WorldWideScience

Sample records for effective regulatory culture

  1. Safety culture as a matter of regulatory control and regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, C.T.M.; Furieri, E.B.; Arrieta, L.A.I.; Almeida, C.U.C.

    2002-01-01

    More than 15 years have passed since the term 'safety culture' was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), and although the concept now is widely accepted, practical applications and characteristics have been disseminated mainly for nuclear power plant operating organizations. There is still a lack of international guidance on the use of safety culture as a regulatory matter and on the application of the concept within regulatory organizations. This work explores the meaning of safety culture in two different fields: as an element of safety management systems it shall be a matter of regulatory control; as a complementary tool for quality management it should be used to enhance regulatory effectiveness. Brazilian recent experience on regulating nuclear power reactors provide some examples on how the concept of safety culture may influence regulatory strategies and regulatory management. (author)

  2. The Safety Culture of an Effective Nuclear Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Bernard, Benoit; Lojk, Robert; Koskinen, Kaisa; Rigail, Anne-Cecile; Stoppa, Gisela; Lorand, Ferenc; Aoki, Masahiro; Fujita, Kenichi; Takada, Hiroko; Kurasaki, Takaaki; Choi, Young Sung; Smit, Martin; Bogdanova, Tatiana; Sapozhnikov, Alexander; Smetnik, Alexander; Cid Campo, Rafael; Axelsson, Lars; Carlsson, Lennart; Edland, Anne; Ryser, Cornelia; Cohen, Miriam; Ficks, Ben; Valentin, Andrea; Nicic, Adriana; Lorin, Aurelie; Nezuka, Takayoshi; Creswell, Len

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy are carried out in a safe manner within their respective countries. In order to effectively achieve this objective, the nuclear regulatory body requires specific characteristics, one of which is a healthy safety culture. This regulatory guidance report describes five principles that support the safety culture of an effective nuclear regulatory body. These principles concern leadership for safety, individual responsibility and accountability, co-operation and open communication, a holistic approach, and continuous improvement, learning and self-assessment. The report also addresses some of the challenges to a regulatory body's safety culture that must be recognised, understood and overcome. It provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as for training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator. (authors)

  3. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  4. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung

    2014-01-01

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety

  5. Building Nuclear Safety and Security Culture Within Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, K.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a higher level of nuclear safety and security, it needs to develop the safety and security culture not only in the facility but also in the regulatory body. The regulatory body, especially needs to develop the safety and security culture within the organization, because it has a function to promote and oversee the culture in the facilities. In this sense, the regulatory body should become a role model. Development of the nuclear safety and security culture should be started by properly understanding its concept and awakening the awareness of individual and organization on the importance of nuclear safety and security. For effectiveness of the culture development in the regulatory body, the following steps are suggested to be taken: setting up of the regulatory requirements, self-assessment, independent assessment review, communication with the licensee, oversight of management system implementation, and integration with regulatory activities. The paper discusses those steps in the framework of development of nuclear safety and security culture in the regulatory body, as well as some important elements in building of the culture in the nuclear facilities. (author)

  6. Regulatory Activities for Licensee's Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2008-01-01

    Weaknesses in safety culture have contributed to a number of incidents/accidents in the nuclear and other high hazard sectors worldwide in the past. These events have fostered an increasing awareness of the need for licensees to develop a strong safety culture to support successful and sustainable nuclear safety performance. Regulatory bodies are taking a growing interest in this issue, and several are actively working to develop and implement approaches to maintaining regulatory oversight of licensee safety culture. However, these approaches are not yet well-established, and it was considered prudent to share experiences and developing methodologies in order to disseminate good practices and avoid potential pitfalls. This paper presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of international meetings and other countries' activities on safety culture and gives some suggestions for regulators to consider when planning regulatory oversight for licensee's safety culture

  7. Hematopoietic regulatory factors produced in long-term murine bone marrow cultures and the effect of in vitro irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, R.J.; Shadduck, R.K.; Baker, D.G.; Quesenberry, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of hematopoietic regulatory factors elaborated by the adherent (stromal) cells of long-term murine bone marrow cultures and the effect of in vitro stromal irradiation (XRT) on the production of these factors was investigated. Using an in situ stromal assay it was possible to demonstrate stromal elaboration of at least two colony-stimulating activities, ie, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating activity (G/M-CSA) and megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity (Meg-CSA). Exposure of the stroma to XRT resulted in dose-dependent elevations of both activities that correlated inversely with total myeloid cell mass. Mixture experiments that combined control and irradiated stroma revealed that the hematopoietically active control stroma could block detection of XRT-related G/M-CSA elevations. Antiserum directed against purified L cell colony-stimulating factor (CSF) reduced granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in the target layer but did not effect the increased Meg-CSA. While a radioimmunoassay for L-cell type CSF was unable to detect significant differences in concentrated media from control and irradiated cultures, bioassays of these media revealed XRT-related G/M-CSA elevations. These results indicate that the G/M-CSA elaborated in these cultures is immunologically distinct from the Meg-CSA produced, and although distinct from L cell CSF, the G/M-CSA is crossreactive with the L cell CSF antiserum. Morphologic, histochemical, and factor VII antigen immunofluorescent studies were performed on the stromal cell population responsible for production of these stimulatory activities. In addition to ''fat'' cells, the stromal cells remaining after XRT were composed of two predominant cell populations. These included a major population of acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase-positive macrophage-like cells and a minor population of factor VII antigen negative epithelioid cells

  8. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  9. PNRA: Practically Improving Safety Culture within the Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.A.N.; Habib, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of a good safety culture is equally important for all kind of organizations involved in nuclear business including operating organizations, designers, regulator, etc., and this should be reflected through the processes and activities of these organizations. The need for inculcating safety culture into regulatory processes and practices is gradually increasing since the major nuclear accident of Fukushima, Japan. Accordingly, several international fora in last few years repeatedly highlighted the importance of prevalence of safety culture in regulatory bodies as well. The utilisation of concept of safety culture remained applicable in regulatory activities of PNRA in the form of core values. After the Fukushima accident, PNRA considered it important to check the extent of utilisation of safety culture concept in organizational activities and decided to conduct its “Safety Culture Self-Assessment (SCSA)” for presenting itself as role model in-order to endorse the fact that safety culture at regulatory authority plays an important role to influence safety culture at licenced facilities. Considering the complexity of cultural assessment starting from visual manifestations to the basic assumptions at the deeper level, PNRA decided to utilise IAEA emerging methodology for assessment of culture and then used modified IAEA normative framework (made it applicable for regulatory body) for assessing safety culture at a regulatory body. PNRA SCSA team utilised safety culture assessment tools (observations, focus groups, surveys, interviews and document analysis) for collecting cultural facts by including all level of personnel involved in different activities and functions in the organization. Different challenges were encountered during implementation of these tools which were tackled with the background of training on SCSA and with the help of experts during support missions arranged by IAEA. Before formally starting the SCSA process, pre-launch activities

  10. Regulatory Oversight of Safety Culture — Korea’s Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.J.; Choi, Y.S.; Kim, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, a regulatory oversight program of safety culture was launched in 2012 to establish regulatory measures against several events caused by weak safety culture in the nuclear industry. This paper is intended to introduce the preliminary regulatory oversight framework, development and validation of safety culture components, pilot safety culture inspection results and lessons learned. The safety culture model should be based on a sound understanding of the national culture and industry characteristics where the model will be applied. The nuclear safety culture oversight model is being developed and built on the Korean regulatory system to independently assess the nuclear power operating organizations’ safety culture.

  11. Promoting and assessment of safety culture within regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Sumit; Bhattacharya, D.; Koley, J.; Krishnamurthy, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Regulators have an important role to play in assisting organizations under their jurisdiction to develop positive safety cultures. It is therefore essential for the regulator to have a robust safety culture as an inherent strategy and communication of this strategy to the organizations it supervises. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) emphasizes every utility to institute a good safety culture during various stages of a NPP. The regulatory requirement for establishing organisational safety culture within utility at different stages are delineated in the various AERB safety codes which are presented in the paper. Although the review and assessment of the safety culture is a part of AERB’s continual safety supervision through existing review mechanism, AERB do not use any specific indicators for safety culture assessment. However, establishing and nurturing a good safety culture within AERB helps in encouraging the utility to institute the same. At the induction level AERB provides training to its staffs for regulatory orientation which include a specific course on safety culture. Subsequently, the junior staffs are mentored by seniors while involving them in various regulatory processes and putting them as observers during regulatory decision making process. Further, AERB established a formal procedure for assessing and improving safety culture within its staff as a management system process. The paper describes as a case study the above safety culture assessment process established within AERB

  12. Safety culture from a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, has in its regulatory approach to the area of management and organization focussed on the process of continuous improvement and have in collaboration with Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, developed a conceptual model of the important characteristics of a continuous improvement organization and how to assess it. In this work SKI has also recognized the importance of the regulatory goals and strategies adopted by SKI for promoting an improvement process on the part of the utilities, which will be further discussed below. 15 refs

  13. Safety culture from a regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, K [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, has in its regulatory approach to the area of management and organization focussed on the process of continuous improvement and have in collaboration with Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, developed a conceptual model of the important characteristics of a continuous improvement organization and how to assess it. In this work SKI has also recognized the importance of the regulatory goals and strategies adopted by SKI for promoting an improvement process on the part of the utilities, which will be further discussed below. 15 refs.

  14. Safety culture in Ignalina NPP, regulatory view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovas, G [VATESI (Lithuania)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation describes how success on the way to a high level Safety Culture in Ignalina NPP may be achieved by daily, well motivated activities with good attitude and proper management participation, ensuring the development and proper implementation of Safety Culture principles within the activities of Operational organization of Ignalina NPP.

  15. Safety culture in Ignalina NPP, regulatory view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovas, G.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation describes how success on the way to a high level Safety Culture in Ignalina NPP may be achieved by daily, well motivated activities with good attitude and proper management participation, ensuring the development and proper implementation of Safety Culture principles within the activities of Operational organization of Ignalina NPP

  16. Safety culture competition - expectations of a regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, D.; Gloeckle, W.

    2000-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station on April 26, 1986 influenced the development of reactor safety and promulgated two basic concepts especially in Germany. On the one hand, extensive measures of in-plant accident management have greatly reduced the so-called residual risk. On the other hand, a comprehensive safety approach has been initiated which comprises the nuclear power plant as a system together with people, technology, and organization and also includes safety culture. In a modern regulatory concept based on the dynamic development of safety, the authority's classical regulatory function of controlling is supplemented by the objective of promoting safety. While preserving the division of responsibilities between the regulatory authority and plant operators, the authority uses 'constructive critical dialog' as a tool to enhance safety. Besides the regulatory assessment of safety culture on the basis of indications or indicators, also the continuous promotion of safety culture in a dialog with plant operators is seen as one of the duties of a regulatory authority. Continued efforts are necessary to maintain the high level of safety culture in German nuclear power plants. Operators are expected to establish a safety management which assigns top priority to safety issues, and which pursues the goal of supervising and promoting safety culture. Developments on the deregulated electricity markets must not lead to safety aspects ranking second to economic aspects. Moreover, also under changed boundary conditions, only the safe operation of nuclear power plants ensures economic viability. (orig.) [de

  17. Assessment of regulatory effectiveness. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This report arises from the seventh series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Assessment of Regulatory Effectiveness'. The term 'regulatory effectiveness' covers the quality of the work and level of performance of a regulatory body. In this sense, regulatory effectiveness applies to regulatory body activities aimed at preventing safety degradation and ensuring that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained by the regulated operating organizations. In addition, regulatory effectiveness encompasses the promotion of safety improvements, the timely and cost effective performance of regulatory functions in a manner which ensures the confidence of the operating organizations, the general public and the government, and striving for continuous improvements to performance. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in two peer group discussions during March and May 1999. The discussions were focused on the elements of an effective regulatory body, possible indicators of regulatory effectiveness and its assessment. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the organizations they belong to, or the International Atomic Energy Agency. In order to protect people and the environment from hazards associated with nuclear facilities, the main objective of a nuclear regulatory body is to ensure that a high level of safety in the nuclear activities under its jurisdiction is achieved, maintained and within the control of operating organizations. Even if it is possible to directly judge objective safety levels at nuclear facilities, such safety levels would not provide an exclusive indicator of regulatory effectiveness. The way the regulatory body ensures the safety of workers and the public and the way it discharges its responsibilities also determine its effectiveness. Hence the

  18. Safety Culture Implementation in Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurwidi Astuti, Y.H.; Dewanto, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Act no. 10 of 1997 clearly stated that Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is the Nuclear Regulatory Body. This is the legal basis of BAPETEN to perform regulatory functions on the use of nuclear energy in Indonesia, including regulation, authorisation, inspection and enforcement. The Independent regulatory functions are stipulated in Article 4 and Article 14 of the Nuclear Energy Act no. 10 (1997) which require the government to establish regulatory body that is reporting directly to the president and has responsibility to control of the use of nuclear energy. BAPETEN has been start fully its functioning on January 4, 1999. In it roles as a regulatory body, the main aspect that continues and always to be developed is the safety culture. One of the objectives of regulatory functions is “to increase legal awareness of nuclear energy of the user to develop safety culture” (Article 15, point d), while in the elucidation of article 15 it is stipulated that “safety culture is that of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individual that emphasise the importance of safety”.

  19. Discussion on building safety culture inside a nuclear safety regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yumao

    2013-01-01

    A strong internal safety culture plays a key role in improving the performance of a nuclear regulatory body. This paper discusses the definition of internal safety culture of nuclear regulatory bodies, and explains the functions that the safety culture to facilitate the nuclear safety regulation and finally puts forward some thoughts about building internal safety culture inside regulatory bodies. (author)

  20. Regulatory Oversight of Safety Culture in Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Experience across the international nuclear industry and in other technical fields over the past few decades has demonstrated the importance of a healthy safety culture in maintaining the safety of workers, the public and the environment. Both regulators and the nuclear industry recognize the need for licensees to develop a strong safety culture in order to support successful and sustainable nuclear safety performance. Progress over recent years can be observed in the rapid development of approaches to overseeing licensees' safety culture. This publication follows on and complements earlier publications on safety culture, from the publication Safety Culture (Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-4 (1991)), published after the Chernobyl accident, to the more recently published Safety Requirements on The Management System for Facilities and Activities (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3 (2006)), which states that the management system is to be used to promote and support a strong safety culture. A number of attempts have been made at both the international and national levels to establish practical approaches to regulatory oversight of safety culture. During 2010 and 2011, two projects were conducted by the IAEA under the scope of the Safe Nuclear Energy - Regional Excellence Programme within the Norwegian Cooperation Programme with Bulgaria and Romania. These projects were implemented at the Bulgarian and Romanian regulatory bodies. They encompassed the development of a specific process to oversee licensees' safety culture, and involved 30 experts from 17 countries and 22 organizations. The IAEA continues to support Member States in the area of safety culture through its projects on safety management and capacity building. This publication addresses the basics of regulatory oversight of safety culture, describes the approaches currently implemented at several regulatory bodies around the world and, based on these examples, proposes a path to developing such a process

  1. ILK statement about the regulatory authorities' perception of operators' self-assessment of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, German licensing and supervisory authorities have devoted increasing attention to safety management and safety culture issues. At present, German plant operators are introducing systems for self-assessment of the safety culture in their plants, such as the Safety Culture Assessment System developed by VGB Power Tech (VGB-SBS). In its statement, the International Committee on Nuclear Technology (ILK) addresses an effective approach of the authorities in evaluating the self-assessment of safety culture conducted by operators. ILK proposes a total of ten recommendations for evaluating the self-assessment system of the operators by the authority. The regulatory authorities should see to it that the operators establish a self-assessment system for aspects of organization and personnel, and use it continuously. The measures derived from this self-assessment by the operators, and the reasons underlying them, should be discussed with the authorities. In addition to the operators, also the regulatory authorities and the technical expert organizations commissioned by them should carry out self-assessments of their respective supervisory activities, taking into account also special events, such as changes in government, and develop appropriate programs of measures to be taken. In evaluating safety culture, the regulatory authorities should strive to support the activities of operators in improving their safety culture. A spirit of mutual confidence and cooperation should exist between operators and authorities. The recommendations expressed in the statement deliberately leave room for detailed implementation by the parties concerned. (orig.)

  2. Improvements of the Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Installations in the Areas of Human and Organizational Factors and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronea, M.; Ciurea, C.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the development of regulatory requirements in the area of human and organizational factors taking account of the lessons learned from major accidents in the nuclear industry and in particular of the factors that contributed to the Fukushima Daiichi accident and the improvement of the regulatory oversight of nuclear safety culture. New requirements have been elaborated by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) on the nuclear safety policy of licencees for nuclear installations, on independent nuclear safety oversight, on safety conscious work environment and on the assessment of nuclear safety culture. The regulatory process for the oversight of nuclear safety culture within licencees’ organizations operating nuclear installations and the associated procedure and guidelines, based on the IAEA Safety Standards, have been developed in 2010-2011. CNCAN has used the 37 IAEA attributes for a strong safety culture, grouped into five areas corresponding to safety culture characteristics, as the basis for its regulatory guidelines providing support to the reviewers and inspectors, in their routine activities, for recognising and gathering information relevant to safety culture. The safety culture oversight process, procedure and guidelines are in process of being reviewed and revised to improve their effectiveness and to align with the current international practices, using lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Starting with July 2014, Romania has a National Strategy for Nuclear Safety and Security, which includes strategic objectives, associated directions for action and concrete actions for promoting nuclear safety culture in all the organizations in the nuclear sector. The progress with the implementation of this strategy with regard to nuclear safety culture is described in the paper. CNCAN started to define its own organizational culture model and identifying the elements that promote and support safety

  3. Canadian and international approaches to regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojk, R.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory effectiveness is an important attribute of any regulator, particularly nuclear regulators. As the nuclear industry has matured, and as the social landscape has changed, so have views on what constitutes regulatory effectiveness. Canada has evolved its regulatory structure and modernized its legislative framework and technical requirements and guidance over time. In addition, Canada continues to collaborate with international agencies, particularly the NEA and the IAEA, to ensure that there is a common understanding of the indicators and key attributes of regulatory effectiveness. This paper discusses Canadian and international views on the subject, including perspectives from other industries. (author)

  4. Safety culture in regulatory expert organization : analysis result of survey for KINS employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, G. S.; Choi, Y. S.

    2003-01-01

    Much has been discussed on safety culture of operating organizations, however, little has been done on that of regulatory organization. Current issues and activities related to nuclear safety culture at IAEA, OECD/NEA, etc. were investigated and relevant literatures were reviewed. Elements essential for safety culture of regulatory organization were proposed and survey questionnaire for employees of regulatory expert organization, KINS, was developed based on the elements proposed. The survey result was presented and its implications were discussed. Based on the result, elements of safety culture in regulatory organization were proposed. The result of this survey can be used in developing safety culture model of regulatory organization, measurement method and also promotion of safety culture in regulatory organization

  5. Contemporary Approaches to Safety Culture: Lessons from Developing a Regulatory Oversight Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, V.; Heppell-Masys, K.

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security and the environment, and to implement Canada’s international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy; and to disseminate objective scientific, technical and regulatory information to the public. In the late 1990s, the CNSC conducted research into an Organization and Management (O&M) assessment method. Based on this research the CNSC conducted O&M assessments at all Canadian nuclear power plants and conducted additional assessments of nuclear research and uranium mine and mill operations. The results of these assessments were presented to licencees and used to inform their ongoing actions related to safety culture. Additional safety culture outreach and oversight activities provided licencees with opportunities to develop effective safety culture assessment methods, to share best practices across industry, and to strive for continual improvement of their organizations. Recent changes to the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) management system standard have resulted in the inclusion of requirements associated to safety culture and human performance. Representatives from several sectors of Canada’s nuclear industry, as well as participation from regulators such as the CNSC took part to the development of this consensus standard. Specifically, these requirements focus on monitoring and understanding safety culture, integrating safety into all of the requirements of the management system, committing workers to adhere to the management system and supporting excellence in workers’ performance. The CNSC is currently developing a regulatory document on safety culture which includes key concepts applicable to all licencees and specific requirements related to self-assessment, and additional guidance for nuclear power plants. Developing a regulatory document on safety culture requires consultation and fact finding initiatives at

  6. An overview on development of safety culture of regulatory body in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Myunghyun; Choi, Young Sung; Yi, Kyungjoo

    2015-01-01

    Fukushima accident revealed not only licensees but also regulatory bodies' (RBs) establishment of robust safety culture (SC) is crucial to implement effective safety regulation. Result of the IAEA IRRS held in 2011 required regulatory body in Korea to make improvement measure for the enhancement of safety culture of regulatory body (SCRB). Compared to works done to assess SC focused on working organizations of nuclear industry, not enough attention has been paid to assess the RBs. To achieve this goal, long-term comprehensive drive plan has to be made. The IAEA is putting great effort to establish and enhance SC in RBs. OECD/NEA CNRA is planning to produce Green Booklet on SCRB for regulatory guidance. SCRB is an organization's culture, RBs ultimately has to possess in order to assure secure use of nuclear energy. An organization's culture emerges from, and is manifested in, the interplay of its members' emotion, cognition, attitudes, behaviors and interaction patterns. As a result of this mechanism, organizational structures and culture influence individual's attitude and behavior when entered into a situation. Each organization has its strengths and weakness in SC. Safety culture defective components of the Fukushima accident was analyzed by JNES in 2012. According to the casual factors indicated in the investigation report, Nuclear Regulatory Organizations (NROs) of Korea also had weakness of the SCRB in terms of questioning attitude, continuous learning, issue identification and resolution and safety leadership. It doesn't have to be same but necessary for both NSSC and KINS to be consistent in building SC traits to carry out a coherent policy with synergy effect. NROs should communicated and convey consistent message to the stakeholders. Not limited to development of SCRB itself, influence of SCRB on licensee's SC is recommended for further study. Also, what behaviors are expected to make positive effects and whether they can

  7. An overview on development of safety culture of regulatory body in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Myunghyun; Choi, Young Sung; Yi, Kyungjoo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Fukushima accident revealed not only licensees but also regulatory bodies' (RBs) establishment of robust safety culture (SC) is crucial to implement effective safety regulation. Result of the IAEA IRRS held in 2011 required regulatory body in Korea to make improvement measure for the enhancement of safety culture of regulatory body (SCRB). Compared to works done to assess SC focused on working organizations of nuclear industry, not enough attention has been paid to assess the RBs. To achieve this goal, long-term comprehensive drive plan has to be made. The IAEA is putting great effort to establish and enhance SC in RBs. OECD/NEA CNRA is planning to produce Green Booklet on SCRB for regulatory guidance. SCRB is an organization's culture, RBs ultimately has to possess in order to assure secure use of nuclear energy. An organization's culture emerges from, and is manifested in, the interplay of its members' emotion, cognition, attitudes, behaviors and interaction patterns. As a result of this mechanism, organizational structures and culture influence individual's attitude and behavior when entered into a situation. Each organization has its strengths and weakness in SC. Safety culture defective components of the Fukushima accident was analyzed by JNES in 2012. According to the casual factors indicated in the investigation report, Nuclear Regulatory Organizations (NROs) of Korea also had weakness of the SCRB in terms of questioning attitude, continuous learning, issue identification and resolution and safety leadership. It doesn't have to be same but necessary for both NSSC and KINS to be consistent in building SC traits to carry out a coherent policy with synergy effect. NROs should communicated and convey consistent message to the stakeholders. Not limited to development of SCRB itself, influence of SCRB on licensee's SC is recommended for further study. Also, what behaviors are expected to make positive effects and whether they can

  8. Creating a safety culture in the regulatory authority: The Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Fernandez, R.; Guillen Campos, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Cuban regulatory authority has been working during several years for the fostering and development of a high Safety Culture level in nuclear activities in the country. As starting point to achieve this objective the assessment of the Safety Culture level in the regulatory authority performance was considered an important issue. For this purpose a preliminary diagnosis was carried out by means of a national survey that allowed identifying some areas of the regulatory activity that required improvements in order to achieve a higher Safety Culture and to immediately implement appropriate actions. Two of the most important actions undertaken were: the statement of the regulatory authority Safety Policy which governs and determines the performance of this organization and its staff and also the implementation of a new interaction practice at top level between the regulatory authority and the utilities of the nuclear sector through the Annual Regulatory Conference. The present paper summarizes these two introduced practices into the Cuban regulatory activity. (author)

  9. EFFECT OF FUROSTANOL GLYCOSIDES FROM CULTURED DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA CELLS ON REGULATORY FUNCTION OF ENDOTHELIUM IN A RAT MODEL OF HYPOESTROGEN-INDUCED ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Artyushkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effects of furostanol glycosides from cultured Dioscorea Deltoidea cells (DM-05, Institute of Plant Physiology, RAS on physiological and biochemical markers of endothelial function in rats with hypoestrogen-induced endothelial dysfunction.Material and methods. 10 female rats of Wistar line, with body mass 200-300 g have been included in the experiment. The bilateral ovariectomy was performed in rats to produce the model of hypoestrogen-induced endothelial dysfunction. Rats were treated with the injections of DM-05 during 6 weeks. False ovariectomy was performed in rats of control group (n=10.Results. DM-05 restored the levels of stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NO which reflex endothelial NO-synthase activity. Besides DM-05 corrected blood pressure and endothelial function. Experiments on open heart showed that DM-05 protects the cardiac tissue from hypoestrogen-induced hyperadrenoreactivity.Conclusion. Treatment with plant origin substances with estrogen-like activity can be a perspective approach to the correction of endothelial function and decrease in cardiovascular risk in menopause women.

  10. Regulatory Body Safety Culture in Non-nuclear HROs: Lessons for Nuclear Regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, M.; Bowers, K.

    2016-01-01

    Regulator safety culture is a relatively new area of investigation, even though deficiencies in regulatory oversight have been identified in a number of public inquiries (e.g., Piper Alpha, Deep Water Horizon). More recently the IAEA report into the Fukushima disaster specifically identified the need for regulatory bodies to have a positive safety culture. While there are clear parallels between duty holder safety culture and regulator safety culture there are also likely to be differences. To date they have been no published studies investigating regulator safety culture. In order to develop a framework to understand regulator safety culture we conducted a literature review and interviewed safety culture subject matter experts from a range of HRO domains (e.g., offshore oil and gas). There was general consensus among participants that regulatory safety culture was an important topic that was worthy of further investigation. That there was general agreement that regulatory safety culture was multi-dimensional and that some of the elements of existing safety culture models applied to regulator culture (e.g., learning and leadership). The participants also identified unique dimensions of regulator safety culture including commitment to high standards and ethics, transparency and perceived role of the regulator. In this paper we will present the results of the interviews and present a model of regulator safety culture. This model will be contrasted with models being used in the nuclear industry. Implications for assessing regulatory safety culture will be discussed. (author)

  11. Delegating effectively across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Chevrier; Michaël Viegas-Pires

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article builds on the contingency approach of global leadership to examine empowerment in a cross-cultural context. Drawing upon an ethnographic research in a French NGO settled in Madagascar, it demonstrates that effective empowerment is not so much a matter of degree -more or less delegation- than a matter of manner. Understanding the cultural representations of role and structure formalization, skill development, collective work and decision-making appeared to ...

  12. Challenges and Enhancements to the Safety Culture of the Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, Jean-Christophe; Chevet, Pierre Franck; Sheron, Brian; Boyd, Michael; Carlsson, Lennart; Tiippana, Petteri; Burns, Stephen; Jamieson, Terry; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Rzentkowski, Greg; Weiss, Frank Peter; Le Guen, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    The workshop opened with presentations by both the NEA Director-General and the chair of the three committees directly involved with the safety culture of the regulatory body (SCRB). The opening session set the scene and gave an overview of the SCRB together with presentations and discussions on priorities and challenges. The main session focused on the principles of the SCRB, its implementation and the challenges and enhancements that are being raised and considered. The workshop concluded with a session that looked at findings and conclusions, the way forward and an agreed position on the SCRB. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) given at the workshop: 1 - Introduction: Challenges and Enhancements to the Safety Culture of the Regulatory Body (J-C. Niel); 2 - Thoughts on Safety Culture from a CSNI Perspective (B. Sheron); 3 - Radiological Protection Culture: CRPPH Work (M. Boyd); 4 - Challenges and Enhancements to Safety Culture of the Regulatory Body (L. Carlsson); 5 - Principles for the safety culture of the regulatory body (P. Tiippana); 6 - NRC's Internal Safety Culture: Successes, Challenges, and the Path Forward (S.G. Burns); 7 - Insights on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's Safety Culture Journey (T. Jamieson); 8 - Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident regarding Safety Culture of Regulatory Body (T. Fuketa); 9 - Challenges to Regulatory Bodies' safety culture (P-F. Chevet); 10 - Regulatory Safety Culture: International Perspective (G. Rzentkowski); 11 - Integration of Safety Research into Safety Culture Concepts (F-P. Weiss); 12 - Radiation Protection and Emergency Management Aspects: Culture drawn up by RP professionals (B. Le Guen); 13 - Closing session panel (L. Carlsson)

  13. Nuclear safety and security culture - an integrated approach to regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronea, M.; Ciurea Ercau, C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the development and implementation of regulatory guidelines for the oversight of safety and security culture within licensees organizations. CNCAN (the National Commission for Nuclear Activities of Romania) has used the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) attributes for a strong safety culture as the basis for its regulatory guidelines providing support to the reviewers and inspectors for recognizing and gathering information relevant to safety culture. These guidelines are in process of being extended to address also security culture, based on the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 7 document Nuclear Security Culture: Implementing Guide. Recognizing that safety and security cultures coexist and need to reinforce each other because they share the common objective of limiting risk and that similar regulatory review and inspection processes are in place for nuclear security oversight, an integrated approach is considered justified, moreover since the common elements of these cultures outweigh the differences. (authors)

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Systems in Africa: Improving Safety and Security Culture Through Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazadi Kabuya, F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the important issue of supporting safety and security culture through an educational and training course program designed both for regulatory staff and licensees. Enhancing the safety and security of nuclear facilities may involve assessing the overall effectiveness of the organization's safety culture. Safety Culture implies steps such as identifying and targeting areas requiring attention, putting emphasis on organizational strengths and weaknesses, human attitudes and behaviours that may positively impact an organization's safety culture, resulting in improving workplace safety and developing and maintaining a high level of awareness within these facilities. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, international efforts were made towards achieving such goals. This was realized through meetings, summits and training courses events, with main aim to enhance security at facilities whose activities, if attacked, could impact public health and safety. During regulatory oversight inspections undertaken on some licensee's premises, violations of security requirements were identified. They mostly involved inadequate management oversight of security, lack of a questioning attitude, complacency and mostly inadequate training in both security and safety issues. Using training and education approach as a support to raise awareness on safety and security issues in the framework of improving safety and security culture, a tentative training program in nuclear and radiological safety was started in 2002 with the main aim of vulgarizing the regulatory framework. Real first needs for a training course program were identified among radiographers and radiologists with established working experience but with limited knowledge in radiation safety. In the field of industrial uses of radiation the triggering events for introducing and implementing a training program were: the loss of a radioactive source in a mining

  15. Safety Culture Assessment at Regulatory Body - PNRA Experience of Implementing IAEA Methodology for Safety Culture Self Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.A.N.; Arshad, N.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of a good safety culture is equally important for all kind of organizations involved in nuclear business including operating organizations, designers, regulator, etc., and this should be reflected through all the processes and activities of these organizations. The need for inculcating safety culture into regulatory processes and practices is gradually increasing since the major accident at Fukushima. Accordingly, several international fora in last few years repeatedly highlighted the importance of prevalence of safety culture in regulatory bodies as well. The utilisation of concept of safety culture always remained applicable in regulatory activities of PNRA in the form of core values. After the Fukushima accident, PNRA considered it important to check the extent of utilisation of safety culture concept in organizational activities and decided to conduct its “Safety Culture Self-Assessment (SCSA)” for presenting itself as a role model in-order to endorse the fact that safety culture at regulatory authority plays an important role to influence safety culture at licenced facilities.

  16. Pre-commercial procurement : regulatory effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostol, Anca Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Is public procurement of research and development (‘R&D’) services the key to European Union (‘EU’)’s sustainable welfare? Is it being regulated in accordance with economic prescripts for effectiveness? Is the regulatory and policy setting clear and comprehensive in order to stimulate a widespread

  17. Development of safety culture at Kozloduy NPP: The role of the regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliovsky, Ventzislav

    2002-01-01

    An evolution is made upon external factor that accompany the development of safety culture at Kozloduy NPP (KNPP). The two basic stages and the major results achieved independently and with external assistance were considered in the process of development of safety culture. The areas in which the regulatory body insists on having active participation were defined. (author)

  18. Improvement of the effectiveness of regulatory management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The project ARCAL LXVI has as its objective strengthening the national capabilities of the regulatory authorities to achieve an adequate level of radiation safety by training their staff in the implementation of the safety guidelines developed by a prior TC regional project under the framework of the ARCAL Programme and to measure its effectiveness. Detailed program of activities for the years 2001/2002 is presented at this meeting

  19. Regulatory assessment of safety culture in nuclear organisations - current trends and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronea, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the current practices in the area of regulatory assessment of safety culture in nuclear organisations and of the associated challenges. While the assessment and inspection procedures currently in use by regulatory authorities worldwide are directed primarily at verifying compliance with the licensing basis, there is a recognised need for a more systematic approach to the identification, collection and review of data relevant to the safety culture in licensees' organisations. The paper presents a proposal for using the existing regulatory inspection practices for gathering information relevant to safety culture and for assessing it in an integrated manner. The proposal is based on the latest requirements and guidance issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on management systems for nuclear facilities and activities, particularly as regards the attributes needed for a strong nuclear safety culture. (author)

  20. Regulatory Oversight of Safety Culture in Finland: A Systemic Approach to Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedewald, P.; Väisäsvaara, J.

    2016-01-01

    In Finland the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK specifies detailed regulatory requirements for good safety culture. Both the requirements and the practical safety culture oversight activities reflect a systemic approach to safety: the interconnections between the technical, human and organizational factors receive special attention. The conference paper aims to show how the oversight of safety culture can be integrated into everyday oversight activities. The paper also emphasises that the scope of the safety culture oversight is not specific safety culture activities of the licencees, but rather the overall functioning of the licence holder or the new build project organization from safety point of view. The regulatory approach towards human and organizational factors and safety culture has evolved throughout the years of nuclear energy production in Finland. Especially the recent new build projects have highlighted the need to systematically pay attention to the non-technical aspects of safety as it has become obvious how the HOF issues can affect the design processes and quality of construction work. Current regulatory guides include a set of safety culture related requirements. The requirements are binding to the licence holders and they set both generic and specific demands on the licencee to understand, monitor and to develop safety culture of their own organization but also that of their supplier network. The requirements set for the licence holders has facilitated the need to develop the regulator’s safety culture oversight practices towards a proactive and systemic approach.

  1. 75 FR 52046 - Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... is working towards increasing the attention that is given to safety culture as part of its efforts to... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture..., Nevada hearing facility to solicit comments on the revision of its draft safety culture policy statement...

  2. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieracki, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    The NRC recognises that it is important for all organizations performing or overseeing regulated activities to establish and maintain a positive safety culture commensurate with the safety and security significance of their activities and the nature and complexity of their organizations and functions. The NRC’s approach to safety culture is based on the premise that licencees bear the primary responsibility for safety. The NRC provides oversight of safety culture through expectations detailed in policy statements, safety culture assessor training for NRC inspectors, the oversight process, and the Allegations and Enforcement Programs. The NRC’s Safety Culture Policy Statement (SCPS) sets forth the Commission’s expectation that individuals and organizations establish and maintain a positive safety culture commensurate with the safety and security significance of their activities and the nature and complexity of their organizations and functions. The SCPS is not a regulation. It applies to all licencees, certificate holders, permit holders, authorisation holders, holders of quality assurance program approvals, vendors and suppliers of safety-related components, and applicants for a licence, certificate, permit, authorisation, or quality assurance program approval, subject to NRC authority.

  3. Assessing the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhia, Sonal; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima accident brought up the issue of regulatory effectiveness in the fore. One of the causes of the accident has been attributed to the problems in effectiveness of the Japanese regulatory system. Regulatory reform is underway in Japan and in other countries many efforts have also been made to improve the effectiveness and independence of the regulatory bodies. It is important that the regulatory bodies make self-assessment of their weaknesses and strengths, to achieve the ultimate regulatory goal of assuring acceptable level of nuclear safety. In this paper an assessment has been done for the effectiveness of Indian nuclear regulatory system as implemented by the Atomic Energy Regulatory board (AERB). A number of good practices of AERB have been found and some areas have been identified where improvements are necessary

  4. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of safety culture: Changing regulatory approach in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronaky, Jozsef; Toth, Andras

    2002-01-01

    Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) is changing its inspection practice and assessment methods of safety performance and safety culture in operating nuclear facilities. The new approach emphasises integrated team inspection of safety cornerstones and systematic assessment of safety performance of operators. (author)

  6. Regulatory oversight of safety culture in nuclear installations - New IAEA developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerhoas, Anne; )

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Anne Kerhoas described the IAEA work on guidance for regulatory oversight of safety culture. She summarised the various IAEA, OECD/NEA and ANS meetings that have been held on the topic between 1995 and 2011. The IAEA has carried out two recent projects with the Bulgarian and Romanian regulatory bodies to develop a safety culture oversight program. The work was funded by the Norwegian government and has involved 30 experts from 17 different countries. Draft guidance for regulators on how to monitor licensee safety culture has also been produced (IAEA-TECDOC-DD1070). The document is intended to provide practical guidance on oversight strategies and is applicable to a wide range of nuclear installations, including nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities, research reactors and waste management facilities. A number of principles for regulatory oversight of safety culture were summarised. For example, the primary responsibility for safety remains with the licensee, safety culture oversight should be performed at all stages of the life cycle of the nuclear installation, and multiple data collection methods should be used. The overall approach to safety culture described in the draft IAEA Tech doc includes a range of approaches to build up a meaningful picture of the licensee's safety culture. These include interviews, observations, review of documents, review of events, discussions and surveys. The importance of ongoing discussion with the licensee throughout the process to develop a deeper shared understanding of issues was emphasised. The results of the Chester 2 workshop will be used as an input to finalization of the draft Tech Doc

  7. Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-06-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Regulatory Effects of Fisetin on Microglial Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yuan Chuang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. The role of effective communications in Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsil, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Communications are essential to the licensing and general regulatory program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper attempts to identify and address certain aspects of, and approaches to, maintaining effective and efficient communications. It considers, from the perspective of the high-level radioactive waste repository program, both internal communication within the DOE itself and external communication with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and interested parties. Many of the points presented are based on lessons learned from electric utility experience with nuclear plants

  10. Methodology For Evaluation Of Regulatory Effectiveness In Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, Alexander; Valente, John; Griggs, James R.; Rexroth, Paul; Piskarev, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Sokolov, Egor; Melton, Ronald B.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Baker, Kathryn A.; Brothers, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    Material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) regulatory documents play an important role in securing and protecting nuclear material by regulating a variety of activities at different hierarchical levels. The development, implementation, and practical application of these regulatory documents requires a significant investment of financial and material resources. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the regulatory development process and the extent to which regulations improve the effectiveness of MPC and A at nuclear sites. The joint Russian and U.S. Regulatory Development Project has a goal of evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory documents developed for MPC and A. As part of this joint Project, a methodology for evaluating effectiveness has been developed. This methodology was developed around physical protection objectives. The developed methodology specifies physical protection objectives to be accomplished through the implementation of a regulatory system based on the physical protection goals at the nuclear sites. It includes approaches to assessing regulatory effectiveness, the hierarchical structure of physical protection objectives to be accomplished through implementing regulations, a 'mapping' of the physical protection objectives to the regulatory framework, a list of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of physical protection regulations and effectiveness indicators, as well as means and methods for gathering information and implementation of this evaluation.

  11. A Glance on the Safety Culture in Industrial Gamma Radiography in the Philippines: Regulatory Body Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Code of PNRI Regulations (CPR) Part 11 was published in the Official Gazette on 2010. It is just a year ahead of the publication of the IAEA Specific Safety Guide No. 11. In view of these, radiation safety culture in the practice of industrial gamma radiography was not yet fully introduced in the said national regulations in the country. However, it should not be a reflection that the radiation workers in the country specifically in the said field of practice do not exercise positive safety culture. The Nuclear Regulatory Division (NRD)—regulatory arm, although not yet separated from the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI0) as mandated by law — the promotional organization, has a well established and systemic regulatory infrastructure. It is attested by several studies and reports, among others. This study aims to assess the status of the existing safety culture in the conduct of industrial gamma radiography in the country through personnel perception survey of the radiation workers, i.e., managers, radiation safety officers, radiographers and radiographer’s assistants, based on the IAEA five characteristics of safety culture stipulated in the IAEA Safety Guide No. GS-G-3.5, “The Management System for Nuclear Installations”. It is assessed by the NRD of the PNRI. Also, the study determines the existence of safety culture as to the perspective of NRD through observations on the conduct of radiographic operations and walk-through of the facility while using the three-level Schein Model, i.e., “artefacts”, “espoused values” and “basic assumptions” and document reviews, among others

  12. FORECAST: Regulatory effects cost analysis software annual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, B.; Sciacca, F.W.

    1991-11-01

    Over the past several years the NRC has developed a generic cost methodology for the quantification of cost/economic impacts associated with a wide range of new or revised regulatory requirements. This methodology has been developed to aid the NRC in preparing Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs). These generic costing methods can be useful in quantifying impacts both to industry and to the NRC. The FORECAST program was developed to facilitate the use of the generic costing methodology. This PC program integrates the major cost considerations that may be required because of a regulatory change. FORECAST automates much of the calculations typically needed in an RIA and thus reduces the time and labor required to perform these analysis. More importantly, its integrated and consistent treatment of the different cost elements should help assure comprehensiveness, uniformity, and accuracy in the preparation of needed cost estimates

  13. The effect of cultural interaction on cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2014-07-07

    Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scalable human ES culture for therapeutic use: propagation, differentiation, genetic modification and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells unlike most adult stem cell populations can replicate indefinitely while preserving genetic, epigenetic, mitochondrial and functional profiles. ESCs are therefore an excellent candidate cell type for providing a bank of cells for allogenic therapy and for introducing targeted genetic modifications for therapeutic intervention. This ability of prolonged self-renewal of stem cells and the unique advantages that this offers for gene therapy, discovery efforts, cell replacement, personalized medicine and other more direct applications requires the resolution of several important manufacturing, gene targeting and regulatory issues. In this review, we assess some of the advance made in developing scalable culture systems, improvement in vector design and gene insertion technology and the changing regulatory landscape.

  15. The Regulatory Approach for the Assessment of Safety Culture in Germany: A Tool for Practical Use for Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassmann, W.; Beck, J.; Kopisch, C.

    2016-01-01

    Need for methods to assess licencees’ safety culture has been recognised since the Chernobyl accident. Several conferences organized by IAEA and OECD-NEA stated the need for regulatory oversight of safety culture and for suitable methods. In 2013, IAEA published a Technical Document (TECDOC 1707) on the process of safety culture oversight by regulatory authorities which leaves much room for regulators’ ways of performing safety culture oversight. In response to these developments, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) as the federal regulatory body commissioned GRS in 2011 to develop a practical guidance for assessing licencees’ safety culture in the process of regulatory oversight. This research and development project was completed just recently. The publicly available documentation comprises a shorter guidance document with the indispensable information for an appropriate, practical application and a report with more detailed information about the scientific basis of this guidance. To achieve best possible adaptation to regulators’ needs, GRS asked members of the regulatory authority of Baden-Wuerttemberg (one of the federal states of Germany) for comments on a draft of the guidance which was then finalised by duly considering this highly valuable and favorable feedback. Decisions regarding future use rest with German regulatory authorities.

  16. TSO Role in Supporting the Regulatory Authority in View of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamaza, A.; Vasilishin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Human and organizational factors are always of paramount importance at nuclear and radiation safety as well as in the safety regulation provision. Major NPP accidents occurred merely reaffirm this fact. The role of an authority that regulates nuclear safety increases each time in the aftermath of accidents perceived as a shock together with the importance of scientific and technical support. SEC NRS was established in 1987, the next year after the Chernobyl NPP accident aiming to strengthen supervision over works carried out at the nuclear industry enterprises. Currently SEC NRS provides comprehensive scientific and technical support to Rostechnadzor including safety review and regulatory legal documents development to regulate safety along with safety culture.

  17. Comparison of regulatory framework among bench marking countries for improving regulatory effectiveness in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairuddin, Nik Mohd Faiz Bin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays some of developing countries in Asian region are announcing their planning to embark the nuclear power program. This progression are rising due to four factor: increasing political instabilities in fossil-fuel exporting countries; declining domestic natural energy resources; growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions; and increasing demand for electricity. This paper gives a study on the comparison between Canada, Republic of South Korea and Malaysia regarding to their regulatory framework as well as the licensing procedures in controlling the nuclear power plants establishment. Canada and Korea were selected to study because of both of the countries have different system in controlling the nuclear power plants in terms of its regulatory framework as well as the licensing process. The idea is to compare these countries along with the guidelines by the IAEA and to find out what Malaysia could be learn to start the nuclear power program and find out the best practice in nuclear licensing. Factors taken into consideration are the regulatory framework, especially the nature of the licensing authority, the licensing process and enforcement actions. Together, these give a way to evaluate the effectiveness of the regulatory body due to the licensing authorization of nuclear power plant

  18. Comparison of regulatory framework among bench marking countries for improving regulatory effectiveness in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Mohd Faiz Bin; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays some of developing countries in Asian region are announcing their planning to embark the nuclear power program. This progression are rising due to four factor: increasing political instabilities in fossil-fuel exporting countries; declining domestic natural energy resources; growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions; and increasing demand for electricity. This paper gives a study on the comparison between Canada, Republic of South Korea and Malaysia regarding to their regulatory framework as well as the licensing procedures in controlling the nuclear power plants establishment. Canada and Korea were selected to study because of both of the countries have different system in controlling the nuclear power plants in terms of its regulatory framework as well as the licensing process. The idea is to compare these countries along with the guidelines by the IAEA and to find out what Malaysia could be learn to start the nuclear power program and find out the best practice in nuclear licensing. Factors taken into consideration are the regulatory framework, especially the nature of the licensing authority, the licensing process and enforcement actions. Together, these give a way to evaluate the effectiveness of the regulatory body due to the licensing authorization of nuclear power plant

  19. The regulatory effects of interleukin-12 on interleukin-18 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soheir R. Demian

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... Objective: To investigate the regulatory effects of IL-12 on IL-18 and IFN-c production in patients with breast cancer. ... IL-18 and IFN-c levels assessed using ELISA before and after ... Multiple factors are associated with increased risk of its ... role in the manifestations of T cell mediated immunity in cancer.

  20. Effective regulatory control of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meserve, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the situation in the USA regarding government control over use of radiation sources, the challenges it faces and the potential paths to their resolution. In the light of the large number of radiation sources in use worldwide, the safety record on balance is remarkably good. But there is still considerable room for improvement. The IAEA has an important role to play, and it is playing it effectively

  1. Regulatory Effects of Fisetin on Microglial Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS...

  2. Effects of natalizumab treatment on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max-Philipp Stenner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natalizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody targeting the alpha-4 chain of very late activation antigen 4 (VLA-4 exerts impressive therapeutic effects in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to study impacts of Natalizumab therapy on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. METHODOLOGY: A combined approach of in vitro and ex vivo experiments using T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and Natalizumab treated MS patients was chosen. We determined binding of Natalizumab and its effects on the frequency, transmigratory behaviour and suppressive function of Tregs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Binding of Natalizumab and expression of CD49d (alpha-4 chain of VLA-4 differed between non-regulatory and regulatory cells. Albeit Foxp3+ Tregs had lower levels of CD49d, Natalizumab blocked the transmigration of Foxp3+ Tregs similar to non-regulatory T cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tregs was unaffected by Natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab does not alter the suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25(highCD127(lowFoxp3+ Tregs under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the impaired function of Tregs in MS patients is not restored by Natalizumab treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a first detailed analysis of Natalizumab effects on the regulatory T cell population. Our prospective study shows that Foxp3+ Tregs express lower levels of VLA-4 and bind less Natalizumab. We further the understanding of the mechanisms of action of Natalizumab by demonstrating that unlike other immunomodulatory drugs the beneficial therapeutic effects of the monoclonal antibody are largely independent of alterations in Treg frequency or function.

  3. Effects of natalizumab treatment on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Waschbisch, Anne; Buck, Dorothea; Doerck, Sebastian; Einsele, Hermann; Toyka, Klaus V; Wiendl, Heinz

    2008-10-06

    Natalizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody targeting the alpha-4 chain of very late activation antigen 4 (VLA-4) exerts impressive therapeutic effects in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to study impacts of Natalizumab therapy on Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A combined approach of in vitro and ex vivo experiments using T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and Natalizumab treated MS patients was chosen. We determined binding of Natalizumab and its effects on the frequency, transmigratory behaviour and suppressive function of Tregs. Binding of Natalizumab and expression of CD49d (alpha-4 chain of VLA-4) differed between non-regulatory and regulatory cells. Albeit Foxp3+ Tregs had lower levels of CD49d, Natalizumab blocked the transmigration of Foxp3+ Tregs similar to non-regulatory T cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tregs was unaffected by Natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab does not alter the suppressive capacity of CD4+CD25(high)CD127(low)Foxp3+ Tregs under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the impaired function of Tregs in MS patients is not restored by Natalizumab treatment. We provide a first detailed analysis of Natalizumab effects on the regulatory T cell population. Our prospective study shows that Foxp3+ Tregs express lower levels of VLA-4 and bind less Natalizumab. We further the understanding of the mechanisms of action of Natalizumab by demonstrating that unlike other immunomodulatory drugs the beneficial therapeutic effects of the monoclonal antibody are largely independent of alterations in Treg frequency or function.

  4. Cultural Effects of Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Suranovic; Robert Winthrop

    2005-01-01

    We incorporate culture into a standard trade model in two distinct ways. In the ¡°cultural affinity from work¡± model, workers receive a non- pecuniary cultural benefit from work in a particular industry. In the ¡°cultural externality¡± model, consumers of a product receive utility from other consumer¡¯s consumption of a domestic good. We show that resistance to change due to cultural concerns can reduce the national benefits from trade liberalization. Complete movements to free trade will ha...

  5. The NAi effect: creating architecture culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when cultural institutions (both in the Netherlands and abroad) are adjusting to new societal and political conditions (and financial restrictions), The NAi Effect aims to elucidate the social and cultural aims of architecture museums and their impact in creating architecture culture.

  6. Constitutive, Institutive and Up-Regulation of Carotenogenesis Regulatory Mechanism via In Vitro Culture Model System and Elicitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi Othman; Fatimah Azzahra Mohd Zaifuddin; Norazian Mohd Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Phyto hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a regulatory role in many physiological processes in plants and is regulated and controlled by specific key factors or genes. Different environmental stress conditions such as water, drought, cold, light, and temperature result in increased amounts of ABA. The action of ABA involves modification of gene expression and analysis of in vitro callus model system cultures revealed several potential of constitutive, institutive and up-regulation acting regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, this study was aimed at establishing in vitro cultures as potential research tools to study the regulatory mechanisms of the carotenoid biosynthesis in selected plant species through a controlled environment. The presence and absence of zeaxanthin and neoxanthin in callus cultures and intact plants could be explained by changes in gene expression in response to stress. Abiotic stress can alter gene expression and trigger cellular metabolism in plants. This study suggested that the key factors which involved in regulatory mechanisms of individual carotenoid biosynthesis in a particular biology system of plants can be either be silenced or activated. Therefore, based on the results in this study environmental stress is made possible for enhancement or enrichment of certain carotenoid of interest in food crops without altering the genes. (author)

  7. POEM: Identifying joint additive effects on regulatory circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya eBotzman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL mapping tackles the problem of identifying variation in DNA sequence that have an effect on the transcriptional regulatory network. Major computational efforts are aimed at characterizing the joint effects of several eQTLs acting in concert to govern the expression of the same genes. Yet, progress towards a comprehensive prediction of such joint effects is limited. For example, existing eQTL methods commonly discover interacting loci affecting the expression levels of a module of co-regulated genes. Such ‘modularization’ approaches, however, are focused on epistatic relations and thus have limited utility for the case of additive (non-epistatic effects.Results: Here we present POEM (Pairwise effect On Expression Modules, a methodology for identifying pairwise eQTL effects on gene modules. POEM is specifically designed to achieve high performance in the case of additive joint effects. We applied POEM to transcription profiles measured in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells across a population of genotyped mice. Our study reveals widespread additive, trans-acting pairwise effects on gene modules, characterizes their organizational principles, and highlights high-order interconnections between modules within the immune signaling network. These analyses elucidate the central role of additive pairwise effect in regulatory circuits, and provide computational tools for future investigations into the interplay between eQTLs.Availability: The software described in this article is available at csgi.tau.ac.il/POEM/.

  8. The effect of culture on perspective taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shali; Keysar, Boaz

    2007-07-01

    People consider the mental states of other people to understand their actions. We evaluated whether such perspective taking is culture dependent. People in collectivistic cultures (e.g., China) are said to have interdependent selves, whereas people in individualistic cultures (e.g., the United States) are said to have independent selves. To evaluate the effect of culture, we asked Chinese and American pairs to play a communication game that required perspective taking. Eye-gaze measures demonstrated that the Chinese participants were more tuned into their partner's perspective than were the American participants. Moreover, Americans often completely failed to take the perspective of their partner, whereas Chinese almost never did. We conclude that cultural patterns of interdependence focus attention on the other, causing Chinese to be better perspective takers than Americans. Although members of both cultures are able to distinguish between their perspective and another person's perspective, cultural patterns afford Chinese the effective use of this ability to interpret other people's actions.

  9. Strengthening Regulatory Effectiveness in India – Lessons Learnt from Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.

    2016-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi accident in Japan, one of the most important lessons learnt, among other things, was the issue of strengthening the effectiveness of the regulatory bodies. Immediately after the Fukushima accident, National level safety audits were conducted on all operating NPPs in India to review safety of NPPs in India. A national action plan has been prepared to implement the identified short term, midterm and long term measures. The assessment indicates that national response to the Fukushima Accident for safety assessment of NPPs and subsequent actions and initiatives taken for safety enhancement of the NPPs in India are in-line with the objectives of the IAEA Action plan. This paper highlights the actions taken by India in the light of Fukushima Daiichi accident in order to strengthen the regulatory effectiveness through improvements in the existing core processes, challenges faced, Insights gained from the recent initiatives on safety performance indicators and assessment of safety culture, relevant observations of IRRS mission report and Indian perspectives on the further cooperation among the member states for enhancing the regulatory effectiveness for nuclear oversight of regulated organizations. (author)

  10. Assessment of Safety Culture within the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Muhammad [Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Islamabad (Pakistan); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the SC of the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) by developing a performance indicator-based questionnaire. Aspects that potentially play important roles in developing perceptions of SC, including age, type of job, gender and duty hours of regulatory staff, are given due importance in this study. The study also identifies the strengths and weaknesses in the SC of the PNRA and can be used as a model study to assess the SC of other RBs. The questionnaire, developed to assess the SC of the PNRA, was in line with the PNRA's own defined attributes for SC. In the past, significant efforts have been made to ensure the safe operation of NPPs by improving designs and operating procedures; however, the nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP in Japan in March 2011 revealed that the currently allotted hardware safety margins are not sufficient, and much work is needed to improve safety management in terms of SC. Initially, the concept of SC was introduced for operating organizations to ensure safe operation of NPPs; nonetheless, more recent investigations of nuclear events and accidents, especially Fukushima, and at Davis-Besse, in the US, have revealed that a strong focus is required to address and improve the SC of Regulatory Bodies (RBs). Strong SC is considered a vital tool for RBs to achieve their objectives and discharge their responsibilities in an effective and efficient manner. Though the relationship between the SC of RBs and that of operating organizations is not straight forward, it is believed that the former has a strong influence over the latter. The questionnaire was consistent in terms of the credible nature of its questions, and the response group covered different levels of PNRA staff, from managers to lower level staff. The results show that the PNRA staff have a very good understanding of the nature and significance of attributes of SC and are doing their best to exercise the same within the

  11. Assessment of Safety Culture within the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the SC of the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) by developing a performance indicator-based questionnaire. Aspects that potentially play important roles in developing perceptions of SC, including age, type of job, gender and duty hours of regulatory staff, are given due importance in this study. The study also identifies the strengths and weaknesses in the SC of the PNRA and can be used as a model study to assess the SC of other RBs. The questionnaire, developed to assess the SC of the PNRA, was in line with the PNRA's own defined attributes for SC. In the past, significant efforts have been made to ensure the safe operation of NPPs by improving designs and operating procedures; however, the nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP in Japan in March 2011 revealed that the currently allotted hardware safety margins are not sufficient, and much work is needed to improve safety management in terms of SC. Initially, the concept of SC was introduced for operating organizations to ensure safe operation of NPPs; nonetheless, more recent investigations of nuclear events and accidents, especially Fukushima, and at Davis-Besse, in the US, have revealed that a strong focus is required to address and improve the SC of Regulatory Bodies (RBs). Strong SC is considered a vital tool for RBs to achieve their objectives and discharge their responsibilities in an effective and efficient manner. Though the relationship between the SC of RBs and that of operating organizations is not straight forward, it is believed that the former has a strong influence over the latter. The questionnaire was consistent in terms of the credible nature of its questions, and the response group covered different levels of PNRA staff, from managers to lower level staff. The results show that the PNRA staff have a very good understanding of the nature and significance of attributes of SC and are doing their best to exercise the same within the

  12. Food safety regulatory systems in Europe and China:A study of how co-regulation can improve regulatory effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Chen; WANG Xin-xin; SONG Hai-ying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety has received a great deal of attention in both developed and developing countries in recent years. In China, the numerous food scandals and scares that have struck over the past decade have spurred signiifcant food safety regulatory reform, which has been increasingly oriented towards the public-private partnership model adopted by the Europe Union’s (EU) food safety regulatory system. This paper analyzes the development of both the EU’s and China’s food safety regu-latory systems, identiifes the current chalenges for China and additionaly considers the role of public-private partnership. The success of co-regulation in the food regulatory system would bring signiifcant beneifts and opportunities for China. Finaly, this paper recommends additional measures like training and grants to improve the private’s sector effectiveness in co-regulating China’s food safety issues.

  13. The Effect of Cultural Orientation on Persuasion.

    OpenAIRE

    Aaker, Jennifer L; Maheswaran, Durairaj

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the cross-cultural generalizability of persuasion effects predicted by dual process models. In two experiments, the impact of motivation, congruity of persuasive communication and the diagnosticity of heuristic cues on the processing strategies and product evaluations of members of a collectivist culture were compared with findings documented in past research in individualist cultures. This research supports the view that perceptual differences in c...

  14. A study on improving the regulatory effectiveness and public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. S.; Choi, Y. G.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, H. W.

    2006-02-01

    The scope of this study is : review the theories about public participation in nuclear safety regulation, we develop an understanding of the concept and compare the effectiveness of different approaches to public participation. Reviews the cases of public participation in foreign countries and searches for important implications. To examine the current measures of public participation in nuclear safety regulatory process and to evaluate the present demand of the public including residents nearby nuclear facilities. Based upon the discussions on the above topics, examines prerequisites for success of public participation and presents alternatives of public participation in the concrete

  15. Globalization’s Effect on Qatari Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel Elshenawy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available atar has a rich national and cultural identity. Particular customs and traditions characterize the Qatari cultural heritage. Globalization, though, has generated a lot of controversy with regard to the rise of a global culture. Western norms and practices are gradually being transported across the globe and becoming the accepted way of behaviour. The purpose of this article is to examine the effect of globalization on Qatari culture. The sample in this study consisted of (36 participants of Qatari nationality. Employing the focus group interview technique, a semi-structured questionnaire was used as a research method. Participants confirmed that globalization has had a significant effect on the country’s culture. From the participants’ viewpoints, globalization had a negative impact on religion, family connections, customs, manners and language. One the other hand, there has been a positive impact on the educational system and women’s rights.

  16. 77 FR 61463 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... entry of erroneous orders. In addition, the Market Access Rule requires certain regulatory risk... authorized by the broker-dealer. These regulatory risk management controls also include measures designed to...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  17. FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties can be cultured from colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, J; Agnholt, J; Hoffmann, H J; Rømer, J L; Hvas, C L; Dahlerup, J F

    2005-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and ensure a balanced immune response competent of fighting pathogens and at the same time recognizing commensals as harmless. This feature is lost in Crohn's disease (CD). The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor FoxP3 is a master gene for Treg function and defects in the FoxP3 gene lead to a clinical picture similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Murine colitis can be cured by adoptive transfer of Tregs and ex vivo-generated gut-specific Tregs represent an attractive option for therapy in CD. Thus, defective Tregs could contribute to the development of CD. We cultured biopsies of colonic mucosa in the presence of high concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 to overcome the anergic nature of naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the mucosa. We investigated the expression of FoxP3 and regulatory potential of gut-derived CD4+CD25+ T cells cultured from patients with CD and healthy individuals. The FoxP3 expression was analysed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the suppressive effect of FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells on proliferation and cytokine production of autologous CD4+ T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Cultured gut-derived T cells with CD4+CD25+ phenotype expressed FoxP3 and were able as the freshly isolated Tregs from peripheral blood to suppress proliferation and cytokine production of autologous CD4+ T cells. Thus, we demonstrate that FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties can be propagated in vitro from inflamed mucosa of CD patients, which may be of interest in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:16045746

  18. Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic) and the auxin indole-butyric acid on the in vitro acclimatization of papaya ( Carica papaya L. var. Red Maradol) plants using zeolite as support.

  19. Effects of low dose radiation on regulatory function between lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hailin; Su Liaoyuan; Du Zeji; Zou Huawei; Wang Aiqing

    1997-01-01

    Four kinds of McAbs (anti CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 and CD 57 ) were used to separate CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 (B) and CD 57 (NK) lymphocyte subsets from human peripheral blood by 'Panning-direct' method. First the natural killing activity of each subsets and the regulatory functions between CD 57 and other subsets were studied. Then the effects of low dose radiation on the function of CD 57 cells and the regulatory functions between CD 57 and other subsets were studied. The results showed that the NK activity was found in all of the four subsets, with CD 57 cell having the strongest activity. When CD 4 and CD 57 cells were co-cultured, the total NK activity was higher than that of the sum of these two single subsets, i.e. there was synergistic effect between CD 4 and CD 57 cells. When CD 8 or CD 19 cells were co-cultured separately with CD 57 cells, no synergistic effect was found. Irradiation by gamma rays at doses of 50 cGy and 80 cGy was able to stimulate the function of CD 57 cells. After Cd 4 or CD 57 cells were irradiated, the total NK activity of their co-culture increased significantly. This phenomenon was not found in other subsets. This suggested that low dose radiation can enhance the synergistic action between CD 4 and CD 57 cells. So at least four subsets (CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 , CD 57 ) contribute to the total NK activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (15 refs., 4 tabs.)

  20. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Common market but divergent regulatory practices: exploring European regulation and the effect on regulatory uncertainty in the marketing authorization of medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    The medical product sector is characterised by a regulatory patchwork of European and national laws and guidelines operating concurrently with each other. Each of these sectors are characterised by different levels of regulatory uncertainty that may undermine the effectiveness of the regulatory

  2. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  3. Review of nuclear regulatory activities associated with safety culture and the management of safety in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some of the key regulatory activities which have taken place in the United Kingdom in recent years in the areas of safety culture and management of safety. It explains how the UK's nuclear licensing regime, regulated and enforced by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, (NII), provides the framework for a viable safety management system and identifies a management of safety model which a NII Task Force has developed. It finally identifies further work which is being undertaken by the NII. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  4. Competence Map of Regulatory Body: Personal and Interpersonal Effectiveness Competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents implementation stages and outcomes of the project “Nuclear Facility Competences” fulfilled in JSC “Rosenergoatom” and outcomes of the project “Knowledge Management, Training and Staff Retention” fulfilled for Romania regulatory authority. The goal of the project was a development of competence profiles for nuclear power plant and corporate inspectorate key job positions. The paper is focused on personal and interpersonal effectiveness competencies for inspectorate job positions which are a part of well-known 4-Quadrant Competence Model. Each competence is described by one or two behavior scales. One can consider those competencies like common ones for organizations implementing inspection activity and could be used in human resource management processes like personnel selection, job assessment, career planning, training, mentoring. (author

  5. From a regulatory to a cultural approach in the field of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.-C.

    1995-01-01

    A radiological protection culture, which is seen to be a 'management' approach to individual and collective doses, based on the principle of optimisation is described with particular reference to the nuclear industry. The article discusses the fundamental role of the principle of optimisation, the legal nature of the principle of optimisation and the implementation of a radiological protection culture. (UK)

  6. Promotion and Support of Strong Safety Culture at the Hungarian Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bódis, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) in 2014 carried out a self-assessment in order to preparation for IAEA IRRS mission. As a result of the SWOT analysis it was concluded that for the promotion, development and improvement of safety culture at the HAEA is displayed only on the policy level. In order to obtain a greater emphasis on safety culture within the organization a working group was created. The task of the working group was to define the proposed actions to develop the organizational safety culture. The working group reviewed the current situation, the international experiences and proposed on this basis the elaboration of a guideline regarding to organizational safety culture, to integrate this guideline into the organizational training program so as to apply to all levels of the organization and presentation of the safety culture as part of the training of new comers. Results so far: The working group has defined the main tasks and the connecting milestones in order to develop and improve the organizational safety culture at the HAEA. HAEA has elaborated a guideline for performing safety culture self-assessment based on IAEA and other relevant documents.

  7. Role of the regulatory authority in preparation of the NPP self assessment of safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantchev, T [Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-31

    We believe that with the assistance of the IAEA(ASSET Training Mission) the plant personnel will be able to prepare high quality Self Assessment Report. The main role of the Regulatory Body is to ensure correspondence with the IAEA requirements and to provide clear guidance for the most important items of the Plant Self Assessment Report. The involvement of the Operating Organization is also desirable in order to ensure the necessary resources for the implementation of the action plan. Figs.

  8. Evaluation of the safety culture in the regulatory activity in Camaguey province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo Lopez, A.M.; Barreras Caballero, A.; Damera Martinez, A.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studied accomplished in the country have permitted to evaluate the activity of the regulatory body in nuclear safety matter in part of the national territory. These studies did not encompass the Camaguey province. In the work are shown the results of the study in this part of the territory, accomplished as of the survey elaborated by the National Nuclear Safety Center using guides it ASCOT and other documents of the IAEA

  9. Role of the regulatory authority in preparation of the NPP self assessment of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, T.

    1996-01-01

    We believe that with the assistance of the IAEA(ASSET Training Mission) the plant personnel will be able to prepare high quality Self Assessment Report. The main role of the Regulatory Body is to ensure correspondence with the IAEA requirements and to provide clear guidance for the most important items of the Plant Self Assessment Report. The involvement of the Operating Organization is also desirable in order to ensure the necessary resources for the implementation of the action plan. Figs

  10. Nuclear Safety and Security Culture Within the Regulatory Body in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronea, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper (poster) presents the activities implemented in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Division of CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) for promoting nuclear safety and security culture. (author)

  11. Effectiveness of Regulatory Structure in the Power Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Afia Malik

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to study the regulatory environment in the electricity sector of Pakistan. NEPRA, a regulatory authority was formed in 1997 to protect consumer interests in the area of electricity provision, and to ensure an efficient and competitive environment for the electricity generators and distributors, but it has so far not been able to achieve anything. The power sector (dominated by WAPDA and KESC) is still affected by institutional and organisational weaknesses, with ineff...

  12. Convective effects in a regulatory and proposed fire model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer in large fires. However, convection can be as much as 10 to 20 percent of the total heat transfer to an object in a large fire. The current radioactive material transportation packaging regulations include convection as a mode of heat transfer in the accident condition scenario. The current International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series 6 packaging regulation states ''the convection coefficient shall be that value which the designer can justify if the package were exposed to the specified fire''. The current Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) packaging regulation states ''when significant, convection heat input must be included on the basis of still, ambient air at 800 degrees C (1475 degrees F)''. Two questions that can arise in an analysts mind from an examination of the packaging regulations is whether convection is significant and whether convection should be included in the design analysis of a radioactive materials transportation container. The objective of this study is to examine the convective effects on an actual radioactive materials transportation package using a regulatory and a proposed thermal boundary condition

  13. Effective Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Yuan, C.; Fan, S.; Su, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the incident of radioactively contaminated buildings first surfaced in Taiwan in 1992, efforts have been made by AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan to prevent recurrence of similar incidents involving radioactive materials and to achieve effective regulatory control over radioactive sources. The most important milestone is when AEC began to enforce IRPA he Ionizing Radiation Protection Act with the promulgation of 18 relevant regulations on Feb. 1, 2003. In order to enhance accountability of radioactive material and equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation, AEC develops and begins implementing a RPCS Radiation Protection Control System which is a powerful tool in controlling radiation safety and security. In addition, AEC develops a monthly registration program via internet, an o n-line reporting system f or owners/operators of radioactive sources, to improve monitoring of sealed sources (in-use and not-in-use). The registration requirement applies to 469 licensees possessing about 3,000 sealed sources in Taiwan. Because of the threat of orphan sources, AEC has made great efforts in preventing their contamination of construction steel material by establishing and enforcing the RPMMPIRCB Regulation for Preventive Measures and Management Plans for Incident of Radioactively Contaminated Buildings. To comply with this regulation, all 19 of Taiwan's steel factories with melting furnace have installed portal-type radiation detection system to monitor incoming scrap metal. (Author)

  14. Effects of nilotinib on regulatory T cells: the dose matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Baoan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nilotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high target specificity. Here, we characterized the effects of nilotinib for the first time on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs which regulate anti-tumor/leukemia immune responses. Design and Methods Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE and 5-bromo-2-deoxy -uridine (BrdU were used to assess the proliferation and cell cycle distribution of Tregs. The expression of the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 and the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR were measured by flow cytometry. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the effects of nilotinib on the signal transduction cascade of T-cell receptor (TCR in Tregs. Results Nilotinib inhibited the proliferation and suppressive capacity of Tregs in a dose-dependent manner. However, the production of cytokines secreted by Tregs and CD4+CD25- T cells was only inhibited at high concentrations of nilotinib exceeding the mean therapeutic serum concentrations of the drug in patients. Only high doses of nilotinib arrested both Tregs and CD4+CD25- T cells in the G0/G1 phase and down-regulated the expression of FoxP3 and GITR. In western blotting analysis, nilotinib did not show significant inhibitory effects on TCR signaling events in Tregs and CD4+CD25- T cells. Conclusions These findings indicate that nilotinib does not hamper the function of Tregs at clinical relevant doses, while long-term administration of nilotinib still needs to be investigated.

  15. Culture promotes transfer of thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation by reducing regulatory T cell numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayes, Timothy D; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2013-01-01

    IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice develop a spontaneous autoimmune thyroid disease, thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation (TEC H/P) when given NaI in their water for 7+ mo. TEC H/P can be transferred to IFN-γ(-/-) SCID mice by splenocytes from mice with severe (4-5+) disease, and transfer of TEC H/P is improved when splenocytes are cultured prior to transfer. Older (9+ mo) IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice have elevated numbers of FoxP3(+) T reg cells, up to 2-fold greater than younger (2 mo) mice. During culture, the number of T reg decreases and this allows the improved transfer of TEC H/P. Co-culture with IL-2 prior to transfer prevents the decrease of T reg and improves their in vitro suppressive ability resulting in reduced TEC H/P in recipient mice. Therefore, culturing splenocytes improves transfer of TEC H/P by reducing the number of T reg and IL-2 inhibits transfer by preserving T reg number and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 73577 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Risk Monitoring Functionality Offered by the Exchange December 2, 2013....19b-4(f)(6)(iii). I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the...

  17. 78 FR 4502 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... certainty with respect to execution fees at groups of away options exchanges. Under its flat fee structure...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange...

  18. Effects of Regulatory Self-Questioning on Secondary-Level Students' Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Michael L.; Miller, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A randomized posttest-only control group experimental design was used to determine the effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level career and technical education students' electrical circuit theory test scores. Students who participated in the self-questioning group were asked to answer a list of regulatory questions as they solved…

  19. Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David J.; St Jean, David J.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Wahl, Robert C.; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S.; Pennington, Lewis D.; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H.; Andrews, Kristin L.; Bartberger, Michael D.; van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Vonderfecht, Steven L.; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R.; Véniant, Murielle M.; Hale, Clarence

    2013-12-01

    Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic β-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

  20. Genotoxic effects of borax on cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2009-03-01

    The effect of borax on human chromosomes was analyzed in this study. Venous blood from 30 male students at Thammasat University, Thailand (age 18-25 years) was collected for lymphocyte cell cultures. This experiment was divided into two groups: the first group was the control group and the second group was the experimental group. The lymphocyte cells in the control group were cultured without borax. The experimental group was divided into four subgroups. The lymphocyte cells in each experimental subgroup were cultured with different concentrations of borax (0.1 mg/ml, 0.15 mg/ml, 0.2 mg/ml and 0.3 mg/ml). Human chromosomes were studied for abnormalities through Giemsa-staining and G-banding. The results show that the numbers of metaphase plates (the metaphase plate which contained 46 chromosomes; 46, XY) and metaphase chromosomes were reduced when lymphocyte cells were cultured with 0.15 mg/ml (57.2%), 0.2 mg/ml (50.8%) and 0.3 mg/ml (42.3%) concentrations of borax. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and experimental subgroups (p borax concentration experimental subgroup. This shows that borax (at 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/ml concentrations) affects the cell and human chromosomes (both numerical and structural abnormalities). Borax may cause human chromosome abnormalities and lead to genetic defects.

  1. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  2. Causality analysis detects the regulatory role of maternal effect genes in the early Drosophila embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Ghodsi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In developmental studies, inferring regulatory interactions of segmentation genetic network play a vital role in unveiling the mechanism of pattern formation. As such, there exists an opportune demand for theoretical developments and new mathematical models which can result in a more accurate illustration of this genetic network. Accordingly, this paper seeks to extract the meaningful regulatory role of the maternal effect genes using a variety of causality detection techniques and to explore whether these methods can suggest a new analytical view to the gene regulatory networks. We evaluate the use of three different powerful and widely-used models representing time and frequency domain Granger causality and convergent cross mapping technique with the results being thoroughly evaluated for statistical significance. Our findings show that the regulatory role of maternal effect genes is detectable in different time classes and thereby the method is applicable to infer the possible regulatory interactions present among the other genes of this network.

  3. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  4. Muscle and neural isoforms of agrin increase utrophin expression in cultured myotubes via a transcriptional regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramolini, A O; Burton, E A; Tinsley, J M; Ferns, M J; Cartaud, A; Cartaud, J; Davies, K E; Lunde, J A; Jasmin, B J

    1998-01-09

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a prevalent X-linked neuromuscular disease for which there is currently no cure. Recently, it was demonstrated in a transgenic mouse model that utrophin could functionally compensate for the lack of dystrophin and alleviate the muscle pathology (Tinsley, J. M., Potter, A. C., Phelps, S. R., Fisher, R., Trickett, J. I., and Davies, K. E. (1996) Nature 384, 349-353). In this context, it thus becomes essential to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms presiding over utrophin expression in attempts to overexpress the endogenous gene product throughout skeletal muscle fibers. In a recent study, we showed that the nerve exerts a profound influence on utrophin gene expression and postulated that nerve-derived trophic factors mediate the local transcriptional activation of the utrophin gene within nuclei located in the postsynaptic sarcoplasm (Gramolini, A. O., Dennis, C. L., Tinsley, J. M., Robertson, G. S., Davies, K. E, Cartaud, J., and Jasmin, B. J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8117-8120). In the present study, we have therefore focused on the effect of agrin on utrophin expression in cultured C2 myotubes. In response to Torpedo-, muscle-, or nerve-derived agrin, we observed a significant 2-fold increase in utrophin mRNAs. By contrast, CGRP treatment failed to affect expression of utrophin transcripts. Western blotting experiments also revealed that the increase in utrophin mRNAs was accompanied by an increase in the levels of utrophin. To determine whether these changes were caused by parallel increases in the transcriptional activity of the utrophin gene, we transfected muscle cells with a 1. 3-kilobase pair utrophin promoter-reporter (nlsLacZ) gene construct and treated them with agrin for 24-48 h. Under these conditions, both muscle- and nerve-derived agrin increased the activity of beta-galactosidase, indicating that agrin treatment led, directly or indirectly, to the transcriptional activation of the utrophin gene

  5. Effective and independent regulatory national infrastructure: Uruguay case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Since inception in 1986 the National Direction of Nuclear Technology has fulfilled with the assignment known as 'Control of the ionizing radioactivity in its medical and industrial applications'. This strategic task as far as safety, was performed with significant and crucial deficiencies which they even motivated the users to question the reliability of the institution. The deficiencies were mainly as follows: 1) absence of a regulatory frame; 2) insufficient qualification of technical human resources and 3) lack of suitable equipment. From the use for Uruguay of the Model Project and the beginning of a new management of Dinaten (October 2000), a sensible and well-known increase in the quality and efficiency of the regulating function in the country, which we can summarize in the following landmarks: regulatory frame with the use of a basic norm and eight regulating norms according to the main practices that are developed in the country; intensive training of the regulatory body staff; permanent accomplished update of the inventory of sources; beginning of licensing activities; equipment of last generation; regulation of the personal dosimetry services and management of radioactive waste and establishment of a National Program of Radiological Emergencies. (author)

  6. Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing Shows Selection on Leptospira Regulatory Proteins during in vitro Culture Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jason S.; Corey, Victoria C.; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Matthias, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide with an estimated 500,000 severe cases reported annually, and case fatality rates of 12–25%, due primarily to acute kidney and lung injuries. Despite its prevalence, the molecular mechanisms underlying leptospirosis pathogenesis remain poorly understood. To identify virulence-related genes in Leptospira interrogans, we delineated cumulative genome changes that occurred during serial in vitro passage of a highly virulent strain of L. interrogans serovar Lai into a nearly avirulent isogenic derivative. Comparison of protein coding and computationally predicted noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes between these two polyclonal strains identified 15 nonsynonymous single nucleotide variant (nsSNV) alleles that increased in frequency and 19 that decreased, whereas no changes in allelic frequency were observed among the ncRNA genes. Some of the nsSNV alleles were in six genes shown previously to be transcriptionally upregulated during exposure to in vivo-like conditions. Five of these nsSNVs were in evolutionarily conserved positions in genes related to signal transduction and metabolism. Frequency changes of minor nsSNV alleles identified in this study likely contributed to the loss of virulence during serial in vitro culture. The identification of new virulence-associated genes should spur additional experimental inquiry into their potential role in Leptospira pathogenesis. PMID:26711524

  7. Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication between Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨克彦

    2017-01-01

    Effective communication with people of different cultures is challenging. Different cultures lead to various communication problems. If the people involved are not aware of such problems, they are more likely to fall victim to them. This paper describes two main cultural barriers in the communication between Chinese and English-speaking people and demonstrates the importance of cross-culture communication.

  8. Promoting Implementation of Safety Culture in Nuclear Application for Industrial Facilities; an Important Role of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setianingsih, Lilis Susanti [KINS-KAIST Master Degree Program, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Implementation of nuclear energy for industrial purposes has reached its highest peak. BAPETEN, as Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of Indonesia has published regulations regarding nuclear energy utilization. As high risk associating such utilization requires direct and thoroughly supervision in order to assure its compliance to safety and security aspect, procedures related to operational activities must by fully applied. Radiation Protection Program as one type of procedures that must be available in nuclear energy utilization operation is intended to provide operators specifically technical guidance to avoid undesired negative effects of incidents or accidents. It is the responsibility of managerial level in a company to provide the procedures and to further supervise their application in the field. Radiation workers, those are all employees working in or within radiation area must understand how to execute the procedures properly. The radiation protection program is intended to protect workers, member of community and property as well as the environment from the negative impacts of nuclear utilization operational due to its radiation exposure. Safety culture, a compound of nature derived from behavior of organization and people within the organization to pay a full attention and give main priority in radiation safety matters, is expected to be achieved by implementing the radiation protection program as safety habits at the work place. It requires a management commitment to ensure that all aspect in safety and, whenever necessary, security are accomplished within the radiation protection program in order to build a safety culture in a radiation work place. Government Regulation No. 33 2007 about Safety for Ionizing Radiation and Security for Radioactive Source and Government Regulation No. 29 2008 regarding Licensing for Utilization of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Material present regulation and arrangement related to radiation protection program as a basic

  9. Promoting Implementation of Safety Culture in Nuclear Application for Industrial Facilities; an Important Role of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setianingsih, Lilis Susanti

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of nuclear energy for industrial purposes has reached its highest peak. BAPETEN, as Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of Indonesia has published regulations regarding nuclear energy utilization. As high risk associating such utilization requires direct and thoroughly supervision in order to assure its compliance to safety and security aspect, procedures related to operational activities must by fully applied. Radiation Protection Program as one type of procedures that must be available in nuclear energy utilization operation is intended to provide operators specifically technical guidance to avoid undesired negative effects of incidents or accidents. It is the responsibility of managerial level in a company to provide the procedures and to further supervise their application in the field. Radiation workers, those are all employees working in or within radiation area must understand how to execute the procedures properly. The radiation protection program is intended to protect workers, member of community and property as well as the environment from the negative impacts of nuclear utilization operational due to its radiation exposure. Safety culture, a compound of nature derived from behavior of organization and people within the organization to pay a full attention and give main priority in radiation safety matters, is expected to be achieved by implementing the radiation protection program as safety habits at the work place. It requires a management commitment to ensure that all aspect in safety and, whenever necessary, security are accomplished within the radiation protection program in order to build a safety culture in a radiation work place. Government Regulation No. 33 2007 about Safety for Ionizing Radiation and Security for Radioactive Source and Government Regulation No. 29 2008 regarding Licensing for Utilization of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Material present regulation and arrangement related to radiation protection program as a basic

  10. Effect of regulatory architecture on broad versus narrow sense heritability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Additive genetic variance (VA and total genetic variance (VG are core concepts in biomedical, evolutionary and production-biology genetics. What determines the large variation in reported VA /VG ratios from line-cross experiments is not well understood. Here we report how the VA /VG ratio, and thus the ratio between narrow and broad sense heritability (h(2 /H(2 , varies as a function of the regulatory architecture underlying genotype-to-phenotype (GP maps. We studied five dynamic models (of the cAMP pathway, the glycolysis, the circadian rhythms, the cell cycle, and heart cell dynamics. We assumed genetic variation to be reflected in model parameters and extracted phenotypes summarizing the system dynamics. Even when imposing purely linear genotype to parameter maps and no environmental variation, we observed quite low VA /VG ratios. In particular, systems with positive feedback and cyclic dynamics gave more non-monotone genotype-phenotype maps and much lower VA /VG ratios than those without. The results show that some regulatory architectures consistently maintain a transparent genotype-to-phenotype relationship, whereas other architectures generate more subtle patterns. Our approach can be used to elucidate these relationships across a whole range of biological systems in a systematic fashion.

  11. 78 FR 12803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... certainty with respect to execution fees at groups of away options exchanges. Under its flat fee structure...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... 240.19b-4. \\3\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(3)(A)(ii). \\4\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4(f)(2). I. Self-Regulatory Organization...

  12. Approach for assessing the effectiveness of regulatory control in Peru using performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    1998-01-01

    The paper is intended to make an approach for assessing the effectiveness of regulatory activities in Peru by using of performance indicators for each of the activities developed pursuant their responsibilities. So inspections, authorizations, enforcement and regulation activities are qualified by levels of attainments and then assessed independently to rise specific issues. The general conclusion is that regulatory activities seems to be acceptable but some improvements are needed in order to reach a good level of performance. (author)

  13. Cultural Intentionality: The Core of Effective Helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    Responds to Lloyd by cautioning counselors regarding the centrality of multicultural awareness in counseling curricula. Maintains the primacy of culture cannot be denied as the first dimension in our thinking as professional helpers. Cultural intentionality is proposed as a metagoal of the helping process--the integration of cultural awareness…

  14. Cultures of Learning in Effective High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Research indicates that a culture of learning is a key factor in building high schools that foster academic achievement in all students. Yet less is known about which elements of a culture of learning differentiate schools with higher levels of academic performance. To fill this gap, this comparative case study examined the cultures of…

  15. 77 FR 1545 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ....15c3-5. Because these are NYSE Arca proprietary firms, the regulatory risk of extending the time to...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Trail System Rules, for Equity Trading Permit Holders That Are Not Financial Industry Regulatory...

  16. Alcohol and cannabis: Comparing their adverse health effects and regulatory regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use. Third, it speculates about how the adverse health effects of cannabis may change after legalisation. Fourth, it questions the assumption that alcohol provides the best regulatory model for a legal cannabis market. Fifth, it outlines the major challenges in regulating cannabis under the liberal alcohol-like regulatory regimes now being introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Sustaining Improvements Globally. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this conference is to review and assess ways of further improving the effectiveness of regulatory systems for nuclear facilities and activities for both nuclear safety and nuclear security. The action items in the summary presented by the President of the conference held in 2013 in Ottawa, the lessons of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the discussions at other international conferences and at international experts’ meetings conducted within the framework of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, as well as the CNS and the principles outlined in the Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety, will continue to have a significant impact on regulatory systems. All the aforementioned need to be taken into account to sustain improvements to regulatory systems. The expected outcomes of the conference are: - Enhanced safety and security of nuclear installations worldwide; - Challenges in regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste addressed; - Enhanced international cooperation for sustaining regulatory effectiveness; - Strengthened and sustained regulatory competence for nuclear safety and security; and - Strategies and actions for the future identified, as well as issues for consideration by governments, regulatory bodies and international organizations.

  18. Regulatory effects of cotranscriptional RNA structure formation and transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    RNAs, which play significant roles in many fundamental biological processes of life, fold into sophisticated and precise structures. RNA folding is a dynamic and intricate process, which conformation transition of coding and noncoding RNAs form the primary elements of genetic regulation. The cellular environment contains various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that potentially affect RNA folding in vivo, and experimental and theoretical evidence increasingly indicates that the highly flexible features of the RNA structure are affected by these factors, which include the flanking sequence context, physiochemical conditions, cis RNA-RNA interactions, and RNA interactions with other molecules. Furthermore, distinct RNA structures have been identified that govern almost all steps of biological processes in cells, including transcriptional activation and termination, transcriptional mutagenesis, 5'-capping, splicing, 3'-polyadenylation, mRNA export and localization, and translation. Here, we briefly summarize the dynamic and complex features of RNA folding along with a wide variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect RNA folding. We then provide several examples to elaborate RNA structure-mediated regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Finally, we illustrate the regulatory roles of RNA structure and discuss advances pertaining to RNA structure in plants. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:562-574. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1350 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Time perspective and social preference in older and younger adults: Effects of self-regulatory fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Geiger, Paul J; Combs, Hannah L; Boggero, Ian A

    2016-09-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that when perceived time in life is limited, people will prefer emotionally close social partners over less emotionally rewarding partners. Regulating social choices with regard to time perspective can make the best use of time with regard to well-being. However, doing so may depend on the self-regulatory capacity of the individual. Two studies, 1 with younger adults (N = 101) and 1 with younger (N = 42) and older (N = 39) adults, experimentally tested the effects of time perspective and self-regulatory fatigue on preferences for emotionally close partners and knowledgeable partners. In both studies and across younger and older adults, when self-regulatory fatigue was low, the perception of limited time resulted in a greater preference for close social partners relative to knowledgeable social partners. However, this shift was eliminated by self-regulatory fatigue. In Study 2, when fatigued, younger adults preferred close social partners to knowledgeable partners across time perspectives; older adults preferred close and knowledgeable partners more equally across time perspectives. These findings have implications for social decision-making and satisfaction among people who experience chronic self-regulatory fatigue. They also contradict previous suggestions that only younger adults are susceptible to self-regulatory fatigue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of culture systems on growth and economic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of culture system on growth and economics performance of Orechromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) in concrete tanks was investigated. Four outdoor concrete tanks measuring 2.5 x 2 m was used for the study for 24 weeks culture period. The culture systems included the use of algae only at the stocking rates of 4 ...

  1. Lysosomes are involved in induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene expression and progesterone synthesis through low-density lipoprotein in cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-You; Wu, Yi; Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Zeng, Shen-Ming; Zhang, Gui-Xue

    2015-09-15

    Progesterone is an important steroid hormone in the regulation of the bovine estrous cycle. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is an indispensable component for transporting cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is one of the rate-limiting steps for progesterone synthesis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) supplies cholesterol precursors for progesterone formation, and the lysosomal degradation pathway of LDL is essential for progesterone biosynthesis in granulosa cells after ovulation. However, it is currently unknown how LDL and lysosomes coordinate the expression of the StAR gene and progesterone production in bovine granulosa cells. Here, we investigated the role of lysosomes in LDL-treated bovine granulosa cells. Our results reported that LDL induced expression of StAR messenger RNA and protein as well as expression of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (CYP11A1) messenger RNA and progesterone production in cultured bovine granulosa cells. The number of lysosomes in the granulosa cells was also significantly increased by LDL; whereas the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, strikingly abolished these LDL-induced effects. Our results indicate that LDL promotes StAR expression, synthesis of progesterone, and formation of lysosomes in bovine granulosa cells, and lysosomes participate in the process by releasing free cholesterol from hydrolyzed LDL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference

  3. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference. Refs, figs, tabs.

  4. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells reversed the suppressive deficiency of T regulatory cells from peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis in a co-culture – a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongna; Sun, Jinhua; Wang, Feng; Li, Yan; Bi, Jianzhong; Qu, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The immunoregulatory function of T regulatory cells (Tregs) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have shown that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) exert regulatory effect on the functions of immune cells. Thus, we investigated whether UC-MSCs could improve the impaired function of Tregs from MS patients. Co-cultures of UC-MSCs with PBMCs of MS patients were performed for 3 days. Flow cytometry was used to determine the frequency of Tregs. A cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the suppressive capacity of Tregs. ELISA was conducted for cytokine analysis in the co-cultures. Our results showed that UC-MSCs significantly increased the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127low/− Tregs in resting CD4+ T cells (pUC-MSC-primed Tregs of MS patients significantly inhibited the proliferation of PHA-stimulated autologous and allogeneic CD4+CD25− T effector cells (Teffs) from MS patients and healthy individuals compared to non-UC-MSC-primed (naïve) Tregs from the same MS patients (pUC-MSC-primed Tregs from MS patients and naïve Tregs from healthy subjects. The impaired suppressive function of Tregs from MS can be completely reversed in a co-culture by UC-MSC modulation. This report is the first to demonstrate that functional defects of Tregs in MS can be repaired in vitro using a simple UC-MSC priming approach. PMID:27705922

  5. Regulatory focus and burnout in nurses: The mediating effect of perception of transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Zhang, Shilei; Xu, Hang; Liu, Xufeng; Miao, Danmin

    2015-12-01

    This correlation study investigated the relationship between nurses' regulatory focus and burnout, as mediated by their perceptions of transformational leadership, using a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires. In July-August 2012, data were collected from 378 nurses from three hospitals in Shaanxi Province, China, using self-report questionnaires for measuring the nurses' regulatory focus, their level of burnout and their perception of whether the leadership of their supervisor was transformational. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping procedures were used to identify the mediating effect of their perceptions of transformational leadership. The results supported our hypothesized model. The type of regulatory focus emerged as a significant predictor of burnout. Having a perception of transformational leadership partially mediated the relationship between regulatory focus and burnout. Having a promotion focus reduced burnout when the participants perceived transformational leadership, whereas having a prevention focus exhibited the opposite pattern. The mediating effect of the perception of transformational leadership suggests that a promotion focus may help diminish burnout, directly and indirectly. Nurse managers must be aware of the role of a regulatory focus and cultivate promotion focus in their followers. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Assessment of factors that affect the effectiveness of regulatory bodies: an application to the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2005-09-01

    This work examines the main factors that affect the effectiveness of the non-economic regulatory process and establishes a model to propose actions to improve the regulation and the role of the regulatory body. The Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is used and some tools for analysis, derived from the expectations of the stake holders, are added to the methodology. The stake holders taken into account are the public, the licensees, the supervisory bodies, other regulatory bodies, international organizations, concerned groups, and the regulatory body staff. The proposed actions aim to gradually change the organization, and the adopted methodology sees the organizational evolution as a continuum. Some elements of the Theory of Complexity are compared to the SSM concepts in order to validate the evolutionary approach. The model is applied to the specific case of,the nuclear regulation and the Brazilian regulatory body. Situations perceived as 'problem situations' are listed and some actions are proposed for improvement, including the establishment of performance indicators for effectiveness in nuclear regulation. (author)

  7. Effects of chilling on protein synthesis in tomato suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matadial, B.; Pauls, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of chilling on cell growth, cell viability, protein content and protein composition in suspension cultures of L. esculentum and L. hirsutum was investigated. Cell growth for both species was arrested at 2 degrees C but when cultures were transferred to 25 degree C cell growth resumed. There was no difference in viability between control and chilled cultures of L. esculentum, however, L. hirsutum control cultures exhibited larger amounts of Fluorescein Diacetate induced fluorescence than chilled cultures. 35 S-methionine incorporation into proteins was 2.5-2 times higher in L. hirsutum than in L. esculentum. Quantitative and qualitative differences, in 35 S-methionine labelled proteins, between chilled and control cultures were observed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Protein content in chilled cultures decreased over time but then increased when cultures were transferred to 25 degrees C

  8. Mechanistic modeling & effectiveness of buffer strips for pesticide regulatory frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) have been used as an effective conservation practice in agricultural areas for controlling and mitigate the effect of sediment, nutrients and pesticides loads into water bodies. In addition to the agricultural sector, another important use of VFS for controlling plague...

  9. Explaining the Effectiveness of the Contrast Culture Method for Managing Interpersonal Interactions across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Hanako; Pusina, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    One of the current challenges in the field of intercultural education comes from the limited availability of training efficacy studies. The present study focused on explaining the effectiveness of the Contrast Culture Method (CCM) as an intercultural education method for managing interpersonal interactions across cultures between graduate…

  10. SOCIO-CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON EFFECTIVE ENGLISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Consequently, challenges abound in the teaching and learning of ... English in tertiary institutions in contemporary Nigeria, the influence of socio-cultural factors ... The English Language has been a crucial issue in the Nigerian education.

  11. Enhancing regulatory effectiveness by improving the process for identifying and resolving generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Molen, Harold J.

    2001-01-01

    The Generic Issues Program first began formally in response to a Commission directive in October of 1976. In 1983, it became one of the first programs to make successful use of probabilistic risk information to aid in regulatory decision-making. In the 16 years since the program became quantitative, 836 issues have been processed. Of these, 106 reactor safety issues were prioritized as requiring further evaluation to determine the final resolution. Approximately a dozen generic issues remain unresolved. Although there is far less reactor licensing activity than in the 1970s, new issues continue to be identified from research and operational experience. These issues often involve complex and controversial questions of safety and regulation, and an efficient and effective means of addressing these issues is essential for regulatory effectiveness. Issues that involve a significant safety question require swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective regulatory actions. Issues that are of little safety significance must be quickly shown to be so and dismissed in an expeditious manner so as to avoid unnecessary expenditure of limited resources and to reduce regulatory uncertainty. Additionally, in the time since the generic issue program began, probabilistic risk assessment techniques have advanced significantly while agency resources have continued to diminish. Accordingly, the paper discusses the steps that have been taken to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the generic issue resolution process. Additionally, four resolved issues are discussed, along with key elements of a proposed new procedure for resolving potential generic issues

  12. TRADE EFFECTS: REGULATORY, ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND REPORTING OF INFORMATION RELATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARISTIŢA ROTILĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that within trade relations providers often credit customers for the value of goods or services which are the subject of conducted commercial transactions, this aspect being materialized in the issuance and acceptance of a trade effect. From the time of acceptance until maturity / settlement, trade effects should be reflected separately in the accounts and, to the extent that were not settled until the end of exercise, their value must be presented in the financial statements. Based on analysis of the Romanian accounting regulations, also taking into consideration the opinions expressed in specific literature concerning accounting reflection of trade effects, in this article we try to point out some aspects which, in our opinion, require clarification. We also want to point out some contradictions / inconsistencies regarding the reporting of information on the trade effects, specifically between the text of accounting regulations concerning the definition of accounting structures „cash and bank accounts” and “short term investments” and their contents when presented as positions in the balance sheet structure. In relation to the issues raised we try to prove the effects on the indicators concerning financial position and to make some suggestions that would have effects on Romanian accounting regulations, namely the improvement of financial reporting performed by the economic operators.

  13. Effectively identifying regulatory hotspots while capturing expression heterogeneity in gene expression studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is a tool that can systematically identify genetic variation affecting gene expression. eQTL mapping studies have shown that certain genomic locations, referred to as regulatory hotspots, may affect the expression levels of many genes. Recently, studies have shown that various confounding factors may induce spurious regulatory hotspots. Here, we introduce a novel statistical method that effectively eliminates spurious hotspots while retaining genuine hotspots. Applied to simulated and real datasets, we validate that our method achieves greater sensitivity while retaining low false discovery rates compared to previous methods. PMID:24708878

  14. 78 FR 37865 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69793; File No. SR-BATS-2013-034] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 18, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  15. 76 FR 50803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65085; File No. SR-BATS-2011-025] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 10, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  16. 75 FR 27847 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62074; File No. SR-BATS-2010-012] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 11, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  17. 78 FR 77736 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-71129; File No. SR-BATS-2013-062] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify BATS Options Market Maker Continuous Quoting Obligation Rules December 18, 2013...

  18. 76 FR 57092 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65307; File No. SR-BATS-2011-034] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Offer a Bulk-Quoting Interface To All Users of BATS Options September 9, 2011. Pursuant to...

  19. 77 FR 58195 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-67855; File No. SR-BATS-2012-037] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 13, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  20. 76 FR 12155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63969; File No. SR-BATS-2011-007] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. to Adopt BATS Rule 11.21, entitled ``Input of Accurate Information...

  1. 78 FR 61422 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70548; File No. SR-BATS-2013-052] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Trading Halt Rule of BATS Options September 27, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19...

  2. 78 FR 51261 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70190; File No. SR-BATS-2013-042] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  3. 78 FR 78460 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-71140; File No. SR-BATS-2013-063] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 19, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  4. 78 FR 53814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70257; File No. SR-BATS-2013-047] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Registration and Continuing Education Fees for BATS Exchange, Inc. August 26...

  5. 77 FR 20858 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66723; File No. SR-BATS-2012-014] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Certificate of Incorporation of BATS Global Markets, Inc. April 3, 2012...

  6. 76 FR 9841 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63916; File No. SR-BATS-2011-005] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order Execution'' February 15, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  7. 77 FR 63396 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68026; File No. SR-BATS-2012-040] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 10, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  8. 77 FR 7216 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66327; File No. SR-BATS-2012-008] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 6, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  9. 76 FR 61127 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65407; File No. SR-BATS-2011-037] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 27, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  10. 76 FR 28108 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-64445; File No. SR-BATS-2011-017] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Add BATS Rule 11.22, Entitled ``Data Products'' May 9, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  11. 76 FR 70192 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65694; File No. SR-BATS-2011-046] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. November 4, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  12. 78 FR 16306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69079; File No. SR-BATS-2013-017] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 8, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  13. 76 FR 77576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65907; File No. SR-BATS-2011-049] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 7, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  14. 76 FR 1208 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63630; File No. SR-BATS-2010-039] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 3, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  15. 76 FR 2734 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63663; File No. SR-BATS-2011-001] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 6, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  16. 78 FR 56760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70348; File No. SR-BATS-2013-048) Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 9, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  17. 78 FR 19555 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69238; File No. SR-BATS-2013-020] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 26, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  18. 78 FR 16750 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69121; File No. SR-BATS-2013-014] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Operation of Market Orders for BATS Options March 12, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  19. 75 FR 57097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62901; File No. SR-BATS-2010-024] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' and To Make Related...

  20. 76 FR 7891 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63857; File No. SR-BATS-2011-004] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 7, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  1. 78 FR 54338 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed..., Interactive Data Online Properties, Inc. (collectively ``IDC''), whereby the Exchange will make available... the Private Labeled Products and who first subscribe as a result of the Exchange's marketing...

  2. Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms

  3. Reducing the Effect of Stereotype Threat: The Role of Coaction Contexts and Regulatory Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Dong, Xuanhao; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of competition and cooperation contexts, as well as regulatory fit, on reducing the negative influence of stereotype threat. Experiment 1 demonstrated that in high stereotype threat conditions, participants in the cooperation context scored significantly higher on a math test than those in the competition…

  4. The tone from above: The effect of communicating a supportive regulatory strategy on reporting quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duin, S.R.; Dekker, Henri; Mendoza Rodriguez, J.P.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2018-01-01

    As part of their regulatory strategy, authorities may request firms to periodically submit mandatory self-assessments. The effectiveness of such strategies depends on the quality of the information that firms provide. We conduct a field experiment to assess how official communications reflecting a

  5. 75 FR 47043 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Educational Services Inc 280 TSL Trina Solar Ltd 332 NKE NIKE Inc 282 EWW iShares MSCI Mexico 335 FIS Fidelity...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed...\\ notice is hereby given that on July 26, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  6. 76 FR 27370 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... equitable in that it is designed to incentivize Members to use the RDOT or RDOX routing strategies to... pricing structure designed to incent market participants to direct their order flow to the Exchange. The...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  7. 76 FR 11550 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC Relating to Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols February 24, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4...

  8. 76 FR 18814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC Relating to Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols March 30, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''), \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4...

  9. 78 FR 51235 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... believes that its flat fee structure for orders routed to various venues is a fair and equitable approach... exchanges. Under its flat fee structure, taking all costs to the Exchange into account, the Exchange may...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  10. 78 FR 51257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... exchange without incurring losses from such routing. The Exchange believes that its flat fee structure for... with respect to execution fees at groups of away options exchanges. Under its flat fee structure...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  11. 78 FR 76355 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... routing orders to such exchanges. The Exchange believes that its flat fee structure for orders routed to... execution fees at groups of away options exchanges. Under its flat fee structure, taking all costs to the...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed...

  12. The persuasive effects of framing messages on fruit and vegetable consumption according to regulatory focus theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Rothman, Alexander; Pietersma, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    According to Regulatory Focus theory (RFT), outcomes in persuasive messages can be framed in four different ways, as gains, non-gains, losses or non-losses. In study 1, the persuasiveness of all four frames was compared and the presence/absence effect that was expected on the basis of the

  13. 75 FR 51138 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule.... * * * '' The rule includes an exception for any matter that is ``clearly distinguishable as paid advertising... beyond paid advertising to also include compensation paid in connection with research reports and...

  14. 75 FR 51122 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... as paid advertising.'' EDGA agrees with FINRA's reasoning for proposing changes to its Rule 5230... exceptions in the rule beyond paid advertising to also include compensation paid in connection with research...

  15. 78 FR 51242 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... themselves as participants on another. It is virtually impossible for any exchange to identify, and thus... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70200; File No. SR-Topaz-2013-01] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  16. The path of least resistance: Regulatory resource depletion and the effectiveness of social influence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Fennis, B.M.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Vohs, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examine the role of regulatory resource depletion in the effectiveness of social influence techniques aimed at inducing consumer compliance. They test the two-step hypothesis that a) responding to the initial request stage of an influence technique requires self-control, thereby

  17. The Effect of Blog Use on Self-Regulatory Learning of Prospective German Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan Yucel, Mukadder

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of blog use on self-regulatory learning of prospective German language teachers. The study is semi-experimental. Pretest-posttest, experiment control model was used. Blog activities were conducted as extensive beyond classroom activities only for the experiment group. As the data collection tool…

  18. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  19. Cross-Cultural Effects of Cannabis Use Disorder: Evidence to Support a Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Shikha; Milligan, Amber L.; Cousijn, Janna; Filbey, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are prevalent worldwide. Current epidemiological studies underscore differences in behaviors that contribute to cannabis use across cultures that can be leveraged towards prevention and treatment of CUDs. This review proposes a framework for understanding the effects of cross-cultural differences on psychological, neural, and genomic processes underlying CUDs that has the potential to inform global policies and impact global public health. Recent findings We found that cultural factors may influence (1) the willingness to acknowledge CUD-related symptoms among populations of different countries, and (2) neural responses related to the sense of self, perception, emotion, and attention. These findings leverage the potential effects of culture on neural mechanisms underlying CUDs. Summary As the number of individuals seeking treatment for CUDs increases globally, it is imperative to incorporate cultural considerations to better understand and serve differing populations and develop more targeted treatment strategies and interventions. PMID:29062679

  20. Cross-Cultural Effects of Cannabis Use Disorder: Evidence to Support a Cultural Neuroscience Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Shikha; Milligan, Amber L; Cousijn, Janna; Filbey, Francesca M

    2017-06-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are prevalent worldwide. Current epidemiological studies underscore differences in behaviors that contribute to cannabis use across cultures that can be leveraged towards prevention and treatment of CUDs. This review proposes a framework for understanding the effects of cross-cultural differences on psychological, neural, and genomic processes underlying CUDs that has the potential to inform global policies and impact global public health. We found that cultural factors may influence (1) the willingness to acknowledge CUD-related symptoms among populations of different countries, and (2) neural responses related to the sense of self, perception, emotion, and attention. These findings leverage the potential effects of culture on neural mechanisms underlying CUDs. As the number of individuals seeking treatment for CUDs increases globally, it is imperative to incorporate cultural considerations to better understand and serve differing populations and develop more targeted treatment strategies and interventions.

  1. Principles of resource-effectiveness and regulatory-effectiveness for risk-informed applications: Reducing burdens by improving effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Principles of resource-effectiveness and regulatory-effectiveness are presented which systematically compare the resources expended on a requirement or activity versus its risk importance. To evaluate resource-effectiveness and regulatory-effectiveness, cost-benefit analysis principles are generalized to resource versus risk importance principles. It is shown that by applying resource-importance analyses, current requirements and activities can be systematically evaluated for their resource-effectiveness and their risk-consistency. Strategies can then be developed to maximize both resource-effectiveness and risk-consistency which reduces unnecessary burdens while maintaining risk or reducing risk. The principles, approaches, and implementation schemes which are presented provide a systematic process for evaluating and optimizing resource-effectiveness and regulatory-effectiveness. The illustrations that are presented show that current NRC and industry actions are not resource-effective. By improving their resource-effectiveness and risk-consistency, significant burden reductions are achievable while risk, e.g. core damage frequency, is maintained or is reduced. The illustrations show that by optimizing industry resources and NRC resources with regard to their risk-effectiveness, significant burden reductions are achievable for both the industry and NRC. Algorithms and software exist for broad-scale implementations. Because of the burden reductions which are identified and the improvements in risk-consistency which result, resource-importance analysis should be the first step in risk-informed applications. Resource-importance analysis is so important and can provide such large benefits that it needs to be carried out on all current requirements that are addressed by risk-informed applications

  2. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the results of experiments to test the effect of the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on the immune systems of mice. Mice were given a decoction of T. molitor in water at doses of 1.87, 3.75 and 7.50 g/kg/d for four weeks, after which their immune function was studied. The results indicate that T. molitor ...

  3. Regulatory effects of phospholamban on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Won.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis, the author reports the effect of phospholamban on: (a) Ca 2+ release by cardiac SR and (b) the Ca 2+ -ATPase activity in a purified reconstituted system. Phosphorylation of phospholamban by Ca 2+ · calmodulin-dependent protein kinase had no appreciable effect on the initial rates of Ca 2+ release from cardiac SR vesicles loaded under passive conditions and on the apparent 45 Ca 2+ - 40 Ca 2+ exchange from cardiac SR vesicles loaded under active conditions. us, it appears that Ca 2+ · calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of phospholamban is not involved in the regulation of Ca 2+ release and 45 Ca 2+-40 Ca 2+ exchange. To determine the molecular mechanism by which phospholamban regulates the Ca 2+ pump, a reconstituted system was developed, using a freeze-thaw sonication procedure. The Ca 2+ -ATPase was purified by a method which yields an active enzyme preparation essentially free of phospholamban. The best rates of Ca 2+ uptake were obtained when cholate and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were used at a ratio of cholate/PC/Ca 2 + -ATPase of 2/80/1. The maximal rates of Ca 2+ Uptake were 700 nmol/min/mg reconstituted vesicles compared to 800 nmol/min/mg SR vesicles. The EC 50 values for Ca 2+ were 0.05 μM for both Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity in the reconstituted vesicles compared to 0.63 μM Ca 2+ in native SR vesicles. To determine the effect of phospholamban on the Ca + -ATPase activity in the reconstituted vesicles, purified phospholamban was added to the cholate/Ca 2+ -ATPase mixture prior to combining it with liposomes

  4. Social support influences on eating awareness in children and adolescents: the mediating effect of self-regulatory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier.

  5. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in a Changing Nuclear Regulatory Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illizastigui, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses the approach followed by the Cuban National Center for Nuclear Safety for the management of current and new competences of its regulatory staff with the aim of allowing those staff to effectively fulfill their core regulatory functions. The approach is realized through an Integrated System for Competence Building, which is based on the IAEA recommendations, shown to be effective in ensuring the necessary competence in the relevant areas. In the author’s opinion, competence of the regulatory staff in the area of human and organizational factors is of paramount importance and needs to be further strengthened in order to be able to assess safety performance at the facilities and detect early signs of deteriorating safety performance. The former is defined by the author as the core regulatory function “Analysis” which covers the entire spectrum of assessment tasks carried out by the regulatory staff to: a) detect declining safety performance, b) diagnose latent weaknesses (root causes) and c) make effective safety culture interventions. The author suggests that competence associated with the fulfillment of the analysis function is distinctly identified and dealt with separately in the current system of managing regulatory competence. (author)

  6. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States: Inovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory program. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  7. Infant Functional Regulatory Problems and Gender Moderate Bidirectional Effects Between Externalizing Behavior and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J.; McDonough, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 251 families examined bidirectional associations between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavioral problems. Functional regulatory problems in infancy and gender were examined as moderators. Mothers rated children’s regulatory problems of crying, feeding, and sleeping in infancy, toddler-age externalizing behavior, and their own depressive symptoms when children were ages 7, 15, and 33 months. Using a structural equation model we found that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 7 months predicted high levels of child externalizing behavior at 15 and 33 months. Gender moderated the effect, such that maternal depressive symptoms only predicted boys’ externalizing behavior at 33 months. Toddler-age externalizing behavior predicted high levels of maternal depressive symptoms at 33 months, only among those who had relatively few regulatory problems as infants. Infancy seems to be a period of heightened vulnerability to effects of maternal depression and boys are more likely than girls to develop resulting externalizing problems. Mothers of infants with few regulatory problems may develop worse depressive symptoms in response to their children’s preschool-age behavioral problems. PMID:23545078

  8. Effect of Telecollaboration on Translation of Culture-Bound Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most problematic perspectives of translation phenomenon is the cultural gap between the source language and the target language (Yang, 2010. This gap can be ideally filled through telecollaboration which provides internationally dispersed language learners in parallel language classes with cost-effective access to, and engagement with, peers who are expert speakers of the language under study (Belz, 2005. To investigate the effect of telecollaboration on the quality of translation of culture-bound texts, the current study was conducted on 64 Iranian undergraduate students of English translation at a university in Iran. Instruments used in the study consisted of three texts containing news excerpts from Voice of America (VOA. The study consisted of three phases: 1 assessing quality of translation of culture-bound texts, 2 random assignment of participants to two groups: one merely receiving cultural instruction while the other being linked to native English speakers through LinkedIn alongside receiving cultural instruction, and 3 assessing quality of translation of culture-bound texts immediately and two months following treatment. The results of mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance revealed the significant positive effect of telecollaboration on developing quality of translation of culture-bound texts and sustaining the attained knowledge. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of cultural components of source language society into translation courses and providing opportunities for translation students to be exposed to authentic and intensive source language culture through telecollaboration.

  9. Environmentally friendly consumer choices: Cultural differences in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, J.; Antonides, G.

    2014-01-01

    Anticipated self-conscious emotions, such as pride and guilt, help individuals to behave in line with their personal and social standards regarding the environment. We seek to explore whether ths self-regulatory role of anticipated pride and guilt functions similarly across individuals from

  10. Environmentally friendly consumer choices: Cultural differences in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, J.; Antonides, G.

    2014-01-01

    Anticipated self-conscious emotions, such as pride and guilt, help individuals to behave in line with their personal and social standards regarding the environment. We seek to explore whether this self-regulatory role of anticipated pride and guilt functions similarly across individuals from

  11. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  12. Effects of Culture on Musical Pitch Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H. D.; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association—the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders—remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means ‘teacher’ and ‘to try’ when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  13. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  14. Effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis sera on cultured cholinergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzeau, G.; Kato, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Dissociated monolayer cultures of chick ciliary ganglion neurons have been used to study the effects of control and ALS sera. The cultured neurons survive and extend neurites for a minimum of 2 weeks in a standard tissue culture medium that contains 10% heat-inactivated human serum. Three parameters of the neurons have been examined when cultured in control and ALS sera for 8 to 12 days: (1) neuronal survival, (2) activity of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, and (3) synthesis of 3 H-acetylcholine using 3 H-choline as precursor. ALS sera cause a small decrease in these three parameters, but this difference is not significant

  15. Building effective working relationships across culturally and ethnically diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosley, Cheryl A; Gensheimer, Linda; Yang, Mai

    2003-01-01

    Amherst H. Wilder Foundation's Social Adjustment Program for Southeast Asians is implementing two collaborative, best practice, mental health and substance abuse prevention service models in Minnesota. It faced several issues in effectively bridging multiple cultural groups, including building a diverse collaborative team, involving families and youth, reconciling cultural variation in meeting styles, and making best practice models culturally appropriate. Researchers and program staff used multiple strategies to address these challenges and build successful partnerships. Through shared goals, flexibility, and a willingness to explore and address challenges, collaboratives can promote stronger relationships across cultural communities and improve their service delivery systems.

  16. Cultural Effect on Perspective Taking in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Kevin K. S.; Xiao, Wen S.; Cheung, Him

    2012-01-01

    Some recent evidence has suggested that perspective taking skills in everyday life situations may differ across cultural groups. In the present study, we investigated this effect via culture priming in a group of Chinese-English bilingual adults in the context of a communication game. Results showed that the participants made more perspective…

  17. The prison subsystem culture: its attitudinal effects on operatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the incarceration retrospective negative impacts on individuals and exconvicts lives in the free society. Suggestions were made towards ensuring sanitized prison socio cultural environment and that restorative justice approach should be practiced in Nigeria. Key Words: prison culture attitudinal effect convicts and society ...

  18. Effects Of Heavy Metals On Growing Cultures Of Chlorella emersonii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work evaluates the effect of some metals on a green alga Chlorella emersonii, under continuous and batch culture conditions with added metal and another, batch culture with no added metal but where organism had been exposed to metal for 18 hours prior to growth. It was found that Chlorella growth under ...

  19. Great Expectations: The Persistent Effect of Institutions on Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Litina, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This research exploits the event of immigration to establish that institutions have a persistent effect on culture. It is argued that immigrants coming from corrupt countries, tend to overtrust the institutions at the host country. This inflated trust of immigrants is documented as the Great Expectations effect. This result is interesting and intriguing for several reasons. First, it highlights the persistent effect of institutions (at the origin coun- try) on the cultural attitudes of immigr...

  20. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  1. European Union International Cooperation to Improve Regulatory Effectiveness in Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) promotes a high level of nuclear safety worldwide, through the ''Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation'' (INSC) since 2007. The INSC builds on the experience gained under the completed ''Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States'' Programme (TACIS) from 1991. Development and strengthening of national Regulatory Authorities’ capabilities is a key activity in achieving the INSC goals, in particular in countries with or embarking on nuclear power. Specific partner countries under INSC include countries of all types of maturity in the nuclear technology, with mature countries such as Brazil, Mexico and Ukraine, countries with waste and mining issues, but no direct intention of embarking on nuclear power such as Georgia, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tanzania and countries planning to embark on nuclear power such as Belarus, Egypt, Jordan and Vietnam. For new projects, the main focus is on the neighbourhood of the EU. The EU cooperation within INSC encompasses measures to support the promotion of high standards in radiation protection, radioactive waste management, decommissioning, remediation of contaminated sites, and efficient and effective safeguards of nuclear material. The INSC regulatory support is aimed at continuous assistance to Nuclear Regulatory Authorities (NRAs), including their technical support organisations (TSOs), in order to reinforce the regulatory framework, notably concerning licensing activities.

  2. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health

  3. Regulatory effect of connexin 43 on basal Ca2+ signaling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been found that gap junction-associated intracellular Ca(2+ [Ca(2+](i disturbance contributes to the arrhythmogenesis and hyperconstriction in diseased heart. However, whether functional gaps are also involved in the regulation of normal Ca(2+ signaling, in particular the basal [Ca(2+](i activities, is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Global and local Ca(2+ signaling and gap permeability were monitored in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs and freshly isolated mouse ventricular myocytes by Fluo4/AM and Lucifer yellow (LY, respectively. The results showed that inhibition of gap communication by heptanol, Gap 27 and flufenamic acid or interference of connexin 43 (Cx43 with siRNA led to a significant suppression of LY uptake and, importantly, attenuations of global Ca(2+ transients and local Ca(2+ sparks in monolayer NRVMs and Ca(2+ sparks in adult ventricular myocytes. In contrast, overexpression of rat-Cx43 in NRVMs induced enhancements in the above measurements, and so did in HEK293 cells expressing rat Cx43. Additionally, membrane-permeable inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3 butyryloxymethyl ester and phenylephrine, an agonist of adrenergic receptor, could relieve the inhibited Ca(2+ signal and LY uptake by gap uncouplers, whereas blockade of IP(3 receptor with xestospongin C or 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate mimicked the effects of gap inhibitors. More importantly, all these gap-associated effects on Ca(2+ signaling were also found in single NRVMs that only have hemichannels instead of gap junctions. Further immunostaining/immunoblotting single myocytes with antibody against Cx43 demonstrated apparent increases in membrane labeling of Cx43 and non-junctional Cx43 in overexpressed cells, suggesting functional hemichannels exist and also contribute to the Ca(2+ signaling regulation in cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Cx43-associated gap coupling plays a role in the regulation of resting Ca(2

  4. 77 FR 4077 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending the Real-Time Risk Management Fee and Other Clarifying Amendments January 20, 2012.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the...

  5. 77 FR 45401 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... change. All such Regulatory Bulletins will contain information regarding changes to the risk settings in...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule... Applicable to the Market Maker Risk Limitation Mechanism Will Be Between One and 100 Executions per Second...

  6. The Effect of Self-Regulatory and Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on Impoverished Students' Assessment Achievement in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Jaunine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this nonequivalent control group design study was to evaluate the effectiveness of metacognitive and self-regulatory strategy use on the assessment achievement of 215 9th-grade, residential physics students from low socioeconomic status (low-SES) backgrounds. Students from low-SES backgrounds often lack the self-regulatory habits…

  7. Effect of starter cultures on microbial and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-10-22

    Oct 22, 2014 ... 1Research Unity, Food and Science Technologies–UR 04 AGR02, High Food Industries School of Tunisia, 58 Avenue .... The mixture of each batch was stuffed into artificial ..... Effects of starter cultures and additives on.

  8. [Regulatory effect of Erbao granules on brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Du, Y; Wang, S

    2000-10-01

    To study the regulatory effect of Erbao granules (EBG) on central and peripheral brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia. Juvenile rat model of anorexia was established by imitating the major cause of infantile anorexia and treated with EBG. The cholocystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) and beta-endorphin (beta-EP) concentration in hypothalamus, antrum pyloricum and peripheral blood were examined by radioimmunoassay. CCK-8 concentration in hypothalamus and plasma in the model rats increased (P anorexia model.

  9. Improvement of the effectiveness of regulatory management; Mejoramiento de la efectividad de la gestion reguladora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project ARCAL LXVI has as its objective strengthening the national capabilities of the regulatory authorities to achieve an adequate level of radiation safety by training their staff in the implementation of the safety guidelines developed by a prior TC regional project under the framework of the ARCAL Programme and to measure its effectiveness. Detailed program of activities for the years 2001/2002 is presented at this meeting.

  10. Gender Inequality and Reflexive Law: The Potential of different regulatory Mechanisms for making Employment Rights effective

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, S.; McLaughlin, C.; Chai, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    We review the different regulatory mechanisms which have been used in the UK context to promote gender equality in employment over the past decade, including legal enforcement based on claimant-led litigation, collective bargaining, pay audits, and shareholder pressure. Evidence is drawn from case studies examining the effects of these different mechanisms on organisations in the public and private sectors, and from econometric analysis of the impact of stock market pressures on firms' human ...

  11. Cultural Transmission on the Taskscape: Exploring the Effects of Taskscape Visibility on Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, L S; Tostevin, Gilbert B

    2016-01-01

    Culturally transmitted behavior can be structured in its performance both geographically and temporally, in terms of where and when implements are made and used on the landscape (what Ingold calls "the taskscape"). Yet cultural transmission theory has not yet explored the consequences of behaviors transmitted differently due to their enactment at different taskscape locations, what Tostevin calls "taskscape visibility." Here, we use computer simulations to explore how taskscape visibility and forager mobility affect the diversity of two selectively neutral culturally transmitted traits within a single population of social learners. The trait that can be transmitted from residential bases only (lower taskscape visibility) shows greater diversity than the trait that can be transmitted from residential bases and logistical camps (higher taskscape visibility). In addition, increased logistical mobility has a positive effect on the diversity of the trait with the lower taskscape visibility while it generally shows little to no effect on the diversity of the trait with higher taskscape visibility. Without an appreciation for the ways in which taskscape visibility and mobility can structure cultural transmission in space and through time, the difference in the observed equilibrium diversity levels of the two traits might be incorrectly interpreted as resulting from qualitatively different forms of biased cultural transmission. The results of our simulation experiment suggest that researchers may need to take the taskscape visibility into account when inferring cultural transmission from archaeological data.

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on plant tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hell, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    A short review is done of the biological effects of ionizing radiations on plant tissues kept in culture, from the work of Gladys King, in 1949, with X-ray irradiated tobacco. The role of plant hormones is discussed in the processes of growth inhibition and growth restoration of irradiated tissues, as well as morphogenesis. Radioresistance of cells kept in culture and the use of ionizing radiations as mutagens are also commented. Some aspects of the biological effects of ionizing radiations that need to be investigated are discussed, and the problem of genome instability of plant tissues kept in culture is pointed out. (M.A.) [pt

  13. A strategy for regulatory action when new adverse effects of a licensed product emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Price, Deirdre; Ferner, Robin E

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory agencies grant product licences (marketing authorizations) for medicinal products in the light of evidence that the balance between benefit and harm in the population is favourable. Here we consider a framework for allowing regulatory agencies to make rational decisions when reviewing product licences in the light of new information about harms that change that balance. The regulator can revoke the product licence, restrict the product's availability or change the 'label' in different ways. We examine the features of the adverse effect that may be relevant in making the decision: namely, individual differences in susceptibility; the possibility of monitoring; and the availability of protective strategies. The balance of benefit and harm, and the time-course and dose relation of the adverse effect play important roles in the decision-making process. We set out how these factors can help determine the logical response to new information on the balance between benefit and harm, and provide a series of relevant examples. We believe that when regulatory agencies have to decide how to amend the product licence of a drug when new serious adverse effects cause concern, they would find it useful to adopt a framework of this kind, using different strategies for different cases. Our proposed framework could also be useful in risk management planning during drug development.

  14. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs. However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation.

  15. Cultural effect on synergy realization in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Hain, Daniel; Dao, Li Thuy

    2017-01-01

    This study examines two levels of cultural differences - national and organizational on synergy realization simultaneously by considering two critical implementation factors as the moderators: pre-acquisition due diligence and post-acquisition coordination efforts. Meanwhile, we argue cultural...... by Nordic companies. Results show that both national and organizational cultural differences only exert negative impact on realization of Type-2 synergy which is more implicit/intangible, less predictable, usually tacit-knowledge intensive and/or complementary, but no impact on realization of Type-1 synergy...... which is explicit/tangible, more predictable, less tacit-knowledge intensive, and/or based on cost reduction and similarity. Meanwhile, national cultural differences generate stronger negative effect at higher level of significance than that of organizational cultural differences. Moreover, proactive...

  16. How effective is the revised regulatory code for alcohol advertising in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Danika; Munro, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Australia, like several other countries, has a self-regulatory approach to advertising. However, in recent years the effectiveness of the regulatory system has been questioned, and there have been increasing public calls for an overhaul of the system. Following a formal review in 2003, the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy proposed a revised Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC), which came into operation in 2004. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of this revised system. From May 2004 until March 2005 television and magazine advertising campaigns were monitored for alcohol products. Over this period 14 complaints against alcohol advertisements were lodged with the self-regulatory board, and the authors recruited an independent expert panel to assess the advertisements and complaints. In eight of the 14 cases a majority of the judges perceived the advertisement to be in breach of the code, and in no cases did a majority perceive no breach. Conversely, however, none of the complaints were upheld by the Advertising Standards Board (ASB) and only one by the ABAC Panel. The results of this study suggest that the decisions made by the ASB in relation to complaints against alcohol advertisements are not in harmony with the judgement of independent experts, and that the ASB may not be performing an adequate job of representing community standards or protecting the community from offensive or inappropriate advertisements. Further, it appears that the revisions to the ABAC code, and associated processes, have not reduced the problems associated with alcohol advertising in Australia.

  17. Regulatory approach of the monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajgel, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    The electrical power generation using nuclear power plants requires this installation being safety, reliable and available for the working periods. For this purpose, an adequate, effective and well conducted maintenance program makes an essential and useful tool to the owner of the plant. However, it is necessary to follow the regulatory requirements for this program implementation which monitories this maintenance effectiveness. There are Brazilian norms requirements which must be followed. The international regulatory guides establish these requirements in good details but it is necessary to verify if this methodology for implementing can be totally applied here in Brazil. Then, the american guide NUMARC 93-01 which details how can be implemented a program for this monitoring, shows some methods for using. In this thesis, the Delphi and Probabilistic Safety Analysis were briefly included because they were preferred for implementing this monitoring.in a Brazilian plant. The results which are being obtained show that, looking the regulatory aspects, the NUMARC 93-01 follows our regulations and gives good results for the plant management. (author)

  18. Regulatory T cell effects in antitumor laser immunotherapy: a mathematical model and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Bryan A.; Laverty, Sean M.

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have tremendous influence on treatment outcomes in patients receiving immunotherapy for cancerous tumors. We present a mathematical model incorporating the primary cellular and molecular components of antitumor laser immunotherapy. We explicitly model developmental classes of dendritic cells (DCs), cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), primary and metastatic tumor cells, and tumor antigen. Regulatory T cells have been shown to kill antigen presenting cells, to influence dendritic cell maturation and migration, to kill activated killer CTLs in the tumor microenvironment, and to influence CTL proliferation. Since Tregs affect explicitly modeled cells, but we do not explicitly model dynamics of Treg themselves, we use model parameters to analyze effects of Treg immunosuppressive activity. We will outline a systematic method for assigning clinical outcomes to model simulations and use this condition to associate simulated patient treatment outcome with Treg activity.

  19. EFFECTS OF HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITOR, SAHA, ON EFFECTOR AND FOXP3+ REGULATORY T CELLS IN RHESUS MACAQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer; Pahuja, Anil; Graham, Melanie; Hering, Bernhard; Hancock, Wayne W.; Pratima, Bansal-Pakala

    2008-01-01

    SAHA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), is clinically approved for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Although the exact underlying mechanisms are unknown, HDACi arrest the cell cycle in rapidly proliferating tumor cells and promote their apoptosis. HDACi were also recently shown to enhance the production and suppressive functions of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in rodents, leading us to begin to investigate the actions of HDACi on rhesus monkey T cells for the sake of potential preclinical applications. In this study, we show that SAHA inhibits polyclonal activation and proliferation of rhesus T cells and that the anti-proliferative effects are due to inhibition of T effector (Teff) cells and enhancement of Treg cells. Cryopreserved rhesus macaque splenocytes were CFSE labeled, stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured for 5 days in the presence of varying concentrations of SAHA. Samples were then co-stained to evaluate CD4 and CD8 expression. 10 and 5μM concentrations of SAHA were toxic to splenocytes. Proliferation was inhibited by 57% in CD4 cells and 47% in CD8 cells when unseparated splenocytes were cultured with 3 μM SAHA. Effector cells alone showed a decreased inhibition to proliferation when cultured with 3 μM and 1 μM SAHA when compared to Teff plus Treg cells. Our data suggest that SAHA can be used as part of an immunosuppressive protocol to enhance graft survival by limiting Teff cell proliferation as well as increasing Treg cells, thereby promoting tolerance. PMID:18374101

  20. Differential expression of FGF receptors and of myogenic regulatory factors in primary cultures of satellite cells originating from fast (EDL) and slow (Soleus) twitch rat muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelly, I; Soulet, L; Bonnavaud, S; Cebrian, J; Gautron, J; Barritault, D

    2000-11-01

    In the rat, the fast and slow twitch muscles respectively Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and Soleus present differential characteristics during regeneration. This suggests that their satellite cells responsible for muscle growth and repair represent distinct cellular populations. We have previously shown that satellite cells dissociated from Soleus and grown in vitro proliferate more readily than those isolated from EDL muscle. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are known as regulators of myoblast proliferation and several studies have revealed a relationship between the response of myoblasts to FGF and the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) of the MyoD family by myoblasts. Therefore, we presently examined the possibility that the satellite cells isolated from EDL and Soleus muscles differ in the expression of FGF receptors (FGF-R) and of MRF expression. FGF-R1 and -R4 were strongly expressed in proliferating cultures whereas FGF-R2 and R3 were not detected in these cultures. In differentiating cultures, only -R1 was present in EDL satellite cells while FGF-R4 was also still expressed in Soleus cells. Interestingly, the unconventional receptor for FGF called cystein rich FGF receptor (CFR), of yet unknown function, was mainly detected in EDL satellite cell cultures. Soleus and EDL satellite cell cultures also differed in the expression MRFs. These results are consistent with the notion that satellite cells from fast and slow twitch muscles belong to different types of myogenic cells and suggest that satellite cells might play distinct roles in the formation and diversification of fast and slow fibres.

  1. The effect of organisational culture on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gerri; McCaughan, Dorothy

    This article explores the links between organisational culture and patient safety. The key elements associated with a safety culture, most notably effective leadership, good teamwork, a culture of learning and fairness, and fostering patient-centred care, are discussed. The broader aspects of a systems approach to promoting quality and safety, with specific reference to clinical governance, human factors, and ergonomics principles and methods, are also briefly explored, particularly in light of the report of the public inquiry into care failings at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust.

  2. When planning is not enough: the self-regulatory effect of implementation intentions on changing snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Bagozzi, Richard P; Spanjol, Jelena

    2010-05-01

    This study examined whether matching implementation intentions to people's regulatory orientation affects the effectiveness of changing unhealthy snacking habits. Participants' regulatory orientation was either measured (as a chronic trait) or manipulated (as a situational state), and participants were randomly assigned to implementation intention conditions to eat more healthy snacks or avoid eating unhealthy ones. A self-reported online food diary of healthy and unhealthy snacks over a 2-day period. Participants with weak unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks when forming any type of implementation intentions (regardless of match or mismatch with their regulatory orientation), while participants with strong unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks only when forming implementation intentions that matched their regulatory orientations. RESULTS suggest that implementation intentions that match regulatory orientation heighten motivation intensity and put snacking under intentional control for people with strong unhealthy snacking habits. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of biosynthesis and regulatory action of 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol (S-EC) in cultured cells by progesterone (PG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, S.R.; Gupta, A.K.; Sexton, R.C.; Parish, E.J.; Rudney, H.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of IEC-6 cells with PG caused a strong inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis at the level of desmosterol reductase. In addition, two new products were observed in PG-treated cells. The first compound was designated as cholesta-5,7,24-trien-3β-ol based on its HPLC chromatographic properties. The second compound was identified as S-EC based on (1) a comparison of its chromatographic properties with those of authentic EC and (2) by its conversion to 25-hydroxycholesterol (HC) upon reduction with LiAlH 4 . In spite of cellular accumulation of S-EC in the presence of PG, the activity of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) which is known to be sensitive to oxysterols, was elevated rather than suppressed. On the other hand, when PG-treated cells were refed fresh medium without PG, HMGR activity was suppressed. Exogenous S-EC was a potent suppressor of HMGR in untreated IEC-6 cells. Suppression of HMGR by S-EC but not by HC could be prevented by progesterone. Exogenous [ 3 H]S-EC was not metabolized by IEC-6 cells. These results support the hypothesis that S-EC plays a normal regulatory role in sterol biosynthesis and indicate that enhanced S-EC synthesis observed in the presence of PG may be due to interference with this regulatory action

  4. Information feedback and mass media effects in cultural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Avella, J. C.; Cosenza, M. G.; Klemm, K.; Eguiluz, V. M.; Miguel, M. San

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...

  5. The effects of age, glucose ingestion and gluco-regulatory control on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh Martin; Meikle, Andrew; Glover, Cheryl

    2004-09-01

    Previous research has been inconclusive regarding the impact of glucose ingestion and gluco-regulatory control on cognitive performance in healthy older adults. The aim of this research was to determine whether glucose specifically enhanced episodic memory in an older population. In addition, the link between individual differences in glucose regulation and the magnitude of the enhancement effect was examined. A within subjects, counterbalanced, crossover design was used with 20 participants (60-80 year olds), each serving as his/her control. Episodic memory was tested by presenting unrelated paired associates followed by immediate and delayed cued recall, and delayed recognition, under single and dual task conditions. In addition, a battery of cognitive tests was administered, including tests of semantic memory, working memory and speed of processing. Glucose ingestion was found to largely facilitate performance of episodic memory. Furthermore, subsidiary analyses found that gluco-regulatory efficiency predicted episodic memory performance in both control and glucose conditions. A boost in performance after glucose ingestion was particularly seen in the episodic memory domain. Notably, strong evidence was provided for the utility of gluco-regulatory control measures as indicators of cognitive decline in the elderly.

  6. The regulatory effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on Ikaros-autotaxin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hana; Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Sung Jin; Nam, Seon Young; Yang, Kwang Hee [KHNP Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Ikaros, a transcription factor containing zinc-finger motif, has known as a critical regulator of hematopoiesis in immune system. Ikaros protein modulates the transcription of target genes via binding to the regulatory elements of the genes promoters. However the regulatory function of Ikaros in other organelle except nuclear remains to be determined. This study explored radiation-induced modulatory function of Ikaros in cytoplasm. The results showed that Ikaros protein lost its DNA binding ability after LDIR (low-dose ionizing radiation) exposure. Cell fractionation and Western blot analysis showed that Ikaros protein was translocated into cytoplasm from nuclear by LDIR. This was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. We identified Autotaxin as a novel protein which potentially interacts with Ikaros through in vitro protein-binding screening. Co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Ikaros and Autotaxin are able to bind each other. Autotaxin is a crucial enzyme generating lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a phospholipid mediator, which has potential regulatory effects on immune cell growth and motility. Our results indicate that LDIR potentially regulates immune system via protein-protein interaction of Ikaros and Autotaxin.

  7. Therapeutic Effect of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Amplified In Vitro on Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Jie Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to explore whether the adoptive transfusion of autologous CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+ Tregs has a therapeutic effect on Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN model rats, and it provides new experimental and theoretical bases for the immunotherapy of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS. Methods: CD4+CD25+ Tregs were sorted from the spleens of rats using immunomagnetic bead separation techniques combined with flow cytometry. Their in vitro inhibitory function was determined using a lymphocyte proliferation inhibition test, and their purity was confirmed by flow cytometry. Cells were stimulated using CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies and were cultured in culture medium containing interleukin 2 (IL-2, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and rapamycin. After 15 days of amplification, CD4+CD25+ Tregs were collected and transfused into EAN model rats. Changes in the pathology and electron microscopical morphology of rat sciatic nerves in the normal group, untreated group, low-dose group (2 × 107 and high-dose group (4 × 107 were observed, and the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP3 in peripheral blood in the four groups of rats was detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with rats in the untreated group, rats in the treatment groups had significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the sciatic nerve, as well as myelin and axonal damage. Additionally, the CD4+CD25+ Tregs levels in peripheral blood were significantly higher than those in the untreated group (P< 0. 05. Moreover, the therapeutic effect became more significant with an increase in the dose of adoptive transfusion. Conclusion: Adoptive transfusion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs into EAN model rats has significant therapeutic effects.

  8. Extraordinary sex ratios: cultural effects on ecological consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.

  9. The Influence of the Self-Regulatory Focus on the Effectiveness of Stop-Smoking Campaigns for Young Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    L. ADAMS; T. FASEUR; M. GEUENS

    2010-01-01

    People’s self-regulatory focus may determine the effectiveness of stop-smoking campaigns. An experiment with 226 young smokers investigated the persuasiveness of different emotional appeals (fear-relief versus sadness-joy) for different self-regulatory foci (prevention versus promotion). A congruency effect emerges for attitude toward the advertisement and behavioral intentions: Young smokers with a promotion focus are more persuaded by sadness-joy than fear-relief campaigns, and the opposite...

  10. Consigned regulatory control and effect of the owner's welding quality under the EPC mode in Fangjiashan nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qun; Gu Tao; Wei Lianfeng; Li Hongjun

    2012-01-01

    Under EPC management mode, how to optimize resources allocation and realize effective management and control over key control points is a big difficulty facing the owner. From the owner's point of view, and through summary of practices, the paper introduces and analyses the mode and effect of consigned regulatory control over the weld quality of Fangjiashan nuclear power project. And some recognitions and point of views on popularization of specialized and consigned regulatory control are put forward. (authors)

  11. Management of safety and safety culture in regulatory work - The case of decommissioning of a Swedish plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, G.; Lekberg, A.

    2002-01-01

    The case of early closure of one of the units at a plant is one example of a situation where the regulator has to reflect on and choose its role in order to prevent an impairment of the safety culture at the plant. The strategy chosen by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate is presented and some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  12. Virally inactivated human platelet concentrate lysate induces regulatory T cells and immunosuppressive effect in a murine asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lun; Lee, Lin-Wen; Su, Chen-Yao; Hsiao, George; Yang, Yi-Yuan; Leu, Sy-Jye; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Burnouf, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Platelet concentrate lysates (PCLs) are increasingly used in regenerative medicine. We have developed a solvent/detergent (S/D)-treated PCL. The functional properties of this preparation should be unveiled. We hypothesized that, due to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) content, PCLs may exert immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions. PCL was prepared by S/D treatment, oil extraction, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The content of TGF-β in PCL was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cultured CD4+ T cells were used to investigate the effects of PCL on expression of transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), the inhibition of T-cell proliferation, and cytokine production. The regulatory function of PCL-converted CD4+ T cells was analyzed by suppressive assay. The BALB/c mice were given PCL-converted CD4+ T cells before ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge using an asthma model. Inflammatory parameters, such as the level of immunoglobulin E (IgE), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchial lavage fluid eosinophils, and cytokines were assayed. Recombinant human (rHu) TGF-β1 was used as control. PCL significantly enhanced the development of CD4+Foxp3+-induced regulatory T cells (iTregs). Converted iTregs produced neither Th1 nor Th2 cytokines and inhibited normal T-cell proliferation. PCL- and rHuTGF-β-converted CD4+ T cells prevented OVA-induced asthma. PCL- and rHuTGF-β-modified T cells both significantly reduced expression levels of OVA-specific IgE and significantly inhibited the development of AHR, airway eosinophilia, and Th2 responses in mice. S/D-treated PCL promotes Foxp3+ iTregs and exerts immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. This finding may help to understand the clinical properties of platelet lysates. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakou C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Christina Giannakou,1,2 Margriet VDZ Park,1 Wim H de Jong,1 Henk van Loveren,1,2 Rob J Vandebriel,1 Robert E Geertsma1 1Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, 2Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome

  14. GmWRKY53, a water- and salt-inducible soybean gene for rapid dissection of regulatory elements in BY-2 cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C.; Lin, Jun; Rushton, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Drought is the major cause of crop losses worldwide. Water stress-inducible promoters are important for understanding the mechanisms of water stress responses in crop plants. Here we utilized tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell system in presence of polyethylene glycol, salt and phytohormones. Extension of the system to 85 mM NaCl led to inducibility of up to 10-fold with the water stress and salt responsive soybean GmWRKY53 promoter. Upon ABA and JA treatment fold inducibility was up to 5-fold and 14-fold, respectively. Thus, we hypothesize that GmWRKY53 could be used as potential model candidate for dissecting drought regulatory elements as well as understanding crosstalk utilizing a rapid heterologous system of BY-2 culture. PMID:23511199

  15. Genetic Tools for Self-Organizing Culture of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells via Small Regulatory RNA-Mediated Technologies, CRISPR/Cas9, and Inducible RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Nozomu; Sakakura, Eriko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Approaches to investigate gene functions in experimental biology are becoming more diverse and reliable. Furthermore, several kinds of tissues and organs that possess their original identities can be generated in petri dishes from stem cells including embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells. Researchers now have several choices of experimental methods and their combinations to analyze gene functions in various biological systems. Here, as an example we describe one of the better protocols, which combines three-dimensional embryonic stem cell culture with small regulatory RNA-mediated technologies, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), and inducible RNA interference (RNAi). This protocol allows investigation of genes of interest to better understand gene functions in target tissues (or organs) during in vitro development.

  16. Xylogenesis in zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures: unravelling the regulatory steps in a complex developmental programmed cell death event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, Elena T; Woltering, Ernst J

    2017-04-01

    Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background for investigations in other experimental models in vitro and in planta . This review discusses the most essential earlier and recent findings on the regulation of xylem elements differentiation and PCD in zinnia and other xylogenic systems. Xylogenesis (the formation of water conducting vascular tissue) is a paradigm of plant developmental PCD. The xylem vessels are composed of fused tracheary elements (TEs)-dead, hollow cells with patterned lignified secondary cell walls. They result from the differentiation of the procambium and cambium cells and undergo cell death to become functional post-mortem. The TE differentiation proceeds through a well-coordinated sequence of events in which differentiation and the programmed cellular demise are intimately connected. For years a classical experimental model for studies on xylogenesis was the xylogenic zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell culture derived from leaf mesophyll cells that, upon induction by cytokinin and auxin, transdifferentiate into TEs. This cell system has been proven very efficient for investigations on the regulatory components of xylem differentiation which has led to many discoveries on the mechanisms of xylogenesis. The knowledge gained from this system has potentiated studies in other xylogenic cultures in vitro and in planta. The present review summarises the previous and latest findings on the hormonal and biochemical signalling, metabolic pathways and molecular and gene determinants underlying the regulation of xylem vessels differentiation in zinnia cell culture. Highlighted are breakthroughs achieved through the use of xylogenic systems from other species and newly introduced tools and analytical approaches to study the

  17. Developing regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Lars Axelsson presented SSM progress on oversight of LMfS/SC since the Chester 1 Workshop in 2007. Current SSM approaches for safety culture oversight include targeted safety management and safety culture inspections, compliance inspections which cover aspects of safety management/safety culture and multi-disciplinary team inspections. Examples of themes for targeted inspections include management of ambiguous operational situations or other weak signals, understanding of and attitudes to Human Performance tools, the Safety Department's role and authority and Leadership for safety. All regulatory activities provide inputs for the SSM yearly safety evaluation of each licensee. A form has been developed to capture safety culture observations from inspections and other interactions with licensees. Analysis will be performed to identify patterns and provide information to support planning of specific Safety Culture activities. Training has been developed for regulatory staff to enhance the quality of regulatory interventions on safety culture. This includes a half-day seminar to provide an overview of safety culture, and a workshop which provides more in-depth discussion on cultural issues and how to capture those during regulatory activities. Future plans include guidance for inspectors, and informal seminars on safety culture with licensees

  18. Regulatory effects of intrinsic IL-10 in IgG immune complex-induced lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanley, T P; Schmal, H; Friedl, H P

    1995-01-01

    IL-10 has regulatory effects in vitro on cytokine production by activated macrophages. In the IgG immune complex model of lung injury, exogenously administered IL-10 has been shown to suppress in vivo formation of TNF-alpha, up-regulation of vascular ICAM-1, neutrophil recruitment, and ensuing lung....... Blocking of IL-10 by Ab resulted in a 52% increase in lung vascular permeability, a 56% increase in TNF-alpha activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and a 47 to 48% increase in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils and lung myeloperoxidase content. These findings suggest that IL-10 is an important natural...

  19. Radiation effects on cultured human lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Nilsson, K.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Jakobsson, P.

    1981-01-01

    The cloning efficiency of human normal and malignant lymphoid cells is usually low. Radiation effects in vitro on such cells can therefore not be analysed with conventional cloning. However, this problem can be circumscribed by using the growth extrapolation method. A panel of human leukemia-lymphoma cell-lines representing Epstein-Barr virus carrying lymphoblastoid cells of presumed non-neoplastic derivation and neoplastic T- and B-lymphocytes was used to test the efficiency of this method. The sensitivity to radiation could be determined for all these cell types. The growth extrapolation method gave generally the same result as conventional cloning demonstrated by comparison with one exceptional cell-line with capacity for cloning in agar. The sensitivity varied largely between the different cell types. A common feature was that none of the cell lines had a good capacity to accumulate sublethal radiation injury. (Auth.)

  20. Improving regulatory effectiveness in Federal/State siting actions. Success factor evaluation panel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggard, J.

    1977-06-01

    An independent appraisal of the factors that determine efficiency in reaching environmental decisions with respect to nuclear facilities was addressed. The Panel recommended to substitute 'effectiveness' for 'efficiency.' Thus, an effective decision is: 'A timely final decision, that provides for necessary change, consistent with societal objectives and law, and which is equitable and practical, and is based upon fully and candidly expressed premises utilizing a commonly available data base.' The measurement criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the environmental decision making process are: timely decision, final decision, provision for change, consistency with societal goals and law, equitable, practical, fully and candidly expressed premises, commonly available data base, and public confidence. The Panel evaluated the 8 policies proposed by NRC staff as essential to licensing reform: national fuels policy, regional review, early disclosure, State role, technical assistance to State, role of utilities, radiation health and safety, and modification of the Atomic Energy Act. The five NRC scenarios were evaluated in terms of regulatory effectiveness

  1. The Role of Cultural Compatibility in Effective Management The Application of Cultural Four-dimensional Model in Transnational Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成哲

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural management is often regarded as a discipline of international management focusing on cultural encounters between the organization and the nation-state, and providing tools to tackle cultural difl'erences seen as sources of conflict, friction or misunderstanding. Based on Greet Hofstede' s Cultural Model, this paper attempts to shed some light on effective corporation management through cultural analysis of the difl'erences between China and western countries. The paper puts more emphasis on the impact of cultural compatibility on effective corporation man- agement through the case study of China, Japan, Germany and America. The author argues that managers and employ- ees involved in companies with diverse cultural backgrounds should be integrated and developed into a specific local context through interlocking their cultural identifications and the organizational practices.

  2. Adapting to an initial self-regulatory task cancels the ego depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Junhua; Dewitte, Siegfried; Mao, Lihua; Xiao, Shanshan; Shi, Yucai

    2013-09-01

    The resource-based model of self-regulation provides a pessimistic view of self-regulation that people are destined to lose their self-control after having engaged in any act of self-regulation because these acts deplete the limited resource that people need for successful self-regulation. The cognitive control theory, however, offers an alternative explanation and suggests that the depletion effect reflects switch costs between different cognitive control processes recruited to deal with demanding tasks. This account implies that the depletion effect will not occur once people have had the opportunity to adapt to the self-regulatory task initially engaged in. Consistent with this idea, the present study showed that engaging in a demanding task led to performance deficits on a subsequent self-regulatory task (i.e. the depletion effect) only when the initial demanding task was relatively short but not when it was long enough for participants to adapt. Our results were unrelated to self-efficacy, mood, and motivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SOS-1 seminar about safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Hammar, L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the seminar was to discuss safety culture in nuclear power utilities, and to exchange experiences about how the term safety culture is accepted by the personnel. The titles of the presentations are: 1) Organisational culture. General ideas as basis for organising; 2) Safety culture - ability and will; 3) View on safety culture at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants; 4) Safety culture at Barsebaeck Power Company; 5) Safety culture at Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant; 6) How do we improve the safety culture at OKG AB?; 7) Safety culture activities at Ringhals; 8) Aspects in relation to safety culture; 9) Development of regulatory activities/effectiveness of STUK - development as an aspect of culture; 10) Organisational culture research at STUK's Department of Nuclear Reactor Regulation; 11) The IAEA safety culture services; 12) Industrial safety - different perspectives and cultures. (EHS)

  4. Effects of conformism on the cultural evolution of social behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Molleman

    Full Text Available Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours. How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner's Dilemma, conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game, conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation.

  5. Effects of conformism on the cultural evolution of social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Lucas; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J

    2013-01-01

    Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs) and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours). How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner's Dilemma), conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game) conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game), conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation.

  6. Socio- cultural effects on children's initiation of joint attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana eGavrilov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Exchanging gazes with a social partner in response to an event in the environment is considered an effective means to direct attention, share affective experiences and highlight a target in the environment. This behavior appears during infancy and plays an important role in children's learning and in shaping their socio-emotional development. It has been suggested that cultural values of the community affect socio-emotional development through attentional dynamics of social reference (Rogoff et al., 1993. Maturational processes of brain-circuits have been found to mediate socio-cultural learning and the behavioral manifestation of cultural norms starting at preschool age (Nelson and Guyer, 2011. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relations between cultural ecology levels and children's joint attention (JA. Initiation of JA bids was studied empirically as a function of the level of social load of the target toy (3 levels, the community level of adherence to traditional values (3 levels parental education (2 levels and gender. Sixty-two kindergarten aged children were enrolled in a structured toy-exploration task, during which they were presented with toys of various social loads, with social agents (i.e., mother and experimenter present nearby, and non-social distracters presented intermittently. Analysis of variance indicated that the child's initiation of JA towards the social partner was affected by all levels of cultural ecology (i.e., toy's social load, adherence to tradition values, parental education, gender, thus supporting the study's hypotheses. The effects were such that overall, children, particularly girls' JA initiation was augmented in social toys and moderated by the socio-cultural variables. Cultural ecology seems to be related to children's JA, thereby scaffolding initiation of social sharing cues between children and adults. JA plays a role in adjusting children's internal representations of their ecological

  7. The Effect of Cultural Background Knowledge on Learning English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ibrahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of cultural background knowledge on learning English Language. It also aims to investigate if there are significant differences between subjects' performance in reading comprehension according to sex and general ability in English (GAE. The study aims at answering the following questions: 1 . To what extent is the effect of cultural background knowledge on subjects' performance in reading comprehension? 2 . What is the difference in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge? 3. What is the differenc e between subjects' performance in reading comprehension texts which are loaded with American culture and their general ability in English. ? The population of th is study consisted of all first - year students majoring in English at Hebron University in th e first semester of the academic year 2011/2012. They were 600. The sample of the study consisted of 60 subjects, males and females divided into four groups, two experimental and two controlled. The researcher followed the experimental method. Means, stand ard deviations and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were calculated by using SPSS program. The study revealed the following results: 1. There are statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between subjects who have cu ltural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge . 2 . There are no statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. 3. Subjects' GAE revealed that there are significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. In the light of the results of th e study, the researcher recommends the

  8. Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in-vitro effects of pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, B; Mesquida, M; Lee, R W J; Llorenç, V; Pelegrín, L; Adán, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg ) and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with active non-infectious uveitis, and to evaluate the effect of in-vitro treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on Treg levels and cytokine production in PBMCs from uveitis patients and healthy subjects. We included a group of 21 patients with active non-infectious uveitis and 18 age-matched healthy subjects. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) Treg cells and intracellular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in CD4(+) T cells was determined by flow cytometry. PBMCs were also either rested or activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, cyclosporin A and infliximab. Supernatants of cultured PBMCs were collected and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were observed in nTreg levels between uveitis patients and healthy subjects. However, PBMCs from uveitis patients produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α and lower amounts of IL-10. Dexamethasone treatment in vitro significantly reduced FoxP3(+) Treg levels in PBMCs from both healthy subjects and uveitis patients, and all tested drugs significantly reduced TNF-α production in PBMCs. Dexamethasone and cyclosporin A significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production in PBMCs and dexamethasone up-regulated IL-10 production in activated PBMCs from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that PBMCs from patients with uveitis express more TNF-α and less IL-10 than healthy subjects, and this is independent of FoxP3(+) Treg levels. Treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A in vitro modulates cytokine production, but does not increase the proportion of FoxP3(+) Treg cells. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  9. 77 FR 61449 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ..., regulatory and other risks of this business activity. These controls include financial risk management... entry of erroneous orders. In addition, the Market Access Rule requires certain regulatory risk... authorized by the broker-dealer. These regulatory risk management controls also include measures designed to...

  10. 75 FR 4435 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice...\\ 15 U.S.C. 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of... principal office and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement...

  11. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  12. Regulatory odour model development: Survey of modelling tools and datasets with focus on building effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H. R.; Løfstrøm, P.; Berkowicz, R.

    dispersion models for estimating local concentration levels in general. However, the report focuses on some particular issues, which are relevant for subsequent work on odour due to animal production. An issue of primary concern is the effect that buildings (stables) have on flow and dispersion. The handling...... of building effects is a complicated problem, and a major part of the report is devoted to the treatment of building effects in dispersion models......A project within the framework of a larger research programme, Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment III (VMP III) aims towards improving an atmospheric dispersion model (OML). The OML model is used for regulatory applications in Denmark, and it is the candidate model to be used also in future...

  13. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  14. The Composite Regulatory Basis of the Large X-Effect in Mouse Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erica L; Keeble, Sara; Vanderpool, Dan; Dean, Matthew D; Good, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-01

    The disruption of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) has been proposed to be a major developmental mechanism underlying the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility. We tested this idea by analyzing cell-specific gene expression across spermatogenesis in two lineages of house mice and their sterile and fertile reciprocal hybrids. We found pervasive disruption of sex chromosome gene expression in sterile hybrids at every stage of spermatogenesis. Failure of MSCI was developmentally preceded by increased silencing of autosomal genes, supporting the hypothesis that divergence at the hybrid incompatibility gene, Prdm9, results in increased rates of autosomal asynapsis which in turn triggers widespread silencing of unsynapsed chromatin. We also detected opposite patterns of postmeiotic overexpression or hyper-repression of the sex chromosomes in reciprocal hybrids, supporting the hypothesis that genomic conflict has driven functional divergence that leads to deleterious X-Y dosage imbalances in hybrids. Our developmental timeline also exposed more subtle patterns of mitotic misregulation on the X chromosome, a previously undocumented stage of spermatogenic disruption in this cross. These results indicate that multiple hybrid incompatibilities have converged on a common regulatory phenotype, the disrupted expression of the sex chromosomes during spermatogenesis. Collectively, these data reveal a composite regulatory basis to hybrid male sterility in mice that helps resolve the mechanistic underpinnings of the well-documented large X-effect in mice speciation. We propose that the inherent sensitivity of spermatogenesis to X-linked regulatory disruption has the potential to be a major driver of reproductive isolation in species with chromosomal sex determination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effect of information and communication technology on culture of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of information and communication technology on culture of the people of Saki west local government area of Oyo State, Nigeria. PO Eniola, Mf Siyanbola, OA Olaniyi. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (3) 2007: pp. 214-219. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  16. Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Merit Pay vs. Organizational Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushardt, Stephen C.; Fowler, Aubrey R.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies four conditions which cause merit pay systems to fail to increase teacher performance: lack of skills, the poor timing of rewards, an inability to measure performance; and competing reinforcers. Explains why organizational culture is a more effective mediator of rewards. (SD)

  17. Effective Multicultural Supervision for a Culturally Diverse Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Living in a country based on the "salad bowl" of cultures philosophy, it is necessary for mental health professionals to be competent in providing effective counseling to heterogeneous clientele. Multicultural counseling ensures that professional counselors will deliver services matching the clients' needs, resulting in valuable…

  18. Social and Cultural Factors That Effect University Women Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan; Sabo, Helena Maria; Siyli, Nese Aysin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, social and cultural effects of the low rate of woman managers at universities are tried to be identified. Women have been increasingly appearing in every field of business; on the other hand, although women compared to men constitute majority in educational organisations, they appear in the positions other than management. We will…

  19. The Relationship of Cultural Similarity, Communication Effectiveness and Uncertainty Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Jolene; Olebe, Margaret

    To investigate the relationship of cultural similarity/dissimilarity, communication effectiveness, and communication variables associated with uncertainty reduction theory, a study examined two groups of students--a multinational group living on an "international floor" in a dormitory at a state university and an unrelated group of U.S.…

  20. The effect of Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of the Montessori Method on teaching was investigated among children to discover their artistic development in Zaria, Kaduna State. The problem of the study is that the Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative arts is not adequately explored in the primary schools, while other teaching methods used, ...

  1. The Moderating Role of Cultural Similarity in Leadership Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiumei Jane; Jiang, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the moderating role of cultural similarity between leaders and followers on leadership training effectiveness in terms of followers' fairness perception and organizational citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experiment was conducted with 40 managers from international corporations as the…

  2. Growth effects on mixed culture of Dunaliella salina and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dunaliella salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum are two important marine microalgae rich in bioactive substances and other high-value constituents. In this study, growth effects on mixed culture of these two microalgae were studied under different inoculation proportions (10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) and low, medium and high ...

  3. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of lactic acid fermentation of cassava on the chemical and sensory characteristic of fufu flour were investigated. Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as starter cultures for the fermentation of cassava to fufu for 96 h. The resultant wet fufu samples were dried at 65oC in a cabinet dryer for 48 h and ...

  4. Effects of culture systems on growth and economic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IFEOMA PIUS

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... The effect of culture system on growth and economics performance of Orechromis niloticus ( ... from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) stated ... in the reduction of the availability of natural fish food ..... lowest profit, while algae only had the lowest cost and ... Also, maximizing production in terms of.

  5. Effect of integration of cultural, botanical, and chemical methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted from November 2011 to June 2013 to evaluate the effects of botanical, cultural, and chemical methods on termite colony survival, crop and wooden damage, and other biological activities in Ghimbi district of western Ethiopia. The termite mounds were dug and the following treatments were ...

  6. Improving nuclear regulation. NEA regulatory guidance booklets volumes 1-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    A common theme throughout the series of NEA regulatory guidance reports, or 'green booklets', is the premise that the fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear facilities are continuously maintained and operated in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective the regulator must bear in mind that it is the operator that has responsibility for safely operating the nuclear facility; the role of the regulator is to assess and to provide assurance regarding the operator's activities in terms of assuming that responsibility. The full series of these reports was brought together in one edition for the first time in 2009 and was widely found to be a useful resource. This second edition comprises 14 volumes, including the latest on The Nuclear Regulator's Role in Assessing Licensee Oversight of Vendor and Other Contracted Services. The reports address various challenges that could apply throughout the lifetime of a nuclear facility, including design, siting, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning. The compilation is intended to serve as a knowledge management tool both for current regulators and the new nuclear professionals and organisations entering the regulatory field. Contents: Executive Summary; Regulatory Challenges: 1. The Role of the Nuclear Regulator in Promoting and Evaluating Safety Culture; 2. Regulatory Response Strategies for Safety Culture Problems; 3. Nuclear Regulatory Challenges Related to Human Performance; 4. Regulatory Challenges in Using Nuclear Operating Experience; 5. Nuclear Regulatory Review of Licensee Self-assessment (LSA); 6. Nuclear Regulatory Challenges Arising from Competition in Electricity Markets; 7. The Nuclear Regulatory Challenge of Judging Safety Back-fits; 8. The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors; 9. The Nuclear Regulator's Role in Assessing Licensee Oversight of Vendor and Other Contracted Services

  7. Assessment by peer review of the effectiveness of a regulatory programme for radiation safety. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This document covers assessment of those aspects of a radiation protection and safety infrastructure that are implemented by the Regulatory Authority for radiation sources and practices using such sources and necessarily includes those ancillary technical services, such as dosimetry services, which directly affect the ability of the Regulatory Authority to discharge its responsibilities. The focus of the guidance in this TECDOC is on assessment of a regulatory programme intended to implement the BSS. The BSS address transportation and waste safety mainly by reference to other IAEA documents. When conducting an assessment, the Review Team members should be aware of the latest IAEA documents (or similar national documents) concerning transportation and waste safety and, if appropriate, nuclear safety, and take them into account to the extent applicable when assessing the effectiveness of the regulatory programme governing radiation protection and safety of radiation source practices in a particular State

  8. Assessment by peer review of the effectiveness of a regulatory programme for radiation safety. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This document covers assessment of those aspects of a radiation protection and safety infrastructure that are implemented by the Regulatory Authority for radiation sources and practices using such sources and necessarily includes those ancillary technical services, such as dosimetry services, which directly affect the ability of the Regulatory Authority to discharge its responsibilities. The focus of the guidance in this TECDOC is on assessment of a regulatory programme intended to implement the BSS. The BSS address transportation and waste safety mainly by reference to other IAEA documents. When conducting an assessment, the Review Team members should be aware of the latest IAEA documents (or similar national documents) concerning transportation and waste safety and, if appropriate, nuclear safety, and take them into account to the extent applicable when assessing the effectiveness of the regulatory programme governing radiation protection and safety of radiation source practices in a particular State

  9. Geoheritage + dark cultural heritage= dark geo-cultural heritage. A platform for effective outreach and education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix

    2017-04-01

    In cultural heritage studies the term 'dark heritage' - defined as the tangible remains of now unwanted, unsavoury, uncomfortable or unpleasant pasts - has attracted much attention. It has been noted that despite the problematic nature of 'dark heritage' sites (e.g. Auschwitz, Chernobyl, Robben Island), these attract large number of visitors and so serve as effective platforms of addressing the attendant issues. Consequently, many theoretical, conceptual and empirical studies of such 'dark heritage' sites have been conducted. In studies of geoheritage, however, most effort has so far been placed on unproblematic sites. In this paper, I suggest that previous work on dark cultural heritage could be wedded to the emerging notion of geoheritage to more directly address the dark side of geoheritage - or rather geo-cultural heritage - sites. This is particularly pertinent when it comes to sites of past natural hazards that have affected human communities, and to sites of environmentally destructive resource extraction. I draw on two examples (the Laacher See eruption 13ka BP in Germany and the former lignite mine of Søby in Denmark) to illustrate the approach and to make the argument that the insights of cultural heritage studies should be brought to bear on geoheritage matters. By bringing humans into the equation, education and outreach related to, for instance, natural hazards and the consequences of mining attain and increased degree of immediacy. Such an interdisciplinary coupling of geological and cultural heritage is particularly relevant in relation to the problems surrounding the Anthropocene and its associated proposition that humans are now an ecological and geological force in themselves.

  10. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF ARGLABIN IN HEPATOMA TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ratkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation of hypolipidemic effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC.Materials and methods. In this study we’ve evaluated the effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin and gemfibrozil (reference drug on the lipid content in the hepatoma tissue culture (HTC which were incubated with a fat emulsion “Lipofundin” by fluorescent method with vital dye Nile Red. The cell viability was investigated using the MTT-test and staining by Trypan blue.Results. Cultivation of cell cultures of rat’s hepatoma cell line HTC with Arglabin and gemfibrozil in concentrations from 10 to 50 μmol and from 0.25 to 0.5 mmol, respectively, had no cytotoxic effect. HTC cell viability did not change compared with the corresponding rate in the control culture. Experimental hyperlipidemia in hepatoma culture was induced by the addition in the incubation medium of fat emulsion “Lipofundin” in a final concentration of 0.05 %. The fluorescence intensity of Nile Red in the cells was increased 4-fold (p < 0.05, which indicates a significant accumulation of lipids in the cytosol of cells. In these steady-state Arglabin and gemfibrozil at concentrations 75–100 μM and 0.25–1.0 mM, respectively, reduced the content of lipid in cells. Conclusion. In the model of hyperlipidemia induced by lipofundin, sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin prevents the accumulation of lipids in the HTC cell line, as evidenced by a decrease in Nile Red fluorescence. However hypolipidemic effect of Arglabin is associated with cytotoxic effects, which is typical for anticancer drugs.

  11. The Effect of Traditional Chinese Formula Danchaiheji on the Differentiation of Regulatory Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs, a newly described dendritic cell subset with potent immunomodulatory function, have attracted increased attention for their utility in treating immune response-related diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, hypersensitivity, and autoimmune diseases. Danchaiheji (DCHJ is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used for many years in the clinic. However, whether DCHJ can program dendritic cells towards a regulatory phenotype and the underlying mechanism behind this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigate the effects of traditional Chinese DCHJ on DCregs differentiation and a mouse model of skin transplantation. The current study demonstrates that DCHJ can induce dendritic cells to differentiate into DCregs, which are represented by high CD11b and low CD86 and HLA-DR expression as well as the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, DCHJ inhibited DC migration and T cell proliferation, which correlated with increased IDO expression. Furthermore, DCHJ significantly prolonged skin graft survival time in a mouse model of skin transplantation without any liver or kidney toxicity. The traditional Chinese formula DCHJ has the potential to be a potent immunosuppressive agent with high efficiency and nontoxicity.

  12. Ethics and Regulatory Challenges and Opportunities in Patient-Centered Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act includes provisions for the conduct of large-scale, patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. Such efforts aim toward the laudable moral goal of having evidence to improve health care decision making. Nevertheless, these pragmatic clinical research efforts that typically pose minimal incremental risk and are enmeshed in routine care settings perhaps surprisingly encounter an array of ethics and regulatory challenges and opportunities for academic health centers. An emphasis on patient-centeredness forces an examination of the appropriateness of traditional methods used to protect the rights, interests, and welfare of participants. At the same time, meaningful collaboration with patients throughout the research process also necessitates ensuring that novel approaches to research (including recruitment and consent) entail necessary protections regarding such issues as privacy. As the scientific and logistical aspects of this research are being developed, substantial attention is being focused on the accompanying ethics and regulatory issues that have emerged, which should help to facilitate ethically appropriate research in a variety of contexts.

  13. The Effect of Traditional Chinese Formula Danchaiheji on the Differentiation of Regulatory Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Tong, Jingzhi; Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs), a newly described dendritic cell subset with potent immunomodulatory function, have attracted increased attention for their utility in treating immune response-related diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, hypersensitivity, and autoimmune diseases. Danchaiheji (DCHJ) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used for many years in the clinic. However, whether DCHJ can program dendritic cells towards a regulatory phenotype and the underlying mechanism behind this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigate the effects of traditional Chinese DCHJ on DCregs differentiation and a mouse model of skin transplantation. The current study demonstrates that DCHJ can induce dendritic cells to differentiate into DCregs, which are represented by high CD11b and low CD86 and HLA-DR expression as well as the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, DCHJ inhibited DC migration and T cell proliferation, which correlated with increased IDO expression. Furthermore, DCHJ significantly prolonged skin graft survival time in a mouse model of skin transplantation without any liver or kidney toxicity. The traditional Chinese formula DCHJ has the potential to be a potent immunosuppressive agent with high efficiency and nontoxicity. PMID:27525028

  14. Assessment of the effectiveness of the Hungarian nuclear safety regulatory authority by international expert teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeroess, L.; Lorand, F.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the role nuclear regulatory authorities (NRA) have to fulfil and the new challenges affecting them, in the paper an overview is made on how the Hungarian NRA has evaluated and utilised the results of different international efforts in the enhancement of its effectiveness and efficiency. The reviews have been conducted by different groups of experts organised by highly recognised international organisations (e.g. IAEA, EC) and highly competent foreign regulatory bodies. The different reviews of activities and working conditions of the HAEA NSD have resulted in a generally positive picture, however, it also revealed weaknesses as well. They recognised the developments made in recent years and also appreciated the overall favourable level of nuclear safety in Hungary, identified 'good practices' and made recommendations and suggestions for the most important and most efficient ways for future improvements. These are cited or referenced in the paper. At the end, some recommendations have been formed based on the experiences gained from the review missions and from our self-assessment. (author)

  15. Effect of Excess Gravitational Force on Cultured Myotubes in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An effect of an excess gravitational force on cultured myoblasts has been studied in an experimental system with centrifugal force in vitro. Mouse myoblasts (C2C12 were seeded on a culture dish of 35 mm diameter, and cultured in the Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium until the sub-confluent condition. To apply the excess gravitational force on the cultured cells, the dish was set in a conventional centrifugal machine. Constant gravitational force was applied to the cultured cells for three hours. Variations were made on the gravitational force (6 G, 10 G, 100 G, 500 G, and 800 G with control of the rotational speed of the rotator in the centrifugal machine. Morphology of the cells was observed with a phasecontrast microscope for eight days. The experimental results show that the myotube thickens day by day after the exposure to the excess gravitational force field. The results also show that the higher excess gravitational force thickens myotubes. The microscopic study shows that myotubes thicken with fusion each other.

  16. The regulatory effect of miRNAs is a heritable genetic trait in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeleher Paul

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to regulate the expression of a large number of genes and play key roles in many biological processes. Several previous studies have quantified the inhibitory effect of a miRNA indirectly by considering the expression levels of genes that are predicted to be targeted by the miRNA and this approach has been shown to be robust to the choice of prediction algorithm. Given a gene expression dataset, Cheng et al. defined the regulatory effect score (RE-score of a miRNA as the difference in the gene expression rank of targets of the miRNA compared to non-targeted genes. Results Using microarray data from parent-offspring trios from the International HapMap project, we show that the RE-score of most miRNAs is correlated between parents and offspring and, thus, inter-individual variation in RE-score has a genetic component in humans. Indeed, the mean RE-score across miRNAs is correlated between parents and offspring, suggesting genetic differences in the overall efficiency of the miRNA biogenesis pathway between individuals. To explore the genetics of this quantitative trait further, we carried out a genome-wide association study of the mean RE-score separately in two HapMap populations (CEU and YRI. No genome-wide significant associations were discovered; however, a SNP rs17409624, in an intron of DROSHA, was significantly associated with mean RE-score in the CEU population following permutation-based control for multiple testing based on all SNPs mapped to the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway; of 244 individual miRNA RE-scores assessed in the CEU, 214 were associated (p p = 0.04 with mean RE-score in the YRI population. Interestingly, the same SNP was associated with 17 (8.5% of all expressed miRNA expression levels in the CEU. We also show here that the expression of the targets of most miRNAs is more highly correlated with global changes in miRNA regulatory effect than with the expression of

  17. A comprehensive review of regulatory test methods for endocrine adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manibusan, M K; Touart, L W

    2017-07-01

    Development of new endocrine disruption-relevant test methods has been the subject of intensive research efforts for the past several decades, prompted in part by mandates in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). While scientific understanding and test methods have advanced, questions remain on whether current scientific methods are capable of adequately addressing the complexities of the endocrine system for regulatory health and ecological risk assessments. The specific objective of this article is to perform a comprehensive, detailed evaluation of the adequacy of current test methods to inform regulatory risk assessments of whether a substance has the potential to perturb endocrine-related pathways resulting in human adverse effects. To that end,  approximately 42 existing test guidelines (TGs) were considered in the evaluation of coverage for endocrine-related adverse effects. In addition to evaluations of whether test methods are adequate to capture endocrine-related effects, considerations of further enhancements to current test methods, along with the need to develop novel test methods to address existing test method gaps are described. From this specific evaluation, up to 35 test methods are capable of informing whether a chemical substance perturbs known endocrine related biological pathways. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that current validated test methods are adequate to discern substances that may perturb the endocrine system, resulting in an adverse health effect. Together, these test methods predominantly form the core data requirements of a typical food-use pesticide registration submission. It is recognized, however, that the current state of science is rapidly advancing and there is a need to update current test methods to include added enhancements to ensure continued coverage and public health and environmental protection.

  18. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet Vdz; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs.

  19. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  20. The effect of regulatory mode on procrastination: Bi-stable parahippocampus connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyan; Ni, Yan; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-06-30

    Previous research has elucidated that procrastination can be influenced by regulatory mode orientations. However, the neural mechanism of regulatory modes affecting procrastination is not well understood. To address this question, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to test the influence of two regulatory modes (assessment and locomotion) on procrastination. The behavioral results showed that procrastination was positively correlated with assessment orientation but negatively correlated with locomotion orientation. Neuroimaging results indicated that the functional connectivity between parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) was negatively correlated with assessment scores, while the functional connectivity between anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) and parahippocampal cortex (PHC) was negatively correlated with locomotion scores. Critically, mediation analysis showed that the different effects of two distinct regulatory modes on procrastination were mediated by PHC-dACC and aPFC-PHC functional connectivity respectively. These results suggested that people's procrastination could be predicted by regulatory mode orientations, which is mediated by PHC connectivity with dACC and aPFC respectively. The present study extends our knowledge on procrastination and provides neural mechanism for understanding the link between regulatory mode orientations and procrastination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Developing self-regulation for dietary temptations: intervention effects on physical, self-regulatory and psychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Heather C; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to investigate whether a self-regulatory skills intervention can improve weight loss-related outcomes. Fifty-five participants (M BMI = 32.60 ± 4.86) were randomized into self-regulation training and advice groups and received two training workshops and weekly practice tasks. The self-regulation training group was trained to use six self-regulatory skills: Delayed gratification, thought control, goal setting, self-monitoring, mindfulness, and coping. The advice group received dietary and physical activity advice for weight loss. Physical, self-regulatory, and psychological measures were taken at baseline, end of intervention (week 8) and at follow-up (week 12). Using intention-to-treat analysis, weight, waist circumference, body fat and body mass index (BMI) were significantly reduced at follow-up for both groups. There were significant increases in all six self-regulatory skills and the psychological measures of self-efficacy, self-regulatory success, and physical self-worth for both groups. Results indicate that self-regulatory skills training might be as effective as dietary and physical activity advice in terms of weight loss and related outcomes.

  2. Effects of viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions on cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Hajib

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mild but significant inflammation probably attributable to viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions in cataract surgery was recently brought to the notice of the authors, and hence a study of the effects of these solutions available in India, on cell cultures was undertaken. We studied the effects of 6 viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions (2 sodium hyaluronate designated as A and B, and 4 hydroxypropylmethylcellulose designated as C, D, E and F on HeLa, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines in tissue culture microtitre plates using undiluted, 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of the solutions, and in cover slip cultures using undiluted solutions. Phase contrast microscopic examination of the solutions was also done to determine the presence of floating particles. The products D and F produced cytotoxic changes in HeLa cell line and these products also showed the presence of floating particles under phase contrast microscopy. Other products did not have any adverse effects on the cell lines nor did they show floating particles. The viscoelastic ophthalmic pharmaceutical products designated D and F have cytotoxic effects on HeLa cell line which appears to be a useful cell line for testing these products for their toxicity. The presence of particulate materials in products D and F indicates that the methods used for purification of the solution are not effective.

  3. The effect of yeast culture addition on utility of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on performance (especially on daily gains, feed conversion and condition in an experiment with a group of Holstein calves within the period of plant nutrition. Animals received a diet consisting of 3 kg of good maize silage, 5.5 kg of grass haylage, 1 kg of meadow hay and 1.6 kg of supplementary starter feed mixture ČOT B. The yeast culture was added to the starter in the dose of 1 g.kg–1. This means that each experimental calf received 1.6 g of yeast culture per day. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on daily gains and on the final body weight of calves; however, the differences were statistically not significant (P>0.05. In control and experimental groups, the mean conversion rates of concentrate were 2.19 kg and 2.13 kg, respectively. There was no difference in feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. The difference in final live body weights of calves in the control and experimental groups was also not significant. However, the condition of calves in the experimental group was much better and the scours were in general less frequent.

  4. Do Between-Culture Differences Really Mean that People Are Different? A Look at Some Measures of Culture Effect Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Grissom, Robert J.; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2001-01-01

    Recommends four measures of cultural effect size appropriate for cross-cultural research (standardized difference between two sample means, probabilistic superiority effect size measure, Cohen's U1, and point biserial correlation), demonstrating their efficacy on two data sets from previously published studies and arguing for their use in future…

  5. Effects of Ranolazine on Astrocytes and Neurons in Primary Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Aldasoro

    Full Text Available Ranolazine (Rn is an antianginal agent used for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris when angina is not adequately controlled by other drugs. Rn also acts in the central nervous system and it has been proposed for the treatment of pain and epileptic disorders. Under the hypothesis that ranolazine could act as a neuroprotective drug, we studied its effects on astrocytes and neurons in primary culture. We incubated rat astrocytes and neurons in primary cultures for 24 hours with Rn (10-7, 10-6 and 10-5 M. Cell viability and proliferation were measured using trypan blue exclusion assay, MTT conversion assay and LDH release assay. Apoptosis was determined by Caspase 3 activity assay. The effects of Rn on pro-inflammatory mediators IL-β and TNF-α was determined by ELISA technique, and protein expression levels of Smac/Diablo, PPAR-γ, Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD by western blot technique. In cultured astrocytes, Rn significantly increased cell viability and proliferation at any concentration tested, and decreased LDH leakage, Smac/Diablo expression and Caspase 3 activity indicating less cell death. Rn also increased anti-inflammatory PPAR-γ protein expression and reduced pro-inflammatory proteins IL-1 β and TNFα levels. Furthermore, antioxidant proteins Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD significantly increased after Rn addition in cultured astrocytes. Conversely, Rn did not exert any effect on cultured neurons. In conclusion, Rn could act as a neuroprotective drug in the central nervous system by promoting astrocyte viability, preventing necrosis and apoptosis, inhibiting inflammatory phenomena and inducing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents.

  6. Neural Correlates of the False Consensus Effect: Evidence for Motivated Projection and Regulatory Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, B Locke; Gunter, Benjamin C; Vezich, I Stephanie; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2017-04-01

    The false consensus effect (FCE), the tendency to project our attitudes and opinions on to others, is a pervasive bias in social reasoning with a range of ramifications for individuals and society. Research in social psychology has suggested that numerous factors (anchoring and adjustment, accessibility, motivated projection, etc.) may contribute to the FCE. In this study, we examine the neural correlates of the FCE and provide evidence that motivated projection plays a significant role. Activity in reward regions (ventromedial pFC and bilateral nucleus accumbens) during consensus estimation was positively associated with bias, whereas activity in right ventrolateral pFC (implicated in emotion regulation) was inversely associated with bias. Activity in reward and regulatory regions accounted for half of the total variation in consensus bias across participants (R 2 = .503). This research complements models of the FCE in social psychology, providing a glimpse into the neural mechanisms underlying this important phenomenon.

  7. The dual effects of leading for safety: The mediating role of employee regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Ronit; Katz-Navon, Tal; Delegach, Marianna

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the underlying mechanisms through which transformational and transactional leadership influence employee safety behaviors. Linking leadership theory with self-regulatory focus (SRF) theory, we examined a model of dual effects of leadership on safety initiative and safety compliance behaviors as mediated by promotion and prevention self-regulations. We conducted an experimental study (N = 107), an online study (N = 99) and a field study (N = 798 employees and 49 managers). Results demonstrated that followers' situational promotion focus mediated the positive relationship between transformational leadership and safety initiative behaviors. Through all 3 studies, transactional active leadership was positively associated with followers' situational prevention focus, however, the association between followers' prevention focus and safety compliance behaviors was inconsistent, showing the expected mediation relationships in the experimental setting, but not in the online and field studies. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. 76 FR 75572 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... rule change by December 31, 2011, Phlx will submit a further proposed rule change to reflect such delay...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Delay Implementation of a Recently Effective Modification to the Operation of the Minimum...

  9. 75 FR 58464 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...--NYSE Amex Equities (Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program) replaced old Rule 445--NYSE Amex Equities...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change... solicited or received with respect to the proposed rule change. III. Date of Effectiveness of the Proposed...

  10. 78 FR 8633 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... alert are different. During the order exposure period, those orders are, in effect, advertising in a... liquidity, because they are adding liquidity to the advertised orders. Accordingly, the Exchange believes...

  11. 76 FR 39960 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the ``Act''). Upon effectiveness of a plan filed pursuant to Rule 17d-2...(a) through 9.25, which concern advertising and sales literature, would be deleted and the text of...

  12. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  13. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect

  14. Developing cultural intelligence: assessing the effect of the Ecotonos cultural simulation game for international business students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bücker, J.J.L.E.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we test the strength of a cross-cultural simulation game, Ecotonos, in the development of cultural intelligence (CQ) and self-efficacy amongst business students. Cross-cultural training is perceived as an important tool to help develop cross-cultural competence in international

  15. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects...... on the structural integrity of bone was investigated. Metapodial roe deer bone samples were artificially aged under humidity and atmospheres of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in room temperature. Elemental micro-analysis of bone material through SEM-EDX and molecular investigations through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy...

  16. Welcome Address by H. Liu [4. International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Sustaining Improvements Globally, Vienna (Austria), 11-15 April 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    2017-01-01

    In his opening remarks, Mr. Liu Hua, the President of the conference, noted that the presence of so many attendees at the conference indicated a high level of interest in effective nuclear regulation. He added that effective regulatory systems are very important in maintaining and improving global nuclear safety, and that the first conference on this topic, held ten years ago, created a valuable platform for achieving that goal. In the intervening decade, through the conferences held in Moscow, Cape Town, Ottawa and Vienna, the importance of effective regulation has become more widely recognized and key elements, including independence, transparency, openness, competence and wider international cooperation, have been identified. Mr. Liu Hua pointed to specific actions proposed for governments, regulatory bodies and stakeholders, and highlighted that many of the actions had already achieved fruitful outcomes. He also noted that many lessons had been learned and many improvements had been made in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi accident: 1. To further improve government infrastructure; 2. To further improve nuclear safety standards; 3. To further develop regulation capacity building and human resource; 4. To further enhance knowledge and experience management and transition, 5. To further foster and strengthen nuclear safety culture; 6. To further improve and rebuild public confidence

  17. Environmental regulatory reform in Poland: lessons for industrializing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.S.; Angel, D. [Clark University, Worcester, MA (USA). George Perkins Marsh Institute

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the environmental regulatory reform in Poland during the 1990s and uses the findings to consider the extent to which elements of successful regulatory systems are transferable across national boundaries. Drawing on five case studies of privatized firms, a mailed questionnaire, and policy and institutional analysis, it investigates how Poland developed an effective system for managing industrial pollution while also achieving considerable socioeconomic progress. The fundamental legitimacy of the regulators and regulatory process, the availability of information about firms and regulatory intents, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making are among the key explanatory factors. The study also shows how in Poland a good 'fit' between regulatory institutions and policies on one hand and their social context on the other hand has evolved, and how it contributes to the effectiveness of the regulatory system. Industrializing economies can indeed simultaneously pursue environmental protection and socioeconomic welfare, but elements of a proven regulatory system cannot be automatically adopted among countries and cultures. Learning from each other's experience must be sensitive to the cultural and institutional context of each regulatory system. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Tryptophan Levels during Grape Ripening: Effects of Cultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some cultural practices that are carried out during the grape ripening period are associated with vine stress, including leaf removal, grape bunch removal, and vegetable cover crops. Additionally, several nitrogen and sulfur supplements have also been used directly on leaves during the last stage of the ripening period. In the work described here, five different cultural practices and the reference were applied in three replicates in the same vineyard. The evolution of tryptophan levels was evaluated from just after grape veraison until the harvest date. In some cases, certain specific treatments were also evaluated after the regular harvest date. The cultural techniques that involved the application of nitrogen led to higher levels of tryptophan at the harvest day when compared to other cultural techniques. It was also found that the application of nitrogen without sulfur had a faster effect on the level of tryptophan. It was established that a period of around 20 days is needed for the grapes to show clear differences in tryptophan levels after the application of nitrogen.

  19. The effect of culture in forming e-loyalty intentions: A cross-cultural analysis between Argentina and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belanche Gracia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase their markets, many companies are starting e-commerce internationalization processes that involve dealing with cultural differences among countries. Although most firms start internationalization strategies to similar countries, previous research has mainly focused on understanding expansion to countries with a great cultural distance. This study analyzes the relevance of culture in the formation of e-loyalty intentions in Argentina and Spain, two countries with slight cultural differences. Specifically, culture is proposed as a moderator of e-service quality and satisfaction effects on e-loyalty intentions. Results confirm that the influence of e-service quality on e-loyalty intentions is greater for Argentinian consumers (a little more individualistic, masculine, and less pragmatic culture compared to Spain. Besides, a greater influence of satisfaction on e-loyalty is found for Spanish consumers (a more pragmatic, collectivistic, and feminine culture compared to Argentina. The introduction of socio-demographic control variables, i.e. gender, age and education level, support the moderation effect of culture. According to these results, marketers should note that e-loyalty formation process differs across cultures, even between similar cultures. Further implications for international marketing strategies are widely discussed.

  20. Perceptions of regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halin, Magnus; Leinonen, Ruusaliisa

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Ruusaliisa Leinonen and Mr. Magnus Halin from Fortum gave a joint presentation on industry perceptions of regulatory oversight of LMfS/SC. It was concluded that an open culture of discussion exists between the regulator (STUK) and the licensee, based on the common goal of nuclear safety. An example was provided of on how regulatory interventions helped foster improvements to individual and collective dose rate trends, which had remained static. Regulatory interventions included discussions on the ALARA concept to reinforce the requirement to continuously strive for improvements in safety performance. Safety culture has also been built into regulatory inspections in recent years. Training days have also been organised by the regulatory body to help develop a shared understanding of safety culture between licensee and regulatory personnel. Fortum has also developed their own training for managers and supervisors. Training and ongoing discussion on LMfS/SC safety culture is considered particularly important because both Fortum and the regulatory body are experiencing an influx of new staff due to the demographic profile of their organisations. It was noted that further work is needed to reach a common understanding of safety culture on a practical level (e.g., for a mechanic setting to work), and in relation to the inspection criteria used by the regulator. The challenges associated with companies with a mix of energy types were also discussed. This can make it more difficult to understand responsibilities and decision making processes, including the role of the parent body organisation. It also makes communication more challenging due to increased complexity and a larger number of stakeholders

  1. Understanding the Effects of Users' Behaviors on Effectiveness of Different Exogenous Regulatory Common Pool Resource Management Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Dinar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tragedy of the commons is generally recognized as one of the possible destinies for common pool resources (CPRs). To avoid the tragedy of the commons and prolonging the life of CPRs, users may show different behavioral characteristics and use different rationales for CPR planning and management. Furthermore, regulators may adopt different strategies for sustainable management of CPRs. The effectiveness of different regulatory exogenous management institutions cannot be evaluated through conventional CPR models since they assume that either users base their behavior on individual rationality and adopt a selfish behavior (Nash behavior), or that the users seek the system's optimal solution without giving priority to their own interests. Therefore, conventional models fail to reliably predict the outcome of CPR problems in which parties may have a range of behavioral characteristics, putting them somewhere in between the two types of behaviors traditionally considered. This work examines the effectiveness of different regulatory exogenous CPR management institutions through a user-based model (as opposed to a system-based model). The new modeling framework allows for consideration of sensitivity of the results to different behavioral characteristics of interacting CPR users. The suggested modeling approach is applied to a benchmark groundwater management problem. Results indicate that some well-known exogenous management institutions (e.g. taxing) are ineffective in sustainable management of CPRs in most cases. Bankruptcy-based management can be helpful, but determination of the fair level of cutbacks remains challenging under this type of institution. Furthermore, some bankruptcy rules such as the Constrained Equal Award (CEA) method are more beneficial to wealthier users, failing to establish social justice. Quota-based and CPR status-based management perform as the most promising and robust regulatory exogenous institutions in prolonging the CPR's life and

  2. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  3. 75 FR 36730 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... regulatory functions, the Exchange shall retain ultimate legal responsibility for, and control of, such... perform certain of the Exchange's member regulatory functions, the Exchange shall retain ultimate legal responsibility for, and control of, such functions. As noted above, the Exchange will be consolidating...

  4. Antibiotic effects against periodontal bacteria in organ cultured tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Masaaki; Haraguchi, Akira; Miura, Mayumi; Hamachi, Takafumi; Fukuda, Takao; Sanui, Terukazu; Takano, Aiko; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical reduction of infectious bacteria by using physical instruments is considered the principal therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease; addition of antibiotics is adjunctive. However, local antibiotic treatment, combined with conventional mechanical debridement, has recently been shown to be more effective in periodontitis subjects with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that some bacteria may invade the inflamed inner gingival epithelium, and mechanical debridement alone will be unable to reduce these bacteria completely. Therefore, we tried to establish infected organ culture models that mimic the inner gingival epithelium and aimed to see the effects of antibiotics in these established models. Mouse dorsal skin epithelia were isolated, and periodontal bacteria were injected into the epithelia. Infected epithelia were incubated with test antibiotics, and colony-forming ability was evaluated. Results indicated that effective antibiotics differed according to injected bacteria and the bacterial combinations tested. Overall, in organ culture model, the combination of amoxicillin or cefdinir and metronidazole compensate for the effects of less effective bacterial combinations on each other. This in vitro study would suggest effective periodontal treatment regimens, especially for severe periodontitis.

  5. FORECAST: Regulatory effects cost analysis software manual -- Version 4.1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, B.; Sciacca, F.W.

    1996-07-01

    The FORECAST program was developed to facilitate the preparation of the value-impact portion of NRC regulatory analyses. This PC program integrates the major cost and benefit considerations that may result from a proposed regulatory change. FORECAST automates much of the calculations typically needed in a regulatory analysis and thus reduces the time and labor required to perform these analyses. More importantly, its integrated and consistent treatment of the different value-impact considerations should help assure comprehensiveness, uniformity, and accuracy in the preparation of NRC regulatory analyses. The Current FORECAST Version 4.1 has been upgraded from the previous version and now includes an uncertainty package, an automatic cost escalation package, and other improvements. In addition, it now explicitly addresses public health impacts, occupational health impacts, onsite property damage, and government costs. Thus, FORECAST Version 4.1 can treat all attributes normally quantified in a regulatory analysis

  6. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  7. Regulatory volume decrease in Leishmania mexicana: effect of anti-microtubule drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francehuli Dagger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trypanosomatid cytoskeleton is responsible for the parasite's shape and it is modulated throughout the different stages of the parasite's life cycle. When parasites are exposed to media with reduced osmolarity, they initially swell, but subsequently undergo compensatory shrinking referred to as regulatory volume decrease (RVD. We studied the effects of anti-microtubule (Mt drugs on the proliferation of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and their capacity to undergo RVD. All of the drugs tested exerted antiproliferative effects of varying magnitudes [ansamitocin P3 (AP3> trifluoperazine > taxol > rhizoxin > chlorpromazine]. No direct relationship was found between antiproliferative drug treatment and RVD. Similarly, Mt stability was not affected by drug treatment. Ansamitocin P3, which is effective at nanomolar concentrations, blocked amastigote-promastigote differentiation and was the only drug that impeded RVD, as measured by light dispersion. AP3 induced 2 kinetoplasts (Kt 1 nucleus cells that had numerous flagella-associated Kts throughout the cell. These results suggest that the dramatic morphological changes induced by AP3 alter the spatial organisation and directionality of the Mts that are necessary for the parasite's hypotonic stress-induced shape change, as well as its recovery.

  8. The persuasive effects of framing messages on fruit and vegetable consumption according to regulatory focus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Rothman, Alexander; Pietersma, Suzanne

    2011-08-01

    According to Regulatory Focus theory (RFT), outcomes in persuasive messages can be framed in four different ways, as gains, non-gains, losses or non-losses. In study 1, the persuasiveness of all four frames was compared and the presence/absence effect that was expected on the basis of the feature-positive effect was verified: Statements about present outcomes (gain, loss) were more persuasive than those about absent outcomes (non-gain, non-loss). However, this study failed to support the prediction that a gain-framed message would be more persuasive than a loss-framed message when promoting a prevention behaviour. Study 2 was designed to examine the latter finding. It was hypothesised that the threat posed by the loss-framed message in study 1 was too low to elicit a defensive reaction. Therefore, in study 2, the personal relevance of the gain and the loss framed message was manipulated. Consistent with predictions, the gain-framed message was more persuasive than the loss-framed message, but only when the message was personalised to increase self-relevance. Moreover, the effect was due to a significant drop in persuasion in the loss condition, probably caused by a defensive reaction. These data shed a new light on the findings of past framing studies.

  9. Effect of irradiation on lysosomal enzyme activation in cultured macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.; Wills, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of γrays on lysosomal enzyme activity of normal and immune macrophages of DBA/2 mice cultured in vitro has been studied. A dose of 500 rad did not significantly affect lysosomal enzyme activity 3 hours after irradiation but caused the activity to increase to 1.4 times the control value 22.5 hours after irradiation. 22.5 hours after a dose of 3000 rad the enzyme activity increased to 2.5 times the control. Lysosomal enzyme activity of the macrophages was also markedly increased by immunization of the mice with D lymphoma cells, before culture in vitro, but irradiation of these cells with a dose of 500 rad caused a further increase in lysosomal enzyme activity. The results indicate that immunization and irradiation both cause stimulation of lysosomal enzyme activity in macrophages but that the mechanisms of activation are unlikely to be identical. (author)

  10. The Effect of Organizational Culture on Employee Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jumana, Mariyam

    2016-01-01

    The study attempt to examines the impact of organizational cultures on employee job satisfaction. In this study four company with four different dominant cultures are explored. The sample includes, Company A a family business signifying clan culture, Company B Information Technology Company indicating adhocracy culture, Company C hardware franchise representing market culture and Company D an automobile company signifying hierarchy culture. Data was accumulated for the research through interv...

  11. [Effects of culture conditions on biomass and active components of adventitious roots culture in Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Juan; Cao, Yu

    2010-01-01

    To optimize the culture condition of adventitious roots of Panax ginseng. The adventitious roots were obtained through tissue culture by manipulation of inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rb1 and Rg1 were determined by HPLC while the contents of polysaccharides were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The multiplication of adventitious roots reached the peak when the inoculum was 20 g x L(-1). The effects of sucrose concentration and salt strength on adventitious roots were observed. The contents of polysaccharides were higher when the medium contained more sucrose. 40 g x L(-1) sucrose was favorable for roots growth and biosynthesis of Re, while 30 g x L(-1) was favorable for the biosynthesis of Rb1 and Rg1. 3/4MS medium was benefit for the growth of adventitious roots and the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. The contents of polysaccharides were decreased with the increase of salt strength. The results showed that inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength have significant influences on adventitious roots growth, secondary metabolite and polysaccharide synthesis in P. ginseng.

  12. Effect of acute resistance exercise and sex on human patellar tendon structural and regulatory mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, B.E.; Carroll, C.C.; Jemiolo, B.

    2009-01-01

    Sullivan BE, Carroll CC, Jemiolo B, Trappe SW, Magnusson SP, Dossing S, Kjaer M, Trappe TA. Effect of acute resistance exercise and sex on human patellar tendon structural and regulatory mRNA expression. J Appl Physiol 106: 468-475, 2009. First published November 20, 2008; doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.......91341.2008.-Tendon is mainly composed of collagen and an aqueous matrix of proteoglycans that are regulated by enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases ( MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Although it is known that resistance exercise (RE) and sex influence tendon metabolism...... and mechanical properties, it is uncertain what structural and regulatory components contribute to these responses. We measured the mRNA expression of tendon's main fibrillar collagens (type I and type III) and the main proteoglycans (decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, and versican) and the regulatory enzymes MMP...

  13. 78 FR 48736 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ...-cancelled orders. Phlx believes that this change will assist market participants in managing their orders...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Rule Governing Modification of Orders on NASDAQ OMX PSX in the Event of an Issuer...

  14. 78 FR 48748 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange... managing their orders in the event of symbol changes and changes in listing venue, by cancelling open...

  15. 78 FR 38422 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to delay the implementation of its new Options... waiving the 30-day operative delay, the Commission has considered the proposed rule's impact on efficiency...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  16. 77 FR 35101 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Rule Change The Exchange proposes a rule change to delay the implementation date for its Excess Order...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Delay the Implementation Date for its Excess Order Fee June 6, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  17. 77 FR 47159 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes a rule change to delay the implementation date for its rule...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Delay the Implementation of Non-Display of Primary Pegged Orders With an Offset Amount August 1...

  18. 75 FR 48385 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Gap Inc/The 331 ESI ITT Educational Services Inc. 280 TSL Trina Solar Ltd......... 332 NKE NIKE Inc...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... hereby given that on July 20, 2010, NYSE Arca, Inc. (``NYSE Arca'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the...

  19. 75 FR 25013 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ...-Point Passive Liquidity Order (``MPL Order''). The text of the proposed rule change is available on the...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending Its Mid- Point Passive Liquidity Order April 29, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1...

  20. 78 FR 50471 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change... for a 40 Gigabit Liquidity Center Network Connection August 13, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act'') \\2\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\3\\ notice is...

  1. 77 FR 31050 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Liquidity in Penny Pilot Issues May 18, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 8, 2012, NYSE Arca...

  2. 77 FR 1106 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols January 3, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''), \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4...

  3. 78 FR 50459 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Provide for a 40 Gigabit Liquidity Center Network Connection August 13, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act'') \\2\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\3\\ notice is...

  4. 77 FR 16888 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Liquidity in Section I of the Exchange's Fee Schedule. The text of the proposed rule change is available on...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Delete Certain Select Symbols From the Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in...

  5. 77 FR 36310 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Market Participant Categories, Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in... Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 \\2\\ thereunder, notice is hereby given that, on May 31...

  6. 77 FR 29425 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Complex Order Fees for Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols May 11, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice...

  7. 77 FR 5072 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending the Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols January 26, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\, and Rule 19b-4...

  8. 75 FR 69492 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... structure and assess a flat fee of $300 per test port, per month. This fee will cover the cost of... Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To... rule change from interested persons. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of the...

  9. 78 FR 9961 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMS BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68840; File No. SR-BX-2013-008] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMS BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Add Routing Functionality to the NASDAQ OMX BX Equities Market February 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1...

  10. 76 FR 53009 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... communications relating to the proposed rule change between the Commission and any person, other than those that...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change... Ahead of Customer Orders With Certain Exceptions (Commonly Known as the Manning Rule) August 18, 2011...

  11. 77 FR 35437 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... option fails to achieve greater than 200 Average National Daily Customer Contracts. For these reasons...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change... (``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been...

  12. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often

  13. Exploring the Effects of Cultural Values and Beliefs on Cross-Cultural Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyin; Wang, Yingchun; Drewry, Anne Wang

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a framework for assessing the impacts of cultural values and beliefs on cross-cultural training (CCT). It argues that culture affects CCT processes including the use of training methods, trainers' selection, and trainees' learning style. The article also reasons that the congruence between parent and host cultures…

  14. Regulatory effects of sestrin 3 (SESN3 in BCR-ABL expressing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Vakana

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML and Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL are characterized by the presence of the BCR-ABL oncoprotein, which leads to activation of a plethora of pro-mitogenic and pro-survival pathways, including the mTOR signaling cascade. We provide evidence that in BCR-ABL expressing cells, treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs results in upregulation of mRNA levels and protein expression of sestrin3 (SESN3, a unique cellular inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1. Such upregulation appears to be mediated by regulatory effects on mTOR, as catalytic inhibition of the mTOR kinase also induces SESN3. Catalytic mTOR inhibition also results in upregulation of SESN3 expression in cells harboring the TKI-insensitive T315I-BCR-ABL mutant, which is resistant to imatinib mesylate. Overexpression of SESN3 results in inhibitory effects on different Ph+ leukemic cell lines including KT-1-derived leukemic precursors, indicating that SESN3 mediates anti-leukemic responses in Ph+ cells. Altogether, our findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism for the generation of antileukemic responses in CML cells, involving upregulation of SESN3 expression.

  15. Effect of induced mutagenesis in rice tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddumage, R.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of chemical mutagens and ionising radiation on growth, regenerative capacity of rice callus culture and the effect o9f mutagens on frequency and spectrum of mutant regenerants, derived from calli and determination of approximate semi-lethal dose of each mutagen on rice calli was studied. Intact mature de-husked grains and pieces of primordial particles of four varieties were used as explants in the experiment. Organogenesis was induced using MS media supplemented with agar. After thirty days calluses were subjected to varying concentrations/dosage of mutagens. The effect of mutagens on growth of callus was stimulative in low concentration/doses at short exposure, but in higher concentration/doses at longer exposure it was oppressive. In x-radiation treatment all the studied doses showed only stimulative effect on growth. The effect of mutagenic treatment on regenerative capacity was negative. No specificity was found even between two chemical mutagens of their action on studied characters

  16. Self-regulatory processes and exercise adherence in older adults: executive function and self-efficacy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Edward; Mullen, Sean P; Szabo, Amanda N; White, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily L; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; Voss, Michelle; Erickson, Kirk; Prakash, Ruchika; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-09-01

    Self-efficacy and the use of self-regulatory strategies are consistently associated with physical activity behavior. Similarly, behavioral inhibition and cognitive resource allocation-indices of executive control function-have also been associated with this health behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between self-regulatory processes, such as executive function, and sustained exercise behavior. Older adults (N=177, mean age=66.44 years) completed measures of executive function, self-reported use of self-regulatory strategies, and self-efficacy prior to and during the first month of a 12-month exercise intervention. Percentage of exercise classes attended over the following 11 months was used to represent adherence. Data were collected from 2007 to 2010 and analyzed in 2010-2011. Structural equation models were tested examining the effect of executive function and strategy use on adherence via efficacy. As hypothesized, results showed significant direct effects of two elements of executive function and of strategy use on self-efficacy and of efficacy on adherence. In addition, there were significant indirect effects of strategy use and executive function on adherence via self-efficacy. Higher levels of executive function and use of self-regulatory strategies at the start of an exercise program enhance beliefs in exercise capabilities, which in turn leads to greater adherence. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Research and regulatory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, J.S.; Fryer, D.R.H.

    1979-01-01

    To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)

  18. Effects of cyclophosphamide on in vitro human lymphocyte culture and mitogenic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) has been reported to be inactive in vitro under certain conditions. In the present study, CY was tested for its ability to inhibit human lymphocyte proliferation and to modulate lymphocyte response to mitogens in vitro. The inhibition of or the increase in 3 H-thymidine incorporation in mitogen-stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes by CY was used as a measure of CY activity in vitro. The results demonstrate that lymphocytes from 10 different persons had a mean decrease of 74% in 3 H-thymidine incorporation in the presence of CY (P less than 0.005). The effect was maximal at a concentration of 160 micrograms/ml. A mean inhibition of 35 and 55% was caused by 10 and 40 micrograms/ml concentrations of CY, respectively. CY also was able to reduce the number of viable cells during 5 days in culture and had a profound effect on mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes. In all cases, CY modulated the stimulation of lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) either by augmenting or suppressing the responses. At low concentrations (10 micrograms/ml) it augmented mitogenic stimulation by 46 to 281%. At higher concentrations (20 to 160 micrograms/ml), CY had a suppressive effect with a maximum suppression of 99%. The CY-induced immunomodulation is perhaps caused by its action on the regulatory T cells. When tested in vitro, CY had inhibitory activity on T cells

  19. Effects of Co-Culture Media on Hepatic Differentiation of hiPSC with or without HUVEC Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Nora; Greuel, Selina; Knöspel, Fanny; Strahl, Nadja; Amini, Leila; Jacobs, Frank; Monshouwer, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2017-08-07

    The derivation of hepatocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) is of great interest for applications in pharmacological research. However, full maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes has not yet been achieved in vitro. To improve hepatic differentiation, co-cultivation of hiPSC with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) during hepatic differentiation was investigated in this study. In the first step, different culture media variations based on hepatocyte culture medium (HCM) were tested in HUVEC mono-cultures to establish a suitable culture medium for co-culture experiments. Based on the results, two media variants were selected to differentiate hiPSC-derived definitive endodermal (DE) cells into mature hepatocytes with or without HUVEC addition. DE cells differentiated in mono-cultures in the presence of those media variants showed a significant increase ( p < 0.05) in secretion of α-fetoprotein and in activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 as compared with cells differentiated in unmodified HCM used as control. Co-cultivation with HUVEC did not further improve the differentiation outcome. Thus, it can be concluded that the effect of the used medium outweighed the effect of HUVEC co-culture, emphasizing the importance of the culture medium composition for hiPSC differentiation.

  20. 75 FR 37507 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... regulatory functions, the Exchange shall retain ultimate legal responsibility for, and control of, such... legal responsibility for, and control of, such functions. As noted above, the Exchange will be...

  1. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States of America: Innovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory programme. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  2. Effect of chorioamnionitis on regulatory T cells in moderate/late preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Cesar M; Wells, Casey B; Gisslen, Tate; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Chougnet, Claire A

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Treg) have a protective role for the control of immune activation and tissue damage. The effects of chorioamnionitis (chorio) on Treg in moderate/late preterm newborns are not known. We hypothesized that infants exposed to chorio would have decreased Treg frequency and/or function. We isolated mononuclear cells from adult peripheral blood and cord blood from term and moderate/late preterm infants who were classified for severity of chorio exposure. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for Treg frequency and phenotype. Treg suppression of activation of conventional T-cells (Tcon) was also quantified. Treg frequencies were similar in all groups of neonates, but lower than that found in adults. Newborn Treg had a naïve phenotype, with decreased levels of CD45RO, HLA-DR, CD39 and TIGIT compared to adult Treg and chorio did not affect the phenotype. Treg from preterm newborns exposed to severe chorio had higher expression of Ki67 compared to the other groups. Treg from preterm newborns were less suppressive than Treg from adults or term, and the level of suppression was reduced with severe chorio. Relative to term, Treg frequency and phenotype were not affected by prematurity and chorio but their functionality was decreased. Lower Treg activity may contribute to inflammation in newborns that is often associated with chorioamnionitis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative metabolomics in primates reveals the effects of diet and gene regulatory variation on metabolic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Perry, George H; Shahbaz, Sevini; Fiehn, Oliver; Clark, Andrew G; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-07-28

    Human diets differ from those of non-human primates. Among few obvious differences, humans consume more meat than most non-human primates and regularly cook their food. It is hypothesized that a dietary shift during human evolution has been accompanied by molecular adaptations in metabolic pathways. Consistent with this notion, comparative studies of gene expression levels in primates have found that the regulation of genes with metabolic functions tend to evolve rapidly in the human lineage. The metabolic consequences of these regulatory differences, however, remained unknown. To address this gap, we performed a comparative study using a combination of gene expression and metabolomic profiling in livers from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. We show that dietary differences between species have a strong effect on metabolic concentrations. In addition, we found that differences in metabolic concentration across species are correlated with inter-species differences in the expression of the corresponding enzymes, which control the same metabolic reaction. We identified a number of metabolic compounds with lineage-specific profiles, including examples of human-species metabolic differences that may be directly related to dietary differences.

  4. Effect of chorioamnionitis on regulatory T cells in moderate/late preterm neonates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Cesar M.; Wells, Casey B.; Gisslen, Tate; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Chougnet, Claire A.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Treg) have a protective role for the control of immune activation and tissue damage. The effects of chorioamnionitis (chorio) on Treg in moderate/late preterm newborns are not known. We hypothesized that infants exposed to chorio would have decreased Treg frequency and/or function. We isolated mononuclear cells from adult peripheral blood and cord blood from term and moderate/late preterm infants who were classified for severity of chorio exposure. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for Treg frequency and phenotype. Treg suppression of activation of conventional T-cells (Tcon) was also quantified. Treg frequencies were similar in all groups of neonates, but lower than that found in adults. Newborn Treg had a naïve phenotype, with decreased levels of CD45RO, HLA-DR, CD39 and TIGIT compared to adult Treg and chorio did not affect the phenotype. Treg from preterm newborns exposed to severe chorio had higher expression of Ki67 compared to the other groups. Treg from preterm newborns were less suppressive than Treg from adults or term, and the level of suppression was reduced with severe chorio. Relative to term, Treg frequency and phenotype were not affected by prematurity and chorio but their functionality was decreased. Lower Treg activity may contribute to inflammation in newborns that is often associated with chorioamnionitis. PMID:25451985

  5. Satiated with belongingness? Effects of acceptance, rejection, and task framing on self-regulatory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2008-12-01

    Seven experiments showed that the effects of social acceptance and social exclusion on self-regulatory performance depend on the prospect of future acceptance. Excluded participants showed decrements in self-regulation, but these decrements were eliminated if the self-regulation task was ostensibly a diagnostic indicator of the ability to get along with others. No such improvement was found when the task was presented as diagnostic of good health. Accepted participants, in contrast, performed relatively poorly when the task was framed as a diagnostic indicator of interpersonally attractive traits. Furthermore, poor performance among accepted participants was not due to self-handicapping or overconfidence. Offering accepted participants a cash incentive for self-regulating eliminated the self-regulation deficits. These findings provide evidence that the need to belong fits standard motivational patterns: Thwarting the drive intensifies it, whereas satiating it leads to temporary reduction in drive. Accepted people are normally good at self-regulation but are unwilling to exert the effort to self-regulate if self-regulation means gaining the social acceptance they have already obtained.

  6. Electronic cigarettes: patterns of use, health effects, use in smoking cessation and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that vaporize a liquid solution to deliver a dose of inhaled nicotine to the user. There is ongoing debate regarding their regulation. This comprehensive narrative review aimed to discuss key issues including usage patterns, health effects, efficacy in smoking cessation and regulatory concerns with a view to informing future regulation and research agendas. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched using the terms (electronic cigarettes OR e-cigarettes) for articles in English, relevant to humans and published during January 2009-January 2014. The literature search revealed 37 relevant articles. Findings suggest that e-cigarettes are mostly used by middle-aged current smokers, particularly males, to help them for quitting or for recreation. E-cigarettes contain very low levels of multiple toxic substances such as formaldehyde and acrolein, but these levels are many times lower than those found in cigarettes. They were found to have effectiveness in aiding smoking cessation to a limited degree. Debate continues regarding regulating their use for cessation versus heavy restrictions to control recreational use on the basis that it perpetuates nicotine addiction. The cytotoxicity and long term health effects of e-cigarettes are unknown. Nevertheless the e-cigarette market continues to expand, largely driven by middle-aged smokers who claim to be using e-cigarettes in an attempt to reduce or quit smoking. E-cigarettes may have some potential as smoking cessation aids and, in the researchers' view, should therefore be subject to further research and regulation similar to other nicotine replacement therapies.

  7. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  8. In vitro induced regulatory T cells are unique from endogenous regulatory T cells and effective at suppressing late stages of ongoing autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Long M Nguyen

    Full Text Available Strategies to boost the numbers and functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs are currently being tested as means to treat autoimmunity. While Tregs have been shown to be effective in this role, strategies to manipulate Tregs to effectively suppress later stages of ongoing diseases need to be established. In this study, we evaluated the ability of TGF-β-induced Tregs (iTregs specific for the major self-antigen in autoimmune gastritis to suppress established autoimmune gastritis in mice. When transferred into mice during later stages of disease, iTregs demethylated the Foxp3 promoter, maintained Foxp3 expression, and suppressed effector T cell proliferation. More importantly, these iTregs were effective at stopping disease progression. Untreated mice had high numbers of endogenous Tregs (enTregs but these were unable to stop disease progression. In contrast, iTregs, were found in relatively low numbers in treated mice, yet were effective at stopping disease progression, suggesting qualitative differences in suppressor functions. We identified several inhibitory receptors (LAG-3, PD-1, GARP, and TNFR2, cytokines (TGF-β1 and IL12p35, and transcription factors (IRF4 and Tbet expressed at higher levels by iTregs compared to enTregs isolated form mice with ongoing disease, which likely accounts for superior suppressor ability in this disease model. These data support efforts to use iTregs in therapies to treat establish autoimmunity, and show that iTregs are more effective than enTregs at suppressing inflammation in this disease model.

  9. Cultural differences in the primacy effect for person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Kamada, Akiko; Shrira, Ilan

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown there are robust differences in how North Americans and East Asians form impressions of people. The present research examines whether the tendency to weigh initial information more heavily-the primacy effect-may be another component of these cultural differences. Specifically, we tested whether Americans would be more likely to use first impressions to guide person perception, compared to Japanese participants. In this experiment, participants read a vignette that described a target person's behaviour, then rated the target's personality. Before reading the vignette, some trait information was given to create an expectation about the target's personality. The data revealed that Americans used this initial information to guide their judgments of the target, whereas the Japanese sample based their judgments on all the information more evenly. Thus, Americans showed a stronger primacy effect in their impression formation than Japanese participants, who engaged in more data-driven processing. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. The effects of message framing and risk perceptions for HPV vaccine campaigns: focus on the role of regulatory fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of framing and risk perception, and their interaction effects on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Based on a 2 (message frames) × 2 (perceived risk) experimental design, the interaction effects reveal the effectiveness of loss- (vs. gain-) framed messages would be maximized for high (vs. low) perceived risk condition. Based on regulatory fit principles the synergy effects are shown in terms of attitudes toward advertising and HPV vaccination, HPV vaccination intention, and ad-promoted behavioral intention. The findings indicate right message appeals should be selected for the right target audiences in the setting of HPV vaccine promotions.

  11. Combined effect of regulatory polymorphisms on transcription of UGT1A1 as a cause of Gilbert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gilbert syndrome is caused by defects in bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1. The most common variation believed to be involved is A(TA7TAA. Although several polymorphisms have been found to link with A(TA7TAA, the combined effect of regulatory polymorphisms in the development of Gilbert syndrome remains unclear. Methods In an analysis of 15 patients and 60 normal subjects, we detected 14 polymorphisms and nine haplotypes in the regulatory region. We classified the 4-kbp regulatory region of the patients into: the TATA box including A(TA7TAA; a phenobarbital responsive enhancer module including c.-3275T>G; and a region including other ten linked polymorphisms. The effect on transcription of these polymorphisms was studied. Results All haplotypes with A(TA7TAA had c.-3275T>G and additional polymorphisms. In an in-vitro expression study of the 4-kbp regulatory region, A(TA7TAA alone did not significantly reduce transcription. In contrast, c.-3275T>G reduced transcription to 69% of that of wild type, and the linked polymorphisms reduced transcription to 88% of wild type. Transcription of the typical regulatory region of the patients was 56% of wild type. Co-expression of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR increased the transcription of wild type by a factor of 4.3. Each polymorphism by itself did not reduce transcription to the level of the patients, however, even in the presence of CAR. Conclusions These results imply that co-operation of A(TA7TAA, c.-3275T>G and the linked polymorphisms is necessary in causing Gilbert syndrome.

  12. Applicability of Baumrind's Parent Typology to Collective Cultures: Analysis of Cultural Explanations of Parent Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews studies that have examined whether Baumrind's parenting styles are related to child outcomes similarly in cultures where independence is said to be emphasized versus cultures where interdependence is said to be emphasized. I present evidence showing that Baumrind's parenting styles have similar function in both collectivist…

  13. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... acid under certain culture conditions similar to cocoa fermentation stress. However ... Keywords: Acetic acid bacteria, acetic acid production, Cocoa fermentation, culture conditions ..... American Society Microbiology Press, pp.

  14. Innate immune activity conditions the effect of regulatory variants upon monocyte gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Benjamin P; Humburg, Peter; Makino, Seiko; Naranbhai, Vivek; Wong, Daniel; Lau, Evelyn; Jostins, Luke; Plant, Katharine; Andrews, Robert; McGee, Chris; Knight, Julian C

    2014-03-07

    To systematically investigate the impact of immune stimulation upon regulatory variant activity, we exposed primary monocytes from 432 healthy Europeans to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or differing durations of lipopolysaccharide and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). More than half of cis-eQTLs identified, involving hundreds of genes and associated pathways, are detected specifically in stimulated monocytes. Induced innate immune activity reveals multiple master regulatory trans-eQTLs including the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), coding variants altering enzyme and receptor function, an IFN-β cytokine network showing temporal specificity, and an interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) transcription factor-modulated network. Induced eQTL are significantly enriched for genome-wide association study loci, identifying context-specific associations to putative causal genes including CARD9, ATM, and IRF8. Thus, applying pathophysiologically relevant immune stimuli assists resolution of functional genetic variants.

  15. Moderating Effects of Culture in Transfer of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Verner; Xu, Xiaojun; Shinha, Jai b.P.

    2005-01-01

    culture moderates the relationships between the forms of knowledge and internationalization of multinationals on one hand and the transfer of knowledge on the other. It is postulated that stable cultural frames of the Danes and Chinese managers, both having stable cultural frame, will require long drawn...

  16. Radiation-induced bystander effects in cultured human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiation-induced "bystander effect" (RIBE was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR. RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed.Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and embryonic stem cells (hESC were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05. A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05.These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative-based therapies.

  17. Effects of musicality and motivational orientation on auditory category learning: a test of a regulatory-fit hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, J Devin; Henry, Molly J; Wedd, Alan; Pleskac, Timothy J; Cesario, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of musicality and motivational orientation on auditory category learning. In both experiments, participants learned to classify tone stimuli that varied in frequency and duration according to an initially unknown disjunctive rule; feedback involved gaining points for correct responses (a gains reward structure) or losing points for incorrect responses (a losses reward structure). For Experiment 1, participants were told at the start that musicians typically outperform nonmusicians on the task, and then they were asked to identify themselves as either a "musician" or a "nonmusician." For Experiment 2, participants were given either a promotion focus prime (a performance-based opportunity to gain entry into a raffle) or a prevention focus prime (a performance-based criterion that needed to be maintained to avoid losing an entry into a raffle) at the start of the experiment. Consistent with a regulatory-fit hypothesis, self-identified musicians and promotion-primed participants given a gains reward structure made more correct tone classifications and were more likely to discover the optimal disjunctive rule than were musicians and promotion-primed participants experiencing losses. Reward structure (gains vs. losses) had inconsistent effects on the performance of nonmusicians, and a weaker regulatory-fit effect was found for the prevention focus prime. Overall, the findings from this study demonstrate a regulatory-fit effect in the domain of auditory category learning and show that motivational orientation may contribute to musician performance advantages in auditory perception.

  18. Experience Transformed into Nuclear Regulatory Improvements in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    The third International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems (Canada, 2013) identified the main action items that should be addressed, implemented and followed up. The key technical and organizational areas important to strengthening reactor and spent fuel safety have been determined as following: • Regulatory lessons learned and actions taken (since the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP); • Waste management and spent fuel safety; • Emergency management; • Emerging programmes; • Human and organizational factors, safety and security culture. Over time many activities based on results of the IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service in the Russian Federation, 2019, and post-mission, 2013, have been implemented. At present there is progress for the national action plan on nuclear safety, preparation and conducting of long term spent fuel management, complementary reviews for nuclear facilities other than Nuclear Power Plants, emergency exercises with the regulatory body participation, improving communication, development of national regulations and improvement of regulatory system in the whole. The regulatory body ensures assistance in development of national regulatory infrastructure, safety culture to the countries planning to construct Russian design facilities (NPPs, RRs). The report outlines the results and future actions to improve nuclear regulation based on systematic approach to safety and particularly reflects the specificity of taking measures for the research reactors. (author)

  19. Effects of estrogen on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in peripheral blood during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Huan Xiong; Zhen Yuan; Li He

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of estrogen (E2) level on regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood during pregnancy. Methods:A total of 30 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group, 90 pregnant women of early, middle and late pregnancy and 30 postpartum women at 1 month after parturition were selected as experimental groups including early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group and late pregnancy group;the proportions of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg among CD4+T cells were detected by flow cytometry;the serum estrogen content in peripheral blood was detected by electrochemical immune luminescence method. Results: E2 level was coincident with the change of Tregs number during pregnancy. The estrogen content in peripheral blood increased gradually from early pregnancy to late pregnancy, then decreased significantly after parturition, and the level at 1 month after parturition down to the level in non-pregnancy group (P>0.05);the level of E2 in pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in non-pregnancy group (P0.05);the proportions in middle and late pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in early pregnancy group (P0.05). There was correlation between Tregs number with estrogen level during pregnancy. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127- Treg were positively correlated with estrogen level. Conclusions:High proportion of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg is closely related to the high level of E2 during pregnancy. It suggested that high level of estrogen may induce an increase of CD4+CD25+Treg in peripheral blood, and then influence the immune function of pregnant women. The results of this experiment might play an important role of estrogen in immune-modulation during pregnancy.

  20. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research.

  2. Effects of oxygen limitation on sugar metabolism in yeasts: a continuous-culture study of the Kluyver effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weusthuis, R A; Visser, W; Pronk, J T; Scheffers, W A; van Dijken, J P

    1994-04-01

    Growth and metabolite formation were studied in oxygen-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 and Candida utilis CBS 621 growing on glucose or maltose at a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1. With either glucose or maltose S. cerevisiae could be grown under dual limitation of oxygen and sugar. Respiration and alcoholic fermentation occurred simultaneously and the catabolite fluxes through these processes were dependent on the magnitude of the oxygen feed. C. utilis could also be grown under dual limitation of glucose and oxygen. However, at very low oxygen feed rates (i.e. below 4 mmol l-1 h-1) growth was limited by oxygen only, as indicated by the high residual glucose concentration in the culture. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, C. utilis could not be grown anaerobically at a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1. With C. utilis absence of oxygen resulted in wash-out, despite the presence of ergosterol and Tween-80 in the growth medium. The behaviour of C. utilis with respect to maltose utilization in oxygen-limited cultures was remarkable: alcoholic fermentation did not occur and the amount of maltose metabolized was dependent on the oxygen supply. Oxygen-limited cultures of C. utilis growing on maltose always contained high residual sugar concentrations. These observations throw new light on the so-called Kluyver effect. Apparently, maltose is a non-fermentable sugar for C. utilis CBS 621, despite the fact that it can serve as a substrate for growth of this facultatively fermentative yeast. This is not due to the absence of key enzymes of alcoholic fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase were present at high levels in maltose-utilizing cells of C. utilis grown under oxygen limitation. It is concluded that the Kluyver effect, in C. utilis growing on maltose, results from a regulatory mechanism that prevents the sugar from being fermented. Oxygen is not a key factor in this phenomenon since under oxygen limitation alcoholic fermentation of

  3. Oversight and Influencing of Licensee Leadership and Management for Safety, Including Safety Culture - Regulatory Approaches and Methods. Proceedings of an NEA/IAEA Workshop, Chester, United Kingdom, 26-28 September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Both regulators and the nuclear industry recognise the need for licensees to develop a strong, positive safety culture to support successful and sustainable nuclear safety performance. A number of reports have been issued by the IAEA and the NEA on the role of the regulator in relation to oversight of safety culture (References 1 to 5). There has been less clarity on how this should be achieved - in particular, with regard to strategies and practical approaches for maintaining oversight of, and influencing, those facets of licensee leadership and management which have a profound influence on safety culture. In recognition of this, the CSNI Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF), together with the CNRA Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) and the IAEA, organised a workshop in Chester, United Kingdom, in May 2007 to provide a forum for gathering and sharing international experience, including good practices and learning points. The results of the workshop are reported in Reference 6. Workshop participants agreed that, in view of the rapidly developing approaches in this area, it would be sensible to hold a further workshop ('Chester 2') in 3-5 years in order to discuss how regulatory approaches have moved on and to share lessons learned from their application. In 2010, the WGIP hosted a workshop which included regulatory approaches for the assessment of licensee safety culture as a discussion topic. The outputs of the workshop included a list of commendable practices for monitoring and evaluating licensee safety culture (Reference 7). The 'Chester 2' workshop took place in September 2011. This report sets out the findings of the workshop, organised by the UK Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) on behalf of the CSNI/WGHOF and the IAEA. The workshop was attended by over 40 representatives of nuclear regulatory bodies and licensees from 15 countries plus IAEA and NEA. The workshop featured keynote papers on learning from major events, and from

  4. Distinct gene regulatory programs define the inhibitory effects of liver X receptors and PPARG on cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Daniel; Ramaker, Ryne C; Roberts, Brian S; Dean, Emma C; Burwell, Todd C; Meadows, Sarah K; Cooper, Sara J; Garabedian, Michael J; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M

    2016-07-11

    The liver X receptors (LXRs, NR1H2 and NR1H3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG, NR1C3) nuclear receptor transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of energy homeostasis. Intriguingly, recent studies suggest that these metabolic regulators also impact tumor cell proliferation. However, a comprehensive temporal molecular characterization of the LXR and PPARG gene regulatory responses in tumor cells is still lacking. To better define the underlying molecular processes governing the genetic control of cellular growth in response to extracellular metabolic signals, we performed a comprehensive, genome-wide characterization of the temporal regulatory cascades mediated by LXR and PPARG signaling in HT29 colorectal cancer cells. For this analysis, we applied a multi-tiered approach that incorporated cellular phenotypic assays, gene expression profiles, chromatin state dynamics, and nuclear receptor binding patterns. Our results illustrate that the activation of both nuclear receptors inhibited cell proliferation and further decreased glutathione levels, consistent with increased cellular oxidative stress. Despite a common metabolic reprogramming, the gene regulatory network programs initiated by these nuclear receptors were widely distinct. PPARG generated a rapid and short-term response while maintaining a gene activator role. By contrast, LXR signaling was prolonged, with initial, predominantly activating functions that transitioned to repressive gene regulatory activities at late time points. Through the use of a multi-tiered strategy that integrated various genomic datasets, our data illustrate that distinct gene regulatory programs elicit common phenotypic effects, highlighting the complexity of the genome. These results further provide a detailed molecular map of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells through LXR and PPARG activation. As ligand-inducible TFs, these nuclear receptors can potentially serve as attractive therapeutic

  5. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  6. Principal characteristics of good safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, W.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation briefly discusses the following aspects of safety culture: what is safety culture; universal features of safety culture; the main elements of safety culture; requirements at policy level; safety culture at government level, regulatory body, operators; requirements on managers

  7. Principal characteristics of good safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation briefly discusses the following aspects of safety culture: what is safety culture; universal features of safety culture; the main elements of safety culture; requirements at policy level; safety culture at government level, regulatory body, operators; requirements on managers.

  8. New approach to weight-of-evidence assessment of ecotoxicological effects in regulatory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A Tilghman; Belanger, Scott E; Guiney, Pat D; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Maack, Gerd; Stubblefield, William; Martin, Olwenn

    2017-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments and risk management decisions are only as sound as the underlying information and processes to integrate them. It is important to develop transparent and reproducible procedures a priori to integrate often-heterogeneous evidence. Current weight-of-evidence (WoE) approaches for effects or hazard assessment tend to conflate aspects of the assessment of the quality of the data with the strength of the body of evidence as a whole. We take forward recent developments in the critical appraisal of the reliability and relevance of individual ecotoxicological studies as part of the effect or hazard assessment of prospective risk assessments and propose a streamlined WoE approach. The aim is to avoid overlap and double accounting of criteria used in reliability and relevance with that used in current WoE methods. The protection goals, problem formulation, and evaluation process need to be clarified at the outset. The data are first integrated according to lines of evidence (LoEs), typically mechanistic insights (e.g., cellular, subcellular, genomic), in vivo experiments, and higher-tiered field or observational studies. Data are then plotted on the basis of both relevance and reliability scores or categories. This graphical approach provides a means to visually assess and communicate the credibility (reliability and relevance of available individual studies), quantity, diversity, and consistency of the evidence. In addition, the external coherence of the body of evidence needs to be considered. The final step in the process is to derive an expression of the confidence in the conclusions of integrating the information considering these 5 aspects in the context of remaining uncertainties. We suggest that this streamlined approach to WoE for the effects or hazard characterization should facilitate reproducible and transparent assessments of data across different regulatory requirements. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:573-579. © 2017 The Authors

  9. Opisthorchiasis in Northeastern Thailand: Effect of local environment and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchiasis is a kind of trematode infection. This parasitic infestation is a chronic hepatobiliary tract infection and can cause chronic irritation that will finally lead to cholangiocarcinoma. It is highly endemic in northeastern region of Thailand and contributes to many cholangiocarcinoma cases annually. The attempt to control the disease becomes a national policy. However, the sanitation becomes a major underlying factor leading to infection and meanwhile, the poverty and low education of the local people become an important concern. In this opinion, the authors discuss the effect of local environment and culture on opisthorchiasis in northeastern Thailand. Due to the pattern change of local environment, global warming and globalization, the dynamicity can be observed.

  10. The effects of energy beverages on cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Wayne; Shide, Eric; Thapa, Slesha; Chandrasekaran, Vidya

    2012-10-01

    The popularity and prevalence of energy beverages makes it essential to examine the interactions between the ingredients and their effects on the safety of these beverages. In this study, we used in vitro assays to examine the effects of two energy beverages on mesenchymal, epithelial and neuronal cells. Our results showed that treatment of epithelial and mesenchymal cells with either energy beverage resulted in a dose dependent delay in wound closure, in a scratch wound healing assay. In rat embryonic fibroblasts, treatment with the energy beverages led to decreased lamellipodia formation and decreased proliferation/viability; whereas in MDCK cells, energy beverage treatment resulted in actin disorganization without any effects on cell proliferation. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying delayed wound healing might be different in the two cell types. Interestingly, the delays in both cell types could not be mimicked by treatment of caffeine, taurine and glucose alone or in combinations. Furthermore, treatment of chick forebrain neuronal cultures with energy beverages resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of neurite outgrowth. The cellular assays used in this study provide a consistent, qualitative and quantitative system for examining the combinatorial effects of the various ingredients used in energy beverages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Leadership Style on School Culture and Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kristal Carey

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between principal leadership style and school culture and to determine what effect both factors have on teacher effectiveness. This study was based on the perceptions of teachers and principals in Title I elementary schools (Grades 1-5), with high ESL populations in 10 schools within a West…

  12. Effects of Kisspeptin-10 on Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Chicken Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10 injected in vivo can markedly increase lipid anabolism in liver of quails. In order to investigate the direct effect of Kp-10 on lipid metabolism of hepatocytes in birds, cells were separated from embryos livers and cultured in vitro with 0, 100 and 1,000 nM Kp-10, respectively. The results showed that after 24 h treatment, cells viability was not affected by 100 nM Kp-10, but showed a mild decrease with 1,000 nM Kp-10 compared to the control cells. Based on the results of the cell viability, 100 nM dosage of Kp-10 was selected for the further study and analysis. Compared with control cells, total cholesterol (Tch contents in 100 nM treated cells were increased by 51.23%, but did not reach statistical significance, while the level of triglyceride (TG, high density of lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and low density of lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C were significantly increased. Real-time PCR results showed that ApoVLDL-II mRNA expression had a tendency to increase, genes including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase α (ACCα, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductases (HMGCR and stearyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase-1 (SCD1 mRNA in hepatocytes were significantly down-regulated by 100 nM Kp-10. However, contrary to its gene expression, SREBP-1 protein expression was significantly up-regulated by 100 nM Kp-10. Some of the significant correlations in mRNA expression were found between genes encoding hepatic factors or enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in liver of birds. These results indicate that Kp-10 stimulates lipid synthesis directly in primary cultured hepatocytes of chickens.

  13. Cross-Cultural Effects of Cannabis Use Disorder: Evidence to Support a Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prashad, S.; Milligan, A.L.; Cousijn, J.; Filbey, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are prevalent worldwide. Current epidemiological studies underscore differences in behaviors that contribute to cannabis use across cultures that can be leveraged towards prevention and treatment of CUDs. This review proposes a framework for

  14. 75 FR 57092 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the..., there is no economic basis for regulating maximum prices for one of the joint products in an industry in... Arca did before registering as exchanges by publishing proprietary book data on the Internet. Second...

  15. 78 FR 8657 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... (February 22, 2012) (SR-EDGA-2012- 05) (adopting EdgeBook Cloud service); see also, Securities Exchange Act...Book Cloud service). C. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Comments on the Proposed Rule... its intent to file the proposed rule change at least five business days prior to the date of filing of...

  16. 78 FR 8650 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... (February 15, 2012), 77 FR 10593 (February 22, 2012) (SR-EDGA-2012- 05) (adopting EdgeBook Cloud service..., 2012) (SR-EDGX-2012-05) (adopting EdgeBook Cloud service). C. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement... written notice of its intent to file the proposed rule change at least five business days prior to the...

  17. 75 FR 76509 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... system (``PSX''). The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at http... the price changes upon the net fees paid by a particular market participant will depend upon a number... sizes through pricing or by operating as ``dark pools.'' C. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on...

  18. The effects of the Brazilian regulatory inspection programme on nuclear medicine facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, C E G R; Azevedo, E M; Mendes, L C G; Franca, W F L; Gutterres, R F; Goncalves, M [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear-CGMI/CNEN, Rua General Severiano 90, 22290-901, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); De Sa, L V; Da Rosa, L A R [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria-IRD/CNEN, Avenida Salvador Allende s/n, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: telo@xexeu.org

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the regulatory inspections carried out by the Brazilian regulatory body in the area of nuclear medicine. The main aspects observed during the inspections are presented as well as the time evolution of the non-compliances, according to their occurrence by type. We also evaluate factors concerning the working of the nuclear medicine facility responsible for solving the non-compliances. The results suggest a decrease of occurrence of non-compliances with time that can be related to the strictness of the inspections and the awareness of the personnel in the nuclear medicine facilities. An analysis of radiation dose exposure levels for the professionals involved in nuclear medicine was carried out; although dose values are below regulatory dose limits, their occurrence is not decreasing satisfactorily. Results indicate the need for staff training and commitment of the responsible nuclear medicine facility staff to the radiological protection procedures. Our results also emphasise the importance of continuous coercive actions to improve the level of radiological protection in nuclear medicine facilities in compliance with the standards established by the national regulatory authority and international recommendations.

  19. 75 FR 34501 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... clarifications are necessary to avoid inconsistent regulatory obligations. Similar in concept to Rule 48, which... and a national market system and, in general, to protect investors and the public interest. The... interest; (ii) impose any significant burden on competition; and (iii) become operative prior to 30 days...

  20. 75 FR 34498 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... inconsistent regulatory obligations. Similar in concept to Rule 48, which suspends the requirements for... market system and, in general, to protect investors and the public interest. The proposed rule change...) impose any significant burden on competition; and (iii) become operative prior to 30 days from the date...

  1. 77 FR 41864 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... its filing with the Commission, the self-regulatory organization included statements concerning the... Members to route through EDGX first before going to other destinations on the System routing table, and... share in cost savings realized by EDGA when routing orders to other destinations). The concept is also...

  2. 75 FR 32529 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the requirements of Exchange Act Rule 15c3-1. The Exchange has conducted an analysis of financial.... 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend Rule 6.82 by revising the minimum financial...

  3. 75 FR 61799 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63024; File No. SR-Phlx-2010-134] Self... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule... ``Phlx XL II'' to ``PHLX XL'' for branding purposes. \\4\\ The current rules relevant to this proposal are...

  4. Regulatory effect of paraprobiotic Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 on gut environment and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Sugawara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305 is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions. We thus conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded parallel group trial. Design: The trial included 118 healthy participants with relatively low or high stool frequencies. The test beverage was prepared by adding 1×1010 washed, heat-treated, and dried CP2305 cells directly to the placebo beverage. The participants ingested a bottle of the assigned beverage daily for 3 weeks and answered daily questionnaires about defecation and quality of life. Fecal samples were collected and the fecal characteristics, microbial metabolite contents of the feces and composition of fecal microbiota were evaluated. Results: The number of evacuations and the scores for fecal odors were significantly improved in the group that consumed the CP2305-containing beverage compared with those of the group that consumed the placebo (p=0.035 and p=0.040, respectively. Regarding the fecal contents of microbial metabolites, the level of fecal p-cresol was significantly decreased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p=0.013. The Bifidobacterium content of the intestinal microbiota was significantly increased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p<0.008, whereas the content of Clostridium cluster IV was significantly decreased (p<0.003. The parasympathetic nerve activity of the autonomic nervous system became dominant and the total power of autonomic

  5. Leader - Member Exchange in Different Organizational Cultures and Effects to Organizational Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Kırkbeşoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of leader- member exchange to burnout syndrome in different organizational cultures. Sample of the study is constituted by 183 participants who work in life insurance companies which represent organic organizational culture and non-life insurance companies which represent mechanical organizational culture. As a result of regression and correlation analysis, it is determined that leader-member exchange in organic organizational culture affects organizational culture negatively and in higher level compared to mechanical organizational cultures.

  6. The effect of regulatory governance on efficiency of thermal power generation in India: A stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Kathuria, Vinish

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of institutional quality – typified as regulatory governance – on the performance of thermal power plants in India. The Indian power sector was reformed in the early 1990s. However, reforms are effective only as much as the regulators are committed in ensuring that they are implemented. We hypothesize that higher the quality of regulation in a federal Indian state, higher is the efficiency of electric generation utilities. A translog stochastic frontier model is estimated using index of state-level independent regulation as one of the determinants of inefficiency. The dataset comprises a panel of 77 coal-based thermal power plants during the reform period covering over 70% of installed electricity generation capacity. The mean technical efficiency of 76.7% indicates there is wide scope for efficiency improvement in the sector. Results are robust to various model specifications and show that state-level regulators have positively impacted plant performance. Technical efficiency is sensitive to both unbundling of state utilities, and regulatory experience. The policy implication is that further reforms which empower independent regulators will have far reaching impacts on power sector performance. - Highlights: • The impact of regulatory governance on Indian generation efficiency is investigated. • Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) on a panel dataset covering pre and post reform era. • Index of state-wise variation in regulation to explain inefficiency effects. • Results show improved but not very high technical efficiencies. • State-level regulation has positively impacted power plant performance.

  7. A study on the establishment of national regulatory framework for effective implementation of exemption or clearance concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, J.H.; Park, S.H.; Suk, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The concepts of exemption and clearance have a lot of advantages in the aspects of effective use of limited resources, land, and optimization of regulatory works. The exact scopes and extent of the implementation of the concepts, however, can widely vary depending upon each country's own specific situations. In order to support the political decision-making on the practical implementation, a series of possible alternatives, general methodology for decision-making, and factors to be considered were proposed. Five primary categories and subsequent nineteen secondary categories were suggested and discussed, and four-step-approach was introduced in order to show the general guidelines for establishing an appropriate national regulatory framework. Though the specific procedure for each country to get to the practical implementation of the exemption and clearance concepts was not described, it is anticipated that the basic guidelines proposed in this paper can be used as a general reference. (author)

  8. Development of Questionnaire for Self-Assessment of Regulatory Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhmood, Ul Hassan; Lee, Young Eal [Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Islamabad (Pakistan); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Nuclear industry with its evolution in 60s came with a number of pros and cons. In order to avoid any accident or incident, highest safety standards and quality control mechanism were established. The relation of regulator with its licensee is critical in the sense of public safety and welfare. The situation when the regulator starts to work for the interests of the industry instead of the public interest and fails to cling with his mission is known as 'regulatory capture' which may cause a number of serious negative effects like radiological or radiation risk. According to George Stigler, as a rule regulation is acquired by the industry and is designed and operated primarily for its benefit. The phenomenon of regulatory capture may hamper the safety culture and can also be considered as regulatory failure. It is therefore necessary to clearly understand this type of government failure to avoid the happening of serious accidents like TMI and Fukushima in the future. This paper aims to explore whether the regulatory body works independently and effectively to achieve its assigned tasks and objectives. Hence we proposed a questionnaire for the self-assessment of regulatory capture within the regulatory body. It also includes the results of an experimental assessment which was carried out to check the relevance and reliability of the questions to this subject. This assessment survey was conducted with the officers and staff members of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). We checked the significance of the proposed questionnaire and found some of the questions like Q. 27, 30 and 33 (written in italic) are not directly related to the phenomenon of regulatory capture. However, the existence of the situation which has been asked in these questions may lead towards the hampering of regulatory culture.

  9. Development of Questionnaire for Self-Assessment of Regulatory Capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhmood, Ul Hassan; Lee, Young Eal; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear industry with its evolution in 60s came with a number of pros and cons. In order to avoid any accident or incident, highest safety standards and quality control mechanism were established. The relation of regulator with its licensee is critical in the sense of public safety and welfare. The situation when the regulator starts to work for the interests of the industry instead of the public interest and fails to cling with his mission is known as 'regulatory capture' which may cause a number of serious negative effects like radiological or radiation risk. According to George Stigler, as a rule regulation is acquired by the industry and is designed and operated primarily for its benefit. The phenomenon of regulatory capture may hamper the safety culture and can also be considered as regulatory failure. It is therefore necessary to clearly understand this type of government failure to avoid the happening of serious accidents like TMI and Fukushima in the future. This paper aims to explore whether the regulatory body works independently and effectively to achieve its assigned tasks and objectives. Hence we proposed a questionnaire for the self-assessment of regulatory capture within the regulatory body. It also includes the results of an experimental assessment which was carried out to check the relevance and reliability of the questions to this subject. This assessment survey was conducted with the officers and staff members of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). We checked the significance of the proposed questionnaire and found some of the questions like Q. 27, 30 and 33 (written in italic) are not directly related to the phenomenon of regulatory capture. However, the existence of the situation which has been asked in these questions may lead towards the hampering of regulatory culture

  10. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  11. Cultural Effects on Business Students' Ethical Decisions: A Chinese versus American Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sherry F.; Persons, Obeua S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a corporate code of ethics to create 18 scenarios for examining cultural effects on ethical decisions of Chinese versus American business students. Four cultural differences were hypothesized to contribute to overall less ethical decisions of Chinese students. The results support the hypothesis and indicate strong cultural effects…

  12. Organizational structure and continuous improvement and learning: Moderating effects of cultural endorsement of participative leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowen Huang; Joseph C Rode; Roger G Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Building upon the culturally endorsed implicit theory of leadership, we investigated the moderating effects of national culture on the relationship between organizational structure and continuous improvement and learning. We propose that the relationship between organic organizations (characterized by flat, decentralized structures with a wide use of multifunctional employees) and continuous improvement and learning will be stronger when national cultural endorsement for participative leaders...

  13. Effects of lactic acid on astrocytes in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenberg, M D; Mozes, L W; Gregorios, J B; Norenberg, L O

    1987-03-01

    Excessive tissue lactic acidosis is considered to be detrimental to the central nervous system (CNS) and may adversely affect recovery from anoxia, ischemia, trauma and epilepsy. Since astrocytes are believed to play a role in pH regulation in the CNS, we studied the effect of this acid on primary astrocyte cultures. Cells exposed to lactic acid showed chromatin clumping, an increase of lipid and dense bodies, a loss of polyribosomal clusters, slightly increased cytoplasmic lucency, swollen mitochondria and tangled intermediate filaments. These alterations progressed with lower pH and longer exposure. Irreversible changes occurred one to two hours after exposure at pH 6; after 30 to 60 minutes (min) at pH 5.5 and after ten to 30 min at pH 5. Comparable results were obtained with the use of other weak acids indicating that the observed changes were due to increased hydrogen ion concentration rather than secondary to lactate per se. Additionally, various concentrations of lactic acid adjusted to identical pH produced similar morphologic alterations. Thus, while lactic acid caused marked and at times irreversible alterations in astrocytes, severe and prolonged acidosis was required to produce such injurious effects. This relative resistance of astrocytes to acidosis is in keeping with their potential role in pH regulation in brain.

  14. Television & Its Cultivation Effects on Iranians’ Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Bahonar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the effects of TV on culture by an emphasis on ethnical and national identities. The provided results which have been obtained from a part of a scientific research in IRIB research center show that on one hand, messages on some issues have been repeatedly broadcasted from IRI TV in three sections namely satiric programs, news and serials and watchers have been exposed to these messages, and on the other hand, watching TV has no influence on ethnical identity of the individuals. For national identity, the results of multivariable regression proves that level of watching TV has been entered into the equation and has been known as the third influential element after variables including communication network domain and level of individuals’ self confidence. On the whole, despite the fact that IRI TV produces and broadcasts messages regarding any of the identity issues under investigation, yet such messages are beside other influential elements and TV has been an effective element on the view of addressees regarding identity after social system variables. Moreover, the investigation showed that despite Gerbner’s Cultivation theory, TV in Iran has no Cultivation influence on the minds of addressees and people are more under the influence of other social system variables.

  15. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  16. Vietnamese cultural dimensions and its effects on the marketing strategy for international ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Trang Ngoc

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Marketing e Gestão Estratégica Culture has been increasingly one of the most interesting topics in cross-cultural marketing research and practice in recent years. The issues researched reflected the importance and the effects of culture on customer demand, advertising, managerial behavior and business negotiation. Cross-cultural knowledge drives managers and international marketers to overcome this hidden entry barrier and thoroughly adapt to a new cu...

  17. FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties can be cultured from colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Johanne Lade

    2005-01-01

    Summary CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs)) are involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and ensure a balanced immune response competent of fighting pathogens and at the same time recognizing commensals as harmless. This feature is lost in Crohn's disease (CD). The forkhead/wing......(+) T cells. Thus, we demonstrate that FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties can be propagated in vitro from inflamed mucosa of CD patients, which may be of interest in adoptive immunotherapy....

  18. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and Its Effects on American Indian Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Randall K. Q. Akee; Katherine A. Spilde; Jonathan B. Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA), passed by the US Congress in 1988, was a watershed in the history of policymaking directed toward reservation-resident American Indians. IGRA set the stage for tribal government-owned gaming facilities. It also shaped how this new industry would develop and how tribal governments would invest gaming revenues. Since then, Indian gaming has approached commercial, state-licensed gaming in total revenues. Gaming operations have had a far-reaching and trans...

  19. Effect of Simulated Microgravity on the Activity of Regulatory Enzymes of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis in Mice Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Joaquin; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Sharma, S. Chidananda

    2014-02-01

    Gravity supports all the life activities present on earth. Microgravity environments have effect on the biological functions and physiological status of an individual. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of simulated microgravity on important regulatory enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in liver using HLS mice model. Following hind limb unloading of mice for 11 days the animal's average body weights were found to be not different, while the liver weights were decreased and found to be significantly different ( p gluconeogenesis in liver and reciprocally regulated.

  20. Improving regulatory effectiveness in Federal/State siting actions: Federal/State regulatory permitting actions in selected nuclear power station licensing cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroff, J.

    1977-06-01

    The Federal/State regulatory permitting actions in 12 case histories of nuclear power station licensing in nine different states are documented. General observations regarding Federal/State siting roles in the siting process are included. Eleven of the case histories are illustrated with a logic network that gives the actions of the utilities in addition to the Federal/State permits

  1. Effect of school learning culture on achievement in physics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between school learning culture and achievement in student in Physics. The paper therefore recommended that stake holders in the education sector should encourage a congenial school learning culture capable of raising a high level achievement in the senior ...

  2. The evolutionary capacitor HSP90 buffers the regulatory effects of mammalian endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Barbara; Hansen, Erik C; Yoveva, Aneliya; Aprile-Garcia, Fernando; Hussong, Rebecca; Sawarkar, Ritwick

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how genotypes are linked to phenotypes is important in biomedical and evolutionary studies. The chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) buffers genetic variation by stabilizing proteins with variant sequences, thereby uncoupling phenotypes from genotypes. Here we report an unexpected role of HSP90 in buffering cis-regulatory variation affecting gene expression. By using the tripartite-motif-containing 28 (TRIM28; also known as KAP1)-mediated epigenetic pathway, HSP90 represses the regulatory influence of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) on neighboring genes that are critical for mouse development. Our data based on natural variations in the mouse genome show that genes respond to HSP90 inhibition in a manner dependent on their genomic location with regard to strain-specific ERV-insertion sites. The evolutionary-capacitor function of HSP90 may thus have facilitated the exaptation of ERVs as key modifiers of gene expression and morphological diversification. Our findings add a new regulatory layer through which HSP90 uncouples phenotypic outcomes from individual genotypes.

  3. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Invited papers and discussions. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The levels and biological effects resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation are continuously reviewed by the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Since its creation in 1928, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued recommendations on protection against ionizing radiation. The UNSCEAR estimates and the ICRP recommendations have served as the basis for national and international safety standards on radiation safety, including those developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Concerning health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, the international standards are based on the plausible assumption that, above the unavoidable background radiation dose, the probability of effects increases linearly with dose, i.e. on a 'linear, no threshold' (LNT) assumption. However, in recent years the biological estimates of health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation and the regulatory approach to the control of low level radiation exposure have been much debated. To foster information exchange on the relevant issues, an International Conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and WHO in co-operation with UNSCEAR, was held from 17-21 November 1997 at Seville, Spain. These Proceedings contain the invited special reports, keynote papers, summaries of discussions, session summaries and addresses presented at the opening and closing of the Conference

  4. Who Are You More Likely to Help? The Effects of Expected Outcomes and Regulatory Focus on Prosocial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Heyi; Xin, Ziqiang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behavior refers to a broad category of actions that benefit other people or the society. Compared with other factors that affect prosocial performance, prosocial outcomes, consisting of prosocial gains and prosocial non-losses have received less attention up to now. In the current research, we explored the influences of different types of expected outcomes and regulatory focus on prosocial performance. Studies 1a and 1b examined the differences in prosocial performance elicited by prosocial gain (e.g., enhancing others’ access to clean water) and prosocial non-loss outcomes (e.g., protecting others from suffering dirty water). We found that the expected prosocial non-loss outcomes induced greater prosocial performance compared with the expected prosocial gain outcomes. Studies 2a and 2b examined the effects of dispositional and situational regulatory focus on prosocial loss aversion. We found that differences in prosocial performance between two expected prosocial outcomes were reduced when promotion focus was primed; whereas a primed prevention focus did not significantly increase this difference. Additionally, participants displayed a greater prosocial loss aversion in the prevention focus condition than in the promotion focus condition. The reason for the non-significant interaction between regulatory focus and expected prosocial outcome was discussed. PMID:27824909

  5. Who Are You More Likely to Help? The Effects of Expected Outcomes and Regulatory Focus on Prosocial Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqiu Xiao

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior refers to a broad category of actions that benefit other people or the society. Compared with other factors that affect prosocial performance, prosocial outcomes, consisting of prosocial gains and prosocial non-losses have received less attention up to now. In the current research, we explored the influences of different types of expected outcomes and regulatory focus on prosocial performance. Studies 1a and 1b examined the differences in prosocial performance elicited by prosocial gain (e.g., enhancing others' access to clean water and prosocial non-loss outcomes (e.g., protecting others from suffering dirty water. We found that the expected prosocial non-loss outcomes induced greater prosocial performance compared with the expected prosocial gain outcomes. Studies 2a and 2b examined the effects of dispositional and situational regulatory focus on prosocial loss aversion. We found that differences in prosocial performance between two expected prosocial outcomes were reduced when promotion focus was primed; whereas a primed prevention focus did not significantly increase this difference. Additionally, participants displayed a greater prosocial loss aversion in the prevention focus condition than in the promotion focus condition. The reason for the non-significant interaction between regulatory focus and expected prosocial outcome was discussed.

  6. Accumulative effects of regulatory actions. Exercise of analysis of CER, consideration of the cumulative Effects of regulation in the rulemaking process in Spanish NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ayestaran, P.; Castella, L.

    2014-01-01

    Through its interaction with the American industry, the NRC has been aware for a number of years of the concern about the impact of the accumulative effect of some regulatory actions. In response to this concern, which was highlighted by the industry, the NRC has carried out initiative to review a number of regulatory requirements order to ensure that NRC regulation and practices dno not lead to an unnecessary regulatory load. The foregoing was in response to what has become commonly known as the CER. Cumulative Effects of Regulation in the Rulemaking Process. In view of the regulatory actuation by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and, in particular after the events which occurred in Japan, a pilot study has been carried out to examine the CER on a Spanish plant in order to analyse the cumulative effects of regulation and to propose improvements to the management of regulation in line with that set our by the NRC in various documents (SECY-02-081, SECY-11-0032 among others). (Authors)

  7. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  8. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  9. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiations. Evidence of effect of pre-irradiation of culture medium on subsequent growth in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus lividus in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conter, A.; Planel, H.

    1986-01-01

    In order to distinguish the direct effects of low dose of ionizing radiations at the cellular level from those indirect through the culture medium, we have compared proliferation of Synechococcus lividus grown in pre-irradiated medium to proliferation of cultures grown in non-irradiated medium. A stimulation of growth was observed at the 7th day in cultures inoculated with cells selected in deceleration phase, while an inhibition occured in cultures inoculated with exponential growing cells. Addition of catalase (100 U/ml) counteracted the stimulating effect but did not change the inhibiting effect induced by pre-irradiated medium. Results demonstrated the indirect effect of low dose of irradiation, implying hydrogen peroxide, but let us to think that others radioproduced products could be also involved in the mechanism [fr

  10. Effects of 2,3-iminosqualene in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popjak, G.; Meenan, A.; Nes, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    2,3-Iminosqualene added to culture media 10 ug/ml) of rat hepatoma (H4-II-E-C3) or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells irreversibly inactivates the squalene-oxide: lanosterol cyclase, but it does not inhibit general polyprenyl synthesis either from [ 14 C]acetate or [ 14 C]mevalonate. Isq added to lipoprotein-containing media of H4 cells causes in 24 hr an over twofold rise in HMG-CoA reductase and abolishes the repressive effect of mevalonate (MVA) on the reductase. H4 cells synthesize from [2- 14 C]-MVA labelled squalene, squalene-2,3-oxide, squalene-2,3-22,23-dioxide, but very little sterol. The conversion of MVA to these polyprenyls in the presence of Isq is as efficient as its conversion to squalene and cholesterol in control cells. They conclude that the repressor of HMG-CoA reductase derived from MVA is a sterol - whatever might be the nature of that sterol - and not a nonsteroidal derivative of MVA metabolism. H4 cells exposed to Isq in lipid-depleted media die in 48-72 hr, but can be rescued by LDL, but not by free cholesterol or MVA. CHO cells are more resistant than H4 cells and succumb only after 8-9 days' exposure to Isq

  11. Benefits for me or risks for others: a cross-culture investigation of the effects of message frames and cultural appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Shen, Fuyuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of message frames when they were culturally tailored. Focusing on one aspect of culture-individualism and collectivism-the study discovered some similar patterns across cultures: The effect of message framing in motivating preventive behaviors could be moderated by the cultural values embedded in the messages. Messages focusing on individualistic gains and collectivistic losses successfully increased people's intention to adopt preventive behaviors. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  12. The effect of mitomycin-c in keloid fibroblast cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishandono Dachlan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Keloid occurs due to hyperactivity of keloid fibroblast (KF in proliferation, migration, collagen deposition, together with low rates of collagen degradation. These are under the responsibility of TGF-b. Mitomycin C (MC is used for treating keloid by a topical application during surgery at the level of 0.02% to 0.08%. Unfortunately, the lowest effective level of MC for keloid has not been determined yet. We aimed to determine the lowest effective level of MC in the suppression of KF activities. Various levels of MC diluted in growth medium were administered on KF that were isolated from six patients. After 24 hours and 72 hours of incubation, cellular proliferation, collagen deposition, cellular migration and level of TGF-b, were analyzed. Application of 120 uM MC on KF culture for 24 hours could significantly reduce TGF-b production from 1265.74 ± 274.81 pg/mL to 265.17 ± 12.20 pg/mL; proliferation index from 100% to 84.01 ± 12.91%; inhibit cellular migration to 64.38 ± 3.66%; but reduce collagen depositions from 100% to only 91.13 ± 10.19%. The lowest MC level is on 30 uM or equal with 0.001%. In conclusion, the lowest level of MC can suppress the activities of KF is 0.001%. Moreover, due to low activity in inhibiting collagen deposition, MC would be better as an adjuvant drug for keloid surgery.

  13. Cross-cultural medical education: can patient-centered cultural competency training be effective in non-Western countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Yao, Grace; Lee, Keng-Lin; Beach, Mary Catherine; Green, Alexander R

    2008-01-01

    No evidence addresses the effectiveness of patient-centered cultural competence training in non-Western settings. To examine whether a patient-centered cultural competency curriculum improves medical students' skills in eliciting the patients' perspective and exploring illness-related social factors. Fifty-seven medical students in Taiwan were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 27) or one of two intervention groups: basic (n = 15) and extensive (n = 15). Both intervention groups received two 2-hour patient-centered cultural competency workshops. In addition, the extensive intervention group received a 2-hour practice session. The control group received no training. At the end of the clerkship, all students were evaluated with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students in the extensive intervention group scored significantly higher than the basic intervention and control groups in eliciting the patient's perspective (F = 18.38, p social factors (F = 6.66, p = 0.003, eta(2) = 0.20). Patient-centered cultural competency training can produce improvement in medical students' cross-cultural communication skills in non-Western settings, especially when adequate practice is provided.

  14. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecciso, Mariangela; Ocadlikova, Darina; Sangaletti, Sabina; Trabanelli, Sara; De Marchi, Elena; Orioli, Elisa; Pegoraro, Anna; Portararo, Paola; Jandus, Camilla; Bontadini, Andrea; Redavid, Annarita; Salvestrini, Valentina; Romero, Pedro; Colombo, Mario P; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Cavo, Michele; Adinolfi, Elena; Curti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC) cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs) with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1 + CD39 + DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  15. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Lecciso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1, which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1+CD39+ DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  16. Regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hui Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29. Methods: Colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 were cultured and divided into blank control group and evodiamine group, and after different treatment, cell viability, proportion of different cell cycle as well as the contents of VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3, MMP14, Wnt and β-catenin were detected. Results: (1 Cell viability: MTT value of evodiamine group was significantly lower than that of blank control group; (2 Cell cycle: proportion of both S phase and G2/M phase of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group, and proportion of G0/ G1 phase was higher than that of blank control group; (3 VEGF and MMP contents: VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3 and MMP14 contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group; (4 Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway: Wnt and β-catenin contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group. Conclusion: Evodiamine can inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and down-regulate the expression of VEGF and MMP, and the effect may be achieved by inhibiting the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  17. The cultural life script of Qatar and across cultures: effects of gender and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    Cultural life scripts (CLS) are culturally shared cognitive representations of the expected order and timing of important life events in a prototypical life. Through three studies data from Qatar were analysed and compared to previously collected data from Denmark, Turkey, and the US. In Study 1 we examined the CLS of Qatar in order to determine whether the clear segregation of men and women as well as the centrality of religion in this society would influence the CLS. A total of 55 Qatari undergraduates completed the standard CLS task, imaging a Qatari infant of their own as well as the opposite gender. In Study 2 important personal life story events were collected from 83 Qatari undergraduates in order to explore the overlap between remembered life events and CLS events. Study 3 was a reanalysis of CLS data from Denmark, Turkey, and the US. There was a considerable overlap of events across cultures, but we also found that the Qatari CLS showed more gender differences and contained more religious and positive events compared to the other three countries.

  18. Enhancement effect of shikonin in cell suspension culture and transfermanant culture by radiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Young Keun; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Young Bok; Hwang Hye Yeon

    2004-10-01

    The cell lines 679, 679-29 and 622-46 of L. erythrorhizon could be selected on LS agar medium for the production shikonin in cell suspension culture. The shikonin was increased moderately in suspension culture of cell line 622-46 in LS liquid medium containing BA 2 mg·L -1 and IAA 0.2 mg·L -1 in the dark, and was increased by adding 1 μM Cu 2+ and 100 μM methyl jasmonate The accumulation of shikonin in the liquid medium was increased significantly by 2 Gy irradiation to callus of cell line 622-46 and culture in LS liquid medium containing BA 2 mg·L -1 and IAA 0.2 mg·L -1 in the dark and shikonin in cell debris was higher by 16 Gy irradiation. The activity of p-hydroxybenzoate geranyltransferase was increased by irradiation of 2 Gy and 16 Gy of γ radiation. Seedling hypocotyles of L. erythrorhizon were infected with Agrogacterium rhizogenes strain 15834 harboring a binary vector with an intron bearing the GUS (β-glucuronidase) gene driven by cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promotor as well as the HPT (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene as the selection marker. Hairy roots isolated were hygromycin resistant and had integrated GUS gene in DNA. The root tip grown on M-9 medium showed normal pigment production pattern in border cells and root hairs

  19. Growth effects on mixed culture of Dunaliella salina and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... compounds of nutritional supplements or food additives. (Wikfors and Ohno ... mixed cultures of marine microalgae and most of the work has been ..... This work was supported by the National Natural Science. Foundation of ...

  20. The effect of cultural diversity on employee productivity in work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review ... to improving workers' skills and knowledge to the detriment of employees' daily ... Since conflict arising from cultural differences wastes time and reduces employee morale, this ...

  1. Safety culture: modern slogan or effective contribution to safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salm, M.

    1994-01-01

    Safety culture is defined and its impact on nuclear power plants is documented using the words of the INSAG of IAEA. Two examples from the field of aviation and space flight testify, that the upper management, by its sheer image, may considerably influence actions of the lower levels of the hierarchy. Management therefore can do a lot more for safety than is commonly assumed. Two examples, although separated by 57 years, show that the mentioned influence remains unchanged inspire of progress in management- and organisation-methods as well as in safety-engineering. Safety culture is an overriding element of safety, acting at all levels of a hierarchy. Its action is most important on those levels, for which precise reglementation is hardly possible. The chain of technical and organisational measures guarantees safety only under the condition, that it is embedded in 'safety culture'. Safety culture therefore merits our full attention. (author) 1 fig

  2. The Effect of Globalization on Tanzanian Culture: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Globalization has a lot of controversies with regard to the rise of global culture. ... of interaction which comes from a certain level of influence such that consequences are either good or bad.

  3. The Effect of Personnel Training on Corporate Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Zakablutskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems arising in commercial organizations as a result of initiatives in the area of purposeful changes in company corporate culture, and analyses the mechanism of initiating and introducing such changes through personnel training.

  4. Effecting IT infrastructure culture change: management by processes and metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    This talk describes the processes and metrics used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory to bring about the required IT infrastructure culture change to update and certify, as Y2K compliant, thousands of computers and millions of lines of code.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sezerel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of diversity management practices relies on the combination of a series of variables properly. The relevant literature suggests that diversity management is highly depended on an adequate organizational culture. Thus, a research model that proposes that organizational culture has impact on diversity management perceptions of employees. There are two data sets in this research. The independent variable of the research is organizational culture and the dependent variable of the research is the level of diversity management perceptions. The research is adopted in quantitative method and the data collected via questionnaires. This research which is conducted in a hotel chain finds that the mission dimension of organizational culture impacts all three levels of diversity management.

  6. Effects of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour Fahimeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sterol regulatory element binding protein- 1 and -2 (SREBP-1 and -2 are key transcription factors involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids. The SREBP have mostly been studied in rodents in which lipogenesis is regulated in both liver and adipose tissue. There is, though, a paucity of information on birds, in which lipogenesis occurs essentially in the liver as in humans. Since a prelude to the investigation of the role of SREBP in lipid metabolism regulation in chicken, we review Size and Tissue expression Pattern of SREBP and role of this protein in chickens.

  7. Quality Management System Improves Effectiveness and Quality of Activities of Radiation Protection Regulatory Body in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Processes of creation of quality management system (QMS) in regulatory body in radiation protection field – Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) and the benefit of this system to ensure the quality of the performance of functions are described. RPC QMS compliant with ISO 9001:2008 standard and in line with the requirements of the IAEA GSR- 3 document. It allowed achieving a new quality of works carried out by RPC. Because creation and introduction of the QMS is a continuous process, the QMS of RPC is continually renewed and new procedures are developed.

  8. Effect of collagen on magnetization transfer contrast assessed in cultured cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Jun; Seo, Gwy-Suk; Karakida, Osamu; Ueda, Hitoshi; Sone, Shusuke; Hiraki, Yuji; Shukunami, Chisa; Moriya, Hiroto.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effect of collagen on magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in cultured cartilage. In our culture system, only collagen synthesis was increased by the addition of vitamin C, while proteoglycan synthesis and the number of chondrocytes were unaffected. The MTC effect was assessed by using an off-resonance RF pulse (0.3 KHz off-resonance, sinc wave of 18 msec, maximum amplitude 4.61 x 10 -4 T) on a GRASS sequence. The cartilage cultured with vitamin C showed a higher MTC effect than that cultured without vitamin C. The major role of collagen on MTC was confirmed in living cartilage tissue. (author)

  9. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade significant reductions of NOx and SOx emissions from coal burning power plants in the U.S. have been achieved due to regulatory action and substitution of new generation towards natural gas and wind power. Low natural gas prices, ever decreasing solar generation costs, and proposed regulatory changes, such as to the Cross State Air Pollution Rule, promise further long-run coal power plant emission reductions. Reduced power plant emissions have the potential to affect ozone and particulate air quality and influence regional climate through aerosol cloud interactions and visibility effects. Here we investigate, on a national scale, the effects on future (~2030) air quality and regional climate of power plant emission regulations in contrast to and combination with policies designed to aggressively promote solar electricity generation. A sophisticated, economic and engineering based, hourly power generation dispatch model is developed to explore the integration of significant solar generation resources (>10% on an energy basis) at various regions across the county, providing detailed estimates of substitution of solar generation for fossil fuel generation resources. Future air pollutant emissions from all sectors of the economy are scaled based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory to account for activity changes based on population and economic projections derived from county level U.S. Census data and the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook. Further adjustments are made for technological and regulatory changes applicable within various sectors, for example, emission intensity adjustments to on-road diesel trucking due to exhaust treatment and improved engine design. The future year 2030 is selected for the emissions scenarios to allow for the development of significant solar generation resources. A regional climate and air quality model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF model) is

  10. Porcine spermatogonial stem cells self-renew effectively in a three dimensional culture microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Min Hee; Kim, Min Seong; Park, Yeo Reum; Yun, Jung Im; Cheong, Hee Tae; Kim, Minseok; Choi, Jung Hoon; Lee, Eunsong; Lee, Seung Tae

    2017-12-01

    Generally, self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is maintained in vivo in a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment consisting of the seminiferous tubule basement membrane, indicating the importance of the 3D microenvironment for in vitro culture of SSCs. Here, we report a 3D culture microenvironment that effectively maintains porcine SSC self-renewal during culture. Porcine SSCs were cultured in an agarose-based 3D hydrogel and in 2D culture plates either with or without feeder cells. Subsequently, the effects of 3D culture on the maintenance of undifferentiated SSCs were identified by analyzing cell colony formation and morphology, AP activity, and transcriptional and translational regulation of self-renewal-related genes and the effects on proliferation by analyzing cell viability and single cell-derived colony number. The 3D culture microenvironment constructed using a 0.2% (w/v) agarose-based 3D hydrogel showed the strongest maintenance of porcine SSC self-renewal and induced significant improvements in proliferation compared with 2D culture microenvironments. These results demonstrate that self-renewal of porcine SSCs can be maintained more effectively in a 3D than in a 2D culture microenvironment. Moreover, this will play a significant role in developing novel culture systems for SSCs derived from diverse species in the future, which will contribute to SSC-related research. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. The Effects of Rising Interest Rates on Electric Utility Stock Prices: Regulatory Considerations and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This technical brief identifies conditions under which utility regulators should consider implementing policy approaches that seek to mitigate negative outcomes due to an increase in interest rates. Interest rates are a key factor in determining a utility’s cost of equity and investors find value when returns exceed the cost of equity. Through historical observations of periods of rising and falling interest rates and application of a pro forma financial tool, we identify the key drivers of utility stock valuations and estimate the degree to which those valuations might be affected by increasing interest rates.3 We also analyze the efficacy of responses by utility regulators to mitigate potential negative financial impacts. We find that regulators have several possible approaches to mitigate a decline in value in an environment of increasing interest rates, though regulators must weigh the tradeoffs of improving investor value with potential increases in customer costs. Furthermore, the range of approaches reflects today’s many different electric utility regulatory models and regulatory responses to a decline in investor value will fit within state-specific models.

  12. COST EFFECTIVE REGULATORY APPROACHES TO ENHANCE DOMESTIC OIL & GAS PRODUCTION AND ENSURE THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Grunewald; Paul Jehn; Tom Gillespie; Ben Binder

    2004-12-21

    The Environmental Information Management Suite/Risk Based Data Management System (EIMS/RBDMS) and Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA) programs continue to be successful. All oil and gas state regulatory programs participate in these efforts. Significant accomplishments include: streamline regulatory approaches, enhancing environmental protection, and making oil and gas data available via the Internet. Oil and gas companies worldwide now have access to data on state web sites. This reduces the cost of exploration and enables companies to develop properties in areas that would have been cost prohibited for exploration. Early in project, GWPC and State Oil and Gas agencies developed the EIMS and CERA strategic plan to prioritize long term development and implementation. The planning process identifies electronic commerce and coal bed methane as high priorities. The group has involved strategic partners in industry and government to develop a common data exchange process. Technical assistance to Alaska continues to improve their program management capabilities. New initiatives in Alaska include the development of an electronic permit tracking system. This system allows managers to expedite the permitting process. Nationwide, the RBDMS system is largely completed with 22 states and one Indian Nation now using this nationally accepted data management system. Additional remaining tasks include routine maintenance and the installation of the program upon request for the remaining oil and gas states. The GWPC in working with the BLM and MMS to develop an XML schema to facilitate electronic permitting and reporting (Appendix A, B, and C). This is a significant effort and, in years to come, will increase access to federal lands by reducing regulatory barriers. The new initiatives are coal bed methane and e-commerce. The e-commerce program will provide industry and BLM/MMS access to the millions of data points housed in the RBDMS system. E-commerce will streamline

  13. The Relationship of Employee Status to Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Jackie W.; DeLotell, Pam J.; Kelly, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the relationship between employment status (full time (FT)/part time (PT)), organizational culture and institutional effectiveness in higher education. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question, "Does the growing population of PT faculty preclude effective cultures from developing and, accordingly,…

  14. Leadership style and leadership effectiveness: Does cultural intelligence moderate the relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon

    2017-06-01

    Contribution and value add: Being one of the first studies to explore the moderating effect of leader cultural intelligence on the relationship between leadership style and leadership effectiveness, this research has made a valuable contribution to building both the cultural intelligence and leadership knowledge bases.

  15. Effect of lidocaine 2% on bacterial culture of bronchial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, M.; Meybodi, F.A.A.; Mokarianpour, T.; Fallah, T.; Mongabadi, F.D.; Ayatollahi, J.; Shahcherghi, S.H.; Yazdi, M.H.A

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the action of 2% lidocaine on the culture results of bronchial fluid in patients suspected of having lower respiratory tract infections. Study Design:Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study:Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran, from November 2014 to November 2015. Methodology:Patients suspected of lower respiratory tract infections referred to bronchoscopy unit of the Hospital were included. Those with incomplete questionnaire and bronchoscopy contraindication were excluded. Bronchial fluid was aspirated before and after local application of 2% lidocaine and cultured, according to the suspected clinical diagnosis. Finally, statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 17.0. For statistical comparisons, McNemar's test was used. Level of significance was kept at p <0.05. Results:The mean age of the study population was 51.83 +-15.93 with a range of 25 - 80 years. Out of 130 patients, 60 patients had positive culture results. Nineteen (31.7%) cases had positive culture for tuberculosis and 41 (63.3%) cases had positive results for other bacteria before intervention that did not change after using 2% lidocaine (p=1). In 70 (53.84%) cases, results were negative before and after use of 2% lidocaine. Conclusion:No significant difference was found between culture results before and after the use of lidocaine. Therefore, lidocaine can be used during bronchoscopy to increase patient tolerance. (author)

  16. Politically Induced Regulatory Risk and Independent Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty in election outcomes generates politically induced regulatory risk. Political parties' risk attitudes towards such risk depend on a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output--expansion effect that benefits at least one party. Notwithstanding the parties' risk attitudes, political parties have incentives to negotiate away all regulatory risk by pre-electoral bargaining. Efficient pre-electoral bargaining outcomes fully eliminate politically induced regulatory risk. P...

  17. Muscle-derived interleukin-6: lipolytic, anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Steensberg, Adam; Keller, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    is low. Furthermore, cultured human primary muscle cells can increase IL-6 mRNA when incubated with the calcium ionophore ionomycin and it is likely that myocytes produce IL-6 in response to muscle contraction. The biological roles of muscle-derived IL-6 have been investigated in studies in which human...

  18. No effect of embryo culture media on birthweight and length of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengli; Li, Ming; Lian, Ying; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping

    2013-07-01

    Does the type of media used to culture embryos for IVF influence the birthweight and length of neonates? No significant differences were observed in birthweight and length among the three embryo culture media used for in vitro embryo culture. Since the establishment of IVF as an assisted reproductive technology (ART), many different culture systems have been used for the development of human embryos. Some studies have shown that the types of culture media influence the newborn birthweight; however, other studies have shown no effect. To further explore this contradictory issue, we compared the birthweight and length of neonates born after the transfer of embryos cultured in one of three commercially available media. This retrospective analysis of birthweight and length of newborns included 1201 women who delivered singletons and 445 women who delivered twins. The following three commercially available culture media were used: G5™, Global and Quinn's advantage media. Women who underwent IVF-ET cycles between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed. Patients younger than 40 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) culture medium. Inter-twin mean birthweight and length disparities were analyzed, but were not shown to be significantly different. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that maternal weight, maternal height, gestational age and infant gender were significantly related to birthweight, and paternal height, gestational age and newborn complications were significantly associated with birth length. The current study showed that birthweight and length of newborns were not associated with the embryo culture medium. More research needs to be performed to analyze the effects of other culture medium formulations and to evaluate the long-term effects of embryo culture medium on the health of children conceived through ART. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THESE FINDINGS: Our retrospective study suggests that embryo culture medium does not influence neonatal birthweight and length

  19. Does Teacher Evaluation Mediate the Effect of Cultural Capital on Educational Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asta Breinholt; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This study analyzes whether teachers' evaluations of children's academic skills mediate the effect of cultural capital on educational performance. We use ECLS-K data with repeated measures on children in 1st, 3rd and 5th grade and apply fixed effects models, that control for unobserved time...... invariant child and family characteristics. The analysis shows that teacher evaluations have positive effect on educational performance, but that cultural capital has no effect on teacher evaluations. Instead cultural capital has a direct positive effect on educational performance....

  20. 75 FR 4431 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... regulatory operations in the Concept Release Concerning Self-Regulation \\22\\ and the release on the Fair Administration and Governance of Self- Regulatory Organizations.\\23\\ In the Concept Release, the Commission... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61388; File No. SR-BX-2010-001] Self-Regulatory...

  1. 77 FR 52098 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Exchange would announce via Regulatory Bulletin the applicable time period(s) for the Risk Limitation... Exchange would specify via Regulatory Bulletin the applicable time period(s) for the Risk Limitation... Risk Limitation Mechanisms, as well as any applicable time period(s) and order types, via Regulatory...

  2. 75 FR 39714 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to....C. 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of the.... II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed...

  3. 75 FR 50013 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. NYSE Amex filed the proposed rule change as a ``non.... Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The... its filing with the Commission, the self-regulatory organization included statements concerning the...

  4. 75 FR 25009 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice...\\ 15 U.S.C. 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of....sec.gov and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of...

  5. 75 FR 20030 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to....C. 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance... Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and...

  6. 77 FR 74715 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    .... Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The... Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the... significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and...

  7. 76 FR 18813 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory... Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory... significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and...

  8. 75 FR 27609 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to....C. 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance... Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the...

  9. 75 FR 63233 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ..., which Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this...). \\2\\ 15 U.S.C. 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of...'s Web site at http://www.nyse.com . II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of...

  10. 75 FR 18556 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. Amex filed the proposal pursuant to Section 19.... Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The... , at the Exchange's principal office and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory...

  11. 77 FR 34420 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... statements. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the... respect to marking Strategy Trades would be uniformly applied to members. B. Self-Regulatory Organization... the Act. C. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Comments on the Proposed Rule Change Received...

  12. Representations of Disability: School and Its Cultural Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeghini, Roberto; Fornasa, Walter; Vadalà, Giuseppe

    School plays a significant role in cultural production where representations of difference and disability are very important: educational and pedagogical practices (implicit and explicit) help to form cultural and social representations of the world and, consequently, to confirm some stereotypes too. In this regard the study of social representations linked in with disability assumes some importance: in fact disability becomes a difference excluded from educational and social dynamics as well as from full participation in citizenship. This research will try to draw some dominant social representations about differences and disability, through analysis of young university students stories and memories.

  13. Inhibition effect of B7-H1 gene-modified regulatory dendritic cells on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Xin Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To construct adenovirus vector expressing mice B7-H1 gene, transfect dendritic cells(DCs, and to study the therapeutic effect of modified DC on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy(TAOin mice.METHODS: We designed and constructed B7-H1 gene adenovirus expression vector, and transfected DCs from mouse bone marrow, tested the phenotype and function of modified DCs, identificated its negative regulation to immune responses. The modified DCs were infected the sicked mice. And then the immunotherapeutic effect of modified DCs to TAO were tested. RESULTS: B7-H1 gene adenovirus vector was constructed and transfected DCs from bone marrow. The titer of the recombinant adenovirus was 1.8×109PFU/mL. B7-H1 gene modified DCs characteristics of regulatory DCs, could inhibit positive immune responses. The inhibition proceeding of TAO into mice infected modified DCs, was obviously prior to the control mice. The gene modified DCs, maybe become the new immunotherapy biological agent to thy TAO.CONCLUSION: We constructed the expression of mouse B7-H1 gene adenovirus expressed vector successfully, transfected DCs,by vector have properties of regulatory DCs, inhibiting positive immune response and the occurrence and development of thyroid eye disease. Gene modified DCs, reveal potent to the treatment of thyroid eye disease.

  14. Consumption of probiotics increases the effect of regulatory T cells in transfer colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emil Rathsach; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics may alter immune regulation. Recently, we showed that the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™ influenced the activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate if L. acidophilus NCFM™ also affects the function...... of Tregs in vivo. METHODS: Development of colitis after transfer of CD4+CD25- T cells and protection from colitis by Tregs was studied in immunodeficient SCID mice which were simultaneously tube-fed with L. acidophilus NCFM™ or L. salivarius Ls-33 for 5 weeks. RESULTS: Probiotic-fed SCID mice transplanted...... with low numbers of Tregs in addition to the disease-inducing T cells were completely protected from colitis. This was in contrast to the control group, which showed intermediate levels of inflammation. In addition, feeding with probiotics lowered serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in both colitic mice...

  15. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions: water supplies and the nuclear licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, F.S.

    1977-07-01

    The Interstate Conference on Water Problems (ICWP) is a national association of State, intrastate, and interstate officials concerned with water resources administration and related matters. The Conference was established in 1959 as an outgrowth of regional conferences on water problems as recognized in the same year by action of the General Assembly of the States. This report was produced by the Interstate Conference on Water Problems in an effort to provide a compilation and summary of the views of selected States regarding relationships of water supplies to the nuclear power plant licensing process. This publication does not represent the official position of the U.S Water Resources Council, or the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor does it represent the position of any single state or the ICWP

  16. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p production (β = .359, p promotion. In addition, results of cross-level moderating effect analysis by HLM demonstrated that the effects of organizational health culture on three dimensions of

  17. The effect of corporate culture on firm performance: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Hailin Zhao; Haimeng Teng; Qiang Wu

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether corporate culture promotion affects firm performance in China in terms of firm market value, firm financial performance and innovation output. We find consistent evidence that corporate culture promotion is negatively related to firm market value, positively related to innovation output and not significantly related to firm financial performance. In addition, the negative effect of corporate culture promotion on firm market value is driven by small firms and firms ...

  18. The Mediating Effect of Organizational Commitment on the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Mohamed Ali Shurbagi; Ibrahim Bin Zahari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of organizational commitment as a mediating variable on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational culture to answer the following questions: Is there any relationship between job satisfaction and organizational culture in oil and gas industry in Libya? Is there any relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment in oil and gas industry in Libya? Is there any relationship between organizational cultur...

  19. Leave the Drama on the Stage: The Effect of Cultural Participation on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Thiel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the causal effect of cultural participation on health status. Cultural activities may directly impact upon health through palliative coping or substituting health-compromising behaviors. Cultural engagement may also facilitate the development of social networks, which can improve health via social support and the dissemination of social health norms. Previous estimates on the arts-health relationship are potentially biased due to reverse causality and unob...

  20. Effects of Business Model Development Projects on Organizational Culture: A Multiple Case Study of SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Ulla Santti; Tuomo Eskelinen; Mervi Rajahonka; Kaija Villman; Ari Happonen

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that links between organizational culture and innovativeness/performance may act as a “social glue” that helps a company develop organizational culture as a competitive advantage. In this study of three case companies, the organizational culture change due business model development projects is studied using the Competing Values Framework (CVF) tool and interviews with respondents about discovered changes. To reveal intervention and implied effects between business...

  1. EFFECT OF LEARNING CULTURE, EMPOWERMENT, AND CYBER SKILL COMPETENCY ON SELF-ENGAGEMENT EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.M. Indah Permata Sari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to comprehensively about the effect of learning culture, empowerment, and cyber skill competence on self engagement of the employee in Directorate General of Potential for Defense Ministry of Defense Republic of Indonesia. The research methodology was survey with path analysis applied in testing hypothesis. It was conducted to 150 employees from population 241 employee who was selected in simple random way.Analysis and interpretation of data indicate that (1 learning culture has a positive direct effect in self engagement, (2 empowerment has a positive direct effect in self engagement, (3 cyber skill competence has a positive direct effect in self engagement, (4 learning culture has a positive direct effect in cyber skill competence, (5 empowerment has a positive direct effect in cyber skill competence, and (6 learning culture has a positive direct effect in empowerment

  2. Molecular evidence for increased regulatory conservation during metamorphosis, and against deleterious cascading effects of hybrid breakdown in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artieri Carlo G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speculation regarding the importance of changes in gene regulation in determining major phylogenetic patterns continues to accrue, despite a lack of broad-scale comparative studies examining how patterns of gene expression vary during development. Comparative transcriptional profiling of adult interspecific hybrids and their parental species has uncovered widespread divergence of the mechanisms controlling gene regulation, revealing incompatibilities that are masked in comparisons between the pure species. However, this has prompted the suggestion that misexpression in adult hybrids results from the downstream cascading effects of a subset of genes improperly regulated in early development. Results We sought to determine how gene expression diverges over development, as well as test the cascade hypothesis, by profiling expression in males of Drosophila melanogaster, D. sechellia, and D. simulans, as well as the D. simulans (♀ × D. sechellia (♂ male F1 hybrids, at four different developmental time points (3rd instar larval, early pupal, late pupal, and newly-emerged adult. Contrary to the cascade model of misexpression, we find that there is considerable stage-specific autonomy of regulatory breakdown in hybrids, with the larval and adult stages showing significantly more hybrid misexpression as compared to the pupal stage. However, comparisons between pure species indicate that genes expressed during earlier stages of development tend to be more conserved in terms of their level of expression than those expressed during later stages, suggesting that while Von Baer's famous law applies at both the level of nucleotide sequence and expression, it may not apply necessarily to the underlying overall regulatory network, which appears to diverge over the course of ontogeny and which can only be ascertained by combining divergent genomes in species hybrids. Conclusion Our results suggest that complex integration of regulatory

  3. Immunoregulatory effects of human dental pulp-derived stem cells on T cells: comparison of transwell co-culture and mixed lymphocyte reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Pinar Cetinalp; Sariboyaci, Ayla Eker; Unal, Zehra Seda; Gacar, Gulcin; Subasi, Cansu; Karaoz, Erdal

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS. Studies performed using human and animal models have indicated the immunoregulatory capability of mesenchymal stromal cells in several lineages. We investigated whether human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDP-SC) have regulatory effects on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated CD3(+) T cells. We aimed to define the regulatory mechanisms associated with hDP-SC that occur in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and transwell systems with PHA-CD3(+) T cells and hDP-SC at a ratio of 1:1. METHODS. Proliferation, apoptosis and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of PHA-CD3(+)T cells, the expression of Regulatory T cells (Treg) markers and some regulatory factors related to hDP-SC, were studied in Both transwell and MLR are co-cultures systems. RESULTS. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of hDP-SC were determined in co-culture systems. Elevated expression levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-β1, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by hDP-SC were detected in the co-culture systems. We observed decreased expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, IL-6 receptor (R), IL-12, Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and increased expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine [inducible protein (IP)-10] from PHA-CD3(+) T cells in the transwell system. Expression of Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+)) markers was significantly induced by hDP-SC in both co-culture systems. We observed apoptosis of PHA-CD3(+) T cells with 24 h using time-lapse camera photographs and active caspase labeling; it is likely that paracrine soluble factors and molecular signals secreted by hDP-SC led this apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS. We suggest that hDP-SC have potent immunoregulatory functions because of their soluble factors and cytokines via paracrine

  4. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  5. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  6. Supportive Organisational Cultures and their effects on Male Civil Engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Valarie

    2012-01-01

    Substantial changes, not only in the demographic composition of the Australian workforce, but also,in the roles and expectations of men and women, have led to organisational and employee attempts to reconcile work and non-work demands. Research suggests that when work-family balance practices are introduced they can greatly enhance organisational efficency. However factors embedded in the organisational culture can undermine these policies rendering them ineffective. This quantitative study e...

  7. An experimental strategy validated to design cost-effective culture media based on response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Téllez-Martínez, M G; Miranda-López, R; Jiménez-Islas, H

    2017-07-03

    For any fermentation process, the production cost depends on several factors, such as the genetics of the microorganism, the process condition, and the culture medium composition. In this work, a guideline for the design of cost-efficient culture media using a sequential approach based on response surface methodology is described. The procedure was applied to analyze and optimize a culture medium of registered trademark and a base culture medium obtained as a result of the screening analysis from different culture media used to grow the same strain according to the literature. During the experiments, the procedure quantitatively identified an appropriate array of micronutrients to obtain a significant yield and find a minimum number of culture medium ingredients without limiting the process efficiency. The resultant culture medium showed an efficiency that compares favorably with the registered trademark medium at a 95% lower cost as well as reduced the number of ingredients in the base culture medium by 60% without limiting the process efficiency. These results demonstrated that, aside from satisfying the qualitative requirements, an optimum quantity of each constituent is needed to obtain a cost-effective culture medium. Study process variables for optimized culture medium and scaling-up production for the optimal values are desirable.

  8. "Body Practices--Exposure and Effect of a Sporting Culture?" "Stories from Three Australian Swimmers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jenny; Penney, Dawn; Dinan-Thompson, Maree

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to sport, sociology and the body literature by exploring the "exposure and effect" of culture, in particular bodily practices placed on three adolescent swimmers immersed in the Australian swimming culture using an ethnographic framework. The research reported is particularly notable as it addresses two distinct…

  9. Race, Cultural Capital, and the Educational Effects of Participation in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether cultural capital, household educational resources, family structure, and race relate to participation in football, basketball, or other sports and whether the effects of participation on academic achievement differ by race and sport. Suggests that cultural disadvantage contributes to increased interest in basketball and football…

  10. The Relationship between an Effective Organizational Culture and Student Discipline in a Boarding School

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Oosthuizen, Izak; Wolhuter, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between effective organizational culture and student discipline in a boys' boarding house at an urban South African school. Ethnographical methods (observation and interviews) were employed. The study reports on the results pertaining to organizational culture, namely, tangible manifestations of the…

  11. Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage media and time was investigated on fin explants culture in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fin explants under sterile conditions were able to produce cells at different storage media and time. On the outgrowth of cells, fin explants stored for seven days before culturing showed significantly higher growth ...

  12. Effects of a Culture-Adaptive Forgiveness Intervention for Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mingxia; Hui, Eadaoin; Fu, Hong; Watkins, David; Tao, Linjin; Lo, Sing Kai

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and application of forgiveness varies across cultures. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a culture-adaptive Forgiveness Intervention on forgiveness attitude, self-esteem, empathy and anxiety of Mainland Chinese college students. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated to either experimental groups or a…

  13. Emergent Characteristics of Effective Cross-Cultural Research: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Christopher; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies characteristics of effective research done in cross-cultural environments; reviews the literature in the years following the publication of Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) seminal article, challenging the basis for the description of cultures as individualistic or collectivistic; and summarizes major issues…

  14. Exploring the Effects of Intercultural Learning on Cross-Cultural Adaptation in a Study Abroad Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yau

    2011-01-01

    This study targets Asian students studying abroad and explores the effects of intercultural learning on their cross-cultural adaptation by drawing upon a questionnaire survey. On the one hand, the results of this study find that under the influence of intercultural learning, students respond differently in their cross-cultural adaptation and no…

  15. The Effect of Authentic Leadership on School Culture: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Engin; Oztekin-Bayir, Ozge

    2018-01-01

    In the study, the effect of school principals' authentic leadership behaviors on teachers' perceptions of school culture was tested with the structural equation model. The study was carried out with the correlation research design. Authentic leadership behavior was taken as the independent variable, and school culture was taken as the dependent…

  16. Dose-response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, J.F.; Verhoef, A.; van Beelen, V.A.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Piersma, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276947

    2012-01-01

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to

  17. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal-Cell Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan; Doeselaar, Marina van; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M; Ito, Keita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  18. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal Cell-Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan A H; van Doeselaar, Marina; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Ito, K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  19. Internationalization Management in Japanese Universities: The Effects of Institutional Structures and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Yukako

    2017-01-01

    This study examines approaches to the internationalization of Japanese universities by focusing on the effects of institutional structures and cultures. Using a qualitative case study method, the research examines the following question: "How do institutional structures and cultures affect the internationalization of education in Japanese…

  20. Study on bystander effect and associated mechanism mediated through culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Xumin; Lei Suwen; Zhang Zhixing; Lv Huimin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the bystander effect and associated mechanism mediated through the irradiated cell culture medium. Methods: Splenic natural killer (NK) cells were obtained from healthy male ICR strain mice. Culture medium irradiated with different doses of 60 Co γ-rays was used for culturing Yac-I lymphoma cells. The degree of injury of the latter by activated NK cells was observed. A part of the culture media were pretreated with 1% DMSO, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to investigate the possible mechanism of a radiation-induced bystander response. Results: Severer injury was induced in Yac-I cells cultured in the media pre-irradiated with different doses of γ-rays than that in Yac-I cells cultured in unirradiated medium, as shown by increased sensitivity to murine splenic NK cells (P<0.01). Culturing Yac-I cells in DMSO-pretreated medium considerably reduced the activation of NK cells, especially in 0.25 Gy and 0.5 Gy γ-irradiated media. Therefore, it can be expected that DMSO can partly suppress ROS-induced bystander effect. Conclusion: The irradiated culture medium of Yac-I cells can trigger bystander effect. ROS likely plays an important role in radiation-induced bystander effect that can be partly suppressed by pretreatment with DMSO. (authors)

  1. Genetic Effects of Polymorphisms in Myogenic Regulatory Factors on Chicken Muscle Fiber Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The myogenic regulatory factors is a family of transcription factors that play a key role in the development of skeletal muscle fibers, which are the main factors to affect the meat taste and texture. In the present study, we performed candidate gene analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the MyoD, Myf5, MyoG, and Mrf4 genes using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism in 360 Erlang Mountain Chickens from three different housing systems (cage, pen, and free-range. The general linear model procedure was used to estimate the statistical significance of association between combined genotypes and muscle fiber traits of chickens. Two polymorphisms (g.39928301T>G and g.11579368C>T were detected in the Mrf4 and MyoD gene, respectively. The diameters of thigh and pectoralis muscle fibers were higher in birds with the combined genotypes of GG-TT and TT-CT (p0.05. Our findings suggest that the combined genotypes of TT-CT and GG-TT might be advantageous for muscle fiber traits, and could be the potential genetic markers for breeding program in Erlang Mountain Chickens.

  2. The Brazilian 2010 oil regulatory framework and its crowding-out investment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florêncio, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Investment is an essential variable in the oil sector. It is even more important in the vast Brazilian pre-salt domains, where the technological requirements are high and sophisticated. The Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras, is facing severe financial limitations to undertake these disbursements. Other oil companies will therefore have to be significantly engaged in the endeavour, which reinforces further the importance of attracting investments in Brazil. Yet this article shows that the governance architecture established in the 2010 Brazilian oil framework will deter investments in several ways, giving rise to agency problems among entities and moral hazard situations because of contractual legal liabilities. There are some credible indications that the government of President Lula overestimated the attractiveness of the Brazilian pre-salt oil discoveries and their capacity to draw investments when proposing the 2010 changes. Little attention was given to the careful examination of how the framework would affect investors, under the assumption that the favourable geological conditions would be sufficiently attractive in themselves. Even though the 2010 reforms have brought some minor advancements and there have been some signs that the government has been recently attempting to mitigate some of the problems examined in this article, that is not enough. - Highlights: • The Brazilian regulatory oil framework deters investments in the country. • The governance setting between entities is one of its worse aspects. • It causes agency problems and moral hazard situations. • Brazil has to urgently tackle these investment hindrances.

  3. Regulatory Improvements for Effective Integration of Distributed Generation into Electricity Distribution Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Jansen, J.C.; De Joode, J.; Bauknecht, D.; Gomez, T.; Pudjianto, D.; Strbac, G.; Ropenus, S.

    2007-11-01

    The growth of distributed electricity supply of renewable energy sources (RES-E) and combined heat and power (CHP) - so called distributed generation (DG) - can cause technical problems for electricity distribution networks. These integration problems can be overcome by reinforcing the network. Many European Member States apply network regulation that does not account for the impact of DG growth on the network costs. Passing on network integration costs to the DG-operator who is responsible for these extra costs may result in discrimination between different DG plants and between DG and large power generation. Therefore, in many regulatory systems distribution system operators (DSOs) are not being compensated for the DG integration costs. The DG-GRID project analysed technical and economical barriers for integration of distributed generation into electricity distribution networks. The project looked into the impact of a high DG deployment on the electricity distribution system costs and the impact on the financial position of the DSO. Several ways for improving network regulation in order to compensate DSOs for the increasing DG penetration were identified and tested. The DG-GRID project looked also into stimulating network innovations through economic regulation. The project was co-financed by the European Commission and carried out by nine European universities and research institutes. This report summarises the project results and is based on a number of DG-GRID reports that describe the conducted analyses and their results

  4. Effects of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry on electricity prices in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Electric power sector reforms in the electricity supply industry have had an impact on industrial and household prices in developing countries in Latin America, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Using original panel data for 83 countries during the period from 1985 to 2002, we examine how each policy instrument of the reform measures influenced electricity prices for countries in the above regions. We found that variables such as entry of independent power producers (IPP), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of a regulatory agency, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market have had a variety of impacts on electricity prices, some of which were not always consistent with expected results. The research findings suggest that neither unbundling nor introduction of a wholesale pool market on their own necessarily reduces the electric power price. In fact, contrary to expectations, there was a tendency for the price to rise. However, coexistent with an independent regulator, unbundling may work to reduce electricity prices. Privatization and the introduction of foreign IPP and retail competition lower electricity prices in some regions, but not all

  5. Overt employment discrimination in MNC affiliates: home-country cultural and institutional effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy Wu; John J Lawler; Xiang Yi

    2008-01-01

    Using job announcements posted by MNC subsidiaries in Taiwan and Thailand, we investigated the effects of MNC home-country cultural and institutional forces on the use of employment gender and age discriminatory criteria in host countries where anti-discrimination legislation was absent. We examined the cultural effects with composite measures taken from the work of Hofstede and Schwartz. The effects of the existence of anti-age and anti-gender discrimination employment legislation in an MNC ...

  6. The effects of organizational commitment and structural empowerment on patient safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sujin K; Horwitz, Irwin B

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between patient safety culture and two attitudinal constructs: affective organizational commitment and structural empowerment. In doing so, the main and interaction effects of the two constructs on the perception of patient safety culture were assessed using a cohort of physicians. Design/methodology/approach Affective commitment was measured with the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, whereas structural empowerment was assessed with the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II. The abbreviated versions of these surveys were administered to a cohort of 71 post-doctoral medical residents. For the data analysis, hierarchical regression analyses were performed for the main and interaction effects of affective commitment and structural empowerment on the perception of patient safety culture. Findings A total of 63 surveys were analyzed. The results revealed that both affective commitment and structural empowerment were positively related to patient safety culture. A potential interaction effect of the two attitudinal constructs on patient safety culture was tested but no such effect was detected. Research limitations/implications This study suggests that there are potential benefits of promoting affective commitment and structural empowerment for patient safety culture in health care organizations. By identifying the positive associations between the two constructs and patient safety culture, this study provides additional empirical support for Kanter's theoretical tenet that structural and organizational support together helps to shape the perceptions of patient safety culture. Originality/value Despite the wide recognition of employee empowerment and commitment in organizational research, there has still been a paucity of empirical studies specifically assessing their effects on patient safety culture in health care organizations. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first

  7. Effectiveness of Smartphone Application for the Development of Youth Anthusiasm to Malay Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asril, Elvira; Fajrizal; Wiza, Fana

    2017-12-01

    This study will measure the effectiveness of Malay cultural applications, by socializing Melayu.com web, then distributing questionnaires to them (young people / high school students), and will be able to find out what features are of interest to them. With this smartphone introduction application of Malay culture, it is expected to increase young enthusiasm towards Malay culture which is really beautiful if it is known and understood. After the socialization of 30 high school students, the results obtained that they are less interested in the application. Because it is not user friendly, not interactive and rigid. Eventhough they have interest in this Malay culture, they have not found an app or media that can attract attention. Thus, they ask if the application of Malay culture can add game content later, eg War games using background and other elements related to Malay culture.

  8. Effects of vitamin K3 and K5 on proliferation, cytokine production, and regulatory T cell-frequency in human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Hiroshige; Ishizawa, Hitomi; Nakamura, Yurie; Tadokoro, Hiroko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Sugiyama, Kentaro; Hirano, Toshihiko

    2014-03-18

    The effects of vitamin K (VK) derivatives VK3 and VK5 on human immune cells have not been extensively investigated. We examined the effects of VK3 and VK5 on proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell-frequency in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) activated by T cell mitogen in vitro. Anti-proliferative effects of VK3 and VK5 on T-cell mitogen activated PBMCs were assessed by WST assay procedures. Apoptotic cells were determined as Annexin V positive/propidium iodide (PI) negative cells. Cytokine concentrations in the supernatant of the culture medium were measured with bead-array procedures followed by analysis with flow cytometry. The CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells in mitogen-activated PBMCs were stained with fluorescence-labeled specific antibodies followed by flow cytometry. VK3 and VK5 suppressed the mitogen-activated proliferation of PBMCs significantly at 10-100μM (p<0.05). The data also suggest that VK3 and VK5 promote apoptosis in the mitogen-activated T cells. VK3 and VK5 significantly inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL)-4, -6, and -10 from the activated PBMCs at 10-100μM (p<0.05). In contrast, VK3 and VK5 significantly increased Treg cell-frequency in the activated PBMCs at concentrations more than 10μM (p<0.001). Our data suggest that VK3 and VK5 attenuate T cell mediated immunity by inhibiting the proliferative response and inducing apoptosis in activated T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural

  10. Cytoprotective effect of tocopherols in hepatocytes cultured with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.; Grunnet, N.

    1994-01-01

    When highly unsaturated fatty acids are added to cell cultures, it can become important to include antioxidants in the culture medium to prevent cytotoxic peroxidation. To find an optimal antioxidant for this purpose, the effect of 50 µM a-tocopherol, ¿-tocopherol, a-tocopheryl acetate, a...... of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the cultures was also measured. a-Tocopheryl acid succinate was found to be the most effective cytoprotective compound, followed by N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, a- tocopherol, ¿-tocopherol and a-tocopheryl acetate, and a-tocopheryl phosphate was without effect....

  11. Nuclear regulatory organisations: Learning from stakeholders to enhance communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorin, Aurelie

    2015-01-01

    Since its creation 15 years ago, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) Working Group on Public Communication of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations (WGPC) has been addressing a broad range of communication issues, with two reports recently issued on Nuclear Regulatory Organisations, the Internet and Social Media: The What, How and Why of Their Use as Communication Tools and on Nuclear Regulatory Organisations and Communication Strategies. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, nuclear regulatory organisations around the world reaffirmed the need to strengthen stakeholder outreach and communication, and to create more robust avenues for stakeholder involvement in regulatory matters. The WGPC proposed a means for stakeholders to play a more active role in the group by holding one-day workshops in conjunction with regular meetings. These workshops offer a platform for stakeholder exchange with communication experts from nuclear regulatory organisations (NROs). The objective is to stimulate co-operation and improve communication by better understanding stakeholder perceptions, needs and expectations, and by discussing how to use traditional and social media more effectively. While nuclear regulatory organisations may have a common willingness to improve their communication methods and to build constructive relationships with stakeholders, every country has its own practices and cultural background, and thus its own challenges. Following the first workshop in Paris, which brought together European stakeholders, and the second in North America, the NEA is now organising a third workshop in Asia (Japan) to be held in April 2016. This third workshop will enable the NEA to gather stakeholder views from a third continent. A report on the workshops' findings will be issued after the completion of this third workshop, thus giving a broader idea of how to improve the overall communication methods of nuclear regulatory

  12. Effects of Business Model Development Projects on Organizational Culture: A Multiple Case Study of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Santti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that links between organizational culture and innovativeness/performance may act as a “social glue” that helps a company develop organizational culture as a competitive advantage. In this study of three case companies, the organizational culture change due business model development projects is studied using the Competing Values Framework (CVF tool and interviews with respondents about discovered changes. To reveal intervention and implied effects between business model development project and organizational culture changes, we used CIMO logic (context, intervention, mechanism, and outcome to bridge practice and theory by explanatory, backward-looking research. Our case studies of companies in relatively short-duration business model development projects indicate that organizational culture may have some dynamic characteristics, for example, an increase of the adhocracy organizational type in all case companies or an increase in the hierarchical leadership type in one case company. Thus, the development of an organizational culture type can be partly controlled. Our results also indicated business model development projects do have a minor effect on organizational culture, even when development activities have not been put fully into practice. However, the more comprehensively business model development project activities have been put into practice, the larger the effect on organizational culture.

  13. Methodological challenges for the evaluation of clinical effectiveness in the context of accelerated regulatory approval: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolacott, Nerys; Corbett, Mark; Jones-Diette, Julie; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory authorities are approving innovative therapies with limited evidence. Although this level of data is sufficient for the regulator to establish an acceptable risk-benefit balance, it is problematic for downstream health technology assessment, where assessment of cost-effectiveness requires reliable estimates of effectiveness relative to existing clinical practice. Some key issues associated with a limited evidence base include using data, from nonrandomized studies, from small single-arm trials, or from single-center trials; and using surrogate end points. We examined these methodological challenges through a pragmatic review of the available literature. Methods to adjust nonrandomized studies for confounding are imperfect. The relative treatment effect generated from single-arm trials is uncertain and may be optimistic. Single-center trial results may not be generalizable. Surrogate end points, on average, overestimate treatment effects. Current methods for analyzing such data are limited, and effectiveness claims based on these suboptimal forms of evidence are likely to be subject to significant uncertainty. Assessments of cost-effectiveness, based on the modeling of such data, are likely to be subject to considerable uncertainty. This uncertainty must not be underestimated by decision makers: methods for its quantification are required and schemes to protect payers from the cost of uncertainty should be implemented. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of adoptive transfer or depletion of regulatory T cells on triptolide-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhi eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of regulatory T cell (Treg in triptolide (TP-induced hepatotoxicity. MethodsFemale C57BL/6 mice received either adoptive transfer of Tregs or depletion of Tregs, then underwent TP administration and were sacrificed 24 hours after TP administration. Liver injury was determined according to ALT and AST levels in serum and histopathological change in liver tissue. Hepatic frequencies of Treg cells and the mRNA expression levles of transcription factor FoxP3 and RORγt, IL-10, SOCS and Notch/Notch ligand were investigated.ResultsDuring TP-induced liver injury, hepatic Treg and IL-10 decreased, while Th17 cell transcription factor RORγt, SOCS signaling and Notch signaling increased, accompanied with liver inflammation. Adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated the severity of TP-induced liver injury, accompanied with increased levels of hepatic Treg and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs remarkably inhibited the expression of RORγt, SOCS3, Notch1 and Notch3. On the contrary, depletion of Treg cells in TP-administered mice resulted in a notable increase of RORγt, SOCS1, SOCS3 and Notch3, while the Treg and IL-10 of liver decreased. Consistent with the exacerbation of liver injury, higher serum levels of ALT and AST were detected in Treg-depleted mice. ConclusionsThese results showed that adoptive transfer or depletion of Tregs attenuated or aggravated TP-induced liver injury, suggesting that Tregs could play important roles in the progression of liver injury. SOCS proteins and Notch signaling affected Tregs, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of TP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. On the effectiveness of regulatory vs voluntary vs strategies for increasing the share of renewable in electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Reinhard; Huber, Claus; Resch, Gustav; Faber, Thomas [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Energy Economics Group, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-09-01

    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) has a high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries world-wide. To meeting this objective in recent years a wide variety of deployment strategies and dissemination programmes for RES-E has been launched by quite different organizations and institutions. The core focus of this paper is to extract under which conditions various strategies are effective for substantially boosting RES in the future. Moreover, it is analysed what are the most important regulatory conditions for implementing voluntary (Green Pricing, voluntary green electricity trade) and regulatory (TGC-based quotas, bidding feed-in tariffs) promotion strategies for RES-E. The most important results and conclusions of this analysis are: Regardless which instrument is chosen the careful design of a strategy is of paramount importance; Focus on new capacities: It is of paramount importance that a promotional system does not mix existing (at least fully depreciated) and new capacities. Hence, Green Pricing strategies as well as regulatory approaches should have a strong focus on new capacity; Credibility: To provide confidence among the industry and investors it must be guaranteed by highly credible sources that a strategy survives a certain planning horizon; Feed-in tariffs are an effective instrument if a policy is introduced on a national level and if the rates are optimally designed e.g. using a stepped feed-in tariff; Of high relevance for quotas based on tradable certificates is that the penalty for not purchasing a certificate is higher than the worst case of investment; With respect to voluntary strategies -e.g. Green Power Marketing- the minimum requirement for a label is that it guarantees at least that the proportional increase in total electricity demand is provided by new capacities; With respect to international trading of Green electricity at least one of the following conditions must be fulfilled

  16. Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel E; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Fahrbach, Susan E; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. To mitigate or not to mitigate: Regulatory treatment of emissions trading and its effect on marketplace incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (hereafter CAAA) have created a market-based mechanism that is designed to employ a profit-oriented incentive to enable electric utilities to reduce SO 2 emissions at the least cost. One of the most important challenges facing state regulatory utility commissions in the next decade is the integration of this marker-based profit-incentive process into the traditional rate-base, rate-of-return, profit-control approach to regulation. How the struggle to meld two potentially contradictory control and incentive programs will be resolved remains to be seen. As of now, it is an open question. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify some of the issues that need to be addressed and to offer some policy recommendations that will allow regulators to employ the effectiveness of market forces while they still retain overall control of the evolution of the regulated electric supply market

  18. "Express yourself": culture and the effect of self-expression on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K

    2007-01-01

    Whereas self-expression is valued in the United States, it is not privileged with such a cultural emphasis in East Asia. Four studies demonstrate the psychological implications of this cultural difference. Studies 1 and 2 found that European Americans value self-expression more than East Asians/East Asian Americans. Studies 3 and 4 examined the roles of expression in preference judgments. In Study 3, the expression of choice led European Americans but not East Asian Americans to be more invested in what they chose. Study 4 examined the connection between the value of expression and the effect of choice expression and showed that European Americans place greater emphasis on self-expression than East Asian Americans, and this difference explained the cultural difference in Study 3. This research highlights the importance of the cultural meanings of self-expression and the moderating role of cultural beliefs on the psychological effect of self-expression. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Effects of Goal Relations on Self-Regulated Learning in Multiple Goal Pursuits: Performance, the Self-Regulatory Process, and Task Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of goal relations on self-regulation in the pursuit of multiple goals, focusing on self-regulated performance, the self-regulatory process, and task enjoyment. The effect of multiple goal relations on self-regulation was explored in a set of three studies. Goal relations were divided into…

  20. Analysis of the effect of leadership and organizational culture on the organizational effectiveness of radiological technologist's working environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, C.S.; Kim, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present ideas to upgrade job performance and improve organizational management by analyzing leadership aspects and organizational cultures of radiological technologist organizations. Method: A questionnaire was used to collect data from 261 radiological technologists working in the city of Busan. Then, SPSS/PC + Win 13 was used to statistically analyze the collected data. One-way ANOVA was adopted to test differences among groups, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of organizational culture and leadership upon organizational effectiveness. Results: First, it was found that radiological technologists stressed consensus most among the 4 types of organizational culture and regarded core transformational leadership as the right type of leadership. Second, regarding the relationship between leadership and organizational effectiveness, transformational leadership had the highest influence upon organizational effectiveness. Third, as for the relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness, it was found that a developmental culture has the highest influence upon organizational effectiveness, followed by a culture of consensus. Conclusion: If transformational leadership and consensual culture are used properly for upgrading job performance in the organization, conflicts among radiological technologists might be reduced, thereby enhancing organizational effectiveness.