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Sample records for effective procedure compared

  1. Comparative effectiveness of 3 bariatric surgery procedures: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, and sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny H; Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Le, Quang A

    2016-06-01

    Bariatric surgery is associated with improved co-morbidities, quality of life, and survival in severely obese patients. Common bariatric surgery procedures include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Currently, literature studying comparative effectiveness on different bariatric surgery procedures in veterans is limited. To compare effectiveness of 3 bariatric surgery procedures performed in veterans. Veterans Affairs Loma Linda Healthcare Systems (VALLHS), Loma Linda, California, United States. This study was a single-institution, retrospective cohort study. Primary outcome was weight reduction, expressed as kilograms lost, body mass index (BMI) reduction, percentage weight loss (%WL), and percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) after 12 months of bariatric surgery. Secondary outcomes were reduction in number of medications and laboratory markers for obesity-related chronic conditions. Inverse-probability weighting propensity score method was used to balance baseline characteristics among the procedures. A total of 162 patients were included in the study. At 12 months, the kilograms lost, BMI reduction, %WL, and %EWL were 40.7±14.5 kg, 13.4±4.1 kg/m(2), 31.5±8.5%, and 41.4±11.6% for RYGB; 24.4±22.1 kg, 7.9±7.3 kg/m(2), 20.2±21.5%, and 26.7±27.6% for SG; and 15.3±15.7 kg, 5.0±5.0 kg/m(2), 12.0±11.7%, and 16.1±15.9% for LAGB, respectively (RYGB versus SG, RYGB versus LAGB, and SG versus LAGB, all Psurgery procedure in patients who are not candidates for RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-conventional procedure of polarimetry data inversion in conditions of comparable Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A.; Chrzanowski, J.; Mazon, D.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for inverting plasma polarimetry data is proposed in this paper. The procedure is based on the fit between a two parameter knowledge-based plasma model, which is using both magnetic and Thompson scattering data, and the polarimetric measurements. In turn the polarimetry system is assumed to measure two angular parameters of polarization: its azimuthal and ellipticity angles. The inversion procedure under consideration is based on the angular variables technique (AVT), describing evolution of the angular parameters of polarization ellipse in weakly anisotropic plasma. Generally inversion procedure can be applied both for weak and significant Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects. For weak polarimetric effects inversion procedure shows the results of traditional polarimetry.

  3. Comparative clinical study of the effect of LLLT in the immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia due to surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Castanho Garrini, Ana E.; Bologna, Elisangela D.; Takamoto, Marcia; Siqueira, Jose T.; Dias, Pedro; Campos, Roberto A. d. C.

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of LLLT in 68 patients who presented hypoesthesia due to odontological surgery procedures: dental implant surgeries (N=51); extraction of impacted lower third molars (N=10); endodontics in lower first molars (N=7). Lesions treated within 30 days after the nerve injury had occurred were part of the immediate group, and lesions with more than 30 days from the occurrence of the injury were part of the late group. Treatments were carried out with an infrared diode laser of 40 mW-830nm, continuous wave emission, spot size 3 mm2, and a total dosage of 18 joules per session in a contact mode of application, 20 sessions altogether. The efficacy of laser therapy in peripheral nerve regeneration is also related to the degree of the peripheral nerve lesion, and not only to the lesion duration. LLLT resulted in neurosensory functional improvement in both immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia.

  4. Bankruptcy procedures and their implications for enterprises: a comparative aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Bytkivska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s unstable political and economic situation in the country is increasing the threat of losing financial capacity for domestic enterprises, which may subsequently lead to bankruptcy, whose effectiveness as a means of restoring solvency and getting rid of debt depends on the procedures performed in the course of its realization. In connection with this, the author of the article research essence, peculiarities and consequences of bankruptcy procedures in comparative aspect. As a result, of the characteristics of judicial bankruptcy proceedings, found that the application of appropriate procedures, readjustment, liquidation or settlement agreement may have both positive and negative consequences for the debtor company and could restore the solvency of the company and its business continuation or termination of its existence through liquidation. It is inappropriate to determine the effects of the procedure only disposition of property, which is a kind of phase transition to the next procedure and has no concrete results for the debtor. Having reviewed the features of pretrial bankruptcy pretrial readjustment was defined its main advantages in comparison with judicial readjustment to ensure its higher effectiveness, efficiency and profitability effects for the company and for the creditors. Results of the study indicate that the introduction judicial and pre-trial procedures is a complicated and important process which requires further research and settlement of uncertain in legislation

  5. Comparing imaging procedures: techniques and examples. Gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The distinct advantages of nuclear medicine procedures, in comparison to radiography, contrast studies, computerized tomography and ultrasound, are emphasized. Scintigraphic methods offer quantitative data regarding function which competing imaging modalities are unable to provide, and make them the studies of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal physiology and functional abnormalities

  6. The effect of a flapless alveolar ridge preservation procedure with or without a xenograft on buccal bone crest remodeling compared by histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Raquel Rezende Martins; Novaes, Arthur Belém; de Carvalho, Jessica Pires; de Almeida, Adriana Luisa Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated buccal bone crest remodeling, socket composition after healing, and dimensional ridge preservation after flapless tooth extraction procedures with or without a xenograft comparing histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) data. The mandibular premolars of eight dogs were extracted without flaps. One socket on each side received a grafting material (test group), and the other remained only with a blood clot (control group). Twelve weeks after treatment, buccal bone crest, alveolar ridge dimensions, and composition were analyzed by histomorphometry and micro-CT. Two- and three-dimensional evaluations showed better results for the grafted group when compared to the non-grafted group. The flapless alveolar ridge preservation procedure with deproteinized bovine bone material enhanced buccal bone crest, alveolar ridge dimensions and bone formation when compared to sockets with the blood clot only, as observed by histomorphometric and micro-CT analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Three Relaxation Training Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Jeffrey E.

    Comparison was made between the effectiveness of three relaxation training procedures: (1) Behavioral Relaxation Training, which consisted of training in relaxing specific parts of the body and controlling breathing; (2) Meditation (based on Benson's procedure for eliciting the relaxation response); and (3) Seashore Sounds "Attention Focusing,"…

  8. Comparing the operators' behavior in conducting emergency operating procedures with the complexity of procedural steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2003-01-01

    Many kinds of procedures have been used to reduce the operators' workload throughout various industries. However, significant portion of accidents or incidents was caused by procedure related human errors that are originated from non-compliance of procedures. According to related studies, several important factors for non-compliance behavior have been identified, and one if them is the complexity of procedures. This means that comparing the change of the operators' behavior with the complexity of procedures may be meaningful for investigating plausible reasons for the operators' non-compliance behavior. In this study, emergency training records were collected using a full scope simulator in order to obtain data related to the operators' non-compliance behavior. And then, collected data are compared with the complexity of procedural steps. As the result, two remarkable relationships are found, which indicate that the operators' behavior could be reasonably characterized by the complexity of procedural steps. Thus, these relationships can be used as meaningful clues not only to scrutinize the reason of non-compliance behavior but also to suggest appropriate remedies for the reduction of non-compliance behavior that can result in procedure related human errors

  9. Comparative Validity of the Shedler and Westen Assessment Procedure-200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    A predominant dimensional model of general personality structure is the five-factor model (FFM). Quite a number of alternative instruments have been developed to assess the domains of the FFM. The current study compares the validity of 2 alternative versions of the Shedler and Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) FFM scales, 1 that was developed…

  10. How does the workload and work activities of procedural GPs compare to non-procedural GPs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Deborah J; McGrail, Matthew R

    2017-08-01

    To investigate patterns of Australian GP procedural activity and associations with: geographical remoteness and population size hours worked in hospitals and in total; and availability for on-call DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: National annual panel survey (Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life) of Australian GPs, 2011-2013. Self-reported geographical work location, hours worked in different settings, and on-call availability per usual week, were analysed against GP procedural activity in anaesthetics, obstetrics, surgery or emergency medicine. Analysis of 9301 survey responses from 4638 individual GPs revealed significantly increased odds of GP procedural activity in anaesthetics, obstetrics or emergency medicine as geographical remoteness increased and community population size decreased, albeit with plateauing of the effect-size from medium-sized (population 5000-15 000) rural communities. After adjusting for confounders, procedural GPs work more hospital and more total hours each week than non-procedural GPs. In 2011 this equated to GPs practising anaesthetics, obstetrics, surgery, and emergency medicine providing 8% (95%CI 0, 16), 13% (95%CI 8, 19), 8% (95%CI 2, 15) and 18% (95%CI 13, 23) more total hours each week, respectively. The extra hours are attributable to longer hours worked in hospital settings, with no reduction in private consultation hours. Procedural GPs also carry a significantly higher burden of on-call. The longer working hours and higher on-call demands experienced by rural and remote procedural GPs demand improved solutions, such as changes to service delivery models, so that long-term procedural GP careers are increasingly attractive to current and aspiring rural GPs. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. EFFECTIVE PROCEDURES FOR EXECUTIVE'S PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Martínez Mondéjar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present methodological procedure that facilitates the executives  work with teachers that are preparing themselves to by promoting post from their  workplace from  a manual directed towards counseling executives  on how to develop the focalization, the selection and the evaluation and promotion of its teachers that are preparing themselves to by promoting post  from the work system itself  of the different levels of management from the University of Pedagogical Sciences " Felix Varela Morales " of Villa Clara.

  12. Estimation of effective dose during hysterosalpingography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzimamil, K.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M.; Sulieman, A.; Alsafi, K.; Omer, H.

    2014-08-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the most frequently used diagnostic tool to evaluate the endometrial cavity and fallopian tube by using conventional x-ray or fluoroscopy. Determination of the patient radiation doses values from x-ray examinations provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimize the protection of the patients. The aims of this study were to measure the patients entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA K), effective doses and to compare practices between different hospitals in Sudan. ESA K were measured for patient using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters (TLDs, Gr-200A). Effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. This study was conducted in five radiological departments: Two Teaching Hospitals (A and D), two private hospitals (B and C) and one University Hospital (E). The mean ESD was 20.1 mGy, 28.9 mGy, 13.6 mGy, 58.65 mGy, 35.7, 22.4 and 19.6 mGy for hospitals A,B,C,D, and E), respectively. The mean effective dose was 2.4 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 1.6 mSv, 7.1 mSv and 4.3 mSv in the same order. The study showed wide variations in the ESDs with three of the hospitals having values above the internationally reported values. Number of x-ray images, fluoroscopy time, operator skills x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported. Results demonstrated the need for standardization of technique throughout the hospital. The results also suggest that there is a need to optimize the procedures. Local DRLs were proposed for the entire procedures. (author)

  13. Deterministic effects of interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, Thomas B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe deterministic radiation injuries reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that resulted from therapeutic, interventional procedures performed under fluoroscopic guidance, and to investigate the procedure or equipment-related factors that may have contributed to the injury. Reports submitted to the FDA under both mandatory and voluntary reporting requirements which described radiation-induced skin injuries from fluoroscopy were investigated. Serious skin injuries, including moist desquamation and tissues necrosis, have occurred since 1992. These injuries have resulted from a variety of interventional procedures which have required extended periods of fluoroscopy compared to typical diagnostic procedures. Facilities conducting therapeutic interventional procedures need to be aware of the potential for patient radiation injury and take appropriate steps to limit the potential for injury. (author)

  14. Comparing catchment sediment fingerprinting procedures using an auto-evaluation approach with virtual sample mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Gaspar, Leticia; Blake, William H; Smith, Hugh G; Navas, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Information on sediment sources in river catchments is required for effective sediment control strategies, to understand sediment, nutrient and pollutant transport, and for developing soil erosion management plans. Sediment fingerprinting procedures are employed to quantify sediment source contributions and have become a widely used tool. As fingerprinting procedures are naturally variable and locally dependant, there are different applications of the procedure. Here, the auto-evaluation of different fingerprinting procedures using virtual sample mixtures is proposed to support the selection of the fingerprinting procedure with the best capacity for source discrimination and apportionment. Surface samples from four land uses from a Central Spanish Pyrenean catchment were used i) as sources to generate the virtual sample mixtures and ii) to characterise the sources for the fingerprinting procedures. The auto-evaluation approach involved comparing fingerprinting procedures based on four optimum composite fingerprints selected by three statistical tests, three source characterisations (mean, median and corrected mean) and two types of objective functions for the mixing model. A total of 24 fingerprinting procedures were assessed by this new approach which were solved by Monte Carlo simulations and compared using the root mean squared error (RMSE) between known and assessed source ascriptions for the virtual sample mixtures. It was found that the source ascriptions with the highest accuracy were achieved using the corrected mean source characterisations for the composite fingerprints selected by the Kruskal Wallis H-test and principal components analysis. Based on the RMSE results, high goodness of fit (GOF) values were not always indicative of accurate source apportionment results, and care should be taken when using GOF to assess mixing model performance. The proposed approach to test different fingerprinting procedures using virtual sample mixtures provides an

  15. Comparative studies on hearing aid selection and fitting procedures : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, Mick; Maat, Bert; Verschuure, Hans; Dreschler, Wouter A; Feenstra, Louw

    Although a large number of fitting procedures have been developed and are nowadays generally applied in modern hearing aid fitting technology, little is known about their effectiveness in comparison with each other. This paper argues the need for comparative validation studies on hearing aid fitting

  16. A Comparative Analysis of the Procedure Employed in Item ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The instruments used for the study were scaling procedures used in 27 published journal articles from issues of seven published journals. ... Theta reliability (N=1, 2.08%), Omega reliability (N=1, 2.08%) and unspecified others (N=1, 2.08%) were other approaches used in determining the reliability of the scales studied.

  17. Outcomes of the Latarjet Procedure Compared With Bankart Repair for Recurrent Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Parr, Gail P

    2018-02-01

    Reference/Citation:  An VV, Sivakumar BS, Phan K, Trantalis J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical and patient-reported outcomes following two procedures for recurrent traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder: Latarjet procedure vs. Bankart repair. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2016;25(5):853-863.   Are clinical and patient-reported outcomes different between the Latarjet and Bankart repair stabilization procedures when performed for recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder instability?   Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane databases, American College of Physicians Journal Club, and Database of Abstracts of Review of Effectiveness were searched up to June 2015. The search terms used were Bankart AND Latarjet OR Bristow.   Criteria used to include studies that (1) were written in English; (2) compared the outcomes of any Latarjet procedure (Bristow-Latarjet, coracoid transfer, or modified Bristow) with Bankart repair (anatomic); (3) reported a minimum of 1 outcome of recurrence, redislocation, revision, or patient-reported outcome measure; and (4) reported original data.   Data presented in any format (text, table, figure) were extracted from all included studies. The quality of each study was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Summary statistics were reported as relative risks and weighted mean differences. Fixed-effects (the assumed treatment effect was the same across studies) and random-effects (variations in treatment effect were assumed among studies) models were tested. Heterogeneity between trials was assessed using the χ 2 statistic, and the amount (percentage) of variation across studies due to heterogeneity was calculated using the I 2 statistic. Forest plots were used to present pooled results.   After the initial search, 245 articles were identified. After we applied the inclusion criteria, a total of 8 studies reporting on 795 patients (Latarjet = 379, Bankart

  18. A multicenter randomized trial comparing the effectiveness and safety of a novel vascular closure device to manual compression in anticoagulated patients undergoing percutaneous transfemoral procedures: The CELT ACD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shing Chiu; Laule, Michael; Turi, Zoltan; Sanad, Wasiem; Crowley, James; Degen, Hubertus; Bennett, Kathleen; Coleman, Jim E; Bergman, Geoffrey

    2017-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Celt ACD ® , a novel stainless steel based vascular closure device versus manual compression (MC) for femoral arteriotomy site hemostasis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures. Optimal access site management after percutaneous transfemoral procedures remains controversial. Patients enrolled in this multicenter, randomized open label trial underwent 6-F diagnostic or interventional procedures and were assigned 2:1 to Celt ACD ® versus MC. All patients were on full anticoagulation. The primary efficacy end point was time to hemostasis (TTH) and the primary safety end points were 30-day incidence of major procedural and access site related complications. The trial allocated 207 patients to Celt ACD ® (n = 148) versus MC (n = 59) at 5 investigational sites. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Median TTH was 0 (Interquartile range (IQR): 0, 0.33) in the Celt ACD ® compared to 8 min (IQR: 0, 20; P ACD ® versus 98.1% in the MC group (P = NS). There was a single major adverse event due to device maldeployment and embolization with successful percutaneous retrieval. The 30-day major complication rate was 0.7% in the Celt ACD ® and 0% in the MC group (P = NS). After 6-F percutaneous invasive procedures in fully anticoagulated patients, TTH was significantly reduced in patients assigned to Celt ACD ® compared to patients managed with MC. The 30-day rates of vascular complications were similarly low in both groups. (CELT ACD Trial; NCT01600482) © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Functional outcomes after open versus arthroscopic Latarjet procedure: A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourissat, G; Neyton, L; Metais, P; Clavert, P; Villain, B; Haeni, D; Walch, G; Lafosse, L

    2016-12-01

    The Latarjet procedure provides effective stabilization of chronically unstable shoulders. Since this procedure is mainly performed in a young athletic population, the functional impact is significant. Published data does not shed light on the time needed to recover work-related or sports-related function. Performing this procedure arthroscopically may improve functional recovery. This led us to carry out a prospective, multicenter study to compare the functional recovery after arthroscopic versus open Latarjet procedure. Between June and November 2014, 184 patients were included in a prospective multicenter study: 85 in the open group and 99 in the arthroscopy group. The patients were evaluated preoperatively with the WOSI score. The early postoperative pain was evaluated on D3, D7 and D30. The WOSI score was determined postoperatively at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. The functional scores of the shoulder in both cohorts were identical overall preoperatively. In the immediate postoperative period, the arthroscopy group had statistically lower pain levels on D3 and D7. The postoperative WOSI was improved in both groups at 3 months, then continued to improve until it reached a plateau at 1 year. The WOSI score was better in the arthroscopy group at 3 months, but better in the open group at 6 months. This study found that a Latarjet procedure performed arthroscopically generates less immediately postoperative pain than when it is performed as an open procedure. The Latarjet procedure (whether open or arthroscopic) improves shoulder function, with normal function returning after 1 year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation into the comparative severity of practical thermal test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, K.R.; White, M.C.; Gordon, G.

    In the advisory material for the application of the IAEA Transport Regulations three methods for determining whether a type B radioactive material packaging can withstand hypothetical fire conditions are presented. These comprise an open fire test and two tests involving exposure of the packaging in a furnace. The first furnace test (method I) uses a materials testing type of furnace and the second (method II) uses a heat-treatment furnace. Under method I the packaging is heated for 35 minutes from ambient temperature by firing the furnace so that its temperature increases in accordance with an ISO standard fire curve; under method II the heating is for 30 minutes at 800 0 C. Tests were carried out to detarmine if these tests were of comparable severity, and on which temperature the control of furnace firing in method I should be based. It was concluded that method II was the more severe test, and that furance wall temperatues are the dominant factor in determining heat exchange to specimens in the furnaces used. Furnace walls should meet or exceed the standard fire curve set out in the ISO standard. The characteristics of the furnances and specimens were not sufficiently understood to be able to predict the behaviour of the specimens

  1. The Effectiveness of Two Grammar Treatment Procedures for Children with SLI: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M.; Leitão, Suze; Prior, Polly; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of two grammar treatment procedures for children with specific language impairment. Method: A double-blind superiority trial with cluster randomization was used to compare a cueing procedure, designed to elicit a correct production following an initial error, to a recasting procedure, which required…

  2. Effective dose estimation to patients and staff during urethrography procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulieman, A. [Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, P. O- Box 422, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Barakat, H. [Neelain University, College of Science and Technology, Medical Physics Department, Khartoum (Sudan); Alkhorayef, M.; Babikir, E. [King Saud University, College of Applied Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433 (Saudi Arabia); Dalton, A.; Bradley, D. [University of Surrey, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Medical-related radiation is the largest source of controllable radiation exposure to humans and it accounts for more than 95% of radiation exposure from man-made sources. Few data were available worldwide regarding patient and staff dose during urological ascending urethrography (ASU) procedure. The purposes of this study are to measure patient and staff entrance surface air kerma dose (ESAK) during ASU procedure and evaluate the effective doses. A total of 243 patients and 145 staff (Urologist) were examined in three Hospitals in Khartoum state. ESAKs were measured for patient and staff using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Effective doses (E) were calculated using published conversion factors and methods recommended by the national Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The mean ESAK dose for patients and staff dose were 7.79±6.7 mGy and 0.161±0.30 mGy per procedures respectively. The mean and range of the effective dose was 1.21 mSv per procedure. The radiation dose in this study is comparable with previous studies except Hospital C. It is obvious that high patient and staff exposure is due to the lack of experience and protective equipment s. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore continuous training is crucial. (Author)

  3. Effective dose estimation to patients and staff during urethrography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Barakat, H.; Alkhorayef, M.; Babikir, E.; Dalton, A.; Bradley, D.

    2015-10-01

    Medical-related radiation is the largest source of controllable radiation exposure to humans and it accounts for more than 95% of radiation exposure from man-made sources. Few data were available worldwide regarding patient and staff dose during urological ascending urethrography (ASU) procedure. The purposes of this study are to measure patient and staff entrance surface air kerma dose (ESAK) during ASU procedure and evaluate the effective doses. A total of 243 patients and 145 staff (Urologist) were examined in three Hospitals in Khartoum state. ESAKs were measured for patient and staff using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Effective doses (E) were calculated using published conversion factors and methods recommended by the national Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The mean ESAK dose for patients and staff dose were 7.79±6.7 mGy and 0.161±0.30 mGy per procedures respectively. The mean and range of the effective dose was 1.21 mSv per procedure. The radiation dose in this study is comparable with previous studies except Hospital C. It is obvious that high patient and staff exposure is due to the lack of experience and protective equipment s. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore continuous training is crucial. (Author)

  4. Comparing the Teaching Interaction Procedure to Social Stories for People with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Call, Nikki A.; Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Dayharsh, Jamison; Leaf, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This study compared social stories and the teaching interaction procedure to teach social skills to 6 children and adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder. Researchers taught 18 social skills with social stories and 18 social skills with the teaching interaction procedure within a parallel treatment design. The teaching interaction procedure…

  5. Unexpected effects of computer presented procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Results from experiments conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been presented regarding the computer presentation of procedural information. The results come from the experimental evaluation of an expert system which presented procedural instructions to be performed by a nuclear power plant operator. Lessons learned and implications from the study are discussed as well as design issues that should be considered to avoid some of the pitfalls in computer presented or selected procedures

  6. A 7-Year Clinical Audit of 1107 Cases Comparing Sleeve Gastrectomy, Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass, and Mini-Gastric Bypass, to Determine an Effective and Safe Bariatric and Metabolic Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammu, Gurvinder S; Sharma, Rajni

    2016-05-01

    The epidemic of obesity is engulfing developed as well as developing countries like India. We present our 7-year experience with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and mini-gastric bypass (MGB) to determine an effective and safe bariatric and metabolic procedure. The study is an analysis of a prospectively collected bariatric database of 473 MGBs, 339 LSGs, and 295 RYGBs. Mortality rate was 2.1% in LSG, 0.3% in RYGB, and 0% in MGB. Leaks were highest in LSG (1.5%), followed by RYGB (0.3%), and zero in MGB. Bile reflux was seen in RYGB, but 0% in MGB. Hypoalbuminemia was minimal in LSG, 2.0% in RYGB, and 13.1% in MGB (in earlier patients where bypass was >250 cm). The following resolution of comorbidities: dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension, and percent excess weight loss (%EWL) was maximum in MGB. GERD was maximum in LSG (9.8%), followed by RYGB (1.7%), and minimal in MGB (0.6%). RYGB and MGB act on the principle of restriction and malabsorption, but MGB superseded RYGB in its technical ease, efficacy, revisibility, and reversibility. Mortality was zero in MGB. %EWL and resolution of comorbidities were highly significant in MGB. Based on this audit, we suggest that MGB is the effective and safe procedure for patients who are compliant in taking their supplements. LSG may be done in non-compliant patients and those ready to accept weight regain.

  7. Critical Emergency Medicine Procedural Skills: A Comparative Study of Methods for Teaching and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Dane M.; And Others

    Three critical procedural skills in emergency medicine were evaluated using three assessment modalities--written, computer, and animal model. The effects of computer practice and previous procedure experience on skill competence were also examined in an experimental sequential assessment design. Subjects were six medical students, six residents,…

  8. Procedural justice in punishment systems: Inconsistent punishment procedures have detrimental effects on cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, J.W.; Gallucci, M.; Toeset, G.

    2008-01-01

    The current research examines a moderator who predicts in what situations punishment can have detrimental effects on cooperation. We hypothesized that when a punishment system is perceived as procedurally unfair, people's cooperation level decreases. Results of two experiments indicated that

  9. Pain intensity on the first day after surgery: a prospective cohort study comparing 179 surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbershagen, Hans J; Aduckathil, Sanjay; van Wijck, Albert J M; Peelen, Linda M; Kalkman, Cor J; Meissner, Winfried

    2013-04-01

    Severe pain after surgery remains a major problem, occurring in 20-40% of patients. Despite numerous published studies, the degree of pain following many types of surgery in everyday clinical practice is unknown. To improve postoperative pain therapy and develop procedure-specific, optimized pain-treatment protocols, types of surgery that may result in severe postoperative pain in everyday practice must first be identified. This study considered 115,775 patients from 578 surgical wards in 105 German hospitals. A total of 70,764 patients met the inclusion criteria. On the first postoperative day, patients were asked to rate their worst pain intensity since surgery (numeric rating scale, 0-10). All surgical procedures were assigned to 529 well-defined groups. When a group contained fewer than 20 patients, the data were excluded from analysis. Finally, 50,523 patients from 179 surgical groups were compared. The 40 procedures with the highest pain scores (median numeric rating scale, 6-7) included 22 orthopedic/trauma procedures on the extremities. Patients reported high pain scores after many "minor" surgical procedures, including appendectomy, cholecystectomy, hemorrhoidectomy, and tonsillectomy, which ranked among the 25 procedures with highest pain intensities. A number of "major" abdominal surgeries resulted in comparatively low pain scores, often because of sufficient epidural analgesia. Several common minor- to medium-level surgical procedures, including some with laparoscopic approaches, resulted in unexpectedly high levels of postoperative pain. To reduce the number of patients suffering from severe pain, patients undergoing so-called minor surgery should be monitored more closely, and postsurgical pain treatment needs to comply with existing procedure-specific pain-treatment recommendations.

  10. Effect of surgical procedures on prostate tumor gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Chang-Jun; Pavlovich, Christian; Luo, Jun; Getzenberg, Robert; Zhang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    Current surgical treatment of prostate cancer is typically accomplished by either open radical prostatectomy (ORP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP). Intra-operative procedural differences between the two surgical approaches may alter the molecular composition of resected surgical specimens, which are indispensable for molecular analysis and biomarker evaluation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different surgical procedures on RNA quality and genome-wide expression signature. RNA integrity number (RIN) values were compared between total RNA samples extracted from consecutive LRP (n=11) and ORP (n=24) prostate specimens. Expression profiling was performed using the Agilent human whole-genome expression microarrays. Expression differences by surgical type were analyzed by Volcano plot analysis and gene ontology analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used for expression validation in an independent set of LRP (n=8) and ORP (n=8) samples. The LRP procedure did not compromise RNA integrity. Differential gene expression by surgery types was limited to a small subset of genes, the number of which was smaller than that expected by chance. Unexpectedly, this small subset of differentially expressed genes was enriched for those encoding transcription factors, oxygen transporters and other previously reported surgery-induced stress-response genes, and demonstrated unidirectional reduction in LRP specimens in comparison to ORP specimens. The effect of the LRP procedure on RNA quality and genome-wide transcript levels is negligible, supporting the suitability of LRP surgical specimens for routine molecular analysis. Blunted in vivo stress response in LRP specimens, likely mediated by CO(2) insufflation but not by longer ischemia time, is manifested in the reduced expression of stress-response genes in these specimens.

  11. Comparing the Performance of Five Multidimensional CAT Selection Procedures with Different Stopping Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Through simulated data, five multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) selection procedures with varying test lengths are examined and compared using different stopping rules. Fixed item exposure rates are used for all the items, and the Priority Index (PI) method is used for the content constraints. Two stopping rules, standard error…

  12. Dispersant approval procedures in France and Italy: A comparative ecotoxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Loredana; Tornambè, Andrea; Guyomarch, Julien; Le Guerrogue, Pascale; Kerambrun, Loïc; Rotini, Alice; Savorelli, Federica; Onorati, Fulvio; Magaletti, Erika

    2017-09-01

    A research project has been performed to the request of the RAMOGE Executive Secretariat to identify differences between dispersant approval procedures in France and Italy and propose ways to harmonize them. A collaborative study has been conducted by CEDRE (Centre of Documentation, Research and Experimentation on Accidental Water Pollution) and ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) to: a) compare current approval procedures in Italy and France with identification of differences and commonalities; b) carry out toxicity tests using both procedures on two selected dispersants; c) propose a common approach between Italy and France. The results showed that, because of the differences in ecotoxicological tests and in the evaluation criteria used, the outcomes on the same products could be different in Italy and in France. Both tested dispersants met the French requirements for approval (LC 50 ≥ 10 times reference toxicant), while only one dispersant met the Italian approval criterion (EC 50 > 10mg/L). A possible way of harmonizing the approval procedures could be to increase the number of test organisms in the French procedure, which currently only uses one crustacean species. Furthermore, a common criterion for toxicity assessment should be discussed and agreed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Procedure automation: the effect of automated procedure execution on situation awareness and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Svengren, Haakan; Heimdal, Jan O.; Nilsen, Svein; Hulsund, John-Einar; Bisio, Rossella; Debroise, Xavier

    2004-04-01

    As advised by the procedure workshop convened in Halden in 2000, the Halden Project conducted an experiment on the effect of automation of Computerised Procedure Systems (CPS) on situation awareness and human performance. The expected outcome of the study was to provide input for guidance on CPS design, and to support the Halden Project's ongoing research on human reliability analysis. The experiment was performed in HAMMLAB using the HAMBO BWR simulator and the COPMA-III CPS. Eight crews of operators from Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 participated. Three research questions were investigated: 1) Does procedure automation create Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) performance problems? 2) Does procedure automation affect situation awareness? 3) Does procedure automation affect crew performance? The independent variable, 'procedure configuration', had four levels: paper procedures, manual CPS, automation with breaks, and full automation. The results showed that the operators experienced OOTL problems in full automation, but that situation awareness and crew performance (response time) were not affected. One possible explanation for this is that the operators monitored the automated procedure execution conscientiously, something which may have prevented the OOTL problems from having negative effects on situation awareness and crew performance. In a debriefing session, the operators clearly expressed their dislike for the full automation condition, but that automation with breaks could be suitable for some tasks. The main reason why the operators did not like the full automation was that they did not feel being in control. A qualitative analysis addressing factors contributing to response time delays revealed that OOTL problems did not seem to cause delays, but that some delays could be explained by the operators having problems with the freeze function of the CPS. Also other factors such as teamwork and operator tendencies were of importance. Several design implications were drawn

  14. A comparative assessment of alternative waste management procedures for selected reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickford, G.E.; Plews, M.J.

    1983-07-01

    This report, which has been prepared by Associated Nuclear Services for the Department of the Environment, presents the results of a study and comparative assessment of management procedures for low and intermediate level solid waste streams arising from current and future fuel reprocessing operations on the Sellafield site. The characteristics and origins of the wastes under study are discussed and a reference waste inventory is presented, based on published information. Waste management strategy in the UK and its implications for waste conditioning, packaging and disposal are discussed. Wastes currently arising which are not suitable for Drigg burial or sea dumping are stored in an untreated form. Work is in hand to provide additional and improved disposal facilities which will accommodate all the waste streams under study. For each waste stream viable procedures are identified for further assessment. The procedures comprise a series of on-site operations-recovery from storage, pre-treatment, treatment, encapsulation, and packaging, prior to storage or disposal of the conditioned waste form. Assessments and comparisons of each procedure for each waste are presented. These address various process, operational, economic, radiological and general safety factors. The results are presented in a series of tables with supporting text. For the majority of wastes direct encapsulation with minimal treatment appears to be a viable procedure. Occupational exposure and general safety are not identified as significant factors governing the choice of procedures. The conditioned wastes meet the general requirements for safe handling during storage and transportation. The less active wastes suitable for disposal by currently available routes meet the appropriate disposal criteria. It is not possible to consider in detail the suitability for disposal of the more active wastes for which disposal facilities are not yet available. (Author)

  15. A Comparative Evaluation for Biologic Width following Surgical Crown Lengthening Using Gingivectomy and Ostectomy Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Ganji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical crown lengthening has been proposed as a means of facilitating restorative procedures and preventing injuries in teeth with structurally inadequate clinical crown or exposing tooth structure in the presence of deep, subgingival pathologies which may hamper the access for proper restorative measures. Histological studies utilizing animal models have shown that postoperative crestal resorption allowed reestablishment of the biologic width. However, very little has been done in humans. Aims. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential changes in the periodontal tissues, particularly the biologic width, following surgical crown lengthening by two surgical procedures before and after crown placement. Methods and Material. Twenty (20 patients who needed surgical crown lengthening to gain retention necessary for prosthetic treatment and/or to access caries, tooth fracture, or previous prosthetic margins entered the study. The following parameters were obtained from line angles of treated teeth (teeth requiring surgical crown lengthening and adjacent sites: Plaque and Gingival Indices (PI & (GI, Position of Gingival Margin from reference Stent (PGMRS, Probing depth (PD, and Biologic Width (BW. Statistical Analysis Used. Student “t” Test. Results. Initial baseline values of biologic width were 2.55 mm (Gingivectomy procedure B1 Group and 1.95 mm (Ostectomy procedure B2 Group and after surgical procedure the values were 1.15 mm and 1.25 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the study the biologic width, at treated sites, was re-established to its original vertical dimension by 3 months. Ostectomy with apically positioned flap can be considered as a more effective procedure than Gingivectomy for Surgical Crown Lengthening.

  16. [The effect of selected physical procedures on mobility in women with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewicz, Joanna; Pieszyński, Ireneusz; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Florkowski, Antoni

    2014-12-01

    Electrotherapy, including iontophoresis and magnetic field, is one of the most commonly used physical procedures in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RS). To evaluate the effect of iontophoresis and magnetic field procedures on the intensity and frequency of pain sensation, administration of analgesics, limitation of knee joint mobility and comparative evaluation of analgesic effect s of the applied procedures. The study included a group of 60 female patients affected by RS with knee joint pain. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 equally-numbered groups. Group I was subjected to 20 iontophoresis procedures. Group II underwent 20 procedures with magnetic field. Group III was treated with 20 procedures combining both iontophoresis and magnetic field. Each iontophoresis procedure lasted 20 minutes, whereas the magnetic field procedure took 30 minutes. All study participants were evaluated in relation to pain sensation after and before the treatment with VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) and Latinen scale. After a 4-week therapy in all the three groups there was a statistically significant decrease in pain perception with VAS scale and with all domains of Laitinen scale excluding the limitation of physical activity criterion. The comparative evaluation of statistically important differences after the therapy between the groups revealed marked decrease of pain perception in groups I and II comparing to group II. There were no significant differences between groups I and III. Iontophoresis and magnetic field treatments demonstrate effective analgesic property in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The conducted studies showed the highest analgesic effects for both treatments used.

  17. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean; Nikkhah, Guido

    2010-07-01

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP. Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naïve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source. Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  18. A comparative study of procedures for binding of aflatoxin M1 to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Jean Claude; Atoui, Ali; Khoury, André El; Chokr, Ali; Louka, Nicolas

    Several strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), frequently used in food fermentation and preservation, have been reported to bind different types of toxins in liquid media. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) to bind aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in liquid media. AFM1 binding was tested following repetitive washes or filtration procedures in combination with additional treatments such as heating, pipetting, and centrifugation. The mixture of L. rhamnosus GG and AFM1 was incubated for 18h at 37°C and the binding efficiency was determined by quantifying the unbound AFM1 using HPLC. The stability of the complexes viable bacteria-AFM1 and heat treated bacteria-AFM1 was tested. Depending on the bacterial concentration and procedure used, the percentages of bound AFM1 by L. rhamnosus GG varied from as low as undetectable to as high as 63%. The highest reduction in the level of unbound AFM1 was recorded for the five washes procedure that involved heating and pipetting. Results also showed that binding was partially reversible and AFM1 was released after repeated washes. These findings highlight the effect of different treatments on the binding of AFM1 to L. rhamnosus GG in liquid matrix. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Compensation for Real Properties Acquired for Roads in Different Procedures - Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barańska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Real properties acquired for the so-called public purpose, such as road investments, generate a one-off financial indemnity in the form of compensation paid to the expropriated owner. Due to the different possible modes of expropriation (pursuant to the Real Estate Management Act or the Special Road Act, the amount of the compensation due may be determined in different ways, which entails a variety of results. The article compares the compensation levels determined in two possible procedures: basing on the predominant use of the adjacent areas or on data from the transactions of real properties intended for public roads.

  20. Effect of surgical procedures on prostate tumor gene expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Chang-Jun; Pavlovich, Christian; Luo, Jun; Getzenberg, Robert; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Current surgical treatment of prostate cancer is typically accomplished by either open radical prostatectomy (ORP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP). Intra-operative procedural differences between the two surgical approaches may alter the molecular composition of resected surgical specimens, which are indispensable for molecular analysis and biomarker evaluation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different surgical procedures on RNA quali...

  1. A comparative study of some aspects of radiation protection and dosimetry procedures. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Goeksu, H.Y.; Johns, T.F.

    1987-10-01

    A study has been made of the procedures used in the Member States of the European Communities for dealing with certain practical and administrative aspects of radiation protection of occupationally exposed persons, and especially of the methods and procedures used in personnel dosimetry. It was found that the different states have adopted quite different methods for dealing with some of these problems, the method chosen seeming to depend on the size of the country and the extent and timing of its involvement with nuclear power developments; but although the different countries have adopted different methods of control, as far as we can judge they have all been reasonably effective in achieving adequate control of occupational exposures. Nevertheless, there are still issues that each country could probably learn and perhaps improve its own procedure by making a more careful study of the way in which other countries deal with these problems. Therefore the study was extended to cover the USA and Japan in order to facilitate such comparisons and improvements. (orig.)

  2. Improving International Standards in Surgical and Procedural Training through Comparative Operative Log Growth Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannipa Vathanophas, M.D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To use these growth charts to critically assess sufficiency of cases and parity of cases between residents, and to compare these growth charts to available international standards for minimum case numbers. Methods: Operative Log Growth Charts were developed for key indicator procedures for graduating otolaryngology residents in 2012-2014 at a large teaching hospital in the capital city of a newly industrialized country. Comparisons were made between years of training and required minimum case numbers published by the ACGME RRC for Otolaryngology. Results: Data was available to create 7 key indicator operative log growth charts to include all available data from 2012-2014 residents. These growth charts were used to assess growth in operative procedures for residents in the program compared to historical norms in the program. Graduating residents surpassed ACGME minimum case numbers in Bronchoscopy only and were below the minimum numbers for the other key indicators tested. Conclusion: There is significant heterogeneity in the standards for otolaryngology training between countries. It is possible to develop program-specific and country-specific operative log growth charts.

  3. Comparing the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in orthodontic soft tissue procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ize-Iyamu, I N; Saheeb, B D; Edetanlen, B E

    2013-09-01

    To compare the use of the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in the management of soft tissue mucogingival problems associated with orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic patients requiring different soft tissue surgical procedures were randomly assigned to receive conventional surgery or soft tissue diode laser, (wavelength 810 nm). Parameters documented include the type of anaesthesia used, intra and post operative pain, bleeding, the use of scalpel and sutures. The chi-squared test was used to test for significance at 95% confidence level. Probability values (p-values) less than 0.05 were regarded as significant. Only 2(16.7%) of the procedures carried out with the soft tissue laser required infiltration anaesthesia compared to 10 (90.9%) with conventional surgery and this was significant (Pdiode laser (Pdiode laser. No sutures were used in all soft tissue cases managed with the diode laser and this was significant (Pdiode laser required less infiltration anaesthesia, had reduced bleeding during and after surgery, rapid postoperative haemostasis, elimination of the need for sutures and an improved postoperative comfort and healing.

  4. A Comparative Evaluation of Procedural Level Generators in the Mario AI Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Britton; Dahlskog, Steve; Shaker, Noor

    Evaluation is an open problem in procedural content generation research. The eld is now in a state where there is a glut of content generators, each serving dierent purposes and using a variety of techniques. It is dicult to understand, quantitatively or qualitatively, what makes one generator...... dierent from another in terms of its output. To remedy this, we have conducted a large-scale comparative evaluation of level generators for the Mario AI Benchmark, a research-friendly clone of the classic platform game Super Mario Bros. In all, we compare the output of seven dierent level generators from...... generators. The results presented in this paper, and the accompanying source code, is meant to become a benchmark against which to test new level generators and expressivity metrics....

  5. Effect of retraction procedures on the periodontium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, J; Schuessler, P J; Malament, K; Mori, D

    1980-11-01

    On the basis of wound healing and gingival recession caused by the three procedures, the copper-band retraction method was the most satisfactory. This tentative conclusion is based on the following reasons: 1. Retraction methods must be evaluated relative to the impression procedure and fit of the restoration. The long-range effects of the marginal fit are probably the most important factor for enhancing periodontal health. 2. This study involved only healthy periodontia of adolescent patients. Different healing might be observed in tissues characterized by gingivitis or periodontitis. 3. A broader study involving a greater range of procedures and conditions is recommended to evaluate each retraction technique. 4. This study involved teeth which had an adequate zone of attached gingiva. More complicated healing and perhaps altered sequences might be observed if the procedures were performed on gingival margins of alveolar mucosa, thin gingival walls, or areas of root prominence and thin cortical bone.

  6. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Güler, Eda; Yücel, Ali Cağin; Ertaş, Ertan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme). Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd), polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP), polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover) (PdB), and combinations of these (PdPB) were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C). The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DeltaE*) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (alpha=0.05). The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme). The posterior (Filtek P60) and universal (Filtek Z250) composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme) and universal (Quadrant LC) composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  7. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  8. A review of studies comparing three laparoscopic procedures in bariatric surgery: sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Juan Victor A; Ruiz, Pablo Adrian; Palermo, Mariano; Gagner, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide problem in public health, reaching epidemic proportions in many countries, especially in urbanized regions. Bariatric procedures have been shown to be more effective in the management of morbid obesity, compared to medical treatments in terms of weight loss and its sustainability. The two most commonly performed procedures are laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and the novel laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The MEDLINE database (cutoff date September 2010), LILACS, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "gastric bypass," "sleeve gastrectomy," and "gastric banding." Only studies that compared at least two of the laparoscopic procedures were included. Reviews and meta-analysis, editorial letters or comments, case reports, animal or in vitro studies, comparisons with medical treatment, comparisons with open (non-laparoscopic) procedures were excluded. Most studies indicated that LRYGB and LSG could be more effective achieving weight loss than LAGB. However, LAGB seems to be a safer procedure with frequent, but less severe, long-term complications. Although not uniformly reported, a resolution of obesity-related comorbidities was achieved with most bariatric procedures. The three procedures have acceptable efficacy and safety. We believe that patients should be informed in detail on the advantages and disadvantages of each available procedure, possibly in several interviews and always accompanied by a specialized interdisciplinary team, warranting long-term follow-up.

  9. Etiology of Readmissions Following Orthopaedic Procedures and Medical Admissions. A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Slover, James; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The Federal Government, the largest payer of health care, considers readmission within 30 days of discharge an indicator of quality of care. Many studies have focused on causes for and strategies to reduce readmissions following medical admissions. However, few studies have focused on the differences between them. We believe that the causes for readmission following orthopaedic surgery are markedly different than those following medical admissions, and therefore, the strategies developed to reduce medical readmissions will not be as effective in reducing readmissions after elective orthopaedic surgery. All unplanned 30-day readmissions following an index hospitalization for an elective orthopaedic procedure (primary and revision total joint arthroplasty and spine procedure) or for one of the three publicly reported medical conditions (AMI, HF, and pneumonia, which accounted for 11% of readmissions) were identified at our institution from 2010 through 2012. A total of 268 patients and 390 medical patients were identified as having an unplanned 30-day readmission. We reviewed a prospectively collected data base to determine the reason for readmission in each encounter. A total of 233 (86.9%) orthopaedic patients were readmitted for surgical complications, most commonly for a wound infection (56.0%) or wound complication (11.6%). Following an index admission of HF or AMI, the primary reason for readmission was a disease of the circulatory system (55.9% and 57.4%, respectively). Following an index admission for pneumonia, the primary reason for readmission was a disease of the respiratory system (34.5%). The causes of readmissions following orthopaedic surgery and medical admissions are different. Patients undergoing orthopaedic procedures are readmitted for surgical complications, frequently unrelated to aftercare, and medicine patients are readmitted for reasons related to the index diagnosis. Interventions designed to reduce orthopaedic readmissions must focus on

  10. A comparative study on formal dispute resolution procedures in Greece and UK: Can UK procedures be adopted by the Greek construction industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Gounari, P.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is about evaluating the alternative dispute resolution methods used in the Greek and UK construction industry. The main purpose is to examine whether the dispute resolution procedures as used in the construction industry can be applied effectively in the Greek construction industry. The theoretical frameworks of the resolution procedures the Greek and UK construction industry use to settle their disputes are presented and analysed. Consequently, the main issues extracted fro...

  11. 31 CFR 28.615 - Procedure for effecting compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for effecting compliance. 28.615 Section 28.615 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... regulations; and (iii) The expiration of 30 days after the Secretary has filed with the committee of the House...

  12. EU asylum procedures and the right to an effective remedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, Anne Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    Adequate and fair asylum procedures are a precondition for the effective exercise of rights granted to asylum applicants, in particular the right not be expelled to a country where they face the risk of being subjected to human rights violations. In 1999 the EU Member States decided to work towards

  13. Effect of Color Shading Procedures and Cyclic Loading on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... How to cite this article: Tuncel I, Turp I, Usumez A. Effect of color shading procedures and cyclic loading on the biaxial flexural strength of zirconia. Niger J Clin Pract 2018;21:7-12. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 ...

  14. 13 CFR 117.15 - Procedure for effecting compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for effecting compliance. 117.15 Section 117.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF...

  15. Simple and Effective Procedure for Immobilization of Oxidases onto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The operational parameters for the glucose biosensor produced with this immobilization procedure were assessed and figures of merit obtained at the selected parameters. It has been observed that the effect of Nafion(R) to repel interfering ions like ascorbate and urate was lacking in this system. A preliminary investigation ...

  16. The effect of conceptual and procedural learning strategies on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of varying learning strategies making use of procedural and conceptual learning strategies on secondary school students‟ study habits in mathematics. A total of 124 senior secondary school students, from Osun state in southwestern Nigeria divided into three groups were involved in this ...

  17. The effect of sample preparation and testing procedure on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sample preparation and testing procedure on the geotechnical properties of tropically weathered residual laterite soils of Ethiopia. ... A combination of classification based on structure, mineralogical composition, and geo-morphological impact on soil formation together with conventional classification systems is ...

  18. Effectiveness of granite cleaning procedures in cultural heritage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Antonio, J S; Rivas, T; López, A J; Fiorucci, M P; Ramil, A

    2016-11-15

    Most of the Cultural Heritage built in NW Iberian Peninsula is made of granite which exposition to the environment leads to the formation of deposits and coatings, mainly two types: biological colonization and sulphated black crusts. Nowadays, another form of alteration derives from graffiti paints when these are applied as an act of vandalism. A deep revision needs to be addressed considering the severity of these deterioration forms on granite and the different cleaning effectiveness achieved by cleaning procedures used to remove them. The scientific literature about these topics on granite is scarcer than on sedimentary carbonate stones and marbles, but the importance of the granite in NW Iberian Peninsula Cultural Heritage claims this review centred on biological colonization, sulphated black crusts and graffiti on granite and their effectiveness of the common cleaning procedures. Furthermore, this paper carried out a review of the knowledge about those three alteration forms on granite, as well as bringing together all the major studies in the field of the granite cleaning with traditional procedures (chemical and mechanical) and with the recent developed technique based on the laser ablation. Findings concerning the effectiveness evaluation of these cleaning procedures, considering the coating extraction ability and the damage induced on the granite surface, are described. Finally, some futures research lines are pointed out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, Dan M. J.; Cheung, Yuk Wah; Žiūkaitė, Laura; Ince, Can; van den Akker, Hans P.; Lindeboom, Jérôme A. H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary bone grafting procedures.

  20. Safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients undergoing peripheral arterial procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Anjan; Wang, S Keisin; Czosnowski, Lauren; Mokraoui, Nassim; Gupta, Alok; Fajardo, Andres; Dalsing, Michael; Motaganahalli, Raghu

    2017-10-01

    Rivaroxaban is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved oral anticoagulant for venous thromboembolic disease; however, there is no information regarding the safety and its efficacy to support its use in patients after open or endovascular arterial interventions. We report the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban vs warfarin in patients undergoing peripheral arterial interventions. This single-institution retrospective study analyzed all sequential patients from December 2012 to August 2014 (21 months) who were prescribed rivaroxaban or warfarin after a peripheral arterial procedure. Our study population was then compared using American College of Chest Physicians guidelines with patients then stratified as low, medium, or high risk for bleeding complications. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student t-test and χ 2 test to compare demographics, readmissions because of bleeding, and the need for secondary interventions. Logistic regression models were used for analysis of variables associated with bleeding complications and secondary interventions. The Fisher exact test was used for power analysis. There were 44 patients in the rivaroxaban group and 50 patients in the warfarin group. Differences between demographics and risk factors for bleeding between groups or reintervention rate were not statistically significant (P = .297). However, subgroup evaluation of the safety profile suggests that patients who were aged ≤65 years and on warfarin had an overall higher incidence of major bleeding (P = .020). Patients who were aged >65 years, undergoing open operation, had a significant risk for reintervention (P = .047) when they received rivaroxaban. Real-world experience using rivaroxaban and warfarin in patients after peripheral arterial procedures suggests a comparable safety and efficacy profile. Subgroup analysis of those requiring an open operation demonstrated a decreased bleeding risk when rivaroxaban was used (in those aged <65

  1. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  2. A predictive enrichment procedure to identify potential responders to a new therapy for randomized, comparative controlled clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junlong; Zhao, Lihui; Tian, Lu; Cai, Tianxi; Claggett, Brian; Callegaro, Andrea; Dizier, Benjamin; Spiessens, Bart; Ulloa-Montoya, Fernando; Wei, Lee-Jen

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate a new therapy versus a control via a randomized, comparative clinical study or a series of trials, due to heterogeneity of the study patient population, a pre-specified, predictive enrichment procedure may be implemented to identify an "enrichable" subpopulation. For patients in this subpopulation, the therapy is expected to have a desirable overall risk-benefit profile. To develop and validate such a "therapy-diagnostic co-development" strategy, a three-step procedure may be conducted with three independent data sets from a series of similar studies or a single trial. At the first stage, we create various candidate scoring systems based on the baseline information of the patients via, for example, parametric models using the first data set. Each individual score reflects an anticipated average treatment difference for future patients who share similar baseline profiles. A large score indicates that these patients tend to benefit from the new therapy. At the second step, a potentially promising, enrichable subgroup is identified using the totality of evidence from these scoring systems. At the final stage, we validate such a selection via two-sample inference procedures for assessing the treatment effectiveness statistically and clinically with the third data set, the so-called holdout sample. When the study size is not large, one may combine the first two steps using a "cross-training-evaluation" process. Comprehensive numerical studies are conducted to investigate the operational characteristics of the proposed method. The entire enrichment procedure is illustrated with the data from a cardiovascular trial to evaluate a beta-blocker versus a placebo for treating chronic heart failure patients. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Melt granulation in fluidized bed: a comparative study of spray-on versus in situ procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašić, Ivana; Ilić, Ilija; Dreu, Rok; Ibrić, Svetlana; Parojčić, Jelena; Srčič, Stanko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of process parameters, binder content and binder addition method on characteristics of the granules obtained by melt granulation (MG) in fluidized bed. Spray-on experiments were performed according to 2(3) full factorial design. The effect of binder content, molten binder feed rate, and spray air pressure on granule size and size distribution, granule shape, flowability and drug release rate was investigated. In the in situ experiments, the influence of binder particle size and binder content was evaluated. Solid-state characterization was performed by means of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Size of the granules obtained by spray-on procedure was significantly influenced by binder content and spray air pressure, while the width of particle size distribution was mainly affected by binder feed rate. Spray air pressure showed the most significant influence on granule shape. It was shown that smooth and spherical particles with good flow properties may be obtained by both procedures, spray-on and in situ MG. The results obtained indicated the influence of agglomeration mechanism on granule sphericity, with higher degree of granule sphericity observed when immersion and layering was the dominant mechanism. Paracetamol release from granulates was very rapid, but after compression of the granules into tablets, drug release was considerably slower. Solid-state analysis confirmed that the physical form of the granulate components remained unaffected after the MG process. The results presented indicate that MG in fluidized bed could be a good alternative to conventional granulation techniques.

  4. [Orthotopic cardiac transplantation with caval anastomosis: a comparative randomized study with standard procedure in 81 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, P; Benvenuti, C; Mazzucotelli, J P; Perdrix, C; Le Besnerais, P; Mourtada, A; Hillion, M L; Patrat, J F; Loisance, D Y

    1996-01-01

    Complete resection of the right atrium with conservation of a strip of left atrium around the 4 pulmonary veins followed by direct anastomosis on the vena cava has recently been proposed as an alternative to the standard orthotopic cardiac transplantation described by Shumway and Lower. In order to determine whether this "anatomical" transplantation should now be considered to be the procedure of choice, a prospective randomised study was undertaken in 1991 including 78 patients undergoing 81 cardiac transplantations by one of the two techniques: gr. I: classical transplantation (n = 40), gr. II: "anatomical" transplantation (n = 41). The groups were comparable in age, sex, weight, nature of the underlying cardiac disease and clinical status at the time of transplantation. Similarly, the parameters of the donors were comparable with respect to age, sex, weight and dosage of inotropic drugs at the time of explantation. All patients came of cardiopulmonary bypass with comparable ischaemia time of the graft (gr. I: 136 +/- 46 min; gr. II: 138 +/- 51 min). Immediate return to sinus rhythm occurred in 20 cases in gr. I and 36 cases in gr. II. Atrial arrhythmia persisted in 5 cases in gr. I but in no cases of gr. II. These differences were very significant (p < 0.001). There were 13 early deaths in gr. I and 8 in gr. II. Doppler echocardiography was performed two to three months after transplantation. The right atrial surface was significantly decreased in gr. II (18 +/- 4.7 cm2) compared with gr. I (24 +/- 7 cm2): the same difference was observed for the left atrium (gr. I: 24 +/- 4.5 cm2; gr. II: 20 +/- 5 cm2), p = 0.001. Tricuspid regurgitation was observed in 82% of patients in gr. I compared with 57% in gr. II (p < 0.005). Exercise stress tests during the same period showed no difference in peak oxygen consumption between the groups. Holter ECG monitoring led to permanent pacing in 2 patients of gr. I (5%). The technical simplicity and reduction of postoperative

  5. Improved Survival After the Ross Procedure Compared With Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratto, Edward; Shi, William Y; Wynne, Rochelle; Poh, Chin L; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Goldblatt, John; Tatoulis, James; Skillington, Peter D

    2018-03-27

    It is unclear whether the Ross procedure offers superior survival compared with mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study evaluated experience and compared long-term survival between the Ross procedure and mechanical AVR. Between 1992 and 2016, a total of 392 Ross procedures were performed. These were compared with 1,928 isolated mechanical AVRs performed during the same time period as identified using the University of Melbourne and Australia and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons' Cardiac Surgery Databases. Only patients between 18 and 65 years of age were included. Propensity-score matching was performed for risk adjustment. Ross procedure patients were younger, and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors. The Ross procedure was associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times. Thirty-day mortality was similar (Ross, 0.3%; mechanical, 0.8%; p = 0.5). Ross procedure patients experienced superior unadjusted long-term survival at 20 years (Ross, 95%; mechanical, 68%; p Ross procedure to be associated with a reduced risk of late mortality (hazard ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence internal: 0.17 to 0.67; p Ross procedure patients had superior survival at 20 years (Ross, 94%; mechanical, 84%; p = 0.018). In this Australian, propensity-score matched study, the Ross procedure was associated with better long-term survival compared with mechanical AVR. In younger patients, with a long life expectancy, the Ross procedure should be considered in centers with sufficient expertise. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative examination of sample treatment procedures for ICAP-AES analysis of biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, J. L. M.; Maessen, F. J. M. J.

    The objective of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of existing sample preparation procedures for ICAP-AES analysis of biological material. Performance characteristics were established of current digestion procedures comprising extraction, solubilization, pressure digestion, and wet and dry ashing methods. Apart from accuracy and precision, a number of criteria of special interest for the analytical practice was applied. As a test sample served SRM bovine liver. In this material six elements were simultaneously determined. Results showed that every procedure has its defects and advantages. Hence, unambiguous recommendation of standard digestion procedures can be made only when taking into account the specific analytical problem.

  7. Comparative study of preoperative use of oral gabapentin, intravenous dexamethasone and their combination in gynaecological procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the effects of oral gabapentin and intravenous (I.V. dexamethasone given together or separately 1 h before the start of surgery on intraoperative hemodynamics Postoperative analgesia and postoperative nausea vomiting (PONV in patients undergoing gynaecological procedure. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 (gabapentin, n = 46 received 400 mg gabapentin, Group 2 (dexamethasone, n = 46 received 8 mg dexamethasone and Group 3 (gabapentin plus dexamethasone, n = 46 received both 400 mg gabapentin and 8 mg dexamethasone I.V. 1 h before the start of surgery. Standard induction and maintenance of anesthesia were accomplished. Visual analog scale for pain was recorded for 12 h. Side effects were noted. Results: Hemodynamics at various time interval (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min of laryngeal mask airway insertion and PONV were found significantly lower in Group 3 than in Group 1 and Group 2 (P 3 was significantly longer in Group 3 (510.00 ± 61.64 min than in Group 1 (352.83 ± 80.61 min and in Group 2 (294.78 ± 60.76 min, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the combination of oral Gabapentin and I.V. dexamethasone has significantly less hemodynamic changes, better postoperative analgesia and less incidence of PONV than individual administration of each drug.

  8. Endodontic filling removal procedure: an ex vivo comparative study between two rotary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Mônica Sampaio do; Moreno, Melinna dos Santos; Silva, Priscila Macêdo França da; Botelho, Thereza Cristina Farias

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we compared the ex vivo removal capacity of two endodontic rotary techniques and determined whether there was a significant quantitative difference in residual material when comparing root thirds. Forty extracted molars were used. The palatal roots were selected, and the canals were prepared using a step-back technique and filled using a lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Endofill sealer. After two weeks of storage in a 0.9% saline solution at 37 ºC in an oven, the specimens were divided into 2 groups of 20, with group 1 samples subjected to Gates-Glidden drills and group 2 samples subjected to the ProTaper retreatment System. Hedstroem files and eucalyptol solvent were used in both groups to complete the removal procedure. Then, the roots thirds were radiographed and the images were submitted to the NIH ImageJ program to measure the residual filling material in mm. Each root third was related to the total area of the root canals. The data were analyzed using Student's t test. There was a statistically significant difference between the two techniques as more filling material was removed by technique 2 (ProTaper) than technique 1 (Gates-Glidden drills, p < 0.05). The apical third had a greater amount of residual filling material than the cervical and middle thirds, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). None of the selected techniques removed all filling material, and the material was most difficult to remove from the apical third. The ProTaper files removed more material than the Gates-Glidden drills.

  9. Endodontic filling removal procedure: an ex vivo comparative study between two rotary techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Sampaio do Vale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the ex vivo removal capacity of two endodontic rotary techniques and determined whether there was a significant quantitative difference in residual material when comparing root thirds. Forty extracted molars were used. The palatal roots were selected, and the canals were prepared using a step-back technique and filled using a lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Endofill sealer. After two weeks of storage in a 0.9% saline solution at 37ºC in an oven, the specimens were divided into 2 groups of 20, with group 1 samples subjected to Gates-Glidden drills and group 2 samples subjected to the ProTaper retreatment System. Hedstroem files and eucalyptol solvent were used in both groups to complete the removal procedure. Then, the roots thirds were radiographed and the images were submitted to the NIH ImageJ program to measure the residual filling material in mm. Each root third was related to the total area of the root canals. The data were analyzed using Student's t test. There was a statistically significant difference between the two techniques as more filling material was removed by technique 2 (ProTaper than technique 1 (Gates-Glidden drills, p < 0.05. The apical third had a greater amount of residual filling material than the cervical and middle thirds, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05. None of the selected techniques removed all filling material, and the material was most difficult to remove from the apical third. The ProTaper files removed more material than the Gates-Glidden drills

  10. The Effect of Preintervention Preparation on Pain and Anxiety Related to Peripheral Cannulation Procedures in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunç-Tuna, Pinar; Açikgoz, Ayfer

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several preintervention preparation practices on pain and anxiety related to the peripheral cannulation procedure in children ages 9-12 years. The study included 60 Turkish children (28 female, 32 male, randomly selected by lot), 30 of whom were included in the intervention group and 30 of whom were included in the control group. The children's demographic data were collected by a data collection form prepared by the researcher. The children in the intervention group read the training manual before peripheral cannulation, and the procedure was demonstrated on a teddy bear. Their level of pain was assessed using the Wong-Baker Faces Rating Scale, and their level of anxiety was determined by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, before and during the procedure in both groups. Results showed that while anxiety and pain scores increased during the actual procedure compared to the preparatory procedure in the control group (anxiety t = -4.957, pain Z(a) = -4.048), anxiety and pain scores decreased during the actual procedure in the intervention group compared to the preparatory procedure (anxiety t = 7.896, pain t = 6.196). When the pain and anxiety scores were examined, it was found that both anxiety and pain scores in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group. In conclusion, children in this study experienced pain and situational anxiety during peripheral cannulation, and this pain can be reduced by preparing the child in advance of the procedure. It is suggested that children should be informed about and able to practice the procedure on a toy or model before peripheral cannulation. Preparation of the children to painful procedures in accordance with their cognitive development can reduce anxiety and pain. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparability Effects of Mandatory IFRS Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen

    2012-01-01

    The mandatory adoption of IFRS by many countries worldwide fuels the expectation that financial accounting information might become more comparable across countries. This expectation is opposed to an alternative view that stresses the importance of incentives in shaping accounting information. We provide early evidence on this debate by investigating the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information around the world. Using two comparability proxie...

  12. Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Clinical Outcomes Between Short Implants and Long Implants with Bone Augmentation Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qingchun; Zhang, Xingwen; Yu, Liming

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess and compare clinical outcomes of short implants versus long implants placed in conjunction with a bone augmentation procedure. The eligible studies were searched from PubMed, Embase, Springer link, and the Cochrane library databases up to 23 January 2015. Prosthesis failures, implant failures, complications, and marginal bone loss were the clinical outcomes measured. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) or risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the effect size of continuous variables and dichotomous variables, respectively. A random-effects model was performed to assess the effect size. Nine eligible studies including 480 short implants (≤ 8 mm) and 503 long implants (≥ 9.3 mm) were selected for this meta-analysis. Compared with the long-implant group, a notable decrease in the short-implant group was found for complications at the 5-year follow-up (RR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.79, P short-implant and long-implant groups for other variables (P > .05). Moreover, the results were not obviously changed when stratified by implants placed in the mandible and maxilla. Implants ≤ 8 mm in length are considered to be a suitable alternative treatment when bone height is not adequate for standard implants.

  13. Intravenous ketamine is as effective as midazolam/fentanyl for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, S M; Fathil, S M; Nidzwani, M M; Ismail, A K; Yatim, F M

    2011-08-01

    The study compared the effectiveness of ketamine and midazolam/fentanyl as procedural sedation and analgesia agents for reduction of fractures and dislocated joints. Forty-one adult patients were enrolled by convenience sampling. They were randomized to receive ketamine or midazolam/fentanyl. Depth of sedation, pain score, procedural outcome and memory of the procedure were documented. The ketamine group had deeper sedation, but there was no statistical difference in other variables between the two groups. Three patients in the midazolam/fentanyl group had oxygen desaturation. More adverse effects were associated with ketamine. Intravenous ketamine is as effective as midazolam/fentanyl for procedural sedation.

  14. Effect of cooling procedure on final denture base adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzarolli, S M; Rached, R N; Garcia, R C M R; Del Bel Cury, A A

    2002-08-01

    Well-fitted dentures prevent hyperplasic lesions, provide chewing efficiency and promote patient's comfort. Several factors may affect final adaptation of dentures, as the type of the acrylic resin, the flask cooling procedure and the water uptake. This investigation evaluated the effect of water storage and two different cooling procedures [bench cooling (BC) for 2 h; running water (RW) at 20 degrees C for 45 min] on the final adaptation of denture bases. A heat-cured acrylic resin (CL, Clássico, Clássico Artigos Odontológicos) and two microwave-cured acrylic resins [Acron MC, (AC) GC Dent. Ind. Corp.; Onda Cryl (OC), Clássico Artigos Odontológicos] were used to make the bases. Adaptation was assessed by measuring the weight of an intervening layer of silicone impression material between the base and the master die. Data was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (0.05). The following means were found: (BC) CL=0.72 +/- 0.03 a; AC=0.70 +/- 0.03 b; OC=0.76 +/- 0.04 c//(RW) CL= 1.00 +/- 0.11 a; AC=1.00 +/- 0.12 a; OC=0.95 +/- 0.10 a. Different labels join groups that are not statistically different (P > 0.05). Comparisons are made among groups submitted to the same cooling procedure (BC or RW). The conclusions are: interaction of type of material and cooling procedure had a statistically significant effect on the final adaptation of the denture bases (P 0.05) on the final adaptation.

  15. Anticipating drug side effects by comparative pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Serna, Ricard; Mestres, Jordi

    2010-10-01

    Anticipating the likely side effect profile of drugs is an aspect of key importance in current drug discovery, development and marketing. It was recently shown that drug pairs having similar side effect profiles had also affinity for a common target. Acknowledging that most drugs have a rich polypharmacology, we provide proof that drugs related by side effect similarity have in fact affinities for multiple common targets beyond their primary targets and set the basis for the use of comparative pharmacology to anticipate drug side effects. Nomenclature issues to be able to identify and properly store drugs, targets and side effects from multiple public sources; the construction of drug networks from side effect similarity and the inference of common targets among them; polypharmacology and data completeness; methods for in silico target profiling; and comparative pharmacology and inference of common side effects. The reader is provided with a detailed step-by-step analysis of the entire process from predicting the target profile of a compound to anticipating its side effect profile, and a discussion on the particular needs and limitations found at each stage of the process through illustrative examples. Comparing preclinical pharmacology data obtained in vitro but also predicted in silico using modern virtual screening methods represents an attractive strategy to anticipate clinical drug side effects.

  16. Comparison of statistical procedures for estimating polygenic effects using dense genome-wide marker data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Eduardo CG

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we compared different statistical procedures for estimating SNP effects using the simulated data set from the XII QTL-MAS workshop. Five procedures were considered and tested in a reference population, i.e., the first four generations, from which phenotypes and genotypes were available. The procedures can be interpreted as variants of ridge regression, with different ways for defining the shrinkage parameter. Comparisons were made with respect to the correlation between genomic and conventional estimated breeding values. Moderate correlations were obtained from all methods. Two of them were used to predict genomic breeding values in the last three generations. Correlations between these and the true breeding values were also moderate. We concluded that the ridge regression procedures applied in this study did not outperform the simple use of a ratio of variances in a mixed model method, both providing moderate accuracies of predicted genomic breeding values.

  17. A robust procedure for comparing multiple means under heteroscedasticity in unbalanced designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Herberich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigating differences between means of more than two groups or experimental conditions is a routine research question addressed in biology. In order to assess differences statistically, multiple comparison procedures are applied. The most prominent procedures of this type, the Dunnett and Tukey-Kramer test, control the probability of reporting at least one false positive result when the data are normally distributed and when the sample sizes and variances do not differ between groups. All three assumptions are non-realistic in biological research and any violation leads to an increased number of reported false positive results. Based on a general statistical framework for simultaneous inference and robust covariance estimators we propose a new statistical multiple comparison procedure for assessing multiple means. In contrast to the Dunnett or Tukey-Kramer tests, no assumptions regarding the distribution, sample sizes or variance homogeneity are necessary. The performance of the new procedure is assessed by means of its familywise error rate and power under different distributions. The practical merits are demonstrated by a reanalysis of fatty acid phenotypes of the bacterium Bacillus simplex from the "Evolution Canyons" I and II in Israel. The simulation results show that even under severely varying variances, the procedure controls the number of false positive findings very well. Thus, the here presented procedure works well under biologically realistic scenarios of unbalanced group sizes, non-normality and heteroscedasticity.

  18. Embodiment as procedures: Physical cleansing changes goal priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ping; Lee, Spike W S

    2017-04-01

    Physical cleansing reduces the influence of numerous psychological experiences, such as guilt from immoral behavior, dissonance from free choice, and good/bad luck from winning/losing. How do these domain-general effects occur? We propose an integrative account of cleansing as an embodied procedure of psychological separation. By separating physical traces from a physical target object (e.g., detaching dirt from hands), cleansing serves as the embodied grounding for the separation of psychological traces from a psychological target object (e.g., dissociating prior experience from the present self). This account predicts that cleansing reduces the accessibility of psychological traces and their consequences for judgments and behaviors. Testing these in the context of goal priming, we find that wiping one's hands (vs. not) decreases the mental accessibility (Experiment 1), behavioral expression (Experiment 2), and judged importance (Experiments 3-4) of previously primed goals (e.g., achievement, saving, fitness). But if a goal is primed after cleansing, its importance gets amplified instead (Experiment 3). Based on the logic of moderation-of-process, an alternative manipulation that psychologically separates a primed goal from the present self produces the same effects, but critically, the effects vanish once people wipe their hands clean (Experiment 4), consistent with the notion that cleansing functions as an embodied procedure of psychological separation. These findings have implications for the flexibility of goal pursuit. More broadly, our procedural perspective generates novel predictions about the scope and mechanisms of cleansing effects and may help integrate embodied and related phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors. Word supply versus sentence repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N N

    1990-04-01

    The effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors and a control condition were compared in an alternating treatments design with three students who were moderately mentally retarded. The two procedures evaluated were word supply and sentence repeat. The teacher supplied the reader with the correct word immediately after each student error during the word-supply condition. During the sentence-repeat condition, the teacher supplied the correct word immediately after each student error, required the student to repeat the correct word, complete reading the sentence, and then reread the entire sentence. Both word-supply and sentence-repeat procedures were effective in reducing oral reading errors when compared to a no-intervention control condition, but sentence repeat was superior to word supply. In addition, a similar relationship was found between the two procedures when the students were tested for retention on the same reading passages a week later. These results show that sentence repeat is more effective than is the commonly used word-supply procedure in remediating the oral reading errors of students with moderate mental retardation.

  20. Effect of different light-curing devices and aging procedures on composite knoop microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltarelli, Fernanda Regina; dos Santos-Daroz, Claudia Batitucci; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Peris, Alessandra Rezende; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing devices (Halogen/HAL, Light Emitting Diodes/LED, Argon Laser/LAS and Plasma Arc/PAC) and aging procedures (Mechanical Cycling/MC, Thermal Cycling/TC, Storage/S, MC+TC and MC+TC+S) on the micro-hardness of bottom/B and top/T surfaces of 2-mm-high composite resin cylinders. The Knoop microhardness test (25 g, 20 s) on both B and T was performed before and after each aging procedure. For B and T, before aging procedures, PAC showed reduced polymerization effectiveness when compared with HAL. In the T, after TC, PAC and LAS had also showed reduced polymerization effectiveness when compared to HAL and LED. For all light-curing devices, MC+TC+S and S affected the Knoop microhardness values. In the B, no difference could be observed among the aging procedures for PAC. From all light-curing units, PAC may have rendered composites of reduced quality and the storage aging procedures were the most harmful to the polymer hardness.

  1. Effect of different light-curing devices and aging procedures on composite knoop microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Regina Voltarelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing devices (Halogen/HAL, Light Emitting Diodes/LED, Argon Laser/LAS and Plasma Arc/PAC and aging procedures (Mechanical Cycling/MC, Thermal Cycling/TC, Storage/S, MC+TC and MC+TC+S on the micro-hardness of bottom/B and top/T surfaces of 2-mm-high composite resin cylinders. The Knoop microhardness test (25 g, 20 s on both B and T was performed before and after each aging procedure. For B and T, before aging procedures, PAC showed reduced polymerization effectiveness when compared with HAL. In the T, after TC, PAC and LAS had also showed reduced polymerization effectiveness when compared to HAL and LED. For all light-curing devices, MC+TC+S and S affected the Knoop microhardness values. In the B, no difference could be observed among the aging procedures for PAC. From all light-curing units, PAC may have rendered composites of reduced quality and the storage aging procedures were the most harmful to the polymer hardness.

  2. The effectiveness of the Latarjet procedure for shoulder instability in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erşen, A; Bayram, S; Birişik, F; Atalar, A C; Demirhan, M

    2017-12-01

    Powerful contractions during epileptic seizures may cause shoulder dislocation and instability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the functional and radiographic results of the Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder dislocation in patients with epilepsy and compare the functional results of these patients with the results of patients without epilepsy. Is latarjet procedure effective in epileptic patients as non-epileptic patients with anterior shoulder instability? Eleven shoulders of 9 patients with epileptic seizures causing anterior shoulder instability were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had a Latarjet procedure after neurologic evaluation and treatment arrangement. Epileptic seizures after the operation and shoulder dislocation after a seizure were investigated. For functional evaluation, ROWE, ASES and Constant scores were utilized whereas standard X-ray views were used for radiologic evaluation. The results of epileptic patients with Latarjet procedure were compared with non-epileptic patients (53 patients, 54 shoulders) for anterior shoulder instability. Three (33%) of the 9 epileptic patients had recurrent seizures after Latarjet procedure, whereas 1 of the 11 shoulders (9%) had dislocation after an epileptic seizure. Functional scores were found to be significantly improved in epileptic (PLatarjet procedure for anterior instability (P>0.05). One shoulder of 11 in the patients with epilepsy group (9%) and one shoulder of the 54 shoulders non-epileptic patients group (1.8%) had a redislocation. The rate of postoperative redislocation was significantly higher in patients with epilepsy (P=0.008). Epileptic patients have a high rate of recurrent seizures even with proper medical treatment. Significant functional improvements and shoulder stability may be achieved after Latarjet procedure in epileptic patients. These functional results were comparable with those of non-epileptic patients with Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability

  3. Effectiveness of radio waves application in modern general dental procedures: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Arslan; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Pikos, Michael A; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review indexed literature and provide an update on the effectiveness of high-frequency radio waves (HRW) application in modern general dentistry procedures. Indexed databases were searched to identify articles that assessed the efficacy of radio waves in dental procedures. Radiosurgery is a refined form of electrosurgery that uses waves of electrons at a radiofrequency ranging between 2 and 4 MHz. Radio waves have also been reported to cause much less thermal damage to peripheral tissues compared with electrosurgery or carbon dioxide laser-assisted surgery. Formation of reparative dentin in direct pulp capping procedures is also significantly higher when HRW are used to achieve hemostasis in teeth with minimally exposed dental pulps compared with traditional techniques for achieving hemostasis. A few case reports have reported that radiosurgery is useful for procedures such as gingivectomy and gingivoplasty, stage-two surgery for implant exposure, operculectomy, oral biopsy, and frenectomy. Radiosurgery is a relatively modern therapeutic methodology for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia; however, its long-term efficacy is unclear. Radio waves can also be used for periodontal procedures, such as gingivectomies, coronal flap advancement, harvesting palatal grafts for periodontal soft tissue grafting, and crown lengthening. Although there are a limited number of studies in indexed literature regarding the efficacy of radio waves in modern dentistry, the available evidence shows that use of radio waves is a modernization in clinical dentistry that might be a contemporary substitute for traditional clinical dental procedures.

  4. Comparative evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education's environmental survey and site assessment program field sampling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.; Bright, T.L.; Roberts, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Headquarters Office, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) compared the documented procedures that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ESSAP use for collecting environmental samples. The project objectives were to review both organizations' procedures applicable to collecting various sample matrices, compare the procedures for similarities and differences, and then to evaluate the reason for any identified procedural differences and their potential impact on ESSAP's sample data quality. The procedures reviewed included those for sampling surface and subsurface soil, surface and groundwater, vegetation, air, and removable surface contamination. ESSAP obtained copies of relevant EPA documents and reviewed and prepared a tabulated summary of each applicable procedure. The methods for collecting and handling each type of sample were evaluated for differences, and where these were identified, the significance and effect of the differences on analytical quality were determined. The results of the comparison showed that, overall, the procedures and methods that EPA and ESSAP use for sample collection are very similar. The number of minor differences noted were the result of restrictions or procedures necessary to ensure sample integrity and prevent the introduction of interfering compounds when samples are to be analyzed for chemical parameters. For most radio nuclide analyses, these additional procedures are not necessary. Another item noted was EPA's inclusion of steps that reduce the potential for sample cross-contamination by preparing (dressing) a location prior to collecting a sample or removing a portion of a sample prior to containerization

  5. Augmented superior rectus transposition procedure in Duane retraction syndrome compared with sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammadreza; Shomali, Setareh; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Arash; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei

    2018-01-03

    Superior rectus transposition (SRT) with medial rectus recession has been used for the treatment of sixth nerve palsy and esotropic Duane retraction syndrome (DRS). The purpose of this study was to compare the results of augmented SRT (with scleral fixation) without medial rectus recession in DRS and sixth nerve palsy. Patients with unilateral esotropic DRS (DRS group) and sixth nerve palsy were included in this prospective, comparative study and underwent SRT. Preoperative forced duction testing was negative or slightly positive in both groups. Prospective measurements were compared between the two groups. There were 11 patients in the DRS group and 11 patients in the sixth nerve palsy group. The mean preoperative esotropia decreased from 20.9 ± 6.0 prism diopter (PD) at far to 13.2 ± 5.8 PD in the DRS group (P = 0.003). The same measurement improved from 28.0 ± 8.5 PD to 8.4 ± 7.3 PD in the sixth nerve palsy group (P = 0.003). In the sixth nerve palsy group, the improvement in primary gaze esotropia and abnormal head posture was more than the DRS group (Both P sixth nerve palsy group. Although objective intorsion was significantly induced after SRT, subjective torsion was not significant after surgery in both groups. SRT appears to be more effective in improving primary gaze deviation and head posture in sixth nerve palsy compared with DRS. Subjective torsional and vertical diplopia were rare in both groups.

  6. Adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar spinal fusion compared with motion-preservation procedures: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Aixing; Hai, Yong; Yang, Jincai; Zhou, Lijin; Chen, Xiaolong; Guo, Hui

    2016-05-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of motion-preservation procedures to prevent the adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) or adjacent segment disease (ASDis) compared with fusion in lumbar spine. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched and a meta-analysis was performed of all randomized controlled trials and well designed prospective or retrospective comparative cohort studies assessing the lumbar fusion and motion-preservation procedures. We compared the ASDeg and ASDis rate, reoperation rate, operation time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, visual analogue scale (VAS) and oswestry disability index (ODI) improvement of the two procedures. A total of 15 studies consisting of 1474 patients were included in this study. The meta-analysis indicated that the prevalence of ASDeg, ASDis and reoperation rate on the adjacent level were lower in motion-preservation procedures group than in the fusion group (P = 0.001; P = 0.0004; P adjacent segment degeneration compared with the lumbar fusion. And the clinical outcomes of the two procedures are similar.

  7. Comparative efficiency of final endodontic cleansing procedures in removing a radioactive albumin from root canal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecic, P.A.; Peters, D.D.; Grower, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fifty-six teeth were initially instrumented, with the use of seven irrigants or irrigant combinations, and filled with radioactive albumin. The study then showed the relative ability of three final endodontic procedures (copious reirrigation with saline solution, drying with paper points, and reassuring patency of the canal with the final instrument) to remove the albumin. Even after copious irrigation, each additional procedure removed statistically significant amounts of albumin. Alternating an organic solvent and an inorganic solvent did appear to leave the canal system in the optimal condition for final cleansing procedures. The study then correlated the relative efficiency of irrigation alone versus instrumentation plus irrigation in removing the remaining albumin from the canal systems. Reinstrumentation plus copious irrigation removed significantly more albumin than copious irrigation alone.

  8. Adjacent segment pathology following cervical motion-sparing procedures or devices compared with fusion surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Christopher Chambliss; Hilibrand, Alan S; Fischer, Dena J; Skelly, Andrea C

    2012-10-15

    A systematic review. To critically review and summarize the literature comparing motion preservation devices to fusion in the cervical spine to determine whether the use of these devices decreases the development of radiographical (RASP) or clinical adjacent segment pathology (CASP) compared with fusion. Historically, surgical treatment of symptomatic cervical disc disease presenting as radiculopathy and/or myelopathy with anterior cervical decompression and fusion has yielded excellent results. Controversy remains whether RASP and CASP requiring treatment is due to fusion-altered biomechanics and kinematics versus natural history. We conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library for literature published through February 2012 on human randomized control trials or cohort studies published in the English language containing abstracts to answer the following key questions: (1) Is there evidence that total disc replacement (TDR) is associated with a lower risk of RASP or CASP compared with fusion? (2) Is there evidence that other procedures that do not involve arthrodesis or other motion-sparing devices are associated with a lower risk of RASP or CASP compared with fusion? (3)Is one type of motion preservation device or procedure associated with a lower risk of RASP or CASP compared with others? The initial literature search yielded 276 citations, of which 73 unique, potentially relevant citations that were evaluated against the inclusion/exclusion criteria set a priori. A total of 14 studies were selected for inclusion. For question 1, RASP was variably reported in studies that compared total disc replacement (TDR) to anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), and risk differences for reoperation due to CASP ranged from 1.0% to 4.8%, with no statistically significant differences between groups. For question 2, no studies comparing motion preservation devices to ACDF met our inclusion criteria. For question 3, one study

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF CANALITH RE POSITIONING PROCEDURE VERSUS BRANDT DAROFF EXERCISES IN BENIGN PAROXYSMAL POSITIONAL VERTIGO SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertigo is perception of motion, when no movement is present or abnormal perception of motion in response to movement. Vertigo is usually due to a disturbance in the vestibular System. Physical therapy plays an important role in reducing vertigo and nystagmus in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo subjects. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(BPPV comes under the peripheral Vertigo which is the most common disease causing vertigo. Cawthrone and cooksy were the first clinicians to advocate exercises for persons suffering from vertigo. Canalith repositioning procedure was effective in treating BPPV. Brandt Daroff exercises were designed to habituate the central nervous system to provoking position and they dislodge and move the debris out of canal which is effective in treating BPPV. Hence this study compares the effectiveness of these two techniques in treating BPPV. Methods: Total number of 30 subjects was taken and they were divided into two groups by simple random sampling method with Pre test and post test experimental design . Group A subjects were treated with Canalith repositioning procedure and Group B subjects were treated with Brandt Daroff exercises. Outcome measure is dizziness handicap inventory (DHI Results: P-value is less than 0.05 which shows that there is significant difference between Canalith repositioning procedure and Brandt Daroff exercises. Conclusion: Canalith repositioning procedure is most effective and less time consuming procedure in treating the Benign Paroxysmal positional vertigo subjects and found to have less reoccurrence.

  10. Comparative analysis on temperature reduction effectiveness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis on temperature reduction effectiveness of ornamental tree species in University of Port Harcourt. ... The process of urbanization causes alterations in the landscape, affects the environment negatively and the community is placed at risk. In an attempt to sustain urban growth, urban areas have now ...

  11. Comparative effects of imipramine, sertraline, nifedipine, furosemide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the comparative effects of imipramine, sertraline, nifedipine, furosemide and bumetanide on ingestive behavior in rodents. Twelve groups (with six in each group) of male mice (25 to 35 g) were used in the experiments. They were housed in labelled plastic cages in the departmental ...

  12. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the effects of undigested and anaerobically digested poultry manure and conventional inorganic fertilizer on the growth characteristics and yield of maize was investigated at Ibadan, Nigeria. The pot experiment consisted of sixty (60) nursery bags, set out in the greenhouse. The treatments, thoroughly ...

  13. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  14. comparative developmental effects of tramadol hydrochloride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekrane T. and Odo P. E.

    laboratory research such as in toxicological and forensic sciences. (Goff et al., 1999; Hedouim et al.,1999). This study compares effects of cypermethrin (a pyrethroid pesticide) and tramadol (an opioid) on the development pattern of. Chrysomyia albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from intoxicated rabbit (Orctylagus cunicunus) ...

  15. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina and Ilex paraguariensis in colon cancer cells. Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). Cytotoxic ...

  16. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  17. Comparative assessment of supervision and decision-making procedures regarding sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaro, F.; Garbely, M.; Genoud, S.

    2002-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possibilities of establishing a system of indicators that allows the monitoring of sustainable development and its effects, as stipulated in the Agenda 21. The report presents the findings of the study on criteria and indicators for sustainability in the energy area. The challenge posed by the synthesis of information from a system of indicators is discussed and four general approaches are proposed, compared and tested for the monitoring of sustainability in the energy area. These include the calculation of a composite index from several indicators, a similar process that uses statistical methods of dimensional reduction, methods for the measurement of productivity loaned from economics and a method for decision-making using multiple criteria. Examples for the four approaches are given and experience gained in their use - partly in other countries and in United Nations agencies - is discussed

  18. Comparison of speech intelligibility in quiet and in noise after hearing aid fitting according to a purely prescriptive and a comparative fitting procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, Mick; Maat, Bert; Krijnen, Pieta; Verschuure, Hans; Dreschler, Wouter; Feenstra, Louw

    2008-01-01

    We compared two different types of hearing-aid fitting procedures in a double-blind randomized clinical study. Hearing aid fittings based on a purely prescriptive procedure (the NAL-RP formula) were compared to a comparative fitting procedure based on optimizing speech intelligibility scores. Main

  19. Comparison of speech intelligibility in quiet and in noise after hearing aid fitting according to a purely prescriptive and a comparative fitting procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, Mick; Maat, Bert; Krijnen, Pieta; Verschuure, Hans; Dreschler, Wouter; Feenstra, Louw

    We compared two different types of hearing-aid fitting procedures in a double-blind randomized clinical study. Hearing aid fittings based on a purely prescriptive procedure (the NAL-RP formula) were compared to a comparative fitting procedure based on optimizing speech intelligibility scores. Main

  20. Comparative study of deterioration procedure in chemical-leavened steamed bread dough under frozen storage and freeze/thaw condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-08-15

    Successive freeze/thaw (FT) cycle was a widely used empirical approach to shorten the experimental period since it could accelerate frozen dough deterioration compared with frozen storage (FS). In order to compare the effect of FS and FT cycle on deterioration procedure of chemical-leavened steamed bread dough, kinetic studies of bread quality indices were performed and the relationships between bread quality and dough components were further established. Results showed that degradation of steamed bread loaf volume and firmness followed first-order kinetics during FS and zero-order kinetics during FT, respectively. Glutenin macropolymers (GMP) depolymerization and dough weight loss occurred steadily throughout FS and FT. Significant enhancement of damaged starch and crystallinity were observed at the later FS period and FT cycle. Multiple regression study led to the conclusion that dough weight loss contributed the most to the reduced bread loaf volume under FS whereas GMP depolymerization dominated under FT condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscle lesion comparing of imaging procedures (sonography and MRT) -experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellerowicz, H.; Lubasch, A.; Dulce, M.; Wagner, S.; Paul, B.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle injuries in sports are more common now. Diagnosis and follow up of muscle injuries is nowadays achieved by sonography and MRT. In order to assess the two imagine procedures, a direct test for comparison of sonography and MRT was performed in an experimental study: A standardised disconnection of m. triceps surae in rats was either sutured and glued or not treated. Clinical studies were performed in 26 patients suffering from muscle trauma. Sonography was proved to be a reliable procedure especially in follow up control until full weight bearing and should be used first. Negative or doubtfull findings require further investigation by MRT. Especially contrast medium (Gd-DTPA) assisted examinations enables a long term follow up and may even show small (muscle strain) and deep lying injuries. (orig.) [de

  2. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of combined sucrose and non-nutritive sucking for analgesia in newborns undergoing minor painful procedure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, P; Arora, K; Goyal, K; Das, R R; Javadekar, B; Aiyer, S; Panigrahi, S K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of combined sucrose and non-nutritive sucking (NNS) for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing heel-stick procedures. This randomized control trial was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 1 year. One hundred and eighty full-term neonates with birth weight >2200 g and age >24 h were randomized to one of four interventions administered 2 min before the procedure: 2 ml of 30% sucrose (group I, n=45) or NNS (group II, n=45) or both (group III, n=45) or none (group IV, n=45). Primary outcome was composite score based on Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score. Baseline variables were comparable among the groups. Median (interquartile range) PIPP score was 3 (2 to 4) in group III as compared with 7 (6.5 to 8) in group I, 9 (7 to 11) in group II and 13 (10.5 to 15) in group IV. Group III had significant decrease in the median PIPP score compared with other groups (P=0.000). Median PIPP score also decreased significantly with any intervention as compared with no intervention (P=0.000). Sucrose and/or NNS are effective in providing analgesia in full-term neonates undergoing heel-stick procedures, with the combined intervention being more effective compared with any single intervention.

  3. Valve-Sparing Root Replacement Compared With Composite Valve Graft Procedures in Patients With Aortic Root Dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, Maral; Rao, Vivek; Manlhiot, Cedric; Abraham, Nachum; David, Carolyn; Feindel, Christopher M; David, Tirone E

    2016-10-25

    Although aortic valve-sparing (AVS) operations are established alternatives to composite valve graft (CVG) procedures for patients with aortic root aneurysms, comparative long-term outcomes are lacking. This study sought to compare the results of patients undergoing AVS procedures with those undergoing CVG operations. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 616 patients age Marfan syndrome and lower rates of bicuspid aortic valve than those undergoing bio-CVG or m-CVG procedures. In-hospital mortality (0.3%) and stroke rate (1.3%) were similar among groups. After adjusting for clinical covariates, both bio-CVG and m-CVG procedures were associated with increased long-term major adverse valve-related events compared with patients undergoing AVS (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.4, p = 0.005; and HR: 5.2, p valve-related complications when compared with bio-CVG and m-CVG. AVS is the treatment of choice for young patients with aortic root aneurysm and normal or near-normal aortic cusps. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, D.M.J.; Cheung, Y.W.; Ziukaite, L.; Ince, C.; van den Akker, H.P.; Lindeboom, J.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. Study Design This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary

  5. Diagnosing alcoholism in high-risk drinking drivers: comparing different diagnostic procedures with estimated prevalence of hazardous alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzec, A.; Bär, M.; Koeter, M. W.; de Kieviet, W.

    2001-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under influence (DUI), suspected of an alcohol use disorder (AUD, 'alcoholism') are referred for diagnostic examination. The accuracy of diagnostic procedures used in diagnosing AUD in the DUI population is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare three

  6. The Ross procedure offers excellent survival compared with mechanical aortic valve replacement in a real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Martin; Wiedemann, Dominik; Seebacher, Gernot; Rath, Claus; Aref, Tandis; Rosenhek, Raphael; Heinze, Georg; Eigenbauer, Ernst; Simon, Paul; Ruetzler, Kurt; Hiesmayr, Joerg-Michael; Moritz, Anton; Laufer, Guenther; Kocher, Alfred

    2014-09-01

    The ideal prosthesis for young patients requiring aortic valve replacement has not been defined to date. Although the Ross procedure provides excellent survival, its application is still limited. We compared the long-term survival after the Ross procedure with mechanical aortic valve replacement. All consecutive Ross procedures and mechanical aortic valve replacements performed between 1991 and 2008 at a single centre were analysed. Only adult patients between 18 and 50 years of age were included in the study. Survival and valve-related complications were evaluated. Furthermore, survival was compared with the age- and sex-matched Austrian population. A total of 159 Ross patients and 173 mechanical valve patients were included. The cumulative survival for the Ross procedure was significantly better, with survival rates of 96, 94 and 93% at 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively, in comparison to 90, 84 and 75% (P Ross group but was significantly reduced in the mechanical valve group. In a real-world setting, the Ross procedure is associated with a long-term survival benefit in young adults in comparison to mechanical aortic valve replacement. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of staff lens doses during interventional procedures. Comparing cardiology, neuroradiology and interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E; Sanchez, R M; Fernandez, J M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate lens doses using over apron active personal dosemeters in interventional catheterisation laboratories (cardiology IC, neuroradiology IN and radiology IR) and to investigate correlations between occupational lens doses and patient doses. Active electronic personal dosemeters placed over the lead apron were used on a sample of 204 IC procedures, 274 IN and 220 IR (all performed at the same university hospital). Patient dose values (kerma area product) were also recorded to evaluate correlations with occupational doses. Operators used the ceiling-suspended screen in most cases. The median and third quartile values of equivalent dose Hp(10) per procedure measured over the apron for IC, IN and IR resulted, respectively, in 21/67, 19/44 and 24/54 µSv. Patient dose values (median/third quartile) were 75/128, 83/176 and 61/159 Gy cm(2), respectively. The median ratios for dosemeters worn over the apron by operators (protected by the ceiling-suspended screen) and patient doses were 0.36; 0.21 and 0.46 µSv Gy(-1) cm(-2), respectively. With the conservative approach used (lens doses estimated from the over apron chest dosemeter) we came to the conclusion that more than 800 procedures y(-1) and per operator were necessary to reach the new lens dose limit for the three interventional specialties. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. EFFECTIVELY SELECTING A TARGET POPULATION FOR A FUTURE COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihui; Tian, Lu; Cai, Tianxi; Claggett, Brian; Wei, L J

    2013-01-01

    When comparing a new treatment with a control in a randomized clinical study, the treatment effect is generally assessed by evaluating a summary measure over a specific study population. The success of the trial heavily depends on the choice of such a population. In this paper, we show a systematic, effective way to identify a promising population, for which the new treatment is expected to have a desired benefit, utilizing the data from a current study involving similar comparator treatments. Specifically, using the existing data, we first create a parametric scoring system as a function of multiple multiple baseline covariates to estimate subject-specific treatment differences. Based on this scoring system, we specify a desired level of treatment difference and obtain a subgroup of patients, defined as those whose estimated scores exceed this threshold. An empirically calibrated threshold-specific treatment difference curve across a range of score values is constructed. The subpopulation of patients satisfying any given level of treatment benefit can then be identified accordingly. To avoid bias due to overoptimism, we utilize a cross-training-evaluation method for implementing the above two-step procedure. We then show how to select the best scoring system among all competing models. Furthermore, for cases in which only a single pre-specified working model is involved, inference procedures are proposed for the average treatment difference over a range of score values using the entire data set, and are justified theoretically and numerically. Lastly, the proposals are illustrated with the data from two clinical trials in treating HIV and cardiovascular diseases. Note that if we are not interested in designing a new study for comparing similar treatments, the new procedure can also be quite useful for the management of future patients, so that treatment may be targeted towards those who would receive nontrivial benefits to compensate for the risk or cost of the

  9. Organ and effective doses from paediatric interventional cardiology procedures in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo; Nocetti, Diego; Manterola, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the results of organ and effective doses for paediatric patients for different types of interventional cardiology procedures for age and weight groups, derived from a patient dosimetry pilot programme carried out in Chile, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over seven years, a retrospective collection of demographic and patient dose data was obtained: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose at patient entrance reference point. Monte Carlo software was used to calculate organ and effective doses. 1506 procedures were divided into four age and seven weight groups. Organ doses (median values) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were: active bone marrow 0.90 and 0.64mGy; heart 1.99 and 1.46mGy; lungs 3.56 and 2.59mGy; thyroid 1.27 and 0.83; and breast (in the case of females) 1.78 and 1.36mGy. The ranges for effective doses (median values) and weight bands were 1.2-3.9mSv for diagnostic procedures and 1.0-2.5mSv for therapeutic procedures. The resulting conversion factors (median values) to estimate effective dose from DAP (in mSv/Gy.cm2) were: 1.70; 0.89; 0.58; and 0.40, for age groups of <1year, 1-<5years, 5-<10years and 10-<16years, respectively. The obtained set of dose values will enable comparisons with other imaging procedures (comparing the same age bands) for justification and optimization purposes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of Music Listening During Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure on Pain and Anxiety: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantawong, Nopwaree; Charoenkwan, Kittipat

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare pain, anxiety, and satisfaction between women, who listened to music, and those who did not during loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. In group 1 (music), the participants listened to relaxing instrumental music through the stereo headset from the time of arrival at the preoperative waiting room until the procedure completed. For group 2 (control), the participants underwent LEEP without music listening. The women rated pain, anxiety, and satisfaction according to 10-cm visual analog scales. Pain was assessed at the time of speculum insertion (baseline pain) and immediately after the LEEP completed (procedural pain). Anxiety and satisfaction were examined just before starting the LEEP and 10 minutes after the procedure completed. One hundred fifty patients (74 in music group and 76 in control group) participated. Mean baseline pain scores after speculum insertion were comparable between the groups (3.7 in the music group vs. 3.5 in the control group, p = .55). Mean procedural pain scores were not different between the groups (4.7 in the music group vs. 5.2 in the control group, p = .32). The differences of the procedural pain scores from baseline were statistically comparable between the study groups (0.9 in the music group vs. 1.7 in the control group, p = .15). There were no significant differences in anxiety and satisfaction scores at any time points assessed between the groups. The effects of music listening on reducing pain and anxiety during LEEP could not be demonstrated in this study.

  11. Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular

    OpenAIRE

    Bryla, D R; Machado, RMA

    2011-01-01

    Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil nitrogen during establishment of highbush blueberry David R. Bryla1* and Rui M. A. Machado2 1 Horticultural Crops Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Corvallis, OR, USA 2 Departamento de Fitotecnia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Évora, Portugal A 2-year study was done to co...

  12. A Prospective Comparative Study of Arthroscopic Versus Mini-Open Latarjet Procedure With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Blandine; Klouche, Shahnaz; Deranlot, Julien; Bauer, Thomas; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Hardy, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    To compare postoperative pain during the first postoperative week and the position of the coracoid bone block at the anterior aspect of the glenoid after the arthroscopic and the mini-open Latarjet procedure. The secondary purpose was to assess functional results and recurrence after at least 2 years of follow-up. This comparative prospective study included patients who underwent a Latarjet-Bristow procedure for anterior shoulder instability in 2012. The Latarjet procedure was performed by a mini-open approach (G1) in one center and by an arthroscopic approach (G2) in the other. The main evaluation criterion was average shoulder pain during the first postoperative week assessed by the patient on a standard 10-cm visual analog scale (0-10). Secondary criteria were consumption of analgesics during the first week, the position of the coracoid bone block on radiograph and computed tomography scan at the 3-month follow-up and clinical outcomes (Western Ontario Score Index and new surgery) after at least 2 years of follow-up. Fifty-eight patients were included, 22 G1 and 36 G2, 13 women and 45 men, mean age 26.9 ± 7.7 years. The mean follow-up was 29.8 ± 4.4 months. There was significantly less pain in the arthroscopic Latarjet group than in the mini-open group during the first postoperative week (2.5 ± 1.4 vs 1.2 ± 1.2, P = .002) with comparable consumption of analgesics (P > .05). The arthroscopic Latarjet procedure resulted in a more lateral coracoid bone block (P = .04) and a better equatorial position than the mini-open technique (P = .02). Three patients underwent revision surgery (1 recurrence [2.8%], 1 block fracture, 1 screw ablation) in the arthroscopic group, none in the mini-open group (P = .54). At the final follow-up, the Western Ontario Score Index score was good in all patients (G1: 78.5 ± 7.5% vs G2: 82.3 ± 7%, P = .03). This prospective comparative study showed that the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure was significantly less painful than

  13. Effectiveness and safety of oral sedation in adult patients undergoing dental procedures: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Jimmy de Oliveira; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia; Guimarães, Caio Chaves; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; de Andrade, Natalia Karol; Fiqueiró, Mabel Fernandes; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The management of anxious patients undergoing dental procedures is still a challenge in clinical practice. Despite a wide variety of drugs for oral sedation in adult patients, there are relatively few systematic reviews that compare the effectiveness and safety of different drugs administered via this route. Thus, this study will evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral sedation with benzodiazepines and other agents to patients undergoing dental surgical procedures. Method/d...

  14. Endodontic filling removal procedure: an ex vivo comparative study between two rotary techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Monica Sampaio do; Moreno, Melinna dos Santos; Silva, Priscila Macedo Franca da; Botelho, Thereza Cristina Farias

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we compared the ex vivo removal capacity of two endodontic rotary techniques and determined whether there was a significant quantitative difference in residual material when comparing root thirds. Forty extracted molars were used. The palatal roots were selected, and the canals were prepared using a step-back technique and filled using a lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Endofill sealer. After two weeks of storage in a 0.9% saline solution at 37ºC...

  15. Patient access to electronic health record: a comparative study on laws, policies and procedures in selected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Nahid; Isfahani, Sakineh Saghaeiannejad; Piri, Zakiye; Amini, Afsaneh

    2013-01-01

    The e-health system must have the capability of patient access to electronic health record. The advantage of access to their record lets them have better understanding of their condition and treatment. It can also raise the reliability of consistency and correctness of data in health care system. Finally it will improve the maintenance quality of medical records and guarantee better results of medication. This study aimed to carry out a comparative study concerning laws, policies and procedures upon patients' access right to EHR in selected countries and to suggest appropriate solutions for Iran. This was a comparative descriptive study. The study population was the laws, policies and procedures of patients' access right to EHR belong to countries like Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Iran. Data were collected by taking notes on index cards. In this study in order to collect data, at first, the researcher studied the websites related to Health Ministry of the countries and existing laws and policies through related links in the websites. In next step, the health information management association websites were studied and the related data were collected. The gathered data were analyzed through content analysis. The findings of research showed that in every four countries there are generally some laws, policies and procedures. Although Canada and New Zealand concerning the number of laws and policies related to the subject subsequently are ranked after Australia, they are ranked prior to Australia regarding benefiting the laws and specified policies. Given the necessity of EHR implementing and codifying the planning of SEPAS in Iran, as there is no specified laws or procedures regarding patients' access right to EHR, the obligation of paying attention to assigning a law or at least obvious policies and procedures and providing the details is absolutely apparent.

  16. Noise annoyance caused by continuous descent approaches compared to regular descent procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Kim; Arntzen, Michael; Walker, Francesco; Waiyaki, Fredrick M.; Meeter, Martijn; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2017-01-01

    During Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs) aircraft glide towards the runway resulting in reduced noise and fuel usage. Here, we investigated whether such landings cause less noise annoyance than a regular stepwise approach. Both landing types were compared in a controlled laboratory setting with a

  17. Non contingent distraction procedure effects in pediatric dentistry treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leatrice Palieraqui Pereira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate if a non-contingent distraction procedure, during the treatment, would facilitate behavior management increasing the children’s cooperation. In this study, two four-year old children, presenting non-compliance to the treatment were evaluated. The distraction technique carried out in dental chair, during the session, involved questions and answers based in pictures. Correct answers were socially reinforced through chips and prizes. Thirteen sessions were recorded and the behaviors analyzed in each 15 seconds intervals. Indicative uncooperative behaviors expressed by high crying frequency (PI:1s-74% and 7s-35%, PII:1s-94% and 6s-40% suggests that this non-contingent distraction was not effective in reducing children’s uncooperative behaviors. However, children’s distraction task was improved during the treatment (PI:2s-29% and 7s-100% of correct answers, PII:2s-25% and 6s-100% of correct answers. Among the subjects of this study, distraction did not modify non-cooperative behavior, but allowed children to participate of the distraction planned task, which was not incompatible with non-cooperation responses. The child learned other behaviors at the same time as being exposed to aversive conditions.   Keywords: behavior management; distraction; pediatric dentistry.

  18. 31 CFR 306.116 - Scope and effect of book-entry procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and effect of book-entry procedure. 306.116 Section 306.116 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Book-Entry Procedure § 306.116 Scope and effect of book-entry procedure. (a...

  19. A randomized clinical trial comparing cervical dysplasia treatment with cryotherapy vs loop electrosurgical excision procedure in HIV-seropositive women from Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer S; Sanusi, Busola; Swarts, Avril; Faesen, Mark; Levin, Simon; Goeieman, Bridgette; Ramotshela, Sibongile; Rakhombe, Ntombiyenkosi; Williamson, Anna L; Michelow, Pam; Omar, Tanvier; Hudgens, Michael G; Firnhaber, Cynthia

    2017-08-01

    Mortality associated with cervical cancer is a public health concern for women, particularly in HIV-seropositive women in resource-limited countries. HIV-seropositive women are at a higher risk of high-grade cervical precancer, which can eventually progress to invasive carcinoma as compared to HIV-seronegative women. It is imperative to identify effective treatment methods for high-grade cervical precursors among HIV-seropositive women. Randomized controlled trial data are needed comparing cryotherapy vs loop electrosurgical excision procedure treatment efficacy in HIV-seropositive women. Our primary aim was to compare the difference in the efficacy of loop electrosurgical excision procedure vs cryotherapy for the treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (grade ≥2) among HIV-seropositive women by conducting a randomized clinical trial. HIV-seropositive women (n = 166) aged 18-65 years with histology-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥2 were randomized (1:1) to cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure treatment at a government hospital in Johannesburg. Treatment efficacy was compared using 6- and 12-month cumulative incidence posttreatment of: (1) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥2; (2) secondary endpoints of histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥3 and grade ≥1; and (3) high-grade and low-grade cervical cytology. The study was registered (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01723956). From January 2010 through August 2014, 166 participants were randomized (86 loop electrosurgical excision procedure; 80 cryotherapy). Cumulative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥2 incidence was higher for cryotherapy (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 16.1-35.8) than loop electrosurgical excision procedure at 6 months (10.8%; 95% confidence interval, 5.7-19.8) (P = .02), although by 12 months, the difference was not significant (27.2%; 95% confidence interval, 18.5-38.9 vs 18.5%; 95% confidence interval, 11

  20. Comparative analysis of dose levels to patients in radiological procedures guided by fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Pablo Luis; Fernandez, Manuel; Ramos, Julio A.; Delgado, Jose Miguel; Cons, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the comparative data of the dose indicators for patient in radiological processes with respect to the values published in the ICRP document. It is analyzed the need for different strategies to communicate to different specialists mechanisms to optimize the radiation beginning with practice by training of second degree level in radiological protection and then, working with them the basics of equipment management to reduce doses without detriment to the welfare purpose

  1. The Clinical Outcomes of Immediate Versus Delayed Restoration Procedures on Immediate Implants: A Comparative Cohort Study for Single-Tooth Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Antonio; Toti, Paolo; Quaranta, Alessandro; Derchi, Giacomo; Covani, Ugo

    2015-12-01

    Immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets is generally considered a reliable procedure that offers several clinical advantages. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the overall clinical outcomes of immediate and delayed restoration procedures for implants placed in fresh extraction sockets by means of a flapless technique and resorbable membrane stabilizing a xenograft. Total costs and operating times were also compared. In this prospective cohort study, changes of marginal bone level, facial soft tissue (ΔFST), and width of keratinized gingiva (ΔWKG), in addition to the papilla index, underwent a pairwise comparison; correlations with pristine buccal bone thickness were also investigated. Although similar results were recorded for the two procedures, with a bone loss of -1.0 ± 0.5 mm and -0.9 ± 0.7 mm, respectively, for immediate and delayed restoration, negative remodeling in the delayed restoration procedure was seen to occur from 4 to 12 months after implant placement. No significant differences were recorded between the two procedures in terms of ΔFST and ΔWKG. A loss of the papillary soft tissues before restoration, followed by a reestablishment after restoration, seemed to be verified for the delayed group, for which the papilla index went from the minimum of 0 at 4 months to a value of 2 at 24 months. Moreover, the immediate restoration procedure seemed to be more promising in terms of healing times and costs. Immediate restoration of implants installed in fresh extraction sockets was at least as effective and safe as delayed restoration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A comparative study of digital radiography, panoramic radiography, and computed tomography in dental implant procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appaji Athota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The science of dental implantology has evolved exponentially in the recent past but the intricacies in the selection of implant site, size and angulations has always been challenging to the clinician and it is very difficult to meet these challenges without dental imageology. Aims: To compare panoramic radiography with computed tomography (CT and radiovisiography to analyze the relative advantages and disadvantages of these modalities. Materials and Methods: Total 27 sites in 20 patients of mandibular posterior molar edentulous areas were radiographed with four different radiographic methods. The implant sites were selected and the height of the available bone, the mean width of the available crestal bone and density were measured using all the three techniques (except density which was measured on CT alone. Comparison of all the values obtained with the three imaging modalities was done and data tabulated for statistical analysis. The one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with post hoc analysis using least significance method (LSD was used to test the differences between each group using the SPSS software version 16. Results: The mean value of vertical measurements using conventional OPG, panoramic CT, RVG, and paraxial CT was found to be 19.32, 18.43, 19.09, and 16.81 mm, respectively. The mean value of density of the bone using paraxial CT was found to be 631.23 HU with a standard deviation of 123.14. The mean value of width of the crestal bone below the height of the crest using paraxial CT was found to be a maximum of 14.03 mm and a minimum of 5.86 mm. Conclusion: The overall results suggested that the paraxial view of CT was better in assessing the parameters of implant site when compared to the other three modalities.

  3. Efficacy of panoramic radiography as a screening procedure in dental examination compared with clinical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Kyungpook National Univ. School of Dentistry, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of panoramic radiography by comparing the results of clinical examination with radiographic findings. We studied 190 patients (20 men and 170 women; mean age, 40 years; range, 22 to 68 years) who visited the health promotion center of Korea Medical Science Institute and were examined both clinically and by panoramic radiography. We compared results from both examinations. Treatment options by clinical examination were described as 'no treatment indicated', 'treatment of dental caries', 'removal of calculus', 'treatment of periodontal disease'. 'prothodonic treatment' and 'extraction of the third molar'. Findings taken from the panoramic radiography were: dental caries, peroapical lesion, alveolar bone loss, calculus deposition, retained root, impaction of the third molar, disease of maxillary sinus, bony change of mandibular condyle, etc. The prevalence of panoramic findings were: 37.9% of dental caries, 17.4% of periapical lesions, 44.7% of alveolar bone losses, 62.6% of calculi deposition. 7.9% of retained roots, 26.8% of third molar impactions, 6.3% of disease of maxillary sinus, 2.1% of bony changes of mandibular condlye and 35.8% of miscellaneous lesions. Abnormal conditions revealed by panoramic radiography which had not been discovered on clinical examination were: 24.2% of the patients had dental caries, 17.4% had periapical lesions, 7.4% had calculi deposition, 5.3% had retained roots, 15.3% had third molar impactions. The opposite cases were: 5.2% had dental caries, 12.6% had calculi deposition, and 9.5% had third molar impactions. The use of panoramic radiography as a supplement to the clinical examination might be a valuable screening technique.

  4. Efficacy of panoramic radiography as a screening procedure in dental examination compared with clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of panoramic radiography by comparing the results of clinical examination with radiographic findings. We studied 190 patients (20 men and 170 women; mean age, 40 years; range, 22 to 68 years) who visited the health promotion center of Korea Medical Science Institute and were examined both clinically and by panoramic radiography. We compared results from both examinations. Treatment options by clinical examination were described as 'no treatment indicated', 'treatment of dental caries', 'removal of calculus', 'treatment of periodontal disease'. 'prothodonic treatment' and 'extraction of the third molar'. Findings taken from the panoramic radiography were: dental caries, peroapical lesion, alveolar bone loss, calculus deposition, retained root, impaction of the third molar, disease of maxillary sinus, bony change of mandibular condyle, etc. The prevalence of panoramic findings were: 37.9% of dental caries, 17.4% of periapical lesions, 44.7% of alveolar bone losses, 62.6% of calculi deposition. 7.9% of retained roots, 26.8% of third molar impactions, 6.3% of disease of maxillary sinus, 2.1% of bony changes of mandibular condlye and 35.8% of miscellaneous lesions. Abnormal conditions revealed by panoramic radiography which had not been discovered on clinical examination were: 24.2% of the patients had dental caries, 17.4% had periapical lesions, 7.4% had calculi deposition, 5.3% had retained roots, 15.3% had third molar impactions. The opposite cases were: 5.2% had dental caries, 12.6% had calculi deposition, and 9.5% had third molar impactions. The use of panoramic radiography as a supplement to the clinical examination might be a valuable screening technique

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PEDIATRIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION PROCEDURE UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA WITH OR WITHOUT FEMORAL NERVE BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigisha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Anesthetic management for interventional cardiac procedures/cardiac catheterization in pediatric patients is challenging. Cardiac anomalies vary from simple to complex congenital cardiac anomalies, shunts may be present at multiple levels and patients may be profoundly cyanotic, may be with ventricular dysfunction. They usually require sedation and analgesia to maintain steady stable state. In adults, such type of procedures can be well managed with local anesthesia. METHODS Fifty patients were included in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups- Group A (n=25 patients received femoral N. block along with IV sedation and analgesia while group B (n=25 patients received only IV sedation and analgesia. Both groups were compared for hemodynamics, pain score and requirement of IV anesthetic agents and any complications if come up. RESULTS Group A patients required IV ketamine 3.24mg/kg (±0.31SD as compared to 5.58mg/kg (±1.6SD in group B, which suggests significantly reduced requirement of IV anesthetic agents in group where femoral nerve block has been given. Hemodynamic parameters remained stable and comparable (no statistically significant variation Pain score was less in group A patients than group B. CONCLUSION It has been observed that Group A patients required less dosages of IV anesthetic agents, with stable hemodynamics and less pain score and sedation score as compared to group B patients.

  6. Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S.; Tomaselli, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms. Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to “ideal” as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the “ideal” dressing may be chosen. Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail. PMID:25126472

  7. Comparing the effectiveness of software testing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.; Selby, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    This study compares the results of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults detected. Thirty two professional programmers and 42 advanced students applied the three techniques to four unit-sized programs in a fractional experimental design. The major results of this study are the following: (1) With the professional programmers, code reading detected more software faults and had a higher detection rate than did functional or structural testing, while functional testing detected more faults than did structural testing, but functional and structural testing were not different in fault detection rate. (2) In one advanced student subject group, code reading and functional testing were not different in faults found, but were superior to structural testing, while in the other advanced student subject group there was no difference among the techniques. (3) With the advanced student subjects, the three techniques were not different in fault deteciton rate. (4) Number of faults observed, fault detection rate, and total effort in detection depended on the type of software tested. (5) Code reading detected more interface faults than did the other methods. (6) Functional testing detected more control faults than did the other methods. (7) When asked to estimate the percentage of faults detected, code readers gave the most accurate estimates while functional testers gave the least accurate estimates. Appendix B includes the source code for the word.

  8. Preliminary competencies for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Jodi B; Kapoor, Wishwa; Carey, Timothy; Mitchell, Pamela H; Murray, Michael D; Saag, Kenneth G; Schumock, Glen; Jonas, Daniel; Steinman, Michael; Filart, Rosemarie; Weinberger, Morris; Selker, Harry

    2012-12-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Workgroup for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Education, Training, and Workforce Development identified a need to delineate the competencies that practitioners and users of CER for patient-centered outcomes research, should acquire. With input from CTSA representatives and collaborators, we began by describing the workforce. We recognize the workforce that conducts CER and the end users who use CER to improve the health of individuals and communities. We generated a preliminary set of competencies and solicited feedback from the CER representatives at each member site of the CTSA consortium. We distinguished applied competencies (i.e., skills needed by individuals who conduct CER) from foundational competencies that are needed by the entire CER workforce, including end users of CER. Key competency categories of relevance to both practitioners and users of CER were: (1) asking relevant research questions; (2) recognizing or designing ideal CER studies; (3) executing or using CER studies; (4) using appropriate statistical analyses for CER; and (5) communicating and disseminating CER study results to improve health. Although CER is particularly broad concept, we anticipate that these preliminary, relatively generic competencies will be used in tailoring curricula to individual learners from a variety of programmatic perspectives. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cocaine versus food choice procedure in rats: environmental manipulations and effects of amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Barrett, Andrew C; Negus, S Stevens; Caine, S Barak

    2013-03-01

    We have adapted a nonhuman primate model of cocaine versus food choice to the rat species. To evaluate the procedure, we tested cocaine versus food choice under a variety of environmental manipulations as well as pharmacological pretreatments. Complete cocaine-choice dose-effect curves (0-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) were obtained for each condition under concurrent fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Percentage of responding emitted on the cocaine-reinforced lever was not affected significantly by removal of cocaine-associated visual or auditory cues, but it was decreased after removal of response-contingent or response-independent cocaine infusions. Cocaine choice was sensitive to the magnitude and fixed ratio requirement of both the cocaine and food reinforcers. We also tested the effects of acute (0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and chronic (0.1, 0.32 mg/kg/hr) d-amphetamine treatment on cocaine choice. Acute and chronic d-amphetamine had opposite effects, with acute increasing and chronic decreasing cocaine choice, similar to observations in humans and in nonhuman primates. The results suggest feasibility and utility of the choice procedure in rats and support its comparability to similar procedures used in humans and monkeys. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Cocaine Versus Food Choice Procedure in Rats: Environmental Manipulations and Effects of Amphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Barrett, Andrew C.; Negus, S. Stevens; Caine, S. Barak

    2014-01-01

    We have adapted a nonhuman primate model of cocaine versus food choice to the rat species. To evaluate the procedure, we tested cocaine versus food choice under a variety of environmental manipulations as well as pharmacological pretreatments. Complete cocaine-choice dose-effect curves (0–1.0 mg/kg/infusion) were obtained for each condition under concurrent fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Percentage of responding emitted on the cocaine-reinforced lever was not affected significantly by removal of cocaine-associated visual or auditory cues, but it was decreased after removal of response-contingent or response-independent cocaine infusions. Cocaine choice was sensitive to the magnitude and fixed ratio requirement of both the cocaine and food reinforcers. We also tested the effects of acute (0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and chronic (0.1, 0.32 mg/kg/hr) d-amphetamine treatment on cocaine choice. Acute and chronic d-amphetamine had opposite effects, with acute increasing and chronic decreasing cocaine choice, similar to observations in humans and in nonhuman primates. The results suggest feasibility and utility of the choice procedure in rats and support its comparability to similar procedures used in humans and monkeys. PMID:23319458

  11. Structured Reporting of IR Procedures: Effect on Report Compliance, Accuracy, and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang; Sarwar, Ammar; Luo, Michael; Berkowitz, Seth; Ahmed, Muneeb; Brook, Olga R

    2018-03-01

    To compare effect of free-text versus structured reporting of IR procedures on report quality and report coding and value. In this retrospective study, 432 common consecutive free-text IR reports created during 4 months (from September 2013 to December 2013) before implementation of structured reporting (February 2014) and 415 structured IR reports created after implementation (from September 2014 to December 2014) were reviewed to assess ease of use and compliance with reporting requirements for regulatory requirements and coding. IR staff and trainees and referring physicians to IR were surveyed on procedure report attributes, such as detail, quality, and clarity. Structured reporting increased compliance with reporting fluoroscopy time, radiation dose, and contrast administration compared with free-text reports (402/432 [93.1%] vs 251/415 [60.5%], P IR physicians found structured reports to require less time to complete (21/26 [81%]), to be easier to complete (23/26 [89%]), and to have a similar or higher level of detail (19/26 [73%]) compared with free-text reports. Referring physicians were more satisfied with structured reports compared with free-text reports (6.9/10 vs 5.6/10, P = .03). Structured IR reporting compared with free-text reporting improves compliance with radiation dose and contrast reporting, reporting and coding efficiency, and satisfaction among IR and referring physicians. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High procedural fairness heightens the effect of outcome favorability on self-evaluations : An attributional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockner, J.; Heuer, L.; Magner, N.; Folger, R.; Umphress, E.; Bos, K. van den; Vermunt, Riël; Magner, M.; Siegel, P.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has shown that outcome favorability and procedural fairness often interact to influence employees work attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, the form of the interaction effect depends upon the dependent variable. Relative to when procedural fairness is low, high procedural fairness:

  13. Revision Arthroscopic Repair Versus Latarjet Procedure in Patients With Recurrent Instability After Initial Repair Attempt: A Cost-Effectiveness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Lamba, Nayan; Swart, Eric; Steinhaus, Michael E; Ahmad, Christopher S; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-09-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic revision instability repair and Latarjet procedure in treating patients with recurrent instability after initial arthroscopic instability repair. An expected-value decision analysis of revision arthroscopic instability repair compared with Latarjet procedure for recurrent instability followed by failed repair attempt was modeled. Inputs regarding procedure cost, clinical outcomes, and health utilities were derived from the literature. Compared with revision arthroscopic repair, Latarjet was less expensive ($13,672 v $15,287) with improved clinical outcomes (43.78 v 36.76 quality-adjusted life-years). Both arthroscopic repair and Latarjet were cost-effective compared with nonoperative treatment (incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of 3,082 and 1,141, respectively). Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that under scenarios of high rates of stability postoperatively, along with improved clinical outcome scores, revision arthroscopic repair becomes increasingly cost-effective. Latarjet procedure for failed instability repair is a cost-effective treatment option, with lower costs and improved clinical outcomes compared with revision arthroscopic instability repair. However, surgeons must still incorporate clinical judgment into treatment algorithm formation. Level IV, expected value decision analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effect of Purification Procedures on DIF Analysis in IRTPRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikis, David R. J.; Oshima, T. C.

    2017-01-01

    Purification of the test has been a well-accepted procedure in enhancing the performance of tests for differential item functioning (DIF). As defined by Lord, purification requires reestimation of ability parameters after removing DIF items before conducting the final DIF analysis. IRTPRO 3 is a recently updated program for analyses in item…

  15. Distinguishing Novelty and Familiarity Effects in Infant Preference Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Nakai, Satsuki

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers possible problems researchers might face when interpreting the results of studies that employ variants of the preference procedure. Infants show a tendency to shift their preference from familiar to novel stimuli with increasing exposure to the familiar stimulus, a behaviour that is exploited by the habituation paradigm. This…

  16. The Effect of Sample Preparation and Testing Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    handling and disturbance. Revisions to sample preparation and testing procedures are considered necessary and are proposed in utilizing these soils for civil engineering purposes. It is concluded that the plasticity chart should be regarded as a guidance tool only for evaluating the likely properties of laterite soils. It should.

  17. Effect of dentin desensitizing procedures on methyl methacrylate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... research hypothesis was supported by the detection of residual monomers diffusion from dentin tubules to water solution after polymerization of PRMs and they also supported the second research hypothesis that desensitizing procedures decrease this monomer diffusion. The MMA monomer diffusion was ...

  18. Effect of Color Shading Procedures and Cyclic Loading on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... the veneer ceramic.[2] Current studies has reported that coloring procedures affect the structure of the zirconia framework.[3-5]. High flexural strength of zirconia is based on the absorption of the ... to overcome this disadvantage. Coloring ... advantages of colored zirconia frameworks are the reduction in ...

  19. Randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of a Just-in-Time training on procedural performance: a proof-of-concept study to address procedural skill decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzetti, Jeremy B; Adedipe, Adeyinka A; Gittinger, Matthew J; Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Brolliar, Sarah; Chipman, Anne K; Grand, James A; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2017-11-01

    A subset of high-risk procedures present significant safety threats due to their (1) infrequent occurrence, (2) execution under time constraints and (3) immediate necessity for patient survival. A Just-in-Time (JIT) intervention could provide real-time bedside guidance to improve high-risk procedural performance and address procedural deficits associated with skill decay. To evaluate the impact of a novel JIT intervention on transvenous pacemaker (TVP) placement during a simulated patient event. This was a prospective, randomised controlled study to determine the effect of a JIT intervention on performance of TVP placement. Subjects included board-certified emergency medicine physicians from two hospitals. The JIT intervention consisted of a portable, bedside computer-based procedural adjunct. The primary outcome was performance during a simulated patient encounter requiring TVP placement, as assessed by trained raters using a technical skills checklist. Secondary outcomes included global performance ratings, time to TVP placement, number of critical omissions and System Usability Scale scores (intervention only). Groups were similar at baseline across all outcomes. Compared with the control group, the intervention group demonstrated statistically significant improvement in the technical checklist score (11.45 vs 23.44, p<0.001, Cohen's d effect size 4.64), the global rating scale (2.27 vs 4.54, p<0.001, Cohen's d effect size 3.76), and a statistically significant reduction in critical omissions (2.23 vs 0.68, p<0.001, Cohen's d effect size -1.86). The difference in time to procedural completion was not statistically significant between conditions (11.15 min vs 12.80 min, p=0.12, Cohen's d effect size 0.65). System Usability Scale scores demonstrated excellent usability. A JIT intervention improved procedure perfromance, suggesting a role for JIT interventions in rarely performed procedures. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in

  20. Effectiveness of arterial embolization procedure in uterine cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Murakami, A; Iwasaki, N; Yaoi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Patients with late stage gynecologic malignancies occasionally develop massive pelvic hemorrhage, and management of the hemorrhage is often difficult. Transcatheter arterial embolization with an absorbable gelatin sponge following the Seldinger method was performed to control hemorrhage in five patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. Pelvic arteriograms of five patients showed no further extravasation and their bleeding ceased. No patients died of pelvic hemorrhage, and all of them eventually died as a result of the original disease within two years of the procedure. As for complications of this procedure, slight fever (3/5) and minimal lumbar pain (2/5) were noticed, which were easily controlled by an indomethacin suppository. Based on these findings, this therapeutic embolization method proved to be useful in the management of massive pelvic hemorrhage in patients with cervical cancer.

  1. Efficiency and effectiveness of football clubs – a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Santos Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper objective is to analyze the performance of football clubs, comparing Brazilian and European club’s. From this analysis, it is expected investigate three hypotheses: (1 the analyzed Brazilian clubs have a worse financial performance compared to the performance of European clubs; (2 the chosen management model is crucial for football clubs achieve good performance and (3 football clubs that have high financial performance, also have high efficacy regarding the amount of wins in games played in 2014. To achieve this goal, a procedure was structured in four steps: (1 defining the clubs, (2 development of indicators and performance measures, (3 aggregation of measures for each club and (4 sorting and analysis of clubs. As a result of this analysis, it was found that the three hypotheses under discussion were false. It was also found that most Brazilian clubs have low effectiveness and low/medium financial performance. In contrast, most European clubs have high effectiveness and medium/high financial performance.

  2. Non contingent distraction procedure effects in pediatric dentistry treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Leatrice Palieraqui Pereira da Silva; Antonio Bento Alves de Moraes; Gustavo Sattolo Rolim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if a non-contingent distraction procedure, during the treatment, would facilitate behavior management increasing the children’s cooperation. In this study, two four-year old children, presenting non-compliance to the treatment were evaluated. The distraction technique carried out in dental chair, during the session, involved questions and answers based in pictures. Correct answers were socially reinforced through chips and prizes. Thirteen sessions were...

  3. Cleaning Procedure Effects Contamination of Food Allergens on Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    妻木,陽子; 河本,奈緒子; 川崎,知佳; 木村,南美; 森石,悠里

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune-mediated adverse reaction to certain foods. To avoid the onset of allergic symptoms, food-allergic patients have to exclude specific offending foods from their diets. In some cases, very small amounts of food allergents can induce anaphylactic reactions, so that food allergic patients strictly have to avoid allergens even from cooking devices. Therefore appropriate cleaning procedures are the most practical approaches for reducing bontamination of allergen...

  4. A Novel Foam Contrast Agent Suitable for Fluoroscopic Interventional Procedure: Comparative Study of Physical Properties and Experimental Intervention in Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ho Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In fluoroscopic contrast study for interventional procedure, liquid contrast agent may be diluted in body fluid, losing its contrast effect. We developed a novel contrast agent of “foam state” to maintain contrast effect for enough time and performed a comparative study of physical properties and its usefulness in experimental intervention in animal model. The mean size of microbubble of foam contrast was 13.8±3.6 µm. The viscosity was 201.0±0.624 cP (centipoise and the specific gravity was 0.616. The foam decayed slowly and it had 97.5 minutes of half-life. In terms of the sustainability in a slow flow environment, foam contrast washed out much more slowly than a conventional contrast. In experimental colonic stent placement, foam contrast revealed significantly better results than conventional contrast in procedure time, total amount of contrast usage, and the number of injections (p<0.05. Our foam contrast has high viscosity and low specific gravity and maintains foam state for a sufficient time. Foam contrast with these properties was useful in experimental intervention in animal model. We anticipate that foam contrast may be applied to various kinds of interventional procedures.

  5. Societal and Economic Effect of Meniscus Scaffold Procedures for Irreparable Meniscus Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; Govers, Tim M; Buma, Pieter; Grutters, Janneke P C; Hannink, Gerjon

    2016-07-01

    Meniscus scaffolds are currently evaluated clinically for their efficacy in preventing the development of osteoarthritis as well as for their efficacy in treating patients with chronic symptoms. Procedural costs, therapeutic consequences, clinical efficacy, and future events should all be considered to maximize the monetary value of this intervention. To examine the socioeconomic effect of treating patients with irreparable medial meniscus injuries with a meniscus scaffold. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. Two Markov simulation models for patients with an irreparable medial meniscus injury were developed. Model 1 was used to investigate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of a meniscus scaffold compared with standard partial meniscectomy by the possibility of preventing the development of osteoarthritis. Model 2 was used to investigate the short-term (5-year) cost-effectiveness of a meniscus scaffold compared with standard partial meniscectomy by alleviating clinical symptoms, specifically in chronic patients with previous meniscus surgery. For both models, probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations were applied. Treatment effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), while costs (estimated in euros) were assessed from a societal perspective. We assumed €20,000 as a reference value for the willingness to pay per QALY. Next, comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most influential variables on the cost-effectiveness of meniscus scaffolds. Model 1 demonstrated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a meniscus scaffold treatment of €54,463 per QALY (€5991/0.112). A threshold analysis demonstrated that a meniscus scaffold should offer a relative risk reduction of at least 0.34 to become cost-effective, assuming a willingness to pay of €20,000. Decreasing the costs of the meniscus scaffold procedure by 33% (€10,160 instead of €15,233; an absolute change of €5073) resulted in an incremental

  6. Cumulative effects of successive restorative procedures on anterior crown flexure: intact versus veneered incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, P; Douglas, W H

    2000-01-01

    When successive restorative procedures (e.g., porcelain veneers, interdental resin composite restorations, and endodontic treatment) are carried out on the same tooth, significant effects on crown flexure can be expected. Dentin-bonded porcelain veneers (experimental group) were assessed in vitro using functional and cyclic thermal loads. They were compared to natural teeth (control group) with respect to 2 parameters: coronal flexure (investigated using experimental strain gauges) and morphology of the tooth-restoration interface (scanning electron microscopic evaluation). For both veneered and natural teeth, crown deformation was recorded at 5 sequential experimental steps: intact tooth (baseline), Class III cavities, Class III resin composite restorations, endodontic treatment, and endodontic restoration (without posts). No significant differences in crown flexure were found between natural and veneered incisors when compared across experimental steps. The main effect for experimental steps was highly significant. When averaged across all specimens (natural and veneered teeth), the endodontic treatment step resulted in the highest crown flexure (1.55x the baseline value). The unrestored Class III cavities and the endodontic restoration were next highest (1.30x and 1.28x the baseline value, respectively). The lowest crown flexures were found after restoration of the Class III cavities (1.13x the baseline value). No measurable microleakage or gaps were detected at the ceramic-resin, resin-enamel, or resin-dentin interfaces (Optibond FL, Kerr). Each subsequent reduction in tooth structure resulted in a substantial increase in crown flexibility, even after restoration. Endodontic procedures were responsible for most of the loss in crown stiffness. Extensive proximal cutting and restorations seemed to minimally affect crown flexure. Porcelain veneers showed perfect biomimetic behavior, because cumulated restoration procedures had the same effect on natural and

  7. 39 CFR 761.3 - Scope and effect of book-entry procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and effect of book-entry procedure. 761.3... POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.3 Scope and effect of book-entry procedure. (a) A Reserve Bank as fiscal agent of the United States acting on behalf of the Postal Service may apply the book...

  8. 12 CFR 811.2 - Scope and effect of book-entry procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and effect of book-entry procedure. 811.2 Section 811.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR FEDERAL FINANCING BANK SECURITIES § 811.2 Scope and effect of book-entry procedure. (a) A Reserve Bank, as fiscal agent of the...

  9. When simulated environments make the difference : the effectiveness of different types of training of car service procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsci, Simone; Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Jha, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    An empirical analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness of different approaches to training a set of procedural skills to a sample of novice trainees. Sixty-five participants were randomly assigned to one of the following three training groups: (1) learning-by-doing in a 3D desktop virtual

  10. The investigation of the effectiveness on the educational procedure development for physical therapist assistant in Quang Tri province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, JinWon; Kim, Min Hee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Kim, Eun Joo

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness on the educational procedure development for physical therapist assistant in Quang Tri province of Vietnam. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 10 lecturers for the education of physical therapist assistant in Quang Tri medical college. To compare with satisfaction and educational effectiveness according to the participation of educational procedure, the lecturers conducted the survey research. [Results] In the descriptive values of participant satisfaction in educational procedure, most of the scored were higher than 4. There was no significance in the difference between the satisfaction in educational procedure according to gender and degree. However, there was some significance in class according to major. To investigate the educational effectiveness, 5 domains about knowledge of physical therapist assistant included 4 questions each were evaluated the understanding level before and after the education. In all domains, the understanding level after education was notably higher than before. [Conclusion] The present study was to the satisfaction and effectiveness of the educational procedure for physical therapist assistant reflecting the regional specialty in this area. The development of educational procedure for physical therapist assistant helps to improve the situation where the medical specialists for rehabilitation are insufficient.

  11. Different effects of bariatric surgical procedures on dyslipidemia: a registry-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Hadar; Sakran, Nasser; Dicker, Dror; Rubin, Moshe; Raz, Itamar; Shohat, Tamy; Blumenfeld, Orit

    2017-07-01

    The scale and variables linked to bariatric surgery's effect on dyslipidemia have not been conclusive. To compare the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) on dyslipidemia SETTING: National bariatric surgery registry. Plasma lipids and associated variables were compared at baseline and 1 year (12±4 mo) after surgery for registry patients with dyslipidemia enrolled from June 2013 to August 2014. The greatest mean total-cholesterol (TC) reduction was observed post-RYGB, 226.7±26.4 to 181.3±30.9 mg/dL (19.9%, n = 208), followed by post-SG, 227.9±24.4 to 206.7±34.2 mg/dL (8.9%, n = 1515; PRYGB patients compared with 43.5% post-SG patients (odds ratio [OR] = 6.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.69-10.53) and 25.6% post-LABG patients (OR = 9.66, 95% CI: 4.11-22.67; PRYGB male patients (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.04-2.35), (P = .02). The lowering of triglyceride levels by approximately 75% was comparable after SG and RYGB procedures. The type of surgery was the strongest independent predictor for all lipid level improvements or remissions. Male sex was an independent predictor for LDL normalization only (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.24-2.85). Excess weight loss offered no meaningful prediction for lipid improvement (OR = 1.01-1.03). Particular types of bariatric surgeries had different effects on dyslipidemia, independent of weight loss. Overall, the RYGB achieved the biggest reduction in plasma lipids (TC and LDL), although SG did affect HDL. Our results could aid in the decision-making process regarding the most appropriate procedure for patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Components of Hospital Perioperative Infrastructure Can Overcome the Weekend Effect in Urgent General Surgery Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anai N; Zapf, Matthew A C; Blackwell, Robert H; Markossian, Talar; Chang, Victor; Mi, Zhiyong; Gupta, Gopal N; Kuo, Paul C

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesized that perioperative hospital resources could overcome the "weekend effect" (WE) in patients undergoing emergent/urgent surgeries. The WE is the observation that surgeon-independent patient outcomes are worse on the weekend compared with weekdays. The WE is often explained by differences in staffing and resources resulting in variation in care between the week and weekend. Emergent/urgent surgeries were identified using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database (Florida) from 2007 to 2011 and linked to the American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey Database to determine hospital level characteristics. Extended median length of stay (LOS) on the weekend compared with the weekdays (after controlling for hospital, year, and procedure type) was selected as a surrogate for WE. Included were 126,666 patients at 166 hospitals. A total of 17 hospitals overcame the WE during the study period. Logistic regression, controlling for patient characteristics, identified full adoption of electronic medical records (OR 4.74), home health program (OR 2.37), pain management program [odds ratio (OR) 1.48)], increased registered nurse-to-bed ratio (OR 1.44), and inpatient physical rehabilitation (OR 1.03) as resources that were predictors for overcoming the WE. The prevalence of these factors in hospitals exhibiting the WE for all 5 years of the study period were compared with those hospitals that overcame the WE (P general surgery procedures. Improved hospital perioperative infrastructure represents an important target for overcoming disparities in surgical care.

  13. Nutritional effects of the serial transverse enteroplasty procedure in experimental short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaji, Tatsuru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Wallace, Laurie E

    2009-01-01

    The serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) procedure appears beneficial clinically, but the mechanism(s) underlying these effects remains unclear. The present study evaluated the nutritional, hormonal, and morphologic effects of the STEP procedure in a rodent model of short bowel syndrome....

  14. The effect of estimation and production procedures on running economy in recreational athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James A; Woolley, Brandon P; Lambrick, Danielle M

    2012-11-01

    Running economy is an important component in any endurance event. However, the influence of effort perception on running economy has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygen cost of running (running economy) at identical ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during estimation (EST) and production (PR) procedures, during treadmill exercise. Fourteen, well-trained male participants actively produced (self-regulated) a range of submaximal exercise intensities equating to RPE values 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17, and passively estimated their perception of exertion during an incremental graded-exercise test (GXT). Allometric scaling was used to ensure an appropriate comparison in running economy between conditions. The present study demonstrated that the overall running economy between conditions was statistically similar (p>0.05). A significant interaction was however identified between Conditions and RPE (peconomy significantly improved during PR but remained fairly consistent during EST between moderate and high perceptions of exertion (RPE 11-17). Despite similarities in running economy between conditions, physiological (oxygen uptake, heart rate, minute ventilation and blood lactate) and physical (running velocity) markers of exercise intensity were significantly higher during EST for equivalent perceptions of exertion (all peconomy and enhance athletic performance when compared to identical perceptions of exertion elicited during active production procedures. Athletes, coaches and physical trainers should consider the perceptual procedures utilised during training to ensure that an athlete trains at the most effective training intensity. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Conventional Rote Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of Mnemonics technique (MNIT) and conventional rote learning technique (CRL) on the teaching-learning of physical features (Geography). A pre-test and post-test control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of ninety SS I students was randomly selected out of ...

  16. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of access to credit on the productivity of rural farming households in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected, with the use of well structured questionnaire, from 240 small-scale rural farmers, who were categorized into users and non-users of micro-credit based on their statement, through ...

  17. Comparative analyses of postoperative complications and prognosis of different surgical procedures in stage II endometrial carcinoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hongmei Yin,1 Ting Gui2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou, Shandong, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the impact of surgical resection extent on the postoperative complications and the prognosis in patients with stage II endometrial cancer. Methods: A total of 54 patients were retrospectively reviewed, 35 patients underwent subradical hysterectomy and 19 patients received radical hysterectomy, both with simultaneous bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. Results: Comparing the surgical outcomes in subradical hysterectomy group vs radical hysterectomy group, there were no significant differences in operative time, estimated blood loss, and hospital stay. After surgery, 37.1% vs 36.8% patients received postoperative radiotherapy in the subradical hyster­ectomy group vs radical hysterectomy group, without statistically significant difference. As for postoperative complications, the early postoperative complication rate in patients who underwent subradical hysterectomy was 14.3%, significantly lower than that in patients submitted to radical hysterectomy (14.3% vs 42.1%, with P=0.043. However, there was no significant difference in late postoperative complication rate between the two surgical procedures. Regarding the clinical prognosis, patients receiving the subradical hysterectomy showed similar survival to their counterparts undergoing the radical procedures. The relapse rate was 5.71% vs 5.26%, respectively, without significant difference. There were no deaths in both surgical groups. Conclusion: For stage II endometrial carcinoma, subradical hysterectomy presented with less early postoperative complications and similar survival duration and recurrence

  18. Planning and consultation procedures for low-level radioactive waste disposal: a comparative analysis of overseas experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1989-03-01

    The results are presented of a study the purpose of which was to learn from experience in countries other than the UK, of planning and public consultation procedures associated with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Information on LLW developments in the United States, Canada, France, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, and West Germany was sought. Particular regard was given to the efficacy of public consultation and negotiation procedures; the key aspects bearing on the public acceptability of LLW proposals; and the form and effect of any compensation mechanisms in operation. The main findings include: (i) Public acceptability of radioactive waste proposals depends upon a combination of basic understanding, trust, consultation and negotiation. (ii) There is no overall correct approach. (iii) The greatest success overseas appears to be linked to some combination of the following elements: authority and clarity in the exposition of radioactive waste management policy; the early involvement of local authority organisations in site selection; careful attention to the potential contribution of authoritative independent advisory groups; the development and nurturing of local liaison committees to establish good communications at the local level; careful consideration of means of devolving some power to local authority level for safety reassurance; and the development of an incremental, openly negotiated approach to compensation. (author)

  19. To Compare the Effectiveness of Short‑term Three Dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... regimens were evaluated as prophylaxis in wound infection following elective surgical procedures. Prophylactic antibiotics ... period in the prevention of postoperative wound sepsis in clean surgical cases. Materials and Methods: The .... Observation in Group A and B was compared and then conclusion ...

  20. Does the dynamic sling effect of the Latarjet procedure improve shoulder stability? A biomechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Joshua W; Boons, Harm W; Elkinson, Ilia; Faber, Kenneth J; Ferreira, Louis M; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S

    2013-06-01

    Glenohumeral instability with glenoid bone loss is commonly treated with the Latarjet procedure. The procedure involves transfer of the coracoid and conjoint tendon, which is thought to provide a stabilizing sling effect; however, its significance is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of the Latarjet procedure, with and without conjoint tendon loading, on shoulder stability and range of motion (ROM). A custom simulator was used to evaluate anterior shoulder stability and ROM in 8 cadaveric shoulders. Testing conditions included intact, 30% glenoid defect, and Latarjet with and without conjoint loading. Unloaded and 10-N loaded states were tested in adduction and 90° abduction. Outcome variables included dislocation, stiffness (neutral and 60° external rotation), and internal-external rotational ROM. All 30% defects dislocated in abduction external rotation. The loaded Latarjet prevented dislocation in all specimens, whereas the unloaded Latarjet stabilized 6 of 8 specimens. In abduction external rotation, there were no significant differences in stiffness between loaded and unloaded transfers (P = .176). In adduction, there were no significant differences between the intact and the loaded Latarjet (P ≥ .228); however, in neutral rotation, the unloaded Latarjet (P = .015) and the 30% defects (P = .011) were significantly less stiff. Rotational ROM in abduction was significantly reduced with the loaded Latarjet (P = .014) compared with unloaded Latarjet, and no differences were found in adduction. These findings indicate that glenohumeral stability is improved, but not fully restored to intact, with conjoint tendon loading. The results support the existence of the sling effect and its importance in augmenting stability provided by the transferred coracoid. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of Laryngeal Mask Airway size 1 vs. i-gel size 1 in infants undergoing daycare procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepanjali; Koul, Archna; Sharma, Bimla; Sood, Jayashree

    2015-04-01

    The i-gel size 1 is a relatively new, single use, second generation supraglottic airway device. This prospective, randomized, observational study compares the suitability of the i-gel size 1 with the classical Laryngeal Mask Airway (cLaryngeal Mask Airway) size 1 in pediatric patients undergoing elective daycare procedures. Forty ASA I and II children (2-5 kg body weight) were randomized to two groups of 20 each, to receive either the i-gel or the cLaryngeal Mask Airway as an airway device. The primary outcome variable was oropharyngeal seal pressure (OSP). We also assessed ease of insertion, number of insertion attempts, time taken for successful insertion and any intra-operative complications. Demographic data did not differ between the two groups. The OSP with the i-gel was 22.30 ± 4.72 cm H2O as compared to 18.05 ± 1.95 cm H2O with the cLaryngeal Mask Airway and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Displacement of the airway device following change of position was reported less often with the i-gel as compared to the cLaryngeal Mask Airway [n = 1 (5%) vs. n = 5 (35%), P = 0.04]. There were no major complications with either device and rest of all the variables were comparable with both the devices. The OSP of the i-gel size 1 was higher than that of the cLaryngeal Mask Airway. This was statistically significant, although may not be of clinical significance. The i-gel size 1 is less prone to displacement during position changes. However, being a preliminary study carried out on a small number of patients, further trials are warranted to come to any definite conclusion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. What drives the comparability effect of mandatory IFRS adoption?

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information. Using two comparability proxies based on De Franco et al. [2011] and a comparability proxy based on the degree of information transfer, our results suggest that the overall comparability effect of mandatory IFRS adoption is marginal. We hypothesize that firm-level heterogeneity in IFRS compliance explains the limited comparability effect. To test this conjecture, we first hand-colle...

  3. Bifurcation Culprit Lesions in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Procedural Success and 5-year Outcome Compared With Nonbifurcation Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Pablo; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán; Herrera-Nogueira, Raúl; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Núñez-Gil, Iván Javier; Gonzalo, Nieves; Del Trigo, María; Pérez-Vizcayno, María José; Quirós, Alicia; Escaned, Javier; Macaya, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2017-08-09

    We assessed short- and long-term outcomes of primary angioplasty in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction by comparing bifurcation culprit lesions (BCL) with non-BCL. Observational study with a propensity score matched control group. Among 2746 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, we found 274 (10%) patients with BCL. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting or target vessel revascularization, assessed at 30-days and 5-years. Baseline characteristics showed no differences after propensity matching (1:1). In the BCL group, the most frequent strategy was provisional stenting of the main branch (84%). Compared with the non-BCL group, the procedures were technically more complex in the BCL group in terms of need for balloon dilatation (71% BCL vs 59% non-BCL; P = .003), longer procedural time (70 ± 29minutes BCL vs 62.8 ± 28.9minutes non-BCL; P = .004) and contrast use (256.2 ± 87.9mL BCL vs 221.1 ± 82.3mL non-BCL; P < .001). Main branch angiographic success was similar (93.4% BCL vs 93.8% non-BCL; P = .86). Thirty-day all-cause mortality was similar between groups: 4.7% BCL vs 5.1% non-BCL; P = .84. At the 5-year follow-up, there were no differences in all-cause death (12% BCL vs 13% non-BCL; P = .95) or the combined event (22% BCL vs 21% non-BCL; P = .43). Primary angioplasty of a BCL was technically more complex; however, main branch angiographic success was similar, and there were no differences in long-term prognosis compared with non-BCL patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the thermal sterilization procedure on polymeric products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B. A.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1971-01-01

    Properties of samples are tested, after thermal exposure, and values are compared with unexposed samples. Thermal stability or compatibility ratings of formulated or compounded organic polymers using trade names are made and degree of change in measured properties is assessed. Products are rated compatible, marginal, or not compatible.

  5. Pain perception and procedural tolerance with computer controlled and conventional local anesthetic technique: An in vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the Pain Perception and Procedural Tolerance (PPPT by the pediatric patients, while experiencing ′Computer Controlled Local Anesthetic Technique′ (CCLAD, Wand and ′Conventional local anesthetic technique′. Material and Methods: Fifteen subjects, of age 8-10 years requiring local anesthesia on both sides of the dental arch for the purpose of extraction were selected for this study. In this cross-over design study, randomization was done to allocate the type of local anesthetic technique to be used first, children who received CCLAD (Wand during ′First Anesthetic Exposure′ (FAE visit subsequently received ′Conventional anesthetic technique′ during ′Second Anesthetic Exposure′ (SAE visit and vice versa. Behavior assessment using ′Frankel′s Behavior Rating Scale′ (FBRS and anxiety assessment using ′Faces Version of Modified Child′s Dental Anxiety Scale′ (MCDAS f were done prior to the anesthetic exposure. ′Wong Baker′s Facial Pain Scale′ (WBFPS was used to assess the child′s pain perception to each of the two techniques, immediately after the injection. Various physiological parameters like ′Heart Rate′(HR, ′Respiratory Rate′(RR, and ′Oxygen Saturation′ were measured during pre-operative phase, LA-phase, post LA-phase, Extraction phase and post Extraction phase, during FAE and SAE. Results: Paired t-test revealed a very highly significant (P = 0.001 difference between CCLAD (Wand and conventional during SAE. Non-significant difference was observed when physiological parameters were compared at various intervals between the two anesthetic techniques. Conclusion: CCLAD (Wand provides lesser pain perception as compared to conventional local anesthetic technique.

  6. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in Sec. 740.18...

  7. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in section 740...

  8. Procedural justice effects on self-esteem under certainty versus uncertainty emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); A. van Hiel (Alain)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBuilding upon the idea that procedural justice effects are more pronounced when uncertainty is high, we proposed that recall of an uncertainty-eliciting emotion (fear) will render people more responsive to variations in procedural justice than will recall of a certainty-eliciting emotion

  9. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  10. Comparative evaluation of analytical procedures for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae in coastal marine waters; Valutazione comparativa di procedure analitiche per il rilevamento di Enterobacteriaceae in acque marine costiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonadonna, Lucia; Chiaretti, Gianluca; Coccia, Anna Maria; Semproni, Maurizio [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    The use of quick and reliable procedures is fundamental for water quality evaluation control. In order to improve the analytical methods for microbiological examination of bathing waters, a comparison of different substrates for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae from coastal marine waters was carried out. The medium indicated in the Italian technical normative has shown a good selectivity when the red colonies with a green metallic surface sheen were counted, as stated in the Standard Methods. On the other hand, the chronogenic substrate used in this study resulted easy to read, selective and specific for both Escherichia coli and total coliforms.

  11. Effect of dietary intakes on pregnancy outcomes: a comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of maternal dietary intakes on pregnancy outcomes was assessed in a descriptive, cross-sectional survey among women attending the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program at Nyanza Provincial General Hospital (NPGH), Kenya. A Purposive sampling procedure was employed to ...

  12. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  13. Effect of dentin desensitizing procedures on methyl methacrylate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acrylic and bisacryl resins are widely used both during the temporization phase as well as for provisional restorations and the effect of external agents on dentin sensitivity can be reduced by the ... Materials and Methods: Forty extracted restoration and caries free human premolar teeth were used in this study.

  14. The costs and effectiveness of various decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.A.; Haywood, S.M.; Brown, J.

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of the cost and effectiveness of decontamination techniques is necessary to optimise the implementation of this countermeasure. These factors vary depending upon the nature of the land affected. There is a great deal of data available on the cost and efficacy of specific decontamination techniques on particular surfaces, but little information for combinations of techniques in real environments. This paper describes the preliminary stages of a project, in progress at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), aimed at providing this information, for inner city, residential and rural areas. The efficacies of individual decontamination processes on specific surfaces were from the available literature. The NRPB EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer) compartmental model was used to determine the effectiveness of a number of representative decontamination programmes; each programme represents a combination of common decontamination techniques which may be applied to the various surfaces comprising an inner-city, residential or rural environment, ie, paving, walls, roofs and soil. The effectiveness of each programme was measured in terms of the reduction in dose, or dose rate, to an individual in that environment, taking account of the building characteristics, and the occupancy of the population in these buildings. The costs of each programme were derived, based on data available in current literature on the cost of the constituent decontamination techniques. Representative cost and effectiveness data are presented and their application is discussed

  15. The prevalence of mental health problems among users of NHS stop smoking services: effects of implementing a routine screening procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratschen Elena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco dependence among people with mental health problems is an issue that deserves attention both from a clinical and from a public health perspective. Research suggests that Stop Smoking Services often fail to ask clients about underlying mental health problems and thus fail to put in place the treatment adaptations and liaison procedures often required to meet the needs of clients with a mental health condition who want to stop smoking. This study assesses the recording of mental health problems in a large NHS stop smoking service in England and examines the effect of implementing a short screening procedure on recording mental health conditions. Methods Treatment records from the Stop Smoking Service covering a period of 13 months were audited. The prevalence of reported mental health problems in the six month period before the implementation of the mental health screening procedure was compared with that of the six month period following implementation. The screening procedure was only implemented in the support services directly provided by the Stop Smoking Service. Comparisons were also made with third-party sections of the service where no such screening procedure was introduced. Results The prevalence of reported mental health problems among a total of n = 4999 clients rose from less than 1% before implementation of the screening procedure to nearly 12% in the period following implementation, with the change being statistically significant. No significant rise was observed over the same period in the sections of the service where no screening procedure was implemented. Conclusions The absence of standard procedures to record mental health problems among service users in many stop smoking services is currently likely to prevent the detection of co morbidity. Implementing a simple screening procedure appears suitable to increase the routine recording of mental health problems in a stop smoking service, which is an

  16. Comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures designed to determine noradrenaline in the plasma (COMT assay and PNMT assay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures to determine the concentration of noradrenaline in the plasma - with linearity, sensitivity, specifity and accuracy serving as test criteria - led to the following results: In view of a probability of error in the order of 2% both methods were judged to show a satisfactory sensitivity. The specific of the COMT assay, by contrast with that of the PNMT assay, was found to be wanting, as the noradrenaline measurements in the presence of other biogenic amines were biassed in such a way that the values determined were higher than the actual concentrations. During antihypertensive treatment even minimal changes in the noradrenaline concentration can be ascertained on a quantitative basis. If suitable hardware is available, the COMT assay permits up to 25 single determinations to be carried out per day, while the number of double determinations is restricted to 7 per day. One advantage, however, lies in the fact that several catecholamines in the plasma can be detected simultaneously, if required. In cases where the noradrenaline concentration alone is to be determined for clinical purposes, preference should be given to the PNMT assay, as both tests showed equal linearity and sensitivity. (TRV) [de

  17. Development of Evaluation Procedure for Effective Implementation of Cdio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Rode, Carsten; Borchersen, Egil

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in modern engineering education is the demand for teaching of high quality where the subject is presented in an interesting and engaging way. By integrating and involving the students in the teaching process, the learning can be increased. At the Technical University...... practices. In general the results show a very high satisfaction with the Design Build course and the students like the practical approach in the CDIO concept. The students are very committed and the course motivates them for added interest in studying constructional engineering....... of Denmark (DTU), the CDIO approach was started in the autumn of 2008 in the process of reforming the engineering education in order to educate the students to become more effective engineers. One of the goals is to effectively implement CDIO practices and reduce time for implementation. One of the ways...

  18. The Effect of Orthodontic Model Fabrication Procedures on Gypsum Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    and metal dies. Journal of the American Dental Association (1981), 103:408-411. 21. Mason, H. J.: Impregnation of stone dies with acrylic resin ...impregnated with acrylic resin . Journal of Dental Research (1971), 50(2):507. 28. Schneider, R. L. and Taylor, T. D.: Compressive strength and surface...casts or to methods of improving the strength and durability of casts. Recent studies have looked at the effect of repeated sprayings of disinfectants

  19. Oral Chloral Hydrate Compare with Rectal Thiopental in Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azizkhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing use of diagnostic imaging in pediatric medicine has resulted in growing need for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA to minimize motion artifacts during procedures. The drug of choice in pediatric PSA was not introduced till now. The aim of the present study was comparison of oral chloral hydrate (OCH and rectal sodium thiopental (RST in pediatric PSA.Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 2-6 years old pediatrics who referred for performing brain computed tomography scan was enrolled and were randomly divided in to two groups. OCH (50mg/kg and RST (25mg/kg were prescribed and a trained nurse recorded the time from drug prescription to receiving the conscious sedation (onset of action, the total time period which the patient has the Ramsay score≥4 (duration of action, and adverse effect of agents. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared test, and Non-parametric analysis of covariance (ANCOVA were used for comparisons. Results: One hundred and forty children were entered to two groups of OCH and RST, randomly. The patients of two groups had similar age, sex, weight, and baseline vital signs except for diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001. The onset of action in OCH and RST groups were 24.5±6.1and 28.7±5.2 minutes, respectively (p<0.001. Duration of action in OCH and RST groups were 12.9±2.8 minutes and 13.7±2.6 minutes, respectively (p=0.085. Non parametric ANCOVA revealed that only diastolic blood pressure was affected by drug prescription (p=0.001. In 11(15.7% patients in RST group, diarrhea was observed during 24 hours (p=0.001. Oxygen desaturation was observed only in two patients, both in OCH group. Conclusion: Each of the sedative has advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting one for inducing short-term sedation. It seems that rectal sodium thiopental and oral chloral hydrate are equally effective in pediatric PSA and based on patient’s condition we can administrate

  20. Design and rationale of a randomized trial comparing the Blalock-Taussig and right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunts in the Norwood procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohye, Richard G; Gaynor, J William; Ghanayem, Nancy S; Goldberg, Caren S; Laussen, Peter C; Frommelt, Peter C; Newburger, Jane W; Pearson, Gail D; Tabbutt, Sarah; Wernovsky, Gil; Wruck, Lisa M; Atz, Andrew M; Colan, Steve D; Jaggers, James; McCrindle, Brian W; Prakash, Ashwin; Puchalski, Michael D; Sleeper, Lynn A; Stylianou, Mario P; Mahony, Lynn

    2008-10-01

    The initial palliative procedure for patients born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related single right ventricle anomalies, the Norwood procedure, remains among the highest risk procedures in congenital heart surgery. The classic Norwood procedure provides pulmonary blood flow with a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Improved outcomes have been reported in a few small, nonrandomized studies of a modification of the Norwood procedure that uses a right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt to provide pulmonary blood flow. Other nonrandomized studies have shown no differences between the two techniques. The Pediatric Heart Network designed a randomized clinical trial to compare outcomes for subjects undergoing a Norwood procedure with either the right ventricle-pulmonary artery or modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Infants with a diagnosis of single, morphologically right ventricle anomaly who are undergoing a Norwood procedure are eligible for inclusion in this study. The primary outcome is death or cardiac transplant 12 months after random assignment. Secondary outcomes include postoperative morbidity after Norwood and stage II palliation procedures, right ventricular function and pulmonary arterial growth at stage II palliation, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 14 months old. Incidence of adverse events will also be compared between treatment groups. This study will make an important contribution to the care of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related forms of single, morphologically right ventricle. It also establishes a model with which other operative interventions for patients with congenital cardiovascular malformations can be evaluated in the future.

  1. Two-stage dental implants inserted in a one-stage procedure : a prospective comparative clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdenrijk, Kees

    2002-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that dental implants designed for a submerged implantation procedure can be used in a single-stage procedure and may be as predictable as one-stage implants. Although one-stage implant systems and two-stage.

  2. Conceptualizing and Testing Random Indirect Effects and Moderated Mediation in Multilevel Models: New Procedures and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Gil, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors propose new procedures for evaluating direct, indirect, and total effects in multilevel models when all relevant variables are measured at Level 1 and all effects are random. Formulas are provided for the mean and variance of the indirect and total effects and for the sampling variances of the average indirect and total effects.…

  3. About the effectiveness of telehealth procedures in psychological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Peñate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de las nuevas tecnologías en el tratamiento psicológico tiene hoy día un desarrollo importante. Desde un punto de vista experimental, los mayores desarrollos los ha tenido el uso de la realidad virtual y los programas servidos vía internet. En el presente trabajo se analizan ambos recursos, haciendo especial hincapié en los programas de tratamiento psicológico por medio de internet. En el caso de la realidad virtual, su desarrollo se ha dirigido especialmente al tratamiento de las fobias, mostrando una eficacia comparable a los tratamientos tradicionales y, en algunos casos, una eficacia clínica superior. El tratamiento psicológico vía internet ha tenido un desarrollo más extenso, aunque con mayor aplicación a los problemas de ansiedad y depresión. De las revisiones sistemáticas y meta-análisis se concluye que, a pesar de la disparidad de estudios, algunos programas han mostrado su eficacia, especialmente cuando se contrastan con un grupo sin tratamiento y cuando se tiene algún tipo de contacto con un terapeuta. Este tipo de recursos han mostrado una serie de ventajas en relación con los métodos tradicionales en relación con una mayor accesibilidad, versatilidad y costes económicos. Sin embargo, todavía permanecen algunas dificultades metodológicas para garantizar la viabilidad clínica de estos recursos tecnológicos.

  4. Trends and the determination of effective doses for standard X-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.M.; Neduzak, C.; Gallet, J.; Sandeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    Trends in the entrance skin exposures (air kerma) for standard x-ray imaging procedures are reported for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Average annual data per procedure using standard phantoms and standard ion chambers have been recorded since 1981. For example, chest air kerma (backscatter included) has decreased from 0.14 to 0.09 mGy. Confounding factors may negate the gains unless facility quality control programs are maintained. The data were obtained for a quality assurance and regulatory compliance program. Quoting such data for risk evaluation purposes lacks rigor hence a compartment model for organ apportioning, using organ absorbed doses and weighting factors, has been applied to determine effective dose per procedure. The effective doses for the standard procedures are presented, including the value of 0.027 mSv (1999) calculated for the effective dose in PA chest imaging. (author)

  5. Ebola virus disease diagnosis by real-time RT-PCR: A comparative study of 11 different procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpillod, Pascal; Schibler, Manuel; Vieille, Gaël; Cordey, Samuel; Mamin, Aline; Vetter, Pauline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of Ebola virus disease relies on the detection of viral RNA in blood by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. While several of these assays were developed during the unprecedented 2013-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, few were applied in the field. To compare technical performances and practical aspects of 11 Ebola virus real-time reverse-transcription PCR procedures. We selected the most promising assays using serial dilutions of culture-derived Ebola virus RNA and determined their analytical sensitivity and potential range of quantification using quantified in vitro transcribed RNA; viral load values in the serum of an Ebola virus disease patient obtained with these assays were reported. Finally, ease of use and turnaround times of these kits were evaluated. Commercial assays were at least as sensitive as in-house tests. Five of the former (Altona, Roche, Fast-track Diagnostics, and Life Technologies) were selected for further evaluation. Despite differences in analytical sensitivity and limits of quantification, all of them were suitable for Ebola virus diagnosis and viral load estimation. The Lifetech Lyophilized Ebola Virus (Zaire 2014) assay (Life Technologies) appeared particularly promising, displaying the highest analytical sensitivity and shortest turnaround time, in addition to requiring no reagent freezing. Commercial kits were at least as sensitive as in-house tests and potentially easier to use in the field than the latter. This qualitative comparison of real-time reverse transcription PCR assays may serve as a basis for the design of future Ebola virus disease diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative effectiveness. Federal government's push for more data to benefit supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Geri

    2010-04-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided $1.1 billion to help fund comparative effectiveness research. Some of this money will be used to fund studies that will examine the effectiveness between drugs, medical devices and/or procedures for the same condition. The findings from this research may eventually provide materials managers with information on how products such as knee, hip and spinal implants perform. What follows is a look at the comparative effectiveness movement and what it may mean to the health care supply chain.

  7. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...

  8. A Comparative Retrospective Analysis of Complications After Oncoplastic Breast Reduction and Breast Reduction for Benign Macromastia: Are These Procedures Equally Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahiyerobo, Thomas A; Pharmer, Lindsay A; Swistel, Alexander J; Talmor, Mia

    2015-10-01

    Oncoplastic breast reduction has been shown to be an effective approach to breast conservation surgery in women with macromastia. Clear surgical margins can be achieved while simultaneously improving symptomatic macromastia and enhancing aesthetic outcomes. Little has been written about postoperative complications after this procedure, beyond the risk of locoregional recurrence. This study aimed to compare the complication profile for oncoplastic breast reduction versus reduction for benign macromastia. A retrospective review of our experience with oncoplastic breast reduction was performed. This represented a consecutive series of 118 patients undergoing bilateral breast reduction during the 7-year study period from March 2005 to March 2012. There were 64 patients identified who underwent oncoplastic breast reduction. Patients were determined to be a good candidate for breast conservation therapy if it was felt that clear surgical margins could be obtained without mastectomy. Postoperative complications (within 6 weeks of surgery) were compared to a control group of 56 patients undergoing reduction for benign macromastia. The associations between complications and potential risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression. Patients undergoing oncoplastic breast reduction and reduction for benign macromastia had some key differences. In general, macromastia patients were younger (mean age, 42.3 vs 57.5 years; P oncoplastic reduction. Within the oncoplastic reduction group, 14 (21.9%) patients had a total of 16 complications; among the benign macromastia group, 9 (16.1%) patients had a total of 10 complications (P = 0.420). On univariate analysis, oncoplastic reduction was not predictive of having a perioperative complication (odds ratio, 1.462; 95% confidence interval, 0.579-3.696; P = 0.422). Body mass index was found to be predictive of having a complication after reduction for either indication (odds ratio, 1.108; 95% confidence interval, 1.018-1.206; P = 0

  9. Effects of measurement procedure and equipment on average room acoustic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Bradley, J S; Siebein, G W

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a measurement tour of nine U.S. concert halls. Three measurements teams, from the University of Florida, the National Research Council of Canada, and the Technical University of Denmark, made parallel sets of measurements using their own equipment and procedures....... In some of the halls measurements were repeated using the procedures of the other teams to make it possible to separate the effects of different equipment and different procedures. The paper will present position-averaged results from the three teams and will discuss reasons for the differences observed...

  10. Recollection Training and Transfer Effects in Alzheimer's Disease: Effectiveness of the Repetition-Lag Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Benjamin; Jennings, Janine M.; Dieudonne, Benedicte; Verny, Marc; Ergis, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to extend the use of a memory training technique, known as the repetition-lag procedure, to Alzheimer patients. The specificity of this procedure is to target the process of recollection for improvement. Method: A group of 12 patients were trained individually for 6 h. The training procedure consisted of a series…

  11. Telepresent intubation supervision is as effective as in-person supervision of procedurally naive operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescher, Hannes; Grover, Emily; Mosier, Jarrod; Stolz, Uwe; Biffar, David E; Hamilton, Allan J; Sakles, John C

    2015-03-01

    Telepresence is emerging in clinical and educational settings as a potential modality to provide expert guidance during remote airway management. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of telepresent versus in-person supervision of tracheal intubation. A randomized, crossover study was performed in a university medical simulation center with 48 first- and second-year medical students with no formal procedural training in tracheal intubation. Each participant was assigned to receive each of four study arms in random sequence: (1) direct laryngoscopy (DL) with in-person supervision, (2) DL with telepresent supervision, (3) videolaryngoscopy (VL) with in-person supervision, and (4) VL with telepresent supervision. Telepresence was established with a smartphone (Apple [Cupertino, CA] iPhone(®)) via FaceTime(®) connection. The primary outcome measure was the time to successful intubation. Secondary outcome measures included first pass success rate and the number of blade and tube attempts. There was no significant difference between in-person and telepresent supervision for any of the outcomes. The median difference (in-person versus telepresent) for time to intubation was -3 s (95% confidence interval [CI], -20 to 14 s). The odds ratio for first attempt success was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.3-1.3), and the rate ratio for extra number of blade attempts (i.e., attempts in addition to first) was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-1.7) and 1.4 (95% CI, 0.9-2.2) for extra number of tube attempts. In this study population of procedurally naive medical students, telepresent supervision was as effective as in-person supervision for tracheal intubation.

  12. The Effectiveness of Distraction as Procedural Pain Management Technique in Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukola, Ibitoye M; Paula, Dawson

    2017-10-01

    Diagnostic tests and treatment regimens for pediatric cancers involve invasive and painful procedures. Effective management of such pain has been shown to be suboptimal in many parts of the world, often because of the cost and limited availability of appropriate medications. Current evidence suggests that distraction (a relatively low-cost technique) is a promising intervention for procedural pain management. There is, however, limited evidence demonstrating its effectiveness in pediatric oncology patients. A systematic review was conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of distraction as a procedural pain management technique in pediatric oncology patients. Using a comprehensive search strategy, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, and EMBASE electronic databases were searched for studies comparing distraction techniques to standard care/any intervention. Using the selected studies, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Two hundred ninety-nine studies were identified, with seven randomized control trials identified as eligible for inclusion. Pain was assessed using self-report, observer-report, and physiological measures. A meta-analysis of four studies showed distraction as effective in reducing procedural pain, based on self-reported pain. A meta-analysis of three studies, based on pulse rates, demonstrated similar results. For observer-reported pain, limited evidence supported the effectiveness of distraction. This systematic review demonstrates that distraction is a promising intervention for procedural pain. Future research should assess effectiveness of distraction in varied populations, to explore evidence of cultural influences on pain expression, measurement, and management approaches. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of the effective doses for interventional employees in three common interventional diagnosis and treatment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Zhu Jianguo; Min Nan; Lu Feng; Chen Yue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study and estimate the effective dose of interventional employees in the common cerebral vascular, cardiovascular and liver interventional diagnosis and treatment. Methods: The absorbed doses of tissue or organ of anthropomorphic phantom in these three procedures were estimated by the anthropomorphic phantom experiment. The effective doses were calculated by the tissue weight factor which was given by International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 103. Results: The effective doses to high, medium and low group were 24.0, 9.7, 6.8 μSv for cerebral vascular interventional diagnosis and treatment, and 36.3, 29.3, 17.8 μSv for cardiovascular interventional diagnosis and treatment, and 23.9, 11.3, 5.5 μ Sv for liver interventional diagnosis and treatment, respectively. Conclusions: The effective doses of high, medium and low group of interventional employees in cardiovascular interventional procedure are higher than those of cerebral vascular and liver interventional procedures. (authors)

  14. Effects of various finishing procedures on the staining of provisional restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet Umut; Kurt, Safak; Kulunk, Tolga

    2005-05-01

    The color stability of tooth-colored restorative materials for provisional restorations is of primary importance when provisional prostheses are worn long term. However, the effect of different polishing methods on the color difference of provisional restorative (PR) materials has not been completely clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of 2- and 3-component autopolymerized bis-acrylic composites, a light polymerized composite, and a methyl methacrylate-based PR material upon exposure to a staining agent. Material and methods Sixty cylindrical specimens (15 x 2 mm) were prepared for each of bis-acryl composites (Protemp II and Luxatemp), a light-polymerized composite (Revotek LC), and a methyl methacrylate-based (TemDent) PR material by using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 6 groups (n=10), and different polishing procedures were used, including pumice (P), diamond polishing paste (Dpp), polishing discs (Pd), and combinations of these. Unpolished specimens served as the control. The specimens were stored for 48 hours at 37 degrees C in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-300) before and after exposure, and color changes (DeltaE) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and mean values were compared by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test (alpha=.05). The provisional materials, surface polishing procedures, and interaction were significant (P provisional materials, the lowest color difference (DeltaE) was observed in Group P-Dpp. The largest color difference for the light-polymerized and autopolymerized composites was observed in Group Pd-Dpp and Group Pd, which were not significantly different from each other. In the methyl methacrylate-based material group, the largest color difference was observed in Group Pd. When comparing the 4 different PR materials, the methyl

  15. Effect of adipose tissue processing procedures in culture result: a study preliminary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Pawitan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various methods of processing adipose tissue before culture, depending on the adipose tissue samples. The aim of this study is to compare several modifications of culturing and sub-culturing procedures of adipose tissue to fit the condition in our laboratory.Method: This is a descriptive study that was done in the Immunology and Endocrinology Integrated Laboratory, University of Indonesia, from  October 2009 to April 2010. Three adipose tissue processing procedures, various amount of seeding and two subculture methods were compared in term of cell yield and time needed. In the first procedure, collagenase-1 digestion was done in 30minutes, cell seeding were 24,000 and 36,000 per flask; in the second procedure, collagenase-1 digestion was done in 60minutes, cell seeding were 24,000, 48,000, and 72,000 per flask; and in the third procedure, the adipose tissue remnants from the first  procedure were again digested for another 45 minutes, cell seeding were 74,000, and 148,000 per flask. Difference in subculture methods were the presence or absence of washing step.Result: Procedure 1 yielded the lowest amount of cell, and after culture, the cells grew very slow, and was contaminated before harvest of primary culture. Procedure-2 and -3 succeeded to yield primary cultures. Some of the cultures were contaminated, so that further subculture was not  applicable, and only one tissue processing procedure (procedure 2: 60 minute collagenase-1 digestion, without lysis buffer, cell seeding 48,000 and 72,000 could complete the three subcultures. Though some of the procedures could not be completed, final result could be concluded.Conclusion: In this preliminary study, 60 minute colagenase-1 digestion with intermittent shaking every 5 minutes and cell seeding around 50,000 or more, followed by subculture method without washing step gave the best result. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:15-9Keywords: collagenase-1, primary culture, subculture

  16. Learning Declarative and Procedural Knowledge via Video Lectures: Cognitive Load and Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianzhong; Pi, Zhongling; Yang, Jiumin

    2018-01-01

    Video lectures are being widely used in online and blended learning classes worldwide, and their learning effectiveness is becoming a focus of many educators and researchers. This study examined the cognitive load and learning effectiveness of video lectures in terms of the type of knowledge being taught (declarative or procedural) and instructor…

  17. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. 147.14 Section 147.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be... sanitation program. (1) Culture the surface of cased eggs periodically for fecal contaminating organisms as...

  18. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure : A prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Reijden, Willy A. van der; Winkelhoff, Arie Jan van; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V–VI) participated

  19. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure - A prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, K; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, HJA; van der Reijden, WA; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Stegenga, B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V-VI) participated

  20. Two-part implants inserted in a one-stage or a two-stage procedure : A prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Reijden, Willy A. van der; Winkelhoff, Arie-Jan van; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a twopart implant system in a one-stage procedure and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area in relation to clinical and radiographic outcome. Material and Methods: After randomisation, 40 edentulous patients

  1. Two-part implants inserted in a one-stage or a two-stage procedure - A prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, K; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, HJA; van der Reijden, WA; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Stegenga, B

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-part implant system in a one-stage procedure and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area in relation to clinical and radiographic outcome. Material and Methods: After randomisation, 40 edentulous patients

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTUM EFFECTS IN NANOSCALE MULTIGATE MOSFETS USING VARIATIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. PALANICHAMY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs is analysed using variational approach including quantum effects. An analytical model is derived to accounting the quantum effects at the silicon (Si/silicon dioxide (SiO2 interface. A general procedure is used for calculating the quantum inversion charge density. Using this inversion charge density, the drain current is obtained. Our model results are compared with the simulation results and its shows very good agreement. Our results highlighted that cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET is a good candidate to obtain the high drain current compared with other two devices.

  3. Effects of caregiver-implemented aggression reduction procedure on problem behavior of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling-Savage, Kristyn; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D; Miller, L Keith; Savage, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Problem behavior of companion animals poses a threat to caregivers, other targets of problem behavior (e.g., strangers, other nonhuman animals), and those animals engaging in problem behavior. This study examined the effects of an aggression reduction procedure (ARP) on dog problem behavior. After a baseline condition showing caregivers were unsuccessful in reducing dog aggression and the behaviors preceding aggression, caregivers were trained to implement a procedure to address dog problem behavior in relatively simple contexts. Generalization programming then was used to target caregiver plan implementation and dog problem behavior in more complex contexts. The ARP effectively reduced dog aggression for all dogs. A slight reduction and increased variability in dog precursor behavior was observed when the ARP was implemented. In addition, caregivers and experts rated the goals, procedures, and effects as acceptable. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Effect of white matter changes on risk score for peri-procedural complications after carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun; Guo, Wen Cheng; Zhu, Lei; Tan, Jin Yun; Shi, Wei Hao; Zhang, Xiao Long; Gu, Yu Xiang; Han, Xiang; Dong, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The presence of more severe white matter changes (WMC) may be associated with a higher risk of peri-procedural strokes in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, to what extent WMC affects peri-procedural risk of CAS is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of WMC on peri-procedural complications by modifying a CAS peri-procedural risk scale through adding the assessment of WMC. A database of patients undergoing CAS was sampled from 2007 to 2014 in a single Chinese medical center. Risk factors were evaluated for peri-interventional cerebral and cardiac events and mortality. A risk score including contralateral stenosis ≥ 50%, diabetes with HbA1c > 7%, age ≥ 80 years old, symptomatic stenosis or with an ulcer lesion was applied to predict peri-interventional risk. Age-related white matter change (ARWMC) score was calculated and added to this risk scale. The predictive power of the new scale was evaluated. 151 patients were enrolled in the study. 14 peri-interventional events were recorded. Patients with peri-procedural complications had higher rates of diabetes (57.1% vs 18.2%, P = 0.001), contralateral stenosis (64.29% vs 32.85%, P = 0.019), coronary heart disease (42.9% vs 14.6%, P = 0.008) and ARWMC ≥ 7 (64.3% vs 25.5%, P = 0.002) compared with patients without peri-procedural complications. ARWMC ≥ 7 was an independent risk factor for peri-procedural complications from factors of the CAS scale after adjusting other confounders including contralateral stenosis ≥ 50%, HbA1c > 7%, age ≥ 80 years old and symptomatic stenosis or with an ulcer lesion. After the ARWMC score was added to the original scale, the AUC value of the new scale to predict the risk of peri-procedural complications after CAS was elevated (0.808 vs 0.730, p = 0.068). More severe WMC was a risk factor for peri-procedural complications after CAS in patients with carotid artery stenosis. ARWMC score may help to

  5. Bilateral effects of hospital patient-safety procedures on nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Karima, R; Harada, K

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how hospital patient-safety procedures affect the job satisfaction of hospital nurses. Additionally, we investigated the association between perceived autonomy and hospital patient-safety procedures and job satisfaction. Recently, measures for patient safety have been recognized as an essential requirement in hospitals. Hospital patient-safety procedures may enhance the job satisfaction of nurses by improving the quality of their work. However, such procedures may also decrease their job satisfaction by imposing excessive stress on nurses because they cannot make mistakes. The participants included 537 nurses at 10 private hospitals in Japan (The surveys were collected from March to July 2012). Factors related to hospital patient-safety procedures were demonstrated using factor analysis, and the associations between these factors and nurses' self-perceived autonomy and job satisfaction were examined using structural equation modelling. Five factors regarding hospital patient-safety procedures were extracted. Additionally, structural equation modelling revealed statistically significant associations between these factors and the nurses' self-perceived autonomy and job satisfaction. The findings showed that nurses' perceived autonomy of the workplace enhanced their job satisfaction and that their perceptions of hospital patient-safety procedures promoted their job satisfaction. However, some styles of chief nurses' leadership regarding patient safety restrict nurses' independent and autonomous decision-making and actions, resulting in a lowering of job satisfaction. This study demonstrated that hospital patient-safety procedures have ambiguous effects on nurses' job satisfaction. In particular, chief nurses' leadership relating to patient safety can have a positive or negative effect on nurses' job satisfaction. The findings indicated that hospital managers should demonstrate positive attitudes to improve patient safety for

  6. Effect of occlusal plane control procedure on hyoid bone position and pharyngeal airway of hyperdivergent skeletal Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Qing; Zhao, Rui; Gao, Meiya; Gao, Xiaolei; Lai, Wenli

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of occlusal plane control on the hyoid bone position and pharyngeal airway of hyperdivergent skeletal Class II patients during orthodontic treatment. Cephalograms of 47 hyperdivergent skeletal Class II subjects with occlusal plane control (OPC), and another 50 subjects without occlusal plane control (NOPC) were selected to compare the effects of the occlusal plane control procedure. Lateral cephalograms before treatment (T1), immediately after treatment (T2), and an average of 12 months after treatment (T3) were obtained, and 17 measurements were analyzed in each group and compared between groups. With respect to the T2-T1 changes, the sagittal discrepancies in both groups were alleviated. In the OPC group, both the occlusal and mandibular plane angles decreased, accompanied by anterior and superior movement and counterclockwise rotation of the hyoid bone. The overall changes from T3 to T1 in each group exhibited trends similar to that induced by treatment. As for pharyngeal airway space alterations, no significant difference in OPC group was presented throughout treatment or retention periods. The customized occlusal plane control procedure was effective for hyperdivergent skeletal Class II patients: The occlusal plane rotated counterclockwise, followed by a counterclockwise rotation of the mandibular plane. The hyoid bone moved anteriorly and superiorly, accompanied by its counterclockwise rotation. However, this procedure did not induce significant alteration of the pharyngeal airway space.

  7. A randomized controlled trial to compare fentanyl-propofol and ketamine-propofol combination for procedural sedation and analgesia in laparoscopic tubal ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Procedural sedation and analgesia is widely being used for female laparoscopic sterilization using combinations of different drugs at varying doses. This study compared the combination of fentanyl and propofol, and ketamine and propofol in patients undergoing outpatient laparoscopic tubal ligation, with respect to their hemodynamic effects, postoperative recovery characteristics, duration of hospital stay, adverse effects, and patient comfort and acceptability. Settings and Design: Randomized, double blind. Methods: Patients were assigned to receive premixed injection of either fentanyl 1.5 μg/kg + propofol 2 mg/kg (Group PF, n0=50 or ketamine 0.5 mg/kg + propofol 2 mg/kg (Group PK, n=50. Hemodynamic data, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate were recorded perioperatively. Recovery time, time to discharge, and comfort score were noted. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square (χ2 test was used for categorical data. Student′s t-test was used for quantitative variables for comparison between the two groups. For intragroup comparison, paired t-test was used. SPSS 14.0 was used for analysis. Results: Although the heart rate was comparable, blood pressures were consistently higher in group PK. Postoperative nausea and vomiting and delay in voiding were more frequent in group PK ( P<0.05. The time to reach Aldrete score ≥8 was significantly longer in group PK (11.14±3.29 min in group PF vs. 17.3±6.32 min in group PK, P<0.01. The time to discharge was significantly longer in group PK (105.8±13.07 min in group PF vs.138.18±13.20 min in group PK, P<0.01. Patient comfort and acceptability was better in group PF, P<0.01. Conclusion: As compared to ketamine-propofol, fentanyl-propofol combination is associated with faster recovery, earlier discharge, and better patient acceptability.

  8. Safety of type and screen method compared to conventional antiglobulin crossmatch procedures for compatibility testing in Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past 30 years, pretransfusion tests have undergone considerable modification. In 1984, AABB recommended that the full cross match could be replaced by an abbreviated cross match in patients with negative antibody screen. However, before implementation of such a policy, issue regarding safety of T & S needs to be evaluated. Objectives: The aim of pretransfusion testing (PTT is to ensure that enough red blood cells (RBCs in the selected red cell components will survive when transfused. Results and Conclusion: We have, therefore in this study; evaluated safety of T & S procedure for PTT in comparison with conventional test tube cross match. The T & S procedure gave a safety of 91.6%. Also, the usefulness of the T & S was shown through the detection of unexpected antibodies in 0.75% (15 out of 2026 of cases.

  9. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG. Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna′s classification were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001 and motility (P = 0.004 between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention.

  10. The effect of long-term disinfection procedures on hardness property of resin denture teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha, Nara Hellen; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Ana Lucia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of long-term disinfection procedures on the Vickers hardness (VHN) of acrylic resin denture teeth. Five acrylic resin denture teeth (Vipi Dent Plus-V, Trilux-T, Biolux-B, Postaris-P and Artiplus-A) and one composite resin denture teeth (SR-Orthosit-O) were embedded in heat-polymerised acrylic resin within polyvinylchloride tubes. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48 h. Measurements of hardness were taken after the following disinfection procedures: immersion for 7 days in 4% chlorhexidine gluconate or in 1% sodium hypochlorite (CIm and HIm group, respectively) and seven daily cycles of microwave sterilisation at 650 W for 6 min (MwS group). In the WIm group, specimens were maintained in water during the time used to perform the disinfection procedures (7 days). Data were analysed with anova followed by the Bonferroni procedure (α = 0.01). Microwave disinfection decreased the hardness of all acrylic resin denture teeth (p acrylic resin denture teeth A (p disinfection procedures decrease the hardness of the composite resin denture teeth (p Disinfection procedures changed the hardness of resin denture teeth. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. To Compare the Effectiveness of Short‑term Three Dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To Compare the Effectiveness of Short‑term Three Dose Perioperative Antibiotic Coverage during Decisive Period with Conventional Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Usage in Clean Elective Surgical Cases: An Indian Perspective.

  12. Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves ( Hyptis suaveolens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyptis suaveolens) were compared for their toxicity effect on the larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti collected from disused tyres beside College of Natural Sciences building University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

  13. Long-term clinical outcomes with the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure compared to Burch colposuspension for correcting stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdø, Bjørn; Verelst, Margareta; Svenningsen, Rune; Milsom, Ian; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2017-11-01

    The retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure replaced Burch colposuspension as the primary surgical method for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) in women in our department in 1998. In this study we compared the short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these surgical procedures. Using a case series design, we compared the last 5 years of the Burch procedure (n = 127, 1994-1999) with the first 5 years of the retropubic TVT procedure (n = 180, 1998-2002). Information from the medical records was transferred to a case report form comprising data on perioperative and long-term complications as well as recurrence of UI, defined as bothersome UI or UI in need of repeat surgery. Other endpoints were rates of perioperative and late complications and the rates of prolapse surgery after primary surgery. The data were analyzed with the chi-squared and t tests and survival analysis using SPSS. The cumulative recurrence rate of SUI in women with preoperative SUI was significantly higher after the Burch procedure, but no difference was observed in women with MUI. There were no significant differences in rates of perioperative and late complications. At 12 years there was a significant increase in rates of repeat surgery for incontinence and prolapse in women after the Burch procedure. The long-term efficacy of TVT surgery was superior to that of Burch colposuspension in women with SUI. In addition, the rate of late prolapse surgery was significantly higher after the Burch procedure.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analyses of elective orthopaedic surgical procedures in patients with inflammatory arthropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osnes-Ringen, H.; Kvamme, M. K.; Sønbø Kristiansen, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    . The health benefit from surgery was subsequently translated into QALYs. The direct treatment costs in the first year were, for each patient, derived from the hospital's cost per patient accounting system (KOSPA). The costs per QALY were estimated and future costs and benefits were discounted at 4%. Results......: Improvement in utility at 1-year follow-up was 0.10 with EQ-5D and 0.03 with SF-6D (p procedures. The 5-year cost per QALY was EUR 17...... 800 for non-replacement surgical procedures measured by EQ-5D (SF-6D: EUR 67 500). Conclusions: Elective orthopaedic surgery in patients with inflammatory arthropathies was cost-effective when measured with EQ-5D, and some procedures were also cost-effective when SF-6D was used in the economic...

  15. Procedure for Matrix Effect Reduction in Metal Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eshaikh, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    A procedure for matrix effect reduction is proposed to enhance the precision of quantitative analysis of metal alloys using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). This procedure is based on a number of successive steps in order to correct the signal fluctuations caused by plasma interaction and the matrix effect. The first step is the selection of optimum parameter settings of the detection system, such as laser power, delay time, and focal distance. The second step is the estimation of the absolute or relative values of impurities on the basis of the internal standard calibration. The third step is the analysis of the metal basis of the alloy used as an internal standard, which requires spectrum averaging, whole integral spectrum normalization, and self-absorption correction. Three sets of metal-based alloys (aluminum, steel, and copper) are used in this investigation as reference standards for calibration and validation. Successive improvements of the quality of calibration curves are observed during the proposed procedure.

  16. Comparing sensitivity of ecotoxicological effect endpoints between laboratory and field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, H.; Riemann, B.; Christoffersen, K.

    2002-01-01

    multispecies field tests using tributyltin (TBT) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were compared with published laboratory single-species test results and measured in situ concentrations. Extrapolation methods were evaluated by comparing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), calculated by AF...

  17. Comparative effectiveness of shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy for treating patients with kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles D; Lai, Julie C; Dick, Andrew W; Hanley, Jan M; van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Setodji, Claude M; Saigal, Christopher S

    2014-07-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) account for more than 90% of procedural interventions for kidney stones, which affect 1 in 11 persons in the United States. Efficacy data for SWL are more than 20 years old. Advances in URS, along with emerging evidence of reduced efficacy of modern lithotripters, have created uncertainty regarding the comparative effectiveness of these 2 treatment options. To compare the effectiveness of SWL and URS to fragment or remove urinary stones in a large private payer cohort. We performed a retrospective cohort study of privately insured beneficiaries who had an emergency department visit for a kidney stone and subsequently underwent SWL or URS. Using an instrumental variable approach to control for observed and unobserved differences between the 2 groups, we created a bivariate probit model to estimate the probability of repeat intervention following an initial procedure. A second procedure (SWL or URS) within 120 days of an initial intervention to fragment or remove or a kidney stone. Following an acute care visit for a kidney stone, 21 937 patients (45.8%) underwent SWL and 25 914 patients (54.2%) underwent URS to fragment or remove the stone. After the initial URS, 4852 patients (18.7%) underwent an additional fragmentation or removal procedure compared with 5186 patients (23.6%) after the initial SWL (P < .001). After adjusting for observed and unobserved variables, the estimated probabilities of repeat intervention were 11.0%(95%CI, 10.9-11.1) following SWL and 0.3%(95%CI, 0.325-0.329) following URS. Among privately insured beneficiaries requiring procedural intervention to remove a symptomatic stone, repeat intervention is more likely following SWL. For the marginal patient (as opposed to the average patient), the probability of repeat intervention is substantially higher.

  18. Effectiveness of minimally invasive surgical procedures in the acceleration of tooth movement: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. H. Alfawal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to assess systematically the available scientific evidence relating the efficiency of minimally invasive surgical procedures in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement and the adverse effects associated with these procedures. Methods Electronic search of these databases CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar Beta, Trip, OpenGrey and PQDT OPEN was performed (last updated January 2016. The reference lists of the included studies were hand searched. Unpublished literature and ongoing studies were also checked electronically through ClinicalTrials.gov and (ICTRP. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs with patients who received minimally invasive surgical procedures combined with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with conventional treatment were included. Cochrane’s risk of bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. Results Four RCTs (61 patients and nine ongoing protocols were included in this review. Only three RCTs were suitable for quantitative synthesis. Higher tooth movement rate was found with the minimally invasive surgical procedures by a weighted mean difference of 0.65 mm for 1 month of canine retraction (WMD = 0.65: 95 % CI (0.54, 0.76, p < 0.001 and by a weighted mean difference 1.41 mm for 2 months (WMD = 1.41: 95 % CI (0.81, 2.01, p < 0.001. No adverse effects associated with these procedures were reported. Conclusions There is limited available evidence about the effectiveness of minimally invasive surgically accelerated orthodontics (MISAO. Although the current review indicated that MISAO can help in accelerating canine retraction, further research in this domain should be performed before it can be recommended in everyday clinical practice.

  19. The Effect of a New Angiographic Imaging Technology on Radiation Dose in Visceral Embolization Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Frederic; Peña, Constantino; Kloeckner, Roman; Katzen, Barry T; Gandhi, Ripal; Benenati, James B

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of a new angiographic imaging technology on radiation dose during visceral embolization procedures involving both fluoroscopy and digital subtraction angiography. A retrospective analysis from a single-center consecutive series of patients was performed comparing 2 angiographic imaging systems. The AlluraClarity (CIQ; Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) was used in 100 patients (n = 59 male, mean age: 70.6 years) from July 2013 to April 2014 and compared to the former AlluraXper (AX) technology used in 139 patients (n = 71 male, mean age: 70.1 years) from May 2011 to June 2013. Patients were categorized according to body mass index (BMI [kg/m 2 ])-group 1: BMI technology significantly reduced mean radiation dose by 39.4% for visceral embolization procedures when compared to fluoroscopy time and contrast media dose. This dose relationship was consistent across all BMI groups.

  20. The effect of economic downturn on the volume of surgical procedures: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Nasa; Lark, Meghan E; Fujihara, Yuki; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-08-01

    Economic downturn can have a wide range of effects on medicine at both individual and national levels. We aim to describe these effects in relation to surgical volume to guide future planning for physician specialization, patient expectations in the face of economic crises, or estimating healthcare expenditure. We hypothesized that because of high out-of-pocket costs, cosmetic procedure volumes would be most affected by economic decline. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and ABI/INFORMS. The main search terms were "economic recession" and "surgical procedures, operative". Studies were included if surgical volumes were measured and economic indicators were used as predictors of economic conditions. Twelve studies were included, and the most common subject was cosmetic (n = 5), followed by orthopedic (n = 2) and cardiac surgeries (n = 2). The majority of studies found that in periods of economic downturn, surgical volume decreased. Among the eight studies using Pearson's correlation analysis, there were no significant differences between cosmetic procedures and other elective procedures, indicating that cosmetic procedures may display trends similar to those of non-cosmetic elective procedures in periods of economic downturn. Surgical volume generally decreased when economic indicators declined, observed for both elective and non-elective surgery fields. However, a few specific procedure volumes such as vasectomy and caesarean section for male babies increased during the economic downturn. Knowledge of these trends can be useful for future surgical planning and distribution of healthcare resources. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is Office-Based Surgery Safe? Comparing Outcomes of 183,914 Aesthetic Surgical Procedures Across Different Types of Accredited Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Varun; Parikh, Rikesh; Nguyen, Lyly; Afshari, Ashkan; Shack, R Bruce; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2017-02-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in office-based surgery. However, due to wide variations in regulatory standards, the safety of office-based aesthetic surgery has been questioned. This study compares complication rates of cosmetic surgery performed at office-based surgical suites (OBSS) to ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) and hospitals. A prospective cohort of patients undergoing cosmetic surgery between 2008 and 2013 were identified from the CosmetAssure database (Birmingham, AL). Patients were grouped by type of accredited facility where the surgery was performed: OBSS, ASC, or hospital. The primary outcome was the incidence of major complication(s) requiring emergency room visit, hospital admission, or reoperation within 30 days postoperatively. Potential risk factors including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes, type of procedure, and combined procedures were reviewed. Of the 129,007 patients (183,914 procedures) in the dataset, the majority underwent the procedure at ASCs (57.4%), followed by hospitals (26.7%) and OBSS (15.9%). Patients operated in OBSS were less likely to undergo combined procedures (30.3%) compared to ASCs (31.8%) and hospitals (35.3%, P risk of developing a complication in an OBSS compared to an ASC (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.77, P cosmetic procedures. Plastic surgeons should continue to triage their patients carefully based on other significant comorbidities that were not measured in this present study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 3. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547,500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605,000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30,700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31,100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of precipitation procedure and detection technique on particle size distribution of CaCO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, C.; Coto, B.; Peña, J. L.; Rodríguez, R.; Merino-Garcia, D.; Pastor, G.

    2010-09-01

    The deposition of inorganic salts ("scales") such as calcium carbonate is an important flow assurance problem during crude oil production. The knowledge of the features of the precipitated solids, mainly the particle size and morphology, is crucial to understand the nature of the solids and to avoid or reduce the effect of their deposition. For instance, the use of additives is one of the most usual procedures to mitigate this problem. Additives interact with scale-forming substances either by increasing the induction time, or by inhibiting crystal growth, changing the morphology of solids. In this work, CaCO 3 was precipitated by two different experimental methods: by mixing sodium carbonate and calcium chloride at 25 °C (method 1), and by changing the pH (method 2). Precipitated solids were analyzed by means of the following techniques: laser diffraction (LD), focused-beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), in order to select a method for the determination of particle size of solids similar to scales, in order to study these deposits at the beginning of their formation and to evaluate the effect of additives in the scales particle size. Results were compared to those of scale deposits extracted from crude oil pipelines. SEM and XRD characterization showed that both the precipitation methods lead to calcium carbonate as a mixture of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, with rhombohedral morphology for method 1 and spherical for method 2. The effects of temperature, kinetics and Mg 2+ presence in the morphology of CaCO 3 were evaluated. Thus, the solids obtained by static bottle test and real scales are mainly formed by long needle-shaped aragonite. The comparison of the several particle size characterization methods determinates that an LD is a fast and sensitive technique for spherical and non-spherical solids, and it is a convenient technique for the analysis of scales extracted from oil pipelines.

  4. Effect of Different Household Decontamination Procedures on Antioxidant Activity and Microbial Load of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimohammadi M.*

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Decontamination procedures are different in each country, as the other applications of disinfection, and standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of household decontaminations and storage time on the antioxidant activity and microbial load of salad vegetables. Instrument & Methods: This analytic-descriptive study was conducted on 4 types of salad vegetables; cucumber, tomato, lettuce, and sweet basil. After washing, samples with storage time of 0 day were analyzed immediately. Other samples were held in 4°C for 3 and 5 days. Five different washing and decontamination methods were compared; water washing, detergent washing, benzalkonium chloride, sequential washing and Kanz disinfecting method. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma assay was used to measure the antioxidant activity. Aerobic mesophyll bacteria and total coliforms were chosen as microbial load index. ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used to analyze the data. Findings: By increasing the storage time, the antioxidant activity of all types of vegetables reduced. There was a significant decrease in antioxidant activity in all types of vegetables using sequential washing method with water, detergent, and benzalkonium chloride and Kanz disinfection method. All washing methods were effective in decontamination for either mesophyll bacteria or total coliforms, except for total coliforms in lettuce. There was no significant difference in microbial load among first 4 methods of washing (p>0.05, but a significant difference was observed in Kanz disinfection method (p<0.05. Conclusion: Kanz disinfection is the most effective decontamination method to eliminate microorganisms index, which also reduce the antioxidant activity.

  5. The Effects of Score Group Width on the Mantel-Haenszel Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Brian; And Others

    Previous research examining the effects of reducing the number of score groups used in the matching criterion of the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, when screening for differential item functioning, has produced ambiguous results. The goal of this study was to resolve the ambiguity by examining the problem with a simulated data set. The main results…

  6. Two Phonetic-Training Procedures for Young Learners: Investigating Instructional Effects on Perceptual Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacabex, Esther Gómez; Gallardo del Puerto, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two distinct computer-based phonetic training procedures administered in an English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classroom with young learners. Students' perceptual awareness of the occurrence of an English schwa in an unstressed position in content words was tested in two experimental groups, which underwent…

  7. The Effects of Procedural Knowledge Transparency on Adoption in Corporate Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjoern J. M.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated how a certain type of organizational knowledge sharing, procedural knowledge transparency, affected innovation adoption rates of members of a corporate social network within a large Scandinavian organization, in its two years of activity. It also explored the mediation of these effects by different types of…

  8. Comparative Effect of Forward and Backward Stair Climbing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olagbegi

    SUMMARY. Forward stair climbing (FSC) is associated with cardiovascular fitness benefits, but the training effects of backward stair climbing (BSC) have not been reported in the literature. This study compared the effects of 8 weeks of FSC and BSC on the cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy young adults.

  9. Comparative effectiveness of 50g glucose challenge test and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Gestational diabeles mellitus (GDM) complicates 3- 5% of pregnancies. Prompt diagnosis helps to prevent its subsequent complications and one-step effective screening method is desirable for our environment. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of 50g glucose challenge test (GCT) with risk factors alone in ...

  10. "Families" in International Context: Comparing Institutional Effects across Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…

  11. Comparative Effect of Forward and Backward Stair Climbing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forward stair climbing (FSC) is associated with cardiovascular fitness benefits, but the training effects of backward stair climbing (BSC) have not been reported in the literature. This study compared the effects of 8 weeks of FSC and BSC on the cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy young adults. Forty apparently ...

  12. Are Self-study Procedural Teaching Methods Effective? A Pilot Study of a Family Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Brandy; Langner, Shannon; Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    A family medicine residency is a unique training environment where residents are exposed to care in multiple settings, across all ages. Procedures are an integral part of family medicine practice. Family medicine residency (FMR) programs are tasked with the job of teaching these skills at a level of intensity and frequency that allows a resident to achieve competency of such skills. In an environment that is limited by work hour restrictions, self-study teaching methods are one way to ensure all residents receive the fundamental knowledge of how to perform procedures. We developed and evaluated the efficacy of a self-study procedure teaching method and procedure evaluation checklist. A self-study procedure teaching intervention was created, consisting of instructional articles and videos on three procedures. To assess the efficacy of the intervention, and the competency of the residents, pre- and postintervention procedure performance sessions were completed. These sessions were reviewed and scored using a standardized procedure performance checklist. All 24 residents participated in the study. Overall, the resident procedure knowledge increased on two of the three procedures studied, and ability to perform procedure according to expert-validated checklist improved significantly on all procedures. A self-study intervention is a simple but effective way to increase and improve procedure training in a way that fits the complex scheduling needs of a residency training program. In addition, this study demonstrates that the procedure performance checklists are a simple and reliable way to increase assessment of resident procedure performance skills in a residency setting.

  13. [Comparative study of the LIFT and the TVT procedure in the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerrou, M; Just, S Bresson; Girard, J-M; Nayama, M; Cosson, M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare a polyester mesh coated with silicone (LIFT, Cousin) to a polypropylene mesh (TVT, Gynecare), in terms of results, and short and middle term complications. We have performed a retrospective study concerning 140 patients between 2000 and 2002 (71 LIFT and 69 TVT operated for stress incontinence with or without vaginal surgery (prolapse surgery or hysterectomy). We noticed per- and postoperative complications. The patients were contacted by phone to evaluate the middle and long-term results. The mean age of the patients were of 58.8+/-11.3 years in LIFT group and 57.2+/-7.5 years in TVT group. More intraoperative complications arose in the TVT group (six bladder injuries and three haemorrhages versus two in LIFT group, pTVT. 80% of the patients were dry in the LIFT and 75.8% in the TVT group. There was no significant difference concerning the rate of de novo urge incontinence (18.3 versus 17.7%) and voiding difficulties (10 versus 16%). On the other hand, 6.7% of the patients of the group LIFT presented bad healing with prosthesis exposure, in every case a partial resection of the mesh was performed. We did not observe any case of exposure in the TVT group. The LIFT seems as effective as the TVT with a rate of de novo urge incontinence and voiding difficulties similar to the TVT and to the literature's data. However the rate of 6.7% of exposure leads us to prefer polypropylene meshes.

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATION TO NURSING EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Su-Yeon Park; Eunok Park; Mehmet Akif Ocak

    2016-01-01

    This in-depth integrative literature review aimed to investigate comparative effectiveness research (CER) methodologies applicable to nursing research and to propose a CER design relevant to nursing education. Integration and synthesis were conducted from August 20 to December 15, 2013 and from October 20 to December 05, 2015 using electronic databases and refereed published books. The key words were “comparative effectiveness research,” “education,” “patient outcomes,” “effectiveness,” “cost...

  15. Effectiveness of minimally invasive surgical procedures in the acceleration of tooth movement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawal, Alaa M H; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Ajaj, Mowaffak A; Hamadah, Omar; Brad, Bassel

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess systematically the available scientific evidence relating the efficiency of minimally invasive surgical procedures in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement and the adverse effects associated with these procedures. Electronic search of these databases CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar Beta, Trip, OpenGrey and PQDT OPEN was performed (last updated January 2016). The reference lists of the included studies were hand searched. Unpublished literature and ongoing studies were also checked electronically through ClinicalTrials.gov and (ICTRP). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with patients who received minimally invasive surgical procedures combined with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with conventional treatment were included. Cochrane's risk of bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. Four RCTs (61 patients) and nine ongoing protocols were included in this review. Only three RCTs were suitable for quantitative synthesis. Higher tooth movement rate was found with the minimally invasive surgical procedures by a weighted mean difference of 0.65 mm for 1 month of canine retraction (WMD = 0.65: 95 % CI (0.54, 0.76), p accelerated orthodontics (MISAO). Although the current review indicated that MISAO can help in accelerating canine retraction, further research in this domain should be performed before it can be recommended in everyday clinical practice.

  16. Effectiveness of music interventions for women with high anxiety during coronary angiographic procedures: a randomized controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ulrica

    2012-06-01

    The purpose was to investigate if women with high pre-procedural anxiety reported higher degree of relaxation and comfort if listening to music during coronary angiographic procedures. A prospective randomized controlled trial was used included 68 patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or PCI. The women were allocated to receive calming music and standard care or standard care only. Relaxation, environmental sound and discomfort associated with lying still were assessed. There was significantly more positive impression of the sound environment and less discomfort associated with lying still in women listening to music in comparison to women who received only standard care. No effect in relaxation was found.

  17. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  18. Comparing Stroop-like and Simon Effects on Perceptual Features

    OpenAIRE

    Scerrati, Elisa; Lugli, Luisa; Nicoletti, Roberto; Umiltà, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Stroop-like and Simon tasks produce two sources of interference in human information processing. Despite being logically similar, it is still debated whether the conflicts ensuing from the two tasks are resolved by the same or different mechanisms. In the present study, we compare two accounts of the Stroop-like effect. According to the Perceptual Account, the Stroop-like effect is due to Stimulus-Stimulus congruence. According to the Decisional Account, the Stroop-like effect results from th...

  19. Curative effects of two new endometrial ablation procedures using radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of severe abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Geping; Li, Juan; Zhu, Tongyu; Chen, Ming

    2013-07-01

    Severe Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (SAUB) is a common gynecological disorder. The clinical characteristics include disordered menstrual cycle and massive bleeding that can cause anemia or secondary infection. Current treatment mainly relies on drug therapy or surgical removal of the uterus, each having its significant disadvantages. How to preserve the uterus, reduce the pain from surgery, and achieve better treatment effects have been well known but remaining as unresolved issues. This study aims at evaluating two types of radiofrequency (RF) thermocoagulation procedures for the treatment of SAUB: the RF-A procedure group included 25 SAUB patients ≥45 years of age treated for amenorrhea; the RF-B procedure group included 51 patients at bleeding. Post-treatment ratings of menstrual satisfaction and pre-/post-treatment menstrual scores-pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC)-and hemoglobin levels were collected; and the mean length of follow-up was 72 months. Also, 38 SAUB patients treated with standard drug regimens served as a control group. The results of the study showed that following RF treatment, the average long-term patient menstrual satisfaction was greater than 92 %. In both the RF groups, PBAC scores and hemoglobin levels were significantly improved from baseline (p < .05). Compared with the control group, PBAC scores and hemoglobin levels were also significantly better for the RF groups at 6-24-month post-operation. Patients experienced no hysterectomy in association with the RF procedures. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that the novel RF procedures are both safe and effective in treating patients with SAUB. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate their application in broader clinical indication.

  20. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure. A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenrijk, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A; van der Reijden, Willy A; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V-VI) participated in this study. After randomisation, 20 patients received two IMZ implants inserted in a single-stage procedure and 20 patients received two ITI implants. After 3 months, overdentures were fabricated, supported by a bar and clip attachment. A standardised clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed immediately after denture insertion and 6 and 12 months later. Twelve months after loading, peri-implant samples were collected with sterile paper points and analysed for the presence of putative periodontal pathogens using culture techniques. One IMZ implant was lost due to insufficient osseointegration. With regard to the clinical parameters at the 12 months evaluation, significant differences for plaque score and probing pocket depth (IMZ: mean 3.3 mm, ITI: mean 2.9 mm) were found between the two groups. The mean bone loss in the first year of functioning was 0.6 mm for both groups. Prevotella intermedia was detected more often in the ITI group (12 implants) than in the IMZ group (three implants). Porphyromonas gingivalis was found in three patients. In one of these patients an implant showed bone loss of 1.6 mm between T0 and T12. Some associations were found between clinical parameters and the target microorganisms in the ITI group. These associations were not present in the IMZ group. The short-term results indicate that two-stage implants inserted in a single-stage procedure may be as predictable as one-stage implants. The microgap at crestal level in nonsubmerged IMZ implants seems to have no adverse influence on the peri-implant microbiological colonisation and of crestal bone loss in the first year of functioning. The peri-implant sulcus can and does harbour

  1. PPP effectiveness study. [automatic procedures recording and crew performance monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    This design note presents a study of the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) effectiveness. The intent of the study is to determine manpower time savings and the improvements in job performance gained through PPP automated techniques. The discussion presents a synopsis of PPP capabilities and identifies potential users and associated applications, PPP effectiveness, and PPP applications to other simulation/training facilities. Appendix A provides a detailed description of each PPP capability.

  2. Procedures for analyzing the effectiveness of siren systems for alerting the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keast, D.N.; Towers, D.A.; Anderson, G.S.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    NUREG-0654, Revision 1 (Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants), Appendix 3, discusses requirements of the licensees to implement a prompt notification system within the 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ) surrounding a nuclear facility. Sirens are being installed for use as part of or as the entire notification system by many licensees. This report describes a procedure for predicting siren system effectiveness under defined conditions within the EPZ's. The procedure requires a good topographical map and knowledge of the meteorology, demographics, and human activity patterns within the EPZ. The procedure is intended to be applied to systems of sirens and to obtain average results for a large number (30 or more) of listener locations

  3. Repair of aortic root in patients with aneurysm or dissection: comparing the outcomes of valve-sparing root replacement with those from the Bentall procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Skripochnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Management of aortic root aneurysm or dissection has been the subject of much discussion that has led to some modifications. The current trend is a valve-sparing root replacement. We compared the outcome following valve sparing root repair with Bentall procedure. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 70 patients who underwent root replacement for aneurysm or dissection and compared the outcomes of valve-sparing root replacement with those of the Bentall procedure from January 2007 to December 2011 at our institution. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients had valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSR, including reimplantation or remodeling (23 males and 2 females, and 45 patients had the Bentall procedure (34 males and 11 females. Patients who underwent a VSR were younger with a mean age of 55.4 ± 14.8 years compared to those who underwent the Bentall procedure with a mean age of 60.6 ± 12.7 (P=ns. The preoperative aortic insufficiency (AI in the VSR group was moderate in 8 (32% patients, and severe in 6 (24%. Preoperative creatinine was 1 ± 0.35 mg/dl in the VSR group and 1.1 ± 0.87 mg/dl in the Bentall group. In the VSR group, 3 (12% patients had emergency surgery; by contrast, in the Bentall group, 8 (17% patients had emergent surgery. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (excluding coronary reimplantation was performed in 8 (32% patients in the VSR group and in 12 (26.6% patients in the Bentall group (P=0.78; additional valve procedures were performed in 2 (8% patients in the VSR group and in 11 (24.4% patients in the Bentall group. The perioperative mortality was 8% (n=2 and 13.3% (n=6, for the VSR and Bentall procedures, respectively (P=0.7, ns. The total duration of intensive care unit stay was 116.6 ± 106 hours for VSR patients and 152.5 ± 218.2 hours for Bentall patients (P=0.5. The overall length of stay in the hospital was 10 ± 8.1 days for VSR and 11 ± 9.52 days for Bentall (P=0.89. The one-year survival was 92

  4. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  5. The effect of daytime napping and full-night sleep on the consolidation of declarative and procedural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Sauter, Cornelia; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Heib, Dominik P J; Klösch, Gerhard; Moser, Doris; Gruber, Georg; Anderer, Peter; Zeitlhofer, Josef; Schabus, Manuel

    2017-12-22

    Many studies investigating sleep and memory consolidation have evaluated full-night sleep rather than alternative sleep periods such as daytime naps. This multi-centre study followed up on, and was compared with, an earlier full-night study (Schabus et al., 2004) investigating the relevance of daytime naps for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to a nap or wake group, and performed a declarative word-pair association or procedural mirror-tracing task. Performance changes from before to after a 90-min retention interval filled with sleep or quiet wakefulness were evaluated between groups. Associations between performance changes, sleep architecture, spindles, and slow oscillations were investigated. For the declarative task we observed a trend towards stronger forgetting across a wake period compared with a nap period, and a trend towards memory increase over the full-night. For the procedural task, accuracy was significantly decreased following daytime wakefulness, showed a trend to increase with a daytime nap, and significantly increased across full-night sleep. For the nap protocol, neither sleep stages, spindles, nor slow oscillations predicted performance changes. A direct comparison of day and nighttime sleep revealed that daytime naps are characterized by significantly lower spindle density, but higher spindle activity and amplitude compared with full-night sleep. In summary, data indicate that daytime naps protect procedural memories from deterioration, whereas full-night sleep improves performance. Given behavioural and physiological differences between day and nighttime sleep, future studies should try to characterize potential differential effects of full-night and daytime sleep with regard to sleep-dependent memory consolidation. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Beneficial effect of subsequent lesion procedures after nonresponse to initial cingulotomy for severe, treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Sarah K; Sheth, Sameer A; Neal, Jonathan; Strong, Christian; Mian, Matthew K; Cosgrove, G Rees; Eskandar, Emad N; Dougherty, Darin D

    2013-02-01

    Anterior cingulotomy (AC) can be an effective therapy for patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder who are refractory to traditional medical therapy. For patients who do not respond to AC, the benefit of additional lesion procedures vs continued medical management remains unknown. To determine whether a second lesion procedure is beneficial after unsuccessful initial AC. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the records of 31 patients who were nonresponders to initial AC. Full response was defined as at least a 35% decrease and partial response as a 25% to 34% decrease in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale change was compared between patients who underwent additional surgery and those treated nonsurgically. In addition, for patients who underwent additional surgery, we compared the benefit of subcaudate tractotomy with repeat AC (extension of the initial lesion) as the second procedure. Nineteen patients underwent a second surgery and 12 patients continued nonsurgical therapy. Fifty-three percent of patients who received additional surgery were full responders and 21% were partial responders at the most recent follow-up compared with 17% full responders and 25% partial responders among those who continued conventional therapy (P = .02). Of the patients who underwent an additional surgery, there were 64% full and 9% partial responders in the subcaudate tractotomy group compared with 38% full and 38% partial responders in the repeat AC group (P = .04). Second lesion surgery can be a safe and effective therapy for patients who do not respond to initial AC. Subcaudate tractotomy may confer a higher response rate than repeat cingulotomy.

  7. Review and meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing laparo-endoscopic single site and multiport laparoscopy in gynecologic operative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontis, Alessandro; Sedda, Federica; Mereu, Liliana; Podda, Mauro; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Pisanu, Adolfo; Angioni, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    To critically appraise published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) and multi-port laparoscopic (MPL) in gynecologic operative surgery; the aim was to assess feasibility, safety, and potential benefits of LESS in comparison to MPL. A systematic review and meta-analysis of eleven RCTs. Women undergoing operative LESS and MPL gynecologic procedure (hysterectomy, cystectomy, salpingectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, myomectomy). Outcomes evaluated were as follows: postoperative overall morbidity, postoperative pain evaluation at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, cosmetic patient satisfaction, conversion rate, body mass index (BMI), operative time, blood loss, hemoglobin drop, postoperative hospital stay. Eleven RCTs comprising 956 women with gynecologic surgical disease randomized to either LESS (477) or MPL procedures (479) were analyzed systematically. The LESS approach is a surgical procedure with longer operative and better cosmetic results time than MPL but without statistical significance. Operative outcomes, postoperative recovery, postoperative morbidity and patient satisfaction are similar in LESS and MPL. LESS may be considered an alternative to MPL with comparable feasibility and safety in gynecologic operative procedures. However, it does not offer the expected advantages in terms of postoperative pain and cosmetic satisfaction.

  8. Effectiveness of a pre-procedural mouthwash in reducing bacteria in dental aerosols: randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén RETAMAL-VALDES

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this randomized, single blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of a pre-procedural mouthwash containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC, zinc lactate (Zn and sodium fluoride (F in the reduction of viable bacteria in oral aerosol after a dental prophylaxis with ultrasonic scaler. Sixty systemically healthy volunteers receiving dental prophylaxis were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental groups (15 per group: (i rinsing with 0.075% CPC, 0.28% Zn and 0.05% F (CPC+Zn+F, (ii water or (iii 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX, and (iv no rinsing. Viable bacteria were collected from different locations in the dental office on enriched TSA plates and anaerobically incubated for 72 hours. The colonies were counted and species were then identified by Checkerboard DNA–DNA Hybridization. The total number of colony-forming units (CFUs detected in the aerosols from volunteers who rinsed with CPC+Zn+F or CHX was statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower than of those subjects who did not rinse or who rinsed with water. When all locations were considered together, the aerosols from the CPC+Zn+F and CHX groups showed, respectively, 70% and 77% fewer CFUs than those from the No Rinsing group and 61% and 70% than those from the Water group. The mean proportions of bacterial species from the orange complex were statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower in aerosols from the CPC+Zn+F and CHX groups compared with the others two groups. In conclusion, the mouthwash containing CPC+Zn+F, is effective in reducing viable bacteria in oral aerosol after a dental prophylaxis with ultrasonic scaler.

  9. Possibilities for application of comparative advertising and its effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been evident that one form of competitive advertising gained in its importance - comparative advertising. Although its extensive use has probably been inspired by the belief that the perception of relative superiority of a brand compared to competition could be encouraged in that way, research evidence suggested mixed conclusions about its effectiveness. The paper summarizes the results of previous studies in this area, and in particular those which point out the factors that can influence effectiveness of comparative advertising. Additionally,, the paper summarizes the opinions of some authors about the long-term influence of this form of advertising on brand, and gives the recommendations for its more effective use. .

  10. Comparison of the effect of paper and computerized procedures on operator error rate and speed of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, S.A.; Perez, P.B.; Meyer, S.; Crabtree, W.

    1994-01-01

    The Computerized Procedures Manual (COPMA-II) is an advanced procedure manual that can be used to select and execute procedures, to monitor the state of plant parameters, and to help operators track their progress through plant procedures. COPMA-II was evaluated in a study that compared the speed and accuracy of operators' performance when they performed with COPMA-II and traditional paper procedures. Sixteen licensed reactor operators worked in teams of two to operate the Scales Pressurized Water Reactor Facility at North Carolina State University. Each team performed one change of power with each type of procedure to simulate performance under normal operating conditions. Teams then performed one accident scenario with COPMA-II and one with paper procedures. Error rates, performance times, and subjective estimates of workload were collected, and were evaluated for each combination of procedure type and scenario type. For the change of power task, accuracy and response time were not different for COPMA-II and paper procedures. Operators did initiate responses to both accident scenarios fastest with paper procedures. However, procedure type did not moderate response completion time for either accident scenario. For accuracy, performance with paper procedures resulted in twice as many errors as did performance with COPMA-II. Subjective measures of mental workload for the accident scenarios were not affected by procedure type

  11. Rhythm and orthopedics: The effect of music therapy in cast room procedures, a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolunay, Tolga; Bicici, Vedat; Tolunay, Hatice; Akkurt, Mehmet Orcun; Arslan, Arslan Kagan; Aydogdu, Ali; Bingol, Izzet

    2018-02-07

    Cast room procedures generally cause anxiety in patients. Anxiety complicates the procedure as well as increases the risk of a complication. Listening to music was found to be the safest and most common non-drug treatment method. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of listening to music on adult patients in cast room procedures. This study points out the relation between anxiety and anxiety relevant cardiac arrhythmia. The study was performed on 199 patients with stable general condition, aged above 18. The patients were divided into two groups. Randomization method used in the study was coin flip. The first group (Group 1) listened to music during cast room procedures whereby the second group (Group 2) did not listen to music. Length of the procedure, complication, blood pressure and heart rate evaluations before and after the procedure, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores for pain), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) anxiety score, patient satisfaction, willingness of the patient to repeat the procedure, P wave dispersion (Pd) and corrected QT interval dispersion (QTcd) as electrocardiographic arrhythmia predictors were evaluated. The Clinical Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained for this study. Significant difference was shown between the two groups for the following criteria: VAS scores (p = 0.005), anxiety scores (p = 0.032), processing time (p = 0.027), and QTcd values (p = 0.031). Patient satisfaction (p < 0.001) and willingness to repeat the procedure (p < 0.001) were higher for the group who listened to music. No significant difference in Pd values, blood pressure and heart rate was reported within the groups. Music therapy is a non-invasive, safe, nonpharmacologic, anxiolytic, and analgesic treatment. Music therapy should become standard protocol in cast room procedures. One of the most important achievements of this study was the fact that music decreases anxiety and anxiety-related cardiac arrhythmia

  12. The effect of mobile laminar airflow units on airborne bacterial contamination during neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Vogelsang, Ann-Christin; Förander, Petter; Arvidsson, Martin; Löwenhielm, Peter

    2018-03-23

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) after neurosurgery are potentially life threatening and entails great costs. SSI can occur from airborne bacteria in the operating room (OR), and ultraclean air is desired during infection-prone clean procedures. Door openings and the number of persons present in the OR affects the air quality. Mobile laminar airflow (MLAF) units, with horizontal laminar airflow, have previously shown to effectively reduce airborne bacterial contamination. To assess the effect of MLAF units on airborne bacterial contamination during neurosurgical procedures. In a quasi-experimental design, bacteria carrying particles (colony forming units, CFU) during neurosurgical procedures were measured with active air sampling in ORs with conventional turbulent ventilation, and with additional MLAF units. The MLAF units were shifted between ORs monthly. CFU count and bacterial species detection were conducted after incubation. Data was collected over a period of 18 months. A total of 233 samples were collected during 45 neurosurgical procedures. The use of MLAF units significantly reduced the numbers of CFU in the surgical site area (Pneurosurgery to ultraclean air levels. MLAF units can be a valuable addition when the main OR ventilation system is unable to produce ultraclean air in infection prone clean neurosurgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Drug discontinuation before contrast procedures and the effect on acute kidney injury and other clinical outcomes: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Swapnil; Kayibanda, Jeanne Françoise; Chow, Benjamin J W; Fergusson, Dean; Knoll, Greg A; Shabana, Wael; Lahey, Brianna; McBride, Olivia; Davis, Alexandra; Akbari, Ayub

    2018-02-21

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is defined as worsening of renal function after the administration of iodinated contrast material. In patients with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and/or diabetes, renin-angiotensin system blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, and metformin can increase the risk of CI-AKI when undergoing contrast imaging. Despite CI-AKI being the leading iatrogenic cause of acute kidney injury, there is a lack of sufficient scientific evidence supporting which drugs should be stopped, when they should be stopped, and when they should be resumed. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess (1) the effect of withholding medication before contrast procedures on the risk of CI-AKI and other clinical outcomes and (2) the incidence of adverse events occurring after withholding these drugs prior to contrast procedures. This protocol has been registered with PROSPERO, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016033178 . An information specialist will assist in searching MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify randomized controlled trials, observational studies, case reports, and case series. Relevant abstracts from professional society meetings and web-based registries of clinical trials will also be included. Studies included will compare patients aged ≥ 18 years instructed to continue taking the drugs of interest and those advised to stop taking them before undergoing contrast procedures. If these drugs are not withheld prior to contrast procedures, the studies must compare patients who are administered these drugs and those who are not before undergoing contrast procedures. Two reviewers will independently screen the titles and abstracts of the studies obtained from the search using pre-defined inclusion criteria and will then extract data from the full texts of selected studies. The quality of the studies will be assessed by two independent reviewers

  14. Office-based andrology and male infertility procedures-a cost-effective alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alom, Manaf; Ziegelmann, Matthew; Savage, Josh; Miest, Tanner; Köhler, Tobias S; Trost, Landon

    2017-08-01

    From 2014-2016, our clinical practice progressively incorporated several male infertility and andrology procedures performed under local anesthesia, including circumcision, hydrocelectomy, malleable penile prostheses, orchiectomy, penile plication, spermatocelectomy, testicular prostheses, varicocelectomy, vasectomy reversal (VR), and testicular and microepididymal sperm aspiration (TESE/MESA). Given the observed outcomes and potential financial and logistical benefits of this approach for surgeons and patients, we sought to describe our initial experience. A retrospective analysis was performed of all andrologic office-based (local anesthesia only) and select OR (general or monitored anesthesia care) procedures performed from 2014-2016. Financial and outcomes analyses were performed for infertility cases due to the homogeneity of payment modalities and number of cases available. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and procedural costs (direct and indirect) were reviewed and compared. A total of 32 VRs, 24 hydrocelectomies, 24 TESEs, 10 circumcisions, 9 MESA/TESEs, 4 spermatocelectomies, 3 orchiectomies (1 inguinal), 2 microTESEs, 2 testicular prostheses, 1 malleable penile prosthesis, 1 penile plication, and 1 varicocelectomy. Compared to the OR, male infertility procedures performed in the clinic with local anesthesia were performed for a fraction of the cost: MESA/TESE (78% reduction), TESE (89% reduction), and VR (62% reduction). All office-based procedures were completed successfully without significant modifications to technique. Outcomes were similar between the office and OR including operative time (VR: 181 vs. 190 min, P=0.34), rate of vasoepididymostomy (VE) (23% vs. 32%, P=0.56), total sperm counts (72.2 vs. 50.9 million, P=0.56), and successful sperm retrieval (MESA/TESE 100% vs. 100%, P=1.00; TESE 80% vs. 100%, P=0.36). To our knowledge, the current study also represents the first report of office-based VE under local anesthesia alone. For hydrocelectomy

  15. Strategic planning effectiveness comparative analysis of the Macedonian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Šuklev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is an important element in the organizational success and the key to effectiveness and overall competitiveness of the organizations. Strategic planning practice and effectiveness has been the subject of much academic debate in the Western context, but little empirical research and comparative analysis exists on this subject in emerging and developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between strategic planning and the organizational effectiveness with the examination of a wider list of strategic planning dimensions and different approaches and measures to assess the strategic planning effectiveness in the case of the Republic of Macedonia, as well as to conduct comparative analysis of the strategic planning effectiveness in different emerging and developing countries. After the initial processing of the total number of received questionnaires, 113 questionnaires proceeded to the next phase of processing, as companies were found to be strategic planners. Two regression models were performed, enclosed with necessary tests, as well as in order to achieve unidimensionality, factor analysis was performed for all stated items for each of the investigated variables. The empirical analysis conducted in Macedonian companies shows that strategic planning can generally contribute to organizational effectiveness. A significant correlation between different strategic planning dimensions and the strategic planning effectiveness was found in the relationship between the formality of strategic planning, the management participation in strategic planning and the employee participation in strategic planning. The comparative analysis conducted in this study with the purpose of comparing the case of Republic of Macedonia with the studies in the other emerging and developing counties, and indicating the probable reasons for potential differences in strategic planning effectiveness in different counties, refers to

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Heather F; Lambley, Rosemary; West, Stephanie K; Ungar, Wendy J; Mireskandari, Kamiar

    2015-11-01

    The inability of some children to tolerate detailed eye examinations often necessitates general anaesthesia (GA). The objective was to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of paediatric eye examinations carried out in an outpatient sedation unit compared with GA. An episode of care cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Model inputs were based on a retrospective cross-over cohort of Canadian children aged Costs ($CAN), adverse events and number of successful procedures were modelled in a decision analysis with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost per patient was $406 (95% CI $401 to $411) for EUS and $1135 (95% CI $1125 to $1145) for EUA. The mean number of successful procedures per patient was 1.39 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.42) for EUS and 2.06 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.11) for EUA. EUA was $729 more costly on average than EUS (95% CI $719 to $738) but resulted in an additional 0.68 successful procedures per child. The result was robust to varying the cost assumptions. Cross-over designs offer a powerful way to assess costs and effectiveness of two interventions because patients serve as their own control. This study demonstrated significant savings when ophthalmological exams were carried out in a hospital outpatient clinic, although with slightly fewer procedures completed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Comparative effectiveness of laparoscopic versus robot-assisted colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Deborah S; Senagore, Anthony J; Lawrence, Justin K; Champagne, Brad J; Delaney, Conor P

    2014-01-01

    During the past 20 years, laparoscopy has revolutionized colorectal surgery. With proven benefits in patient outcomes and healthcare utilization, laparoscopic colorectal surgery has steadily increased in use. Robotic surgery, a new addition to colorectal surgery, has been suggested to facilitate and overcome limitations of laparoscopic surgery. Our objective was to compare the outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic resection (RALR) to laparoscopic resections (LAP) in colorectal surgery. A national inpatient database was evaluated for colorectal resections performed over a 30-month period. Cases were divided into traditional LAP and RALR resection groups. Cost of robot acquisition and servicing were not measured. Main outcome measures were hospital length of stay (LOS), operative time, complications, and costs between groups. A total of 17,265 LAP and 744 RARL procedures were identified. The RALR cases had significantly higher total cost ($5,272 increase, p < 0.001) and direct cost ($4,432 increase, p < 0.001), significantly longer operating time (39 min, p < 0.001), and were more likely to develop postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 1.6; p = 0.014) than traditional laparoscopic patients. LOS, complications, and discharge disposition were comparable. Similar findings were noted for both laparoscopic colonic and rectal surgery. RALR had significantly higher costs and operative time than traditional LAP without a measurable benefit.

  18. Procedure to decouple reflectance and down-shifting effects in luminescent down-shifting enhanced photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Ahmed M; Walker, Alexandre W; Wilkins, Matthew M; Kleiman, Rafael; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-06-12

    The down-shifting (DS) process is a purely optical approach used to improve the short-wavelength response of a solar cell by shifting high-energy photons to the visible range, which can be more efficiently absorbed by the solar cell. In addition to the DS effect, coupling a DS layer to the top surface of a solar cell results in a change in surface reflectance. The two effects are intermixed and therefore, usually reported as a single effect. Here we propose a procedure to decouple the two effects. Analytical equations are derived to decouple the two effects, that consider the experimentally measured quantum efficiency of the solar cell with and without the DS layer, in addition to transfer matrix simulations of the parasitic absorption in the device structure. In this work, an overall degradation of 0.46 mA/cm 2 is observed when adding a DS layer composed of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a quartz matrix to a silicon solar cell of 11% baseline efficiency. To fully understand the contribution from each effect, the surface reflectance and DS effects are decoupled and quantified using the described procedure. We observe an enhancement of 0.27 mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current density due to the DS effect, while the surface reflectance effect leads to a degradation of 0.73 mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current density.

  19. A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing absorbable barbed sutures versus conventional absorbable sutures for dermal closure in open surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J Peter; Hunstad, Joseph P; Polynice, Alain; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A; Schoeller, Thomas; Dunn, Raymond; Walgenbach, Klaus J; Hansen, Juliana E

    2014-02-01

    Barbed sutures were developed to reduce operative time and improve security of wound closure. The authors compare absorbable barbed sutures (V-Loc, Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) with conventional (smooth) absorbable sutures for soft tissue approximation. A prospective multicenter randomized study comparing barbed sutures with smooth sutures was undertaken between August 13, 2009, and January 31, 2010, in 241 patients undergoing abdominoplasty, mastopexy, and reduction mammaplasty. Each patient received barbed sutures on 1 side of the body, with deep dermal sutures eliminated or reduced. Smooth sutures with deep dermal and subcuticular closure were used on the other side as a control. The primary endpoint was dermal closure time. Safety was assessed through adverse event reporting through a 12-week follow-up. A total of 229 patients were ultimately treated (115 with slow-absorbing polymer and 114 with rapid-absorbing polymer). Mean dermal closure time was significantly quicker with the barbed suture compared with the smooth suture (12.0 vs 19.2 minutes; P<.001), primarily due to the need for fewer deep dermal sutures. The rapid-absorbing barbed suture showed a complication profile equivalent to the smooth suture, while the slow-absorbing barbed suture had a higher incidence of minor suture extrusion. Barbed sutures enabled faster dermal closure quicker than smooth sutures, with a comparable complication profile. 1.

  20. Boehringer immunoinhibition procedure for creatine kinase-MB evaluated and compared with column ion-exchange chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Welle, H. F.; Baartscheer, T.; Fiolet, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In determination of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), the Boehringer immunoinhibition method gives a high and variable blank activity as compared with column-chromatography. Thus a correction must be applied. Furthermore, a second correction of 1% of total creatine kinase activity is necessary

  1. A comparative study of trabeculectomy and the new clear-cornea filtering procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Holm, Daniella; Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Norregaard, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    -established primary open-angle glaucoma referred for filtering operation. We compared the change in intraocular pressure (IOP), number of anti-glaucomatous medication, complications and reoperations after 1 year. Seventy-four eyes were operated with trabeculectomy, and 25 with IDK. Complete success was defined as IOP...

  2. Comparative Effectiveness Trials of Imaging-Guided Strategies in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leslee J; Phillips, Lawrence M; Nagel, Eike; Newby, David E; Narula, Jagat; Douglas, Pamela S

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation of patients with suspected stable ischemic heart disease is among the most common diagnostic evaluations with nearly 20 million imaging and exercise stress tests performed annually in the United States. Over the past decade, there has been an evolution in imaging research with an ever-increasing focus on larger registries and randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of varying diagnostic algorithms. The current review highlights recent randomized trial evidence with a particular focus comparing the effectiveness of cardiac imaging procedures within the stable ischemic heart disease evaluation for coronary artery disease detection, angina, and other quality of life measures, and major clinical outcomes. Also highlighted are secondary analyses from these trials on the economic findings related to comparative cost differences across diagnostic testing strategies. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative economic assessment of the effect of selected fallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the comparative economic assessment of the effect of selected fallow species for soil amendment on the yield of sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas) alley in the Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. As a result of the increasing cost and scarcity of inorganic fertilizers, sweetpotato production has been on the decline ...

  4. Short Communication: Comparative effect of snail shell, limestone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Comparative effect of snail shell, limestone and oyster shell as sources of dietary calcium on performance and egg quality characteristics of laying. ... egg production, internal and external qualities of eggs of hens. The 6-week ... Key words: Laying hens, oyster shell, limestone, snail shell, egg quality ...

  5. Comparative effects of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of Southeast Nigeria to assess the effects of amending soil with plant residues on soil physical and chemical properties. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, ...

  6. Comparative effect of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of southeast Nigeria to access the effect of amending soil with plant residues on maize performance. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, combination of wood ash ...

  7. Comparative Effect of Graphic Organiser and Expository teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the comparative effects of graphic organiser and expository teaching strategies on the achievement of senior secondary school students in Economics. Graphic organiser is a teaching strategy used to visualise the structure of knowledge, instead of describing all concepts and their relations in text as in ...

  8. The Comparative Effects Of Chronic Consumption Of Kola Nut (Cola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The comparative effects of chronic (28 days) consumption of kola nut and its active constituent, caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice were investigated. 30 adult Swiss white mice (15- 30g body weight), were used for the study. The open field-maze was employed for the evaluation of ...

  9. Comparative study of the therapeutic effects of brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare the therapeutic effects of two brands of Paracetamol: Panadol® (paracetamol 1000mg) and Panadol-Extra®( paracetamol 1000mg and 60mg caffeine) on the perception of dental pain. Method: The setting for the study was the Oral Diagnosis Unit of the Dental Hospital, Obafemi Awolowo University ...

  10. A comparative study regarding effects of interfacial ferroelectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comparative study regarding effects of interfacial ferroelectric. Bi4Ti3O12 (BTO) layer on electrical characteristics of Au/n-Si structures. M YILDIRIM and M GÖKÇEN. ∗. Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts & Science, Düzce University, 81620 Düzce, Turkey. MS received 11 July 2012; revised 7 January 2013. Abstract.

  11. Comparative Cardiac Effects of Chlorproguanil/Dapsone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiac toxicity has been reported with a number of antimalarial drugs. In this study we compared the cardiac effects of chlorproguanil/dapsone (CD) a new antimalarial drug, with that of chloroquine (CQ) during treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria. We monitored 62children with symptomatic malaria over 14 ...

  12. Comparative effects of some medicinal plants on blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) on blood glucose concentration and lipid levels of diabetic rats were investigated using standard ...

  13. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    29. Tucker AP, Lai C, Nadeson R, Goodschild CS. Intra- thecal midazolam I: a cohort study investigating safety. Anesth Analg. 2004;98(6):1512-20. 30. Safari F, Dabbagh A, Sharifnia M. The effect of ad- juvant midazolam compared with fentanyl on the dura- tion of spinal anesthesia with 0.5% bupivacaine in opium abusers.

  14. Comparative Clinical Study on the Effectiveness of Homeopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of homeopathic combination remedy compared with standard maintenance therapy for the treatment of dengue fever. Method: A total of 50 patients with dengue fever were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 was treated with homeopathic combination remedy for consecutive 6 ...

  15. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  16. Comparative Effects of Tri-Polar Eclectic Teaching Approach on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an experimental study that examined the comparative effects of Tripolar Interactionist teaching strategy on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School III students of Adeyemi Demonstration secondary School Ondo in social studies. The instrument used for the study includes scheme of work, lesson notes ...

  17. Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to compare the effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling was carried out with a total of 65 DNA samples using 12 species of Indian Garcinia. ISSR and RAPD profiling were performed with 19 and 12 primers, respectively. ISSR markers ...

  18. Comparative study on the pathogenic effects of Diminazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in goats to compare the pathogenic effects of Trypanosome congolense known to be resistant and ... Water supply was ad libitum. Study isolates. The study was done with two ... Accordingly, blood was taken in a capillary tube and centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 5 minutes. The tube was cut 1mm below ...

  19. Comparing the effect of bioflocculant with synthetic polymers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at introducing a novel bioflocculant to enhance anaerobic granulation in a UASB reactor for lowstrength synthetic wastewater and comparing the effect with synthetic polymers. A laboratory-scale study was undertaken to achieve this goal. Four identical UASB reactors were operated in parallel in the ...

  20. Comparative Effects of Tri-Polar Eclectic Teaching Approach on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Abstract. This is an experimental study that examined the comparative effects of Tri- polar Interactionist teaching strategy on the academic performance of Junior. Secondary School III students of Adeyemi Demonstration secondary School. Ondo in social studies. The instrument used for the study includes scheme of.

  1. Comparative Effect of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study compared the effectiveness of two (2) counselling techniques namely rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) and Token Economy (TE) in enhancing junior secondary student performance in Basic Science. One hundred and eighty (180) JSS II students were drawn as sample from both public and private ...

  2. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  3. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  4. Comparative effects of pilates and isometric exercises on pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common disease of the knee joint and a growing public health problem with physical disability, preventing performance of daily activities. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of isometric and Pilates exercise on pain, functional disability and range of motion in ...

  5. Comparing fixed effects and covariance structure estimators for panel data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Holm, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare the traditional econometric fixed effect estimator with the maximum likelihood estimator implied by covariance structure models for panel data. Their findings are that the maximum like lipoid estimator is remarkably robust to certain types of misspecifications...

  6. Comparative effects of different walking aids on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aims at comparing the effects of cane, Rollator, and Zimmer's frame ambulations on selected cardiovascular parameters, energy cost and walking speed in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Method: Twenty-five (25) elderly patients participated in this randomized cross-over designed study.

  7. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contact lens cases contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major risk factor in ocular infections. A comparative study of the effect of 0.6% hydrogen peroxide and 0.0005% polyhexamethlylene biguanide on Pseudomonas aerugunosa isolated from three different sources, and cultured on nutrient agar plates and ...

  8. Comparative effects of ethanolic extracts of Ficus carica and Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    ABSTRACT: The comparative effects of the ethanolic extracts of Ficus carica and Mucuna pruriens on haematological parameters were investigated in albino rats. The animals were divided into three main groups: group 1 which served as the control, received 5.0ml/kg body weight of normal saline, while groups 2 and 3 ...

  9. Comparative Study on the Effects of Crude Extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on the effects of crude extracts of pterocarpus soyauxii and Telfairia occidentalis on haematological parameters of albino wistar rats was carried out. Forty nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 150 and 250 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven rats each.

  10. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of Streptomycin And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare organizations, governments and individuals have been forced by prevailing circumstances of economic crisis to be increasingly oriented towards cost containment due to escalating nature of health expenditure. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the comparative cost effectiveness of various ...

  11. Applying comparative effectiveness research to public and population health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Steven M; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2011-02-01

    Comparative effectiveness research to date has focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries in individuals. Yet the greatest drivers of people's overall health are found in their social and physical environments. We recommend that the comparative effectiveness research agenda focus on the public health issues responsible for the greatest overall illness and death levels, such as programs to increase high school graduation rates, which are strongly associated with improvements in long-term illness and death rates. In so doing, the agenda should spotlight efforts to address widely recognized social and environmental determinants of health, such as improving access to early childhood development programs and education, as well as interventions aimed at affecting climate change and addressing behavioral risk factors such as smoking. We also urge federal health agencies to invest in further development of methods to compare public health interventions and to use those methods to conduct the studies.

  12. Influence of recall procedures on the modality effect with numbers and enumerated stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Velkey, Andrew K; Partin, Kathren T

    2008-01-01

    Experiment 1 extended J. S. Nairne and W. L. McNabb's (1985) counting procedure for presenting numerical stimuli to examine the modality effect. The present authors presented participants with dots and beeps and instructed participants to count the items to derive to-be-remembered numbers. In addition, the authors presented numbers as visual and auditory symbols, and participants recalled items by using free-serial written recall. Experiment 1 demonstrated primacy effects, recency effects, and modality effects for visual and auditory symbols and for counts of dots and beeps. Experiment 2 replicated the procedure in Experiment 1 using strict-serial written recall instead of free-serial written recall. The authors demonstrated primacy and recency effects across all 4 presentation conditions and found a modality effect for numbers that the authors presented as symbols. However, the authors found no modality effect when they presented numbers as counts of beeps and dots. The authors discuss the implications of the results in terms of methods for testing modality effects.

  13. Does the Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure Effectively Correct "Off-Track" Hill-Sachs Lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Johannes E; Henderson, Daniel J H; Coquay, Julien; Dück, Klaus; Haeni, David; Lafosse, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    The glenoid track concept describes the dynamic interaction of bipolar bone loss in anterior glenohumeral instability. Initial studies have successfully demonstrated this concept's application in clinical populations. In clinical practice, the Latarjet procedure is commonly the preferred treatment in addressing "off-track" Hill-Sachs lesions. The effectiveness of this procedure in restoring such lesions to an "on-track" state, however, has not yet been evaluated or described in the literature. The Latarjet procedure would transform "off-track" Hill-Sachs lesions to "on-track" lesions. Lesions would remain "on-track" during follow-up, despite glenoid remodeling. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients with "off-track" Hill-Sachs lesions treated with the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure between March 2013 and May 2014 were included. Glenoid track and coracoid graft contact surface area measurements using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) were performed preoperatively and at 6-week, 6-month, and at least 12-month (final) follow-up. The mean final follow-up was 23 months. The glenoid diameter, as a percentage of the native glenoid, was also calculated from this imaging. Twenty-six patients met the inclusion criteria. 3D-CT scans were available for all patients preoperatively and postoperatively, with 21 patients (81%) undergoing 6-month follow-up CT and 19 patients (73%) undergoing final follow-up CT. Hill-Sachs lesions remained "on-track" at all follow-up time points. The mean glenoid diameter changed significantly from 84.6% preoperatively to 122.8% at 6 weeks ( P Latarjet procedure provides an effective treatment for "off-track" engaging Hill-Sachs lesions, despite an evident glenoid remodeling process. At a mean of 23 months postoperatively, a mean persisting enlargement of the glenoid arc of 14% beyond native dimensions remained, avoiding a recurrent "off-track" lesion in 32% of patients, which would otherwise have occurred with complete remodeling.

  14. Prospective randomized trial comparing Billroth I and Roux-en-Y procedures after distal gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Kitayama, Joji; Kaizaki, Shoichi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Hironori; Fujii, Shin; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tomomi; Sako, Akihiro; Asakage, Masahiro; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Hatono, Kenji; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2005-11-01

    To determine the clinical efficacy of Roux-en-Y reconstruction (RY) after distal gastrectomy, we compared postoperative outcomes of patients who underwent RY or conventional Billroth I reconstruction (B-I). A total of 50 patients were prospectively randomized to either B-I or RY reconstruction, and complications, postoperative course, and nutritional status were compared. Bile reflux and inflammation in the remnant stomach and lower esophagus were evaluated by postoperative follow-up endoscopy at 6 months. Operative time and blood loss as well as postoperative nutrition did not show significant differences between the two groups. As anticipated, 5 of 24 patients with RY reconstruction developed gastrojejunal stasis in the early postoperative period, which led to a longer postoperative hospital stay as compared with the B-I group (mean +/- S.D; B-I; 19.0 +/- 6.2, RY; 31.8 +/- 21.7 days) (P gastritis, but it did not prevent esophagitis. Because RY reconstruction induces the frequent complication of Roux-en-Y stasis, causing longer postoperative hospital stay, this method has limited advantages over B-I anastomosis after distal gastrectomy.

  15. A Markov Chain Model for evaluating the effectiveness of randomized surveillance procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    A Markov Chain Model has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of randomized surveillance procedures. The model is applicable for surveillance systems that monitor a collection of assets by randomly selecting and inspecting the assets. The model provides an estimate of the detection probability as a function of the amount of time that an adversary would require to steal or sabotage the asset. An interactive computer code has been written to perform the necessary computations.

  16. The effect of disinfection procedures on flexural properties of denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, T; Watkinson, A C; Huggett, R

    1992-07-01

    This study evaluates the effects of long-term disinfection immersion on the flexural properties of denture base resins; it was conducted against a background of increasing awareness of the importance of cross-infection control in dental clinics and laboratories. The transverse bend testing procedure used followed that specified in the International Standard for denture base polymers. The results demonstrate that alcohol-based disinfectants are not suitable for use with denture base materials of non-cross-linked acrylic resin.

  17. Effect of different extraction procedures on antimicrobial activity of marine bivalves: A comparison

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Chatterji, A.; Das, P.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 77 - 83 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Effect of Different Extraction Procedures on Antimicrobial Activity of Marine... Bivalves: A Comparison Sumita Sharma 1* , Anil Chatterji 2 and Partha Das 1 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 001, India 2 Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu...

  18. Learning a Procedure from Multimedia Instructions: The Effects of Film and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    INSTITUTE OF COGNITIVE S CIENCE Learning a Procedure from Multimedia Instructions: Iwo* The Effects of Film and Practice Deprtment of psyhology...visual and auditory material in forming dual media associations. Journal of Educational Psychology, in press. Baggett, P., & Ehrenfeucht, A. Encoding and...retaining information in the visuals and verbals of an educational movie. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 31, 23-32, 1983. Baggett

  19. The effectiveness of sexual harassment policies and procedures at higher education institutions in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Joubert; Christo van Wyk; Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Sexual harassment policies are generally in place in higher education institutions without any indication of its effectiveness as determined by the awareness of the policy. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness levels of academic staff members at higher education institutions in South Africa of sexual harassment policies and procedures in their institutions. Motivation for the study: A number of high profile court cases emphasised the need for e...

  20. Optimization of an effective extraction procedure for the analysis of microcystins in soils and lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Lin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Gan Nanqin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Song Lirong [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: lrsong@ihb.ac.cn

    2006-09-15

    Microcystin analysis in sediments and soils is considered very difficult due to low recovery for extraction. This is the primary limiting factor for understanding the fate of toxins in the interface between water and sediment in both the aquatic ecosystem as well as in soils. In the present study, a wide range of extraction solvents were evaluated over a wide range of pH, extraction approaches and equilibration time to optimize an effective extraction procedure for the analysis of microcystins in soils and lake sediments. The number of extractions required and acids in extraction solutions were also studied. In this procedure, EDTA-sodium pyrophosphate solution was selected as an extraction solvent based on the adsorption mechanism study. The optimized procedure proved to be highly efficient and achieved over 90% recovery. Finally, the developed procedure was applied to field soil and sediment sample collected from Chinese lakes during bloom seasons and microcystins were determined in six of ten samples. - Efficiency of extraction of microcystins from soil and sediment was greatly increased.

  1. The effect of a musical mood induction procedure on mood state-dependent word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De L'Etoile, Shannon K

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to replicate and expand upon an earlier study by Thaut and de l'Etoile (1993) by examining the effect of a musical mood induction procedure on mood state-dependent word retrieval. Participants (N = 45) completed a 2-day testing procedure. On day one, participants read a list of adjectives and wrote down an antonym for each one. On day two, participants recalled as many of the antonyms as possible. During the testing procedure, participants were placed in 1 of 4 conditions: (a) mood induction at encoding, (b) mood induction at recall, (c) no mood induction, and (d) mood induction at both encoding and recall. The mood induction procedure included 3 steps. Participants first assessed their current mood state using a visual analog scale. They then listened to music for 5 minutes, determined the mood of the piece while listening, and tried to match their mood to the music. Finally, participants again used the visual analog scale to indicate their mood. Results indicated that participants who received mood induction prior to both encoding and recall were able to retrieve significantly more words than participants who did not undergo any mood induction. The results are discussed in light of the associative network theory of memory and emotions and the treatment of mood disorders.

  2. Comparing Stroop-like and Simon Effects on Perceptual Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerrati, Elisa; Lugli, Luisa; Nicoletti, Roberto; Umiltà, Carlo

    2017-12-19

    Stroop-like and Simon tasks produce two sources of interference in human information processing. Despite being logically similar, it is still debated whether the conflicts ensuing from the two tasks are resolved by the same or different mechanisms. In the present study, we compare two accounts of the Stroop-like effect. According to the Perceptual Account, the Stroop-like effect is due to Stimulus-Stimulus congruence. According to the Decisional Account, the Stroop-like effect results from the same mechanisms that produce the Simon effect, that is, Stimulus-Response compatibility. In two experiments we produced Stroop-like and Simon effects by presenting left/right-located stimuli consisting of a colored square surrounded by a frame of the same color as the square or of a different color. Results showed that discriminating either the color of the square (Experiment 1) or that of the frame (Experiment 2) yielded additive Stroop-like and Simon effects. In addition, the patterns of temporal distributions of the two effects were different. These results support the Perceptual Account of the Stroop-like effect and the notion that the Stroop-like effect and the Simon effect occur at different processing stages and are attributable to different mechanisms.

  3. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATION TO NURSING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Su-Yeon Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This in-depth integrative literature review aimed to investigate comparative effectiveness research (CER methodologies applicable to nursing research and to propose a CER design relevant to nursing education. Integration and synthesis were conducted from August 20 to December 15, 2013 and from October 20 to December 05, 2015 using electronic databases and refereed published books. The key words were “comparative effectiveness research,” “education,” “patient outcomes,” “effectiveness,” “cost-effectiveness,” and “efficiency.” All selected literatures were initially scrutinized by the principal investigator in terms of scientific rigor and then synthesized on an ongoing basis. CER methodologies in nursing research were presented to be significant in terms of enabling the distinctiveness of the nursing profession to stand out. Three CER methodologies applicable to nursing research—a Pragmatic Clinical Trial, Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research and Cost Effectiveness Research—revealed each of their distinguishable strengths and weaknesses compared to the Randomized Controlled Trial. For ethical considerations, the importance of ensuring “equipoise” was identified. Lastly, in a head to head comparison of two nursing education programs, a single blind, randomized crossover study design was proposed as a type of Pragmatic Clinical Trial utilizing cost-utility analysis. A mixed method Analysis of Covariance and a Doubly Multivariate Repeated Analysis of Covariance were suggested as relevant statistical analyses. Considering that CER is still inchoate in nursing research and nurse scientists’ endeavors to address the gap are urgent, this study is compelling in that it proposed a rigorous CER design not only directly applicable to nursing education, but also to other disciplines in education.

  4. Photodigitizing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, P. D.; Gottbrath, J. H.

    1984-02-01

    This report documents procedures and programs for efficiently running the Photo Digitizing System at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory. Procedures have been tested and have been found to be effective. Any future acquisitions of programs or changes to current programs should be incorporated in these procedures. On-going research programs use high speed instrumentation cameras to record the motion of test subjects during biodynamic experiments. The films are digitized and the 3-dimensional motion is reconstructed and analyzed. Experimental research is performed to determine the effects of aircraft crashes, ship motion, vibration, aircraft ejection and parachute opening forces on the health and performance of Navy personnel.

  5. Effect of different disinfecting procedures on the hardness and color stability of two maxillofacial elastomers over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELENI, Panagiota N.; KROKIDA, Magdalini K.; POLYZOIS, Gregory L.; GETTLEMAN, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disinfection procedures often cause deterioration in a maxillofacial prosthesis. Color and hardness alterations could lead to a replacement of the prosthesis. Material and Methods: An experimental chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and a commercial polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sample were treated with four different disinfection procedures for a period which simulates 1 year of clinical service. The applied disinfection procedures included microwave exposure and immersion in three solutions, sodium hypochlorite, neutral soap and a commercial disinfecting soap. Shore A hardness (ΔΗ) and color differences (ΔΕ) were determined before and after each procedure. All data were analyzed by Two Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests at a level of α=0.05. Results: The samples presented significant alterations in color and hardness after the different disinfection treatments. The color differences (ΔΕ) were at least eye detectable in all cases and clinically unacceptable in most of the cases, with values ranging from 1.51 to 4.15 and from 1.54 to 5.92 for the PDMS and CPE material, respectively. Hardness was decreased after all the disinfection procedures in the PDMS, while for the CPE, a decrement was observed after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and neutral soap and an increment after microwave exposure and the disinfection with a commercial antimicrobial agent. The PDMS samples presented greater alterations in color and hardness after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite solution, while the microwave exposure caused negligible effects. The CPE samples were affected most after disinfection when treated with neutral soap, and more slightly when disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution. Conclusions: The disinfection procedures caused alterations in color and hardness of the examined materials. The most suitable disinfection procedure for the PDMS material is microwave exposure, while disinfection with sodium hypochlorite

  6. Is laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy a lower risk bariatric procedure compared with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Jonathan D; Mathiason, Michelle A; Kallies, Kara J; Kothari, Shanu N

    2014-12-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is the current "gold standard" bariatric procedure in the United States. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has recently become a commonly performed procedure for many reasons, including patients' perception that LSG has less complexity and invasiveness, and lower risk. Our objective was to review the literature and compare the leak rates, morbidity, and mortality for LRYGB versus LSG. Publications from 2002 to 2012 with n greater than or equal to 25 and postoperative leak rate reported were included. Statistical analysis included chi-square according to patient number. Twenty-eight (10,906 patients) LRYGB and 33 (4,816 patients) LSG articles were evaluated. Leak rates after LRYGB versus LSG were 1.9% (n = 206) versus 2.3% (n = 110), respectively (P = .077). Mortality rates were .4% (27/7,117) for LRYGB and .2% (7/3,594) for LSG (P = .110). Timing from surgery to leak ranged from 1 to 12 days for LRYGB versus 1 to 35 days for LSG. Leak and mortality rates after LRYGB and LSG were comparable. The appropriate procedure should be tailored based on patient factors, comorbidities, patient and surgeon comfort level, surgeon experience, and institutional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Principles for planning and conducting comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Bryan R; Drummond, Michael F; Dubois, Robert W; Neumann, Peter J; Jönsson, Bengt; Siebert, Uwe; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2012-09-01

    To develop principles for planning and conducting comparative effectiveness research (CER). Beginning with a modified existing list of health technology assessment principles, we developed a set of CER principles using literature review, engagement of multiple experts and broad stakeholder feedback. Thirteen principles and actions to fulfill their intent are proposed. Principles include clarity of objectives, transparency, engagement of stakeholders, consideration of relevant perspectives, use of relevant comparators, and evaluation of relevant outcomes and treatment heterogeneity. Should these principles be found appropriate and useful, CER studies should be audited for adherence to them and monitored for their impact on care management, patient relevant outcomes and clinical guidelines.

  8. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Tansel, B; Mitrani, J D

    2001-12-01

    Indoor air quality has become one of the most serious environmental concerns as an average person spends about 22 hr indoors on a daily basis. The study reported in this article, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three commercial HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) duct cleaning processes in reducing the level of airborne particulate matter and viable bioaerosols. The three HVAC sanitation processes were: (1) Contact method (use of conventional vacuum cleaning of interior duct surfaces); (2) Air sweep method (use of compressed air to dislodging dirt and debris); (3) Rotary brush method (insertion of a rotary brush into the ductwork to agitate and dislodge the debris). Effectiveness of these sanitation processes was evaluated in terms of airborne particulate and viable bioaerosol concentrations in residential homes. Eight identical homes were selected in the same neighborhood. Two homes were cleaned using each procedure and two were used as controls. It was found that both particle count readings and bioaerosol concentrations were higher when cleaning was being performed than before or after cleaning, which suggests that dirt, debris and other pollutants may become airborne as a result of disturbances caused by the cleaning processes. Particle count readings at 0.3 micron size were found to have increased due to cigarette smoking. Particle counts at 1.0 micron size were reduced due to HVAC duct cleaning. Post-level bioaerosol concentrations, taken two days after cleaning, were found to be lower than the pre-level concentrations suggesting that the cleaning procedures were effective to some extent. Homes cleaned with the Air Sweep procedure showed the highest degree of reduction in bioaerosol concentration among the three procedures investigated.

  9. The effect of trainee involvement on procedure and list times: A statistical analysis with discussion of current issues affecting orthopaedic training in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T; Sahu, A; Johnson, D S; Turner, P G

    2010-02-01

    Training surgeons adds time to the duration of procedures and operation lists. This is not accounted for in the finance received to perform the operation by the hospital in the Payment by Results (PbR) system. To find out: 1. The effect on the duration of a procedure and the number of procedures performed on the list when a trainee is involved. 2. The percentage of orthopaedic cases with trainee involvement. 3. The effect of European working time directive (EWTD) on the trainee involvement in cases from theatre data in 2008 versus logbook data from 2004 - 2008. Data was taken from two different sources. Firstly, the Operating Room Information System (ORMIS) and patient operation notes. The second source was a consultant's logbook comprising 227 primary total knee replacements performed between 2004 and 2008. The data produced trends suggesting trainees took longer to perform procedures than consultants. In orthopaedic operations, 92% of cases had trainees present and of these 17% of cases were performed by trainees in 2008. Before the implementation of the EWTD, trainees performed more procedures when compared with current logbook data (38% versus 17% cases). Time taken by a trainee to perform the procedure under direct consultant supervision was significantly higher in comparison to procedures performed by a consultant alone (P = < 0.0001). Analysing the ORMIS and logbook data gave similar conclusions. Hospitals should be given financial recognition for training. In this debate, we should remain focused on the provision of quality training for the next generation of surgeons.

  10. Surgical offloading procedures for diabetic foot ulcers compared to best non-surgical treatment: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestone, Aharon S; Tamir, Eran; Ron, Guy; Wiser, Itay; Agar, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are frequently related to elevated pressure under a bony prominence. Conservative treatment includes offloading with orthopaedic shoes and custom made orthotics or plaster casts. While casting in plaster is usually effective in achieving primary closure of foot ulcers, recurrence rates are high. Minimally invasive surgical offloading that includes correction of foot deformities has good short and long term results. The surgery alleviates the pressure under the bony prominence, thus enabling prompt ulcer healing, negating the patient's dependence on expensive shoes and orthotics, with a lower chance of recurrence. The purpose of this protocol is to compare offloading surgery (percutaneous flexor tenotomy, mini-invasive floating metatarsal osteotomy or Keller arthroplasty) to non-surgical treatment for patients with diabetic foot ulcers in a semi-crossover designed RCT. One hundred patients with diabetic neuropathy related foot ulcers (tip of toe ulcers, ulcers under metatarsal heads and ulcers under the hallux interphalangeal joint) will be randomized (2:3) to a surgical offloading procedure or best available non-surgical treatment. Group 1 (surgery) will have surgery within 1 week. Group 2 (controls) will be prescribed an offloading cast applied for up to 12 weeks (based on clinical considerations). Following successful offloading treatment (ulcer closure with complete epithelization) patients will be prescribed orthopaedic shoes and custom made orthotics. If offloading by cast for at least 6 weeks fails, or the ulcer recurs, patients will be offered surgical offloading. Follow-up will take place till 2 years following randomization. Outcome criteria will be time to healing of the primary ulcer (complete epithelization), time to healing of surgical wound, recurrence of ulcer, time to recurrence and complications. The high recurrence rate of foot ulcers and their dire consequences justify attempts to find better solutions than the non

  11. The Vienna comparative cognition technology (VCCT): an innovative operant conditioning system for various species and experimental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Michael Morten; Aust, Ulrike; Huber, Ludwig

    2012-12-01

    This article describes a laboratory system for running learning experiments in operant chambers with various species. It is based on a modern version of a classical learning chamber for operant conditioning, the so-called "Skinner box". Rather than constituting a stand-alone unit, as is usually the case, it is an integrated part of a comprehensive technical solution, thereby eliminating a number of practical problems that are frequently encountered in research on animal learning and behavior. The Vienna comparative cognition technology combines modern computer, stimulus presentation, and reinforcement technology with flexibility and user-friendliness, which allows for efficient, widely automatized across-species experimentation, and thus makes the system appropriate for use in a broad range of learning tasks.

  12. Vitrification of human ovarian tissue: effect of different solutions and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani Andrade; David, Anu; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Donnez, Jacques

    2011-03-01

    To test the effect of different vitrification solutions and procedures on the morphology of human preantral follicles. Pilot study. Gynecology research unit in a university hospital. Ovarian biopsies were obtained from nine women aged 22-35 years. Ovarian tissue fragments were subjected to [1] different vitrification solutions to test their toxicity or [2] different vitrification methods using plastic straws, medium droplets, or solid-surface vitrification before in vitro culture. Number of morphologically normal follicles after toxicity testing or vitrification with the different treatments determined by histologic analysis. In the toxicity tests, only VS3 showed similar results to fresh tissue before and after in vitro culture (fresh controls 1 and 2). In addition, this was the only solution able to completely vitrify. In all vitrification procedures, the percentage of normal follicles was lower than in controls. However, of the three protocols, the droplet method yielded a significantly higher proportion of normal follicles. Our experiments showed VS3 to have no deleterious effect on follicular morphology and to be able to completely vitrify, although vitrification procedures were found to affect human follicles. Nevertheless, the droplet method resulted in a higher percentage of morphologically normal follicles. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  14. Disseminating Comparative Effectiveness Research Through Community-based Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Williamson, Margaret; Stevenson, Lynn; Davis, Brandy R; Evans, R Lee

    2017-02-25

    Objectives. To launch and evaluate a comparative effectiveness research education and dissemination program as part of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Methods. First- through third-year PharmD students received training on comparative effectiveness research and disseminated printed educational materials to patients in the community who they were monitoring longitudinally (n=314). Students completed an assessment and initial visit documentation form at the first visit, and a follow-up assessment and documentation form at a subsequent visit. Results. Twenty-three diabetes patients, 29 acid-reflux patients, 30 osteoarthritis patients, and 50 hypertension patients received materials. Aside from the patient asking questions, which was the most common outcome (n=44), the program resulted in 38 additional actions, which included stopping, starting, or changing treatments or health behaviors, or having additional follow-up or diagnostic testing. Small but positive improvements in patient understanding, confidence, and self-efficacy were observed. Conclusions. Dissemination of comparative effectiveness research materials in an IPPE program demonstrated a positive trend in markers of informed decision-making.

  15. Resolution Effects on the Mean Square Displacement as Obtained by the Self-Distribution-Function Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, A; Magazù, S; Migliardo, F; Mondelli, C; Gonzalez, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, a procedure for molecular motion characterization based on the evaluation of the Mean Square Displacement (MSD), through the Self-Distribution Function (SDF), is presented. It is shown how MSD, which represents an important observable for the characterization of dynamical properties, can be decomposed into different partial contributions associated to system dynamical processes within a specific spatial scale. It is also shown how the SDF procedure allows us to evaluate both total MSD and partial MSDs through total and partial SDFs. As a result, total MSD is the weighed sum of partial MSDs in which the weights are obtained by the fitting procedure of measured Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering (EINS) intensity. We apply SDF procedure to data collected,by IN13, IN10 and IN4 spectrometers (Institute Laue Langevin), on aqueous mixtures of two homologous disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose) and on dry and hydrated (H 2 O and D 2 O) lysozyme with and without disaccharides. It emerges that the hydrogen bond imposed network of the water-trehalose mixture appears to be stronger with respect to that of the water-sucrose mixture. This result can justify the higher bioprotectant effectiveness of trehalose. Furthermore, it emerges that partial MSDs of sucrose and trehalose are equivalent in the low Q domain (0÷1.7) Å −1 whereas they are different in the high Q domain (1.7÷4) Å −1 . This suggests that the higher structure sensitivity of sucrose should be related to the small spatial observation windows. Moreover, the role of the instrumental resolution in EINS is considered. The nature of the dynamical transition is highlighted and it is shown that it occurs when the system relaxation time becomes shorter than the instrumental energy time. Finally, the bioprotectants effect on protein dynamics and the amplitude of vibrations in lysozyme are presented.

  16. SILS: Is It Cost- and Time-Effective Compared to Standard Pediatric Laparoscopic Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Saidul; Adams, Stephen D; Mahomed, Anies A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review our experience with single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and to compare costs and operative time to standard laparoscopic surgery (SLS). A prospectively collected database of operative times and costs was analysed for the years 2008-2011. SILS cases were compared to standard laparoscopy on a procedure-matched basis. Patient demographics, on-table time and consumable costs were collated. Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U-test were utilized with SPSS for windows. Analysis of the data demonstrate that neither consumable costs nor operative time were significantly different in each group. Comparing operative costs, SILS appendicectomy, nephrectomy/heminephrectomy, and ovarian cystectomy/oophorectomy showed cost benefit over SLS (£397 versus £467; £942 versus £1127; £394 versus £495). A trend toward higher cost for SILS Palomo procedure is noted (£734 versus £400). Operative time for SILS appendicectomy, nephrectomy/heminephrectomy, and Palomo was lower compared to SLS (60 versus 103 minutes[mins.]; 130 versus 60 mins.; 60 versus 80 mins.). In conclusion, SILS appears to be cost-effective for the common pediatric surgical operations. There is no significant difference in operating time in this series, but small sample size is a limiting factor. Studies with larger numbers will be necessary to validate these initial observations.

  17. Comparative effectiveness of open versus minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledonio CGT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles GT Ledonio,1 David W Polly Jr,1 Marc F Swiontkowski,1 John T Cummings Jr2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN, 2Community Neurosurgical Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: The mainstay of sacroiliac joint disruption/degenerative sacroiliitis therapy has been nonoperative management. This nonoperative management often includes a regimen of physical therapy, chiropractic treatment, therapeutic injections, and possibly radiofrequency ablation at the discretion of the treating physician. When these clinical treatments fail, sacroiliac joint fusion has been recommended as the standard treatment. Open and minimally invasive (MIS surgical techniques are typical procedures. This study aims to compare the perioperative measures and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI outcomes associated with each of these techniques. Methods: A comparative retrospective chart review of patients with sacroiliac joint fusion and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up was performed. Perioperative measures and ODI scores were compared using the Fisher's exact test and two nonparametric tests, ie, the Mann–Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results are presented as percent or median with range, as appropriate. Results: Forty-nine patients from two institutions underwent sacroiliac joint fusion between 2006 and 2012. Ten patients were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 39 evaluable patients, of whom 22 underwent open and 17 underwent MIS sacroiliac joint fusion. The MIS group was significantly older (median age 66 [39–82] years than the open group (median age 51 [34–74] years. Surgical time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the MIS group than in the open group. Preoperative ODI was significantly greater in the open group (median 64 [44–78] than in the MIS group (median 53 [14–84]. Postoperative improvement in ODI was statistically significant within and between groups, with MIS

  18. Effect of Sucrose Analgesia, for Repeated Painful Procedures, on Short-term Neurobehavioral Outcome of Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Shreshtha; Datta, Vikram; Rehan, Harmeet Singh; Bhakhri, Bhanu Kiran

    2016-04-01

    Safety of oral sucrose, commonly used procedural analgesic in neonates, is questioned. To evaluate the effect of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures, on short-term neurobehavioral outcome of preterm neonates. Stable preterm neonates were randomized to receive either sucrose or distilled water orally, for every potentially painful procedure during the first 7 days after enrollment. Neurodevelopmental status at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) measured using the domains of Neurobehavioral Assessment of Preterm Infants scale. A total of 93 newborns were analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the groups were comparable. No statistically significant difference was observed in the assessment at 40 weeks PCA, among the groups. Use of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures on newborns, does not lead to any significant difference in the short-term neurobehavioral outcome. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of a water-maze procedure on the redox mechanisms in brain parts of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andreevna Krivova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze (MWM is a tool for assessment of age-related cognitive deficits. In our work, MWM was used for appraisal of cognitive deficits in 11-month-old rats and investigation of the effect exerted by training in the Morris water maze on the redox mechanisms in rat brain parts. Young adult (3-month-old and aged (11-month-old male rats were trained in the water maze. Intact animals of the corresponding age were used as the reference groups. The level of pro- and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue homogenates was assessed using the chemiluminescence method.Cognitive deficits were found in 11-month-old rats: at the first day of training they showed only 30% of successful MWM trials. However, at the last training day the percentage of successful trials was equal for young adult and aged animals. This indicates that cognitive deficits in aged rats can be reversed by MWM training. Therewith, the MWM spatial learning procedure itself produces changes in different processes of redox homeostasis in 11-month-old and 3-month-old rats as compared to intact animals. Young adult rats showed a decrease in prooxidant capacity in all brain parts, while 11-month-old rats demonstrated an increase in antioxidant capacity in the olfactory bulb, pons + medulla oblongata and frontal lobe cortex. Hence, the MWM procedure activates the mechanisms that restrict the oxidative stress in brain parts. The obtained results may be an argument for further development of the animal training procedures aimed to activate the mechanisms responsible for age-related cognitive deficits. This may be useful not only for the development of training procedures applicable to human patients with age-related cognitive impairments, but also for their rehabilitation.

  20. The significance of human spermatozoa vacuoles can be elucidated by a novel procedure of array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitz, Arie; Dekel, Yaron; Goldstein, Revital; Bsoul, Shhadeh; Machluf, Yossy; Bercovich, Dani

    2018-02-06

    Is there an association between spermatozoon genomic stability and vacuolar morphology and location? The genomic stability of spermatozoa is associated with specific characteristics of vacuolar morphology (depth) and location (cellular compartment, i.e. nucleus and equatorial region). Genetic anomalies in sperm are correlated with semen abnormalities, yet the advantage of morphologically based selection of spermatozoa for IVF according to current criteria is controversial. Selection criteria based on the number of vacuoles and their size have been proposed and are widely applied. Nevertheless, it has not improved the ICSI success rates, suggesting the currently used vacuole criteria are incomplete. Normal sperm according to Motile Sperm Organelle Morphology Examination criteria (MSOME) and common vacuole grading were evaluated. An additional evaluation of sperm vacuole morphology according to novel vacuole criteria (i.e. location and depth) was conducted. An assessment to align these specific vacuolar morphology features with genomic stability was conducted among spermatozoa from infertile patients and healthy fertile donors aged 24-38 between June 2015 and July 2016. Single spermatozoa (n = 53) from 16 infertile patients and 14 fertile donors were morphologically and genetically evaluated. Each spermatozoon was examined morphologically, by ultra-magnification ×6300, and genetically by a novel comparative genomic hybridization protocol, without the use of reference DNA, to assess chromosomal instability as evident by copy number variations (CNV). We established an association between genomic stability and vacuolar morphology as a base for a new classification according to novel vacuolar criteria, specifically depth and location. Genomic instability was found to be related to these two main features of vacuoles and, surprisingly not to the number and size of vacuoles as in the previously proposed classifications. High CNV spermatozoa were characterized by vacuoles

  1. The Effects of Two Direct Instruction Teaching Procedures to Basic Skills to Two Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Fjortoft

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first study focused on increasing her ability to identify letters and to write these letters. The research was conducted in a resource room setting located in a public school in a large urban school district. The effects of employing DI flashcards on letter recognition and letter writing were evaluated in a multiple baseline design. Overall the effects of the experiment were positive; the participant improved her accuracy letter identification accuracy and her skills at writing her letters from the alphabet. The time, cost, and effort needed for Experiment I was minimal and the student enjoyed the procedures. A second study was conducted with a first grade boy. We wanted to determine the effectiveness of Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons along with a DI flashcard procedure to improve a first grade student’s ability to identify sounds and sight words within a public school behavior intervention (BI classroom setting. Overall the effects of the second experiment were also quite positive. The participant improved his accuracy and ability to say the letter-sounds and target words. Suggestions for future research were made.

  2. The effectiveness of sexual harassment policies and procedures at higher education institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Joubert

    2011-02-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness levels of academic staff members at higher education institutions in South Africa of sexual harassment policies and procedures in their institutions. Motivation for the study: A number of high profile court cases emphasised the need for effective policies to reduce the incidence of sexual harassment complaints. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was conducted amongst 161 academic staff members, representing 10 higher education institutions in South Africa. The measuring instrument that was used is the Sexual Harassment Questionnaire (SHQ that was developed specifically for this study. Main findings: The results showed that despite indications that sexual harassment policies do exist and that they are regarded as effective tools in addressing sexual harassment, the implementation of such policies is not effective and few academic staff members received training and/or guidance on the utilisation of the policy. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the elements of an effective policy and between population group and some of the elements. Practical/managerial implications: Employers across the board should regularly conduct an audit to determine the level of awareness of sexual harassment policies and procedures and plan interventions. Contribution: No other study in South Africa attempted to measure the awareness levels of academics and its impact on the management of sexual harassment.

  3. Estimation of effective dose during hysterosalpingography procedures; Estimación de dosis efectiva durante los procedimientos hysterosalpingography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzimamil, K.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M. [King Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, (Saudi Arabia); Sulieman, A. [Salman bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, P. O. Box 422, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia); Alsafi, K. [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiology Department, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia); Omer, H., E-mail: kalzimami@ksu.edu.sa [Dammam University, Faculty of Medicine, Dammam Khobar Coastal Rd, Khobar 31982 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-08-15

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the most frequently used diagnostic tool to evaluate the endometrial cavity and fallopian tube by using conventional x-ray or fluoroscopy. Determination of the patient radiation doses values from x-ray examinations provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimize the protection of the patients. The aims of this study were to measure the patients entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA K), effective doses and to compare practices between different hospitals in Sudan. ESA K were measured for patient using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters (TLDs, Gr-200A). Effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. This study was conducted in five radiological departments: Two Teaching Hospitals (A and D), two private hospitals (B and C) and one University Hospital (E). The mean ESD was 20.1 mGy, 28.9 mGy, 13.6 mGy, 58.65 mGy, 35.7, 22.4 and 19.6 mGy for hospitals A,B,C,D, and E), respectively. The mean effective dose was 2.4 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 1.6 mSv, 7.1 mSv and 4.3 mSv in the same order. The study showed wide variations in the ESDs with three of the hospitals having values above the internationally reported values. Number of x-ray images, fluoroscopy time, operator skills x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported. Results demonstrated the need for standardization of technique throughout the hospital. The results also suggest that there is a need to optimize the procedures. Local DRLs were proposed for the entire procedures. (author)

  4. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-01-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio Σ[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as level 2

  5. Comparing methods for assessing the effectiveness of subnational REDD+ initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Astrid B.; Duchelle, Amy E.; Angelsen, Arild; Avitabile, Valerio; De Sy, Veronique; Herold, Martin; Joseph, Shijo; de Sassi, Claudio; Sills, Erin O.; Sunderlin, William D.; Wunder, Sven

    2017-07-01

    The central role of forests in climate change mitigation, as recognized in the Paris agreement, makes it increasingly important to develop and test methods for monitoring and evaluating the carbon effectiveness of REDD+. Over the last decade, hundreds of subnational REDD+ initiatives have emerged, presenting an opportunity to pilot and compare different approaches to quantifying impacts on carbon emissions. This study (1) develops a Before-After-Control-Intervention (BACI) method to assess the effectiveness of these REDD+ initiatives; (2) compares the results at the meso (initiative) and micro (village) scales; and (3) compares BACI with the simpler Before-After (BA) results. Our study covers 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. As a proxy for deforestation, we use annual tree cover loss. We aggregate data into two periods (before and after the start of each initiative). Analysis using control areas (‘control-intervention’) suggests better REDD+ performance, although the effect is more pronounced at the micro than at the meso level. Yet, BACI requires more data than BA, and is subject to possible bias in the before period. Selection of proper control areas is vital, but at either scale is not straightforward. Low absolute deforestation numbers and peak years influence both our BA and BACI results. In principle, BACI is superior, with its potential to effectively control for confounding factors. We conclude that the more local the scale of performance assessment, the more relevant is the use of the BACI approach. For various reasons, we find overall minimal impact of REDD+ in reducing deforestation on the ground thus far. Incorporating results from micro and meso level monitoring into national reporting systems is important, since overall REDD+ impact depends on land use decisions on the ground.

  6. The effect of social isolation, gender and familiarity with the experimental procedure on tests of porcine nociceptive thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Stausholm, Julie S.; Viitasaari, Eliina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of habituation and isolation on mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigs at the pelvic limbs and at the tail. Study design Prospective randomized multifactorial study. Animals Thirty-two healthy castrated male (experiment 1), and 12 castrated male and 12 female...... pigs. The presence of a companion animal was also evaluated in pigs receiving stimuli at the pelvic limbs. Results Pigs tested inside the cage were affected by the habituation to the procedure as indicated by the increase in willingness and time spent by the animals in the test cage. This effect...... was reflected in the lower mechanical nociceptive thresholds (medians with 25–75 percentiles) recorded for familiar pigs compared with naïve animals [495 g (302–675) versus 745 g (479–1000), respectively; p = 0.026]. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds measured at the tail of the pigs in the open arena were...

  7. THE EFFECT OF INQURY BASED LEARNING ON THE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION ABOUT ELECTRIC AND MAGNET CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yusrizal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the effect of the use of inquiry-based learning to the increased dimensions of procedural knowledge in electrical magnetic material. The study used a quasi-experimental research methods with research design is non-equivalent control group design and a sampel are selected with the random sampling method. The experimental group was taught by the method of inquiry-based learning and the control group was taught by conventional methods. Collecting data using the instrument of multiple-choice test that developed through this research with category of validity is valid, reliability with category of reliable, index of discrimination with category of low, and level of difficulty with category of medium. The results of the data analysis by using the formula N-Gain and t-test showed that an increase in the dimensions of procedural knowledge siginificantly for experimental class and less significant for control class. Based on the results of this study suggested to the teacher to always use the method of inquiry learning that an increase in procedural knowledge dimension, especially for topics related to experimental physics.

  8. Perceptual Reorganization of Lexical Tones: Effects of Age and Experimental Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Götz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Findings on the perceptual reorganization of lexical tones are mixed. Some studies report good tone discrimination abilities for all tested age groups, others report decreased or enhanced discrimination with increasing age, and still others report U-shaped developmental curves. Since prior studies have used a wide range of contrasts and experimental procedures, it is unclear how specific task requirements interact with discrimination abilities at different ages. In the present work, we tested German and Cantonese adults on their discrimination of Cantonese lexical tones, as well as German-learning infants between 6 and 18 months of age on their discrimination of two specific Cantonese tones using two different types of experimental procedures. The adult experiment showed that German native speakers can discriminate between lexical tones, but native Cantonese speakers show significantly better performance. The results from German-learning infants suggest that 6- and 18-month-olds discriminate tones, while 9-month-olds do not, supporting a U-shaped developmental curve. Furthermore, our results revealed an effect of methodology, with good discrimination performance at 6 months after habituation but not after familiarization. These results support three main conclusions. First, habituation can be a more sensitive procedure for measuring infants' discrimination than familiarization. Second, the previous finding of a U-shaped curve in the discrimination of lexical tones is further supported. Third, discrimination abilities at 18 months appear to reflect mature perceptual sensitivity to lexical tones, since German adults also discriminated the lexical tones with high accuracy.

  9. "Embodiment as procedures: Physical cleansing changes goal priming effects": Correction to Dong and Lee (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Reports an error in "Embodiment as procedures: Physical cleansing changes goal priming effects" by Ping Dong and Spike W. S. Lee ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 2017[Apr], Vol 146[4], 592-605). In the article, the following F-value and p-values in the Results section of Experiment 3 were set incorrectly: The p -value p =.925 should be p =.922. The F - and p -values F (1, 201)=.011, p =.916 should be F (1, 201) .014, p = .906. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-14922-010.) Physical cleansing reduces the influence of numerous psychological experiences, such as guilt from immoral behavior, dissonance from free choice, and good/bad luck from winning/losing. How do these domain-general effects occur? We propose an integrative account of cleansing as an embodied procedure of psychological separation. By separating physical traces from a physical target object (e.g., detaching dirt from hands), cleansing serves as the embodied grounding for the separation of psychological traces from a psychological target object (e.g., dissociating prior experience from the present self). This account predicts that cleansing reduces the accessibility of psychological traces and their consequences for judgments and behaviors. Testing these in the context of goal priming, we find that wiping one's hands (vs. not) decreases the mental accessibility (Experiment 1), behavioral expression (Experiment 2), and judged importance (Experiments 3-4) of previously primed goals (e.g., achievement, saving, fitness). But if a goal is primed after cleansing, its importance gets amplified instead (Experiment 3). Based on the logic of moderation-of-process, an alternative manipulation that psychologically separates a primed goal from the present self produces the same effects, but critically, the effects vanish once people wipe their hands clean (Experiment 4), consistent with the notion that cleansing functions as an embodied procedure of psychological

  10. Effects of music on sedation depth and sedative use during pediatric dental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalayci, Ozlem; Araz, Coskun; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Tirali, Resmiye Ebru; Kayhan, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of listening to music or providing sound isolation on the depth of sedation and need for sedatives in pediatric dental patients. Prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Tertiary, university hospital. In total, 180 pediatric patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, who were scheduled for dental procedures of tooth extraction, filling, amputation, and root treatment. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: music, isolation, and control. During the procedures, the patients in the music group listened to Vivaldi's The Four Seasons violin concertos by sound-isolating headphones, whereas the patients in the isolation group wore the headphones but did not listen to music. All patients were sedated by 0.1 mg/kg midazolam and 1 mg/kg propofol. During the procedure, an additional 0.5 mg/kg propofol was administered as required. Bispectral index was used for quantifying the depth of sedation, and total dosage of the propofol was used for sedative requirements. The patients' heart rates, oxygen saturations, and Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation Scale and bispectral index scores, which were monitored during the operation, were similar among the groups. In terms of the amount of propofol used, the groups were similar. Prolonged postoperative recovery cases were found to be significantly frequent in the control group, according to the recovery duration measurements (P = .004). Listening to music or providing sound isolation during pediatric dental interventions did not alter the sedation level, amount of medication, and hemodynamic variables significantly. This result might be due to the deep sedation levels reached during the procedures. However, listening to music and providing sound isolation might have contributed in shortening the postoperative recovery duration of the patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Falsification Testing of Instrumental Variables Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate how falsification tests can be used to evaluate instrumental variables methods applicable to a wide variety of comparative effectiveness research questions. Brief conceptual review of instrumental variables and falsification testing principles and techniques accompanied by an empirical application. Sample STATA code related to the empirical application is provided in the Appendix. Comparative long-term risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones for management of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes include mortality and hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition. Prescribing pattern variations are used as instrumental variables. Falsification testing is an easily computed and powerful way to evaluate the validity of the key assumption underlying instrumental variables analysis. If falsification tests are used, instrumental variables techniques can help answer a multitude of important clinical questions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. The effect of facilitated tucking on procedural pain control among premature babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Olive; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Rahmat, Norsiah; Theam, Lim Chin; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of facilitated tucking in reducing pain when venepuncture is being performed on preterm infants. Preterm neonates are exposed to a myriad of invasive, often painful, procedures throughout their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. A growing volume of evidence shows that pain in preterm infants has both short- and long-term deleterious effects. It is within the power and ethical responsibility of neonatal nurses to help premature babies cope with procedural pain. A quasi-experimental study with two groups: control and treatment group. A study was conducted on a cohort of preterm infants (n = 42), divided into control (n = 21) and treatment (n = 21) groups, to determine the effect of facilitated tucking on pain relief during venepuncture on preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. The severity of pain was measured using the Premature Infant Pain Profile score. The primary outcome measure was reduction in the Premature Infant Pain Profile scores. The Premature Infant Pain Profile score for the treatment group was significantly lower (M = 6·62, SD 2·598) than for the control group (6·62 ± 2·60 vs. 8·52 ± 2·99, respectively, t = -2·202, p Pain Profile scores in preterm infants. The findings of this study suggest that facilitated tucking is able to alleviate pain; therefore, nurses must be able to carry out facilitated tucking when necessary. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of screening strategies for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzi, Afsaneh; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Quinn, David I; Sadeghi, Sarmad

    2017-05-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been successful in decreasing the incidence and mortality from CRC. Although new screening tests have become available, their relative impact on CRC outcomes remains unexplored. This study compares the outcomes of various screening strategies on CRC outcomes. A Markov model representing the natural history of CRC was built and validated against empiric data from screening trials as well as the Microstimulation Screening Analysis (MISCAN) model. Thirteen screening strategies based on colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, computed tomographic colonography, as well as fecal immunochemical, occult blood, and stool DNA testing were compared with no screening. A simulated sample of the US general population ages 50 to 75 years with an average risk of CRC was followed for up to 35 years or until death. Effectiveness was measured by discounted life years gained and the number of CRCs prevented. Discounted costs and cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. A discount rate of 3% was used in calculations. The study took a societal perspective. Colonoscopy emerged as the most effective screening strategy with the highest life years gained (0.022 life years) and CRCs prevented (n = 1068) and the lowest total costs ($2861). These values were 0.012 life years gained, 574 CRCs prevented, and a total cost of $3164, respectively, for FOBT; and 0.011 life years gained, 647 CRCs prevented, and a total cost of $4296, respectively, for DNA testing. Improved sensitivity or specificity of a screening test for CRC detection was not sufficient to close the outcomes gap compared with colonoscopy. Improvement in CRC-detection performance is not sufficient to improve screening outcomes. Special attention must be directed to detecting precancerous adenomas. Cancer 2017;123:1516-1527. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  15. Conscious sedation for patients undergoing enteroclysis: Comparing the safety and patient-reported effectiveness of two protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglinte, Dean D.T.; Applegate, Kimberly E.; Rajesh, Arumugam; Jennings, S. Gregory; Ford, Jason M.; Savabi, Mojgan Sarah; Lappas, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the safety and patient-reported effectiveness of two regimens for conscious sedation during enteroclysis. Materials and methods: We surveyed two groups of outpatients and retrospectively reviewed procedure records for conscious sedation and complications. Patients were divided into Group One (received sedative/amnesic diazepam), and Group Two, (received amnesic/sedative, midazolam and analgesic fentanyl). Results: All enteroclyses were successfully completed; there were no hospital admissions due to complications. In Group One (n = 106), mean dose of diazepam was 12.7 mg. 25% had oxygen desaturation (n = 25), and post-procedure vomiting without aspiration (n = 1). 56% of outpatients completed phone surveys, and 68% recalled procedural discomfort. In Group Two (n = 45), mean doses were 3.9 mg midazolam and 108 mcg fentanyl. 31% had desaturation (n = 13), and post-procedure vomiting without aspiration (n = 1). 87% had only a vague recall of the procedure or of any discomfort. Conclusion: A combination of amnesic and fentanyl prevented the recall of discomfort of nasoenteric intubation and infusion in most patients who had enteroclysis compared to diazepam. Most of the patients would undergo the procedure again, if needed.

  16. Conscious sedation for patients undergoing enteroclysis: Comparing the safety and patient-reported effectiveness of two protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, 550 N, University Boulevard, University Hospital Room 0279, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5253 (United States)], E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu; Applegate, Kimberly E.; Rajesh, Arumugam; Jennings, S. Gregory; Ford, Jason M. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, 550 N, University Boulevard, University Hospital Room 0279, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5253 (United States); Savabi, Mojgan Sarah [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 550 N, University Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5253 (United States); Lappas, John C. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, 550 N, University Boulevard, University Hospital Room 0279, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5253 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Objective: To compare the safety and patient-reported effectiveness of two regimens for conscious sedation during enteroclysis. Materials and methods: We surveyed two groups of outpatients and retrospectively reviewed procedure records for conscious sedation and complications. Patients were divided into Group One (received sedative/amnesic diazepam), and Group Two, (received amnesic/sedative, midazolam and analgesic fentanyl). Results: All enteroclyses were successfully completed; there were no hospital admissions due to complications. In Group One (n = 106), mean dose of diazepam was 12.7 mg. 25% had oxygen desaturation (n = 25), and post-procedure vomiting without aspiration (n = 1). 56% of outpatients completed phone surveys, and 68% recalled procedural discomfort. In Group Two (n = 45), mean doses were 3.9 mg midazolam and 108 mcg fentanyl. 31% had desaturation (n = 13), and post-procedure vomiting without aspiration (n = 1). 87% had only a vague recall of the procedure or of any discomfort. Conclusion: A combination of amnesic and fentanyl prevented the recall of discomfort of nasoenteric intubation and infusion in most patients who had enteroclysis compared to diazepam. Most of the patients would undergo the procedure again, if needed.

  17. Facilitating comparative effectiveness research in cancer genomics: evaluating stakeholder perceptions of the engagement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverka, Patricia A; Lavallee, Danielle C; Desai, Priyanka J; Armstrong, Joanne; Gorman, Mark; Hole-Curry, Leah; O'Leary, James; Ruffner, B W; Watkins, John; Veenstra, David L; Baker, Laurence H; Unger, Joseph M; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-07-01

    The Center for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Cancer Genomics completed a 2-year stakeholder-guided process for the prioritization of genomic tests for comparative effectiveness research studies. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of engagement procedures in achieving project goals and to identify opportunities for future improvements. The evaluation included an online questionnaire, one-on-one telephone interviews and facilitated discussion. Responses to the online questionnaire were tabulated for descriptive purposes, while transcripts from key informant interviews were analyzed using a directed content analysis approach. A total of 11 out of 13 stakeholders completed both the online questionnaire and interview process, while nine participated in the facilitated discussion. Eighty-nine percent of questionnaire items received overall ratings of agree or strongly agree; 11% of responses were rated as neutral with the exception of a single rating of disagreement with an item regarding the clarity of how stakeholder input was incorporated into project decisions. Recommendations for future improvement included developing standard recruitment practices, role descriptions and processes for improved communication with clinical and comparative effectiveness research investigators. Evaluation of the stakeholder engagement process provided constructive feedback for future improvements and should be routinely conducted to ensure maximal effectiveness of stakeholder involvement.

  18. Effect of extraction procedures on structural, thermal and antioxidant properties of ulvan from Ulva lactuca collected in Monastir coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaich, Hela; Amira, Amal Ben; Abbes, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Besbes, Souhail; Richel, Aurore; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Garna, Haikel

    2017-12-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the effect of an acid extraction as well as a combined enzymatic-chemical extraction on structural, thermal and antioxidant properties of the sulphated polysaccharide 'ulvan' from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. Structural characterization by FTIR and NMR spectroscopies showed the typical peaks of ulvan, namely, uronic acids, rhamnose and sulphate. FTIR analysis revealed that the extraction procedures were able to maintain ulvan structure. Despite differences in the extraction procedures, 13 C NMR spectra were globally similar, proving a comparable chemical structure of ulvans. A major difference has been observed in signal intensity which reflected the resonance of glucose or xylose. Thermal characterization proved that ulvans were thermally stable until approximately 180°C. Antioxidant properties of ulvans were evaluated in vitro through different antioxidant assays. Ulvan, which is extracted at pH 1.5 and 90°C, exhibited the greatest scavenging activity (IC 50 =13.56μg/ml) towards DPPH radical. Result indicated that Mw has influenced inhibitory effect on DPPH radical of ulvan. The current study revealed also a high correlation between sulphate contents of ulvans and their reducing power (R 2 =-0.89) and their metal scavenging activity (R 2 =0.97). Overall, ulvans have peculiar structural, thermal and antioxidant properties which promote their use in food or pharmaceutical products as natural ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing interactive videodisc training effectiveness to traditional training methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Videodisc skills training programs developed by Industrial Training Corporation are being used and evaluated by major industrial facilities. In one such study, interactive videodisc training programs were compared to videotape and instructor-based training to determine the effectiveness of videodisc in terms of performance, training time and trainee attitudes. Results showed that when initial training was done using the interactive videodisc system, trainee performance was superior to the performance of trainees using videotape, and approximately equal to the performance of those trained by an instructor. When each method was used in follow-up training, interactive videodisc was definitely the most effective. Results also indicate that training time can be reduced using interactive videodisc. Attitudes of both trainees and instructors toward the interactive videodisc training were positive

  20. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  1. Quality Gaps and Comparative Effectiveness of Management Strategies for Recurrent Malignant Pleural Effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David E; Niu, Jiangong; Zhao, Hui; Grosu, Horiana B; Giordano, Sharon H

    2018-02-01

    Guidelines for recurrent malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) recommend definitive procedures, such as indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) or pleurodesis, over repeat thoracentesis. We hypothesized that many patients have multiple thoracenteses rather than definitive procedures and that this results in more procedures and complications. Retrospective cohort study using SEER-Medicare data from 2007 to 2011. Patients 66 to 90 years of age with an MPE were included. The primary outcome was whether patients with rapidly recurring MPE, defined as recurrence within 2 weeks of first thoracentesis, received guideline consistent care. Guideline consistent care was defined as a definitive second pleural procedure. Thoracentesis for MPE was performed in 23,431 patients. A second pleural procedure because of recurrence was required in 12,967 (55%). Recurrence was rapid in 7,565 (58%) of the 12,967 patients that had a recurrence. Of the 7,565 patients with rapid recurrence, 1,811 (24%) received guideline consistent care. Definitive pleural procedures compared with repeat thoracentesis resulted in fewer subsequent pleural procedures (0.62 vs 1.44 procedures per patient, respectively; P tube or thoracoscopic pleurodesis (0.013 vs 0.013 vs 0.085 vs 0.097 inpatient days per day of life, respectively; P < .001). Guideline consistent care using definitive procedures compared with repeat thoracentesis was associated with fewer subsequent procedures and complications; however, pleurodesis resulted in more inpatient days. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Effects of Self-Monitoring on the Procedural Integrity of a Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Ferreri, Summer J.; Maupin, Angela N.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of self-monitoring on procedural integrity of token economy implementation by 3 staff in a special education classroom were evaluated. The subsequent changes in academic readiness behaviors of 2 students with low-incidence disabilities were measured. Multiple baselines across staff and students showed that procedural integrity…

  3. The Effect of a New Calibration Procedure on the Measurement Accuracy of Scintec's Displaced-Beam Laser Scintillometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, van A.J.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Kroonenberg, van den A.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new calibration procedure included in the production process of Scintec’s displaced-beam laser scintillometers (SLS-20/40) and its effect on their measurement accuracy. The calibration procedure determines the factual displacement distances of the laser beams at the receiver and

  4. Safety Evaluation of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Compared with Two Procedures of Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding for Individuals with Morbid Obesity: A Systemic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Arabi Basharic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding are the most common bariatric surgery procedures. Therefore, this study aims to compare the safety of the newer procedure of Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy compared to Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and Laparoscopic adjustable gastric bonding. Method: A systematic review was conducted on the most important and most relevant search data bases, including Cochrane library, Pubmed, Ovid Medline as well as Iranian sites of Magiran , Iranmedex , SID, not taking the time limit into consideration. The results found in the literature were classified and were then analyzed. Results: Out of 384 articles obtained in the search, 4 randomized clinical trials (RCT were included in this study. There were no reports of death comparing surgical procedures of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Moreover, in adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass comparison, one death was observed in each group. Regarding the side effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, 10% early complications were reported in the Roux-en-Y gastric  bypass group , and 13% were observed in the sleeve gastrectomy group between which no statistically significant difference was revealed. The comparison between adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass demonstrated that the occurrence of early and late complications was reported to be higher in the gastric bypass group, though no statistically significant difference was observed. Conclusion: The present study findings demonstrated no statistically significant difference between these methods in regard with the safety aspect. As a result, selection as well as success of the bariatric surgery procedures depend on the patient's and surgeon's preferences.

  5. The influence of the SO2ageing on the graffiti cleaning effectiveness with chemical procedures on a granite substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Vera; Dionísio, Amélia; Santiago Pozo-Antonio, J

    2018-06-01

    Graffiti are one of the most severe threats to Stone Cultural Heritage and are most of the times removed after long periods of environmental exposure. This research intends to evaluate the influence of the ageing of the graffitis on the effectiveness of their cleaning. So, comparative studies on unaged and on artificially SO 2 aged samples were conducted. Four graffiti spray colours were applied on a granite stone and cleaned with two chemical commercial cleaners: a solution of KOH and a solution of n-butyl acetate, xylene and alcohol isobutyl. The spray paints (unaged and aged) and cleaning effectiveness were characterized by stereomicroscopy, colour spectrophotometry, adhesion tests, SEM, μEDXRF, XRD and FTIR. The cleaning effectiveness was also evaluated through surface roughness and static contact angle measurements. The alkyd graffiti paints presented greatest resistance under SO 2 rich environments than the polyethylene paint. The aged polyethylene paint showed chemical modifications that resulted in graffiti losses and neo formed mineralogical phases in the surface of the paint. After ageing, the paints became more difficult to clean, showed higher global colour changes and higher residue percentages. No significant roughness variations were detected after chemical cleaning. After the cleaning procedures aged surfaces became more water repellent comparatively to unaged and reference samples. The best cleaning effectiveness was mainly achieved with the potassium hydroxide solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of correction strategies in connected discourse tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunato, K E; Weisenberger, J M

    1994-10-01

    The effectiveness of four correction strategies commonly used in connected discourse tracking was investigated in the present study. The strategies were 1) verbatim repetition of a word or phrase; 2) use of antonyms or synonyms as cues; 3) use of phonemic cues, with no whole word repetition; and 4) going back or ahead in the text, with no repetition of the missed segment. Four normal-hearing adults served as listeners. Live-voice presentation of text by two female talkers was employed for all conditions. Listeners were tested in two stimulus presentation modes, speechreading alone and speechreading plus a multichannel tactile aid. Results indicated that strategy 1, repetition of the missed segment, produced the highest tracking rates, significantly higher than any of the other strategies. Strategy 2 produced the lowest tracking rates. Strategies 1 and 3 yielded the lowest percentage of initially missed words, or blockages, and strategy 4 the highest percentage. Significantly higher tracking rates were found under the speechreading plus tactile aid presentation mode, compared with speechreading alone. Further, tracking rates increased significantly from the beginning to the end of training. Data were compared with a more typical CDT task, in which all correction strategies were operative, and results showed little difference in tracking rates between this task and the constrained CDT employing only strategy 1. Overall, results suggest that simple repetition of missed segments is an effective correction strategy for CDT and argue for its inclusion in computer-assisted tracking implementations.

  7. Specimen Validity Testing SVT) - Effects of Oxidizing Agents on Drugs in Urine and Procedures for Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B D; Dunkley, C S

    2007-07-01

    Since the inception of the drug-testing program in the U.S. Armed Forces in 1982, urine adulteration with the intent to conceal drug use has been a serious problem to forensic scientists. Initially, drug users tried almost anything that was available at the collection sites. Soon they recognized that certain chemicals could be used to destroy some drugs and interfere with the testing procedures. Some drug analytes, in particular morphine and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, a metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, could not be detected in presence of some oxidizing agents. As the use of adulterants increased, specimen validity testing was introduced by the Department of Health and Human Services in 2004. While specific reagents could be used to test nitrite, chromate, and iodine, test procedures for many other oxidizing agents were not available. In an attempt to detect most oxidants, a different approach has been introduced to identify urines adulterated with oxidizing adulterants. In this approach, the oxidizing property of normal urine is compared with that of urine containing oxidizing agents. In the procedure, samples are allowed to interact with excess ferrous (Fe2+) ions and then with chromogenic compounds. In the presence of oxidants, Fe2+ ions with low reduction potential (E0 0.771 V) are immediately oxidized to ferric (Fe3+) ions, which then change the chromogenic compounds to colored chromogens. Specific spectral pattern and intensity are the keys in quantification of oxidants in urine (milliEquivalent/liter, mE/L). The method appeared to be promising in differentiating normal urine from urine adulterated with oxidizing agents. Some oxidizing adulterants in urine are unstable. If reduced, it could be reconverted to the oxidizing agents and tested by the general oxidant test. Copyright © 2007 Central Police University.

  8. Effect of cleaning procedures on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube transistors—A statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittmann-Otto, J., E-mail: jana.tittmann-otto@zfm.tu-chemnitz.de; Hermann, S.; Hartmann, M.; Toader, M. [Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany); Kalbacova, J.; Rodriguez, R. D.; Zahn, D. R. T. [Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany); Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany); Schulz, S. E.; Gessner, T. [Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Chemnitz D-09126 (Germany)

    2016-03-28

    The interface between a carbon nanotube (CNT) and its environment can dramatically affect the electrical properties of CNT-based field-effect transistors (FETs). For such devices, the channel environment plays a significant role inducing doping or charge traps giving rise to hysteresis in the transistor characteristics. Thereby the fabrication process strongly determines the extent of those effects and the final device performance. In CNT-based devices obtained from dispersions, a proper individualization of the nanotubes is mandatory. This is generally realized by an ultrasonic treatment combined with surfactant molecules, which enwrap nanotubes forming micelle aggregates. To minimize impact on device performance, it is of vital importance to consider post-deposition treatments for removal of surfactant molecules and other impurities. In this context, we investigated the effect of several wet chemical cleaning and thermal post treatments on the electrical characteristics as well as physical properties of more than 600 devices fabricated only by wafer-level compatible technologies. We observed that nitric acid and water treatments improved the maximum-current of devices. Additionally, we found that the ethanol treatment successfully lowered hysteresis in the transfer characteristics. The effect of the chemical cleaning procedures was found to be more significant on CNT-metal contacts than for the FET channels. Moreover, we investigated the effect of an additional thermal cleaning step under vacuum after the chemical cleaning, which had an exceptional impact on the hysteresis behavior including hysteresis reversal. The presence of surfactant molecules on CNT was evidenced by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. By identifying the role of surfactant molecules and assessing the enhancement of device performance as a direct consequence of several cleaning procedures, these results are important for the development of CNT-based electronics at the wafer-level.

  9. Retention of inhaled plutonium oxide. Elimination procedures by pulmonary lavage and effect of the alveolar macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, Daniel.

    1977-03-01

    A large fraction of the plutonium particles, reaching the deeper lung are retained in the alveolar macrophages during several months. Cell function changes were measured in vivo and in vitro. Stimulation of macrophage mobility and phagocytosis or natural clearance processes were uneffective on PuO 2 excretion. In vivo pulmonary lavage was the only effective therapy. The procedures of in toto pulmonary lavage in order to obtain the highest number of macrophages are described. A study of the physiological and histological consequences showed no long-term pathology, lesions observed during 48 h after lavage were restored quickly. A single lavage eliminated 12-25% only of the lung burden. A procedure of ten repeated lavages (1 per week) eliminated 60-90% of the lung burden. The action of lavage seemed twofold: direct elimination in the rinsing liquid and faster pulmonary clearance with low lymph node overload. Survivals in treated animals kept for long-term observations were compatible with the lung burdens remaining after treatment. Demontration of an inhibiting effect on pulmonary fibrosis should indicate a larger utilization [fr

  10. The Effects of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Towards Critical Thinking Skills of Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukaesih, S.; Sutrisno

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the application of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning to the students’ critical thinking skills in the matter of categorisaed in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan. This study was quasi-experimental design using nonequivalent control group design. The population in this study was entire class X. The samples that were taken by convenience sampling were class X MIA 1 and X MIA 2. Primary data in the study was the student’s critical thinking skills, which was supported by student activity, the level of adherence to the CUPs learning model, student opinion and teacher opinion. N-gain test results showed that the students’ critical thinking skills of experimental class increased by 89.32%, while the control group increased by 57.14%. Activity grade of experimental class with an average value of 72.37 was better than that of the control class with an average of only 22.69 student and teacher opinions to the learning were excellegoodnt. Based on this study concluded that the model of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) had an effect on the student’s critical thinking skills in the matter of protest in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan.

  11. Can a Drill Guide Improve the Coracoid Graft Placement During the Latarjet Procedure? A Prospective Comparative Study With the Freehand Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Johannes; Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Neyton, Lionel; Lafosse, Laurent; Walch, Gilles

    2017-10-01

    One of the factors that can affect the success of the Latarjet procedure is accurate coracoid graft (CG) placement. The use of a guide can improve placement of the CG and screw positioning in the sagittal and axial planes as compared with the classic open ("freehand") technique. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 49 patients who underwent a Latarjet procedure for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability were prospectively included; the procedure was performed with the freehand technique in 22 patients (group 1) and with use of a parallel drill guide during screw placement in 27 patients (group 2). All patients underwent a postoperative computed tomography scan with the same established protocol. The scans were used to evaluate and compare the position of the CG in the sagittal and axial planes, the direction of the screws (α angle), and overall contact of the graft with the anterior surface of the glenoid after the 2 surgical techniques. The CG was placed >60% below the native glenoid equator in 23 patients (85.2%) in group 2, compared with 14 patients (63.6%) in group 1 ( P = .004). In the axial plane, the position of the CG in group 2 patients was more accurate (85.2% and 88.9% flush) at the inferior and middle quartiles of the glenoid surface ( P = .012 and .009), respectively. Moreover, with the freehand technique (group 1), the graft was in a more lateral position in the inferior and middle quartiles ( P = .012 and .009, respectively). No differences were found between groups 1 and 2 regarding the mean α angle of the superior (9° ± 4.14° vs 11° ± 6.3°, P = .232) and inferior (9.5° ± 6° vs 10° ± 7.5°, P = .629) screws. However, the mean contact angle (angle between the posterior coracoid and the anterior glenoid surface) with the freehand technique (3.8° ± 6.8°) was better than that of the guide (8.55° ± 8°) ( P = .05). Compared with the classic freehand operative technique, the parallel drill guide can ensure

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of the Different Treatment Modalities for Snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Stefanie; De Medts, Joris; Delsupehe, Kathelijne

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate what effects treatments of sleep-disordered breathing have on snoring and sleepiness: snoring surgery including osteotomies, mandibular advancement device (MAD), and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Single-institution prospective comparative effectiveness trial. University-affiliated secondary care teaching hospital. We prospectively studied 224 patients presenting with snoring at our department. All patients underwent detailed evaluation, including symptom questionnaires, clinical examination, polysomnography, and drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Based on these results, a treatment was proposed after multidisciplinary consultation. Treatment was evaluated through 4 questionnaires before treatment and 6 weeks and 6 months after. Treatment success was defined as a global snoring visual analog scale score ≤3 at 6 months. A total of 195 patients complied with full workup and were proposed treatment. The mean age was 46 ± 11 years; the mean body mass index, 27 ± 4; and the median apnea-hypopnea index, 10.0 (interquartile range, 4.7-20.1). After discussion, 116 (59.5%) patients agreed to start treatment (46%, surgery; 26% MAD; 28% CPAP). All symptom scores, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale, decreased significantly for all treatments at 6 weeks and 6 months. Treatment was successful in 67% of the surgery patients, 67% of the MAD group, and 76% of the CPAP group. Only 6.7% reported an unchanged snoring score in the surgery group, compared with 13.6% in the MAD group and 9.6 % in the CPAP group. Multidisciplinary agreed-on treatment of snoring is effective across the proposed treatments. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. LITT on canine prostates: an in-vivo study to compare the effects of different wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Perlmutter, Aaron P.; Martin, Thomas; Muschter, Rolf

    1996-05-01

    Laser induced interstitial thermotherapy is a new minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Since high power laser diode lasers became available for clinical use a comparison of tissue effects of different wavelengths under controlled conditions is needed. In this study three different laser wavelengths were compared at output powers of 4 W and 8 W with 10 min and 90 s irradiation time, respectively, resulting in applied energies of 2700 J and 720 J. The results in both groups showed that the use of a wavelength close to the relative water absorption peak at 980 nm gave tendentiously but not significantly larger coagulated areas. Furthermore it became obvious that the use of 8 W for 90 sec results in higher maximum temperatures and larger lesions compared to the application of 4 W over a period of 10 min, although the energy used in the latter group was 4 fold higher.

  14. [Comparative evaluation of effects of various bronchodilators in sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizel', A A; Islamova, L V; Guryleva, M E; Amirov, N B; Dmitriev, E G; Bondarev, A V; Nasretdinova, G R

    2003-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to compare three bronchodilators on patients with respiratory sarcoidosis. Ninety patients (66 females and 24 males) with intrathoracic sarcoidosis were examined. X-ray stages I, II, III, and IV were seen in 48.9, 46.7, 3.3, and 1.1%, respectively. A flow-volume curve was recorded on a Masterscreen Pnevmo apparatus (Erich Jaeger) before and after inhalations of salbutamol (200 micrograms, a flask), ipratropium bromide (40 micrograms, a flask), and 1 ml of berodual solution through a Boreal nebulizer. The mean baseline values of forced expiration were normal, except for MOS75 (51.0 +/- 1.3% of the normal values). After salbutamol, the increment of MOS75 was higher than that after ipratropium (20.7 +/- 3.1% and 12.3 +/- 2.3%, respectively, p salbutamol (10.1 +/- 6%, p action of salbutamol on all the parameters of forced expiration, but failed to affect the effect of ipratropium and berodual. Prednisolone did not affect the effects of bronchodilators. A combination of beta 2 agonist and inhaled steroid may be effective in intrathoracic sarcoidosis with the bronchial obstruction syndrome. The mechanism of varying action of the drugs having different mechanisms of action requires further investigations.

  15. Consumer involvement in systematic reviews of comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Julia; Puhan, Milo A; Schünemann, Holger J; Dickersin, Kay

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently recommended that comparative effectiveness research (CER) should involve input from consumers. While systematic reviews are a major component of CER, little is known about consumer involvement. To explore current approaches to involving consumers in US-based and key international organizations and groups conducting or commissioning systematic reviews ('organizations'). In-depth, semi-structured interviews with key informants and review of organizations' websites. Seventeen highly regarded US-based and international (Cochrane Collaboration, Campbell Collaboration) organizations. Organizations that usually involve consumers (seven of 17 in our sample) involve them at a programmatic level in the organization or in individual reviews through one-time consultation or on-going collaboration. For example, consumers may suggest topics, provide input on the key questions of the review, provide comments on draft protocols and reports, serve as co-authors or on an advisory group. Organizations involve different types of consumers (individual patients, consumer advocates, families and caregivers), recruiting them mainly through patient organizations and consumer networks. Some offer training in research methods, and one developed training for researchers on how to involve consumers. Little formal evaluation of the effects of consumer involvement is being carried out. Consumers are currently involved in systematic reviews in a variety of ways and for various reasons. Assessing which approaches are most effective in achieving different aims of consumer involvement is now required to inform future recommendations on consumer involvement in CER. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effectiveness of thermal annular procedures in treating discogenic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm Ii, Standiford; Deer, Timothy R; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Datta, Sukdeb; Chopra, Pradeep; Singh, Vijay; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    Persistent low back pain refractory to conservative treatment is a common problem that leads to widespread impairment, resulting in significant costs to society. The intervertebral disc is a major source of persistent low back pain. Technologies developed to treat this problem, including various surgical instrumentation and fusion techniques, have not reliably provided satisfactory results in terms of either pain relief or increased function. Thermal annular procedures (TAPs) were first developed in the late 1990s in an attempt to treat discogenic pain. The hope was that they would provide greater value than fusion in terms of efficacy, morbidity, and cost. Three technologies have been developed to apply heat to the annulus: intradiscal electrothermal therapy (IDET), discTRODE, and biacuplasty. Since nerve ingrowth and tissue regeneration in the annulus is felt to be the source of pain in discogenic low back pain, when describing the 3 above techniques we use the term "thermal annular procedures" rather than "thermal intradiscal procedures." We have specifically excluded studies treating the nucleus. TAPs have been the subject of significant controversy. Multiple reviews have been conducted resulting in varying conclusions. A systematic review of TAPs for the treatment of discogenic low back pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of TAPs in treating discogenic low back pain and to assess complications associated with those procedures. The available literature on TAPs in treating discogenic low back pain was reviewed. The quality assessment and clinical relevance criteria utilized were the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group criteria for interventional techniques for randomized trials, and the criteria developed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale criteria for observational studies. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, or poor based on the quality of evidence developed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Data sources included relevant literature

  17. Effect of Different Saliva Decontamination Procedures on Bond Strength to Dentin in Single Bottle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghavam

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Following the increasing use of composites in restoring anterior and posterior teeth, problems due to its technique sensitivity have become a major concern.One of these problems is the possibility of contamination of dentin with saliva, blood and/or gingival fluid in different stages of bonding procedure, even with application of different methods of isolation. However, by introduction of Single-bottle dentin adhesives,the contamination possibility reduced to two stages. Scientific documents show that saliva contamination reduces bond strength of composites to dentin. Application of simple and efficient methods for reducing or eliminating saliva contamination enables clinicians to carry out dental treatment without any concern about deterioration of clinical longevity of restoration.Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effect of different decontamination methods on the shear bond strength of composite to dentin using a “Single-bottle” adhesive.Materials and Methods: Seventy-two extracted sound human molars and premolars were selected. Enamel of buccal surface was ground flat to expose dentin. The teeth were divided into 9 groups of 8 each. In control group (1 the adhesive “Excite” was used according tothe manufacturer, without any contamination. Conditioned and saliva contaminated dentin was (2 rinsed and blot dried, (3 rinsed, dried and re-etched. In groups 4, 5, 6 uncured adhesive was saliva contaminated and then: (4 only blot dried (5 rinsed, blot dried with adhesive reapplication and (6 resurfaced with bur, rinsed, dried and followed by repeating the whole process. In groups 7, 8, 9 cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva and then:(7 rinsed and dried (8 rinsed, blot dried with adhesive reapplication (9 same as group (6.Then “Tetric Ceram” composite cylinders were bonded to dentin surfaces. Samples were thermo cycled in 5°C and 55°C water, 30 seconds in each bath with a dowel time of 10

  18. Anatomic outcomes of vaginal mesh procedure (Prolift) compared with uterosacral ligament suspension and abdominal sacrocolpopexy for pelvic organ prolapse: a Fellows' Pelvic Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanses, Tatiana V D; Shahryarinejad, Azin; Molden, Stephanie; Hoskey, Kay A; Abbasy, Shameem; Patterson, Danielle; Saks, Emily K; Weber LeBrun, Emily E; Gamble, Tondalaya L; King, Virginia G; Nguyen, Aimee L; Abed, Husam; Young, Stephen B

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the study was to compare apical support anatomic outcomes following vaginal mesh procedure (VMP) (Prolift) to uterosacral ligament suspension (USLS) and abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). This multicenter, retrospective chart review compared apical anatomic success (stage 0 or 1 based on point C or D of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification), level of vaginal apex (point C or D) 3-6 months after prolapse repair at 10 US centers between 2004 and 2007. VMP, USLS, and ASC were performed for 206, 231, and 305 subjects respectively. There was no difference in apical success after VMP (98.8%) compared with USLS (99.1%) or ASC (99.3%) (both P = 1.00) 3-6 months after surgery. The average elevation of the vaginal apex was lower after VMP (-6.9 cm) than USLS (-8.05 cm) and ASC (-8.5 cm) (both P < .001) Patients undergoing VMP have similar apical success compared with USLS and ASC despite lower vaginal apex 3-6 month after surgery.

  19. Comparative Potential Protect Effect of HSCAS, Diatomite and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mdenli

    Aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) activities and total protein concentration in the serum ... consuming AFB1 at 80 µg/kg feed showed a yellowish colour, portal leucocytic infiltration, congestion, .... Data were analysed using the General Linear models (GLM) procedure of SPSS 9.0 (1993).

  20. An overview of methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Weinberger, Morris; Chen, Ronald C; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a broad category of outcomes research encompassing many different methods employed by researchers and clinicians from numerous disciplines. The goal of cancer-focused CER is to generate new knowledge to assist cancer stakeholders in making informed decisions that will improve health care and outcomes of both individuals and populations. There are numerous CER methods that may be used to examine specific questions, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies, systematic literature reviews, and decision sciences modeling. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. To both inform and serve as a reference for readers of this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology as well as the broader oncology community, we describe CER and several of the more commonly used approaches and analytical methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Comparative effects of enteric-coated pancreatin microsphere therapy after conventional and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Borm, J. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Delzenne, B.; Hofmann, A. F.; de Goeij, J. J.; van Royen, E. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; de Wit, L. T.; Gouma, D. J.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A comparative study was performed between patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after conventional pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). In these patients the pharmacodynamics of 2-mm enteric-coated pancreatin

  2. A CTSA Agenda to Advance Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell Jr., Frank E.; Meltzer, David O.; Montori, Victor M.; Shepard, Donald S.; Kent, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient‐centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients’ preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient‐centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient‐centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient‐centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 188–198 PMID:21707950

  3. The estimation of radiation effective dose from diagnostic medical procedures in general population of northern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabestani Monfared, A.; Abdi, R.

    2006-01-01

    The risks of low-dose Ionizing radiation from radiology and nuclear medicine are not clearly determined. Effective dose to population is a very important factor in risk estimation. The study aimed to determine the effective dose from diagnostic radiation medicine in a northern province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data about various radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures were collected from all radiology and nuclear medicine departments In Mazandaran Province (population = 2,898,031); and using the standard dosimetry tables, the total dose, dose per examination, and annual effective dose per capita as well as the annual gonadal dose per capita were estimated. Results: 655,730 radiologic examinations in a year's period, lead to 1.45 mSv, 0.33 mSv and 0.31 mGy as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public, and annual average gonadal dose per capita, respectively. The frequency of medical radiologic examinations was 2,262 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. However, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations in the same period was 7074, with 4.37 mSv, 9.6 μSv and 9.8 μGy, as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public and annual average gonadal dose per caput, respectively. The frequency of nuclear medicine examination was 24 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. Conclusion: The average effective dose per examination was nearly similar to other studies. However, the average annual effective dose and annual average gonadal dose per capita were less than the similar values in other reports, which could be due to lesser number of radiation medicine examinations in the present study

  4. A comparative study on the efficacy of a commercial fibrin adhesive (Tisseel® vis-à-vis silk suture on wound closure following periodontal surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimegalai A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of fibrin adhesive sealant (Tisseel® , a human biological tissue adhesive, as compared to conventional suture placement in pocket elimination and mucogingival surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 25 patients (10 male and 15 female patients, in the age group of 25-40 years, with localized periodontitis in relation to the anterior region of the maxilla and mandible. They were divided into three surgical groups: Group I, Group II and Group III. Each of these groups was further divided into control and experimental groups. In all the control groups, the flaps/grafts were approximated with 4-0 black braided silk. In the experimental groups, the flaps/grafts were approximated with fibrin adhesive sealant (Tisseel; . Clinical parameters were taken pre-operatively.operatively and post-operatively on the 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 7 th , and 10 th , day. Results: The Fibrin Adhesive System (FAS showed superior results in all the parameters measured, i.e., hemostasis, fixation of tissues, reduction in plaque and gingival index and probing depth postoperatively. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that periodontal surgery using FAS enhances various periodontal regenerative surgical procedures.

  5. Fact retrieval and memory consolidation for a movement sequence: bidirectional effects of 'unrelated' cognitive tasks on procedural memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tibi

    Full Text Available The generation of long-term memory for motor skills can be modulated by subsequent motor experiences that interfere with the consolidation process. Recent studies suggest that even a non-motor task may adversely affect some aspects of motor sequence memory. Here we show that motor sequence memory can be either enhanced or reduced, by different cognitive tasks. Participants were trained in performing finger movement sequences. Fully explicit instructions about the target sequence were given before practice. The buildup of procedural knowledge was tested at three time-points: immediately before training (T1, after practice (T2, and 24 hours later (T3. Each participant performed the task on two separate occasions; training on a different movement sequence on each occasion. In one condition, interference, participants performed a non-motor task immediately after T2. Half the participants solved simple math problems and half performed a simple semantic judgment task. In the baseline condition there was no additional task. All participants improved significantly between T1 and T2 (within-session gains. In addition, in the baseline condition, performance significantly improved between T2 and T3 (delayed 'off-line' gains. Solving math problems significantly enhanced these delayed gains in motor performance, whereas performing semantic decisions significantly reduced delayed gains compared to baseline. Thus, procedural motor memory consolidation can be either enhanced or inhibited by subsequent cognitive experiences. These effects do not require explicit or implicit new learning. The retrieval of unrelated, non-motor, well established knowledge can modulate procedural memory.

  6. Usability Testing for Developing Effective Interactive Multimedia Software: Concepts, Dimensions, and Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Heum Lee

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Usability testing is a dynamic process that can be used throughout the process of developing interactive multimedia software. The purpose of usability testing is to find problems and make recommendations to improve the utility of a product during its design and development. For developing effective interactive multimedia software, dimensions of usability testing were classified into the general categories of: learnability; performance effectiveness; flexibility; error tolerance and system integrity; and user satisfaction. In the process of usability testing, evaluation experts consider the nature of users and tasks, tradeoffs supported by the iterative design paradigm, and real world constraints to effectively evaluate and improve interactive multimedia software. Different methods address different purposes and involve a combination of user and usability testing, however, usability practitioners follow the seven general procedures of usability testing for effective multimedia development. As the knowledge about usability testing grows, evaluation experts will be able to choose more effective and efficient methods and techniques that are appropriate to their goals.

  7. A procedure to correct the effects of a relative delay between the quadrature components of radar signals at base band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grydeland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The real and imaginary parts of baseband signals are obtained from a real narrow-band signal by quadrature mixing, i.e. by mixing with cosine and sine signals at the narrow band's selected center frequency. We address the consequences of a delay between the outputs of the quadrature mixer, which arise when digital samples of the quadrature baseband signals are not synchronised, i.e. when the real and imaginary components have been shifted by one or more samples with respect to each other. Through analytical considerations and simulations of such an error on different synthetic signals, we show how this error can be expected to afflict different measurements. In addition, we show the effect of the error on actual incoherent scatter radar data obtained by two different digital receiver systems used in parallel at the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. The analytical considerations indicate a procedure to correct the error, albeit with some limitations due to a small singular region. We demonstrate the correction procedure on actually afflicted data and compare the results to simultaneously acquired unafflicted data. We also discuss the possible data analysis strategies, including some that avoid dealing directly with the singular region mentioned above.

  8. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. We investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by ???70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  9. The Cosine Error: A Bayesian Procedure for Treating a Non-repetitive Systematic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An inconsistency with respect to variable transformations in our previous treatment of the cosine error example with repositioning (Metrologia, vol. 47, pp. R1–R14 is pointed out. The problem refers to the measurement of the vertical height of a column of liquid in a manometer. A systematic effect arises because of the possible deviation of the measurement axis from the vertical, which may be different each time the measurement is taken. A revised procedure for treating this problem is proposed; it consists in straightforward application of Bayesian statistics using a conditional reference prior with partial information. In most practical applications, the numerical differences between the two procedures will be negligible, so the interest of the revised one is mainly of conceptual nature. Nevertheless, similar measurement models may appear in other contexts, for example, in intercomparisons, so the present investigation may serve as a warning to analysts against applying the same methodology we used in our original approach to the present problem.

  10. A Bayesian procedure for estimating the causal effects of nursing home bed-hold policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Roee; Intrator, Orna; Lancaster, Tony

    2017-10-03

    Nursing home bed-hold policies provide continuity of care for Medicaid beneficiaries by paying nursing homes to reserve beds so residents can return to their facility of occupancy following an acute hospitalization. In 2001, Michigan implemented bed-hold policies in nursing homes. We investigated the impact of these policies on mortality and hospitalizations using 1999-2004 quarterly data from nursing homes in Michigan and nursing homes in 11 states that did not implement such policies. Synthetic Control has been used to estimate the effects of policies by accounting for changes over time unrelated to the intervention. Synthetic Control is intended for scalar continuous outcome at each period, and assumes a single treated unit and multiple control units. We propose a Bayesian procedure to overcome these limitations. It imputes the outcomes of nursing homes in Michigan if they were not exposed to the policy by matching to non-exposed nursing homes that are associated with the exposed ones in the pre-policy period. Because sampling from a Bayesian model is computationally challenging, we describe an approximation procedure that can be implemented using existing software. Our approach can be applied to other studies that examine the impact of policies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of dextran on five biuret-based procedures for total protein in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D B; Pierce, G F; Lichti, D; Landt, M; Koenig, J; Chan, K M

    1985-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of dextran on values for total protein in serum as measured by the biuret method with five widely used automated instruments: the American Monitor Parallel; the Du Pont aca II; the Roche Cobas-Bio; the Kodak Ektachem 400; and the Beckman Astra 8. Dextran concentrations as great as 25 or 30 g/L had relatively little or no influence on total protein measurements by the latter three instruments. Dextran concentrations exceeding 6 g/L caused falsely low results with the aca, whereas the Parallel gave falsely high results when the dextran concentration exceeded 2 g/L. The aca total protein procedure could be protected from the interference by dextran concentrations up to 30 g/L by injecting 0.4-0.8 mL of ethylene glycol directly into the reagent pack before sampling. However, we could not eliminate the interference with the Parallel procedure by any simple means; we thus recommend that it not be used for measuring total protein in serum samples from patients who are being treated with dextran.

  12. The extraction of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residues from a clay soil using sonication and a Soxhlet procedure: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, T F

    1999-02-01

    A sonication method was compared with Soxhlet extraction for recovering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a clay soil that had been contaminated with tar materials for several decades. Using sonication over an 8 h extraction period, maximum extraction of the 16 US EPA priority PAH was obtained with dichloromethane (DCM)-acetone (1 + 1). The same procedure using hexane-acetone (1 + 1) recovered 86% of that obtained using DCM-acetone (1 + 1). PAH recovery was dependent on time of extraction up to a period of 8 h. The sonication procedure showed that individual PAH are extracted at differing rates depending on the number of fused rings in the molecule. Soxhlet extraction [with DCM-acetone (1 + 1)] over an 8 h period recovered 95% of the PAH removed by the sonication procedure using DCM-acetone (1 + 1), indicating that rigorous sonication can achieve PAH recoveries similar to those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The lower recovery with the Soxhlet extraction was explained by the observed losses of the volatile PAH components after 1-4 h of extraction. The type of solvent used, the length of time of extraction and extraction method influenced the quantification of PAH in the soil. Therefore, the study has implications for PAH analyses in soils and sediments, and particularly for contaminated site assessments where the data from commercial laboratories are being used. The study emphasizes the importance of establishing (and being consistent in the application of) a vigorous extraction, particularly for commercial laboratories that handle samples of soil in batches (at different times) from a single site investigation or remediation process. The strong binding of PAH to soil, forming aged residues, has significant implications for extraction efficiency. This paper illustrates the problem of the underestimation of PAH using the US EPA method 3550, specifically where a surrogate spike is routinely employed and the efficiency of the extraction procedure for aged

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare e-Feedback Versus "Standard" Face-to-Face Verbal Feedback to Improve the Acquisition of Procedural Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Wissam; Elsharif, Mohamed; Anderson, Melanie; Chan, Phillip; Beard, Jonathan; Nawaz, Shah

    Constructive feedback plays an important role in learning during surgical training. Standard feedback is usually given verbally following direct observation of the procedure by a trained assessor. However, such feedback requires the physical presence of expert faculty members who are usually busy and time-constrained by clinical commitments. We aim to evaluate electronic feedback (e-feedback) after video observation of surgical suturing in comparison with standard face-to-face verbal feedback. A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing e-feedback with standard verbal feedback was carried out in February 2015 using a validated pro formas for assessment. The study participants were 38 undergraduate medical students from the University of Sheffield, UK. They were recorded on video performing the procedural skill, completed a self-evaluation form, and received e-feedback on the same day (group 1); observed directly by an assessor, invited to provide verbal self-reflection, and then received standard verbal feedback (group 2). In both groups, the feedback was provided after performing the procedure. The participants returned 2 days later and performed the same skill again. Poststudy questionnaire was used to assess the acceptability of each feedback among the participants. Overall, 19 students in group 1 and 18 students in group 2 completed the study. Although there was a significant improvement in the overall mean score on the second performance of the task for all participants (first performance mean 11.59, second performance mean 15.95; p ≤ 0.0001), there was no difference in the overall mean improvement score between group 1 and group 2 (4.74 and 3.94, respectively; p = 0.49). The mean overall scores for the e-feedback group at baseline recorded by 2 independent investigators showed good agreement (mean overall scores of 12.84 and 11.89; Cronbach α = 0.86). Poststudy questionnaire demonstrated that both e-feedback and standard verbal feedback

  14. Nitrous oxide provides safe and effective analgesia for minor paediatric procedures - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rie S; Bayat, Allan; Steen, Nick Phaff

    2013-01-01

    Pain and distress during minor hospital-related procedures is a familiar problem in many children. Inadequate relief of children's procedural pain and distress not only affects the experience of the children and their parents, but also adversely impacts procedural success. We aimed to review the ...

  15. The Effect of the Extinction Procedure in Function-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Donna M.; Umbreit, John; Ferro, Jolenea B.; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Lane, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the contribution of the extinction procedure in function-based interventions implemented in the general education classrooms of three at-risk elementary-aged students. Function-based interventions included antecedent adjustments, reinforcement procedures, and function-matched extinction procedures. Using a combined ABC…

  16. Effective and efficient learning in the operating theater with intraoperative video-enhanced surgical procedure training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Det, M.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Hoff, C.; Middel, B.; Pierie, J.P.

    INtraoperative Video Enhanced Surgical procedure Training (INVEST) is a new training method designed to improve the transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedural training in the operating theater. Traditionally, the master-apprentice model (MAM) is used for procedural training

  17. Contribution of osseous and muscular stabilizing effects with the Latarjet procedure for anterior instability without glenoid bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Joshua S; Dodson, Christopher C; McGarry, Michelle H; Oh, Joo Han; Altchek, David W; Lee, Thay Q

    2013-12-01

    The Latarjet procedure is used to treat anterior shoulder instability. Authors contend that the main concept of the operation is using the conjoined tendon as a sling to lower the subscapularis, reinforcing the anteroinferior capsule. The effects of the "sling," as well as stability and range of motion (ROM), after the Latarjet procedure have not been documented. In this study, we test the Latarjet procedure, attempting to account for the effect of the conjoined tendon. We also use the model to characterize the kinematic effects and stabilizing mechanism of the Latarjet procedure. Six cadaveric shoulders were tested in the intact state, after anterior capsulotomy, and after the Latarjet procedure. An apparatus was designed that allowed for loading of the conjoined tendon. ROM and translation were quantified. After conclusion of testing in the Latarjet group, the conjoined tendon was released and specimens were retested to determine stability attributable to the sling effect versus the osseous effect alone. We found no statistically significant differences with regard to ROM after the Latarjet procedure. The Latarjet procedure did significantly decrease anteroinferior translation. However, when the conjoined tendon was unloaded, there was a significantly decreased resistance to anterior translation. After conjoined tendon release, there was no effect on inferior translation. This study confirmed that the Latarjet procedure successfully decreases anteroinferior translation while maintaining ROM. It did not support the belief that inferior stability is provided by the sling effect. The model developed can serve as the basis for future testing. basic science study, biomechanics. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  19. The effect of in vitro procedures on cyclic AMP accumulation in human leucocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Friis, U G; Rasmussen, A K

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various methodological procedures or protocols on cyclic AMP formation in human leucocytes. The data showed that: (1) ATP content and lactate production was unaffected by hypotonic lysis during leucocyte isolation; (2) there was a linear...... relation between cell number/sample and the production of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP); (3) the interindividual variation markedly affected cAMP production during long observation periods (years), whereas day-to-day variation within a week was less important; (4) whole blood could be stored...... for up to 4 h (at 4 degrees C or 23 degrees C) without affecting cAMP accumulation; (5) isolated MNL could be stored for up to 2 h (at 4 degrees C) without affecting cAMP accumulation; and finally that (6) choice and concentration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors markedly influenced the basal...

  20. The Maquet procedure: effect of tibial shingle length on patellofemoral pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H Q; Kish, V; Boyd, R D; Burr, D B; Radin, E L

    1993-03-01

    The Maquet procedure--elevation of the anterior tibial tubercle--has been recommended for treatment of symptomatic osteoarthrosis of the patellofemoral joint. Although the operation was first described 30 years ago, it remains controversial, both on a clinical and on a biomechanical basis. In addition, deterioration of the long-term results has been suggested. One of the variables that has been ignored in both clinical and biomechanical studies has been tibial shingle length. In order to judge its effect, we examined contact pressures and areas in 15 cadaver knees with 7 and 20 cm tibial shingle lengths. We found significant patellofemoral pressure diminution only with 2 cm elevations. The short anterior tibial shingle with 2 cm of elevation tipped the patella on its superior pole, with a significant change in angle between the patella and the shingle. We suggest that this creates a potentially less than desirable biomechanical circumstance and believe it may explain the discrepancies among previously published reports.

  1. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of Blake's pouch cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vicente Brusius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blake's pouch cyst (BPC is a midline cystic malformation of the posterior fossa, within Dandy-Walker's complex (DWC, often associated with hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV has been an alternative to conventional methods for BPC treatment. This study aimed at reporting our experience with ETV in a series of patients with BPC. METHODS: Of 33 patients diagnosed with midline posterior fossa cyst, 26 met the protocol criteria for DWC, and eight subjects with BPC were selected (aged one month to two years old. All cases were treated with ETV. RESULTS: Five patients were male; and three were prenatally diagnosed. They had hydrocephalus and motor deficiencies. Motor assessment at a five-year follow-up yielded normal findings. All patients improved, and only one had residual cognitive dysfunction, despite overall neurological improvement. There were no complications. CONCLUSIONS: ETV was a safe and effective procedure, reducing risks and morbidity associated with open surgery and shunt-related problems.

  2. Hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ graft procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2011-01-01

    lower limb ischemia were obtained. Direct measurements of proximal and distal blood pressures in the graft were taken and simultaneous determinations of volume blood flow proximally and distally in the graft with ultrasound transit time technique before and after closure of residual fistulae were made......The objective was to study the intraoperative hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ saphenous vein graft procedures. Data on 60 residual arteriovenous fistulae in nine patients (five men) with a median age of 74 years (range 64-83 years) with critical....... Closure of a fistula with blood flow around or below 100 mL/min did not increase distal outflow, whereas closure of fistulae with higher blood flow resulted in unpredictable changes in distal outflow. Only fistulae with a blood flow above approximately 100 mL/min may be of hemodynamic significance....

  3. Effectiveness of tramadol/paracetamol compared with etoricoxib as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choy Y. Choy

    fibroadenoma, with a total of 20 cases (Table 2). The mean duration of the surgical procedures for the etoricoxib group was 85.7 [standard deviation (SD) of 39.5] minutes and 72.7. (SD of 27.2) minutes for the tramadol/paracetamol group. (p-value 0.35). The sum of pain intensity differences for etoricoxib were 0.77.

  4. Comparative Effectiveness in Medicine: Analysis of Episiotomy Practice Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of...period at 12 noon.51 They posit that clinicians could be more inclined to perform operative procedures to expedite deliveries during the day when...gestations, preterm deliveries (ផ weeks’ gestational age) and breech deliveries are excluded. Maternal and fetal complications such as ectopic and

  5. Effectiveness of Carisolv compared with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammaschke, Till; Eickmeier, Monika; Schäfer, Edgar; Danesh, Gholamreza; Ott, Klaus Heinrich Reiner

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Carisolv with that of two other alkaline substances: NaOCl and Ca(OH)2. Sixty extracted teeth were randomly divided into three groups and split down the center of a carious lesion. In group I, one half of the cavity was excavated with NaOCl (0.5%, pH 11.7), the corresponding half with Ca(OH)2 (pH 12.4); in group II with NaOCl and Carisolv; and in group III with Ca(OH)2 and Carisolv (n = 20 in each case). Carisolv hand instruments were used. Histological specimens were subsequently produced from all cavities and analyzed with a light-microscope following Mallory-Azan staining. The thickness of the remaining caries was measured ( 1 mm) and the locations were recorded. The data were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test. In group I, 50.5% of the specimens treated with NaOCI and 48.7% treated with Ca(OH)2 were evaluated to be caries-free. The results in group II were NaOCl 61.5% and Carisolv 75.4% caries-free, and in group III Ca(OH)2 61.2% and Carisolv 73.9%. No statistically significant differences were found between NaOCl and Ca(OH)2 excavation (group I: p = 0.89). Compared to NaOCl and Ca(OH)2, Carisolv produced significantly better results for chemo-mechanical caries removal (groups II + III: p 1 mm were found significantly more often than in the Carisolv-treated specimens (groups II + III: p 0.05).

  6. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of Patient Radiation Dose during Cardiac Interventional Procedures: What Is the Most Effective Method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Saito, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Zuguchi, M.; Kagaya, Y.; Takahashi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac interventional radiology has lower risks than surgical procedures. This is despite the fact that radiation doses from cardiac intervention procedures are the highest of any commonly performed general X-ray examination. Maximum radiation skin doses (MSDs) should be determined to avoid radiation-associated skin injuries in patients undergoing cardiac intervention procedures. However, real-time evaluation of MSD is unavailable for many cardiac intervention procedures. This review describes methods of determining MSD during cardiac intervention procedures. Currently, in most cardiac intervention procedures, real-time measuring of MSD is not feasible. Thus, we recommend that physicians record the patient's total entrance skin dose, such as the dose at the interventional reference point when it can be monitored, in order to estimate MSD in intervention procedures

  8. The Effect of Listening to Music During Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube Placement on Pain, Anxiety, and Success Rate of Procedure: A Randomized Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Nurullah; Ozturk, Erdem

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of listening to music on pain, anxiety, and success of procedure during office-based percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement (PNTP). One hundred consecutive patients (age >18 years) with hydronephrosis were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were prospectively randomized to undergo office-based PNTP with (Group I, n = 50) or without music (Group II, n = 50). Anxiety levels were evaluated with State Trait Anxiety Inventory. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain levels, patient's satisfaction, and willingness to undergo the procedure. We also compared success rates of procedures. The mean age, duration of procedure, and gender distribution were statistically similar between the two groups. The mean postprocedural heart rates and systolic blood pressures in Group I patients were significantly lower than Group II patients (p = 0.01 and p = 0.028, respectively), whereas preprocedural pulse rate and systolic blood pressure were similar. The mean anxiety level and mean pain score of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II (p = 0.008 and p music during office-based PNTP decreases anxiety or pain and increases success rate of procedure. As an alternative to sedation or general anesthesia, music is easily accessible without side effect and cost.

  9. The effect of reciprocation versus rotational movement on the incidence of root defects during retreatment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Y; Topçuoğlu, H S; Düzgün, S; Kesim, B

    2015-10-01

    To compare the incidence of dentinal defects caused by reciprocating and rotary techniques during retreatment procedures. One hundred and twenty extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were selected. Twenty teeth were left unprepared. The root canals in the remaining 100 teeth were prepared with K-files up to size 35 and filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using a passive cold lateral compaction technique. Twenty canals were filled and received no further treatment. Eighty teeth were divided into four groups (n = 20 in each) to undergo the removal of the root filling. In groups 1 and 2, the root filling was removed using ProTaper Retreatment files and Reciproc files, respectively, and the canals were not refilled. In groups 3 and 4, the root filling was removed using ProTaper Retreatment files and Reciproc files, respectively, and the canals were then refilled using a conventional cold lateral compaction technique. The roots were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex and observed under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification. Defects were categorized as no defect, incomplete defect and fracture. The differences between the groups were analysed using the chi-square exact test (P = 0.05). No defects were observed in the unprepared and filled groups, in contrast to the experimental groups. In the coronal thirds, groups 2 and 4 had more dentinal defects than groups 1 and 3 (P 0.05). Both nickel-titanium systems were associated with dentinal defects during retreatment procedures in extracted premolar teeth. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  11. The politics of comparative effectiveness research: lessons from recent history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Gusmano, Michael K; Oliver, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Efforts to support and use comparative effectiveness research (CER), some more successful than others, have been promulgated at various times over the last forty years. Following a resurgence of interest in CER, recent health care reforms provided substantial support to strengthen its role in US health care. While CER has generally captured bipartisan support, detractors have raised concerns that it will be used to ration services and heighten government control over health care. Such concerns almost derailed the initiative during passage of the health care reform legislation and are still present today. Given recent investments in CER and the debates surrounding its development, the time is ripe to reflect on past efforts to introduce CER in the United States. This article examines previous initiatives, highlighting their prescribed role in US health care, the reasons for their success or failure, and the political lessons learned. Current CER initiatives have corrected for many of the pitfalls experienced by previous efforts. However, past experiences point to a number of issues that must still be addressed to ensure the long-term success and sustainability of CER, including adopting realistic aims about its impact, demonstrating the impact of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and communicating the benefits of CER, and maintaining strong political and stakeholder support.

  12. Data sources for heart failure comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H

    2013-01-01

    Existing data sources for heart failure research offer advantages and disadvantages for CER. Clinical registries collect detailed information about disease presentation, treatment, and outcomes on a large number of patients and provide the "real-world" population that is the hallmark of CER. Data are not collected longitudinally, however, and follow-up is often limited. Large administrative datasets provide the broadest population coverage with longitudinal outcomes follow-up but lack clinical detail. Linking clinical registries with other databases to assess longitudinal outcomes holds great promise. The Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research recommends further efforts on longitudinal linking of administrative or EHR-based databases, patient registries, private sector databases (particularly those with commercially insured populations that are not covered under federal and state databases), and other relevant data sources containing pharmacy, laboratory, adverse events, and mortality information. Advancing the infrastructure to provide robust, scientific data resources for patient-centered CER must remain a priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Necessity is the mother of invention: video recording firsthand perspectives of critical medical procedures to make simulated training more effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K Anders

    2014-01-01

    The traditional apprenticeship model for training doctors requires ample opportunities in the clinic for trainees to learn core procedures under the supervision of skilled doctors. In this issue, Kyser and colleagues document that the learning opportunities for residents to master certain core procedures, such as forceps and vacuum deliveries, are insufficient in many teaching hospitals. To address this serious problem, this author argues that learning techniques (i.e., deliberate practice and simulator use) from other domains of expertise, such as chess, music, and sports, must be adapted for use in medicine. For example, medical procedures should be videotaped and indexed for access over the Internet. Trainees then could view recordings of rare emergency procedures and complications and practice their decision-making skills. Evidence suggests that training outside the constraints of the clinic could be more effective in improving performance because trainees are able to engage in deliberate practice and focus on their individual weaknesses in executing procedures and making decisions. For example, with video and simulator training, trainees have the opportunity to repeatedly perform only the parts of a procedure that they find challenging until they have attained a level of acceptable speed and control. More generally, training could be structured around the particular needs of individual learners and scheduled when the learners are rested and able to concentrate fully on learning. Training also should include opportunities for learners to practice repeatedly with different patient descriptions requiring the same or different, yet related, procedures to teach trainees effective discrimination and execution.

  14. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation body sites with 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Curriculum time compared to clinical procedures in amalgam and composite posterior restorations in U.S. dental schools: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Rosalia; Nimmo, Susan; Childs, Gail S; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    Dental clinicians have an expanding range of biomaterial choices for restoring tooth structure. Scientific developments in cariology, advances in dental biomaterials, and patients' esthetic concerns have led to a reduction in amalgam restorations and an increase in composite restorations. The aim of this study was to compare teaching time with students' clinical procedures in amalgam and composite posterior restorations in dental schools across the United States. Academic deans in 60 schools were invited to complete a survey that asked for the amount of instructional time for amalgam and composite posterior restorations and the number of clinical restorations performed by their Classes of 2009, 2010, and 2011. Of these 60, 12 returned surveys with complete data, for a 20% response rate. Responses from these schools showed little change in lecture and preclinical laboratory instruction from 2009 to 2011. There was a slight increase in two-surface restorations for both amalgam and composites; however, the total number of reported composite and amalgam restorations remained the same. Of 204,864 restorations reported, 53% were composite, and 47% were amalgam. There were twice as many multisurface large or complex amalgam restorations as composites. One-surface composite restorations exceeded amalgams. Among the participating schools, there was little to no change between curriculum time and clinical procedures. Findings from this preliminary study reflect a modest increase in two-surface resin-based restorations placed by dental students from 2009 to 2011 and little change in curricular time devoted to teaching amalgam restorations. The total number of posterior composite restorations placed by students in these schools was slightly higher than amalgams.

  16. The effect of decontamination procedures on the pharmacodynamics of venlafaxine in overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venkata V Pavan; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Duffull, Stephen B

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To investigate the relationship between decontamination procedures and seizure events caused by venlafaxine overdose and to estimate the time at which 90% of patients would have had their first seizure in the presence and absence of decontamination. METHODS Data were collected from 319 patients who took an overdose of venlafaxine on 436 occasions. Seizures occurred on 24 of 436 occasions (5%). Patients received one of single dose activated charcoal (SDAC), whole bowel irrigation (WBI), a combination of either (SDAC/WBI) or no decontamination. Logistic regression and time to event analysis were used to investigate the influence of dose and decontamination on the probability of seizures and time to 90% (t90) of seizure, respectively. RESULTS A linear logistic regression model described the data. Simulation from the model showed that the probability of seizure was 0.05 (0.03–0.08), 0.19 (0.09–0.35) and 0.75 (0.30–0.96) at 1000, 5000 and 10 000 mg, respectively (median and 95% credible interval). At the mean dose of 2100 mg the odds ratios (OR) in the presence of SDAC, WBI and SDAC/WBI were 0.48 (0.25–0.89), 0.71 (0.35–1.22) and 0.25 (0.08–0.62), respectively. A modified Gompertz model described the time to seizure events. Simulations from the Gompertz model showed that the t90 values for first seizure was 26 h and was not affected by dose or decontamination procedure. CONCLUSION SDAC/WBI provided greater benefits than the sum of the independent effects of SDAC and WBI. Patients should be observed for at least 24 h for seizures based on the dose and risk of seizure occurring. PMID:21306417

  17. Assessment of the effects of different sample perfusion procedures on phase-contrast tomographic images of mouse spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, E.; Sierra, A.; Miocchi, P.; Massimi, L.; Brun, F.; Maugeri, L.; Bukreeva, I.; Nurmi, A.; Begani Provinciali, G.; Tromba, G.; Gröhn, O.; Giove, F.; Cedola, A.; Fratini, M.

    2018-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray Phase Contrast micro-Tomography (SXrPCμT) is a powerful tool in the investigation of biological tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), and it allows to simultaneously detect the vascular and neuronal network avoiding contrast agents or destructive sample preparations. However, specific sample preparation procedures aimed to optimize the achievable contrast- and signal-to-noise ratio (CNR and SNR, respectively) are required. Here we report and discuss the effects of perfusion with two different fixative agents (ethanol and paraformaldehyde) and with a widely used contrast medium (MICROFIL®) on mouse spinal cord. As a main result, we found that ethanol enhances contrast at the grey/white matter interface and increases the contrast in correspondence of vascular features and fibres, thus providing an adequate spatial resolution to visualise the vascular network at the microscale. On the other hand, ethanol is known to induce tissue dehydration, likely reducing cell dimensions below the spatial resolution limit imposed by the experimental technique. Nonetheless, neurons remain well visible using either perfused paraformaldehyde or MICROFIL® compound, as these latter media do not affect tissues with dehydration effects. Paraformaldehyde appears as the best compromise: it is not a contrast agent, like MICROFIL®, but it is less invasive than ethanol and permits to visualise well both cells and blood vessels. However, a quantitative estimation of the relative grey matter volume of each sample has led us to conclude that no significant alterations in the grey matter extension compared to the white matter occur as a consequence of the perfusion procedures tested in this study.

  18. The effect of Surgical Care Improvement Project measures on national trends on surgical site infections in open vascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Desai, Sapan S; Seabrook, Gary R; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Rossi, Peter J; Edmiston, Charles E; Lee, Cheong J

    2014-12-01

    The Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) is a national initiative to reduce surgical complications, including postoperative surgical site infection (SSI), through protocol-driven antibiotic usage. This study aimed to determine the effect SCIP guidelines have had on in-hospital SSIs after open vascular procedures. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was retrospectively analyzed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis codes to capture SSIs in hospital patients who underwent elective carotid endarterectomy, elective open repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and peripheral bypass. The pre-SCIP era was defined as 2000 to 2005 and post-SCIP was defined as 2007 to 2010. The year 2006 was excluded because this was the transition year in which the SCIP guidelines were implemented. Analysis of variance and χ(2) testing were used for statistical analysis. The rate of SSI in the pre-SCIP era was 2.2% compared with 2.3% for carotid endarterectomy (P = .06). For peripheral bypass, both in the pre- and post-SCIP era, infection rates were 0.1% (P = .22). For open, elective AAA, the rate of infection in the post-SCIP era increased significantly to 1.4% from 1.0% in the pre-SCIP era (P < .001). Demographics and in-hospital mortality did not differ significantly between the groups. Implementation of SCIP guidelines has made no significant effect on the incidence of in-hospital SSIs in open vascular operations; rather, an increase in SSI rates in open AAA repairs was observed. Patient-centered, bundled approaches to care, rather than current SCIP practices, may further decrease SSI rates in vascular patients undergoing open procedures. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative enhancing effects of electret with chemical enhancers on transdermal delivery of meloxicam in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L L; Hou, X M; Li, G D; Jiang, J; Liang, Y Y; Xin, X

    2008-01-01

    Electret offers enhancing effect in transdermal drug delivery for altering of the arrangement of lipid molecules in the stratum corneum, forming many transient permeable apertures and enhancing the transdermal drug delivery. In this paper, meloxicam patch formulations were developed to make the comparative study of transdermal drug delivery between electret and chemical enhancers. Patches were made into control, electret, chemical enhancer and electret with chemical enhancer ones, according to the preparation procedure. The electret combined with chemical enhancer patch was designed to probe the incorporation between electret and chemical enhancer in transdermal drug delivery. The meloxicam release from the patch was found to increase in order of blank, chemical enhancer, electret and electret with chemical enhancer patch, in general.

  20. The effects of predictor method factors on selection outcomes : a modular approach to personnel selection procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Past reviews and meta-analyses typically conceptualized and examined selection procedures as holistic entities. We draw on the product design literature to propose a modular approach as a complementary perspective to conceptualizing selection procedures. A modular approach means that a product is broken down into its key underlying components. Therefore, we start by presenting a modular framework that identifies the important measurement components of selection procedures. Next, we adopt this...

  1. A comparative study of the effect of clonidine and tramadol on post-spinal anaesthesia shivering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, potency and side effects of clonidine as compared to tramadol in post-spinal anaesthesia shivering. In this prospective double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 80 American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade-l (ASAI patients aged between 18 and 45 years scheduled for various surgical procedures under spinal anaesthesia, who developed shivering were selected.The patients were divided into two groups: Group C (n=40 comprised of patients who received clonidine 0.5mg/kg intravenously (IV and group patients who received tramadol 0.5 mg/kg IV. Grade of shivering, disappearance of shivering, haemodynamics and side effects were observed at scheduled intervals. Disappearance of shivering was significantly earlier in group C (2.54±0.76 than in group T (5.01±1.02 (P=.0000001. Response rate to treatment in group C was higher (97.5% than in group T (92.5%, but the difference was not significant. Nausea, vomiting and dizziness were found to be higher in group T (P=0.001, 0.005, 0.001, respectively, while the patients in group C were comparatively more sedated (sedation level, 2; group C, 25%. We conclude that clonidine gives better thermodynamics than tramadol, with fewer side effects.

  2. Evaluation of “Subject Advocate” Procedures in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, T Scott; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2006-01-01

    Because the decision-making capacity of individuals with schizophrenia may fluctuate, additional protections for such persons who enroll in long-term research studies may be needed. For the NIMH-sponsored Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study, new procedures were developed to help ensure an objective assessment of a patient's continued participation in the study if decision-making capacity lapsed. Each research participant had a subject advocate who could recommend that the subject be withdrawn from the study if capacity lapsed and continued participation was not in the subject's best interest. The main goals of the procedures were to protect the interests of subjects and to prevent unnecessary dropouts. We surveyed research personnel regarding the effectiveness and implementation of the procedures. Responses were received from 73 personnel at 49 research sites, representing 70% of possible respondents and 91% of eligible sites. A majority of respondents were favorably disposed toward subject advocates, and though most reported that the procedures had no discernible effect on study recruitment, subject autonomy, or subject retention, for those who reported an impact, it was almost always positive. Some respondents reported that the procedures helped by engaging family members and promoting a positive view of schizophrenia research. A majority thought that similar arrangements would be useful in future longitudinal research studies. Nonspecific benefits included good public relations and engagement of family members. Improved training regarding the procedures may be needed to achieve specific goals of enhanced patient autonomy and retention in the study. PMID:16282635

  3. Shielding effect of lead glasses on radiologists' eye lens exposure in interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Panpan; Kong, Yan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Qianqian; Zhuo, Weihai; Liu, Haikuan

    2017-01-01

    To study the shielding effect of radiologists' eye lens with lead glasses of different equivalent thicknesses and sizes in interventional radiology procedures. Using the human voxel phantom with a more accurate model of the eye and MCNPX software, eye lens doses of the radiologists who wearing different kinds of lead glasses were simulated, different beam projections were taken into consideration during the simulation. Measurements were also performed with the physical model to verify simulation results. Simulation results showed that the eye lens doses were reduced by a factor from 3 to 9 when wearing a 20 cm 2 -sized lead glasses with the equivalent thickness ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mm Pb. The increase of dose reduction factor (DRF) was not significant whenever increase the lead equivalent of glasses of which larger than 0.35 mm. Furthermore, the DRF was proportional to the size of glass lens from 6 to 30 cm 2 with the same lead equivalent. The simulation results were in well agreements with the measured ones. For more reasonable and effective protection of the eye lens of interventional radiologists, a pair of glasses with a lead equivalent of 0.5 mm Pb and large-sized (at least 27 cm 2 per glass) lens are recommended (authors)

  4. Safety Evaluation of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Compared with Two Procedures of Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding for Individuals with Morbid Obesity: A Systemic Review

    OpenAIRE

    F Arabi Basharic; A Olyaee Manesh; M Ranjbar Ezzatabadi; R Goudarzi; SM Shiryazdi; M Arab zozani; MR Mobini Zade

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding are the most common bariatric surgery procedures. Therefore, this study aims to compare the safety of the newer procedure of Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy compared to Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and Laparoscopic adjustable gastric bonding. Method: A systematic review was conducted on the most important and most relevant search data bases, including Cochrane library, Pubmed, Ovid Med...

  5. Comparative effect of land- and Aquatic-based plyometric training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly greater gains were observed with regard to all measurements in the AP compared to the CON. The LP only achieved significant greater gains in the Vertical Jump Test compared to the CON. The 8-week aquatic-based plyometric training program provided the same or more benefits for jumping and agility ability ...

  6. Creating Tic Suppression: Comparing the Effects of Verbal Instruction to Differential Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Himle, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two methods designed to produce tic reduction in 4 children with Tourette's syndrome. Specifically, a verbal instruction not to engage in tics was compared to a verbal instruction plus differential reinforcement of zero-rate behavior (DRO). Results showed that the DRO-enhanced procedure yielded greater…

  7. An Additional Prior Retrieval Alters the Effects of a Retrieval-Extinction Procedure on Recent and Remote Fear Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that the isolated retrieval of a consolidated fear memory can induce a labile phase, during which extinction training can prevent the reinstatement, a form of relapse in which fear response to a fear-provoking context returns when a mild shock is presented. However, fear memory retrieval may also have another opposing result: the enhancement of fear memory. This implies that the fear memory trace can be modified by a brief retrieval. Unclear is whether the fear-impairing effect of retrieval-extinction (RE is altered by a prior brief retrieval. The present study investigated the responses of recent and remote fear memories to the RE procedure after the presentation of an additional prior retrieval (priRet. We found that a single RE procedure effectively blocked the reinstatement of 2-day recent contextual fear memory. The memory-impairing effect of the RE procedure on recent fear was not observed when priRet was presented 6 or 24 h before the RE procedure. In contrast to the 2-day recent memory, the RE procedure failed to block the reinstatement of 36-day remote fear memory but successfully disrupted the return of remote fear memory after priRet. This memory-disruptive effect on remote memory did not occur when priRet was performed in a novel context. Nimodipine administration revealed that the blockade of priRet-induced processes recovered the effects of the RE procedure on both recent and remote fear memories. Our findings suggest that the susceptibility of recent and remote fear memories to RE procedures can be altered by an additional retrieval.

  8. Procedural Audio in Computer Games Using Motion Controllers: An Evaluation on the Effect and Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Böttcher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted into whether the use of procedural audio affects players in computer games using motion controllers. It was investigated whether or not (1 players perceive a difference between detailed and interactive procedural audio and prerecorded audio, (2 the use of procedural audio affects their motor-behavior, and (3 procedural audio affects their perception of control. Three experimental surveys were devised, two consisting of game sessions and the third consisting of watching videos of gameplay. A skiing game controlled by a Nintendo Wii balance board and a sword-fighting game controlled by a Wii remote were implemented with two versions of sound, one sample based and the other procedural based. The procedural models were designed using a perceptual approach and by alternative combinations of well-known synthesis techniques. The experimental results showed that, when being actively involved in playing or purely observing a video recording of a game, the majority of participants did not notice any difference in sound. Additionally, it was not possible to show that the use of procedural audio caused any consistent change in the motor behavior. In the skiing experiment, a portion of players perceived the control of the procedural version as being more sensitive.

  9. 50 CFR 260.103 - Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. 260.103 Section 260.103 Wildlife and Fisheries... Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. (a) All..., choppers, and containers which fail to meet appropriate and adequate sanitation requirements will be...

  10. Randomized Comparative Study of the U- and H-Type Approaches of the TVT-Secur Procedure for the Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: One-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Jun; Lee, Young-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We compared outcomes of the U- and H-type approaches of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT)-Secur procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods From March 2007 to July 2008, 115 women with SUI underwent TVT-Secur by a single surgeon. Patients were randomly assigned to either the U- or the H-type approach. After 12 months, postoperative changes in the Sandvik questionnaire, incontinence quality of life questionnaire (I-QoL), Bristol female lower urinary tract symptoms-scored form (BFLUTS-SF), and postoperative patient satisfaction were evaluated. Cure was regarded as no leakage on the Sandvik questionnaire. Complications were also evaluated. Results Of 115 women, 53 were treated with the U approach, and 62 women were treated with the H approach. At 12 months, 88.7% of those treated with the U approach and 87.1% of those treated with the H approach were cured (p=0.796). The I-QoL and filling, incontinence, sexual function, and QoL sum (BFLUTS-SF) scores were improved with both approaches, and there were no significant differences in the degree of improvement between approaches. Approximately 83.7% and 82.9% of the women treated with the U and H approaches, respectively, were satisfied with the outcome (p=0.858). There were 3 cases of intra-operative vaginal wall perforation in the H-type group. Immediate postoperative retention was observed in 2 women in the U-type group and 1 woman in the H-type group. One woman in the U-type group underwent tape releasing and cutting procedures for persistent large post-void residuals. Conclusions The U- and the H-type approaches of the TVT-Secur procedure provided comparable effectiveness for the treatment of female SUI. PMID:20428427

  11. Procedure and technique critique for tritium enrichment by electrolysis at the IAEA Laboratory (effective November 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This publication gives a detailed description of the experimental and calculation procedures for tritium enrichment. Most descriptive sections are divided into 2 parts: Section A describes the procedure in the IAEA laboratory; section B discusses the reasons behind the various procedures, and may indicate alternative acceptable, or in some cases even better, procedures. The description of the equipment focuses on electrolysis cells, cooling system and power supply. Routine procedures are discussed including handling and checking of samples after receipt, 'spike' and blank water, initial sample distillation, preparation of cells and samples for electrolysis, electrolysis and completion of electrolysis (weighing of cells, neutralisation and distillation) and precautions against contaminations (prevention, detection and cure). A list of equipment required for electrolytic enrichment of tritium is provided

  12. Risk assessment by the executive power versus efficiency of control by the courts - effects on administrative procedures and judicial proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.

    1991-01-01

    In conclusion it is stated that any cutbacks in the current system of judicial control have to be earned by appropriate improvements in the administrative procedure. One has to keep in mind the overall situation, which means to examine and assess any reduction of judicial control, the relevance of procedural defects, and the requirements to be met by administrative procedures, in their complete context. Since the acknowledgement of administrative regulations as instruments for putting into practice the legislative intent, and of the executive's scope for examination and assessment, has effects not only in regard to a reduction of judicial control, but also assigns to the administrative procedure an irreplaceable function that cannot be corrected by legal proceedings, there is reason enough to exercise restraint in this matter. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Effectiveness of tramadol/paracetamol compared with etoricoxib as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paracetamol combination when compared with etoricoxib as postoperative analgesia following day care surgery. Design: This was a prospective, randomised, single-blind study. Setting and subjects: Sixty-two patients were randomised to receive ...

  14. Effectiveness of aged graffiti cleaning on granite by chemical and mechanical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Vera; Dionísio, Amélia; Santiago Pozo-Antonio, José

    2017-04-01

    Granite is one of the most common building stones in the European Cultural Heritage mainly in Northwest Iberian Peninsula. Nowadays, graffiti when a result of an act of vandalism is one of the most important threat, involving a serious risk to heritage sustainability. The cleaning is expensive and in most of the cases, the complete removal is not achieved. Many cities worldwide spend huge amounts of money in cleaning campaigns and European Commission started to create urban environment policies to prevent and eliminate graffiti and also finance projects to develop new cleaning procedures and antigraffiti coatings1,2. However, in many cases graffiti is applied in monuments and façades without antigraffiti and in real practice, they are only cleaned after being long exposure to the atmosphere, reaction with the environment (rain and atmospheric pollutants) and also with the substrate, leading changes in their physical and chemical properties. However, no scientific studies focused on graffiti aging were found and also on the influence of the aging on the cleaning effectiveness, which is always evaluated with fresh graffiti. Therefore, the need to optimize the cleaning of aged graffiti is urgent. This paper aims to study the influence of the exposition of graffiti paintings to one of the most important urban contaminant SO2 on the cleaning effectiveness of graffiti on the valuable ornamental granite Rosa Porriño. Two different chemical products and two different mechanical procedures based on low pressure projection (wet and dry) were evaluated. Four different colour graffiti paintings (red, black, blue and silver) with different compositions were tested. The criteria for assessing the global cleaning effectiveness was considering the graffiti extraction and also the damage induced on the substrate through changes in the chromatic parameters, static contact angle and surface roughness of the stones, identification of deleterious products and modification of the

  15. Same, same but different. A comparative perspective on participation and acceptance in siting procedures for HLW repositories in France, Sweden and Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Environmental Policy Research Centre

    2015-07-01

    This paper compares national approaches in Finland, Sweden, and France. These three EURATOM Member States are in an advanced stage of siting deep geological disposal (DGD) facilities. The procedures in these countries are largely based on voluntarism, but differ in their approach to public consultation as they were based on the so-called staged volunteer process leading to working partnership arrangements between the operator and the hosting communities and veto rights (Sweden), decisions with strong local community support and veto rights for municipalities until the final decision (Finland), and final top-down decision making after consultative processes (debat public) with the affected communities without veto rights (France). This presentation focuses on participation and acceptance issues; it analyses the different modes of governance with diverse conditions regarding transparency, trust, communication, and participation that have been at work. Moving beyond the fact that variance exists with regard to the relevant national institutional, legal, cultural, industrial, and energy frameworks, the authors take evidence from national case studies and look for common patterns.

  16. [A comparative study between two procedures of TVT retropubic mid-urethral sling placement for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, F; Gay-Crosier, G; Resch, B; Pons, J-C; Marpeau, L

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate complications and functional outcomes at 1 year and more of a modified Tension-free Vaginal Tape (TVT) technique from that of classic TVT. Retrospective study comparing the two techniques. For the modified TVT technique, a peri-urethrovesical hydrodissection was performed. An 18-gauge hollow needle, in which a thread was introduced, was used as an ancillary for the placement of the sling. The sling was secured to the thread and then positioned with it. Bladder filling objectified perforations. An absorbable suture around the sling allowed its descent if necessary. One hundred and eighteen procedures were performed (54 classic TVT and 64 modified TVT). For the standard TVT and the modified TVT, the vesico-urethral perforation rates were respectively 7.4% and 1.5% (P<0.05), those of reoperations for pulling the sling downward 11.1% and 1.5% (P<0.05). A 1 year and more, healing and satisfaction rates were respectively 83.3% and 79.2% for the standard TVT versus 88.2% and 90% for the modified TVT (NS). The dissatisfaction rate was lower for the modified TVT (P<0.05). By modifying the placement of the classic TVT, it is possible to reduce its complications while maintaining its efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Contemporary Bariatric Surgical Procedures on Type 2 Diabetes Remission. A Population-Based Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Martin C; Booth, Helen Pascale; Reddy, Marcus; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Alison; Prevost, A Toby; Khan, Omar

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of gastric banding, gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy on medium to long-term diabetes control in obese participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Matched cohort study using primary care electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Obese participants with type 2 diabetes who received bariatric surgery from 2002 to 2014 were compared with matched control participants who did not receive BS. Remission was defined for each year of follow-up as HbA1c <6.5 % and no antidiabetic drugs prescribed. There were 826 obese participants with T2DM who received bariatric surgery including adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) 220; gastric bypass (GBP) 449; or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) 153; with four procedures undefined. Mean HbA1c declined from 8.0 % before BS to 6.5 % in the second postoperative year; proportion with HbA1c <6.5 % (<48 mmol/mol) increased from 17 to 47 %. The proportion of patients in remission was 30 % in the second year, being 20 % for LAGB, 34 % for GBP and 38 % for SG. The adjusted relative rate of remission over the first six postoperative years was 5.97 (4.86 to 7.33, P < 0.001) overall; for LAGB 3.32 (2.27 to 4.86); GBP 7.16 (5.64 to 9.08); and SG 6.82 (5.05 to 9.19). Rates of remission were maintained into the sixth year of follow-up. Remission of diabetes may continue for up to 6 years after bariatric surgical procedures. Diabetes outcomes are generally more favourable after gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy than LAGB.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation compared with chronic dialysis in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Diego; Rueda, Juan-David; Diaz, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the costs and effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis in adults suffering from end-stage renal disease from the perspective of the Colombian healthcare system, we designed a Markov model with monthly cycles over a five-year time horizon and eight transitional states, including death as an absorbing state. Transition probabilities were obtained from international registries, costs from different local sources [case studies, official tariffs (ISS 2001 + 35%) for procedures and SISMED for medications]. Data were validated by an expert panel and we performed univariate, multivariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Effectiveness indicators were months of life gained, months of dialysis averted and deaths prevented. The annual discount rate was 3% and the cost-utility threshold (willingness to pay) was three times gross domestic product (GDP) = USD 20,000 per QALY. The costs were adopted in US dollars (USD) using the 2012 average exchange rate (1 USD = COP$ 1798). The discounted average total cost for five years was USD 76,718 for transplantation and USD 76,891 for dialysis, with utilities 2.98 and 2.10 QALY, respectively. Additionally, renal transplantation represented 6.9 months gained, 35 months in dialysis averted per patient and one death averted for each of the five patients transplanted in five years. We conclude that renal transplantation improves the overall survival rates and quality of life and is a cost-saving alternative compared with dialysis.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation compared with chronic dialysis in end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rosselli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the costs and effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis in adults suffering from end-stage renal disease from the perspective of the Colombian healthcare system, we designed a Markov model with monthly cycles over a five-year time horizon and eight transitional states, including death as an absorbing state. Transition probabilities were obtained from international registries, costs from different local sources [case studies, official tariffs (ISS 2001 + 35% for procedures and SISMED for medications]. Data were validated by an expert panel and we performed univariate, multivariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Effectiveness indicators were months of life gained, months of dialysis averted and deaths prevented. The annual discount rate was 3% and the cost-utility threshold (willingness to pay was three times gross domestic product (GDP = USD 20,000 per QALY. The costs were adopted in US dollars (USD using the 2012 average exchange rate (1 USD = COP$ 1798. The discounted average total cost for five years was USD 76,718 for transplantation and USD 76,891 for dialysis, with utilities 2.98 and 2.10 QALY, respectively. Additionally, renal transplantation represented 6.9 months gained, 35 months in dialysis averted per patient and one death averted for each of the five patients transplanted in five years. We conclude that renal transplantation improves the overall survival rates and quality of life and is a cost-saving alternative compared with dialysis.

  20. Effects of grilling procedures on levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Su-Yeon; Moon, Jung-Sik; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemicals formed when muscle meat is cooked using high-temperature methods, such as grilling directly over an open flame. PAHs have been found to be mutagenic-that is, they cause changes in DNA that may increase the risk of cancer. We investigated the effects of grilling procedures on the level of 4 PAHs; benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). PAHs were extracted and determined by gas chromatography with mass detection (GC-MS). With regard to barbecuing successive meat samples with the same batch of burning charcoal, it was observed that stable combustion contribute to reduction of PAHs. Significant reductions in the sum of the four PAHs were observed through treatments which removed meat drippings and smoke with alternative grilling apparatus. The sums of 4 PAHs were reduced 48-89% with dripping removed and 41-74% with the smoke removal treatment in grilled pork and beef meats than conventional grilling. We investigated the components of meats drippings. The major constituent of meat dripping was fat. The most important factor contributing to the production of PAHs in grilling was smoke resulting from incomplete combustion of fat dripped onto the fire. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of Visual Methods in Information Procedures for Stem Cell Recipients and Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Sarıtürk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obtaining informed consent from hematopoietic stem cell recipients and donors is a critical step in the transplantation process. Anxiety may affect their understanding of the provided information. However, use of audiovisual methods may facilitate understanding. In this prospective randomized study, we investigated the effectiveness of using an audiovisual method of providing information to patients and donors in combination with the standard model. Materials and Methods: A 10-min informational animation was prepared for this purpose. In total, 82 participants were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 received the additional audiovisual information and group 2 received standard information. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to participants at the end of the informational session. Results: A reliability test and factor analysis showed that the questionnaire was reliable and valid. For all participants, the mean overall satisfaction score was 184.8±19.8 (maximum possible score of 200. However, for satisfaction with information about written informed consent, group 1 scored significantly higher than group 2 (p=0.039. Satisfaction level was not affected by age, education level, or differences between the physicians conducting the informative session. Conclusion: This study shows that using audiovisual tools may contribute to a better understanding of the informed consent procedure and potential risks of stem cell transplantation.

  2. Effectiveness of Visual Methods in Information Procedures for Stem Cell Recipients and Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıtürk, Çağla; Gereklioğlu, Çiğdem; Korur, Aslı; Asma, Süheyl; Yeral, Mahmut; Solmaz, Soner; Büyükkurt, Nurhilal; Tepebaşı, Songül; Kozanoğlu, İlknur; Boğa, Can; Özdoğu, Hakan

    2017-12-01

    Obtaining informed consent from hematopoietic stem cell recipients and donors is a critical step in the transplantation process. Anxiety may affect their understanding of the provided information. However, use of audiovisual methods may facilitate understanding. In this prospective randomized study, we investigated the effectiveness of using an audiovisual method of providing information to patients and donors in combination with the standard model. A 10-min informational animation was prepared for this purpose. In total, 82 participants were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 received the additional audiovisual information and group 2 received standard information. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to participants at the end of the informational session. A reliability test and factor analysis showed that the questionnaire was reliable and valid. For all participants, the mean overall satisfaction score was 184.8±19.8 (maximum possible score of 200). However, for satisfaction with information about written informed consent, group 1 scored significantly higher than group 2 (p=0.039). Satisfaction level was not affected by age, education level, or differences between the physicians conducting the informative session. This study shows that using audiovisual tools may contribute to a better understanding of the informed consent procedure and potential risks of stem cell transplantation.

  3. Short- and long-term effects of clinical audits on compliance with procedures in CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveri, Antonio; Howarth, Nigel; Gevenois, Pierre Alain; Tack, Denis

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that quality clinical audits improve compliance with the procedures in computed tomography (CT) scanning. This retrospective study was conducted in two hospitals, based on 6950 examinations and four procedures, focusing on the acquisition length in lumbar spine CT, the default tube current applied in abdominal un-enhanced CT, the tube potential selection for portal phase abdominal CT and the use of a specific ''paediatric brain CT'' procedure. The first clinical audit reported compliance with these procedures. After presenting the results to the stakeholders, a second audit was conducted to measure the impact of this information on compliance and was repeated the next year. Comparisons of proportions were performed using the Chi-square Pearson test. Depending on the procedure, the compliance rate ranged from 27 to 88 % during the first audit. After presentation of the audit results to the stakeholders, the compliance rate ranged from 68 to 93 % and was significantly improved for all procedures (P ranging from <0.001 to 0.031) in both hospitals and remained unchanged during the third audit (P ranging from 0.114 to 0.999). Quality improvement through repeated compliance audits with CT procedures durably improves this compliance. (orig.)

  4. Cost-effectiveness of minimal interventional procedures for chronic mechanical low back pain: design of four randomised controlled trials with an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Esther T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimal interventional procedures are frequently applied in patients with mechanical low back pain which is defined as pain presumably resulting from single sources: facet, disc, sacroiliac joint or a combination of these. Usually, these minimal interventional procedures are an integral part of a multidisciplinary pain programme. A recent systematic review issued by the Dutch Health Insurance Council showed that the effectiveness of these procedures for the total group of patients with chronic low back pain is yet unclear and cost-effectiveness unknown. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether a multidisciplinary pain programme with minimal interventional procedures is cost-effective compared to the multidisciplinary pain programme alone for patients with chronic mechanical low back pain who did not respond to conservative primary care and were referred to a pain clinic. Methods All patients with chronic low back pain who are referred to one of the 13 participating pain clinics will be asked to participate in an observational study. Patients with a suspected diagnosis of facet, disc or sacroiliac joint problems will receive a diagnostic block to confirm this diagnosis. If confirmed, they will be asked to participate in a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT. For each single source a separate RCT will be conducted. Patients with a combination of facet, disc or sacroiliac joint problems will be invited for participation in a RCT as well. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will be performed alongside these four RCTs. Patients will complete questionnaires at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after start of the treatment. Costs will be collected using self-completed cost questionnaires. Discussion No trials are yet available which have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of minimal interventional procedures in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain, which emphasizes the importance of this study

  5. A comparative study of the efficiency of acridine orange and some Romanowsky staining procedures in the demonstration of Haemobartonella felis in feline blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobade, P A; Nash, A S

    1987-12-01

    A comparison of the relative efficiency of acridine orange with some Romanowsky staining procedures indicated that acridine orange is superior in demonstrating the presence of Haemobartonella felis in feline blood. Of the Romanowsky staining procedures, that of May-Grunwald-Giemsa was at least one and a half and about twice as efficient as the Giemsa and Leishman methods, respectively.

  6. A simplified test procedure for determining the effectiveness of adsorbents for the removal of methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    ASTM Test Procedure D3803 measures the ability of nuclear-grade carbon to remove methyl iodide from a stream of humidified air. This test, unlike all the other procedures developed by ASTM Committee D28, has evolved to become extremely complex. The intricacy of this test as well as the great difficulty in obtaining inter-laboratory agreement, creates doubt as tot the actual meaning of the results. Here a far simpler test system is described in which thermodynamic principles are used to maintain a constant, reproducible test procedure. This paper describes a system implementing these elements, its cost to build, and the factors affecting its accuracy. 11 refs., 1 fig

  7. comparative effects of theobromine and cocoa bean shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr. Oluyemi

    theobromine, caffeine and theophylline (Ciulei, 1969), theobromine and caffeine (Adeyina 2007). It is however not clear if the toxic manifestation observed in animals fed cocoa based meal is caused by theobromine or the synergistic effect of the constituent substance. This study is therefore undertaken to observe the effect ...

  8. Comparative study of the effects of treatment techniques on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effects of some fibre treatment techniques namely: mercerization, acetylation and semi-carbonisation on the performance of Kenaf fibres. The treated kenaf fibres which are considered biodegradable, cost effective, renewable and user friendly have been used as a possible base friction material for ...

  9. Lead induced dyslipidemia: The comparative effects of ascorbate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.N. UGBAJA

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... metals persist in the environment and produce a variety of adverse effects because they are generally not ... from gasoline containing alkyl lead additives, ingestion of dust contaminated with lead, lead-based paints ... Lead has been proven to produce a series of adverse effects on numerous organs and ...

  10. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. In other words, positive and negative effects were detected in both the Winter Universiade held in Erzurum and the European Youth Olympic Festival held in Trabzon. Key words: Mega sport events; Local spectator impressions; Winter Universiade; ...

  11. Examining the mediating effect of supervisor conflict on procedural injustice-job strain relations: the function of power distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Liu-Qin; Nauta, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among procedural injustice, conflict with a supervisor (supervisor conflict), and job strains for employees with different power distance orientations. Using data from 301 university employees, along with corroborative reports from a coworker of each employee, we tested a moderated mediation model in which the indirect effect of procedural injustice on job strains (e.g., anxiety and depression) through supervisor conflict was conditional upon employees' power distance orientation. We found perceived procedural injustice was positively related to supervisor conflict, and this relation was moderated by employees' power distance orientation (as supported by both self- and coworker-reported conflict data). The pattern of the moderating effect indicated the positive relation between procedural injustice and supervisor conflict was only significant among employees with low to moderate power distance orientations. As expected, supervisor conflict served as the underlying mechanism linking perceived procedural injustice and employees' anxiety/depression (as supported by self-reported conflict data). The mediating effect of supervisor conflict was significant for employees with low to moderate power distance orientations but not for employees with high power distance orientation. This study broadens the focus of research on supervisor conflict and presents a more complex model of how perceived injustice influences employees' job strains than is currently available in the literature.

  12. Effect of static and dynamic muscle stretching as part of warm up procedures on knee joint proprioception and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory S

    2017-10-01

    The importance of warm up procedures prior to athletic performance is well established. A common component of such procedures is muscle stretching. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of static stretching (SS) as part of warm up procedures on knee joint position sense (KJPS) and the effect of dynamic stretching (DS) on KJPS is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dynamic and static stretching as part warm up procedures on KJPS and knee extension and flexion strength. This study had a randomised cross-over design and ten healthy adults (20±1years) attended 3 visits during which baseline KJPS, at target angles of 20° and 45°, and knee extension and flexion strength tests were followed by 15min of cycling and either a rest period (CON), SS, or DS and repeat KJPS and strength tests. All participants performed all conditions, one condition per visit. There were warm up×stretching type interactions for KJPS at 20° (p=0.024) and 45° (p=0.018), and knee flexion (p=0.002) and extension (pwarm up procedures. However, the negative impact of SS on muscle strength limits the utility of SS before athletic performance. If stretching is to be performed as part of a warm up, DS should be favoured over SS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative study of the inhibition effects of alkaloid and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Alkaloid and Non- alkaloid fractions of the ethanolic extracts from Costus afer (AECA and NAECA) were comparatively studied for their inhibitive properties on the corrosion of mild steel in 5 M HCl solution using Gravimetric and Gasometric techniques. The results revealed that both extracts inhibited the corrosion of ...

  14. Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...

  15. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intrathecal adjuvants are added to local anaesthetics to improve the quality of neuraxial blockade and prolong the duration of analgesia during spinal anaesthesia. Used intrathecally, fentanyl improves the quality of spinal blockade as compared to plain bupivacaine and confers a short duration of post ...

  16. A comparative analysis of badminton game instructions effect of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drop shot and smash in doubles game play, ANCOVA and ANOVA statistics indicated significant improved performance via NP compared to LP. Conclusion, implementing NP in schools would further strengthen TGfU as teachers can adjust tactics, skill tasks to the performer's abilities and situated learning environment.

  17. Comparing the Effect of Diets Treated with Different Organic Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to compare the growth and economics of adding organic acids to diets of broiler chickens. The organic acids were sorbic benzoic lactic and propionic acids. 150 day old Hubbard chicks were used. There were five treatments. Diet 1 which served as control contained no organic acid. Diets 2, 3 ...

  18. Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…

  19. Effects of Coaching on Instructional Practices: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Rosie M.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study analyzed two styles of coaching, team and individual, and the perceived impact each style has on instructional practices. This study was conducted in two elementary schools that are part of the same charter organization in California. The study identified the challenges and benefits of each style through interviews with…

  20. Time to punishment: the effects of a shorter criminal procedure on crime rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, August (2015), s. 134-147 ISSN 0144-8188 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : criminal procedure * deterrence * law enforcement Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.543, year: 2015

  1. Time to punishment: the effects of a shorter criminal procedure on crime rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, August (2015), s. 134-147 ISSN 0144-8188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : criminal procedure * deterrence * law enforcement Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.543, year: 2015

  2. Effects of an Oral Hygiene Punishment Procedure on Chronic Rumination and Collateral Behaviors in Monozygous Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    When an oral hygiene punishment procedure was introduced, rumination (regurgitation) of profoundly retarded monozygous adolescent twins was dramatically reduced. The decrease was maintained over a 6 month period and was accompanied by increased rates of socially appropriate behavior. (CL)

  3. Societal and Economic Effect of Meniscus Scaffold Procedures for Irreparable Meniscus Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, J.J.; Govers, T.M.; Buma, P.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Hannink, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meniscus scaffolds are currently evaluated clinically for their efficacy in preventing the development of osteoarthritis as well as for their efficacy in treating patients with chronic symptoms. Procedural costs, therapeutic consequences, clinical efficacy, and future events should all

  4. Effectiveness of clean-up procedures on stain susceptibility of different orthodontic adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pundlik Mane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical-cure adhesive showed higher stain susceptibility than light-cure adhesive in all clean-up procedures. Both adhesives would show less stain susceptibility with polishing step with rubber cup and pumice.

  5. Cost-effective cloud computing: a case study using the comparative genomics tool, roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudtarkar, Parul; Deluca, Todd F; Fusaro, Vincent A; Tonellato, Peter J; Wall, Dennis P

    2010-12-22

    Comparative genomics resources, such as ortholog detection tools and repositories are rapidly increasing in scale and complexity. Cloud computing is an emerging technological paradigm that enables researchers to dynamically build a dedicated virtual cluster and may represent a valuable alternative for large computational tools in bioinformatics. In the present manuscript, we optimize the computation of a large-scale comparative genomics resource-Roundup-using cloud computing, describe the proper operating principles required to achieve computational efficiency on the cloud, and detail important procedures for improving cost-effectiveness to ensure maximal computation at minimal costs. Utilizing the comparative genomics tool, Roundup, as a case study, we computed orthologs among 902 fully sequenced genomes on Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. For managing the ortholog processes, we designed a strategy to deploy the web service, Elastic MapReduce, and maximize the use of the cloud while simultaneously minimizing costs. Specifically, we created a model to estimate cloud runtime based on the size and complexity of the genomes being compared that determines in advance the optimal order of the jobs to be submitted. We computed orthologous relationships for 245,323 genome-to-genome comparisons on Amazon's computing cloud, a computation that required just over 200 hours and cost $8,000 USD, at least 40% less than expected under a strategy in which genome comparisons were submitted to the cloud randomly with respect to runtime. Our cost savings projections were based on a model that not only demonstrates the optimal strategy for deploying RSD to the cloud, but also finds the optimal cluster size to minimize waste and maximize usage. Our cost-reduction model is readily adaptable for other comparative genomics tools and potentially of significant benefit to labs seeking to take advantage of the cloud as an alternative to local computing infrastructure.

  6. COPMA-III: a tool for developing effective computerised procedure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, R.; Hulsund, J.E.; NiIsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    The management of complicated work processes is often described in terms of procedures. Traditionally, the way to instruct operators has been through paper-based procedure manuals. However, the availability of powerful computer technology has led to development of Computerised Procedures Systems, CPS. Such systems offer assistance to the operators in procedure execution, providing services like automatic control of plant conditions, record of executed instructions, indication of next instructions to execute, automatic execution of actions, etc. CPS can provide very useful support to control room operators in their task and contribute, to safer operation of complex plants. Their design and implementation are, however, not trivial tasks. Many factors must be taken into account, not the least the great variance in the environment in which a CPS should be integrated. Other considerations are the requirements to operators in a distributed environment where operators may be located in different geographical areas. A special case of multi-user environment is when different operators cooperate in executing the same procedure. CPSs must also be able to support different Human Computer Interfaces (HCIs) for different operators. Further, they must permit different levels of automation support, and different strategies to execute procedure, like sequential or parallel execution of instructions. In this report requirements, which we consider crucial for design of powerful CPSs, are discussed. The Halden Project has developed a system, COPMA-III, which meets these requirements through providing a core of basic CPS functionalities that can be customised into a target CPS. (Author)

  7. Comparing the effects of community service and imprisonment on reconviction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klement, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compares reconviction rates for Danish offenders sentenced to community service and imprisonment. A large general sample of offenders (n=1602) is examined. Methods The study relies on a quasi-experimental design and uses propensity score matching as well as logistic regression...... models to analyze the data. Models are differentiated in terms of length of observation period and control variable combinations. The study stands out as compared to previous studies due to the unprecedented assortment of individual background data available. These data, obtained from community service...... eligibility assessments and registry databases, provide powerful controls over potential selection mechanisms in the multivariate analyses. Furthermore, contrary to previous studies, the current study limits itself to subjects officially assessed and deemed eligible for community service sentences. Results...

  8. The effect of a change in selection procedures on students' motivation to study dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S P; Roberts-Thomson, K F

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in student selection criteria at The University of Adelaide effected a change in motivation and influencing factors to study dentistry by comparing cohorts. Online questionnaire completed by first-year dentistry students at The University of Adelaide between 1993-1996 and 1997-2005. All 666 students completed the questionnaire with 647 suitable for analysis. The likelihood of students being motivated for a career in dentistry because it 'fits with family' was greater for the 1997-2005 cohort (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.14-2.49, p dentistry. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Semi-empirical procedures for correcting detector size effect on clinical MV x-ray beam profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Narayan; Kazi, Abdul M.; Hoffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The measured radiation beam profiles need to be corrected for the detector size effect to derive the real profiles. This paper describes two new semi-empirical procedures to determine the real profiles of high-energy x-ray beams by removing the detector size effect from the measured profiles. Measured profiles are corrected by shifting the position of each measurement point by a specific amount determined from available theoretical and experimental knowledge in the literature. The authors developed two procedures to determine the amount of shift. In the first procedure, which employs the published analytical deconvolution procedure of other investigators, the shift is determined from the comparison of the analytical fit of the measured profile and the corresponding analytical real profile derived from the deconvolution of the fitted measured profile and the Gaussian detector response function. In the second procedure, the amount of shift at any measurement point is considered to be proportional to the value of an analytical function related to the second derivative of the real profile at that point. The constant of proportionality and a parameter in the function are obtained from the values of the shifts at the 90%, 80%, 20%, and 10% dose levels, which are experimentally known from the published results of other investigators to be approximately equal to half of the radius of the detector. These procedures were tested by correcting the profiles of 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams measured by three different ionization chambers and a stereotactic field diode detector with 2.75, 2, 1, and 0.3 mm radii of their respective active cylindrical volumes. The corrected profiles measured by different detectors are found to be in close agreement. The detector size corrected penumbra widths also agree with the expected values based on the results of an earlier investigation. Thus, the authors concluded that the proposed procedures are accurate and can be used to derive the real

  10. The effect of the MEA preparation procedure on both ethanol crossover and DEFC performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S.; Wang, G.; Zhou, W.; Zhao, X.; Sun, G.; Xin, Q.; Kontou, S.; Tsiakaras, P.

    In the present work, the changes of Nafion ®-115 membrane porosity in the presence of ethanol aqueous solutions of different concentrations were determined by weighing vacuum-dried and ethanol solution-equilibrated membranes. It was found that membrane porosity increases as ethanol concentration increases. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) have been prepared by following both the conventional and the decal transfer method. The ethanol crossover through these two MEAs was electrochemically quantified by a voltammetric method. A 10 h stability test of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at a current density of 50 mA cm -2 was carried out. It was found that the electrode preparation procedure has an obvious effect on ethanol crossover and direct ethanol fuel cell's performance and stability. The single DEFC test results showed that about 15 and 34% of the original peak power density was lost after 10 h of life test for the MEAs prepared by the decal transfer method and the conventional method, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) results of the MEAs showed that, in the case of the membrane electrode assembly prepared by the following decal transfer method, the internal cell resistance was almost the same, 0.236 Ω cm 2 before the life test and 0.239 Ω cm 2 after 10 h of life test, while the respective values for the membrane electrode assembly by the conventional method are 0.289 and 0.435 Ω cm 2. It is supposed that the improved cell performance with MEA by the decal transfer method could be resorted to both a better contact between the catalyst layer and the electrolyte membrane and higher catalyst utilization. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, the increased internal cell resistance and the degraded single DEFC performance could be attributed to the delamination of the catalyst layer from the electrolyte membrane.

  11. The effect of the MEA preparation procedure on both ethanol crossover and DEFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S.; Wang, G.; Zhou, W.; Zhao, X.; Sun, G.; Xin, Q. [Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 110, 116023 Dalian (China); Kontou, S.; Tsiakaras, P. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Thessalia, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece)

    2005-01-10

    In the present work, the changes of Nafion{sup (R)}-115 membrane porosity in the presence of ethanol aqueous solutions of different concentrations were determined by weighing vacuum-dried and ethanol solution-equilibrated membranes. It was found that membrane porosity increases as ethanol concentration increases. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) have been prepared by following both the conventional and the decal transfer method. The ethanol crossover through these two MEAs was electrochemically quantified by a voltammetric method. A 10h stability test of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at a current density of 50mAcm{sup -2} was carried out. It was found that the electrode preparation procedure has an obvious effect on ethanol crossover and direct ethanol fuel cell's performance and stability. The single DEFC test results showed that about 15 and 34% of the original peak power density was lost after 10h of life test for the MEAs prepared by the decal transfer method and the conventional method, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) results of the MEAs showed that, in the case of the membrane electrode assembly prepared by the following decal transfer method, the internal cell resistance was almost the same, 0.236{omega}cm{sup 2} before the life test and 0.239{omega}cm{sup 2} after 10h of life test, while the respective values for the membrane electrode assembly by the conventional method are 0.289 and 0.435{omega}cm{sup 2}. It is supposed that the improved cell performance with MEA by the decal transfer method could be resorted to both a better contact between the catalyst layer and the electrolyte membrane and higher catalyst utilization. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, the increased internal cell resistance and the degraded single DEFC performance could be attributed to the delamination of the catalyst layer from the electrolyte membrane. (author)

  12. Comparative effectiveness of one-stage versus two-stage basilic vein transposition arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Amir A; Griffin, Claire L; Kraiss, Larry W; Sarfati, Mark R; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2018-02-01

    Basilic vein transposition (BVT) fistulas may be performed as either a one-stage or two-stage operation, although there is debate as to which technique is superior. This study was designed to evaluate the comparative clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of one-stage vs two-stage BVT. We identified all patients at a single large academic hospital who had undergone creation of either a one-stage or two-stage BVT between January 2007 and January 2015. Data evaluated included patient demographics, comorbidities, medication use, reasons for abandonment, and interventions performed to maintain patency. Costs were derived from the literature, and effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). We analyzed primary and secondary functional patency outcomes as well as survival during follow-up between one-stage and two-stage BVT procedures using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was used to determine cost savings. We identified 131 patients in whom 57 (44%) one-stage BVT and 74 (56%) two-stage BVT fistulas were created among 8 different vascular surgeons during the study period that each performed both procedures. There was no significant difference in the mean age, male gender, white race, diabetes, coronary disease, or medication profile among patients undergoing one- vs two-stage BVT. After fistula transposition, the median follow-up time was 8.3 months (interquartile range, 3-21 months). Primary patency rates of one-stage BVT were 56% at 12-month follow-up, whereas primary patency rates of two-stage BVT were 72% at 12-month follow-up. Patients undergoing two-stage BVT also had significantly higher rates of secondary functional patency at 12 months (57% for one-stage BVT vs 80% for two-stage BVT) and 24 months (44% for one-stage BVT vs 73% for two-stage BVT) of follow-up (P < .001 using log-rank test). However, there was no significant difference

  13. Comparative aspects of procedures to authorize the siting of electro-nuclear power stations among the member countrie of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecchi, Gabriele.

    1981-10-01

    This paper makes a brief comparison of the licensing processes for nuclear installations in European Community States, in particular concerning consultation of the public, the competent authorities and the period for the procedure in the countries considered. (NEA) [fr

  14. Comparative effectiveness of generic versus brand-name antiepileptic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Polinski, Jennifer M; Hutchins, David; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment persistence and rates of seizure-related events in patients who initiate antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy with a generic versus a brand-name product. We used linked electronic medical and pharmacy claims data to identify Medicare beneficiaries who initiated one of five AEDs (clonazepam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, zonisamide). We matched initiators of generic versus brand-name versions of these drugs using a propensity score that accounted for demographic, clinical, and health service utilization variables. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to compare rates of seizure-related emergency room (ER) visit or hospitalization (primary outcome) and ER visit for bone fracture or head injury (secondary outcome) between the matched generic and brand-name initiators. We also compared treatment persistence, measured as time to first 14-day treatment gap, between generic and brand-name initiators. We identified 19,760 AED initiators who met study eligibility criteria; 18,306 (93%) initiated a generic AED. In the matched cohort, we observed 47 seizure-related hospitalizations and ER visits among brand-name initiators and 31 events among generic initiators, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.96). Similar results were observed for the secondary clinical endpoint and across sensitivity analyses. Mean time to first treatment gap was 124.2 days (standard deviation [sd], 125.8) for brand-name initiators and 137.9 (sd, 148.6) for generic initiators. Patients who initiated generic AEDs had fewer adverse seizure-related clinical outcomes and longer continuous treatment periods before experiencing a gap than those who initiated brand-name versions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Less than 1 cfuยทcm-2 viable bacterium (except for PVC) was observed on the surface of test pipes between 48 and 168 h. ... Statistical evidence also showed that all physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, turbidity, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, sulphate) had no significant effect on bacterial number at ...

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an analytical descriptive research done to assess the effects of organization development interventions on leadership and management practises of Green Earth Program. The theoretical framework was based on the models developed by Kotter and Lippit and the conceptual framework was based on the ...

  17. Effect of General Anesthesia Compared to Regional Anesthesia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: cesarean section (CS) is one of the common operations performed in obstetric practice worldwide; it can be conducted as elective or emergency operation. Objective: to assess the effect of different types of anesthesia used during conducting elective cesarean sections (CS) on the health of neonates by using ...

  18. Comparative effect of honey, orange juice, glucose and milk as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fifty-six day experiment was carried out to determine the effect of using honey, orange juice, glucose and milk as water additives on the performance and carcass qualities of broiler chickens. Water alone served as treatment 1 (control) while 100ml of honey, orange juice, glucose and milk each served as treatments 2, 3, ...

  19. Comparative study of analgesic effectiveness of single doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: This study employed the visual analogue scale to measure the effectiveness of single doses of ibuprofen and paracetamol over a six-hour period, following a third molar surgery in a homogenous study population, matched for age, body mass index (BMI) and gender. Alarms were set to remind patients to score pain ...

  20. Comparative effectiveness and safety of xiyanping with ribavirin for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This review suggests that xiyanping is more effective than ribavirin in children suffering from rotavirus enteritis. Keywords: Ribavirin ... rate occurs in children at the age of 3 to. 5 y, and the greatest risk for developing severe ... groups combined with other drugs, which influenced the results, were excluded.

  1. Comparative assessment of the effect of Moringa extracts, NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera extracts, NPK fertilizer and Poultry manure on Soil properties and growth performance of Solanium melongena in the Giri area of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replicates was used. Data collected ...

  2. Compare Cooling Effect of Different Working Fluid in Thermosyphon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabovský P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines cooling effect of various working fluids types, which are used in thermosyphon at cooling electrical component, it’s connected to power supply. Measurement is realized at various heat output, which maximal value is limited with maximal operating value of electrical component.

  3. The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Tetracarpidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening and the effects of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of T. conophorum on the biochemical parameters of male Guinea pigs were investigated. The Biochemical parameters were assayed using Randox Diagnostic kits, Phenophthalin and colorimetric methods. The phytochemical screening was ...

  4. Comparative effects of organic soil amendments and carbofuran on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of four organic soil amendments (cow dung, cocoa pod husk, poultry manure and wood ash) and carbofuran treatments on Meloidogyne incognita inducing root-knot disease of cacao seedlings. All soil treatments reduced the nematode population in soil and root of ...

  5. The Comparative Effects of Simulation Games and Brainstorming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... treatment and gender on students' achievement in Social Studies (F(2.233) = 17.644; P < 0.05). Based on the ... The problem of students' under–achievement in Social Studies has been a much discussed ..... Salawu, I. O. (1999) Effects of three instructional media on students teacher learning outcomes in ...

  6. An In vitro comparative effectiveness of two formulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work describes the effectiveness of two formulations of praziquantel namely praziquantel-polyvenylpirrolidone solution and praziquantel-dimethylsulphoxide suspension against cystic larvae of Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) and Mesocestoides corti (syn. Mesocestoides vogae) at concentrations of 5, 25, 50 and 100 ...

  7. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  8. Comparative effects of organic compost and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-treatment and post planting soil samples were taken for laboratory soil analysis of soil chemical properties for a comparison of the assessment of the cumulative effects of organic compost and inorganic fertilizer in improving soil fertility over a period of three years. The organic matter increased by 23.3% and 0.6% in the ...

  9. Assessing environmental effects of aromatizing unit by comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplying natural gas for industrial and service sectors as an inevitable task in moving toward sustainable development and making economic, socio cultural, and environmental progresses in Iran is a taken-for-granted fact. Conducting studies to assess the possible effects of development on the environment to achieve ...

  10. Comparative study of the hypoglycemic effects of coconut water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract. BMC. Complement Altern Med. 7: 29. Gao D, Li Q, Liu Z, Li Y, Liu Z, Fan Y, Li K, Han Z, Li J (2007). Hypo- glycemic effects and mechanisms of action of cortex Lycii radicis on alloxan – induced diabetic mice, Yakugaku Zasshi, 127(10): 1715-.

  11. Comparative in vitro inhibitory effects of cold extracts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Antifungal effects of some common wild plants species on certain plant pathogenic fungi. Dirasat. Pure Appl. Sci. 20: 149-158. Amadioha AC (1998). Control of Powdery mildew of pepper (Capsicum annum L) by leaf extracts Carica papaya. J. Herbs, spices and med. plants, 6: 41-47. Amadioha AC (2000).

  12. Epidemiologic and statistical methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, Mark A; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Setoguchi, Soko

    2013-01-01

    Observational methods are evolving in response to the widespread availability of data from clinical registries, electronic health records, and administrative databases. These approaches will never eliminate the need for randomized trials, but clearly have a role in evaluating the effect of therapies in unselected populations treated in routine practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative effect of carotenoid complex from golden neo-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The immunomodulatory effect of Carotenoid complex from Golden Neo-Life Dynamite (GNLD) and carrot extracted Carotenoid was assessed using 24 albino Wistar rats. The rats were assigned to 4 groups of 6 rats each consisting of group 1(control group treated with distilled water), group 2 (treated with olive oil) ...

  14. Monte Carlo based estimation of organ and effective doses to patients undergoing hysterosalpingography and retrograde urethrography fluoroscopy procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaile, J. E.; Msaki, P. K.; Kazema, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    Contrast investigations of hysterosalpingography (HSG) and retrograde urethrography (RUG) fluoroscopy procedures remain the dominant diagnostic tools for the investigation of infertility in females and urethral strictures in males, respectively, owing to the scarcity and high cost of services of alternative diagnostic technologies. In light of the radiological risks associated with contrast based investigations of the genitourinary tract systems, there is a need to assess the magnitude of radiation burden imparted to patients undergoing HSG and RUG fluoroscopy procedures in Tanzania. The air kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time, number of images, organ dose and effective dose to patients undergoing HSG and RUG procedures were obtained from four hospitals. The KAP was measured using a flat transmission ionization chamber, while the organ and effective doses were estimated using the knowledge of the patient characteristics, patient related exposure parameters, geometry of examination, KAP and Monte Carlo calculations (PCXMC). The median values of KAP for the HSG and RUG were 2.2 Gy cm2 and 3.3 Gy cm2, respectively. The median organ doses in the present study for the ovaries, urinary bladder and uterus for the HSG procedures, were 1.0 mGy, 4.0 mGy and 1.6 mGy, respectively, while for urinary bladder and testes of the RUG were 3.4 mGy and 5.9 mGy, respectively. The median values of effective doses for the HSG and RUG procedures were 0.65 mSv and 0.59 mSv, respectively. The median values of effective dose per hospital for the HSG and RUG procedures had a range of 1.6-2.8 mSv and 1.9-5.6 mSv, respectively, while the overall differences between individual effective doses across the four hospitals varied by factors of up to 22.0 and 46.7, respectively for the HSG and RUG procedures. The proposed diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for the HSG and RUG were for KAP 2.8 Gy cm2 and 3.9 Gy cm2, for fluoroscopy time 0.8 min and 0.9 min, and for number of images 5 and 4

  15. Comparative effectiveness of primary tumor resection in patients with stage IV colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawadi, Zeinab; Phatak, Uma R; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Bailey, Christina E; You, Y Nancy; Kao, Lillian S; Massarweh, Nader N; Feig, Barry W; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Skibber, John M; Chang, George J

    2017-04-01

    Although the safety of combination chemotherapy without primary tumor resection (PTR) in patients with stage IV colon cancer has been established, questions remain regarding a potential survival benefit with PTR. The objective of this study was to compare mortality rates in patients who had colon cancer with unresectable metastases who did and did not undergo PTR. An observational cohort study was conducted among patients with unresectable metastatic colon cancer identified from the National Cancer Data Base (2003-2005). Multivariate Cox regression analyses with and without propensity score weighting (PSW) were performed to compare survival outcomes. Instrumental variable analysis, using the annual hospital-level PTR rate as the instrument, was used to account for treatment selection bias. To account for survivor treatment bias, in situations in which patients might die soon after diagnosis from different reasons, a landmark method was used. In the total cohort, 8641 of 15,154 patients (57%) underwent PTR, and 73.8% of those procedures (4972 of 6735) were at landmark. PTR was associated with a significant reduction in mortality using Cox regression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.47) or PSW (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0. 44-0.49). However, instrumental variable analysis revealed a much smaller effect (relative mortality rate, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96). Although a smaller benefit was observed with the landmark method using Cox regression (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.55-0.64) and PSW (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.54-0.64), instrumental variable analysis revealed no survival benefit (relative mortality rate, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.06). Among patients with unresectable metastatic colon cancer, after adjustment for confounder effects, PTR was not associated with improved survival compared with systemic chemotherapy; therefore, routine noncurative PTR is not recommended. Cancer 2017;123:1124-1133. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Effects of easy-to-perform procedures to reduce bacterial colonization with Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus on toothbrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Annina; Schneider, Katja; Schlösser, Karolin; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F.; Frickmann, Hagen; Groß, Uwe; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that dental caries and periodontitis are the consequence of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the enamel surface. The continuous presence of bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface results in demineralization of the tooth enamel and induces an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding gums (gingivitis). The retention and survival of microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination especially for certain patients at risk for systemic infections originating from the oral cavity, e.g., after T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation. Thus, the effects of different decolonization schemes on bacterial colonization of toothbrushes were analyzed, in order to demonstrate their applicability to reduce the likelihood of (auto-)reinfections. Toothbrushes were intentionally contaminated with standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans or Staphylococcus aureus. Afterwards, the toothbrushes were exposed to rinsing under distilled water, rinsing and drying for 24 h, 0.2% chlorhexidine-based decolonization, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The remaining colony forming units were compared with freshly contaminated positive controls. Each experiment was nine-fold repeated. Bi-factorial variance analysis was performed; significance was accepted at P toothbrush model, the brush head type, or the acitivity state. Chlorhexidine-based decolonization was shown to be superior to rinsing and slightly superior to rinsing and drying for 24 h, while UV radiation was similarly effective as chlorhexidine. UV radiation was slightly less prone to species-dependent limitations of its decolonizing effects by bristle thickness of toothbrushes than chlorhexidin. Reduction of bacterial colonization of toothbrushes might reduce the risk of maintaining bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Accordingly, respective procedures are advisable, particularly as they are cheap and easy to perform. PMID:24265940

  17. Effects of Constant Time Delay Procedure on the Halliwick's Method of Swimming Rotation Skills for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Ozen, Arzu; Yanardag, Mehmet; Camursoy, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of a constant time delay procedure on the Halliwick's method of swimming rotation skills (i.e., vertical and lateral rotation) for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 8-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week…

  18. Laparoscopy Instructional Videos : The Effect of Preoperative Compared With Intraoperative Use on Learning Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Theo H.; Talsma, Aaldert K.; Wevers, Kevin P.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the use of intraoperative instructional videos has a positive effect on learning laparoscopic procedures. This study investigated the effect of the timing of the instructional videos on learning curves in laparoscopic skills training. DESIGN: After

  19. Comparative distalization effects of Jones jig and pendulum appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Pinzan, Arnaldo; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we compared the dentoalveolar changes of Class II patients treated with Jones jig and pendulum appliances. The experimental group comprised 40 Class II malocclusion subjects, divided into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 20 patients (11 boys, 9 girls) at a mean pretreatment age of 13.17 years, treated with the Jones jig appliance for 0.91 years; group 2 comprised 20 patients (8 boys, 12 girls) at a mean pretreatment age of 13.98 years, treated with the pendulum appliance for 1.18 years. Only active treatment time of molar distalization was evaluated in the predistalization and postdistalization lateral cephalograms. Molar, second premolar, and incisor angular and linear variables were obtained. The intergroup treatment changes in these variables were compared with independent t tests. The maxillary second premolars showed greater mesial tipping and extrusion in the Jones jig group, indicating more anchorage loss during molar distalization with this appliance. The amounts and the monthly rates of molar distalization were similar in both groups. The Jones jig group showed greater mesial tipping and extrusion of the maxillary second premolars. The mean amounts and the monthly rates of first molar distalization were similar in both groups.

  20. Laboratory methods used for testing the effect of radiation sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.

    1999-01-01

    Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation introduced in the mid of 1950s is more and more frequently used in tissue banking practice. The dose of 25 kGy is currently recommended and commonly used by many tissue banks in the world with the exception of the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw where the dose of 33 kGy + 10 % has been routinely used since 1963, and from 1997 the dose of 35 kGy + 10 % has been introduced. To study the effect of radiation-sterilization on bone allografts the interdisciplinary investigations have been undertaken and several techniques have been implemented in our tissue bank. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the amount, origin and stability of free radicals and other paramagnetic entities induced in radiation-sterilized bone allografts. This technique has been also utilized for quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts and for estimation of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation using bone tissue as a dosimeter. A model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis after transplantation of devitalized bone matrix into the muscle (described by Urist in 1965) is very useful in tissue banking practice. It allows one to determine the contribution the graft itself makes to osteogenesis. This model is routinely used in our tissue bank to evaluate the effect of various sterilization and preservation procedures on osteoinductive properties of bone allografts. The solubility in vitro of collagen - a carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPS) and a major constituent of bone and the other connective tissue grafts, has been studied by measuring the amount of extracted neutral, acid and total soluble collagen from bone grafts preserved by different methods at irradiated at vanous experimental conditions. A positive correlation between collagen solubility in vitro and the rate of graft resorption in vivo has been observed. The high doses of

  1. Modified MicroSecure Vitrification: A Safe, Simple and Highly Effective Cryopreservation Procedure for Human Blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, Mitchel C; Zozula, Shane; Nugent, Nancy; Waggoner, Kelley; Borba, Jessica; Gamboa, Lisa; Whitney, John B

    2017-03-02

    Clinical embryo vitrification evolved with the development of unique vitrification devices in the 21 st century and with the misconception that ultra-rapid cooling in an "open" system (i.e., direct LN2 contact) was a necessity to optimize vitrification success. The dogma surrounding the importance of cooling rates led to unsafe practices subject to technical variation and to the creation of vitrification devices that disregarded important quality-control factors (e.g., ease of use, repeatability, reliability, labeling security, and storage safety). Understanding the quality-control flaws of other devices allowed for the development of a safe, secure, repeatable, and reliable µS-VTF method aimed to minimize intra- and inter-technician variation. Equally important, it combined the availability of two existing FDA-compliant devices: 1) a 0.3-mL ionomeric resin embryo straw with internalized, dual-colored, tamper-proof labeling with repeatable weld seal potential; and 2) shortened, commonly-used, 300-µm ID sterile flexipettes to directly load the embryo(s) in order to create a highly-effective global vitrification device. Like other aseptic, closed vitrification systems (e.g., High Security Vitrification (HSV), Rapid-i, and VitriSafe) effectively used in reproductive medicine, microSecure Vitrification (µS-VTF) has proven that it can achieve high post-warming survival and pregnancy outcomes with its attention to simplicity, and reduced technical variation. Although the 0.3-mL embryo straw containing an internal hydrophobic plug was commercially replaced with a standard semen straw possessing cotton-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) plugs, it maintained its ionomeric resin composition to ensure weld sealing. However, the cotton plugs can wick out the fluid-embryo contents of the flexipettes upon contact. A modified µS-VTF method was adapted to include an additional internal weld seal before the plug on the device loading side. The added technical step to the µ

  2. Comparative Effects of Water, Acid and Sodium Benzoate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of water, sulphuric acid and sodium benzoate as additives on the micelle-catalyzed aquation reactions of the complexes:Fe(Me2Phen)3 2+ and FE(Me4Phen) were studied in acetone using Triton X-100 (TX-100), as the surfactant-catalyst. FE(Me4Phen)2+ equates faster than FE(Me2Phen)2+ in the ...

  3. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  4. Comparative Study on the MDR Reversal Effects of Selected Chalcones

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, A. B.; Batovska, D. I.; Todorova, I. T.; Stamboliyska, B. A.; Serly, J.; Molnar, J.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the structure of three previously established lead compounds, fifteen selected chalcones were synthesized and evaluated for their multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity on mouse lymphoma cells. The most active chalcones were stronger revertants than the positive control, verapamil. In the model of combination chemotherapy, the interactions between the anticancer drug doxorubicin and two of the most effective compounds were measured in vitro, on human MDR1 gene transfected mouse...

  5. Comparative effects of coal and nuclear fuel on mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.

    1977-08-01

    A key part of risk assessment is estimation of population exposure. This might ideally be a compilation of the number and characteristics of people exposed to given kinds, levels, and combinations of risk. The compilation ideally would be sufficiently disaggregated to allow calculation of the joint frequency of various combinations of risk to which a single population might be exposed. The number of people exposed at each level of risk is important since the true health damage function (or dose-response function) is likely to be nonlinear. At this point, in our models, we are not considering synergisms. We attempt to define the population exposed, and the degree of exposure, but treat the population at each exposure level as a single class. We also use linear damage functions. While these probably do not adequately represent the true effects over a wide range of exposure, we believe they are adequate to predict the effect of small changes of exposure within the general range of previous observation. Moreover, in our air pollution models we are generally allocating part of the total effect of air pollution to a specific source. A linear model seems completely appropriate for this use. We measure mortality in excess or attributable deaths per power-plant year. Excess deaths is a convenient way to express changes in mortality rates

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  7. Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niteesh Shanbag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is a widely established risk factor for coronary artery disease. As Asians differ in pattern of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians, this study was undertaken to compare efficacy of commonly administrated drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of hypertriglyceridaemia divided into two groups, A and B. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean and t value were calculated following 12 weeks of therapy of atorvastatin 10 mg in group A and micronized fenofibrate in group B. RESULTS Our study showed that fenofibrate is more efficacious in reducing the levels of triglycerides and rising level of HDL cholesterol, while atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION Micronized fenofibrate has more efficiency in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL. Atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL levels.

  9. Effective dose evaluation for workers assisting new-borns in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falivene, A.; Gori, C.; Mazzocchi, S.; Targetti, S.; Zatelli, G.

    2002-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is a very frequent nuclear medicine procedure for new-borns when deemed necessary after prenatal ultrasounds investigation. The procedure requires the physical proximity of workers to the patient, particularly during the examination of new-borns, in order to keep the young patients still. The irradiation of nurses during kidney examination of new-borns has been measured by simulating the examination procedure with an Alderson Rando phantom stuffed with thermoluminescent detectors, positioned near a radioactive source obtained with a tank filled with a 9 9mT c solution. Measurements have been carried out both with and without radiation protection devices positioned on the Rando phantom. Different organ doses have been evaluated. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the amount of dose reduction that can be achieved by utilising lead aprons, glasses and thyroid collars

  10. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  11. Effect of repeated Kangaroo Mother Care on repeated procedural pain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haixia; Xu, Guihua; Gao, Honglian; Dong, Rongzhi; Fu, Hongjie; Wang, Danwen; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Preterm infants' repeated exposure to painful procedures may lead to negative consequences. Thus, non-pharmacological pain management is essential due to medication side effects. Kangaroo Mother Care, which aims at offering human care to neonates, has been established for the treatment of a single painful procedure, but the effectiveness of Kangaroo Mother Care across repeated painful procedures is unknown. To test the effectiveness of repeated Kangaroo Mother Care on repeated heel-stick pain in preterm neonates. Randomized controlled trial. Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at a large teaching hospital in northeast China. Preterm infants (gestational age less than 37 weeks) (n=80) were recruited and randomly assigned using a random table format to either an incubator group (n=40) or Kangaroo Mother Care group (n=40). Pain assessments were carried out during four routine heel stick procedures. For the first heel stick, preterm infants in each group received no intervention (routinely stayed in incubator). During the next three heel sticks, the infants in Kangaroo Mother Care group received heel sticks during Kangaroo Mother Care, while infants in the incubator group received heel sticks in incubator. The procedure of each heel stick included 3 phases: baseline, blood collection and recovery. Crying, grimacing and heart rate in response to pain were evaluated at each phase across four heel sticks by three trained independent observers who were blinded to the purpose of the study. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), with repeated measures at different evaluation phases of heel stick. 75 preterm infants completed the protocol. Between-group comparison revealed that preterm infants' heart rate was significantly lower, and the duration of crying and facial grimacing were both significantly shorter in the Kangaroo Mother Care group (n=38) than the incubator group (n=37) from the blood collection phase to recovery phase during repeated heel sticks. No

  12. Comparing the effects of positive and negative feedback in information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Michael; Glass, Brian; Filoteo, J Vincent; Hazeltine, Eliot; Maddox, W Todd

    2017-01-01

    Categorical learning is dependent on feedback. Here, we compare how positive and negative feedback affect information-integration (II) category learning. Ashby and O'Brien (2007) demonstrated that both positive and negative feedback are required to solve II category problems when feedback was not guaranteed on each trial, and reported no differences between positive-only and negative-only feedback in terms of their effectiveness. We followed up on these findings and conducted 3 experiments in which participants completed 2,400 II categorization trials across three days under 1 of 3 conditions: positive feedback only (PFB), negative feedback only (NFB), or both types of feedback (CP; control partial). An adaptive algorithm controlled the amount of feedback given to each group so that feedback was nearly equated. Using different feedback control procedures, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants in the NFB and CP group were able to engage II learning strategies, whereas the PFB group was not. Additionally, the NFB group was able to achieve significantly higher accuracy than the PFB group by Day 3. Experiment 3 revealed that these differences remained even when we equated the information received on feedback trials. Thus, negative feedback appears significantly more effective for learning II category structures. This suggests that the human implicit learning system may be capable of learning in the absence of positive feedback.

  13. The comparative effectiveness of persuasion, commitment and leader block strategies in motivating sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaël, Dupré

    2014-04-01

    Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF TWO ANTIPARASITIC DRUGS IN SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA MOł

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed in two consecutive years, 2006 and 2007, on 30 łurcana breed, 2-5 years aged sheep from Timis and Caras-Severin districts, with clinical signs of ovine oestrosis. The animals received two antiparasitic drugs, Ivomec and Rafoxanid and after 12 days after treatment they were slaughtered and their heads were been examined in the way of Oestrus ovis larvae discovering. The effect of treatment with Ivomec was superior to those of Rafoxanid, demonstrated by number of larvae...

  15. Comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analyses frequently agree on value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Henry A; McElligott, Sean; Pauly, Mark V; Willke, Richard J; Bergquist, Henry; Doshi, Jalpa; Fleisher, Lee A; Kinosian, Bruce; Perfetto, Eleanor; Polsky, Daniel E; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2015-05-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, known as PCORI, was established by Congress as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to promote evidence-based treatment. Provisions of the ACA prohibit the use of a cost-effectiveness analysis threshold and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in PCORI comparative effectiveness studies, which has been understood as a prohibition on support for PCORI's conducting conventional cost-effectiveness analyses. This constraint complicates evidence-based choices where incremental improvements in outcomes are achieved at increased costs of care. How frequently this limitation inhibits efficient cost containment, also a goal of the ACA, depends on how often more effective treatment is not cost-effective relative to less effective treatment. We examined the largest database of studies of comparisons of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to see how often there is disagreement between the more effective treatment and the cost-effective treatment, for various thresholds that may define good value. We found that under the benchmark assumption, disagreement between the two types of analyses occurs in 19 percent of cases. Disagreement is more likely to occur if a treatment intervention is musculoskeletal and less likely to occur if it is surgical or involves secondary prevention, or if the study was funded by a pharmaceutical company. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Echoic and retrieval accounts of the long-term modality effect tested using the suffix procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S T; Glenberg, A M

    1986-01-01

    The long-term modality effect is the advantage in recall of the last of a list of auditory to-be-remembered (TBR) items compared with the last of a list of visual TBR items when the list is followed by a filled retention interval. If the auditory advantage is due to echoic sensory memory mechanisms, then recall of the last auditory TBR item should be substantially reduced when it is followed by a redundant, not-to-be-recalled auditory suffix. Contrary to this prediction, Experiment 1 demonstrated that a redundant auditory suffix does not significantly reduce recall of the last auditory TBR item. In Experiment 2 a nonredundant auditory suffix produced a large reduction in the last auditory item. Redundancy is not the only factor controlling the effectiveness of a suffix, however. Experiment 3 demonstrated that a nonredundant visual suffix does not reduce recall of the last auditory TBR item. These results are discussed in reference to a retrieval account of the long-term modality effect.

  17. Effective Work Procedure design Using Discomfort and Effort Factor in Brick stacking operation-A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Biswaranjan; Dash, R. R.; Dhupal, D.

    2018-02-01

    In this work a typical planning of movement of limbs and torso of the worker to be well design to reduce fatigue and energy of the worker. A simulation model is generated to suit the procedure and comply with the constraints in the workspace. It requires verifying the capability of human postures and movements in different working conditions for the evaluation of effectiveness of the new design. In this article a simple human performance measure is introduce that enable the mathematical model for evaluation of a cost function. The basic scheme is to evaluate the performance in the form of several cost factors using AI techniques. Here two main cost factors taken in to consideration are discomfort factor and effort factor in limb movements. Discomfort factor measures the level of discomfort from the most neutral position of a given limb to the position of the corresponding limb after movement and effort factor is a measure of the displacement of the corresponding limbs from the original position. The basic aim is to optimize the movement of the limbs with the above mentioned cost functions. The effectiveness of the procedure is tested with an example of working procedure of workers used for stacking of fly ash bricks in a local fly ash bricks manufacturing unit. The objective is to find out the optimised movement of the limbs to reduce discomfort level and effort required of workers. The effectiveness of the procedure in this case study illustrated with the obtained results.

  18. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF PHYTOANTIBIOTICS AND ANTIBIOTICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhvlediani, L; Koiava, T; Lomtadze, L; Joxadze, M; Msxiladze, L; Berashvili, D; Bakuridze, A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of individual medicines and containing sum of the phyto-extracts against the bacteria causing nosocomial infections in compare to antibiotics. In the investigation were involved four strains of gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter spp. Each object was investigated on antibiotic resistance using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method on 22 types of antibiotics. The objects of the study were: Sanguinarine, Chelerythrine and Berberine hydrochloride (of lab quality); essential oils and aromatic waters of Eucalyptus, Salvia and Lavanda. For determination their antibacterial activity was used Raits serological dilution method with adaptation. The results show that the antibiotic resistant bacteria did not rise in non-diluted and 1:1 diluted test-tubes. In 1:5 diluted test-tubes was observed a little turbidity and growth, as for in other test-tubes - intensive growth. The investigated phyto-medicines show the higher antibacterial activity than the antibiotics.

  19. THE COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF TWO ANTIPARASITIC DRUGS IN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA MOł

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in two consecutive years, 2006 and 2007, on 30 łurcana breed, 2-5 years aged sheep from Timis and Caras-Severin districts, with clinical signs of ovine oestrosis. The animals received two antiparasitic drugs, Ivomec and Rafoxanid and after 12 days after treatment they were slaughtered and their heads were been examined in the way of Oestrus ovis larvae discovering. The effect of treatment with Ivomec was superior to those of Rafoxanid, demonstrated by number of larvae found in nasal ways and sinuses. It was also observed the higher incidence of ovine oestrosis in 2006 in comparison with 2007, attributed to meteorological conditions.

  20. Comparative toxicological studies on the effects of internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo; Yamada, Yuji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the toxicological mechanism of transuranic elements, such as plutonium, involved in the induction of pulmonary fibrosis, toxic effects of several inhaled dusts and mineral particles were examined in rats. Pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) was responsible for retention and behavior of inhaled asbestos fibers or silica particles and their transfer to the lymph nodes. PAM exhibited prominent phagocytosis of particles, followed by a significant release of lactic dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase. Multinucleated or Ia-positive PAM was frequently observed in rats presenting with pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis that was induced by inhaled asbestos or silica particles was associated with significant production and release of cytokines. This indicated a close correlation with inflammatory or proliferating responses of fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Such reactions observed in PAM depended on toxicity of particles involved in phagocytosis (i.e., the ability of particles to induce pulmonary fibrosis), suggesting heterogeneity in the population of PAM. (Namekawa, K)