shape of the temperature response of penetrometer resistance in soil incubated with synthetic exudate was typical of a poikilothermic temperature response. Both penetrometer resistance and small strain shear modulus had maximum values between 25 and 30°C. At temperatures of 20°C and less, there was little effect of incubation with synthetic root exudate on the small strain shear modulus, although penetrometer resistance did increase with temperature over this range (4-20°C). This suggests that in this temperature range the increase in penetrometer resistance was related to a greater resistance to plastic deformation. At higher temperatures (> 25°C) penetrometer resistance decreased. Analysis of the DNA sequence data showed that at 25°C the number of Streptomyces (Gram-positive bacteria) increased, but selective suppression of either fungi or bacteria suggested that fungi have the greater role with respect to penetrometer resistance. Effect of microbial activity stimulated by synthetic root exudates on the mechanical properties.We compared penetrometer measurements and estimates of elastic modulus with microbial community.Penetrometer resistance of soil showed a poikilothermic temperature response.Penetrometer resistance might be affected more by fungi than bacteria.

  2. Alternative Evolutionary Paths to Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Cause Distinct Collateral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Camilo; Trebosc, Vincent; Kemmer, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Beardmore, Robert; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Jansen, Gunther

    2017-09-01

    When bacteria evolve resistance against a particular antibiotic, they may simultaneously gain increased sensitivity against a second one. Such collateral sensitivity may be exploited to develop novel, sustainable antibiotic treatment strategies aimed at containing the current, dramatic spread of drug resistance. To date, the presence and molecular basis of collateral sensitivity has only been studied in few bacterial species and is unknown for opportunistic human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, we assessed patterns of collateral effects by experimentally evolving 160 independent populations of P. aeruginosa to high levels of resistance against eight commonly used antibiotics. The bacteria evolved resistance rapidly and expressed both collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance. The pattern of such collateral effects differed to those previously reported for other bacterial species, suggesting interspecific differences in the underlying evolutionary trade-offs. Intriguingly, we also identified contrasting patterns of collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance among the replicate populations adapted to the same drug. Whole-genome sequencing of 81 independently evolved populations revealed distinct evolutionary paths of resistance to the selective drug, which determined whether bacteria became cross-resistant or collaterally sensitive towards others. Based on genomic and functional genetic analysis, we demonstrate that collateral sensitivity can result from resistance mutations in regulatory genes such as nalC or mexZ, which mediate aminoglycoside sensitivity in β-lactam-adapted populations, or the two-component regulatory system gene pmrB, which enhances penicillin sensitivity in gentamicin-resistant populations. Our findings highlight substantial variation in the evolved collateral effects among replicates, which in turn determine their potential in antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on

  3. Effects of electron acceptors on removal of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, resistance genes and class 1 integrons under anaerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Heyang; Miller, Jennifer H. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Pruden, Amy [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); He, Zhen, E-mail: zhenhe@vt.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic biotechnologies can effectively remove antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but there is a need to better understand the mechanisms. Here we employ bioelectrochemical systems (BES) as a platform to investigate the fate of a native tetracycline and sulfonamide-resistant Escherichia coli strain and its ARGs. The E. coli strain carrying intI1, sulI and tet(E) was isolated from domestic wastewater and dosed into a tubular BES. The BES was first operated as a microbial fuel cell (MFC), with aeration in the cathode, which resulted in enhanced removal of E. coli and ARGs by ~ 2 log (i.e., order of magnitude) when switched from high current to open circuit operation mode. The BES was then operated as a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to exclude the effects of oxygen diffusion, and the removal of E. coli and ARGs during the open circuit configuration was again 1–2 log higher than that at high current mode. Significant correlations of E. coli vs. current (R{sup 2} = 0.73) and ARGs vs. E. coli (R{sup 2} ranged from 0.54 to 0.87), and the fact that the BES substrate contained no electron acceptors, implied that the persistence of the E. coli and its ARGs was determined by the availability of indigenous electron acceptors in the BES, i.e., the anode electrode or the electron shuttles generated by the exoelectrogens. Subsequent experiments with pure-culture tetracycline and sulfonamide-resistant E. coli being incubated in a two-chamber MEC and serum bottles demonstrated that the E. coli could survive by respiring anode electrode and/or electron shuttles released by exoelectrogens, and ARGs persisted with their host E. coli. - Highlights: • The fate of an antibiotic resistant E. coli stain and its ARGs in BES is studied. • The removal of the E. coli and its ARGs is enhanced with decreased current. • The ARGs are removed when the host E. coli dies and persist when the host survives. • The survival of the E. coli depends

  4. Effects of electron acceptors on removal of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, resistance genes and class 1 integrons under anaerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Heyang; Miller, Jennifer H.; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M.; Pruden, Amy; He, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic biotechnologies can effectively remove antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but there is a need to better understand the mechanisms. Here we employ bioelectrochemical systems (BES) as a platform to investigate the fate of a native tetracycline and sulfonamide-resistant Escherichia coli strain and its ARGs. The E. coli strain carrying intI1, sulI and tet(E) was isolated from domestic wastewater and dosed into a tubular BES. The BES was first operated as a microbial fuel cell (MFC), with aeration in the cathode, which resulted in enhanced removal of E. coli and ARGs by ~ 2 log (i.e., order of magnitude) when switched from high current to open circuit operation mode. The BES was then operated as a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to exclude the effects of oxygen diffusion, and the removal of E. coli and ARGs during the open circuit configuration was again 1–2 log higher than that at high current mode. Significant correlations of E. coli vs. current (R 2 = 0.73) and ARGs vs. E. coli (R 2 ranged from 0.54 to 0.87), and the fact that the BES substrate contained no electron acceptors, implied that the persistence of the E. coli and its ARGs was determined by the availability of indigenous electron acceptors in the BES, i.e., the anode electrode or the electron shuttles generated by the exoelectrogens. Subsequent experiments with pure-culture tetracycline and sulfonamide-resistant E. coli being incubated in a two-chamber MEC and serum bottles demonstrated that the E. coli could survive by respiring anode electrode and/or electron shuttles released by exoelectrogens, and ARGs persisted with their host E. coli. - Highlights: • The fate of an antibiotic resistant E. coli stain and its ARGs in BES is studied. • The removal of the E. coli and its ARGs is enhanced with decreased current. • The ARGs are removed when the host E. coli dies and persist when the host survives. • The survival of the E. coli depends on the

  5. Comparison of the effects of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rat

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saremi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The obesity-related hormones leptin and adiponectin are independently and oppositely associated with insulin resistance. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rats. Methods: Ten out of 50 male Wistar rats were separated as healthy subjects. Then diabetes was induced in the remaining rats by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic r...

  6. Nonlinear Semi-Supervised Metric Learning Via Multiple Kernels and Local Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Bai, Yanqin; Peng, Yaxin; Du, Shaoyi; Ying, Shihui

    2018-03-01

    Changing the metric on the data may change the data distribution, hence a good distance metric can promote the performance of learning algorithm. In this paper, we address the semi-supervised distance metric learning (ML) problem to obtain the best nonlinear metric for the data. First, we describe the nonlinear metric by the multiple kernel representation. By this approach, we project the data into a high dimensional space, where the data can be well represented by linear ML. Then, we reformulate the linear ML by a minimization problem on the positive definite matrix group. Finally, we develop a two-step algorithm for solving this model and design an intrinsic steepest descent algorithm to learn the positive definite metric matrix. Experimental results validate that our proposed method is effective and outperforms several state-of-the-art ML methods.

  7. Metrics for measuring net-centric data strategy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroculick, Joseph B.

    2010-04-01

    An enterprise data strategy outlines an organization's vision and objectives for improved collection and use of data. We propose generic metrics and quantifiable measures for each of the DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy (NCDS) data goals. Data strategy metrics can be adapted to the business processes of an enterprise and the needs of stakeholders in leveraging the organization's data assets to provide for more effective decision making. Generic metrics are applied to a specific application where logistics supply and transportation data is integrated across multiple functional groups. A dashboard presents a multidimensional view of the current progress to a state where logistics data shared in a timely and seamless manner among users, applications, and systems.

  8. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  9. Value-based metrics and Internet-based enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishan M.

    2001-10-01

    Within the last few years, a host of value-based metrics like EVA, MVA, TBR, CFORI, and TSR have evolved. This paper attempts to analyze the validity and applicability of EVA and Balanced Scorecard for Internet based organizations. Despite the collapse of the dot-com model, the firms engaged in e- commerce continue to struggle to find new ways to account for customer-base, technology, employees, knowledge, etc, as part of the value of the firm. While some metrics, like the Balance Scorecard are geared towards internal use, others like EVA are for external use. Value-based metrics are used for performing internal audits as well as comparing firms against one another; and can also be effectively utilized by individuals outside the firm looking to determine if the firm is creating value for its stakeholders.

  10. Non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-11-01

    In the context of massive gravity, bi-gravity and multi-gravity non-minimal matter couplings via a specific composite effective metric were investigated recently. Even if these couplings generically reintroduce the Boulware-Deser ghost, this composite metric is unique in the sense that the ghost reemerges only beyond the decoupling limit and the matter quantum loop corrections do not detune the potential interactions. We consider non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric to matter fields for a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions. We first explore these couplings in the mini-superspace and investigate in which scenario the ghost remains absent. We further study these non-minimal derivative couplings in the decoupling-limit of the theory and show that the equation of motion for the helicity-0 mode remains second order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications for cosmology.

  11. Use of a structured panel process to define quality metrics for antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Andrew M; Brener, Stacey; Dresser, Linda; Daneman, Nick; Dellit, Timothy H; Avdic, Edina; Bell, Chaim M

    2012-05-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs are being implemented in health care to reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use, adverse events, Clostridium difficile infection, and antimicrobial resistance. There is no standardized approach to evaluate the impact of these programs. To use a structured panel process to define quality improvement metrics for evaluating antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospital settings that also have the potential to be used as part of public reporting efforts. A multiphase modified Delphi technique. Paper-based survey supplemented with a 1-day consensus meeting. A 10-member expert panel from Canada and the United States was assembled to evaluate indicators for relevance, effectiveness, and the potential to aid quality improvement efforts. There were a total of 5 final metrics selected by the panel: (1) days of therapy per 1000 patient-days; (2) number of patients with specific organisms that are drug resistant; (3) mortality related to antimicrobial-resistant organisms; (4) conservable days of therapy among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI), or sepsis and bloodstream infections (BSI); and (5) unplanned hospital readmission within 30 days after discharge from the hospital in which the most responsible diagnosis was one of CAP, SSTI, sepsis or BSI. The first and second indicators were also identified as useful for accountability purposes, such as public reporting. We have successfully identified 2 measures for public reporting purposes and 5 measures that can be used internally in healthcare settings as quality indicators. These indicators can be implemented across diverse healthcare systems to enable ongoing evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship programs and complement efforts for improved patient safety.

  12. Method Points: towards a metric for method complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham McLeod

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available A metric for method complexity is proposed as an aid to choosing between competing methods, as well as in validating the effects of method integration or the products of method engineering work. It is based upon a generic method representation model previously developed by the author and adaptation of concepts used in the popular Function Point metric for system size. The proposed technique is illustrated by comparing two popular I.E. deliverables with counterparts in the object oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML. The paper recommends ways to improve the practical adoption of new methods.

  13. An analytical solution for contact resistance of staggered organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, Hamidreza; Katebi-Jahromi, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    We have developed analytical models for bias dependent contact resistance (RC) and output characteristics of staggered organic field-effect transistors (OFETS) based on a bulk resistance-approximated and mobility-modified current-crowding method. Numerical evaluations of RC and its resistive components show that the bias dependency of the bulk resistance is negligible. Consequently, the properties of the active layer interfaces determine RC and its characteristics. Effective parameters include a normally constant charge injection barrier at the organic-metal interface (Eb) and a gate induced surface carrier-concentration (PS0) at the organic-insulator boundary. The energy barrier pertains to the fabrication process, and its related resistance (rc) can be determined as the fitting parameter of the theoretical model. However, PS0 is strongly gate bias dependent and the results of the numerical model indicate that the resulting component (rch) is dominant and has a considerable effect on RC and its characteristics. More importantly, PS0 as the key parameter of the contact resistance is analytically expressible and by using a proposed mobility-modified current-crowding model, the contact resistance can be analytically formulated. Accordingly, the output characteristics of the OFETs in the triode region can be also analytically modeled using the developed relation of RC.

  14. Substitution for chromium in 304 stainless steel. [effects on oxidation and corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Barrett, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of substituting less strategic elements for Cr on oxidation and corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel. Cyclic oxidation resistance was evaluated at 870 C. Corrosion resistance was determined by exposure of specimens to a boiling copper-rich solution of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid. Alloy substitutes for Cr included Al, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, V, Y, and misch metal. A level of about 12% Cr was the minimum amount of Cr required for adequate oxidation and corrosion resistance in the modified composition 304 stainless steels. This represents a Cr saving of 33 percent. Two alloys containing 12% Cr plus 2% Al plus 2% Mo and 12% Cr plus 2.65% Si were identified which exhibited oxidation and corrosion resistance comparable to AISI 304 stainless steel.

  15. Effects of glucocorticoids in potentiating diuresis in heart failure patients with diuretic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Kunshen

    2014-09-01

    Diuretic resistance in heart failure is defined as a state in which diuretic response is diminished or lost before the therapeutic goal of relief from congestion has been reached. Diuretic resistance is very common and is associated with poor outcomes. Over the past decade, several new drugs and devices targeting decongestion and improvement in renal function in patients with heart failure have failed to show benefit in randomized clinical trials. Glucocorticoids had been used to manage diuretic resistance before the advent of loop diuretics. More recent evidence appears to confirm that glucocorticoids may also help to overcome resistance to loop diuretics. This review tries to summarize the available evidence and potential mechanisms related to glucocorticoid therapy in patients with heart failure and its effect on diuretic resistance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Current Status on Marine Products with Reversal Effect on Cancer Multidrug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Guo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of tumor cells to a broad range of anticancer agents continues to be a problem for the success of cancer chemotherapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR is due in part to three drug transporter proteins: ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCC1/multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1 and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. These transporters are part of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC superfamily, whose members function as ATP-dependent drug-efflux pumps. Their activity can be blocked by various drugs such as verapamil (calcium channel blocker and cyclosporin A (immunosuppressive agent, etc. These compounds are called MDR modulators or reversals. This review highlights several marine natural products with reversal effect on multidrug resistance in cancer, including agosterol A, ecteinascidin 743, sipholane triterpenoids, bryostatin 1, and welwitindolinones.

  17. The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.

    2002-01-01

    with a genus-specific DNA probe. Independent of the different antibiotics and media used, the total numbers of resistant bacteria in treated sewage were 10-1000 times lower than in raw sewage. Based on linear regression analysis of data on bacteriological counts, the prevalences of antimicrobial-resistant...... by antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Acinetobacter isolates. Based on logistic regression analysis, isolates from treated sewage and digested sludge were generally not significantly more resistant compared with isolates from raw sewage. Based on these evidences, it was concluded that tertiary wastewater......The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria were investigated in two large-scale municipal treatment plants during a period of six months. Total and relative numbers of resistant bacteria were determined in raw sewage, treated sewage...

  18. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  19. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  20. Effects of Floor Covering Resistance of a Radiant Floor on System Energy and Exergy Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Floor covering resistance (material and thickness) can be influenced by subjective choices (architectural design, interior design, texture, etc.) with significant effects on the performance of a radiant heating and cooling system. To study the effects of floor covering resistance on system...... performance, a water-based radiant floor heating and cooling system (dry, wooden construction) was considered to be coupled to an air-to-water heat pump, and the effects of varying floor covering resistances (0.05 m2K/W, 0.09 m2K/W and 0.15 m2K/W) on system performance were analyzed in terms of energy...... and exergy. In order to achieve the same heating and cooling outputs, higher average water temperatures are required in the heating mode (and lower temperatures in the cooling mode) with increasing floor covering resistance. These temperature requirements decrease the heat pump’s performance (lower...

  1. Safety and effectiveness of home intravenous antibiotic therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujal, A; Sola, J; Hernandez, M; Villarino, M-A; Machado, M-L; Baylina, M; Tajan, J; Oristrell, J

    2015-06-01

    Home intravenous antibiotic therapy is an alternative to hospital admission for moderately severe infections. However, few studies have analyzed its safety and effectiveness in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The purpose of this study is to analyze the safety and effectiveness of home intravenous antibiotic therapy in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. We analyzed prospectively all patients admitted to our service who underwent home intravenous antibiotic therapy during the period 2008-2012. All the treatments were administered by caretakers or self-administered by patients, through elastomeric infusion devices. Effectiveness was evaluated by analyzing the readmission rate for poor infection control. Safety was evaluated by analyzing adverse events, catheter-related complications, and readmissions not related to poor infection control. There were 433 admissions (in 355 patients) for home intravenous antibiotic therapy during the study period. There were 226 (52.2 %) admissions due to multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and 207 (47.8 %) due to non-multidrug-resistant infections. Hospital readmissions in patients with multidrug-resistant infections were uncommon. Multidrug-resistant enterococcal infections, healthcare-associated infections, and carbapenem therapy were independent variables associated with increased readmissions due to poor infection control. Readmissions not related to poor infection control, adverse events, and catheter-related complications were similar in multidrug-resistant compared to non-multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Home intravenous therapy, administered by patients or their caretakers using elastomeric infusion pumps, was safe and effective for the treatment of most multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

  2. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Volek, Jeff S

    2003-11-01

    Creatine monohydrate has become the supplement of choice for many athletes striving to improve sports performance. Recent data indicate that athletes may not be using creatine as a sports performance booster per se but instead use creatine chronically as a training aid to augment intense resistance training workouts. Although several studies have evaluated the combined effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance, these data have not been analyzed collectively. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength and weightlifting performance when ingested concomitant with resistance training. The effects of gender, interindividual variability, training status, and possible mechanisms of action are discussed. Of the 22 studies reviewed, the average increase in muscle strength (1, 3, or 10 repetition maximum [RM]) following creatine supplementation plus resistance training was 8% greater than the average increase in muscle strength following placebo ingestion during resistance training (20 vs. 12%). Similarly, the average increase in weightlifting performance (maximal repetitions at a given percent of maximal strength) following creatine supplementation plus resistance training was 14% greater than the average increase in weightlifting performance following placebo ingestion during resistance training (26 vs. 12%). The increase in bench press 1RM ranged from 3 to 45%, and the improvement in weightlifting performance in the bench press ranged from 16 to 43%. Thus there is substantial evidence to indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance training is more effective at increasing muscle strength and weightlifting performance than resistance training alone, although the response is highly variable.

  3. The incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections after prostate biopsy--are fluoroquinolones still effective prophylaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Joseph; Teper, Ervin; Ferrandino, Michael; Macchia, Richard J; Blank, William; Grunberger, Ivan; Colon, Ivan

    2008-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones have been shown to decrease infective complications after prostate biopsy. However, fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging. We quantified contemporary rates of infective complications and the incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. We retrospectively evaluated the records of 1,273 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at New York Harbor Veterans Affairs Hospital from January 2004 to December 2006. Patients received levofloxacin or gatifloxacin. Using the Veterans Affairs computerized patient record system we reviewed all patient visits within 1 month after prostate biopsy. Visits were queried for infective symptoms. Positive cultures were evaluated for resistance patterns. The annual and overall incidence of infective complications and fluoroquinolone resistant infections was calculated. Of 1,273 patients 31 (2.4%) presented with infective symptoms after biopsy. The overall incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections was 1.2% (15 cases). When stratified by year, there were statistically significant increases in the incidence of infective complications and fluoroquinolone resistance from 2004 to 2006. Of the positive cultures those from 89% of patients yielded Escherichia coli and 90% were fluoroquinolone resistant. Fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli were also resistant to gentamicin in 22% of cases, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in 44%, piperacillin in 72% and ampicillin in 94%. However, 100% sensitivity was demonstrated for amikacin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Fluoroquinolones are still effective as antibiotic prophylaxis for prostate biopsies but there is an increase in infective complications and fluoroquinolone resistance. When patients present with post-prostate biopsy infective symptoms, almost 50% are associated with fluoroquinolone resistant pathogens. Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone, ceftazidime or amikacin should be initiated until culture specific therapy can

  4. Metric Learning to Enhance Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca; Bue, Brian; Gilmore, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    Unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation can reveal spatial trends that show the physical structure of the scene to an analyst. They highlight borders and reveal areas of homogeneity and change. Segmentations are independently helpful for object recognition, and assist with automated production of symbolic maps. Additionally, a good segmentation can dramatically reduce the number of effective spectra in an image, enabling analyses that would otherwise be computationally prohibitive. Specifically, using an over-segmentation of the image instead of individual pixels can reduce noise and potentially improve the results of statistical post-analysis. In this innovation, a metric learning approach is presented to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. The prototype demonstrations attempt a superpixel segmentation in which the image is conservatively over-segmented; that is, the single surface features may be split into multiple segments, but each individual segment, or superpixel, is ensured to have homogenous mineralogy.

  5. Effect of bioagents and resistance inducers on grapevine crown gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Biondi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioagents and chemicals were applied to one-year old grafted vines (Ancelotta/420A in glasshouse and field experiments set up at the Vivai Cooperativi Rauscedo (VCR, Pordenone, Italy. In the glasshouse, holes were drilled in vines on the rootstock and the holes were charged with suspensions of different strains of Pseudomonas spp., and with the biofungicides BS-F4 and Serenade, both based on Bacillus subtilis, before inoculation with a vitopine Agrobacterium vitis strain. The growth retardant Regalis and the resistance inducer Bion were applied to the vines two weeks before inoculation with the pathogen. Six months after inoculation, disease incidence was lowest when BS-F4 had been applied. In the field trial, the vines were wounded by making a cut in the crown, after which they were dipped into the antagonist suspensions just before inoculation with the pathogen. In the two weeks before inoculation, the root systems of the vines were dipped into Regalis and Bion solutions at 7 day intervals. Only these resistance inducers and BS-F4 significantly reduced disease severity. The results indicate that a potential for defence against A. vitis may exist even in susceptible grapevine cultivars, and that this potential can be activated by diverse elicitors.

  6. Effects of mefloquine use on Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Nimol; Andrianaranjaka, Voahangy; Popovici, Jean; Kim, Saorin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsene; Benedet, Christophe; Barnadas, Celine; Durand, Remy; Thellier, Marc; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Nour, Bakri Y M; Tichit, Magali; Bouchier, Christiane; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a strong association between amplification of the multidrug resistance-1 gene and in vivo and in vitro mefloquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum. Although falciparum infection usually is not treated with mefloquine, incorrect diagnosis, high frequency of undetected mixed infections, or relapses of P. vivax infection triggered by P. falciparum infections expose non-P. falciparum parasites to mefloquine. To assess the consequences of such unintentional treatments on P. vivax, we studied variations in number of Pvmdr-1 (PlasmoDB accession no. PVX_080100, NCBI reference sequence NC_009915.1) copies worldwide in 607 samples collected in areas with different histories of mefloquine use from residents and from travelers returning to France. Number of Pvmdr-1 copies correlated with drug use history. Treatment against P. falciparum exerts substantial collateral pressure against sympatric P. vivax, jeopardizing future use of mefloquine against P. vivax. A drug policy is needed that takes into consideration all co-endemic species of malaria parasites.

  7. A reanalysis of resistive size effects in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambles, J.R.; Mundy, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    A reanalysis of available data on the influence of surface scattering upon the resistivity of high-purity tungsten is presented. It is shown that some of the data appear to fit quite well to Soffer's model of surface scattering. From this new analysis values for the product rhosub(infinity)lambdasub(infinity) (bulk resistivity times bulk mean free path) may be obtained lying in the range 1.0-1.7 fΩ m 2 . Early data, which could not be interpreted using Fuchs' theory of surface scattering, may now be explained and yield surface roughness ratios (ratio of root mean square height of deviations from the mean surface to the Fermi wavelength) of the order of 0.2-2.5, typical of the value expected for atomically smooth to atomically rough surfaces. However, more recent data violate Soffer's theory in a convincing fashion. They illustrate fully the severe dangers of using a theory to interpret data for which it is not at all applicable. The Fermi surface of tungsten by no means approximates a simple sphere (one of the basic assumptions of the Soffer model). Hence such a naive treatment as Fuchs' leads to meaningless parameters such as quoted above. This paper is presented as a warning to all experimentalists who attempt to interpret data from metals with complex Fermi surfaces in a simple-minded fashion (e.g. using Fuchs' model). (author)

  8. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper supplementation on antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, G E; Scott, H M; Amachawadi, R G; Nagaraja, T G; Vinasco, J; Bai, J; Norby, B; Renter, D G; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D

    2014-06-01

    Feed-grade chlortetracycline (CTC) and copper are both widely utilized in U.S. pig production. Cluster randomized experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation in weaned pigs on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among fecal Escherichia coli. Four treatment groups: control, copper, CTC, or copper plus CTC were randomly allocated to 32 pens with five pigs per pen. Fecal samples were collected weekly from three pigs per pen for six weeks. Two E. coli isolates per fecal sample were tested for phenotypic and genotypic resistance against antibiotics and copper. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed effects logistic regression, multivariate probit analysis and discrete time survival analysis. CTC-supplementation was significantly (99% [95% CI=98-100%]) associated with increased tetracycline resistance compared to the control group (95% [95% CI=94-97%]). Copper supplementation was associated with decreased resistance to most of the antibiotics tested, including cephalosporins, over the treatment period. Overall, 91% of the E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) (resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes). tetA and blaCMY-2 genes were positively associated (Ppigs exhibited high levels of antibiotic resistance, with diverse multi-resistant phenotypic profiles. The roles of copper supplementation in pig production, and pco-mediated copper resistance among E. coli in particular, need to be further explored since a strong negative association of pco with both tetA and blaCMY-2 points to opportunities for selecting a more innocuous resistance profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distance in Metric Trees and Banach Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, Monairah

    This thesis contains results on metric trees and Banach spaces. There is a common thread which is about distance function. In case of metric trees, special metrics such as radial and river metrics will yield characterization theorems. In the case of Banach spaces we consider the distance from a point in the Banach space to its subspace and by putting conditions on subspaces we obtain results for the speed of convergence of the error of best approximation. We first introduce the concept of metric trees and study some of its properties and provide a new representation of metric trees by using a special set of metric rays, which we called it "crossing point sets". We have captured the four-point condition from these set and shown an equivalence between the metric trees with radial and river metrics, and the crossing point set. As an application of our characterization of metric trees via crossing point sets, we were able to index Brownian motions by a metric tree. Second part of this thesis contains results on the error of best approximation in the context of Banach spaces. The error of the best approximation to x via S is denoted by rho(x,S) defined as follows: rho(x, S) = inf d(x, y) for all y∈S. Note that the well known Weierstrass approximation theorem states that every continuous function defined on a closed interval [a,b] can be uniformly approximated by a polynomial function. Note that the Weierstrass approximation theorem gives no information about the speed of convergence for rho(f, Yn). However, Bernstein Lethargy Theorem (BLT) is about the speed of convergence for rho(f, Y n). We consider a condition on subspaces in order to improve bounds given in the Bernstein's Lethargy Theorem (BLT) for Banach spaces.

  10. Contrasting effects of specialist and generalist herbivores on resistance evolution in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Pan, Xiaoyun; Blumenthal, Dana; van Kleunen, Mark; Liu, Mu; Li, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Invasive alien plants are likely to be released from specialist herbivores and at the same time encounter biotic resistance from resident generalist herbivores in their new ranges. The Shifting Defense hypothesis predicts that this will result in evolution of decreased defense against specialist herbivores and increased defense against generalist herbivores. To test this, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 61 common garden studies that provide data on resistance and/or tolerance for both introduced and native populations of 32 invasive plant species. We demonstrate that introduced populations, relative to native populations, decreased their resistance against specialists, and increased their resistance against generalists. These differences were significant when resistance was measured in terms of damage caused by the herbivore, but not in terms of performance of the herbivore. Furthermore, we found the first evidence that the magnitude of resistance differences between introduced and native populations depended significantly on herbivore origin (i.e., whether the test herbivore was collected from the native or non-native range of the invasive plant). Finally, tolerance to generalists was found to be higher in introduced populations, while neither tolerance to specialists nor that to simulated herbivory differed between introduced and native plant populations. We conclude that enemy release from specialist herbivores and biotic resistance from generalist herbivores have contrasting effects on resistance evolution in invasive plants. Our results thus provide strong support for the Shifting Defense hypothesis. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. On the relation of the generalized Schwarzschild metric and Tallman metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshekeev, O.Sh.

    1977-01-01

    Relation of the Schwarzschild generalized metric (the Schwarzschild metric with regard for the four-dimension tensor of curvation) with the Tollman metric is considered. It is shown, that the Schwarzschild problem solution in the Tollman metric is quite correct as well. The obtained solutions meet the following requirements: conformity principle is carried out, transformation functional determinant is final everywhere, excluding the centre, where a singular point is to be

  12. National and Regional FEGS Metrics and Indicators 2016 Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final ecosystem goods and services (FEGS) are the features of ecosystems directly valued by people. Metrics and indicators that describe the state of FEGS to non-experts and beneficiaries with salience and meaning facilitate effective communication and social analysis. This rep...

  13. The Equivalence of Precession Phenomena in Metric Theories of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisher, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    The requirement of general covariance imparts to metric theories of gravity, such as general relavity, important structural features. A precise mathematical form results, ensuring that computation of observable physical effects in the theory gives the same answers independently of the chosen system of coordinates.

  14. Comparison of the effects of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saremi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity-related hormones leptin and adiponectin are independently and oppositely associated with insulin resistance. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rats. Methods: Ten out of 50 male Wistar rats were separated as healthy subjects. Then diabetes was induced in the remaining rats by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats divided into 4 groups: Control, resistance training (5 sessions/week, 4 reps/3 sets, endurance training (5 sets per week of treadmill running and concurrent training. The resistance training protocol consisted of ten weeks climbing up the ladder, while endurance training performed on treadmill for ten weeks. Concurrent training group completed a combination of both resistances and endurance treadmill training. Blood samples were taken to assess leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. Findings: Endurance, resistance and concurrent training significantly decreased insulin resistance and glucose (P0.05. On the one hand, adiponctin level and adiponctin-leptin ratio significantly increased in all of training groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: Exercise training, as defined in this study, leads to improvements in adiponectin-leptin ratio and concurrent training has more impact on insulin resistance index in diabetic rats.

  15. Effect of 8-Week Resistance Training on Hypertrophy, Strength, and Myostatin Concentration in Old and Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoof Negaresh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion Resistance training was associated with a decline in myostatin level and increase in the muscle mass and cross-sectional area. Hence, the beneficial effect of resistance training may decrease age-related muscle atrophy and affect elderly health.

  16. Inter-filament resistance, effective transverse resistivity and coupling loss in superconducting multifilamentary NbTi and Nb3Sn strands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2012-01-01

    The effective transverse resistivity of a range of multi-filamentary Nb3Sn and NbTi strands is measured with a direct four-probe method and the data are compared to the transverse resistivity values obtained from AC coupling loss experiments. Correspondence between both is satisfactory provided that

  17. Effect of thiazolidinedione treatment on resistin levels in insulin resistant sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, I.; Hameed, W.; Rajput, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is manifested by decreased effect of fixed quantity of insulin on glucose metabolism leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Visceral obesity has been positively correlated with insulin resistance but its mechanism is not fully defined. Insulin resistance may be the consequence of adipocytokines including visfatin and resistin. This study was designed to see the effect of thiazolidinediones on levels of resistin in insulin resistant rats. Methods: Ninety Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I served as control. Rats in Group II and III were made insulin resistant diabetics. Group III was treated with rosiglitazone after development of diabetes. Plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, HDL, TG:HDL ratio and serum resistin levels were analysed. Results: Body weight and plasma glucose were significantly increased (p<0.05) along with TG:HDL ratio (p<0.05) in group II and group III at the end of 4th week. Serum resistin levels also increased significantly (p<0.05) in group II and III at the end of 4th week. Treatment of group III with rosiglitazone led to improvement in insulin resistance with decrease in serum resistin levels (p<0.05). Conclusion: Increased serum resistin level indicates insulin resistance and impending hyperglycaemia. Thiazolidinediones augment sensitivity of insulin to restore normoglycaemia by decreasing serum resistin level. (author)

  18. Effect of High Pressure on Resistance in Au(dmit)2 LB Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y. F.; Hasegawa, H.; Torizuka, K.; Uwatoko, Y.

    2017-11-01

    The high pressure effect on resistance of the LB film of ditetradecyldimethylammonium-Au(dmit)2 [2C14N+Me2-Au(dmit)2] salt has been investigated; the measurements were performed down to 0.8 K and pressures up to 1.03 GPa using a clamptype pressure cell. The resistance gradually decreases with increasing pressure reaching a 57% smaller value at 1.03 GPa compared to the ambient one. The resistance increases with decreasing temperature for three different conditions of the measurement: at 0 GPa and under pressure (clamped at 0.80 GPa and 1.03 GPa) in the temperature range of 18‑295 K. Over the whole temperature range, the higher the pressure is, the lower the sheet resistance is, indicating that the application of pressure is effective to reduce the sheet resistance. Although we have already reported the magnetic anomaly suggesting the Meissner state in the LB film below 3.9 K, no resistance drop is observed even if the resistance was measured down to 0.8 K.

  19. Costs of Emission Metrics in the Context of Climate Stabilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Johansson, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian; Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system (Article 2) and stipulates that policies and measures should cover all relevant sources, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases (Article 3.3). An emission metric to evaluate emissions of non-CO2 gases on a common scale of CO2 is critical for climate policymaking and also essential in a single basket approach to GHG emission abatement to achieve climate stabilization (for example, at 2°C warming target as recognized in the Cancún Agreements). While the Global Warming Potential (GWP) is by far the most common metric used in climate policies (e.g. Kyoto Protocol), alternative metrics are proposed to overcome deficiencies in the GWP. Those include the Cost-Effective Temperature Potential (CETP), Forcing Equivalent Index (FEI), Global Cost Potential (GCP), Global Damage Potential (GDP), Global Temperature change Potential (GTP), Mean Global Temperature change Potential (MGTP), Peak Commitment Temperature (PCT), Regional Temperature change Potential (RTP), Sustained Emission Temperature (SET), and TEMperature Proxy index (TEMP). A number of studies provide estimates of such metrics for different gases under a variety of assumptions and approaches. It has been demonstrated that emission metrics take a large range of values when compared in the context of climate stabilization, depending largely on the metric structure and the treatment of the time dimension. On the contrary, the differences in stabilization costs arising from the choice of metrics are shown to be disproportionally small in both cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit frameworks (i.e. a few to several percent higher costs relative to those based on optimal price ratios). However, only a limited set of metrics has been a subject of cost estimation and such calculations

  20. Optimal Transportation and Curvature of Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Eskin, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we study the notion of non-negative Ricci curvature for compact metric measure spaces introduced by Lott and Villani in their article (2009): Ricci curvature for metric measure spaces via optimal transport. We also define and prove the required prerequisites concerning length spaces, convex analysis, measure theory, and optimal transportation.