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Sample records for effective port wine

  1. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth / For Parents / Port-Wine Stains What's ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  2. Port-wine stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Port-wine stain URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  3. Globalization and wine business: Port wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Joao; Correia, Leonida; Caldas, Jose Vaz

    2007-01-01

    In the past two decades the world has seen acceleration in the process of globalisation, affecting virtually all industries and consumers. The wine sector is no exception, witnessing increased exports and imports, decreasing consumption per capita in the producing countries, and a wave of direct foreign investment and mergers and acquisitions in the industry. Among European wine producers the Port wine can be seen as a representative case of globalisation and as a benchmark, because almost 90...

  4. Laser treatment of Port-wine stains

    OpenAIRE

    Boffa, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    A state-of-the-art pulsed dye laser machine to treat port-wine stains and other vascular lesions has been available in the Malta Health Service since 1999. This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical features of port- wine stains and describes the principles of laser treatment for this condition.

  5. Port wine stain on a child's face (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging of port-wine stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Roy G. M.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAI uses pulsed

  7. Photoacoustic Imaging of Port-Wine Stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Mulder, M.J.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. - Study Design/Materials and Methods: PAI uses

  8. Port wine oxidation management: a multiparametric kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rui Costa; Monforte, Ana Rita; Silva Ferreira, António

    2013-06-05

    Port wine is a flagship fortified wine of Portugal, which undergoes a particularly long aging period, developing a dynamic sensory profile over time, responsible for several wine categories, which is dependent upon the type of aging (bottle or barrel). Therefore, the quality of the product is dependent upon the chemical mechanisms occurring during the aging process, such as oxidation or Maillard reactions. To attain the desired quality management, it is necessary to understand how technological parameters, such as temperature or oxygen exposure, affect the kinetics of the formation of key odorants, such as sotolon. There is a lack of information about the impact of the storage conditions (oxygen and temperature) on Port wine quality. In this study, the effect of these two parameters were investigated to increase the knowledge database concerning aging management of Port wines. It was found that sotolon formation is highly dependent upon oxygen and temperature. There is however a synergistic effect between these two parameters that could significantly increase the concentration. The kinetic parameters of oxygen, sotolon, and other compounds related to Port aging (cis- and trans-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,3-dioxan, 2-furfural, 5-hydroxy-methyl-furfural, and 5-methyl-furfural) are also reported. Kinetic models with Monte Carlo simulations, where the oxygen permeability dispersion and temperature are the parameters under evaluation, were applied. On the basis of the modeling predictions, it would seem that the temperature of a cellar would have a more significant impact on the Port wines stored in containers where the oxygen intake is higher (barrels) when compared to containers with low oxygen permeability (bottles using cork stoppers).

  9. Effect of the timing of treatment of port-wine stains with the flash-lamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, C. M.; Koster, P. H.; de Borgie, C. A.; Bossuyt, P. M.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Port-wine stains can be treated with a flash-lamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser, but it is uncertain whether this treatment is more effective if administered early in life, when the skin is thinner and the lesion is smaller. METHODS: We prospectively studied 100 patients with a previously

  10. Laser Treatment of Port Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

    Port wine stain (PWS), also called nevus flammeus, is a congenital, cutaneous vascular malformation involving post-capillary venules which produce a light pink to red to dark-red-violet discoloration of human skin [1]. PWS occurs in an estimated 3 children per 1000 live births, affecting males and females and all racial groups equally [2]. There appears to be no hereditary predilection for PWS within families. There are no known risk factors or ways to prevent PWS.

  11. Climate variability and Port wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Celia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Dacamara, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Recent warming trends for Portugal have been found to be steepest in winter and spring and more pronounced for minimum than for maximum values of temperature (Miranda et al, 2002). These trends and associated changes in temperature and precipitation regimes may exert strong influences on agriculture systems. For instance, high values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index have been shown to significantly reduce precipitation over Iberia and therefore induce low yield wheat crops in Portugal (Gouveia and Trigo, 2006). Port wine is produced from grapes grown in selected areas of the Douro valley, the so-called Região Demarcada do Douro, the first wine-producing region of the world (dating from 1758). A vintage wine is made from grapes that were grown and harvested in a single specified year and is classified as such because of the above average quality, a status that is attributed by Port houses in their best years. The Douro region presents distinctive climatic, topographic and soil characteristics. While the latest factors are fixed in time, the former may considerably change from year to year, exposing the Port wine productions to a large risk associated to interannual and intra-seasonal climatic variations. It is therefore to be expected that high quality wines are generally associated to optimum climatic conditions. In this work we have performed an analysis of the distinct behaviour of several meteorological fields in vintage versus non-vintage years. The relative importance of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and frost days is assessed for each individual month of the vegetative cycle and their importance to a high quality wine year is evaluated. Composites of 500 hPa geopotential height and sea level pressure fields over the Euro Atlantic region are also compared for vintage and non-vintage years. Results reveal a strong dependence of vintage production on maximum temperature and precipitation during spring and summer (the growing season

  12. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...

  13. Influence of the temperature and oxygen exposure in red Port wine: A kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Barros, António S; Silva Ferreira, António César; Silva, Artur M S

    2015-09-01

    Although phenolics are recognized to be related with health benefits by limiting lipid oxidation, in wine, they are the primary substrates for oxidation resulting in the quinone by-products with the participation of transition metal ions. Nevertheless, high quality Port wines require a period of aging in either bottle or barrels. During this time, a modification of sensory properties of wines such as the decrease of astringency or the stabilization of color is recognized to phenolic compounds, mainly attributed to anthocyanins and derived pigments. The present work aims to illustrate the oxidation of red Port wine based on its phenolic composition by the effect of both thermal and oxygen exposures. A kinetic approach toanthocyanins degradation was also achieved. For this purpose a forced red Port wine aging protocol was performed at four different storage temperatures, respectively, 20, 30, 35 and 40°C, and two adjusted oxygen saturation levels, no oxygen addition (treatment I), and oxygen addition (treatment II). Three hydroxycinnamic esters, three hydroxycinnamic acids, three hydroxybenzoic acids, two flavan-3-ols, and six anthocyanins were quantitated weekly during 63days, along with oxygen consumption. The most relevant phenolic oxidation markers were anthocyanins and catechin-type flavonoids, which had the highest decreases during the thermal and oxidative red Port wine process. Both temperature and oxygen treatments affected the rate of phenolic degradation. In addition, temperature seems to influence mostly the phenolics kinetic degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, M.; Pickering, J. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal port wine stain treatment requires the selective absorption of light by the ectatic blood vessels. We investigated whether deeper blood vessels can be coagulated, without damaging other cutaneous structures, by varying the laser beam diameter. The penetration of the light was simulated with

  15. Double Pass 595?nm pulsed dye laser at a 6 minute interval for the treatment of port-wine stains is not more effective than single pass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A. D.; van Drooge, A. M.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; van der Veen, J. P. W.; Bos, J. D.; Beek, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the first choice for treatment of port wine stains (PWS). However, outcome is highly variable and only a few patients achieve complete clearance. The objective of the study was to compare efficacy and safety of single pass PDL with double pass PDL at a 6 minute

  16. PHACE syndrome misdiagnosed as a port-wine stain

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Jason; Greig, Aina; Lloyd, Claire; Morrison, Danny; Flohr, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a boy born with a large macular, segmental vascular anomaly over the left face, initially diagnosed as a capillary malformation (port-wine stain) by the postnatal paediatric team. The vascular anomaly in the face then grew rapidly during the first few weeks of life and started to occlude the left eye, causing parental concerns about the infant's vision. A dermatological opinion established that the lesion was a segmental infantile haemangioma (IH). This, in combination ...

  17. Juvenile localized scleroderma with port wine stain: Coincidental or possible common pathogenetic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Dogruk Kacar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Port wine stain and juvenile localized scleroderma are two different dermatoses usually encountered in pediatric age group. Up to now, there are reports of morphea patients initially diagnosed and treated as port wine stain. Coexistence of both diseases is not found yet. We herein present a case of juvenile localized scleroderma on the left side of trunk, with congenital port wine stain located on the ipsilateral face at V1-V2 distribution.

  18. Juvenile localized scleroderma with port wine stain: coincidental or possible common pathogenetic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Seval Dogruk; Ozuguz, Pinar; Polat, Serap; Kacar, Emre; Polat, Onur; Tokyol, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    Port wine stain and juvenile localized scleroderma are two different dermatoses usually encountered in pediatric age group. Up to now, there are reports of morphea patients initially diagnosed and treated as port wine stain. Coexistence of both diseases is not found yet. We herein present a case of juvenile localized scleroderma on the left side of trunk, with congenital port wine stain located on the ipsilateral face at V1-V2 distribution.

  19. Port-wine vascular malformations and glaucoma risk in Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Sapna; Swamy, Brighu; Taranath, Deepa Ajay; Jamieson, Robyn; Yu, Tao; Wargon, Orli; Grigg, John R

    2009-08-01

    Treatment of the capillary vascular malformation (port-wine stain) in Sturge-Weber syndrome with the use of a laser is helpful cosmetically. However, concerns have been raised that laser obliteration of port-wine stains may result in ocular hypertension. The aim of this study was to review clinical features and management of ocular complications of SWS and assess the effects of dermatological laser treatment on the incidence of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in an institutional setting. All patients had involvement of the face. Patients who underwent skin laser to the port-wine vascular malformation were analyzed further. Ocular involvement, glaucoma, and skin laser treatment and the relationship to ocular hypertension/glaucoma were observed. Forty-one Sturge-Weber syndrome patients with port-wine vascular malformation were analyzed. Glaucoma was observed in 24 patients (58.5%) at mean age of 2.9 years (range, 0.0-16.5). Of these, 18 (75.0%) were treated with medical therapy, and 10 (41.7%) required trabeculectomy, with 2 of these requiring Seton implant. Of the 41 patients, 28 (68.3%) underwent laser to face/forehead. Mean age of laser commencement was 5 years (range, 0.4-16.5). Thirteen did not undergo laser treatment. Fourteen of the 28 and 10 of the 13 developed ocular hypertension/glaucoma. This retrospective review did not find evidence to suggest that laser treatment of port-wine vascular malformations causes glaucoma or that it can worsen a preexisting ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Statistical analysis was inconclusive.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of table and Port red wine anthocyanins: a crossover trial in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I; Marques, C; Évora, A; Cruz, L; de Freitas, V; Calhau, C; Faria, A; Mateus, N

    2017-05-24

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Port and table red wine anthocyanins in healthy men. Volunteers were recruited to drink 250 mL of a table red wine (221 mg of anthocyanins) and 150 mL of young Port red wine (49 mg of anthocyanins). Venous blood was collected from participants at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after wine ingestion. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 120 min. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in plasma and urine samples were quantified by HPLC-DAD and tentatively identified by LC-MS. Red wine anthocyanins were detected in their intact forms in both plasma and urine samples, but the glucuronylated metabolites of peonidin and malvidin (PnGlucr and MvGlucr) were the two main derivatives detected after both red wine consumptions. For the first time, and supported by the synthesis of Mv3Glucr, the main pathway followed by Mv3glc after absorption was described and involves anthocyanidin conjugation with glucuronic acid after glucose removal. Despite the lower total content of anthocyanins ingested when volunteers drank Port wine, no differences were observed in the plasma C max of MvGlucr and PnGlucr after table and Port red wine consumption. The relative bioavailability of anthocyanins in Port wine was 96.58 ± 5.74%, compared to the anthocyanins present in red wine. In conclusion, both Port and table red wines are good sources of bioavailable anthocyanins.

  1. The terroir of Port wine: Two hundred and sixty years of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata-Sena, Maria; Castro-Carvalho, Bruno M; Nunes, Sandra; Amaral, Bento; Silva, Paula

    2018-08-15

    Port wine is an internationally acclaimed fortified wine produced in Douro Demarcated Region (DDR) in Portugal, and recognized with protected designation of origin. This review represents a compilation of the known chromatic and aromatic descriptors of Port wine. A comprehensive review of literature is performed regarding the influence of geography, climate, soil, grapevine cultivars, and vitivinicultural practices on the unique Port wine attributes. This manuscript provides an extensive insight regarding the different aspects that influence the quality and uniqueness of Port wine, especially its main sensory attributes: colour, aroma, and flavour. Its main goal is to assess the importance of the DDR as a unique and defined terroir that ensures quality and confers authenticity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PHACE syndrome misdiagnosed as a port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jason; Greig, Aina; Lloyd, Claire; Morrison, Danny; Flohr, Carsten

    2015-07-15

    We present the case of a boy born with a large macular, segmental vascular anomaly over the left face, initially diagnosed as a capillary malformation (port-wine stain) by the postnatal paediatric team. The vascular anomaly in the face then grew rapidly during the first few weeks of life and started to occlude the left eye, causing parental concerns about the infant's vision. A dermatological opinion established that the lesion was a segmental infantile haemangioma (IH). This, in combination with the posterior fossa malformation previously detected on antenatal scanning and confirmed by an MRI postnatally, satisfied the criteria for Posterior fossa abnormalities, Haemangiomas, Arterial abnormalities, Cardiac abnormalities and Eye abnormalities (PHACE) syndrome: a rare cutaneous neurovascular syndrome. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge posed by early phenotypes of haemangiomas as well as the importance of correctly diagnosing PHACE syndrome. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Hemoporfin Photodynamic Therapy for Port-Wine Stain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    .5% (n = 731; 95% CI, 98.7%-99.8% of the PDT-hemoporfin treatments (n = 735. Hyperpigmentation occurred in 22.9 per 100 patient-treatments (n = 168; 95% CI, 20.0-26.0 in the PDT-hemoporfin treated patients.Hemoporfin-mediated PDT is an effective and safe treatment option for adolescent and adult patients with port-wine stain.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-08000213.

  4. Treatment of port-wine stains with flash lamp pumped pulsed dye laser on Indian skin: A six year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandroth Ponnambath Thajudheen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Port-wine stain (PWS is one of the commonly encountered congenital cutaneous vascular lesions, with an equal sex distribution. Pulsed dye lasers (PDL have revolutionized the treatment of both congential and acquired cutaneous vascular lesions. The pulsed dye lasers owing to its superior efficacy and safety profile have become the gold standard for the management of port-wine stains. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of pulsed dye laser for the management of Port-wine stain on Indian skin. Materials and Methods: Seventy five patients of Fitzpatrick skin types IV&V with PWS underwent multiple treatments with PDL (V beam-Candela over a period of six years at monthly intervals. Laser parameters were wavelength 595nm, spot sizes 7-10mm, fluence 6-12 j/cm2, pulse duration 0.45-10ms, along with cryogen cooling. Serial photographs were taken before and after every session. Clinical improvement scores of comparable photographs using a quartile grading (o=80% were judged independently by two dermatologists after the series of treatment. Minimum number of treatments was 6 and maximum 17.They were followed up at six monthly intervals to observe re darkening of PWS. Results: No patient showed total clearance.Grade3 improvement was observed in 70 % of children and 50% of adults after 8-10 sessions. Children showed better and faster response than adults. Thirty percent of patients developed post inflammatory hyper pigmentation which resolved over a period of six to eight weeks. Two patients had superficial scarring due to stacking of pulses. None of the patients showed re darkening of PWS till now. Conclusion: Pulsed dye laser is an effective and safe treatment for port-wine stain in Indian skin.

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of port wine stain vascular anatomy from serial histological sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithies, D. J.; van Gemert, M. J.; Hansen, M. K.; Milner, T. E.; Nelson, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Port wine stains (PWSs) treated with a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser show a variability in clinical response that is incompletely understood. To identify any vascular structure that might adversely affect treatment response, we obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vascular anatomy

  6. Hypertrophy in port-wine stains: Prevalence and patient characteristics in a large patient cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Beek, Johan F.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Port-wine stains (PWS) may thicken and darken with age. Little is known about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of PWS hypertrophy because of the lack of large studies. Objective: We sought to assess the prevalence and characteristics of patients with hypertrophic PWS. Methods: Medical

  7. Light distributions in a port wine stain model containing multiple cylindrical and curved blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, G. W.; Verkruysse, W.; Keijzer, M.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the light distribution in skin tissue is important for the understanding, prediction, and improvement of the clinical results in laser treatment of port wine stains (PWS). The objective of this study is to improve modelling of PWS treated by laser using an improved and more realistic

  8. Redarkening of port-wine stains 10 years after pulsed-dye-laser treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huikeshoven, Menno; Koster, Petra H. L.; de Borgie, Corianne A. J. M.; Beek, Johan F.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although pulsed-dye-laser therapy is currently the gold standard for the treatment of port-wine stains, few objective data are available on its long-term efficacy. Using objective color measurements, we performed a 10-year follow-up of a previously conducted prospective clinical study of

  9. Non-invasive determination of port wine stain anatomy and physiology for optimal laser treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, M. J.; Nelson, J. S.; Milner, T. E.; Smithies, D. J.; Verkruysse, W.; de Boer, J. F.; Lucassen, G. W.; Goodman, D. M.; Tanenbaum, B. S.; Norvang, L. T.; Svaasand, L. O.

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of port wine stains (PWSs) using a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is often performed using virtually identical irradiation parameters. Although encouraging clinical results have been reported, we propose that lasers will only reach their full potential provided treatment parameters

  10. Angiographic optical coherence tomography imaging of hemangiomas and port wine birthmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Jill S; Holmes, Jon; Rudnick, Ashley; Woods, Daniel; Kelly, Kristen M

    2018-03-22

    A current therapeutic challenge of vascular lesions is that they do not always respond effectively to laser treatment. Information on targeted vessels could potentially be used to guide laser treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a useful tool for the non-invasive imaging of tissues, including skin hemangiomas and port wine birthmarks. Dynamic OCT is able to rapidly characterize cutaneous blood vessels. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the ability of bedside OCT to image (i) overall vessel pattern; (ii) individual vessel morphology, diameter and depth; and (iii) total vessel density as a function of depth in infantile hemangiomas and port wine birthmarks (PWB). This IRB approved, observational clinical trial was performed among healthy volunteers ages 3 months-73 years old. All patients presented for laser treatment of either infantile hemangiomas or PWB with skin types ranging from Fitzpatrick I-V. OCT imaging of 49 hemangioma and PWB scans were performed pre- and post-treatment. The diameter and depth of the blood vessels making up the vascular lesions were measured. In addition, normal skin was scanned for comparison. Five datasets for infantile hemangiomas and five for PWB that were without motion artifacts were analyzed. Scanned lesions exhibited variable and highly heterogeneous blood vessel patterns with vessel diameters ranging from 20 to 160 μm, suggesting that the laser treatment with single pulse durations may not be optimal. The largest blood vessel diameter observed (160 μm) may not be adequately treated by commonly used pulsed dye laser pulse durations. OCT allowed rapid, non-invasive characterization of the diameter and depth of blood vessels in individual vascular lesions. Imaged lesions consisted of a heterogeneous population of vessel sizes, morphologies, and depth. Future studies could utilize this information to assist development of individualized treatment protocols in an effort to improve vascular birthmark

  11. Can palm wine metamorphose into a health drink? | Ordinioha | Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Can palm wine metamorphose into a health drink? B Ordinioha, S Brisibe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  12. Co-occurrence of intraoral hemangioma and port wine stain: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are neoplastic proliferations of endothelial cells, characterized by a period of growth after birth, and eventual spontaneous involution. The course can be uneventful with spontaneous resolution; or it may be marked by complications such as infection, bleeding, ulceration, visual defects and feeding difficulties. Apart from these, rare life-threatening complications such as congestive heart failure and consumption coagulopathy may also be seen. Although hemangiomas commonly occur in the head and neck region, intraoral occurrence is relatively rare. A port wine stain is defined as a macular telangiectatic patch which is present at birth and remains throughout life. They may be localized or extensive, affecting a whole limb. This article reports a rare case of co-occurrence of port wine stain with intraoral hemangioma.

  13. Buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in marketing channels: port wine distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo de Carvalho J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available José Crespo de Carvalho, Luís Sequeira Lisbon University Institute, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to research buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in distribution channels. Based on a multidimensional case study, eight research hypotheses were formulated. Some quantitative research was conducted, based on a questionnaire sent to 101 port wine producers and distribution companies (61 answered properly – 31 producers and 29 distributors – which gave the authors a 60% rate of response, considered to be very good for these types of studies; those 101 port wine producers and distributors initially chosen were the most important in Europe, considering the volume of production and sales, and constituting, for that reason, a convenience sample. A binary probit model was developed to analyze the data. The results of the study demonstrate that when conflict is ongoing and intense it prevents the development of cooperative relationships. A trustworthy company is more likely to solve conflicts. When trust and adaptation capabilities increase, so does potential cooperation. The results also show that the presence of a foreign sales representative in the team does not exert a negative influence on cooperation. Finally, cooperation can be considered as an important means of developing skills and resources, which can then be applied to existing transaction relationships. Keywords: conflict, cooperation, marketing, distribution, multiple channels, port wine

  14. A Medical Manipulator System with Lasers in Photodynamic Therapy of Port Wine Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Port wine stains (PWS are a congenital malformation and dilation of the superficial dermal capillary. Photodynamic therapy (PDT with lasers is an effective treatment of PWS with good results. However, because the laser density is uneven and nonuniform, the treatment is carried out manually by a doctor thus providing little accuracy. Additionally, since the treatment of a single lesion can take between 30 and 60 minutes, the doctor can become fatigued after only a few applications. To assist the medical staff with this treatment method, a medical manipulator system (MMS was built to operate the lasers. The manipulator holds the laser fiber and, using a combination of active and passive joints, the fiber can be operated automatically. In addition to the control input from the doctor over a human-computer interface, information from a binocular vision system is used to guide and supervise the operation. Clinical results are compared in nonparametric values between treatments with and without the use of the MMS. The MMS, which can significantly reduce the workload of doctors and improve the uniformity of laser irradiation, was safely and helpfully applied in PDT treatment of PWS with good therapeutic results.

  15. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia-acquired port-wine-stain-like lesions: attempt at treatment with the argon laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasyk, K A; Elsenety, E N; Schelbert, E B

    1988-01-01

    An unusual case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) simulating port-wine stain in a 50-year-old woman is reported. The lesions of ALHE are typically papules or subcutaneous masses that range from light pink to red-brown in color. In addition to the usual histologic findings of ALHE, the biopsy in our patient showed some fibrin-like material and fibrous long-spacing collagen on ultrastructural examination. This unusual lesion necessitates biopsy because the differential diagnosis includes port-wine stain, sarcoidosis, lupus erythematosus, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). Many different forms of treatment have been attempted for ALHE including radiotherapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. The lesions in our patient responded to argon laser therapy and surgical excision, though there has been recurrence on the border of the treated area. Because laser energy is noncumulative in the tissues and effective in removing the lesions, we recommend it as the treatment of choice for these lesions.

  16. Decision making under uncertainty in viticulture: a case study of Port wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In decision making under uncertainty individual decision makers (winegrowers must choose one of a set number of decision alternatives with ample information about their outcomes but, most of the times, have not enough knowledge or data about the probabilities of the several states of nature. This paper focuses on the classical Maximax, Maximin, Minimax Regret and Realism criteria. The different approaches are analyzed and compared in a case study of Port wine production and selling. The computational involvedness and efficacy of the criterion are also presented. The paper finishes with the results of all observed criteria and alternatives in the circumstances of uncertainty.

  17. AUTOMATED ASSESSMENT OF EPIDERMAL THICKNESS AND VASCULAR DENSITY OF PORT WINE STAINS OCT IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENGMING WANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT enables in vivo imaging of port wine stains (PWS lesions. The knowledge of vascular structure and epidermal thickness (ET of PWS may aid the objective diagnosis and optimal treatment. To obtain the structural parameters more rapidly and avoid user intervention, an automated algorithm of energy map is introduced based on intensity and edge information to extract the skin surface using dynamic programming method. Subsequently, an averaged A-scan analysis is performed to obtain the mean ET and the relative intensity of dermis indicating the corresponding vascular density. This approach is currently successfully applied in clinical diagnosis and shows promising guidance and assessment of PDT treatment.

  18. Pyogenic Granuloma in a Patient of Sturge-Weber Syndrome with Bilateral Port Wine Stain- A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantala Arunkumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS also known as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis. It is a neurocutaneous syndrome, characterized by a facial vascular birthmark and neurological abnormalities. An ipsilateral or bilateral facial cutaneous vascular malformation Port Wine Stain (PWS usually affects the upper face. Other clinical manifestations are seizures, glaucoma, hemiparesis, mental retardation and delayed developmental milestones. The main objective of this case report is to unravel such a rarest syndrome with bilateral port-wine stain, which has intraoral manifestation of pyogenic granuloma involving gingiva in an 11 year old boy.

  19. Infrared tomography for diagnostic imaging of port wine stain blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The objective of this work is the development of Infrared Tomography (IRT) for detecting and characterizing subsurface chromophores in human skin. Characterization of cutaneous chromophores is crucial for advances in the laser treatment of pigmented lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks and tatoos). Infrared tomography (IRT) uses a fast infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA) to detect temperature rises in a substrate induced by pulsed radiation. A pulsed laser is used to produce transient heating of an object. The temperature rise, due to the optical absorption of the pulsed laser light, creates an increase in infrared emission which is measured by the IR-FPA. Although the application of IRT to image subsurface cracks due to metal fatigue is a topic of great interest in the aircraft industry, the application to image subsurface chromophores in biological materials is novel. We present an image recovery method based on a constrained conjugate gradient algorithm that has obtained the first ever high quality images of port wine blood vessels.

  20. A randomized side-by-side study comparing alexandrite laser at different pulse durations for port wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Wenande, Emily; Erlendsson, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    hypertrophic (n = 7) PWS were included. Four side-by-side test areas were marked within each lesion. Three test areas were randomized to Alex laser at pulse durations of 3, 5, or 10 ms (8 mm spot, DCD 60/40), while the fourth was untreated. The lowest effective fluence to create purpura within the entire test...... spot was titrated and applied to intervention areas. Standardized clinical photographs were taken prior to, immediately after laser exposure and at 6-8 weeks follow up. Clinical PWS clearance and laser-related side effects were assessed using clinical photos. RESULTS: Alex laser at 3, 5, and 10 ms......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) represents the gold-standard treatment for port wine stains (PWS). However, approximately 20% of patients are poor responders and yield unsatisfactory end-results. The Alexandrite (Alex) laser may be a therapeutic alternative for selected PWS...

  1. Modeling the color perception of port wine stains and its relation to the depth of laser coagulated blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakmaker, O.; Pickering, J. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    To find the maximal depth of an ecstatic vessel in the dermis that contributes to the abnormal color of a port wine stain (PWS), "normal" and "laser treated PWS skin" are modeled, respectively, as a two-layer plane parallel geometry consisting of an epidermis and a dermis, and as a three-layer

  2. Modelling the assessment of port wine stain parameters from skin surface temperature following a diagnostic laser pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabay, S.; Lucassen, G. W.; Verkruysse, W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Laser treatment of port wine stains (PWS) has become an established clinical modality over the past decade. However, in some cases full clearance of the PWS cannot be achieved. To improve the clinical results, it is necessary to match the laser treatment parameters to the PWS anatomy on an

  3. Influence of laser wavelength on the thermal responses of port wine stain lesions in light, moderate and heavy pigmented skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Chen, B.; Wu, W.J.; Ying, Z.X.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser surgery for port wine stain (PWS) was studied by local non-equilibrium theory. • Wavelength selection in laser surgery under various skin pigmentation was explored. • High pigmented skin prefers to 585 nm rather then 595 nm. • Dual-wavelength laser (585/595 + 1064 nm) has better clinic effect than single one. • Deep buried blood vessels can be damaged by 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser. - Abstract: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) in visible band (e.g. 585 or 595 nm) together with cryogen spray cooling has become the golden standard for treatment of vascular malformation such as port wine stain (PWS). However, due to the limited energy penetration depth of the PDL, deeply buried blood vessels are likely to survive from the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG laser in near infrared (1064 nm) has great potential in the laser treatment of PWS due to its deeper penetration depth. In this study, the influence of laser wavelength in treating PWS lesions with various melanin concentrations in epidermis was theoretically investigated by a two-temperature model following the local thermal non-equilibrium theory of porous media. The results showed that deeply buried blood vessels can be coagulated by dual-wavelength laser combing 585 or 595 nm with 1064 nm laser. Furthermore, the therapeutic results by dual-wavelength laser were highly related to the melanin concentration in epidermis. In the light and moderate pigmented skin, the 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser showed better treatment effect in treating PWS with deeply-buried blood vessels than of 585/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser. For a high pigmented skin, the 585/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser showed better treatment effect than 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser.

  4. A case of acquired port wine stain: an association with repeated sunburn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Sila; Benar, Elif B; Afsar, Fatma Sule; Calli, Aylin; Ulusarac, Ozlem

    2016-10-01

    Unlike congenital port wine stain (PWS), an acquired PWS is a rare vascular lesion that develops later in life. Although solar damage is associated with acquired PWS, there is no reported case of acquired PWS after sunburn in the literature. We report a case of a 54-year-old man diagnosed with acquired PWS possibly caused by repeated sunburn. We recommended laser treatment to our patient; however, the patient did not chose to receive any treatment. Our case demonstrates a possible rare occurrence of an acquired PWS after sunburn with larger lesions and more diffuse distribution. For this reason, our case differs from other acquired PWS cases. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Simulating light transport through skin for color prediction of port wine stain lesions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tom; Wright, Philip A.; Chappell, Paul H.

    2012-11-01

    A survey of the literature is presented regarding the simulation of port wine stain (PWS) skin color. Knowledge of PWS features, such as the depths and diameters of affected vessels, is essential for informing laser treatment. These may be determined through the inverse application of a skin model. The techniques which have been applied to achieve this are analyzed in detail. Radiative transfer (RT) is found to be the preferred method of simulation. By far the most common approximations to RT are the diffusion approximations, which have been applied successfully in the past and Monte Carlo techniques, which are now the methods of choice. As the requirements for improvement of laser treatment on an individual basis continues, the needs for further work towards accurate estimations of individual optical coefficients and robust, flexible simulation techniques are identified.

  6. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry to predict the response of port wine stains to pulsed dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halachmi, Shlomit; Azaria, Ron; Inbar, Roy; Ad-El, Dean; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy can be used to quantitate subtle differences in color. We applied a portable reflectance spectrometer to determine its utility in the evaluation of pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains (PWS) and in prediction of clinical outcome, in a prospective study. Forty-eight patients with PWS underwent one to nine pulsed dye laser treatments. Patient age and skin color as well as PWS surface area, anatomic location, and color were recorded. Pretreatment spectrophotometric measurements were performed. The subjective clinical results of treatment and the quantitative spectrophotometry results were evaluated by two independent teams, and the findings were correlated. The impact of the clinical characteristics on the response to treatment was assessed as well. Patients with excellent to good clinical results of laser treatments had pretreatment spectrophotometric measurements which differed by more than 10%, whereas patients with fair to poor results had spectrophotometric measurements with a difference of of less than 10%. The correlation between the spectrophotometric results and the clinical outcome was 73% (p Spectrophotometry has a higher correlation with clinical outcome and a better predictive value than other nonmeasurable, nonquantitative, dependent variables.

  7. Weighted optimization of irradiance for photodynamic therapy of port wine stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linhuan; Zhou, Ya; Hu, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    Planning of irradiance distribution (PID) is one of the foremost factors for on-demand treatment of port wine stains (PWS) with photodynamic therapy (PDT). A weighted optimization method for PID was proposed according to the grading of PWS with a three dimensional digital illumination instrument. Firstly, the point clouds of lesions were filtered to remove the error or redundant points, the triangulation was carried out and the lesion was divided into small triangular patches. Secondly, the parameters such as area, normal vector and orthocenter for optimization of each triangular patch were calculated, and the weighted coefficients were determined by the erythema indexes and areas of patches. Then, the optimization initial point was calculated based on the normal vectors and orthocenters to optimize the light direction. In the end, the irradiation can be optimized according to cosine values of irradiance angles and weighted coefficients. Comparing the irradiance distribution before and after optimization, the proposed weighted optimization method can make the irradiance distribution match better with the characteristics of lesions, and has the potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Determination of thermal and physical properties of port-wine stain lesions using pulsed photothermal radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Stuart; Jacques, Steven L.; Wright, William H.

    1992-06-01

    A method for quantitative characterization of port wine stain (PWS) is presented. Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) uses a non-invasive infrared radiometry system to measure changes in surface temperature induced by pulsed radiation. When a pulsed laser is used to irradiate a PWS, an initial temperature jump (T-jump) is seen due to the heating of the epidermis as a result of melanin absorption. Subsequently, heat generated in the subsurface blood vessels due to hemoglobin absorption is detected by PPTR as a delayed thermal wave as the heat diffuses toward the skin surface. The time delay and magnitude of the delayed PPTR signal indicate the depth and thickness of the PWS. In this report, we present an initial clinical study of PPTR measurements on PWS patients. Computer simulations of various classes of PWS illustrate how the PPTR signal depends on the concentration of epidermal melanin, and depth and thickness of the PWS. The goal of this research is to provide a means of characterizing PWS before initiating therapy, guiding laser dosimetry, and advising the patient as to the time course and efficacy of the planned protocol.

  9. Prospective analysis of the port-wine stain patient population in the Netherlands in light of novel treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raath, M Ingmar; Bambach, Caroline A; Dijksman, Lea M; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Heger, Michal

    2018-04-01

    Pulsed dye laser is the gold standard for port-wine stain (PWS) treatment. However, pulsed dye lasers achieve suboptimal clinical results in a majority of patients. Patient demand for novel therapies and willingness to participate in clinical studies is currently unknown, yet, imperative for steering R&D activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate these two factors in relation to PWS patient demographics. A questionnaire was used to assess patient and PWS characteristics, treatment history, efficacy, and satisfaction, stress level, willingness to travel and pay for an effective treatment, participation in clinical studies, and amenability to intravenous drug administration. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were performed. Of the respondents (N = 108), 65% would participate in clinical studies and 49% would accept intravenous drugs. For an effective treatment, 58% was prepared to pay over €2,000 and 48% would travel more than 6 h. Travel time was inversely correlated with age, clearance rate, and satisfaction. Facial PWS patients had undergone more treatments, were less satisfied, and less willing to participate in studies or accept intravenous drugs. Stress levels were higher in females. There is considerable demand for new PWS therapies, and a substantial proportion of patients are willing to participate in clinical studies.

  10. Optimum pulse duration and radiant exposure for vascular laser therapy of dark port-wine skin: a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, James W.; Anvari, Bahman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2003-01-01

    Laser therapy for cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port-wine stain birthmarks is currently not feasible for dark-skinned individuals. We study the effects of pulse duration, radiant exposure, and cryogen spray cooling (CSC) on the thermal response of skin, using a Monte Carlo based optical-thermal model. Thermal injury to the epidermis decreases with increasing pulse duration during irradiation at a constant radiant exposure; however, maintaining vascular injury requires that the radiant exposure also increase. At short pulse durations, only a minimal increase in radiant exposure is necessary for a therapeutic effect to be achieved because thermal diffusion from the vessels is minimal. However, at longer pulse durations the radiant exposure must be greatly increased. There exists an optimum pulse duration at which minimal damage to the epidermis and significant injury within the targeted vasculature occur. For example, the model predicts optimum pulse durations of approximately 1.5, 6, and 20 ms for vessel diameters of 40, 80, and 120 μm, respectively. Optimization of laser pulse duration and radiant exposure in combination with CSC may offer a means to treat cutaneous lesions in dark-skinned individuals

  11. Nd:YAG laser combined with gold nanorods for potential application in port-wine stains: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linzhuang; Chen, Bin; Li, Dong; Wu, Wenjuan; Wang, Guoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers exhibit considerable potential for treating deeply buried port-wine stains. However, the application of Nd:YAG laser is limited by its weak absorption to blood. This in vivo study tested the efficacy and safety of utilizing thiol-terminated methoxypolyethylene glycol-modified gold nanorods (PEG-GNRs) to enhance the absorption of Nd:YAG laser to blood. Mouse mesentery and dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) model were prepared to analyze the thermal responses of a single venule without anatomic structures, as well as blood vessels in the complex structure of the skin, to laser light. After the injection of 0.44 mg of PEG-GNRs, the required threshold density of laser energy for blood coagulation and complete vasoconstriction decreased from 24 to 18 J/cm2 in the mesentery model and from 36 to 31 J/cm2 in the DSC model. The laser pulse required for blood coagulation and complete vasoconstriction decreased by 67.75% and 62.25% on average in the mesentery model and by 67.55% and 54.45% on average in the DSC model. Histological and histochemical results confirmed that PEG-GNRs are nontoxic in the entire mouse life span. Therefore, combining PEG-GNRs with Nd:YAG laser may be effective and safe for inducing an obvious thermal response of blood vessels under low energy density and minimal pulse conditions.

  12. New vascular classification of port-wine stains: improving prediction of Sturge-Weber risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelchli, R; Aylett, S E; Robinson, K; Chong, W K; Martinez, A E; Kinsler, V A

    2014-10-01

    Facial port-wine stains (PWSs) are usually isolated findings; however, when associated with cerebral and ocular vascular malformations they form part of the classical triad of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). To evaluate the associations between the phenotype of facial PWS and the diagnosis of SWS in a cohort with a high rate of SWS. Records were reviewed of all 192 children with a facial PWS seen in 2011-13. Adverse outcome measures were clinical (seizures, abnormal neurodevelopment, glaucoma) and radiological [abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], modelled by multivariate logistic regression. The best predictor of adverse outcomes was a PWS involving any part of the forehead, delineated at its inferior border by a line joining the outer canthus of the eye to the top of the ear, and including the upper eyelid. This involves all three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, but corresponds well to the embryonic vascular development of the face. Bilateral distribution was not an independently significant phenotypic feature. Abnormal MRI was a better predictor of all clinical adverse outcome measures than PWS distribution; however, for practical reasons guidelines based on clinical phenotype are proposed. Facial PWS distribution appears to follow the embryonic vasculature of the face, rather than the trigeminal nerve. We propose that children with a PWS on any part of the 'forehead' should have an urgent ophthalmology review and a brain MRI. A prospective study has been established to test the validity of these guidelines. © The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. A two-temperature model for selective photothermolysis laser treatment of port wine stains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Wang, G.X.; He, Y.L.; Kelly, K.M.; Wu, W.J.; Wang, Y.X.; Ying, Z.X.

    2013-01-01

    Selective photothermolysis is the basic principle for laser treatment of vascular malformations such as port wine stain birthmarks (PWS). During cutaneous laser surgery, blood inside blood vessels is heated due to selective absorption of laser energy, while the surrounding normal tissue is spared. As a result, the blood and the surrounding tissue experience a local thermodynamic non-equilibrium condition. Traditionally, the PWS laser treatment process was simulated by a discrete-blood-vessel model that simplifies blood vessels into parallel cylinders buried in a multi-layer skin model. In this paper, PWS skin is treated as a porous medium made of tissue matrix and blood in the dermis. A two-temperature model is constructed following the local thermal non-equilibrium theory of porous media. Both transient and steady heat conduction problems are solved in a unit cell for the interfacial heat transfer between blood vessels and the surrounding tissue to close the present two-temperature model. The present two-temperature model is validated by good agreement with those from the discrete-blood-vessel model. The characteristics of the present two-temperature model are further illustrated through a comparison with the previously-used homogenous model, in which a local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption between the blood and the surrounding tissue is employed. -- Highlights: • Local thermal non-equilibrium theory was adapted in field of laser dermatology. • Transient interfacial heat transfer coefficient between two phases is presented. • Less PWS blood vessel micro-structure information is required in present model. • Good agreement between present model and classical discrete-blood-vessel model

  14. Statistical modelling of grapevine yield in the Port Wine region under present and future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João A.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2011-03-01

    The impact of projected climate change on wine production was analysed for the Demarcated Region of Douro, Portugal. A statistical grapevine yield model (GYM) was developed using climate parameters as predictors. Statistically significant correlations were identified between annual yield and monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals during the growing cycle. These atmospheric factors control grapevine yield in the region, with the GYM explaining 50.4% of the total variance in the yield time series in recent decades. Anomalously high March rainfall (during budburst, shoot and inflorescence development) favours yield, as well as anomalously high temperatures and low precipitation amounts in May and June (May: flowering and June: berry development). The GYM was applied to a regional climate model output, which was shown to realistically reproduce the GYM predictors. Finally, using ensemble simulations under the A1B emission scenario, projections for GYM-derived yield in the Douro Region, and for the whole of the twenty-first century, were analysed. A slight upward trend in yield is projected to occur until about 2050, followed by a steep and continuous increase until the end of the twenty-first century, when yield is projected to be about 800 kg/ha above current values. While this estimate is based on meteorological parameters alone, changes due to elevated CO2 may further enhance this effect. In spite of the associated uncertainties, it can be stated that projected climate change may significantly benefit wine yield in the Douro Valley.

  15. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary ...

  16. [Nutrition and health--favorable effect of wine and wine flavonoids on cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, A

    2002-12-21

    Epidemiological studies have shown a favourable effect of moderate alcohol consumption with regard to atherosclerotic disorders. In addition to alcohol, wine contains a large number of other components including polyphenols. These polyphenols mainly originate from the skins and seeds of grapes and, because of differences in vinification, their variety and concentration is higher in red wine than in white wine. In vitro and ex vivo studies have shown that some of these polyphenols are able to slow down LDL-cholesterol oxidation, stimulate NO production, influence prostaglandin synthesis and inhibit platelet aggregation. However, little is known about their resorption, bioavailability and effectiveness in vivo. Since data from intervention studies with wine polyphenols are also lacking, no statement can yet be made about any clinically relevant effect of these components, in either red or white wine, in terms of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Laser Doppler line scanner for monitoring skin perfusion changes of port wine stains during vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defu; Ren, Jie; Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) is known to be an effective therapeutic modality for the treatment of port wine stains (PWS). Monitoring the PWS microvascular response to the V-PDT is crucial for improving the effectiveness of PWS treatment. The objective of this study was to use laser Doppler technique to directly assess the skin perfusion in PWS before and during V-PDT. In this study, 30 patients with PWS were treated with V-PDT. A commercially laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS) was used to record the skin perfusion of PWS immediately before; and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 minutes during V-PDT treatment. Our results showed that there was substantial inter- and intra-patient perfusion heterogeneity in PWS lesion. Before V-PDT, the comparison of skin perfusion in PWS and contralateral healthy control normal skin indicated that PWS skin perfusion could be larger than, or occasionally equivalent to, that of control normal skin. During V-PDT, the skin perfusion in PWS significantly increased after the initiation of V-PDT treatment, then reached a peak within 10 minutes, followed by a slowly decrease to a relatively lower level. Furthermore, the time for reaching peak and the subsequent magnitude of decrease in skin perfusion varied with different patients, as well as different PWS lesion locations. In conclusion, the LDLS system is capable of assessing skin perfusion changes in PWS during V-PDT, and has potential for elucidating the mechanisms of PWS microvascular response to V-PDT.

  18. Effectively reducing emissions from ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazlagic, Ismir; Martelin, Marcus; Skinner, Ryan

    2010-09-15

    Commercial ships calling at more and more ports worldwide can now turn off their diesel engines and tap into cleaner energy sources provided by electrical connections from shore. The technology to make this possible has been in place for over a decade. With a global technology standard due to be ratified by three technical bodies in 2010, high-voltage shore connections will soon get much more attention. Environmentally-minded ports, governments and shipowners are all tuning in to the benefits of supplying electricity to ships at berth. ABB presents the challenge, the technical solution and the business case for all parties involved.

  19. Nd:YAG laser combined with gold nanorods for potential application in port-wine stains: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linzhuang; Chen, Bin; Li, Dong; Wu, Wenjuan; Wang, Guoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers exhibit considerable potential for treating deeply buried port-wine stains. However, the application of Nd:YAG laser is limited by its weak absorption to blood. This in vivo study tested the efficacy and safety of utilizing thiol-terminated methoxypolyethylene glycol-modified gold nanorods (PEG-GNRs) to enhance the absorption of Nd:YAG laser to blood. Mouse mesentery and dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) model were prepared to analyze the thermal responses of a single venule without anatomic structures, as well as blood vessels in the complex structure of the skin, to laser light. After the injection of 0.44 mg of PEG-GNRs, the required threshold density of laser energy for blood coagulation and complete vasoconstriction decreased from 24 to 18  J/cm2 in the mesentery model and from 36 to 31  J/cm2 in the DSC model. The laser pulse required for blood coagulation and complete vasoconstriction decreased by 67.75% and 62.25% on average in the mesentery model and by 67.55% and 54.45% on average in the DSC model. Histological and histochemical results confirmed that PEG-GNRs are nontoxic in the entire mouse life span. Therefore, combining PEG-GNRs with Nd:YAG laser may be effective and safe for inducing an obvious thermal response of blood vessels under low energy density and minimal pulse conditions. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  20. Histologic evaluation of skin damage after overlapping and nonoverlapping flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser pulses: A study on normal human skin as a model for port wine stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P. H.; van der Horst, C. M.; van Gemert, M. J.; van der Wal, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of port wine stains (PWS) with the flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser (FPPDL), no consensus exists about overlapping of pulses. The advantage of overlapping pulses is homogeneous lightening of the PWS; the risk is redundant tissue damage. The aim of this

  1. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Chen; Carlos Escott; Iris Loira; Juan Manuel del Fresno; Antonio Morata; Wendu Tesfaye; Fernando Calderon; Santiago Benito; Jose Antonio Suárez-Lepe

    2016-01-01

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In th...

  2. Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esti, Marco; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Garzillo, Anna Maria Vittoria

    2011-04-13

    The influence of potential inhibitors, naturally present in wine, on the activity of stem bromelain was investigated in order to evaluate the applicability of this enzyme for protein stabilization in white wine. Bromelain proteolytic activity was tested against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA) in a model wine system after adding ethanol, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), skin, seed, and gallic and ellagic tannins at the average range of their concentration in wine. All the inhibitors of stem bromelain activity tested turned out to be reversible. Ethanol was a competitive inhibitor with a rather limited effect. Gallic and ellagic tannins have no inhibitory effect on stem bromelain activity, while both seed and skin tannins were uncompetitive inhibitors. The strongest inhibition effect was revealed for sulfur dioxide, which was a mixed-type inhibitor for the enzyme activity. This study provides useful information relative to a future biotechnological application of stem bromelain in winemaking.

  3. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary vasodilation in addition to attenuating oxidative stress by its action on the central nervous system. The antioxidant components of red wine may provide cardioprotection by their ability to reduce oxidative stress in the heart under different pathological conditions. Mild-to-moderate red wine consumption improves cardiac function in the ischemic myocardium through the protection of endothelial function, the expression of several cardioprotective oxidative stress-inducible proteins, as well as the activation of adenosine receptors and nitrous oxide synthase mechanisms.

  4. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary vasodilation in addition to attenuating oxidative stress by its action on the central nervous system. The antioxidant components of red wine may provide cardioprotection by their ability to reduce oxidative stress in the heart under different pathological conditions. Mild-to-moderate red wine consumption improves cardiac function in the ischemic myocardium through the protection of endothelial function, the expression of several cardioprotective oxidative stress-inducible proteins, as well as the activation of adenosine receptors and nitrous oxide synthase mechanisms. PMID:18650973

  5. Effect of red wine consumption on biomarkers of oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Berg, R. van; Sierksma, A.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hendriks, N.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of acute and chronic consumption of red wine or de-alcoholized red wine with a similar antioxidant capacity on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and F2-isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) in healthy men. Methods: Nineteen healthy men

  6. A three-temperature model of selective photothermolysis for laser treatment of port wine stain containing large malformed blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Wang, G.X.; He, Y.L.; Wu, W.J.; Chen, B.

    2014-01-01

    As congenital vascular malformations, port wine stain (PWS) is composed of ectatic venular capillary blood vessels buried within healthy dermis. In clinic, pulsed dye laser (PDL) in visible band (e.g. 585 nm) together with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) have become the golden standard for treatment of PWS. However, due to the limited energy deposition of the PDL in blood, large blood vessels are likely to survive from the laser irradiation. As a result, complete clearance of the lesions is rarely achieved. Assuming the local thermal non-equilibrium in skin tissue during the laser surgery, a three-temperature model is proposed to treat the PWS tissue as a porous media composed of a non-absorbing dermal matrix buried with the blood as well as the large malformed blood vessels. Three energy equations are constructed and solved coupling for the temperature of the blood in average-sized PWS vessels, non-absorbing dermal tissues and large malformed blood vessels, respectively. Subsequently, the thermal responses of human skin to visible (585 nm) and near-infrared (1064 nm) laser irradiations with various pulse durations in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling are investigated by the new model, and Arrhenius integral is used to analyze the thermal damage. The simulations show that the short pulse duration of 1.5 ms results in a higher selective heating of blood over epidermis, which will lead to a desired clinic outcome than the longer pulse duration. Due to a much deeper light penetration depth, laser irradiation with 1064 nm in wavelength is superior to that with 585 nm in treating patients with cutaneous hyper-vascular malformation. Complete coagulations are predicted in large-sized and deeply extending blood vessels by 1064 nm laser. - Highlights: •A three-temperature model is proposed for the laser treatment of port wine stain (PWS). •Average sized and large malformed blood vessels in porous medium (tissue) are considered. •Thermal responses of PWS to

  7. Split lesion randomized comparative study between long pulsed Nd:YAG laser 532 and 1,064 nm in treatment of facial port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhalimi, Muhsin A; Al-Janabi, Murtadha H

    2016-11-01

    Lasers have been the treatment of choice for Port-wine stain (PWS). However, only one type of laser is not a panacea for all PWS malformations. This is may be due to the great heterogeneity of phenotypic presentation of this congenital anomaly as color, depth, and the site of the lesion. For the treatment of PWS, flash lamp-pumped pulsed dye laser, carbon dioxide, argon, krypton, copper bromide, frequency-doubled neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG), and also intense pulsed light sources can be used. To assess and compare the effectiveness of wavelength 532 and 1,064 nanometers (nm) long pulse Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of facial port-wine stain. This was a comparative therapeutic study for the treatment of facial port-wine stain. We divided the lesion into two halves, medial and lateral, and then each half was treated by 532 or 1,064 nm Nd:YAG. The sessions were done every 4 weeks for six sessions and follow-up after 3 months, then assess the response before and after the sessions and at the end follow-up period objectively (degree of improvement, Photo comparison) and subjectively (Patient satisfaction). Fourteen out of nineteen patients completed all sessions of the treatment, and the other five patients were defaulted from the study due to different causes, including marriage, poor compliance for treatment, and for unknown causes. They were 13 (92.85%) females and 1 (7.15%) male. The mean age of patients was 22.07 ± 9.003 years (range 8-44 years). Three patients (21.4%) were Fitzpatrick's skin type III and four patients (78.6%) were typed IV. There was no hypertrophy in any of the lesions. All facial PWSs lie along the distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Four patients (28.6%) have V1 (ophthalmic), 12 patients (85.7%) have V2 (maxillary), and 9 (64.3%) have V3 (mandibular). The color of PWSs was pink-red in eight patients (57.1%), dark-red in four patients (28.6%), and purple-dark two patients (14.3%). The improvement score for the halves of

  8. An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Valentin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "re...

  9. Combined pulsed dye laser and fiberoptic Nd-YAG laser for the treatment of hypertrophic port wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmanesh, Mohammed; Radmanesh, Ramin

    2017-10-01

    The hypertrophic Port Wine Stain (PWS) is only partially and superficially treated with the Pulsed dye laser (PDL) because of its limited depth of penetration. We used combined PDL and fiberoptic 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser to treat a case with hypertrophic PWS. After tumescent anesthesia, few holes were made by a 16-gauge needle on different sides of the lesion. The fiberoptic tip of 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser was inserted within the holes and was pushed forward while triggering. In a fan pattern and by a back and forth movement, the subcutaneous and deep dermal areas were coagulated. The skin and outer mucosal surfaces were then treated by PDL. The fiberoptic system used was Accusculpt 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser (Lutronic lasers, South Korea), and the PDL used was 585 nm Nlite system (Chromogenex UK). The parameters used for PDL were fluence = 9 Joules/cm 2 and the spot size was 5 mm. The parameters used for fiberoptic 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser were: Pulse rate = 30 Hz, pulse energy = 300 mJ, power = 6 W, and the total energy = 4000 J for the whole face and mucosa. Little sign of regression and moderate purpura were detected immediately after combined fiberoptic Nd-YAG and PDL therapy. The lesion gradually regressed within 4 months with satisfactory color and volume change. Combined fiberoptic Nd-YAG laser and PDL can be used for the treatment of deeper and superficial layers of hypertrophic PWS.

  10. A prospective study of risk for Sturge-Weber syndrome in children with upper facial port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Anne-Sophie; Ezzedine, Khaled; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Barbarot, Sébastien; Vabres, Pierre; Miquel, Juliette; Balguerie, Xavier; Martin, Ludovic; Boralevi, Franck; Bessou, Pierre; Chateil, Jean-François; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Upper facial port-wine stain (PWS) is a feature of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Recent studies suggest that the distribution of the PWS corresponds to genetic mosaicism rather than to trigeminal nerve impairment. We sought to refine the cutaneous distribution of upper facial PWS at risk for SWS. This was a prospective multicenter study of consecutive cases of upper facial PWS larger than 1 cm² located in the ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve distribution in infants aged less than 1 year, seen in 8 French pediatric dermatology departments between 2006 and 2012. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging, and photographs were systematically collected and studied. PWS were classified into 6 distinct patterns. In all, 66 patients were included. Eleven presented with SWS (magnetic resonance imaging signs and seizure). Four additional infants had suspected SWS without neurologic manifestations. Hemifacial (odds ratio 7.7, P = .003) and median (odds ratio 17.08, P = .008) PWS patterns were found to be at high risk for SWS. A nonmedian linear pattern was not associated with SWS. Small number of patients translated to limited power of the study. Specific PWS distribution patterns are associated with an increased risk of SWS. These PWS patterns conform to areas of somatic mosaicism. Terminology stipulating ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve territory involvement in SWS should be abandoned. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combination of PDT and topical angiogenic inhibitor for treatment of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kaihua; Huang, Qiaobing; Huang, Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks are a congenital cutaneous vascular malformation involving ecstatic post-capillary venules. Current standard treatment for PWS is the pulsed dye laser (PDL). Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for the treatment of PWS in China since the early 1990's. Both can achieve a certain degree of color blanching in various types of PWS lesions. However, the majority of PWS lesions require multiple treatments. Some PWS lesions can recur or become darker after successful treatment. Recently, it has been proposed that this phenomenon might be initiated by neoangiogenesis that can be caused by treatment via wound healing response. The combined use of photothermolysis and a topical application of an angiogenic inhibitor such as Imiquimod and Rapamycin, were evaluated in several pilot studies. It is well-known that PDT can induce various host immune responses VEGF overexpression. Recent clinical data also show that improved clinical outcomes are obtained through the combination of ocular PDT and anti-VEGF therapy. This article will discuss rationales and implications of using such a combination modality and highlight recent progress based on our clinical experience and published data.

  12. Combined 595-nm and 1,064-nm laser irradiation of recalcitrant and hypertrophic port-wine stains in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Tina S; Tanzi, Elizabeth L

    2009-06-01

    Although pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of port-wine stain (PWS) has long been proven safe and effective, incomplete clearance of these vascular malformations can be problematic. In addition, advanced PWS with deeper coloration and tissue hypertrophy can be particularly difficult to treat because of the superficial dermal penetration of 585- to 595-nm light. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel device that delivers sequential pulses of 595- and 1,064-nm wavelengths in the treatment of recalcitrant and hypertrophic PWS. Twenty-five children and adults (skin phototypes I-III) with recalcitrant or hypertrophic PWS showing incomplete clearance after 10 prior PDL treatments were included in the study. Successive treatments using a 595-nm PDL and a 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser were delivered at 6- to 8-week intervals. Two masked assessors determined clinical improvement of treatment areas using independent evaluation of comparative photographs at baseline and 3 months after treatment using a standard quartile grading scale. The use of dual 595-/1,064-nm wavelengths provided continued improvement of PWS that were previously recalcitrant to ongoing PDL therapy. Side effects were limited to transient erythema, edema, and mild purpura. Rare vesicle formation was observed, with no subsequent scarring or undesirable pigmentary changes. The novel dual 595-nm PDL and 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser is an effective treatment for PWS that are recalcitrant to PDL therapy alone.

  13. Application of Wine Pomace seeds as finning agent during production of red wines and its effects over colour parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During production of wines are used different fining agents with animal origin for preventing later presipitation and reducing harshenss of wines. Even these positive properties they may cause some allergic reactions in consumers with allergic predispositons. Due to health concern wine pomace seeds could be a new alternative as fining agent with plant origin. In this study were evaluated preliminary effects of seeds over wine qulity expecially wine colour. As the next stage will be considered thier health effects. Grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. “Cabernet Sauvignon” were manually harvested at optimum maturity (25∘Brix and transported to the Experimental Winery at the Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Wine production were done according to the accepted wine production procedures with exeption of SO2 (it was not added. Obtained grape seeds flour (drying and milling were used as fining agent with different values (2/4/6/8/10 gram/100 ml. In all wines basic wine chemical parameters and some spesific colour parameters were determined %D280, %D420, %D520, %D620, CD: Colour density, CI: Colour intensity, T: Tint value, dA %: Proportion of red colour produced by flavylium cations , %Y: Proportion of yellow colour, % R: Proportion of red colour and % B: Proportion of blue colour. The results demonstrated the possibility of using wine pomace grape seeds as fining agent. Concidering colour parametrs of obtianed wines the best results were deterrmined with 8 g/100 ml application. Futher studies are needed in order to evaluate other wine parameters.

  14. Context and wine quality effects on consumers' mood, emotions, liking and willingness to pay for Australian Shiraz wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Ristic, Renata; Johnson, Trent E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Hoek, Annet C; Jeffery, David W; Bastian, Susan E P

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different contexts on consumers' mood, product-evoked emotions, liking and willingness to pay for wine. Three consumer trials (n=114, 115, and 120) examined 3 different sample sets of 4 Australian commercial Shiraz wines. Each sample set was comprised of a high, medium-high, medium-low and low quality wine as designated by an expert panel. Wine consumers evaluated the same set of wines in the three different contexts, ranging from a highly-controlled laboratory setting to more realistic restaurant and at-home settings. Results showed that high quality wines were liked more and elicited more intense emotions of positive valence compared to wines of lower quality. Context effects were observed on emotions, but not on liking, indicating that although emotions and liking are correlated, the measurement of emotions can deliver additional information over liking. Tasting wine in the restaurant context evoked more intense positive emotions compared to the home and laboratory contexts. Participants' mood before tasting the wines had a strong influence on consecutive product-evoked emotion ratings, but only weak influence on liking ratings. Furthermore, a strong relationship between wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay was observed, showing that if a wine-evoked more intense emotion of positive valence e.g., contented, enthusiastic, happy, optimistic and passionate participants were willing to pay significantly more for a bottle. Additionally, the absence of negative emotions, even if typically evoked to a very weak extent, is a requirement for an increased willingness to pay. This study indicates it is worthwhile to consider context and emotions in wine testing and marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hub port competition and welfare effects of strategic privatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czerny, A.I.; Hoffler, F.; Mun, S.

    2014-01-01

    Private operation of port facilities is becoming increasingly common worldwide. We investigate the effect of port privatization in a setting with two ports located in different countries, each serving their home market but also competing for the transshipment traffic from a third region. Each

  16. Double Pass 595 nm Pulsed Dye Laser Does Not Enhance the Efficacy of Port Wine Stains Compared with Single Pass: A Randomized Comparison with Histological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Zhu, Jiafang; Wang, Lizhen; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Yijie; Yang, Xi; Chang, Lei; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-03-27

    To compare the efficacy and safety of double-pass pulsed dye laser (DWL) and single-pass PDL (SWL) in treating virgin port wine stain (PWS). The increase in the extent of vascular damage attributed to the use of double-pass techniques for PWS remains inconclusive. A prospective, side-by-side comparison with a histological study for virgin PWS is still lacking. Twenty-one patients (11 flat PWS, 10 hypertrophic PWS) with untreated PWS underwent 3 treatments at 2-month intervals. Each PWS was divided into three treatment sites: SWL, DWL, and untreated control. Chromametric and visual evaluation of the efficacy and evaluation of side effects were conducted 3 months after final treatment. Biopsies were taken at the treated sites immediately posttreatment. Chromametric and visual evaluation suggested that DWL sites showed no significant improvement compared with SWL (p > 0.05) in treating PWS. The mean depth of photothermal damage to the vessels was limited to a maximum of 0.36-0.41 mm in both SWL and DWL sides. Permanent side effects were not observed in any patients. Double-pass PDL does not enhance PWS clearance. To improve the clearance of PWS lesions, either the depth of laser penetration should be increased or greater photothermal damage to vessels should be generated.

  17. Photodynamic efficacy of liposome-delivered hypocrellin B in microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and chicken combs in vivo: a potential photosensitizer for port wine stain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H X; Zou, X B; Yang, Z F; Zhu, J G; Gu, Y; Deng, H; Zhao, J Q

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proved a successful method for port wine stain (PWS), but the prolonged skin photosensitivity induced by the photosensitizers used currently seriously limits the clinical application of PDT. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of hypocrellin B (HB), a promising second-generation photosensitizer for the treatment of PWS. The photodynamic effect of liposome-delivered HB was evaluated in vitro with microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) and in vivo with chicken combs. The dark cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity of liposomal HB in MEC were evaluated using the MTT assay. Gross and histological examinations were performed to investigate the selective occlusion of the superficial dermal microvasculature in the chicken comb. The result showed that photocytotoxicity of liposomal HB was dependent on both light dose and drug concentration. PDT with HB (0.5–1 mg kg −1 ) and a light dose of 120 J cm −2 showed selective destruction of the superficial dermal microvasculature of the chicken comb, leaving the overlying epidermis intact. This is the first study to investigate the potential efficacy of HB-PDT as a novel modality for the treatment of PWS. These findings suggest that liposomal HB is a safe and effective photosensitizer for PWS. (paper)

  18. Yeast effects on Pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, Anna L; Smith, Paul; Close, Dugald C; Curtin, Chris; Dambergs, Robert G

    2013-10-16

    Extraction and stabilization of wine phenolics can be challenging for wine makers. This study examined how yeast choice affected phenolic outcomes in Pinot noir wine. Five yeast treatments were applied in replicated microvinification, and wines were analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. At bottling, yeast treatment Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC212 wine had significantly higher concentrations of total pigment, free anthocyanin, nonbleachable pigment, and total tannin and showed high color density. Some phenolic effects were retained at 6 months' bottle age, and RC212 and S. cerevisae EC1118 wines showed increased mean nonbleachable pigment concentrations. Wine tannin composition analysis showed three treatments were associated with a higher percentage of trihydroxylated subunits (skin tannin indicator). A high degree of tannin polymerization was observed in wines made with RC212 and Torulaspora delbruekii , whereas tannin size by gel permeation chromatography was higher only in the RC212 wines. The results emphasize the importance of yeast strain choice for optimizing Pinot noir wine phenolics.

  19. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Fining Agents, Reverse Osmosis and Wine Age on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys Taint in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Mohekar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trans-2-decenal and tridecane are compounds found in wine made from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB-contaminated grapes. The effectiveness of post-fermentation processes on reducing their concentration in finished wine and their longevity during wine aging was evaluated. Red wines containing trans-2-decenal were treated with fining agents and put through reverse osmosis filtration. The efficacy of these treatments was determined using chemical analysis (MDGC-MS and sensory descriptive analysis. Tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations in red and white wine were determined at bottle aging durations of 0, 6, 12 and 24 months using MDGC-MS. Reverse osmosis was found to be partially successful in removing trans-2-decenal concentration from finished wine. While tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations decreased during bottle aging, post-fermentative fining treatments were not effective at removing these compounds. Although French oak did not alter the concentration of tridecane and trans-2-decenal in red wine, it did mask the expression of BMSB-related sensory characters. Because of the ineffectiveness of removing BMSB taint post-fermentation, BMSB densities in the grape clusters should be minimized so that the taint does not occur in the wine.

  1. Effectiveness of chitosan against wine-related microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağder Elmaci, Simel; Gülgör, Gökşen; Tokatli, Mehmet; Erten, Hüseyin; İşci, Asli; Özçelik, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial action of chitosan against wine related microorganisms, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Oeonococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was examined in laboratory media. In order to assess the potential applicability of chitosan as a microbial control agent for wine, the effect of chitosan, applied individually and/or in combination with sulphur dioxide (SO2), on the growth of microorganisms involved in various stages of winemaking and on the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae was investigated. Of the seven wine-related microorganisms studied, S. cerevisiae exhibited the strongest resistance to antimicrobial action of chitosan in laboratory media with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) greater than 2 g/L. L. hilgardii, O. oeni and B. bruxellensis were the most susceptible to chitosan since they were completely inactivated by chitosan at 0.2 g/L. The MIC of chitosan for L. plantarum, H. uvarum and Z. bailii was 2, 0.4 and 0.4 g/L, respectively. In wine experiments, it was found that chitosan had a retarding effect on alcoholic fermentation without significantly altering the viability and the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae. With regard to non-Saccharomyces yeasts (H. uvarum and Z. bailii) involved in winemaking, the early deaths of these yeasts in mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae were not probably due to the antimicrobial action of chitosan but rather due to ethanol produced by the yeasts. The complex interactions between chitosan and wine ingredients as well as microbial interactions during wine fermentation considerably affect the efficacy of chitosan. It was concluded that chitosan was worthy of further investigation as an alternative or complementary preservative to SO2 in wine industry.

  2. Intravenous injection of artificial red cells and subsequent dye laser irradiation causes deep vessel impairment in an animal model of port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikihisa, Naoaki; Tominaga, Mai; Watanabe, Shoji; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hiromi

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between vessel depth from the skin surface and vessel distraction through dye laser irradiation following intravenous Hb-Vs injection using a chicken wattle model. Hb-Vs were administered and chicken wattles underwent high-energy irradiation at energy higher than in the previous experiments. Hb-Vs location in the vessel lumen was identified to explain its photosensitizer effect using human Hb immunostaining of the irradiated wattles. Laser irradiation with Hb-Vs can effectively destroy deep vessels in animal models. Hb-Vs tend to flow in the marginal zone of both small and large vessels. Increasing laser power combined with Hb-Vs injection contributed for deep vessel impairment because of the synergetic effect of both methods. Newly added Hb tended to flow near the target endothelial cells of the laser treatment. In Hb-Vs and RBC mixture, heat transfer to endothelial cells from absorbers/heater may increase. Hb-Vs function as photosensitizers to destroy deep vessels within a restricted distance that the photon can reach.

  3. EMLA cream does not influence efficacy and pain reduction during pulsed-dye laser treatment of port-wine stain: a prospective side-by-side comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Wang, Tianyou; Zhu, Jiafang; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Yang, Xi; Hu, Xiaojie; Chang, Lei; Chen, Yijie; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-04-01

    EMLA cream was developed to reduce pain during pulsed-dye laser (PDL) treatment; however, no standard assessment for the therapeutic outcomes of PDL with EMLA creams thus far available. This comparative, prospective clinical trial evaluates laser efficacy and pain reduction during PDL treatment with EMLA cream for local topical anesthesia. Nineteen patients with untreated port-wine stain (PWS) were treated using PDL and examined in this study. Treatment specifications included Vbeam® PDL (Candela Corp.), 595-nm wavelength, 9 J/cm 2 radiant exposure, 0.45 ms pulse duration, 10 mm spot size, and cryogen spray cooling (40 ms cooling plus a 20 ms delay). A topical anesthetic (EMLA cream: 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine) and a placebo were applied to two respective testing areas on all patients prior to treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for pain assessment. Clinical therapeutic outcomes were evaluated by visual evaluation and with the use of a chromameter 2 months after 3PDL treatments. The average VAS scores were 3.15 ± 0.95 and 8 ± 0.57 for the EMLA cream site and the placebo site, respectively, at a significance level p < 0.001. The EMLA cream site and the placebo site had clearance or fading rates of 45.08 and 44.12%, respectively (p < 0.05). No serious side effects were reported. Patients reported a consistent decrease in pain during PDL treatment when the topical anesthetic EMLA cream was administered. Treatment of PWS by PDL with EMLA cream does not lead to a decrease in efficacy or an increase in side effects; instead, it significantly reduces pain during treatment. EMLA cream is a safe and effective local topical anesthetic for PWS treatment by PDL.

  4. A sniffer-camera for imaging of ethanol vaporization from wine: the effect of wine glass shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Iitani, Kenta; Wang, Xin; Kajiro, Takumi; Toma, Koji; Yano, Kazuyoshi; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-04-21

    A two-dimensional imaging system (Sniffer-camera) for visualizing the concentration distribution of ethanol vapor emitting from wine in a wine glass has been developed. This system provides image information of ethanol vapor concentration using chemiluminescence (CL) from an enzyme-immobilized mesh. This system measures ethanol vapor concentration as CL intensities from luminol reactions induced by alcohol oxidase and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. Conversion of ethanol distribution and concentration to two-dimensional CL was conducted using an enzyme-immobilized mesh containing an alcohol oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and luminol solution. The temporal changes in CL were detected using an electron multiplier (EM)-CCD camera and analyzed. We selected three types of glasses-a wine glass, a cocktail glass, and a straight glass-to determine the differences in ethanol emission caused by the shape effects of the glass. The emission measurements of ethanol vapor from wine in each glass were successfully visualized, with pixel intensity reflecting ethanol concentration. Of note, a characteristic ring shape attributed to high alcohol concentration appeared near the rim of the wine glass containing 13 °C wine. Thus, the alcohol concentration in the center of the wine glass was comparatively lower. The Sniffer-camera was demonstrated to be sufficiently useful for non-destructive ethanol measurement for the assessment of food characteristics.

  5. Effect of ion implantation on apple wine yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Andong; Chen Hongge; Zhang Shimin; Jia Cuiying

    2004-01-01

    The wild type apple wine yeast Y 02 was treated by ion implantation with the dose of 8 x 10 15 ion/cm 2 . As results, a special mutant strain, ION II -11 dry, was obtained. The morphology characters, partial biochemistry characters, mycelium protein of the mutant strain were distinctively changed compared with original strain Y 02 . After the fermentation test ,the apple wine producing rate of the mutant strain increased 22.4% compared with original strain. These results showed that ion implantation was an effective method for mutagenesis

  6. Red Wine Prevents the Acute Negative Vascular Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Viktoria; Bachelier, Katrin; Schirmer, Stephan H; Werner, Christian; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with fewer cardiovascular events. We investigated whether red wine consumption counteracts the adverse vascular effects of cigarette smoking. Participants smoked 3 cigarettes alone or after drinking a titrated volume of red wine. Clinical chemistry, blood counts, plasma cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunomagnetic separation of CD14 + monocytes for gene expression analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microparticles, and isolation of circulating mononuclear cells to measure telomerase activity were performed, and urine cotinine levels were quantified. Compared with baseline, leukocytosis (P = .019), neutrophilia (P <.001), lymphopenia (P <.001), and eosinopenia (P = .008) were observed after only smoking. Endothelial and platelet-, monocyte-, and leukocyte-derived microparticles (P <.001 each) were elevated. In monocytes, messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (2.6- ± 0.57-fold), tumor necrosis factor alpha (2.2- ± 0.62-fold), and IL-1b (2.3- ± 0.44-fold) were upregulated, as was IL-6 (1.2 ± 0.12-fold) protein concentration in plasma. Smoking acutely inhibited mononuclear cell telomerase activity. Markers of endothelial damage, inflammation, and cellular aging were completely attenuated by red wine consumption. Cigarette smoke results in acute endothelial damage, vascular and systemic inflammation, and indicators of the cellular aging processes in otherwise healthy nonsmokers. Pretreatment with red wine was preventive. The findings underscore the magnitude of acute damage exerted by cigarette smoking in "occasional lifestyle smokers" and demonstrate the potential of red wine as a protective strategy to avert markers of vascular injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of must concentration techniques on wine isotopic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Francois; Douet, Christine; Colas, Sebastien; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène; Medina, Bernard

    2006-12-27

    Despite the robustness of isotopic methods applied in the field of wine control, isotopic values can be slightly influenced by enological practices. For this reason, must concentration technique effects on wine isotopic parameters were studied. The two studied concentration techniques were reverse osmosis (RO) and high-vacuum evaporation (HVE). Samples (must and extracted water) have been collected in various French vineyards. Musts were microfermented at the laboratory, and isotope parameters were determined on the obtained wine. Deuterium and carbon-13 isotope ratios were studied on distilled ethanol by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. The oxygen-18 ratio was determined on extracted and wine water using IRMS apparatus. The study showed that the RO technique has a very low effect on isotopic parameters, indicating that this concentration technique does not create any isotopic fractionation, neither at sugar level nor at water level. The effect is notable for must submitted to HVE concentration: water evaporation leads to a modification of the oxygen-18 ratio of the must and, as a consequence, ethanol deuterium concentration is also modified.

  8. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Escott, Carlos; Loira, Iris; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; Calderon, Fernando; Benito, Santiago; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio

    2016-10-31

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed ( Vitis vinifera ) and French oak ( Quercus robur and Querrus petraea ), were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  9. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed (Vitis vinifera and French oak (Quercus robur and Querrus petraea, were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  10. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music—one chosen to match each wine—were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine–music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience.

  11. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian (Janice)

    2015-01-01

    At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music—one chosen to match each wine—were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine–music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience. PMID:27433313

  12. Effect of fining on the colour and pigment composition of young red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Neves, Gustavo; Favre, Guzmán; Gil, Graciela

    2014-08-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four fining agents on the colour and pigment composition of red wines of Tannat. The wines were analysed 15 days after fining and immediately after separation of sediments and bottling. Colour was evaluated by spectrophotometry and polyphenols were analysed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-DAD. The colour intensity of wine was significantly decreased by bentonite and egg albumin. The most remarkable effects on wine phenolic composition were produced by bentonite and gelatin, which significantly decreased anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, respectively. Results show that each fining agent has very different impact on the wine attributes, and their effects depended as well on the composition of the clarified wine. The use of non-traditional agents of fining, as vegetable proteins, may have less impact on the colour and anthocyanin content of red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of port wine stains with pulsed dye laser: a retrospective study of 848 cases in Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi W

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wenhao Shi,1–3 Jinliang Wang,4,5 Yan Lin,4,5 Jianhui Geng,4,5 Haixia Wang,4,5 Yueqin Gong,4,5 Huaxu Liu,1,4,5 Furen Zhang1–4 1Shandong Provincial Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 2Shandong Provincial Key Lab for Dermatovenereology, 3School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 4Shandong Provincial Hospital for Skin Diseases, Shandong University, 5Shandong Provincial Medical Center for Dermatovenereology, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background: Currently, 595 nm pulsed dye laser (PDL therapy is offered as one of the effective treatments of port wine stains (PWSs. However, the efficacy of PDL differs in different populations.Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy, and related factors, of 595 nm PDL in the treatment of PWSs in Chinese patients with skin type III to IV. Methods: A total of 848 cases that were treated with PDL were enrolled and analyzed in this study. An independent dermatologist evaluated these lesions according to the before and after photographs.Results: The response rate (RR of all the 848 PWS patients was 69.9%, within which the cure rate was 6.3%. The patients aged ≤1 year had the highest RR (93.9%, whereas those treated after age 50 reacted the worst (RR =25%. We analyzed the anatomical distribution of the lesion and found that the temporal region had the highest lesion clearance (RR =75.3%, while the extremities had the lowest clearance (RR =44.5%. Compared with the patients whose lesion size was larger than 80 cm2, the patients with small lesion size, of 0–20 cm2, had better clinical effect (RR =73.8% vs 53.2%. The reactions of the patients with hyperplastic lesion were worse than those with red patches (RR =36.4% vs 71.7%. As well, increasing treatment numbers could achieve higher clearance rates (P=0.005.Conclusion: The PDL had a relatively high RR but a low clearance

  14. Studies on effects of γ-ray irradiation on yellow rice wine mellowness and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Fenmei; Chen Qiufang

    1994-03-01

    The effects of irradiation dosage, irradiation temperature, different kinds of packing container, vacuous capacity of the container, technology of making wine and storage time on acceleration of yellow rice wine mellowness were studied by sensory evaluation and chemical composition analysis. The results showed low dosage of γ-ray irradiation had accelerated the mellowness of yellow rice wine. The unique flavour of colour, aroma, taste and style were still remained after the wine was irradiated. The hygiene and safety experiments showed the irradiated wine is safe to human health. The optimal temperature during γ-ray irradiation was 30∼40 degree C. The pottery containers were superior to the glass container for the packing container during yellow wine irradiation. The suitable vacuous capacity for a 500 ml glass bottle was 100 ml. The new technology of brewing wine was better than the traditional technology for the quality of irradiated wine. The proper storage time after irradiation was 5∼6 months. The γ-ray irradiation combined at 60 degree C of temperature had good effects on sterilization of raw yellow wine. The quality of irradiated wine was stable, the chemical composition was not changed, and it was still remained the traditional flavour. It is up to the standard of export wine

  15. Wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2002-05-01

    Wine contains many phenolic substances, most of which originate in the grape berry. The phenolics have a number of important functions in wine, affecting the tastes of bitterness and astringency, especially in red wine. Second, the color of red wine is caused by phenolics. Third, the phenolics are the key wine preservative and the basis of long aging. Lastly, since phenolics oxidize readily, they are the component that suffers owing to oxidation and the substance that turns brown in wine (and other foods) when exposed to air. Wine phenolics include the non-flavonoids: hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates and the stilbenes; plus the flavonoids: flavan-3-ols, the flavonols, and the anthocyanins. While polymeric condensed tannins and pigmented tannins constitute the majority of wine phenolics, their large size precludes absorption and thus they are not likely to have many health effects (except, perhaps, in the gut). The total amount of phenols found in a glass of red wine is on the order of 200 mg versus about 40 mg in a glass of white wine.

  16. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co 60 ) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  17. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br, E-mail: emrgutierrez@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Tecnologia em Alimentos. Dep. Roque Trevisan; Pires, Juliana A., E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  18. Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Martínez-Gil, Ana M

    2017-06-01

    Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Wine and oxidative stress: up-to-date evidence of the effects of moderate wine consumption on oxidative damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María Isabel; Gambert, Philippe; Fitó, Montserrat; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Wine and alcohol consumption has been considered to be protective against coronary heart disease development, an oxidative stress associated disease. Wine contains polyphenols displaying antioxidant properties tested in in vitro and in vivo studies. Due to this, a general consensus exists, both among the general public and the scientific community, that wine, particularly red wine, is an antioxidant beverage. Alcohol consumption, however, is associated with oxidative damage. Several studies have been carried out on the antioxidant health benefits of wine and wine polyphenols. However, adequate scientific evidence (Level I or II) is required to be provided before recommendations or statements which can reach the general public can be formulated. Here, we summarize the state of the art of the up-to-date body of knowledge, and the extent to which there exists evidence of the benefits of moderate wine consumption on oxidative damage in humans. From the available data, there is no evidence, at present, that sustained wine consumption provides antioxidant benefits in healthy volunteers other than to counteract a possible pro-oxidative effect of the alcohol. On the contrary, data on the antioxidant protective effect of red wine in oxidative stress situations are promising. In this way, the postprandial oxidative stress after a meal, despite the diversity of biomarkers used for its evaluation, is counteracted by the ingestion of wine. Further studies are warranted. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  1. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  2. Soil Types Effect on Grape and Wine Composition in Helan Mountain Area of Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types—aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  3. Ecological land classification and terrestrial environment effects assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.; Wittkugel, U.; Kleb, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ecological Land Classification system was developed to provide a standardized methodology for describing plant communities and wildlife habitat in southern Ontario. The method employs a hierarchical classification system. It can be applied at different levels of accuracy, i.e., at regional, sub-regional, and local scales with an increasing differentiation of vegetation communities. The standardization of the approach permits a comparison of vegetation communities from different sites and an evaluation of the rarity of these communities within the province. Further, the approach facilitates the monitoring of changes in terrestrial communities with time. These characteristics make Ecological Land Classification mapping a useful tool for environmental assessment such as the ones undertaken for the Port Hope and Port Granby Long-Term Waste Management Projects, which were conducted pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 1992. In the context of the Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects, an Ecological Land Classification study was undertaken to characterize the terrestrial environment at regional, local and site levels. Vegetation patches (polygons) were delineated on the basis of air photo interpretation. The individual polygons were then visited for detailed inventory and classified to the most detailed level; that is to the vegetation type. Plant communities were then compared with those listed in the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database to determine their rarity and to determine where they rank as Valued Ecosystem Components. Ecological Land Classification mapping results were used in the assessment of effects to Valued Ecosystem Components. A spatial analysis of the digitized vegetation maps showed the geographic extent of habitat losses and impairments due to various project works and activities. Landscape rehabilitation strategies and concepts were subsequently developed based on Ecological Land

  4. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Selected Vranac Wines Against Six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucoside and. Folin - Ciocalteu`s phenol reagent were supplied from Sigma Chemical Co. (St Louis, Mo, USA); used reagents were of analytical quality. Wines samples. Selected Vranac wines from vintage 2009, made from autochthonic Vranac V.

  5. Protein haze formation in wines revisited. The stabilising effect of organic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, L.; Monteiro, L.; Loureiro, V.; Teixeira, A.R.; Ferreira, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    The effect on the wine protein haze potential of five organic acids commonly encountered in wines (L(+)- tartaric, L( )-malic, citric, succinic and gluconic acids) was assessed. All five acids, tested at 20 mM, reduced dramatically the haze potential of proteins, either in wine or dissolved in water, throughout the range of pH values typical of wines (i.e., from 2.8 through 3.8). Subtle differences among the acid effects did not correlate with the number of their carboxyl groups, ...

  6. Effects of late defoliations on chemical and sensory characteristics of cv. uva longanesi wines

    OpenAIRE

    Tessarin, P; Boliani, A. C; Botelho, R. V; Rusin, C; Versari, A; Parpinello, G. P; Rombolà, A. D

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of late leaf removal on the berry and wine composition and on wine sensory characteristics of Uva Longanesi, a late maturing red Italian grape variety, which wines are characterized by high levels of alcohol and excessive astringency, the latter apparently intensified by late defoliation practices. During 2008 season, spur-pruned trained vines were submitted to manual defoliation (4 basal leaves) at the onset (DEF I, 210 DOY) or at the end (DEF II, 23...

  7. Effects of Basal Defoliation on Wine Aromas: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal defoliation, as one of the most common viticulture management practices to modify fruit zone microclimates, has been widely applied aiming at improving wine quality. Wine aroma contributes greatly to wine quality, yet the effects of basal defoliation on wine aromas show discrepancies according to previous studies. This study is a meta-analysis performed to dissect the factors related to the influence of basal defoliation on volatile compounds in wine. Timing of basal defoliation plays an important role in the concentration of varietal aromas in wine. Pre-veraison defoliation induces an increase in β-damascenone and linalool as well as a reduction in 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP. The effects of basal defoliation on certain volatile compounds relative to fermentation aromas in wine (1-hexanol, β-phenylethanol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, decanoic acid, and ethyl octanoate depend on grape maturity. There are also other factors, such as cultivar and climate conditions, that might be responsible for the effect of basal defoliation on wine aromas. The concentrations of isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid as well as ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl isovalerate, and ethyl decanoate in wine are not markedly affected by basal defoliation. Due to limited studies included in this meta-analysis, more trials are needed to confirm the current findings.

  8. Effect of clarification process on the removal of pesticide residues in red wine and comparison with white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulia, Danae S; Anagnos, Efstathios K; Liapis, Konstantinos S; Klimentzos, Demetrios A

    2018-04-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of seven clarifying agents to remove pesticides in red wine. The presence of pesticides in wine consists a great problem for winemakers and therefore, results on pesticide removal by clarification are very useful for taking a decision on the appropriate adsorbent. The selection of an efficient adsorbent can be based on data correlating pesticide removal in red wine to pesticides' properties, given the great number and variety of pesticides used. So, this experimental work is focused on the collection of results with regard to pesticide removal by clarification using a great number of pesticides and fining agents. A Greek red wine, fortified with single solutions and mixtures of 23 or 9 pesticides was studied. The seven fining agents, used at two concentrations, were activated carbon, bentonite, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), gelatin, egg albumin, isinglass-fish glue, and casein. Pesticides were selected with a wide range of properties (octanol-water partition coefficient (log K ow ) 2.7-6.3 and water solubility 0.0002-142) and belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the clarified fortified wine. The correlation of the clarifying agents' effectiveness to pesticide's chemical structure and properties (log K ow , water solubility) was investigated. The antagonistic and/or synergistic effects, occurring among the pesticides in the mixtures, were calculated by indices. Pesticide removal effectiveness results of the red wine were compared to those obtained from a white wine under the same experimental conditions and discussed. The order of decreasing adsorbent effectiveness (mixture of 23 pesticides) was: activated carbon 40% > gelatin 23% > egg albumin 21% > PVPP 18% > casein 12% > bentonite 7%. Isinglass showed 12% removal at the highest permitted concentration. In the case of

  9. Effect of the addition of different types of oenological commercial tannins on phenolic and sensorial red wine characteristics evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão António M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to understand the effect of the addition of different commercial types of oenological tannins on red wine phenolic compounds and sensorial characteristics evolution. So, six different commercial oenological tannins obtained from different sources at an average dosage recommended by the manufactures were added to a red wine. During 120 wine aging days several phenolic parameters were analyzed (including several individual phenolic compounds by HPLC and also the sensorial characteristics of the wines. Wines treated with oenological tannins showed higher total phenols and flavonoid phenols and lesser color degradation during the aging time considered. After 120 aging days, wines aged with oenological tannins showed more total and individual anthocyanins and significantly more red color that induced significantly color differences in relation to the untreated wine (especially for the wines treated with condensed tannins. From a sensorial point of view it was also possible to detect a clear differentiation between the wines.

  10. On the effects of search attributes on price variability: An empirical investigation on quality wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seccia Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a bottle of wine is affected by the presence of attributes that are searched by consumers and can be evaluated before the purchase. The aim of the paper is to analyze the effect of some search attributes on wine price variability applying the Hedonic Price Model. It allows explaining how the price of wine varies depending on its main quality attributes. The analysis has been based on a sample of wines made in Puglia, Italian region characterized by a tradition in wine production and consumption. Data have been collected from a wine guidebook considering the years 2008–2013. The study provided a measure of the market value of some search attributes for wines produced in Puglia. Attributes as alcoholic content, age and score given by experts, influence price variability allowing wines to obtain a premium price, such as the most known Protected Designation of Origin (PDO and some Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. The name of the variety seems not to have high influence with the exception of less known and locally grown varieties. Results may be of interest for marketers and policy makers of wine industry. Managerial implications could refer to the importance of differentiation strategies aimed to market segmentation and to the pricing strategy. Policymakers could also find interesting hints about the influence of the different appellations and the importance of minor autochthonous grape varieties.

  11. Effects of White Wine Consumption on Weight in Rats: Do Polyphenols Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marija Milat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Effects of white wine and the role of wine polyphenols on weight gain in rats of different age were examined in the 4-week-voluntary-consumption trial. Methods and Materials. Biochemically characterized standard (low polyphenols, W and macerated (high polyphenolic content, PW white wines were compared. One- and three-month-old Sprague-Dawley male rats (n=78 were used. Each age group was subdivided into water-only-drinking controls (C, W, and PW-drinking animals. Daily wine and total liquid consumption, food intake, and body weight were measured, and energy intake and feed efficiency index were calculated. Results. In both age categories, wine-drinking animals consumed less food and gained less weight in comparison to C (181 ± 2, 179 ± 6, and 201 ± 5 in younger animals and 32 ± 5, 28 ± 6, and 47 ± 4 grams in older animals, resp., regardless of wine type. Total energy intake was the lowest in PW-drinking animals. Conclusion. Wine-drinking animals gained less weight in comparison to C, regardless of the wines’ polyphenol content. Although our results are indicative of the major role of nonphenolic constituents of the wines (probably ethanol, the modifying role of wine phenolics on weight gain cannot be excluded as the group consuming PW had lower total energy intake than other groups.

  12. Vasodilator effects of red wines in subcutaneous small resistance artery of patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Boari, Gianluca E M; Platto, Caterina; Pilu, Annamaria; Miclini, Marco; Agabiti Rosei, Claudia; Bulgari, Giuseppe; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that in animal models, red wine may have a protective effect on the vascular endothelium. However, it is not known whether this effect is also present in human small vessels and whether it is specific for certain wines. The objective of this study is to compare the vasodilator effects in subcutaneous small resistance arteries of wines with different flavonoid content as well as of ethanol vs. wines in normotensive (NT) subjects and in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Twenty-six EH and 27 NT were included in the study. Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a micromyograph. Then we evaluated vasodilator responses as concentration-response curves (20, 30, and 50 microl) to the following items: (i) a red wine produced in small oak barrels ("en barrique": EB) (Barolo Oberto 1994), (ii) a red wine produced in large wood barrels (LB) (Barolo Scarzello 1989), (iii) a red wine produced in steel tanks (Albarello Rosso del Salento 1997), and (iv) a white wine produced in steel tanks in the presence or absence of an inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase (L-NMMA 100 micromol/l). A dose-dependent vasodilator effect of red wines (particularly EB and LB) was detected in both NT and HT. The observed response was not reduced after preincubation with L-NMMA. Our results suggest red wines are more potent vasodilator than ethanol alone, possibly depending on the content of polyphenols or tannic acid. HT show similar responses compared with NT, indicating that red wine is not harmful in this population.

  13. The Effects of Palm wine on the Morphometry and Femur Histology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Palm-wine as an alcoholic beverage plays an important role in the social life of many people in Nigeria especially those in the southern part of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible teratogenic effects of palm wine on wistar rat foetuses. Methodology: Female rats were caged with mature ...

  14. Effect of Red Wine Consumption on Serum Oxidation and Adiponectin Levels in Overweight and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadeniz Muammer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a well-known independent risk factor for CVD and metabolic syndrome. It has been shown that moderate red wine consumption might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether red wine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect in overweight subjects.

  15. Effect of volume loading with water, normal saline, palm wine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the diuretic effect of water, normal saline, palm wine and Lipton tea was carried out on forty (40) randomly selected, apparently normal undergraduate students of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Uyo, Nigeria. One and a half (1.5) litres of water, normal saline, palm wine and Lipton tea were ...

  16. Effects of Variety and Fermentation Time on the Quality of Rice Wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of variety and fermentation time on rice wine quality. Two rice varieties, X- Jigna and Gomera, and three fermentation times, 5, 6 and 7 days were used to study the physicochemical and sensory qualities of wine. Significant difference was observed at P<0.05 among the rice ...

  17. Effect of Sulfites on Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, and Flavonoid Measurements in White Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Mirella; Garaguso, Ivana

    2018-03-09

    Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoids content of white wines. The effects of sulfites were explored both in the standard assays and in white wine. The addition of sulfites (at 1-10 μg) in the standard assays resulted in a significant, positive interference in the Folin-Ciocalteu's assay used for polyphenols measurements and in both the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation decolorization assays, which were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. A negative interference of sulfites (at 1-20 μg) was observed for the colorimetric aluminium-chloride flavonoids assay. The addition of sulfites to organic white wines (at 25-200 mg/L wine) clearly resulted in a significant overestimation of antioxidant activity and polyphenols content, and in an underestimation of flavonoids concentration. To overcome sulfite interferences, white wines were treated with cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity measurements obtained after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment were significantly lower than those obtained in the untreated wines. Flavonoids were expected to be higher after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment, but were instead found to be lower than for untreated wines, suggesting that in addition to sulfites, other non-phenolic reducing compounds were present in white wine and interfered with the flavonoid assay. In view of our results, we advise that a purification procedure should be applied in order to evaluate the quality of white wine.

  18. Evolution of phenolic compounds and astringency during aging of red wine: effect of oxygen exposure before and after bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambuti, Angelita; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Ugliano, Maurizio; Moio, Luigi

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen exposure of red wine, before (micro-oxygenation) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on the phenolic composition and astringency of wine. The astringency was evaluated by sensory analysis and by a method based on the SDS-PAGE of salivary proteins after reaction of saliva with wine (SPI, saliva precipitation index). Micro-oxygenation caused a stabilization of color, but this effect disappeared after long aging. For the wine with the lower pH a decrease of wine astringency and SPI was observed 42 months after micro-oxygenation. Oxygen ingress through the closure postbottling was positively correlated with the decrease of SPI. Therefore, the astringency and reactivity of wines toward salivary proteins of a bottled red wine can be modulated by controlled oxygen exposure during aging. For both experiments the effect of oxygen exposure depended on wine composition.

  19. Effects of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of Aglianico red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Morena; Gerardi, Chiara; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura; Domenici, Valentina

    2018-04-15

    This study analyzed the effect of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on the chromatic properties, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Aglianico red wines with respect to wines produced from conventional winemaking. We determined the phytochemical composition by spectrophotometric methods and HPLC-DAD analysis and the in vitro antioxidant activity of different wine samples by the ORAC assay. The main important classes of fluorophore molecules in red wine were identified by Front-Face fluorescence spectroscopy, and the emission intensity trend was investigated at various sulfur dioxide concentrations. Lastly, we tested the effects of both conventional and low sulfite wines on ex vivo human erythrocytes under oxidative stimulus by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay and the hemolysis test. The addition of sulfur dioxide, which has well-known side effects, increased the content of certain bioactive components but did not raise the erythrocyte antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term psychological impact and perceived efficacy of pulsed-dye laser therapy for patients with port-wine stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristen; Kreiter, Clarence D; Rosenbaum, Marcy; Whitaker, Duane C; Arpey, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    The rationale for treatment of patients with port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks has focused on the belief that eventual soft-tissue hypertrophy and negative psychological effects might be diminished or avoided. Pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy has become widely accepted as the treatment of choice for PWS, and a variety of studies have been conducted that evaluate its short-term efficacy. Long-term data regarding outcome and patient satisfaction are lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of pulsed-dye laser therapy from the patient's perspective. A survey was mailed to all patients or parents of minor patients whose last known laser treatment was performed between January 1, 1989, and January 1, 1996. Patients were asked to quantify changes in their PWS as well as their psychological well-being. A formal qualitative analysis was performed on their written comments as well. A total of 164 surveys were mailed to the most recent address available by the patient record. Fifty-two surveys were returned as undeliverable, and 55 evaluable surveys were returned, yielding a 49% overall return rate for patients who could be located. The mean age of respondents was 28.8 years, 96% of whom were white and 62% female. The mean number of years since last treatment was 7.04. The vast majority of patients noted little or no change in texture, height, or dimension of their PWS, whereas 62% noted color improvement. A majority or patients (60%) worried less about their appearance after treatment, whereas a similar number (61%) believed their ability to make friends or meet others was unaffected by treatment. Only 19% thought others looked at or treated them differently because of their PWS. Overall, 48% of patients indicated satisfaction with treatment, 24% dissatisfaction, and 28% neutral. On a 10-point scale indicating their likelihood of recommending treatment to someone similarly affected, the mean score was 7.42. Men were significantly and consistently less

  1. Hypotheses on the effects of enological tannins and total red wine phenolic compounds on Oenococcus oeni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2015-12-01

    Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  3. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  4. Wine from the Netherlands: investigating the effect of soil-type on taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Geert-Jan; Maljers, Denise; Beurskens, Stan

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade professional viticulture has seen a strong increase in the Netherlands, reaching 270 ha in 2015. Although on a European scale this is a small area, the number of prize-winning quality wines is steadily growing. This growth can largely be ascribed to new grape varieties from Germany and Switzerland, that are better adapted to the cooler and moister climate at the northern fringe of the viticultural zone, as well as to increasing viticultural expertise. The distribution of vineyards across the Netherlands shows that they occur on a plethora of substrates. Dutch substrate is dominated by typical lowland deposits such as fluvial and marine sands and clays and aeolian sands. Unlike many European countries, bedrock is scarce. Only in the south-eastern extremity and in the east of the country, carbonate bedrock is present at or near the surface. This wide variety of substrate triggered our interest in the effect of the various soil-types on the smell and taste characteristics of wines. An effect which is often mentioned concerning well-known foreign wines. We wondered whether an Auxerrois wine from carbonate rocks tastes significantly different from a wine from the same grape variety from loess. And how about a Johanniter wine from fluvial deposits versus windblown sands? And what happens if you make wine in exactly the same way with the same grape variety and from the same vineyard, but with three different yeast types? To answer our questions, we selected ten Dutch vineyards with varying soil-types and the grape varieties Auxerrois and Johanniter. In October 2014 we harvested the grapes and wine was made under controlled identical conditions (in a double setup). The wines were scientifically tested at the institute of Viticulture and Oenology in Neustadt, Germany. The results show no significant effect of soil-type on the smell and taste of Dutch wines in our experiment. Varying yeast types (Cryarome, 3079, VL2) used on Souvignier Gris grapes from

  5. Effect of different enological practices on skin and seed proanthocyanidins in three varietal wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Fernández-Fernández, Jose I; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2010-11-10

    Proanthocyanidins are important for wine quality since they participate in astringency, bitterness and color. Given the localization of proanthocyanidins in the berry (skin and seeds), different methods have been developed that help to modulate the release of these phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of two low prefermentative temperature techniques (cold soak and must freezing with dry ice) and the use of macerating enzymes has been studied during the vinification of three different varietal wines (Monastrell, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon) to assess their influence on wine proanthocyanidin concentration and composition. Syrah wines showed the lowest proanthocyanidin content, together with the lowest mDP and the highest percentage of galloylation in its proanthocyanidins. Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed similar proanthocyanidin concentration. The application of the low temperature prefermentative maceration (cold soak) was the most effective treatment, increasing the proanthocyanidin concentration in Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines although neither of the treatments had any effect on Syrah wines. As regards the effect of the different treatments on the proanthocyanidin composition, the results seem to indicate that the observed increases were mainly due to an increase in seed proanthocyanidins, even in the case of cold soak treatments, which occur in the absence of ethanol, suggesting that ethanol is not so crucial in the extraction of seed proanthocyanidins.

  6. Effect of the prefermentative addition of five enological tannins on anthocyanins and color in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Liang, Na-Na; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The effects of prefermentation addition of 5 exogenous tannins with different-origin anthocyanins and color characteristics were investigated in "Cabernet Sauvignon wines" at the end of alcoholic fermentation and the end of malolactic fermentation, and after 6 mo and 9 mo of bottle aging, respectively. The results showed that the application of GSKT2 could significantly retard the degradation of most anthocyanins in the process of alcoholic fermentation and the decrease of some pyranoanthocyanins during the subsequent 3 stages, thus causing more yellowness of wine in comparison with the control. Three other condensed tannins, GSKT1, QUET, and GSET, had a positive impact only on several anthocyanin components. Four condensed tannins all contributed to more redness, suggesting that the action mechanism might be to protect wine against oxidation or contribute to form copigmented anthocyanidins, or polymeric pigments. The application of FOLT (hydrolysable tannin) did not produce any influence on wine redness even after 9 mo of bottle aging. This work provides some reasons for the reasonable application of tannin additives. The prefermentative application of condensed tannins overall could protect some pigment components from degradation and enhance wine redness. Tannin additives with different origins have different effectiveness. The tannin additive obtained from grape skins, like GSKT2, could produce significant promotion on both redness and yellowness in wine. The prefermentation addition of hydroxylase tannin like FOLT seems not to have a significant effect on wine color. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Oenological and Quality Characteristic on Young White Wines (Sauvignon Blanc: Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilbett Briones-Labarca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has shown to have an effect of enhancing some properties without detrimental effects on important quality characteristics, such as colour, pH, and turbidity. This suggests that this technique can be used as an alternative to the existing methods used in wine industry processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HHP on aroma compounds and also sensory and quality properties of young white wine. HHP treatment did not influence physicochemical parameters, total phenols, and flavonoid contents of white wine; however, the results from analysis of wine indicate that there was a great variation in the concentration of free and total sulphur dioxide (SO2 values and antioxidant capacity of white wine after HHP application. The sensory attributes, such as taste, odour, and overall quality, were not affected by HHP processing at 300 MPa. The chromatic characteristics changed slightly after applying HHP, but these changes could not be visually perceived because they were less than 5%. The use of this technique has the potential to decrease the amount of SO2 added to raw grapes thus maintaining the same properties found in untreated wine. This study provided valuable insights into the biochemical and sensory composition of commercial white wine and how this might change during HHP processing.

  8. Protective effect of red wine on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, M.; Joksic, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of red wines 'Cabernet Sauvignon' on the micronuclei formation in human lymphocytes. Blood samples of healthy volunteers were irratiated in vitro using 60 Co as a source of radiation, dose of 2Gy. Irradiated samples, as well as unirradiated controls, were treated with concentrations of red wine ranged from 100-500 ml/2x106 cells. Obtained results demonstrated significant decrease of the micronuclei frequency (t=9.14; p0.05) in treated samples versus untreated controls. The results of our study demonstrated radioprotective effect of red wine

  9. The effect of inactivated yeast-based products on the process of wine aging, phenolic compounds and sensory characteristics of red wine Prokupac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malićanin Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keeping of red wine in bottles is very important for its maturation and quality. However, there are numerous changes that happen during that period, usually caused by oxidative processes and changes in structure and content of polyphenolic compounds. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Inactivated dry yeast (IDY products on aging, phenolics content, colour stability and sensory characteristics of red wine Prokupac (Serbian autochthonous variety. The treatment of wine was done by 3 different IDYP (Lallemand, Canada: Optimum White, Opti Less and Noblesse, applied as 0.2 g/L and 0.4 g /L during 15 days. Subsequently, wine clarification was done, followed by filtration and bottling. Untreated wines were used for comparison. Wine was subjected to accelerated aging (10 days at 55 ° C and also to normal aging conditions during one year. To determine the influence of IDYP following parameters were monitored: dissolved O2, free and total SO2, sugar free extract, content of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins, percent of polymeric color, color tint, color intensity and sensory characteristics (Panel method. The obtained results clearly show that IDY products are good scavengers of oxygen and have a positive impact on wine quality preservation and its organoleptic characteristics. However, a slight decrease of polyphenols content was detected.

  10. Oxygen and SO2 Consumption Rates in White and Rosé Wines: Relationship with and Effects on Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascón, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    This Article addresses the study of O 2 and SO 2 consumption rates of white and rosé wines, their relationship to the initial chemical composition, and their effects on the chemical changes experienced by wine during oxidation. Eight wines were subjected to five consecutive air-saturation cycles. O 2 was monitored periodically; SO 2 , color, and antioxidant indexes were determined after each cycle, and the initial and final compositions of the wines were thoroughly determined. Wines consumed oxygen at progressively decreasing rates. In the last cycles, after a strong decrease, consistent increases of oxygen levels were seen. Oxygen consumption rates were satisfactorily modeled, being proportional to wine copper, quercetin, and kaempherol contents and negatively proportional to cinnamic acids. SO 2 consumption rates were highly diverse between wines and were positively related to free SO 2 , Mn, and pH, among others. In the last saturations, SO 2 consumption took place regardless of O 2 consumption, implying that SO 2 should reduce chemical species oxidized in previous saturations. Some volatile phenols seem to be the end point of radical-mediated oxidation of polyphenols taking place preferably in the first saturation.

  11. Short-term effect of red wine (consumed during meals) on insulin requirement and glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, H; Morlat, P; Ragnaud, J M; Aubertin, J

    1992-04-01

    To determine the effect of wine on insulin requirement or glucose tolerance. Five men with insulin-treated diabetes and 10 men with non-insulin-treated diabetes ate the same lunch with the same volume of either water or red wine (2 glasses). Insulin requirement was determined with an artificial pancreas (Biostator). Glucose tolerance was evaluated from the postprandial glycemic level. There was no significant difference in insulin requirement determined with an artificial pancreas in the insulin-treated patients after the two meals (31.5 +/- 4.21 U with water and 31.8 +/- 4.3 U with wine). Glucose tolerance in the non-insulin-treated patients was lower after the meal with wine. Moderate prandial wine consumption has no adverse effect on the glycemic control of diabetic patients. Thus, it appears unnecessary to proscribe the consumption of red wine in moderation with meals to diabetic patients. Wine contains tannins and phytates that can explain its action.

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan

    2014-01-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  13. Renal damage mediated by oxidative stress: a hypothesis of protective effects of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ramón; Rivera, Gonzalo

    2002-08-01

    Over the last decade, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of seemingly unrelated renal diseases. Epidemiological studies have documented an association of moderate wine consumption with a decreased risk of cardiovascular and neurological diseases; however, similar studies in the kidney are still lacking. The kidney is an organ highly vulnerable to damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), likely due to the abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the composition of renal lipids. ROS are involved in the pathogenic mechanism of conditions such as glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The health benefits of moderate consumption of red wine can be partly attributed to its antioxidant properties. Indeed, the kidney antioxidant defense system is enhanced after chronic exposure to moderate amounts of wine, a response arising from the combined effects of ethanol and the nonalcoholic components, mainly polyphenols. Polyphenols behave as potent ROS scavengers and metal chelators; ethanol, in turn, modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, a hypothesis that red wine causes a decreased vulnerability of the kidney to the oxidative challenges could be proposed. This view is partly supported by direct evidences indicating that wine and antioxidants isolated from red wine, as well as other antioxidants, significantly attenuate or prevent the oxidative damage to the kidney. The present hypothesis paper provides a collective body of evidence suggesting a protective role of moderate wine consumption against the production and progression of renal diseases, based on the existing concepts on the pathophysiology of kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress.

  14. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  15. Effectiveness of Fibers from “Cabernet Sauvignon” (Vitis vinifera Pomace as Fining Agents for Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have highlighted the potential of fibers from grape cell wall material to be fining agents for red wines as alternatives to animal-derived proteins. The affinity of those fibers for grape proanthocyanidins (also known as condensed tannins seems to depend on the initial phenolic composition of the wines to be fined and on the applied dose of fibers. In the present work, “Cabernet Sauvignon” grapes were harvested at three different maturity levels and used for making red wine. The pomaces of the three vinifications were used to obtain the cell wall fibers. Each wine was treated with the three purified fibers at two different doses (0.2 g/L and 2.5 g/L under winery-like conditions in order to check the potential of fibers as fining agents. Color and phenolic composition of the treated wines were determined immediately after the treatments and after four and nine months of wine bottle ageing. The effectiveness of the fining strongly depends on the initial wine matrix. Wines treated at high doses had lower color density and higher hue than control untreated wines. Small differences were observed in the phenolic content of the treated wines. Those differences were dose dependent and almost disappeared after several months of ageing. The maturity of the grapes from which the fibers came had no influence on the effectiveness of the fining. Additionally, there was no evidence of polysaccharide release from the fibers to the wine.

  16. Effect of cofermentation of grape varieties on aroma profiles of la mancha red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carpintero, Eva Gómez; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Gómez Gallego, Manuel A; González-Viñas, Miguel A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of winemaking using blends of red grape varieties cultivated in La Mancha region (Spain) on the aroma profile of wines was researched by chemical characterization. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction using dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, respectively, as solvents in elution and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free and bound volatile compounds were analyzed in Cencibel, Bobal, and Moravia Agria monovarietal wines, and in 3 wines obtained with the blending of grapes: Cencibel (50%) + Bobal (50%); Cencibel (50%) + Moravía Agria (50%); Cencibel (33%) + Bobal (33%) + Moravía Agria (33%). Aroma compounds were studied in terms of odor activity values (OAVs). Ninety free aroma compounds and sixty-five bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified. The odor activity values for the different compounds were classified into 7 odorant series. The fruity and sweet series contributed most strongly to the aroma profile of all wines, independently of the winemaking technique used. In general, co-winemaking wines present a more complex chemical profile than monovarietal wines. Practical Application: Some grape varieties could benefit from this process with the presence of other varieties that might have an excess of aroma compounds. In this study, the wines were elaborated by blending different grape varieties together; this process implies co-maceration and co-fermentation steps. The co-winemaking technique could benefit from additional molecules provided by the other varieties, which results in a more complex formation than in the case of monovarietal wines. This technique provides a viable alternative to traditional winemaking methods for improving and enhancing the sensory profile of elaborated wines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. The effect of grape ripening stage on red wine color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and chromatic characteristics of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell harvested at six different degree of ripeness (from August 16 to October 24, 2002 and that of the wines obtained from these grapes have been studied. The grape anthocyanins content (mg/kg of berry fresh weight was maximum in those grapes harvested on September 11 and 16 (804.1 and 822.6 mg/kg, respectively and decreased for grapes harvested in October. However, the results showed that the grapes with the highest anthocyanin concentration did not lead to the highest colored wines. The wines elaborated from grapes harvested on October 16 (671.9 mg of anthocyanins per kg of berry fresh weight had the best chromatic characteristics and better withstood aging in the bottle; the extent of cell wall degradation in overly matured grapes probably facilitated the extraction of phenolic compounds from skins. However, the chromatic quality of wines made from grapes harvested one week later (October 24, the most mature grapes was lower than that from October 16, with lower color intensity (13%lower in the wine elaborated from grapes harvested in October 24 and a percentage of yellow color 6 % higher in this wine.

  18. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section 5041...

  19. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshen Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  20. Performance Effects of the Corporatisation of Port of Rotterdam Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. de Langen (Peter); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPort of Rotterdam Authority is a publicly owned but corporatized port development company. In 2004, this organisation was transformed from a municipal department to an independently operating company. The corporatisation intended to improve the overall performance of the port of

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influence in Final Wine Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-del-Real, Javier; Lairón-Peris, María; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. However, S. cerevisiae can competitively displace other yeast species from wine fermentations, therefore the use of these new starters requires an analysis of their behavior during competition with S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation. In the present study we analyzed the survival capacity of non-cerevisiae strains in competition with S. cerevisiae during fermentation of synthetic wine must at different temperatures. First, we developed a new method, based on QPCR, to quantify the proportion of different Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures. This method was used to assess the effect of competition on the growth fitness. In addition, fermentation kinetics parameters and final wine compositions were also analyzed. We observed that some cryotolerant Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. uvarum, seriously compromised S. cerevisiae fitness during competences at lower temperatures, which explains why S. uvarum can replace S. cerevisiae during wine fermentations in European regions with oceanic and continental climates. From an enological point of view, mixed co-cultures between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus or S. eubayanus, deteriorated fermentation parameters and the final product composition compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. However, in co-inoculated synthetic must in which S. kudriavzevii or S. uvarum coexisted with S. cerevisiae, there were fermentation

  2. Effect of Saccharomyces, Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts and Malolactic Fermentation Strategies on Fermentation Kinetics and Flavor of Shiraz Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich du Plessis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to improve complexity and diversify wine style is increasing; however, the interactions between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB have not received much attention. This study investigated the interactions of seven non-Saccharomyces yeast strains of the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Lachancea, Metschnikowia and Torulaspora in combination with S. cerevisiae and three malolactic fermentation (MLF strategies in a Shiraz winemaking trial. Standard oenological parameters, volatile composition and sensory profiles of wines were investigated. Wines produced with non-Saccharomyces yeasts had lower alcohol and glycerol levels than wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. Malolactic fermentation also completed faster in these wines. Wines produced with non-Saccharomyces yeasts differed chemically and sensorially from wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. The Candida zemplinina and the one L. thermotolerans isolate slightly inhibited LAB growth in wines that underwent simultaneous MLF. Malolactic fermentation strategy had a greater impact on sensory profiles than yeast treatment. Both yeast selection and MLF strategy had a significant effect on berry aroma, but MLF strategy also had a significant effect on acid balance and astringency of wines. Winemakers should apply the optimal yeast combination and MLF strategy to ensure fast completion of MLF and improve wine complexity.

  3. Effect of ethanol, dry extract and reducing sugars on density and viscosity of Brazilian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Flávia S P P; de Castilhos, Maurício B M; Telis, Vânia R N; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Density and viscosity are properties that exert great influence on the body of wines. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the alcoholic content, dry extract, and reducing sugar content on density and viscosity of commercial dry red wines at different temperatures. The rheological assays were carried out on a controlled stress rheometer, using concentric cylinder geometry at seven temperatures (2, 8, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 26 °C). Wine viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and density was directly related to the wine alcohol content, whereas viscosity was closely linked to the dry extract. Reducing sugars did not influence viscosity or density. Wines produced from Italian grapes were presented as full-bodied with higher values for density and viscosity, which was linked to the higher alcohol content and dry extract, respectively. The results highlighted the major effects of certain physicochemical properties on the physical properties of wines, which in turn is important for guiding sensory assessments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of Protectants on the Fermentation Performance of Wine Yeasts Subjected to Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caridi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During alcoholic fermentation of must from dried grapes, yeasts are subjected to very high sugar concentrations, besides other environmental stresses, and they modify their metabolic behaviour giving low ethanol yield and abnormally high acetic acid production. To investigate the protective effect of catechin, inositol, and SO2 on wine yeasts, three thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, selected for wine making of must from dried grapes, and three strains of Saccharomyces selected for the production of wine, were inoculated in a sample of must at very high osmotic strength. A significant (p<0.01 or p<0.05 relationship between the addition of 100 mg/L of catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must and the change in the metabolic behaviour of the yeasts was observed. Compared to the control and depending on strain and protectant, the fermentation rate after 3 days increased up to 55 %, the ethanol content of the wines increased up to 16 %, the unitary succinic acid production increased up to 55 %, the unitary acetic acid production decreased up to 53 %, and the unitary glycerol production decreased up to 69 %. So by adding catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must it is possible to minimise the abnormal fermentation performance that wine yeasts exhibit in wine making of must from dried grapes.

  5. Determinants and Effects of Logistics Costs in Container Ports: The Transaction Cost Economics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-soo Cho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many countries seek to become a global logistics center linking major trading ports. They are competitively constructing container ports. The aggressive competition creates overcapacity situation in the container port sector. Massive investments are required to construct container ports with terminals, docks, storage areas and hinterlands. Nevertheless, it is not easy for container ports to have sufficient container cargo volumes to justify the massive investments. Therefore, container ports of individual countries are required to develop effective strategies to have enough traffic volumes. Based on country-level analysis, this study is designed to investigate empirically internal capabilities and external environments of logistics costs and traffic volumes in individual container ports. A theoretical foundation, the transaction cost economics (TCE is applied to support and explain empirical findings.

  6. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velden, D.P.; Mansvelt, E.P.G.; Troup, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  7. Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S

    2000-02-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  8. Effect of the addition of different types of oenological commercial tannins on phenolic and sensorial red wine characteristics evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jordão, António; Muxagata, Sara; Fontes, Luísa; Correia, Ana Cristina; Nunes, Fernando; Cosme, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to understand the effect of the addition of different commercial types of oenological tannins on red wine phenolic compounds and sensorial characteristics evolution. So, six different commercial oenological tannins obtained from different sources at an average dosage recommended by the manufactures were added to a red wine. During 120 wine aging days several phenolic parameters were analyzed (including several individual phenolic compounds by HPLC) and also...

  9. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  10. Effect of ultrasound irradiation on the evolution of color properties and major phenolic compounds in wine during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Wang, Ting-Ting

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultrasound irradiation were investigated on the evolution of color properties and major phenolic compounds during wine storage. The results indicate that the changing trends of color parameters are very similar in both the ultrasonically-treated and untreated wines, meanwhile the evolutions of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, monomeric flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids also demonstrate some similar patterns in all wines during storage, respectively. In summary, the ultrasound irradiation does not only temporally influence the color characteristics and phenolic compounds of wine, but also have a longer effect on their evolutions during wine storage. Furthermore, the ultrasonically-treated wine had a quicker changing trend than that of the untreated wine regarding the studied parameters. All these results indicate that the ultrasound might be as a feasible and promising novel technology for wineries to produce more red wines with the similar quality as the traditionally-aged wine in a shorter time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine on Lipid Oxidation in Fish Oil Emulsion and Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yulin; Shen, Yixiao; Zhu, Yongchao; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305.53 mg/L, although the levels of tea, coffee, and white wine were 85.59, 76.85, and 26.57 mg/L, respectively. The activity of red wine in scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals was approximately 4 times higher than the tea and 8 times than the coffee or white wine. The red wine showed the highest capability in preventing long chain PUFA oxidation in the fish oil emulsion. Because of the outstanding antioxidant activity of red wine, the red wine dried extract was used to monitor its inhibitory effect against angiogenesis by using transgenic zebrafish embryos (Tg[fli1:egfp] y1 ) with fluorescent blood vessels. After incubated in 100 μg/mL of the extract solution for 26 h pf, each of the embryos had a lower number of intersegmental vessel than the control embryo. The inhibition rate of red wine extract against growing of angiogenic blood vessel reached 100%. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Effects of skin maceration time on the phenolic and sensory characteristics of Bombino Nero rosé wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafino Suriano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosé wines consumption has reached the highest level in present years and it is still an ongoing trend in several countries. Therefore, the production of rosé wines with improved sensory qualities and colour stability would be greatly appreciated. Today, although rosé wines are no longer considered to be less valuable than red and white ones, anyway, because of the past rosé’s reputation the scientific state of art lacks of specific studies concerning the effects of pre-fermentation maceration times on rosé wines. In this study, different pre fermentation maceration times (3, 6 and 8 h during production of original location certified and guaranteed rosé wine from Bombino Nero variety (Vitis vinifera L. were investigated. In all wines standard and specific wine chemical parameters, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric acids, volatile compounds and colour parameters were determined. A sensory descriptive analysis together with chemical analyses performed revealed that the maceration time significantly affected the aroma, the flavour and the colour of wines. The results showed that, although a longer maceration time is positively correlated to the colour stability of wine over time, however, a lengthener of the maceration is not favourable to enrich the wine with pleasant fruity and flowery aroma compounds, as both the gas chromatography and the sensory analyses showed. It was decided to perform the experimental winemaking processes in an actual winery instead of a laboratory in order to develop a practical winemaking management procedure directly usable for wine producers. The results obtained contribute to improve the knowledge about the importance of selecting the winemaking technique in order to elaborate high quality rosé wines.

  13. Effect of fermentation conditions on content of phenolic compounds in red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of compounds that increase the nutritive value of red wines has been presented in a number of papers. These compounds include catechins and proanthocyanidins among others. Their protective effect on the cardiovascular system and anticarcinogenic properties has been proved. The effect of maceration conditions and increased solid grape parts content, seed in the first place, on the content of phenolic compounds of wine was investigated. Several micro-trials were performed with Cabernet sauvignon sort; in some variants time and temperature of maceration were varied, while the ratio of residual stem and content of seed was increased several times, resulting in a significant change of phenolic compounds content in the obtained wine samples. The presence of ripe stem yielded good results, but only during six days of maceration, while in the case of longer maceration, the change of colour quality was negative. Supplementary quantities of seeds during maceration resulted in an increase of total phenols and catechins. A significant influence on colour of wines was also observed, especially in wines obtained applying shorter maceration.

  14. The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on the colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model wine solution and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Royo, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. The second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. An effective strategy for porting C++ applications on cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varbanescu, A.L.; Sips, H.; Ross, K.A.; Liu, Q.; Liu, L.K.; Natsev, A.; Smith, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a solution for efficient porting of sequential C++ applications on the Cell B.E. processor. We present our step-by-step approach, focusing on its generality, we provide a set of code templates and optimization guidelines to support the porting, and we include a set of

  16. Effects of Vinification Techniques Combined with UV-C Irradiation on Phenolic Contents of Red Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmaz, Hande; Söylemezoğlu, Gökhan

    2017-06-01

    Red wines are typically high in phenolic and antioxidant capacity and both of which can be increased by vinification techniques. This study employed 3 vinification techniques to assess the increase in phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Wines were obtained from Boğazkere grape cultivar by techniques of classical maceration, cold maceration combined with ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation, and thermovinification combined with UV irradiation and changes in phenolic contents were examined. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of wines were measured spectrophotometrically and phenolic contents (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, and cis-resveratrol were measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). As a result of the study, the highest phenolic content except for quercetin was measured in the wines obtained by thermovinification combined with UV irradiation. We demonstrated that the highest phenolic compounds with health effect, total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity were obtained from thermovinification with UV-C treatment than classical wine making. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Maceration with stems contact fermentation: effect on proanthocyanidins compounds and color in Primitivo red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, Serafino; Alba, Vittorio; Tarricone, Luigi; Di Gennaro, Domenico

    2015-06-15

    Three Primitivo (Vitis vinifera, cv.) red wines were microvinified by means of different winemaking technologies: no stem-contact fermentation destemming 100% of grapes (D100); stem-contact fermentation destemming 75%, 50% of grapes (D75-D50) respectively. The objectives of this work were to improve proanthocyanidins content in wine, to monitor the relationships between anthocyanins/tannins and to detect the effects on the polymerization state of polyphenols after 12 months storage of wines. D100 showed higher anthocyanins content but lower color intensity and phenolic compounds content with respect to the theses D75 and D50, the last two showing lower anthocyanins content due their partial adsorption by grape stems during the fermentation. D75 gave the best results in terms of anthocyanins/color intensity balance and showed a better wine tannin component with respect to D50. Moreover after 12 months storage D50 reached a more advanced and stable polymerization state of colored pigments than the other wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  19. Effect of micro-oxygenation on sensory characteristics and consumer preference of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Plumejeau, François; Maury, Chantal; Versari, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to improve the structure of a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine in a short period of time by micro-oxygenation (MOX) at high rates (25 and 50 mL L(-1) month(-1) ), the effects of which were evaluated based on sensory characteristics and consumer preference. Sensory data were analysed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and ordinal logistic regression (OLR). MOX led to significant differences in the colour, colour stability and phenolic compounds of wine. Sensory characteristics also changed through MOX treatment, and wine experts were able to discriminate between MOX-treated and untreated samples, with olfactory intensity, complexity, astringency and roundness being the main discriminating characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression enabled identification of the sensory characteristics that drove consumer preference. MOX at high rates improved the sensory characteristics of wine and may therefore be considered a valid technique for obtaining structured wines in a short period of time, i.e. within just a few months after the vintage. The results highlight the need for (i) careful selection of the MOX dosage rate and duration (the 25 mL L(-1) month(-1) dose for 6 days provided the best result) and (ii) continuous monitoring of the MOX treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Wine and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet.

  1. Platelet rebound effect of alcohol withdrawal and wine drinking in rats. Relation to tannins and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, J C; Berger, J L; Renaud, S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated in rats fed a purified diet for 2 and 4 months whether wine drinking was associated with the rebound effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation observed after alcohol withdrawal. With 6% ethanol drinking or its equivalent in red or white wine, platelet aggregation was reduced similarly by 70% when the animals drank the alcoholic beverages up to the venipuncture. Depriving the rats of alcoholic beverages for 18 hours was associated with an increase in the platelet response of 124% in those receiving 6% ethanol, of 46% with white wine but a decrease of 59% in those with red wine. The protective effect of red wine on platelets could be reproduced by tannins (procyanidins) extracted from grape seeds or red wine and added to 6% ethanol, but not by glycerol or wine without alcohol. That was related to inhibition of the alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation as shown by the lowering of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides, and the increase in vitamin E in plasma. Owing to tannins, the platelets of rats drinking red wine did not exhibit the rebound effect observed hours after alcohol drinking, eventually associated with sudden death and stroke in humans.

  2. The effect of prefermentative addition of gallic acid and ellagic acid on the red wine color, copigmentation and phenolic profiles during wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Ke; He, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Reeves, Malcolm J; Liu, Yue; Zhao, Xu; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-04-01

    Though non-anthocyanin phenolics normally do not have red color, they affect the red color expression in the copigmentation of red wines. In this study, the influence of prefermentative addition of 300mg/L gallic acid and ellagic acid, as cofactors, on aging dry red wines had been systematically evaluated at the industrial scales from the perspectives of color, phenolic profiles and copigmentation effects of anthocyanins. Red wines made with these two compounds exhibited better color properties than the control, having better CIELAB chromatic parameters. Additionally, significantly higher levels of detectable anthocyanins and copigmented anthocyanin ratio had been observed. Wines with ellagic acid showed better chromatic properties and phenolic profiles than wines with gallic acid, as shown in previous theoretical results. Anti-copigmentation phenomenon was noticed and elucidated. These practical results confirmed that ellagic acid was the better cofactor, and would give more additional guidance for the production of high quality wine. Malvidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,652); Petunidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,651); Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,650); Peonidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,654); Ellagic acid (PubChem CID: 5,281,855); Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370); Quercetin (PubChem CID: 443,654); Caffeic acid (PubChem CID: 689,043); (+)-catechin (PubChem CID: 9064); Vanillic acid (PubChem CID: 8468). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of noise-induced hearing loss within Port Harcourt metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the effects of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss within Port Harcourt Metropolis using a micro-controlled diagnostic audiometer (Kamplex KLD21).The data was obtained at two specific locations namely: Rivers State University of Science and Technology and Port Harcourt International Airport.

  4. The region-of-origin effect in the purchase of wine: The moderating role of familiarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gallego, J.M.; Chamorro-Mera, A.; García-Galán, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the place-of-origin effect has proliferated in recent decades, although there are still gaps in this field, especially in relation to the region-of-origin (ROO) and to the influence of certain moderating variables on the effect. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the ROO effect in the purchase of wine, paying special attention to the moderating role played by familiarity. Via a survey of 427 consumers carried out in the region of Extremadura (Spain), the paper study how variables as the region's overall image, its image as a wine producer, the perceived quality of its products, and consumer ethnocentrism affect the intention to purchase regional wines. To reach that goal, a structural equation model was applied using the Partial Least Square technique to identify the variables that explain and moderate this intention. The results show the region's overall image (2.65% of contribution to the purchase intentions explained variance), its image as a wine producer (8.39%), the perceived quality of its products (22.42%), and consumer ethnocentrism (10.23%) to affect the purchase intentions directly and indirectly. The confirmation of a moderating effect of familiarity in one of the model relationships contributes to give answer to one of the most significant questions in marketing theory about the origin effect. These results have important managerial implications for policy decision-makers, confirming the value of implementing communication campaigns that pursue improvement of the region's image as a brand. (Author)

  5. Effect of micro-oxygenation and wood type on the phenolic composition and color of an aged red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Iglesias, Montserrat; González-Sanjosé, Ma Luisa; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-12-23

    Many studies have recently been published focused on the effects of micro-oxygenation on the quality of wines, its application modes, and doses, etc. However, there are still few scientific papers on how previously micro-oxygenated wines perform during storage or barrel aging. This study focused on the evolution of the phenolic composition, especially of anthocyanins, and color, together with astringency and tannins, during micro-oxygenation before barrel aging. In addition, to evaluate whether wine evolution during aging depends on barrel type, wines were aged in four different oak barrel types. Tempranillo wines, some micro-oxygenated before malolactic fermentation and others not, were aged for 12 months in American, French, Central European, and Spanish oak, following wine evolution during that period. The study was carried out for two consecutive vintages. Results showed that all wines evolved similarly; therefore, the micro-oxygenation treatment neither accelerated nor delayed the typical changes of aging. Slightly different evolutions were detected according to the barrel wood type, whether or not the wine was micro-oxygenated. The varied evolutions must therefore be associated with the differences from each oak type (structure, grain and density, composition, etc.).

  6. Effects of Red Wine Tannat on Oxidative Stress Induced by Glucose and Fructose in Erythrocytes in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzini, Camila Eliza Fernandes; Colpo, Ana Ceolin; Poetini, Márcia Rósula; Pires, Cauê Ferreira; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Azevedo, Miriane Lucas; Soares, Júlio César Mendes; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that red wine presents in its composition several substances that are beneficial to health. This study has investigated the antioxidant effects of Tannat red wine on oxidative stress induced by glucose and fructose in erythrocytes in vitro, with the purpose to determine some of its majoritarian phenolic compounds and its antioxidant capacity. Erythrocytes were incubated using different concentrations of glucose and fructose in the presence or absence of wine. From these erythrocytes were determined the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), glucose consumption, and osmotic fragility. Moreover, quantification of total phenolic, gallic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, resveratrol, and DPPH scavenging activity in wine were also assessed. Red wine showed high levels of polyphenols analyzed, as well as high antioxidant potential. Erythrocytes incubated with glucose and fructose had an increase in lipid peroxidation and this was prevented by the addition of wine. The wine increased glucose uptake into erythrocytes and was able to decrease the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes incubated with fructose. Altogether, these results suggest that wine leads to a reduction of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of glucose and fructose. PMID:26078708

  7. Water stress and ripeness effects on the volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverano, Inmaculada; Ubeda, Cristina; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Valdés, María Esperanza; Pastenes, Claudio; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2018-02-01

    Controlled water deficits affect grape berry physiology and the resulting wines, with volatile composition being the one of the affected parameters. However, there is a potential disconnect between aromatic maturity and sugar accumulation. Accordingly, the effects of three different water status levels over two growing seasons (2014 and 2015) and two different harvest dates on the aroma compounds from Cabernet Sauvignon wines were studied. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatoghraphy/mass spectrometry. Around 45 volatile compounds were determined in the wines and, among these, esters were affected the most, presenting lower concentrations when the most restrictive water treatment was applied in both years. By contrast, volatile acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest level of irrigation was applied. On the other hand, a delay in harvesting produced an increase in the total amount of volatile compounds in samples from the most restrictive water treatment. These results are coincident with a principal component analysis that indicated a great separation between years, deficit irrigation treatments and harvest dates. The results of the present study suggest that a low water supply had a negative effect on the aromatic potential of wines at a similar ripening stage. However, this effect could be countered by harvesting at a later date. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Understanding the protective effects of wine components and their metabolites in the brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban-Fernández A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate wine consumption has been suggested to exert a positive effect in prevention of neurodegenerative process and cognitive impairment. With the ultimate aim of achieving a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this benefit, we have investigated the role of certain wine- derived phenolic metabolites and aroma compounds in the MAPK cascade (including ERK1/2, p38, one of the routes directly related to inflammation in neuronal cells. Some of the tested phenolic compounds, especially in the case of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, showed a significant neuroprotective effect against SIN-1-induced neuronal death. Regarding their effect over MAPK phosphorylation, inmunoblotting technique revealed a beneficial and significant decrease on the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 kinases after incubation with wine constituents. In addition, activity of caspase3-like protease, an executor of neuronal apoptosis and a downstream signal of MAPK, was significantly diminished by 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid and linalool, counterbalancing the increase produced by SIN-1. Altogether, these results suggest that wine aroma, phenolic compounds and their gut metabolites could exert neuroprotective actions by modulating MAPK signalling and caspase-3 proteases activation, which are known to play a key role in oxidative/ nitrosative stress-induced response.

  9. Protective effects of tea, red wine and cocoa in diabetes. Evidences from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Angeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of diabetes through the diet has recently received an increasing interest, and polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols, have become important potential chemopreventive natural agents due to their proved benefits on health, with low toxicity and cost. Tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of flavanols and these highly consumed foods might contribute to prevent diabetes. In this regard, there is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea, red wine and cocoa consumption against this disorder. This review summarizes the available epidemiological and interventional human studies providing evidence for and against this effect. Overall observational data suggest a benefit, but results are still equivocal and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of data indicate favourable effects on diabetes risk factors for tea, red wine and cocoa intake, and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in human studies. However, despite the growing evidence it remains uncertain whether tea, red wine and cocoa consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and stable isotope dilution assay of ethanethiol and diethyl disulfide in wine using solid phase microextraction. Effect of aging on their levels in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belancic Majcenovic, Andrea; Schneider, Rémi; Lepoutre, Jean-Paul; Lempereur, Valérie; Baumes, Raymond

    2002-11-06

    Ethanethiol and diethyl disulfide (DEDS) most often occurred at levels above their olfactive threshold in wines with nauseous sulfur-linked smells. As ethanethiol is very oxidizable and chemically reactive, a stable isotopic dilution analysis of both ethanethiol and its disulfide in wines using solid phase microextraction and GC-MS was developed. The latter involved the determination of the proportion of DEDS formed by oxidation of the thiol during the analysis conditions, which was obtained by the use of two differently labeled disulfide standards. An original synthesis of labeled ethanethiol standards in conditions minimizing oxidation was developed, and the corresponding labeled diethyl disulfides were obtained from these thiols. This analytical method was used to follow the levels of these sulfur compounds during aging in a young red wine spiked with ethanethiol and added with enological tannins, with or without oxygen addition. The total levels of these two sulfur compounds were shown to decrease steadily after 60 days of aging, up to 83%. The effect of oxygen sped this decrease, but the effect of enological tannins was very slight. Residual ethanethiol was detected in its disulfide form from approximately 36% in the nonoxygenated wines to 69% in the oxygenated samples.

  11. Radioprotective Effect of Moderate Wine Consumption in Patients With Breast Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganti, Alessio G.; Digesu, Cinzia; Panunzi, Simona; De Gaetano, Andrea; Macchia, Gabriella; Deodato, Francesco; Cece, M. Grazia; Cirocco, Massimo; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Iacoviello, Licia; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa; Gaetano, Giovanni de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Given the high cost and side effects of radioprotective agents such as amifostine, attention has been focused on potentially equally effective but less expensive and toxic natural substances. We evaluated the potential radioprotective effects of wine in preventing skin toxicity in patients with breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Before treatment, the medical history and habits of patients were assessed and the information recorded in their clinical folders. Patients were divided into three groups based on the dose/fractionation scheme used: control group, 60.4 Gy (standard technique); Modulated Accelerated Radiotherapy in Adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (MARA)-1 protocol group, 44 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed); and MARA-2 protocol group, 60 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed). The impact of the following variables on acute skin toxicity was evaluated by chart review: radiotherapy protocol, planning target volume (PTV), comorbidity (e.g., hypertension and diabetes), hemoglobin level before therapy, adjuvant hormone therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and drinking habits. Results: The study population consisted of 348 patients. More severe skin toxicity was significantly associated with the radiotherapy protocol (p < 0.001) and median PTV (p = 0.005). In addition, the incidence of acute toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was higher in patients without alcohol intake (38.4% vs. 22.3%, p = 0.021). The daily amount of alcohol intake also influenced the incidence of skin toxicity, with an incidence of 38.4% in patients with no wine intake, 31.8% in patients drinking half a glass per day, 13.6% in patients drinking one glass per day, and 35.0% in patients drinking two glasses per day. Multivariate analysis showed that wine intake, PTV, and radiotherapy protocol were all significantly correlated with acute toxicity. Conclusions: Our results indicate that wine may have a radioprotective effect; however, prospective studies are needed to

  12. The effectiveness of single port thoracoscopic approach in pleural effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Bilgin Büyükkarabacak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Currently, thoracoscopic procedures have been used frequently in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusions. It was reported, high diagnosis and treatment success with thoracoscopy in pleural effusion, which was not, diagnosed using cytology and blinding pleural biopsy procedures. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate of the patient was performed video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS due to pleural effusion. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014 years, it was evaluated 52 patients was performed VATS because of pleural effusion. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia and single lung ventilation in 50 patients, and local anesthesia in 2 patients. Results: Histopathological results were reported as carcinoma infiltration in 29 patients, benign disease in 23 patients. Cytological examination of liquid was executed before thoracoscopy in all of the patients with malignity positive. In addition, in eight patients pleura biopsy, on which blinding was executed, evaluated as malignity negative. The diagnostic value of our procedure has 100% in malign group and 98% in benign group. In patients with malignant disease, pleurodesis was performed peroperatively. Mean hospital stay was 5 days (3-15. Mean duration of terminating chest tube was 3 days (3-15. There were no morbidity and mortality due to procedure. Conclusion: Single port VATS is an effective and safe procedure in diagnosis and palliative treatment of patient with pleural effusion, and it has high success rate and reduces hospital stay.

  13. Wine producers’ perceptions of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...

  14. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  15. Effect of kaolin silver complex on the control of populations of Brettanomyces and acetic acid bacteria in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Cañas, P M; López-Martín, R; García-Romero, E; González-Arenzana, L; Mínguez-Sanz, S; Chatonnet, P; Palacios-García, A; Puig-Pujol, A

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the effects of kaolin silver complex (KAgC) have been evaluated to replace the use of SO 2 for the control of spoilage microorganisms in the winemaking process. The results showed that KAgC at a dose of 1 g/L provided effective control against the development of B. bruxellensis and acetic acid bacteria. In wines artificially contaminated with an initial population of B. bruxellensis at 10 4 CFU/mL, a concentration proven to produce off flavors in wine, only residual populations of the contaminating yeast remained after 24 days of contact with the additive. Populations of acetic bacteria inoculated into wine at concentrations of 10 2 and 10 4  CFU/mL were reduced to negligible levels after 72 h of treatment with KAgC. The antimicrobial effect of KAgC against B. bruxellensis and acetic bacteria was also demonstrated in a wine naturally contaminated by these microorganisms, decreasing their population in a similar way to a chitosan treatment. Related to this effect, wines with KAgC showed lower concentrations of acetic acid and 4-ethyl phenol than wines without KAgC. The silver concentration from KAgC that remained in the finished wines was below the legal limits. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of KAgC to reduce spoilage microorganisms in winemaking.

  16. ROOTSTOCKS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BORDÔ, ISABEL AND IAC 138-22 MÁXIMO MUST AND WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLON JOCIMAR RODRIGUES DA SILVA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It has been demonstrated that rootstocks can influence grape characteristics, but there are few data in literature about the rootstocks influence in the wine characteristics, especially in wines elaborated with Vitis labrusca or hybrid grapes. This study evaluated the influence of ‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstocks on the physicochemical characteristics of ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and ‘IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts and wines. The musts were evaluated for pH, soluble solids, total acidity and soluble solids/acidity ratio. The wines were evaluated for density, alcohol content; total, volatile and fixed acidity; pH, dry extract, reducing sugars, reduced dry extract, alcohol in weight/reduced dry extract; free and total sulfur dioxide; anthocyanins, polyphenols index (I 280; polyphenols and total flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts had low soluble solids for winemaking. The ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstock promoted higher dry extract content and reduced dry extract in Bordô wine, and lower total and fixed acidity in IAC 138-22 Máximo wine. In Isabel wine, higher pH was promoted by the ‘IAC 766’ rootstock. Aside from low total acidity of the Bordô wine, all the physicochemical characteristics of the wines studied are in accordance with Brazilian law. There was no effect of rootstocks in the phenolics content and antioxidant activity of wines.

  17. Wine fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fra...

  18. Protective effects of red wine flavonols on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Jin; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2009-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a moderate consumption of red wine has health benefits, such as the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases. Although this is generally attributed to resveratrol, the protective mechanisms and the active substance(s) remain unclear. We examined whether and how red wine extract (RWE) and red wine flavonols quercetin and myricetin inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-induced apoptosis of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. RWE attenuated HNE-induced PC12 cell death in a dose-dependent manner. HNE induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is involved in DNA repair in the nucleus, and this was inhibited by RWE treatment. Treatment with RWE also inhibited HNE-induced nuclear condensation in PC12 cells. Data of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate showed that RWE protected against apoptosis of PC12 cells by attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species. The cytoprotective effects on HNE-induced cell death were stronger for quercetin and myricetin than for resveratrol. HNE-induced nuclear condensation was attenuated by quercetin and myricetin. These results suggest that the neuroprotective potential of red wine is attributable to flavonols rather than to resveratrol.

  19. The effect of alcohol and red wine consumption on clinical and MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Chua, Alicia S; Malik, Muhammad Taimur; Kaplan, Tamara; Glanz, Bonnie I; Egorova, Svetlana; Guttmann, Charles R G; Bakshi, Rohit; Weiner, Howard L; Healy, Brian C; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol and in particular red wine have both immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties, and may exert an effect on the disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the association between alcohol and red wine consumption and MS course. MS patients enrolled in the Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of Multiple Sclerosis at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB) who completed a self-administered questionnaire about their past year drinking habits at a single time point were included in the study. Alcohol and red wine consumption were measured as servings/week. The primary outcome was the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at the time of the questionnaire. Secondary clinical outcomes were the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) and number of relapses in the year before the questionnaire. Secondary MRI outcomes included brain parenchymal fraction and T2 hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV). Appropriate regression models were used to test the association of alcohol and red wine intake on clinical and MRI outcomes. All analyses were controlled for sex, age, body mass index, disease phenotype (relapsing vs. progressive), the proportion of time on disease modifying therapy during the previous year, smoking exposure, and disease duration. In the models for the MRI outcomes, analyses were also adjusted for acquisition protocol. 923 patients (74% females, mean age 47 ± 11 years, mean disease duration 14 ± 9 years) were included in the analysis. Compared to abstainers, patients drinking more than 4 drinks per week had a higher likelihood of a lower EDSS score (OR, 0.41; p = 0.0001) and lower MSSS (mean difference, - 1.753; p = 0.002) at the time of the questionnaire. Similarly, patients drinking more than 3 glasses of red wine per week had greater odds of a lower EDSS (OR, 0.49; p = 0.0005) and lower MSSS (mean difference, - 0.705; p = 0.0007) compared to nondrinkers. However, a faster increase in T2LV was observed in patients consuming 1

  20. Three ports versus four ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.F.; Waqar, S.; Chaudry, M.A.; Hameed, S.

    2017-01-01

    To compare three ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy and four ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy in terms of complications, time taken to complete the procedure, hospital stay and cost effectiveness in local perspective. Methodology: This randomized control trial included 60 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy at Department of Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2013. These patients were randomized on computer generated table of random numbers into group A and Group B. In Group A patients four ports were passed to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy and in Group B patients three ports were passed to perform the procedure. Results: The mean age in both groups was 44 years (range 18-72). Three ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy (43 min) took less time to complete than four ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy (51 min). Patients in three ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy experienced less pain as compared to four ports group. The total additional analgesia requirement in 24 hours calculated in milligrams was less in three port laparoscopic cholecystectomy group as compared four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy group. The mean hospital stay in three port laparoscopic cholecystectomy group is 25 hours while the mean hospital stay in the four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy group is 28 hours. Conclusion: Three ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and effective procedure and it did not compromise the patient safety. (author)

  1. Effect of cluster thinning and prohexadione calcium applications on phenolic composition and sensory properties of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizcuri-Inac, José-Miguel; Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Sanz-Asensio, Jesús; Martínez-Soria, María-Teresa; López-Alonso, Miguel; Dizy-Soto, Marta; Echávarri-Granado, José-Federico; Vaquero-Fernández, Luis; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2013-02-06

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of manual cluster thinning (CT) and the application of the growth regulator Prohexadione calcium (ProCa) on the phenolic composition and the sensory profile of Tempranillo and Grenache wines produced from treated vines in La Rioja (Spain). ProCa was applied at preblooming and CT was carried out at veraison in two consecutive years. Different physicochemical parameters and analyses of phenolic compounds were carried out in control, CT and ProCa grapes and wines and wine sensory was performed. Thinning treatments decreased crop yield, besides ProCa application reduced berry size, and berry weight. Color and phenolic composition of Grenache and Tempranillo wines in general were affected by thinning treatments, with an increase in anthocyanin, flavanol and flavonol concentrations. In sensory analysis, wines obtained from thinned vines presented higher values for several aromatic (e.g., white and yellow fruits, fresh flowers) and taste attributes (i.e., astringency, bitternes, persistence). CT and ProCa treatments resulted in an improvement in wine quality. In general, similar results in phenolic composition, sensory properties and quality of wines were obtained by manual and chemical cluster thinning. ProCa as a growth regulator may be an option for a quality vitiviniculture.

  2. Effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on phenolic and sensorial profile evolution of an Encruzado white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Muxagata, Sara; Correia, Ana C; Nunes, Fernando M; Cosme, Fernanda; Jordão, António M

    2017-11-01

    Several studies have reported the influence of diverse winemaking technologies in white wine characteristics. However, the impact of the use of different oak wood barrel capacities and utilization time on the evolution of white wine phenolic content and sensorial characteristics are not usually considered. Thus the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on the evolution of phenolic compounds, browning potential index and sensorial profile of an Encruzado white wine. For the 180 aging days considered, the use of new oak wood barrels induced a greater increase in global phenolic composition, including several individual compounds, such as gallic and ellagic acid, independently of the barrel capacity. Tendency for a lesser increase of the browning potential index values was detected for white wines aged in new oak wood barrels. The sensorial profile evolution, showed significant differences only for the aroma descriptors, namely for 'wood aroma' and 'aroma intensity', white wine aged in 225 L new oak wood barrels being the highest scored. The results show that, in general, the use of different capacities and utilization time of oak wood barrels used for white wine aging could play an important role in white wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Management of Port Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe BASANU; Georgiana NUKINA

    2011-01-01

    The Management of port operation requires the proper and efficient use of port facility, equipment for cargo handling, berth facilities, waterways and roads. It also entails the use of effective communications system, storage facilities, and dockworkers. The whole activities mentioned above form the bulk of port operations. The aspiration of port operator is to get cargo through the gateway of ports as fast as possible on to other modes of transport (rail or road) with a minimal cost to them ...

  4. Microoxidation in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY FOR UKRAINIAN WINE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kochkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the problem of assessment the effectiveness of company’s strategy. It gives an overview of theoretical and practical foundations for development of company’s strategy. It examines the principles of innovative Blue Ocean Strategy. The Blue Ocean Strategy for Ukrainian companies on wine market is developed. It is proposed to use DPM (Direct Policy Matrix for assessment the effectiveness of company’s strategy. The paper puts forward an algorithm for evaluating the effectiveness of strategies using DPM (Direct Policy Matrix. A structured interviews with experts by personal interview using a formalized table were conducted to build DPM. DPM is drawn to demonstrate results of the research method. Expenses for implementation the Blue Ocean Strategy for Ukrainian companies is evaluated. The efficiency of the developed Blue Ocean Strategy for Ukrainian companies on wine market is calculated.

  6. Effect of pre-bloom leaf removal on grape aroma composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Battista, Fabrizio; Panighel, Annarita; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2018-03-01

    Early leaf removal at pre-bloom is an innovative viticultural practice for regulating yield components and improving grape quality. The effects of this technique on vine performance, grape composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon variety were assessed. Pre-bloom leaf removal enhanced canopy porosity, total soluble solids in musts and reduced cluster compactness. This practice had a strong effect on glycoside aroma precursors, in particular by increasing glycoside terpenols and norisoprenoids. Metabolites of linalool were the most responsive to leaf removal. Wine produced from defoliated vines was preferred in tasting trials for its more intense fruity notes and mouthfeel attributes. Pre-bloom leaf removal is a powerful technique for modifying canopy microclimate, vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The increase of glycoside aroma compounds in treated grapes has potential positive effect in improving the sensory profile of the resulting wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Isolation of proanthocyanidins from red wine, and their inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Takahiro; Mori, Shoko; Horikawa, Manabu; Fukui, Yuko

    2018-05-15

    The red wines made from Vitis vinifera were identified as skin-whitening effectors by using in vitro assays. OPCs in the wine were evaluated for tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. Strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed in fractions with high oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC) content. Among OPC dimers, a strong inhibitory effect on tyrosinase was observed with OPCs which contain (+)-catechin as an upper unit. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect was observed with OPCs which have (-)-epicatechin as upper units. Also, OPC trimers, upper and middle units joined with 4 → 8 bonds, showed stronger effects compared to trimers with 4 → 6 linkages. Interestingly, (-)-epicatechin-(4β → 8)-(-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate, which is a unique component of grapes has potent inhibitory effects on both tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Our data provide structural information about such active compounds. These results suggest that red wines containing OPC, have high melanogenesis inhibitory effect and are supposed to have skin-whitening effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of climate change on morphology around a port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan Radhamma, R.; Deo, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that with the construction of a port and harbour structure the natural shoreline gets interrupted and this disturbs the surrounding coastal morphology. Added to this concern is another one of recent origin, namely, the likely impact of climate change induced by global warming. The present work addresses this issue by describing a case study at New Mangalore Port situated along the west coast of India. The harbour was formed by constructing two breakwaters along either side of the port since the year 1975. We have first determined the rate of change of the shoreline surrounding the port using historic satellite imageries over a period of 36 years. Thereafter a numerical shoreline change model: LITPACK was used to do the same and it was forced by waves simulated over a period of past 36 years varying from 1979 to 2016 and future 36 years ranging from 2016 to 2052. The wave simulation was done with the help of numerical wave model: Mike21-SW which was driven by the wind from a regional climate model called CORDEX. This climate model was earlier run for a moderate global warming pathway called: RCP-4.5. The analysis of satellite imageries indicated that in the past the shoreline change varied from -1.69 m/year to 2.56 m/year with an uncertainty of ± 0.35 m/year and approximately half of the coastal stretch faced extensive erosion. It was found that the wind and waves at this region would intensify in future and also raise the probability of occurrence of high waves. As per the numerical shoreline modelling this would give rise to a much enhanced rate of erosion, namely -2.87 m/year to -3.62 m/year. This would call for a modified shoreline management strategy around the port area. The study highlights the importance of considering potential changes in wind and wave forcing because of the climate change in evaluating future rates of shoreline changes around a port and harbour structure.

  9. The region-of-origin effect in the purchase of wine: The moderating role of familiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel García-Gallego

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on the place-of-origin effect has proliferated in recent decades, although there are still gaps in this field, especially in relation to the region-of-origin (ROO and to the influence of certain moderating variables on the effect. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the ROO effect in the purchase of wine, paying special attention to the moderating role played by familiarity. Via a survey of 427 consumers carried out in the region of Extremadura (Spain, the paper study how variables as the region’s overall image, its image as a wine producer, the perceived quality of its products, and consumer ethnocentrism affect the intention to purchase regional wines. To reach that goal, a structural equation model was applied using the Partial Least Square technique to identify the variables that explain and moderate this intention. The results show the region’s overall image (2.65% of contribution to the purchase intentions explained variance, its image as a wine producer (8.39%, the perceived quality of its products (22.42%, and consumer ethnocentrism (10.23% to affect the purchase intentions directly and indirectly. The confirmation of a moderating effect of familiarity in one of the model relationships contributes to give answer to one of the most significant questions in marketing theory about the origin effect. These results have important managerial implications for policy decision-makers, confirming the value of implementing communication campaigns that pursue improvement of the region’s image as a brand.

  10. The region-of-origin effect in the purchase of wine: The moderating role of familiarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gallego, J.M.; Chamorro-Mera, A.; García-Galán, M.M.

    2015-07-01

    Research on the place-of-origin effect has proliferated in recent decades, although there are still gaps in this field, especially in relation to the region-of-origin (ROO) and to the influence of certain moderating variables on the effect. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the ROO effect in the purchase of wine, paying special attention to the moderating role played by familiarity. Via a survey of 427 consumers carried out in the region of Extremadura (Spain), the paper study how variables as the region's overall image, its image as a wine producer, the perceived quality of its products, and consumer ethnocentrism affect the intention to purchase regional wines. To reach that goal, a structural equation model was applied using the Partial Least Square technique to identify the variables that explain and moderate this intention. The results show the region's overall image (2.65% of contribution to the purchase intentions explained variance), its image as a wine producer (8.39%), the perceived quality of its products (22.42%), and consumer ethnocentrism (10.23%) to affect the purchase intentions directly and indirectly. The confirmation of a moderating effect of familiarity in one of the model relationships contributes to give answer to one of the most significant questions in marketing theory about the origin effect. These results have important managerial implications for policy decision-makers, confirming the value of implementing communication campaigns that pursue improvement of the region's image as a brand. (Author)

  11. Effect of different fining agents and additives in white wine protein stability

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Tânia Isabel Monteiro; Cosme, Fernanda; Filipe-Ribeiro, L.; Fernandes, Conceição; Mendes-Faia, Arlete

    2012-01-01

    Proteins in white wine could become insoluble and precipitate causing the appearance of a haze in bottled wine. Protein instability may be due to intrinsically or extrinsically factor such as protein molecular weight, isoelectric point, ionic strength, alcohol degree and wine pH or storage temperature. These modifications may occur during aging, storage or when diverse wines are blended. The type and concentration of proteins in the wine depends on grape variety, maturation deg...

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W.

    2015-01-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm 2 .s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  14. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    . Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, very-low-density lipoprotein ( VLDL)- triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), blood pressure, and body weight were determined......-triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, FVIIc, or blood pressure. Drinking wine was associated with relative body weight increments closely corresponding to the energy contributed by the alcohol component. Conclusion: Moderate red wine consumption for 4 weeks is associated with desirable changes in HDL-C and fibrinogen......Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study...

  15. Effects of Chinese yellow wine on nitric oxide synthase and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expressions in rat vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Tang, Weiliang; Zhai, Xiaoya; Meng, Liping; Guo, Hangyuan

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine similarities in the effect of yellow wine as compared to statin and the possibility that yellow wine inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs). We isolated VECs, and cultivated and purified Sprague Dawley (SD) rat thoracic aortas in vitro. We selected the optimal wine concentration using clonogenic and MTT assays to measure cell survival. Next, we divided the cells into 9 groups: (1) control, (2) TNF-α, (3) TNF-α + rosuvastatin (10 μmol/L), (4) TNF-α + ethanol 0.5%, (5) TNF-α + yellow wine 0.5%, (6) TNF-α + ethanol 1.0%, (7) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.0%, (8) TNF-α + ethanol 1.5%, and (9) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.5% and they were given the corresponding treatment for 24 h. We determined NO production with nitrate reductase. We then measured eNOS activity, and detected eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein levels by Western blotting. Compared with the TNF-α group, NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression in the rosuvastatin, and yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly increased. Protein expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 in the rosuvastatin, yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly decreased. Compared with the rosuvastatin group, eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein expression in the yellow wine (0.5% -1.5%) groups were significantly different. Treatment with yellow wine increased NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression, which decreases iNOS and ICAM-1 protein expression. We conclude that yellow wine may have similar beneficial effects as rosuvastatin on the cardiovascular system. These effects may be attributed to their anti-atherosclerotic actions.

  16. Differential protective effects of red wine polyphenol extracts (RWEs) on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazué, Frédéric; Delmas, Dominique; Murillo, Genoveva; Saleiro, Diana; Limagne, Emeric; Latruffe, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    Various epidemiological studies have shown that a regular and moderate consumption of red wine is correlated with a decreased relative risk of developing coronary heart disease and cancer. These health benefits are commonly attributed to high contents of polyphenols, particularly resveratrol, representing important sources of antioxidants. However, resveratrol does not seem to be the only bioactive compound present in the wine which contains numerous other polyphenols. The present study investigates the efficiency of red wine extracts (RWEs), containing different polyphenols, on colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo. Proliferation, cell cycle analysis and incidence of ACF were monitored to examine the effects of RWEs. RWEs derived from a long vinification process exhibit superior anti-proliferative activity in colon cancer cells and prevent the appearance of ACF in mice. Interestingly, quercetin and resveratrol, representing two major bio-active polyphenols, exhibit synergistic anti-proliferative effects. These data suggest that the efficacy of RWEs on colon carcinogenesis may depend on the polyphenolic content, synergistic interaction of bio-active polyphenols and modulation of cellular uptake of polyphenols.

  17. Effect of carboxymethylcellulose on potassium bitartrate crystallization on model solution and white wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajul, Audrey; Gerbaud, Vincent; Teychene, Sébastien; Devatine, Audrey; Bajul, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    Instability in bottled wines refer to tartaric salts crystallization such as potassium bitartrate (KHT). It is not desirable as consumers see the settled salts as an evidence of a poor quality control. In some cases, it causes excessive gushing in sparkling wine. We investigate the effect of two oenological carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for KHT inhibition in a model solution of white wine by studying the impact of some properties of CMC such as the degree of polymerization, the degree of substitution, and the apparent dissociation constant determined by potentiometric titration. Polyelectrolyte adsorption is used for determining the surface and total charge and for providing information about the availability of CMC charged groups for interacting with KHT crystal faces. The inhibitory efficiency of CMC on model solution is evaluated by measuring the induction time with the help of conductimetric methods. Crystals growth with and without CMC are studied by observation with MEB and by thermal analysis using DSC. The results confirm the effectiveness of CMC as an inhibitor of KHT crystallization in a model solution. The main hypothesis of the mechanism lies in the interaction of dissociated anionic carboxymethyl groups along the cellulose backbone with positively charged layers on KHT faces like the {0 1 0} face. Key factors such as pH, CMC chain length and total charge are discusses.

  18. Promoting Myelination in an In Vitro Mouse Model of the Peripheral Nerve System: The Effect of Wine Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, Mark; Wolffram, Kathleen; Mausberg, Anne K.; Albrecht, Philipp; Derksen, Angelika; Methner, Axel; Dehmel, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dietrich, Helmut; Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2013-01-01

    Protective properties of moderate wine consumption against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and degenerative diseases have been reported in various clinical studies. Here, we analysed the effect of red wine (RW) and white wine (WW) on myelination using an in vitro embryonic co-culture mouse model. The total amount of myelin was found to be significantly increased after RW and WW treatment, while only RW significantly increased the number of internodes. Both types of wine increased rat Schwann cell- (rSC) expression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-two-homolog 2 (Sirt2), a protein known to be involved in myelination. Detailed chemical analysis of RW revealed a broad spectrum of anthocyanins, piceids, and phenolics, including resveratrol (RSV). In our assay system RSV in low concentrations induced myelination. Furthermore RSV raised intracellular glutathione concentrations in rSCs and in co-cultures and therefore augmented antioxidant capacity. We conclude that wine promotes myelination in a rodent in vitro model by controlling intracellular metabolism and SC plasticity. During this process, RSV exhibits protective properties; however, the fostering effect on myelinaton during exposure to wine appears to be a complex interaction of various compounds. PMID:23762469

  19. Wine fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holmberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fraud are discussed.Keywords: adulteration, counterfeit, detection

  20. In Vivo Investigation of the Safety and Efficacy of Pulsed Dye Laser with Two Spot Sizes in Port-Wine Stain Treatment: A Prospective Side-by-Side Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Ying, Hanru; Chen, Yijie; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Yang, Xi; Wang, Tianyou; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2017-09-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) with 7 and 10 mm spot sizes is widely used on a regular basis for the treatment of port-wine stain (PWS). No studies have reported on the differences in efficacy outcomes resulting from the use of different laser spot sizes in the treatment of PWS by PDL. Thus, an in vivo investigation into the differences in safety and efficacy of treatment between two spot sizes (7 vs. 10 mm) of PWS by PDL was conducted. A total of 35 PWS patients underwent three treatment sessions by using a 595 nm wavelength PDL (Vbeam ® , Candela Corp) with two laser settings: (1) 7 mm spot size, radiant exposure of 12 J/cm 2 and (2) 10 mm spot size, radiant exposure of 10 J/cm 2 . Cryogen spray cooling and 1.5 msec pulse duration were applied. Therapeutic outcomes were evaluated by visual and chromametric evaluation 3 months after the final treatment. Average blanching rates were 34.03% and 36.51% at sites treated by PDL with 7 and 10 mm laser spot sizes, respectively (p spot sizes were similar. PDL with a 10 mm laser spot size is more efficacious with lower radiant exposure than PDL with a 7 mm spot size; it can also reduce the treatment time.

  1. Effect of Esca on the Quality of Berries, Musts and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calzarano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the composition of berries, musts and wines in three groups of vines: 1. vines with foliar esca symptoms; 2. asymptomatic esca diseased vines; and 3. healthy vines, were studied in 2001 and 2002 in two “Trebbiano d’Abruzzo” vineyards in the Abruzzi region, Italy, to determine the effect of esca. Vines were grouped by foliar symptoms that had been recorded in annual inspections for 10 years: symptomatic vines by definition showed foliar symptoms in the sampling years (2001 and 2002; asymptomatic esca diseased vines showed no symptoms during the sampling years though they were known to be diseased because they had had foliar symptoms in at least one previous annual inspections; healthy vines were those with no symptoms at any time during the 10-year survey. The quality of berries, musts and wines obtained from vines with trunk renewal that had been restored, and of healthy unrenewed vines was compared in another vineyard of the same cultivar. Fairly similar results were obtained over the two sampling years, with a strong reduction in sugar levels of the must from symptomatic vines, leading to a lower ethanol content in the wine made from that must. These findings confirmed those of the preliminary investigation carried out in 2000. The yield pressed from symptomatic vines also had significantly higher levels of malic acid (causing higher total acidity, and of total nitrogen, potassium and total polyphenols. Berries from symptomatic vines had much higher levels of trans-resveratrol, possibly because of the spots on the leaves and berries. Small and non-significant differences between the yields of healthy vines and asymptomatic diseased vines were found, suggesting a slight loss in the quality of musts and wines from asymptomatic diseased vines. The yield of trunk-renewed vines was similar to that of healthy unrenewed vines, despite an increase of trans-resveratrol in the berries and of total nitrogen in the must of the trunk

  2. Effect of flavonols on wine astringency and their interaction with human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Brás, Natércia F; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; de Freitas, Victor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2016-10-15

    The addition of external phenolic compounds to wines in order to improve their sensory quality is an established winemaking practice. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of quercetin 3-O-glucoside on the astringency and bitterness of wines. Sensory results showed that the addition of this flavonol to wines results in an increase in astringency and bitterness. Additionally, flavonol-human salivary protein interactions were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamic simulations (MD). The apparent Stern-Volmer (KsvApp) and the apparent bimolecular quenching constants (kqApp) were calculated from fluorescence spectra. The KsvApp was 12620±390M(-1), and the apparent biomolecular constant was 3.94×10(12)M(-1)s(-1), which suggests that a complex was formed between the human salivary proteins and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. MD simulations showed that the quercetin 3-O-glucoside molecules have the ability to bind to the IB937 model peptide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on wine volatile composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Šuklje, Katja; Boss, Paul K; Jeffery, David W

    2018-09-01

    This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes. Implementation of water substitution in particular resulted in minor alterations of wine volatile composition compared to the control, and positive aroma and flavour characteristics were preserved. However, overripe sensory attributes such as 'hotness' and 'port wine' were conserved whereas they were absent in wines of similar alcohol level made from earlier harvested grapes, thereby emphasising the relevance of grape (over)maturity when producing lower alcohol wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of In-Amphorae Winemaking on the Chemical and Sensory Profile of Chardonnay Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The high value of dry extract and volatile acidity could statistically differentiate (P ˂ 0.05 the Chardonnay wine obtained in amphorae with maceration and stored for six months from the wine obtained in barrels and barriques, as evidenced by the analysis of variance. Similarly, the principal component analysis showed that all the amphorae wines sampled between November and March (not the wine analyzed immediately after alcoholic fermentation were clearly differentiated from the analogue barrel and barrique wines due to the high volatile acidity, straw colour, and tannic perception. The Chardonnay wine produced in amphorae was characterized by a spicy flavour, pleasant tannic and a less ‘green’ character than wines from barrels and barriques, but showed a weak varietal aroma. Thus, the commercial offer of finished wines based on Chardonnay grapes can be potentially extended by including a product processed in amphorae.

  6. Effect of acute and chronic moderate red or white wine consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Costantine F; Slaiby, Rita; Haddad, Najib; Boustany, Karim; Baroody, George M

    2006-06-01

    The effects of acute and chronic (10 wk) red or white wine consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat model are reported. Fasted rats, in the acute study, were loaded intragastrically with 5 ml of an olive oil emulsion (30% w/v) in the presence or absence of wine (8% v/v ethanol), and either mesenteric lymph or blood was collected 3 h postprandially. Animals in the chronic study received either red or white wine in drinking water for a period of 10 wk (3% v/v ethanol). Blood samples were collected from animals in either the fasted state or after fat-wine loading. Postprandially, wine delayed gastric emptying, reduced lymph triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion concomitantly with increased number and decreased chylomicron (CM) size, and increased plasma TAG and CM concentrations. Phospholipid and cholesterol contents of CM, but not very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), were increased, indicating enhanced liver bile secretion; however, a significant increase in plasma VLDL concentration was observed. In the chronic study, a wine-fat load resulted in increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration and less pronounced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperchylomicronemia. In the fasted state, plasma TAG and total apolipoprotein B concentrations were not modified in these animals, and an increase in HDL and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL cholesterol ratios were observed. No liver function or intestinal lipid absorption impairment was observed. In conclusion, unlike binge drinking, chronic moderate wine consumption appears to have a cardioprotective effect in the fasted state, an effect attenuated by the observed temporary postprandial hyperchylomicronemia and hypertriglyceridemia resulting from a direct effect of alcohol on CM size and number.

  7. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chu

    Full Text Available Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells, and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV. Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively. Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities.

  8. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingyuan; Li, Wenya; Lin, Yue; Sun, Xiaorun; Ding, Chunhua; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells), and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV). Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea) or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively). Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities. PMID:26625122

  9. Analysis of the Market Structure and Shift-effects in North China Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlu Liu, Doctoral Student

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study divides the foreign trade traffic of major North China ports into export and import cargoes for the past 10 years. Then, the concentration ratios and shift effects are analyzed in order to determine their relationships with the ports’ competition structures. Here, the HHI, a BCG matrix analysis, and the shift effects are applied as study methods. The results indicate that the oligopoly market structure of major North China ports has gradually decreased. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of import cargoes are higher than those of export cargoes, indicating that competition to attract import cargoes will intensify. Therefore, the effects of the South Korea–China FTA mean that the competition structures of these ports with regard to export and import cargoes are highly likely to be differentiated further over time.

  10. The effect of high power ultrasound on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and aroma compounds of red wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natka Ćurko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High power ultrasound (HPU is a novel, non-thermal technology the application of which has been primarily evaluated in managing food quality. The application of high power ultrasound in wine technology is therefore directed at modulating microbial activity during fermentation, extraction of phenolic and aroma compounds from grapes to must, as well as at accelerating aging reactions in wine. The main aim of this article was to evaluate the effect of different HPU process parameters on sustaining the phenolic and aroma composition of red wine and its colour characteristics. Three different red wines, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Plavac mali, were treated with high power ultrasound (20kHz, considering the variations in ultrasound probe diameter size (12.7 and 19 mm, amplitude level (20, 30, and 40 %, and processing time (2, 4, and 6 minutes. Total polyphenol content, total anthocyanin concentration, and chromatic characteristics were analyzed by spectrophotometry, free anthocyanins were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, and wine aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography combined with solid-phase microextraction. The obtained results show that ultrasonic irradiation induces chemical changes in phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and aroma compounds concentration, and accelerates chemical reactions responsible for wine aging. The intensity of the mentioned chemical changes depends on the selected processing parameters and on the treated variety. Among three different parameters, the selection of the probe diameter was showed to be most significant factor influencing chemical composition, followed by the amplitude level and processing time. The smaller diameter probe size (12.7 mm, lowest amplitude (20%, and a shorter processing time (2 minutes showed a more favourable and lighter effect on the chemical composition of the treated red wines.

  11. Resveratrol and Red Wine Function as Antioxidants in the Nervous System without Cellular Proliferative Effects during Experimental Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Carina Duarte; Merlo, Suélen; Souto, André Arigony; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Gomez, Rosane; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress status and has been associated with neurological complications in diabetic individuals. This study compared the antioxidant properties of red wine or resveratrol in different brain areas of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, and investigated the effect of them on hippocampal cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated with red wine (4 mL/kg), resveratrol (20 mg/kg) or saline, by oral gavage, for 21 days. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress and the BrdU-positive cells were assessed to measure changes in cellular proliferation. In diabetic animals, resveratrol showed antioxidant property in the hippocampus and in the striatum, while red wine had an antioxidant effect only in the hippocampus. Neither red wine nor resveratrol reversed the lower hippocampal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. Daily doses of red wine or resveratrol have an antioxidant effect in rats depending on the brain area and the glycemic status. PMID:21307644

  12. Resveratrol and Red Wine Function as Antioxidants in the Nervous System without Cellular Proliferative Effects during Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Duarte Venturini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress status and has been associated with neurological complications in diabetic individuals. This study compared the antioxidant properties of red wine or resveratrol in different brain areas of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, and investigated the effect of them on hippocampal cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated with red wine (4 mL/kg, resveratrol (20 mg/kg or saline, by oral gavage, for 21 days. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress and the BrdU-positive cells were assessed to measure changes in cellular proliferation. In diabetic animals, resveratrol showed antioxidant property in the hippocampus and in the striatum, while red wine had an antioxidant effect only in the hippocampus. Neither red wine nor resveratrol reversed the lower hippocampal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. Daily doses of red wine or resveratrol have an antioxidant effect in rats depending on the brain area and the glycemic status.

  13. An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey

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    Halil Saraçoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y−1 for , 1405 ton y−1 for SO2, 82753 ton y−1 for CO2, ton y−1 for HC, and 165 ton y−1 for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings.

  14. An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçoğlu, Halil; Kılıç, Alper

    2013-01-01

    Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y−1 for NOx, 1405 ton y−1 for SO2, 82753 ton y−1 for CO2, ton y−1 for HC, and 165 ton y−1 for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings. PMID:24198720

  15. Precipitation of salivary proteins after the interaction with wine: the effect of ethanol, pH, fructose, and mannoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi

    2012-04-01

    Astringency is a complex sensation mainly caused by the precipitation of salivary proteins with polyphenols. In wine it can be enhanced or reduced depending on the composition of the medium. In order to investigate the effect of ethanol, tartaric acid, fructose, and commercial mannoproteins (MPs) addition on the precipitation of salivary proteins, the saliva precipitation index (SPI) was determined by means of the sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human saliva after the reaction with Merlot wines and model solutions. Gelatin index, ethanol index, and Folin-Ciocalteu index were also determined. As resulted by Pearson's correlation, data on SPI were well correlated with the sensory analysis performed on the same samples. In a second experiment, increasing the ethanol (11%-13%-17%), MPs (0-2-8 g/L), fructose (0-2-6 g/L) level, and pH values (2.9-3.0-3.6), a decrease in the precipitation of salivary proteins was observed. A difference in the SPI between model solution and red wine stated that an influence of wine matrix on the precipitation of salivary proteins occurred. Results provide interesting suggestions for enologists, which could modulate the astringency of red wine by: (i) leaving some residual reducing sugars (such as fructose) in red wine during winemaking of grapes rich in tannins; (ii) avoiding the lowering of pH; (iii) adding commercial mannoproteins or promoting a "sur lie" aging; and (iv) harvesting grapes at high technological maturity in order to obtain wines with a satisfactory alcoholic content when possible. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-01-01

    Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to deter...

  17. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  18. 532 nm KTP激光治疗鲜红斑痣的自身对照研究%Efficacy and safety of 532 nm KTP laser in the treatment of port-wine stains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨千里; 郑文渊; 卢忠

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and adverse reactions of 532 nm KTP laser and 595 nm pulsed dye laser in the treatment of port wine stain. Methods:The lesions of 18 patients were divided into two areas. One area was treated with 532 nm KTP laser and another area was treated with 595 nm pulsed dye la ̄ser, once every 2~3 months for 2~4 times. The safety and efficacy were evaluated after the treatment and in 2-3 months after the treatment. Results:There was no significant difference in the cure rate between 532 nm KTP laser and 595 nm pulsed dye laser. Some patients who were resistant to pulsed dye laser treatment were also sensitive to the treatment with 532 nm KTP laser. There were less pain and less purpura in the group of 532 nm KTP laser. Only one patient in each group developed hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: 532 nm KTP laser has similar efficacy to 595 nm pulsed dye laser and relatively less adverse reactions. It can be used as an alternative treatment of port wine stain.%目的::比较532 nm KTP激光与脉冲染料激光( PDL)对鲜红斑痣的疗效及安全性。方法:将18例鲜红斑痣患者的自身皮损随机分成KTP激光治疗区及PDL治疗区,分别予以532 nm KTP激光及595 nm PDL治疗,每2~3个月治疗一次,共2~4次。每次治疗前、后即刻及治疗后2~3个月对患者激光治疗后的皮损进行疗效及安全性评价。结果:532 nm KTP激光治疗组及595 nm PDL治疗组治疗后疗效均无显著差异。在一些既往曾接受PDL治疗疗效不佳的患者,经532 nm KTP 激光治疗后,皮损取得一定改善。532 nm KTP激光治疗组在治疗时疼痛程度及治疗后紫癜程度均显著低于595 nmPDL治疗组。两组均有1例色素沉着发生。结论:532 nm KTP激光治疗鲜红斑痣的疗效较好,不良反应少,安全性好,可以作为鲜红斑痣治疗的另一方案。

  19. Wine and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenfelter, Orley; Storchmann, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the extensive literature on the impact of weather and climate on grapes and wine with the goal of describing how climate change is likely to affect their production. We start by discussing the physical impact of weather on vine phenology, berry composition and yields, and then survey the economic literature measuring the effects of temperature on wine quality, prices, costs and profits and how climate change will affect these. We also describe what ha...

  20. A central role of eNOS in the protective effect of wine against metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Federico; Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Urquiaga, Inés

    2006-01-01

    The positive health effects derived from moderate wine consumption are pleiotropic. They appear as improvements in cardiovascular risk factors such as plasma lipids, haemostatic mechanisms, endothelial function and antioxidant defences. The active principles would be ethanol and mainly polyphenols. Results from our and other laboratories support the unifying hypothesis that the improvements in risk factors after red wine consumption are mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Many genes are involved, but the participation of eNOS would be a constant feature. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The National Cholesterol Education Programmmes Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III) clinical definition of the metabolic syndrome requires the presence of at least three risk factors, from among abdominal obesity, high plasma triacylglycerols, low plasma HDL, high blood pressure and high fasting plasma glucose. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metabolic syndrome are not known. Since metabolic syndrome apparently affects 10-30% of the population in the world, research on its pathogenesis and control is needed. The recent finding that eNOS knockout mice present a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors comparable to those of the metabolic syndrome suggests that defects in eNOS function may cause human metabolic syndrome. These mice are hypertensive, insulin resistant and dyslipidemic. Further support for a pathogenic role of eNOS comes from the finding in humans that eNOS polymorphisms associate with insulin resistance and diabetes, with hypertension, with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and with albuminuria. So, the data sustain the hypothesis that eNOS enhancement should reduce metabolic syndrome incidence and its consequences. Therefore red wine, since it enhances eNOS function, should be considered as a potential tool for the control of metabolic

  1. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García-Estévez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS. Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L* values and higher chroma (C*ab values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  2. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Puente, Víctor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-11-23

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L*) values and higher chroma (C* ab ) values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  3. Effect of Winemaking on the Composition of Red Wine as a Source of Polyphenols for Anti-Infective Biomaterials

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    Arianna Di Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials releasing bactericides have currently become tools for thwarting medical device-associated infections. The ideal anti-infective biomaterial must counteract infection while safeguarding eukaryotic cell integrity. Red wine is a widely consumed beverage to which many biological properties are ascribed, including protective effects against oral infections and related bone (osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, periprosthetic joint infections and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, fifteen red wine samples derived from grapes native to the Oltrepò Pavese region (Italy, obtained from the winemaking processes of “Bonarda dell’Oltrepò Pavese” red wine, were analyzed alongside three samples obtained from marc pressing. Total polyphenol and monomeric anthocyanin contents were determined and metabolite profiling was conducted by means of a chromatographic analysis. Antibacterial activity of wine samples was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, responsible for dental caries, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pyogenes, two oral bacterial pathogens. Results highlighted the winemaking stages in which samples exhibit the highest content of polyphenols and the greatest antibacterial activity. Considering the global need for new weapons against bacterial infections and alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as well as the favorable bioactivities of polyphenols, results point to red wine as a source of antibacterial substances for developing new anti-infective biomaterials and coatings for biomedical devices.

  4. Stakeholders' Perception on Teachers' Assessment Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogidi, Reuben C.; Udechukwu, Jonathan O.

    2017-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the perception of stakeholders on teachers' assessment effectiveness in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State. Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted survey research design. The sample of the study consisted of 20 principles, 30 vice…

  5. Moderate consumption of beer, red wine and spirits has counteracting effects on plasma antioxidants in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; van den Berg, R; van den Berg, H; Schaafsma, G; Hendriks, H F

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the in vivo effects of moderate consumption of red wine, beer and spirits on antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity. Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Twelve apparently healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men were included; 11 of them completed the study. Each subject consumed four glasses of red wine, beer, spirits and water (negative control) with evening dinner during four successive periods of 3 weeks, daily at the Institute. The total diet was supplied to the subjects and had essential the same composition during these 12 weeks. Neither the enzyme activities of serum glutathion peroxidase, erythrocyte glutathion reductase and superoxide dismutase nor the plasma concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxantin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and alpha-carotene were affected. Plasma beta-carotene concentrations were decreased after 3 weeks' consumption of red wine, beer and spirits (40 g alcohol/day) as compared to consumption of water, by 15% (P=0.0005), 11% (P=0.010) and 13% (P=0.003), respectively. Also, plasma ascorbic acid was decreased after beer (15%, P=0.004) and spirits (12%, P=0.030), but not after wine consumption. Serum uric acid concentrations were increased after consumption of beer (15%, Pspirits (8%, P=0.008) and red wine (9%, P=0.003). The overall serum antioxidant capacity, assessed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), was similar for all treatments. Moderate consumption of red wine, beer and spirits has counteracting effects on plasma antioxidant components, resulting in no significant effect on overall antioxidant status. The effects on antioxidant parameters are largely independent of the type of alcoholic beverage, and probably irrelevant to chronic disease risk. Dutch Foundation for Alcohol Research (SAR).

  6. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2013-11-27

    The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.

  7. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of supplementation with red wine pomace in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Croft, Kevin D; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-07-19

    Hypertension is associated with enhanced vascular oxidative stress and impaired endothelial function, which is related to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide bioavailability. Short-term supplementation with a polyphenol-rich powdered red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS) was investigated for its effects on blood pressure and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative status in a model of essential hypertension. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (12-week-old, 5 rats per group) were administered RWPS (300 mg kg -1 day -1 ; equivalent to 7.32 mg gallic acid per kg per day) or vehicle by gavage. In SHRs, 4-week RWPS supplementation progressively decreased blood pressure, reaching 11.5% reduction at the end of the study (p < 0.001). RWPS consumption also increased the ferric reducing ability of plasma and attenuated the oxidation of plasma lipids and proteins, as evidenced by F 2 -isoprostanes, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl groups as oxidative stress biomarkers. Moreover, nitric oxide production (indirectly measured) was 1.5-fold higher in SHRs + RWPS than that in SHRs (p < 0.05). These beneficial effects were partly attributed to the ability of RWPS-derived bioactive compounds to modulate aortic gene expression, with eNOS, SOD2 and HO-1 over-expression, ACE down-regulation, and no changes in NOX4. In conclusion, this study suggests the potential of red wine pomace-derived seasonings to help in the management of hypertension.

  8. Location effects on the polyphenolic and polysaccharidic profiles and colour of Carignan grape variety wines from the Chilean Maule region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Heredia, Francisco J; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on a study of chemical characterization and colour parameters of cv. Carignan red wines from six locations and two production years of the Chilean Maule valley. The chemical study was performed on polyphenolic composition (benzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and anthocyanins) and several fractions of proanthocyanidins and polysaccharides. Results revealed that although significantly (p < 0.05) different content of anthocyanins were observed according to the production year, it could be possible to establish fingerprints of the different locations of the Maule valley wines. Thus, wines from zones closer to the Andes Mountains had higher content of procyanidin B3 (Caliboro), polysaccharides and cis-resveratrol-glucoside (Loncomilla and Melozal), whereas the proximity to the Pacific Ocean provoked a unifying effect in chemical and colorimetric terms (Cauquenes, Sauzal and Huerta del Maule). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim, TTB...

  10. Effect of SO2 concentration on polyphenol development during red wine micro-oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianxiong; Dykes, Stuart I; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2007-07-25

    A Merlot wine in 15 L research tanks was subjected to micro-oxygenation at 10 mL O2 per liter of wine per month over a 16 week period with additions of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L SO2. A large decrease in monomeric anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols was seen in wines with a lower concentration of SO2, coupled with an increase in nonbleachable pigments; an increase in tannin, measured using precipitation with methyl cellulose; and a greater size and red coloration of a proanthocyanidin extract obtained using Sephadex LH-20. These changes were largely suppressed in wines initially treated with 200 mg/L SO2 and occurred more slowly in wines stored in bottles in the absence of O2. The concentration of SO2 is shown to regulate the polyphenol chemistry involved in the formation of polymeric pigments and changes in tannin structure affecting wine astringency.

  11. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  12. An Integrated View of the Effects of Wine Polyphenols and Their Relevant Metabolites on Gut and Host Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cueva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, polyphenols, and flavonoids in particular, have attracted the interest of researchers, as they have been associated with the health-promoting effects derived from diets rich in vegetables and fruits, including moderate wine consumption. Recent scientific evidence suggests that wine polyphenols exert their effects through interactions with the gut microbiota, as they seem to modulate microbiota and, at the same time, are metabolized by intestinal bacteria into specific bioavailable metabolites. Microbial metabolites are better absorbed than their precursors and may be responsible for positive health activities in the digestive system (local effects and, after being absorbed, in tissues and organs (systemic effects. Differences in gut microbiota composition and functionality among individuals can affect polyphenol activity and, therefore, their health effects. The aim of this review is to integrate the understanding of the metabolism and mechanisms of action of wine polyphenols at both local and systemic levels, underlining their impact on the gut microbiome and the inter-individual variability associated with polyphenols’ metabolism and further physiological effects. The advent of promising dietary approaches linked to wine polyphenols beyond the gut microbiota community and metabolism are also discussed.

  13. The effect of the fungicide captan on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and wine fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scariot Fernando J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungicides, particularly those used during grape maturation, as captan, can affect the natural yeast population of grapes, and can reach grape must affecting wine fermentation. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of captan on the viability and fermentative behavior of S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae (BY4741 on exponential phase was treated with captan (0 to 40 μM for different periods, and their cell viability analyzed. Cell membrane integrity, thiols concentration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was determined. The fermentation experiments were conducted in synthetic must using wine yeast strain Y904. The results showed that under aerobic conditions, 20 μM of captan reduce 90% of yeast viability in 6 hours. Captan treated cells exhibited alteration of membrane integrity, reduction of thiol compounds and increase in intracellular ROS concentration, suggesting a necrotic and pro-oxidant activity of the fungicide. Fermentative experiments showed that concentrations above 2.5 μM captan completely inhibited fermentation, while a dose dependent fermentation delay associated with the reduction of yeast viability was detected in sub-inhibitory concentrations. Petit mutants increase was also observed. In conclusion, the captan induces yeast necrotic cell death on both aerobic and anaerobic conditions causing fermentation delay and/or sucking fermentations.

  14. Reduction in Acidity by Chemical and Microbiological Methods and Their Effect on Moslavac Wine Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Herjavec, Stanka; Majdak, Ana; Tupajić, Pavica; Redžepović, Sulejman; Orlić, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition and sensory properties caused by chemical and microbiological methods of deacidification in Moslavac (syn. Furmint) wines were investigated. Alcoholic fermentation of Moslavac musts was carried out with two different strains of the yeasts Saccharomyces paradoxus. There were no marked differences in chemical composition among the wines. Compared to the control microbiological deacidification of wines by Oenococcus oeni resulted in a complete decomposition of mal...

  15. Portuguese quality wine and the region-of-origin effect: consumers' and retailers' perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    José Cadima Ribeiro; José de Freitas Santos

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relative importance of region of origin associated with extrinsic (price, brand, promotion) and intrinsic (grape, type of wine, colour, age, special references) cues in the decisions of final consumers and small retailers to buy Portuguese quality wine. In order to attain this goal we conducted a survey through face-to-face interviews in the Minho region. The results show that the dominant factor of influence in the acquisition of wine is the region of origin, both...

  16. Effect of biofilm formation by Oenococcus oeni on malolactic fermentation and the release of aromatic compounds in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eBastard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The winemaking process involves the alcoholic fermentation of must, often followed by malolactic fermentation. The latter, mainly carried out by the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni, is used to improve wine quality when acidity reduction is required. Moreover, it prevents microbial spoilage and improves the wine’s organoleptic profile. Prior observations showed that O. oeni is able to resist several months in harsh wine conditions when adhered on oak barrels. Since biofilm is a prevailing microbial lifestyle in natural environments, the capacity of O. oeni to form biofilms was investigated on winemaking material such as stainless steel and oak chips. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed that O. oeni was able to adhere to these surfaces and form spatially organized microcolonies embedded in extracellular substances. To assess the competitive advantage of this mode of life in wine, the properties of biofilm and planktonic cells were compared after inoculation in a fermented must (pH 3.5 or 3.2 and 12% ethanol The results indicated that the biofilm culture of O. oeni conferred (i increased tolerance to wine stress, and (ii functional performance with effective malolactic activities. Relative gene expression focusing on stress genes and genes involved in EPS synthesis was investigated in a mature biofilm and emphasized the role of the matrix in increased biofilm resistance.As oak is commonly used in wine aging, we focused on the O. oeni biofilm on this material and its contribution to the development of wine color and the release of aromatic compounds. Analytical chromatography was used to target the main oak aging compounds such as vanillin, gaiacol, eugenol, whisky-lactones and furfural. The results reveal that O. oeni biofilm developed on oak can modulate the wood-wine transfer of volatile aromatic compounds during malolactic fermentation and aging by decreasing furfural, gaiacol and eugenol in

  17. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers

  18. Effects of resveratrol, an important component of red wine, on intestinal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoying Zhang1, Jan Anderson1, Radhey S Kaushik2,3, Chandradhar Dwivedi11Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences; 2Department of Veterinary Sciences; 3Department of Biology/Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USAAbstract: Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes and an important component of red wine, has been shown to inhibit cyclooxygenase and prevent various cancers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary grape extract, a source of resveratrol on intestinal cancer development in rats and to determine effects of resveratrol on cell growth in human colonic adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, thus elucidating possible mechanisms of action of resveratrol. Results showed that dietary grape extract (5%, about 7 μg resveratrol consumed daily significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of tumors in small intestine in rats and resveratrol significantly inhibited cell viability and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells.Keywords: resveratrol, grapes, colonic adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 cells

  19. Using the Overall Line Effectiveness: A Case Study in the Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Flamia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies seek to continuously improve their processes in order to provide the market with competitive products. In this scenario, manufacturing plays a key role to achieve the results, and so the need arises to establish indicators to know the actual efficiency of the production process and foster this process of continuous improvement. Based on this premise, the aim of this paper is to use an analog indicator for Overall Equipment Effectiveness, the Overall Line Effectiveness, whose structure has been modified from the original indicator to identify losses not considered by the primitive indicator. The case study was conducted in a bottling line of a wine industry, and was able to show the real process efficiency and identify opportunities for improvements in this process. Research limitations and future work opportunities were highlighted.

  20. Effects of bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) fungal diseases on wine aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects. Both infections revealed aromatic differences induced by these fungi. The sensory changes were not associated with one specific compound only, but were due to quantitative variations of diverse substances. Bunch rot predominantly induced an increase in the intensities of peach-like/fruity, floral and liquor-like/toasty aroma notes. These effects were found to be related to variations in aroma substance composition as monitored via AEDA, mainly an increase in the FD factors of lactones and a general moderate increase of esters and alcohols. On the other hand, powdery mildew decreased the vanilla-like character of the wine while the remaining sensory attributes were rather unaffected. Correspondingly, FD factors of the main aroma constituents were either the same or only slightly modified by this disease. Moreover, bunch rot influenced the aroma profiles of the three varieties studied to a different degree. In hedonic evaluation, bunch rot-affected samples were rated as being more pleasant in comparison to their healthy controls in all three varieties while the powdery mildew-affected sample was rated as being less pleasant than its healthy control.

  1. Mycotoxins in grapes and wine in Europe: Occurence, factors affecting the occurence and related toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission has established maximum levels for ochratoxin A in wine and grape products, using occurrence data up to 2001 and toxicity data up to 2006. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins in grapes and wine produced in Europe in the period

  2. Fining of red wines: effects on their analytical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asimenia Karamanidou

    2011-03-01

    Significance and impact of the study: The outcomes of such study might be of practical interest to winemakers since they could optimize red wine production technology by selecting the appropriate fining agent according to the specific phenolic profiles of the produced wines and thus improve their quality.

  3. Effects of Information and Country of Origin On Chinese Consumer Preferences for Wine: An Experimental Approach in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hainan; McCluskey, Jill J.

    2010-01-01

    Wine is a product whose value largely depends on the reputation associated with its region of production. China is a newcomer and latecomer to wine production and consumption. Wine consumption, especially imported wine, rarely exists outside of major urban areas. Therefore, understanding the Chinese local markets and consumer preference for wine products is important for foreign wine producers. WTP (Willingness-to-Pay), in economics, is the maximum amount a person would be willing to pay for ...

  4. Effect of commercial mannoprotein addition on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2008-10-08

    Commercially available mannoprotein preparations were tested in Tempranillo winemaking to determine their influence on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition. No effect was found in the content of grape arabinogalactans, homogalacturonans, and type II rhamnogalacturonans. In contrast, mannoprotein-treated samples showed considerably higher values of high-molecular-weight mannoproteins (bMP) than controls from the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, although these differences diminished as vinification progressed. The bMP decrease observed in the mannoprotein-treated samples coincided with a substantial reduction in their proanthocyanidin content and wine stable color, suggesting a precipitation of the coaggregates mannoprotein-tannin and mannoprotein-pigment. Contrary to what is widely described, these results revealed that at the studied conditions, mannoproteins did not act as stabilizing colloids. Mannoprotein addition did not modify the content and composition of either monomeric anthocyanins or other monomeric phenolics, and it did not affect monomeric anthocyanin color.

  5. Flow effects due to valve and piston motion in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow regime identification depending on the valve lift during the exhaust stroke. • Analysis of the valve motion effect onto the flow development in the exhaust port. • Physical interpretation of commonly used discharge and flow coefficient formulations. • Illustration of flow effects in junction regions with pulsatile flow. - Abstract: Performance optimization regarding e.g. exhaust valve strategies in an internal combustion engine is often performed based on one-dimensional simulation investigation. Commonly, a discharge coefficient is used to describe the flow behavior in complex geometries, such as the exhaust port. This discharge coefficient for an exhaust port is obtained by laboratory experiments at fixed valve lifts, room temperatures, and low total pressure drops. The present study investigates the consequences of the valve and piston motion onto the energy losses and the discharge coefficient. Therefore, Large Eddy Simulations are performed in a realistic internal combustion geometry using three different modeling strategies, i.e. fixed valve lift and fixed piston, moving piston and fixed valve lift, and moving piston and moving valve, to estimate the energy losses. The differences in the flow field development with the different modeling approaches is delineated and the dynamic effects onto the primary quantities, e.g. discharge coefficient, are quantified. Considering the motion of piston and valves leads to negative total pressure losses during the exhaust cycle, which cannot be observed at fixed valve lifts. Additionally, the induced flow structures develop differently when valve motion is taken into consideration, which leads to a significant disparity of mass flow rates evolving through the two individual valve ports. However, accounting for piston motion and limited valve motion, leads to a minor discharge coefficient alteration of about one to two percent

  6. [Eulogy of wine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, I O

    1997-12-20

    In the literature the beneficial effects on health of drinking alcoholic beverages, especially red wine, is becoming increasingly more evident. We report an objective analysis of the advantages and the dangers of such a tendency. It appears that the daily consumption of red wine at moderate doses (200-400 ml a day) has real prophylactic effects. These are particularly marked in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but also for a possible cancer chemopreventive activity, in the prevention of type II diabetes, of ischemic stroke, of osteoporosis in older women, and of Alzheimer's disease. But, inasmuch as the consumption of alcoholic beverages always involves a potential danger (organic diseases, risk of dependence, alcoholism), from a medical point of view eulogy to wine is ethically indefensible. Similar effects may be obtained from a diet rich in fruits and fresh vegetables.

  7. EFFECT OF POWER SUPPLY AND DUTY CONTROL IN CRANKCASE FLOW (CRANKCASE PRESSURE PORT OF ECV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. IQBAL MAHMUD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic control valve (ECV operated by solenoid in the external variable compressor with the swash plate type is the rising phenomenon. ECV controls the air conditioning compressor for automobile on the basis of the input signal of the pulse width modulation (PWM that supplied from the external controller. PWM technique is used to encode the information for transmission; its main use is to allow the control of the power to be supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads. The mechanism changes the swash plate angle inside the compressor by increasing or reducing the pressure of swash plate chamber by use of the functions of different pressure port within the ECV. Increasing and reducing the swash plate angle finally depends on the solenoid force acting on the rate of supply of current. This research paper investigates the effect of power supply and duty control during the crankcase flowing at Pc pressure port of ECV.

  8. Principal Ports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Principal Ports are defined by port limits or US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects, these exclude non-USACE projects not authorized for publication. The...

  9. Effectiveness of a Barge-Based Ballast Water Treatment System for Multi-Terminal Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Maglić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of the discrete event simulation of the ballast water management in a multi-terminal port. The simulation includes ship’s manoeuvring, cargo and ballast operations and a barge-based ballast water treatment system operating within all terminal areas. The barge-based ballast water treatment system is used by ships unable to use their own equipment, not equipped with an appropriate ballast treatment system or non-compliant with the Ballast Water Management (BWM Convention 2004 for whatever reason. The main goal is to estimate the productivity and cost effectiveness of such systems as an option to support ships not able to comply with the BWM Convention, once it enters into force. The model was built and tested in Arena simulation software. Process parameters are based on real traffic data for the port of Rijeka. The results indicate that barge-based ballast treatment facility will be heavily underutilized, and that such systems are cost-effective only in ports where large volumes of ballast water need to be delivered to shore treatment systems.

  10. [Beer, wine, spirits and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M N; Sørensen, T I; Johansen, D; Becker, U; Gottschau, A; Schnohr, P; Hein, H O; Jensen, G

    2001-05-23

    A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.

  11. Balancing the positives and negatives: the challenge of socio-economic effects assessment of the Port Hope area initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarczyk, T.L.; Flynn, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) is a community-based program directed at the development and implementation of a safe, long-term management solution for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) that has existed in two communities in the Port Hope area for some seven decades. As part of the environmental assessment of the two projects (i.e., the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project) being undertaken as part of the PHAI, two separate socio-economic effects assessments were completed. The assessments were designed to be broad ranging assessments of the effects of the Projects on people and their communities. This paper discusses how the assessments identified and assessed the positive and negative effects of the two Projects, what those effects were, and draws conclusions on whether the positives outweigh the negatives. (author)

  12. Wine polyphenols: potential agents in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  13. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols. PMID:22829964

  14. Effect of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and polyphenolic composition and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with different capabilities of polysaccharide liberation during alcoholic fermentation in addition to subsequent aging on lees with or without oak wood chips as well as aging with commercial inactive dry yeast on the physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. The HPS (high levels of polysaccharides) yeast strain released higher amounts of polysaccharides (429 g L(-1)) than EC1118 (390 g L(-1)) during alcoholic fermentation, but the concentration equalized during the aging period (424 and 417 g L(-1) respectively). All aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration, but the increase was dependent on the technique applied. A higher liberation of polysaccharides reduced the concentration of most of the phenolic families analyzed. Moreover, no clear effect of the different aging techniques used in this study on color stabilization was found. The HPS wines were better valued than the EC1118 wines by the panel of tasters after alcoholic fermentation. In general, the HPS wines showed better physicochemical and sensorial characteristics than the EC1118 wines. According to the results obtained during the aging period, all aging techniques contributed to improve wine quality, but it was difficult to establish the technique that allowed the best wine to be obtained, because it depended on the aging technique used and the period of aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of a grapevine shoot waste extract on red wine aromatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, María J; Raposo, Rafaela; Puertas, Belén; Cuevas, Francisco J; Chinnici, Fabio; Moreno-Rojas, José M; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2018-04-26

    The use of a grapevine shoot extract (VIN) is being studied as an alternative to sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). VIN stabilizes anthocyanins and preserves polyphenolic compounds, and thus improves chromatic wine properties. In the current work, selected aroma compounds (esters, C13-norisoprenoids, oxidation and vine shoot related compounds), sensory analysis and the olfactometric profile were determined in the wines treated with VIN at two concentrations. Treatment with VIN hardly modified the content of esters and oxidation-related compounds in the wines. However, the high β-damascenone and isoeugenol content, and the increase in astringency at tasting in VIN wines were noteworthy, as were some odorant zones. All above were established as VIN markers after the chemometric data analysis. These date revealed that only the lowest dose tested may be recommended as a suitable alternative to SO 2 . Although some aromatic properties of these wines may change, these changes are not considered to affect negatively to the quality of the wines. These results are useful for wineries, which face to uncover aroma-related processes in the challenge of producing SO 2 free wines without detriment of its sensory properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. [Subcutaneous implantation type central venous port management in patients with malignant tumors effect of different antiseptic agents on central venous port-related infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junya; Kumagai, Masumi; Kato, Kenichi; Akahane, Akio; Suzuki, Michiko; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Sone, Miyuki; Kudo, Kenzo

    2014-08-01

    Subcutaneous implantation type central venous ports(CV ports)are used in chemotherapy. Here, we prospectively examined the frequency of CV port-related infections when the disinfectant was changed from 10% povidone iodine to 1% chlorhexidine ethanol or 70% ethanol. The subjects were patients with malignant tumors, who had newly been implanted with CV ports. We examined CV port-related infections at 1 week after CV port implantation and every 2 weeks thereafter, following sterilization upon insertion of a Huber needle to the CV port. CV port evulsion due to CV port-related infection was noted in 3 patients(4.8%)in whom 15%chlorhexidine ethanol was used(n=62)and in 2 patients(3.3%)in whom 70% ethanol was used(n=60). Infection rates per 1,000 days of CV port use were 1.48% and 1.01%, respectively. Thus, the outcomes of sterilization using 1% chlorhexidine ethanol and 70% ethanol did not differ significantly from those on using 10% povidone iodine for sterilization, based on preliminary results at our institution(3 of 59 patients[5.1%]had port evulsion due to CV port-related infection and the infection rate per 1,000 days of CV port use was 1.47%, Akahane et al, 2012). Chlorhexidine ethanol and ethanol are very convenient to use because they dry quickly and do not need discoloration. Accordingly, chlorhexidine ethanol and ethanol might be useful in CV port management.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and sensory evaluation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.L.; Spayed, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon wines received gamma irradiation doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 KGy and were stored at 21°C for up to 18 months. As radiation dose and storage time increased, total anthocyanin concentration decreased, while color density, hue and color age increased. Acetaldehyde concentration increased with increasing radiation dose and decreased as storage time increased. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference in color or astringency, but off-flavors were detected in wines given a 2.4 KGy dose. Use of gamma irradiation to rapid age Cabernet Sauvignon wines did not appear to be feasible

  18. The health benefits of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J B; Walzem, R L

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from numerous disparate populations reveal that individuals with the habit of daily moderate wine consumption enjoy significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality when compared with individuals who abstain or who drink alcohol to excess. Researchers are working to explain this observation in molecular and nutritional terms. Moderate ethanol intake from any type of beverage improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether wine, particularly red wine with its abundant content of phenolic acids and polyphenols, confers additional health benefits. Discovering the nutritional properties of wine is a challenging task, which requires that the biological actions and bioavailability of the >200 individual phenolic compounds be documented and interpreted within the societal factors that stratify wine consumption and the myriad effects of alcohol alone. Further challenge arises because the health benefits of wine address the prevention of slowly developing diseases for which validated biomarkers are rare. Thus, although the benefits of the polyphenols from fruits and vegetables are increasingly accepted, consensus on wine is developing more slowly. Scientific research has demonstrated that the molecules present in grapes and in wine alter cellular metabolism and signaling, which is consistent mechanistically with reducing arterial disease. Future research must address specific mechanisms both of alcohol and of polyphenolic action and develop biomarkers of their role in disease prevention in individuals.

  19. Polyphenolic compounds of red wine: relationship with the antioxidant properties and effects on the metabolic syndrome induced in high-fructose fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Majo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists have observed that a diet rich in polyphenolic compounds may provide a positive effects due to their antioxidant properties. Red wine is an excellent source of polyphenolic compounds. Objective of this work is a review of the polyphenolic compounds of red wine. The first study evaluates the antioxidant properties of Sicilian red wines in relationship with their polyphenolic composition; the second investigates the corrective offects of some phenolic molecules on the metabolic syndrome induced in high-fructose fed rats.

  20. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans -caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans -caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3- O -glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  1. Potential wine ageing during transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, wineries have to satisfy the demand of consumers who wish to drink high quality wines from countries all over the world. To fulfill this request wines have to be transported, crossing thereby great distances from the place of production to the consumer country. At the Institute of Enology of Hochschule Geisenheim University examinations with White-, Rosé- and Red-Wines of different origins which had been transported over longer distances within Europe (Portugal, France, Italy to Germany by trucks were carried out. Shipping of wines was simulated in a climatized cabinet to analyze the influence on wine quality during this way and conditions of transportation. Time and temperature profiles were based on real transport situtations which were recorded during shipping from Germany to Japan using data loggers. White, Rosé and Red wines were transported during 6 to 8 weeks and then were analytically and sensorically compared to those which were stored at a constant temperature of 15 ∘C. Besides the effect of temperature, the movements and vibrations encountered by the wines were also examined. Analytically wines were analyzed for general analytical parameters with Fourier-Transformation-Infrared-Spectroscopie (FTIR, Colour differences (Spectralphotometrie and free and total sulfuric acid with Flow-Injection-Analysis (FIA. Sensory examinations with a trained panel were performed in difference tests in form of rankings and triangular tests. Summarizing the results from the different tests it could be found that transportation had an influence on the potential ageing of wines depending on the wine matrix. Especially high and varying temperatures during transportations over a longer distance and time had negative influences on wine quality. Also the movement of wine at higher temperatures had showed a negative effect whereas transport at cool temperatures even below 0 ∘C did not influence wine characteristics. Sophisticated

  2. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cane Koteski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wine (Latin: vinum is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained from other types of fruit. These wines are referred to as fruit wines, or wear a name by which the fruit is used for obtaining them (for example apple wine. Wine tourism is a type of tourism that involves visiting wineries, tasting, consumption and purchase of wine, usually directly from the manufacturer. This type of tourism includes visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants famous for special local wines, as well as organized wine tours, visits to wine festivals and other special events. Many wine regions around the world to promote this tourism because it affects very positively to the local economy. In these regions, viticulture and hospitality organizations have spent significant resources over the years for the promotion of wine tourism. Wine tourism in my country is respected, but strong growth.

  3. THE EFFECT OF PARTIAL DEFOLIATION ON MONOTERPENE LEVELS OF GEWURZTRAMINER WINE (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Karoglan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that different viticultural practices have an important influence on the quality of grapes, must and wine. Aiming to examine impact of partial defoliation we were measured composition of the aromatic components in the wine of Gewurztraminer, winegrowing hills of Zagreb, subregion Prigorje-Bilogora. Partial defoliation, i.e. removing of 4 (D1 and 8 (D2 basal leaves, conducted manually at veraison and grapevines without defoliation (ND-non defoliated were used as control. Samples for analyses were taken after filtration, stabilization and bottling of wine. It was shown that the wine made from completely sun exposed grapes (D2, were the richest in the content of free volatile terpenes (FVT and potentially volatile terpenes (PVT respectively.

  4. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits, and beer on serum homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; Ubbink, J B; Sillanaukee, P; Nikkari, S; Hendriks, H F

    2000-04-29

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine.

  5. Effect of an excise tax increase on the demand for low alcohol wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    the per-capita alcohol consumption is 50% higher than the Australian average and likelihood of dying from alcohol is ten times the national rate. As a consequence, a comprehensive review of the Australian tax system has recommended wine to be taxed on a volumetric basis and that all alcoholic beverages...... be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. Even though Australia has somewhat unique circumstances, the quest for moderate alcohol consumption has become of global importance. Reducing or limiting the level of harm from alcohol consumption has been the focus of government intervention, national......Purpose: The study examines the demand for low and very low alcohol wine products under the current Australian volumetric alcohol system and under an increase of excise tax for wine under an alcohol tax equalisation. The penetration and market share of normal strength and low alcohol wine...

  6. Effect of certain clarification treatments on some components of red wine composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José García

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have worked on wine clarification pointing out the advantages that it has to obtain limpid and bright wines as the consumer requires nowadays. In this work, we study the influence of the clarification done with different doses on the main polyphenols, organic acids and poliols of the Monastrell red wines made by the system of continuous vinification in the Monovar cooperative cellar from Denomination of Origin Alicante (Spain. After fermentation and after decanting, the wine was clarified in 100 litres tanks. Five different clarifiers have been used with three different doses in each one. Two days after the treatment, the wines were filtered on the earth and were then submitted to -5° for one week to eliminate the bitartrate. They were filtered over plates when the treatment was finished. Finally, before bottling they were subjected to a sterile filtration.The results show that the clarification lowers the coloring intensity up to 27 p. cent. The higher the dose, the higher the decrease. As for the shade, we noticed that there is a slight increase in each clarificated wine. The tannin content decreases up to 20 p. cent for high and average doses of casein. The treatments used lower the content in anthocyans from 5 p. cent (for lower doses of casein to 19 p. cent (for higher doses of bentonite. As for the acids, the tartaric acid decreases with the quantity of clarifiers, the malic acid hardly changes with the treatment, the same happens with the lactic acid. For the citric acid, there is a small decrease with the clarification. The contents of glycerol decrease in all the wines, whatever clarifier is used. The contents in 2,3- butanediol of the wines hardly change with the claritication.

  7. Physico-chemical characterisation of Slovak wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lapčíková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was characterisation of selected varieties of still wines produced in Slovak Republic in vintage year 2013 and one 2012. There were tested ten samples of nine varieties of wines originated from Malokarpatská "Lesser Carpathian" and Južnoslovenská "Southern Slovakia" wine regions of Slovak Republic, Dornfelder, Frankovka modrá, Svätovarinecké, Zweigeltrebe, Müller Thurgau, Veltlínské zelené, Rizling rýnsky, Rizling vlašský and Sauvignon wines. There were studied selected physico-chemical properties of tested wines as a total contents of anthocyanins and polyphenols by means of spectrophotometry, titratable acidity, density and chromatic characteristics. The highest content of anthocyanins (TAC was found in red wine Frankovka modrá, 183 mg.L-1 and the lowest for sample rose wine St. Laurent 19 mg.L-1. The content of total phenolic compounds as a gallic acid was in range 2833 to 1961 mg.L-1 for red wines, 1016 and 1013 mg.L-1 for rose wines, 1085 to 549 mg.L-1for white wines.  Total acidy was average 6.3 ±0.3 g.L-1 only for Ryzling rýnský, 8.2 g.L-1 and Sauvignon rose 8.0 g.L-1 and was expressed as the amount of tartaric acid. Quality of wines can be expressed by colour intensity too. Was evaluated and compared intensity of colour in wines by CIE Lab method and the total differences between red, rose and white wine DE* was calculated. The most differences was found for Svätovarinecké a Frankovka modrá (2.5 - red wines ("clearly perceptible" and 4.9 for Veltlýnské zelené and Müller Thurgau - white wine ("moderating effect".

  8. Partial dealcoholization of red wine by nanofiltration and its effect on anthocyanin and resveratrol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banvolgyi, Szilvia; Savaş Bahçeci, K; Vatai, Gyula; Bekassy, Sandor; Bekassy-Molnar, Erika

    2016-12-01

    The present work studies the use of nanofiltration for the production of red wine concentrate with low alcohol content. Factorial design was applied to measure the influences of transmembrane pressure (10-20 bar) and temperature (20-40 ℃) on the retention of valuable components such as anthocyanins and resveratrol, and on the nanofiltration membrane performance. The highest retention of anthocyanin and resveratrol was achieved at low temperature (20 ℃), while the high transmembrane pressure (20 bar) was found to increase the permeate flux considerably. The experiments demonstrated that nanofiltration appears as a valid technique for the production of low alcohol content red wine concentrate. Reduction of volume by a factor of 4, leads to 2.5-3 times more anthocyanins and resveratrol in the wine concentrates. The final new wine products - obtained by using various forms of reconstitution of the concentrated wine - had low alcohol content (4-6 % by volume) and their sensory attributes were similar to those of the original wine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Effect of flash release treatment on phenolic extraction and wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Salmi, Cécile; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Bes, Magali; Cheynier, Véronique

    2006-06-14

    The flash release (FR) process, consisting of rapidly heating the grapes and then applying strong vacuum, has been proposed to increase the polyphenol content of red wines. Its impact on polyphenol extraction kinetics and on the polyphenol composition of red juice and wines was studied over two seasons on different grape varieties (Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan). The FR process allows fast extraction of all phenolic compounds (hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins) and can be used to produce polyphenol-enriched grape juices. However, the concentration of all polyphenols dramatically decreased throughout fermentation when pressing was achieved immediately after FR. The FR wines made with pomace maceration were also enriched in polyphenols compared to the corresponding control wines. Increasing the duration of high-temperature exposure in the FR treatment further increased extraction of phenolic compounds but also accelerated their conversion to derived species. The tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio was particularly low in the wine fermented in the liquid phase, higher after FR than in the control, and even higher after longer heating. FR resulted in an increased tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio and an increased conversion of anthocyanins to tannin-anthocyanin adducts showing the same color properties as anthocyanins. The tannin-to-anthocyanin ratio was particularly low in the wine fermented in the liquid phase that also contained larger amounts of orange sulfite bleaching-resistant pigments.

  10. Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Arneborg, Nils; Toldam-Andersen, Torben B; Petersen, Mikael A; Bredie, Wender Lp

    2017-08-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia viticola, Metschnikowia fructicola and Hanseniaspora uvarum) indigenously isolated in Denmark were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars, Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines. The different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, five acids, two ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulfur compound. The use of M. viticola in sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae resulted in richer berry and fruity flavours in wines. The sensory plot showed a more clear separation among wine samples by grape cultivars compared with yeast strains. Knowledge on the influence of indigenous non-Saccharomyces strains and grape cultivars on the flavour generation contributed to producing diverse wines in cool-climate wine regions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Kathryn J.; Liz Thach, MW; Olsen, Janeen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect...

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 macrophages of malvidin, a major red wine polyphenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Bognar

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation.These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  14. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cane Koteski; Zlatko Jakovlev; Dragana Soltirovska

    2016-01-01

    Wine (Latin: vinum) is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained ...

  15. Talking About Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Adrienne

    1975-01-01

    A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is given. Experiments involving typical wine drinkers show that there is little consensus in how the words are applied to wine. Communication tasks show that the sender and receiver of messages about wine perform little better than chance. (Author/RM)

  16. Organ-Protective Effects of Red Wine Extract, Resveratrol, in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from red wine, possesses potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, including the reduction of free radicals and proinflammatory mediators overproduction, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. A growing body of evidence indicates that resveratrol plays an important role in reducing organ damage following ischemia- and hemorrhage-induced reperfusion injury. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in decreasing the formation and reaction of reactive oxygen species and pro-nflammatory cytokines, as well as the mediation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, deacetylase sirtuin 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, hemeoxygenase-1, and estrogen receptor-related pathways. Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that involves multiple factors and pathways. The resveratrol is an effective reactive oxygen species scavenger that exhibits an antioxidative property. In this review, the organ-protective effects of resveratrol in oxidative stress-related reperfusion injury will be discussed.

  17. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Effects of a Chemically Defined Fraction of Syrah Red Wine on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Eugênia Abrantes de; Alves, Naiane Ferraz Bandeira; Monteiro, Matheus Morais de Oliveira; Cavalcanti, Clenia de Oliveira; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da; Silva, Telma Maria Guedes da; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Oliveira, Eduardo de Jesus

    2017-06-03

    A particularly phenolic-rich fraction extracted from red wine from the São Francisco valley (Northeastern Brazil) was chemically characterized and its hypotensive and antioxidant effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats were studied both in vitro and in vivo. The liquid-liquid pH dependent fractionation scheme afforded a fraction with high content of bioactive phenolics such as flavonols, flavonol glycosides, phenolic acids and anthocyanins, whose identities were confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis. Pretreatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with this wine fraction at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg by gavage. for 15 days was able to decrease mean arterial pressure and heart rate as well as decrease serum lipid peroxidation. The fraction at concentrations of 0.01-1000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated rat superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine and this effect was not attenuated by endothelium removal. Our results demonstrate it is possible for phenolic constituents of red wine that are orally bioavailable to exert in vivo hypotensive and antioxidant effects on intact endothelial function.

  18. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Effects of a Chemically Defined Fraction of Syrah Red Wine on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Abrantes de Figueiredo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A particularly phenolic-rich fraction extracted from red wine from the São Francisco valley (Northeastern Brazil was chemically characterized and its hypotensive and antioxidant effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats were studied both in vitro and in vivo. The liquid-liquid pH dependent fractionation scheme afforded a fraction with high content of bioactive phenolics such as flavonols, flavonol glycosides, phenolic acids and anthocyanins, whose identities were confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis. Pretreatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with this wine fraction at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg by gavage. for 15 days was able to decrease mean arterial pressure and heart rate as well as decrease serum lipid peroxidation. The fraction at concentrations of 0.01–1000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated rat superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine and this effect was not attenuated by endothelium removal. Our results demonstrate it is possible for phenolic constituents of red wine that are orally bioavailable to exert in vivo hypotensive and antioxidant effects on intact endothelial function.

  19. Investigation of the effect of gelatine, egg albumin and cross-flow microfiltration on the phenolic composition of Pinotage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholster, A; Carstens, L M; du Toit, W J

    2013-06-01

    The effect of fining and cross-flow microfiltration on the phenolic composition of red wine was investigated. Both gelatine (G) and egg albumin (EA) fining decreased the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of tannin significantly by 26.4% and 25.2%, respectively, compared to the control (C). Cross-flow microfiltration (CF) also decreased the mDP significantly by 25%. Thus, the fining agents and cross-flow microfiltration selectively removed the highly polymerised phenols. After 3.5 months of bottle ageing, differences between the different treatments and the control decreased. CF had the most significant effect on the flavan-3-ol and polymeric phenol (tannin) content of the wines compared to the control followed by G fining. CF and EA treatments significantly decreased the total pigment content compared to C. CF was also the only treatment that could be distinguished from the other treatments by sensory analysis. All treatments improved clarity of the wines with cross-flow microfiltration having the largest effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of gallic and protocatechuic acids on the metabolism of ethyl carbamate in Chinese yellow rice wine brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanyi; Fang, Ruosi; Chen, Qihe

    2017-10-15

    It was studied that gallic and protocatechuic acids played important roles in ethyl carbamate (EC) forming. Gallic and protocatechuic acids can reduce the arginine consumption through inhibiting the arginine deiminase enzyme. Therefore, they are generally added to regulate EC catabolism in the course of yellow rice wine leavening at the third day. In this work, gallic and protocatechuic acids made little influence on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Besides, the addition of 200mg/L gallic or protocatechuic acid could prevent the transformation from urea/citrulline to EC. Gallic acid showed better inhibiting effect that the content of EC could be reduced by 91.9% at most. Furthermore, the production of amino acids and volatile flavor compounds are not markedly affected by phenolic compounds. The discoveries reveal that EC can be reduced by supplying gallic acid or protocatechuic acid while yellow rice wine leavening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of wine processing and acute blood stasis on the serum pharmacochemistry of rhubarb: a possible explanation for processing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Fu, Jinfeng; Lv, Mengying; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Fengguo; Song, Rui; Zhang, Zunjian

    2014-09-01

    As a specific item mentioned in traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can fulfill different requirements of therapies. Crude and wine-processed rhubarbs are used as drastic and mild laxatives, respectively. In this study, a practical method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to screen and analyze multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites in the serum of both normal and acute blood stasis rats after oral administration of crude or wine-processed rhubarbs. A total of 16 compounds, mainly including phase II metabolites, were tentatively identified. Possible explanations for the processing-induced changes in pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines were first explored at serum pharmacochemistry level. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effects of fining on phenolic compounds and colour of red wine obtained with addition of increased amounts of grape solid phase in pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the effect of grape pomace enrichment in solid phase (stems and seeds on phenolic compounds and colour stability of obtained red wines, before and after use of different fining agents. Results have shown increase in total phenols and flavan-3-ols content after grape solid phase addition. On the other hand, decrease in anthocyanins content has generally been recorded in all wine samples except in wines obtained with addition of 40 g/l of seeds during maceration. Stems addition caused decrease in colour intensity while addition of seeds has increased this colour parameter. The use of four fining agents (albumin, gelatine, bentonite and PVPP has been investigated and compared, especially in terms of their influence on potential stabilization effect of grape solid phase on wine colour. Fined wines tended to have considerably lower anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol levels, especially in the case of gelatine and PVPP treatment (decrease up to 60 and 70%, respectively. In the case of chromatic parameters, used fining agents caused colour intensity decrease but it is important to emphasize that their values, after fining, are still as high as expected from red wine. This can be explained by the stabilization effect of increased flavan-3-ols content.

  3. Effect of postharvest dehydration on the composition of pinot noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge J; Cerpa-Calderón, Fiorella; Cohen, Seth D; Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael; Kennedy, James A

    2008-08-15

    This study was conducted in order to improve our understanding of how phenolics and aroma compounds change in wine grapes during postharvest dehydration. Pinot noir grapes grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon were harvested at 22.0 and 24.0°Brix. Grapes harvested at 22.0°Brix were divided into three equal lots with one lot immediately used for wine production, and the remaining two lots placed inside an air tunnel with an air speed of 1.0-1.8ms(-1), 38% relative humidity and a temperature of 22°C. The soluble solids content and weight loss were measured daily and wines were made from grapes when they reached 24.8 and 26.7°Brix. The soluble solids of grapes increased about 1°Brix per day; therefore, on the third and fourth day the berries reached the desired concentration; weight loss was 14 and 16%, respectively. Results from berry phenolic analysis indicated that per berry anthocyanin amount remained unchanged during dehydration. The composition of proanthocyanidins isolated from berries changed during dehydration. Volatile compounds in wines made from dehydrated grapes contained more terpenes and norisoprenoids (β-ionone, β-damascenone) when compared to wine made from the original fruit. Wines made from increasingly dehydrated grapes tended to resemble the composition and flavour profile of wines made from grapes left on the vine (i.e. with extended ripening). The results of this study suggest that postharvest flavour changes consistent with changes during fruit ripening can occur in grapes when harvested early and allowed to dehydrate under controlled conditions prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytosterols in grapes and wine, and effects of agrochemicals on their levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Antonietta; Vitalini, Sara; Burlini, Nedda; Bernasconi, Silvana; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-12-15

    To improve the knowledge on the chemical diversity and complexity of grapevine, we investigated the plant sterol content of berry and seed tissues at pre-véraison and véraison stages in 2009 and 2010. We also assessed the effects of benzothiadiazole and chitosan elicitors on content of sterols in grapes and their levels in the corresponding experimental wines. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant component in berry tissues, in both growth stages and years, with the highest amounts in the flesh and skin at pre-véraison and véraison, respectively. Stigmasterol and campesterol were present in lower concentrations in both phenological stages and vintages. During the transition from pre-véraison to véraison, phytosterols decreased in all tissues, in both years, apart from stigmasterol in seeds. In addition, the results showed that the plant activators were more effective than conventional fungicides in rising the levels of sterols, particularly β-sitosterol, both in grapes and in microvinificates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging effect on the pigment composition and color of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat wines. Contribution of the main pigment families to wine color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boido, Eduardo; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Carrau, Francisco; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julian C

    2006-09-06

    Red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tannat grapes are known to possess high contents of tannins and intense color, features that are responsible for the originality of these wines. This work aimed to study the evolution of the pigment composition and CIELAB color parameters as Tannat wines become older, as well as to establish the contribution to wine color of the main pigment families. Tannat wines produced in Uruguay from grapes of the same vineyard in six consecutive vintages (1998-2003) and Tannat grapes of the 2003 harvest were analyzed by means of HPLC-DAD-MS and UV-vis spectrometric techniques. The correlations between the different pigment families and the CIELAB parameters revealed the importance of the variations of the percentage, found in anthocyanins and flavanol-anthocyanin acetaldehyde-mediated condensation products (decrease) and pyranoanthocyanins and direct condensation products (increase), in the modification of the color from purple-red hues to more orange-red ones. The color suffered qualitative rather than quantitative changes, that is, the hue (h*ab) increased, whereas the chroma (C*ab) and lightness (L) did not show a defined trend with time.

  6. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  7. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  8. Effect of packaging material on enological parameters and volatile compounds of dry white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revi, M; Badeka, A; Kontakos, S; Kontominas, M G

    2014-01-01

    The enological parameters and volatile compounds of white wine packaged in dark coloured glass and two commercial bag-in-box (BIB) pouches (low density polyethylene - LDPE and ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA lined) were determined for a period of 6 months at 20 °C. Parameters monitored included: titratable acidity, volatile acidity, pH, total SO2, free SO2, colour, volatile compounds and sensory attributes. The BIB packaging materials affected the titratable acidity, total and free SO2 and colour of wine. A substantial portion of the wine aroma compounds was adsorbed by the plastic materials or lost to the environment through leakage of the valve fitment. Between the two plastics, the LDPE lined pouch showed a considerably higher aroma sorption as compared to EVA. Wine packaged in glass retained the largest portion of its aroma compounds. Sensory evaluation showed that white wine packaged in both plastics was of acceptable quality for 3 months vs. at least 6 months for that in glass bottles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine on DNA oxidative damage of rat colon mucosa in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, L; Testa, G; De Filippo, C; Cheynier, V; Clifford, M N; Dolara, P

    2000-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been reported to have a variety of biological actions, including anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we have evaluated the effect of an oral treatment with complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine and tea on DNA oxidative damage in the rat colon mucosa. Isolated colonocytes were prepared from the colon mucosa of rats treated for ten days with either wine complex polyphenols (57.2 mg/kg/d) or thearubigin (40 mg/kg/d) by oral gavage. Colonocyte oxidative DNA damage was analysed at the single cell level using a modification of the comet assay technique. The results show that wine complex polyphenols and tannins induce a significant decrease (-62% for pyrimidine and -57% for purine oxidation) in basal DNA oxidative damage in colon mucosal cells without affecting the basal level of single-strand breaks. On the other hand, tea polyphenols, namely a crude extract of thearubigin, did not affect either strand breaks or pyrimidine oxidation in colon mucosal cells. Our experiments are the first demonstration that dietary polyphenols can modulate in vivo oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents. These data support the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols might have both a protective and a therapeutic potential in oxidative damage-related pathologies.

  10. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The combined effects of storage temperature and packaging on the sensory, chemical, and physical properties of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Helene; Buffon, Peter A; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-04-03

    A Californian Cabernet Sauvignon was stored for 6 months at three different constant temperatures to study the combined effects of storage temperature and packaging configuration. Glass bottles with natural cork, synthetic cork, and screw cap closure, as well as two Bag-in-Box treatments, were used in the experiment. A trained sensory panel was able to detect significant changes in aroma, flavor, taste, mouthfeel, and color attributes among the samples, differences that were found also with various chemical and physical measurements (volatile profile, polyphenol pattern, enological parameters, color space). Additionally, two commonly used polyphenol assays were compared to each other in terms of their ability to detect the changes in the polyphenol profile. Generally, sample changes were more pronounced due to the different storage temperatures, with 30 sensory attributes differing significantly among the three different storage temperatures, while only 17 sensory attributes showed a significant packaging effect. With increasing storage temperature the packaging effect became more pronounced, resulting in the largest changes in the Bag-in-Box samples stored at the highest temperature of 40 °C. At the highest storage temperature, all wines showed oxidized characters, independent of the wine packaging configurations, but to a varying degree. Generally, wines that received highest oxygen amounts and storage temperatures were much lighter, less red, and more brown-yellow at the end of the 6-month storage period, compared to their counterparts stored at 10 °C. These changes in color and polyphenols, respectively, were also detected with the two spectrophotometric assays. With increasing storage temperature both assays measured reduced concentrations in total phenols and total anthocyanins, while total tannins, degree of ionized anthocyanins, and color density increased. Various volatile compounds differed significantly among the samples, with largest relative

  12. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  13. Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features.

  14. Effect of wine dilution on the reliability of tannin analysis by protein precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Werge, Hans Henrik Malmborg; Egebo, Max

    2008-01-01

    A reported analytical method for tannin quantification relies on selective precipitation of tannins with bovine serum albumin. The reliability of tannin analysis by protein precipitation on wines having variable tannin levels was evaluated by measuring the tannin concentration of various dilutions...... of five commercial red wines. Tannin concentrations of both very diluted and concentrated samples were systematically underestimated, which could be explained by a precipitation threshold and insufficient protein for precipitation, respectively. Based on these findings, we have defined a valid range...... of the tannin response in the protein precipitation-tannin assay, which suffers minimally from these problems....

  15. Effects of ‘hoja de malvón’ disease on the composition, sensory properties and preference of Malbec wines from Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Casassa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available F Casassa1, S Sari1, S Avagnina1, V Longone2, C Césari2, G Escoriaza2, C Catania1, M Gatica21Centro de Estudios de Enología; 2Laboratorio de Fitopatología, EEA Mendoza, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA, San Martín 3853 (5507 Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, ArgentinaAbstract: ‘Hoja de malvón’ is a grapevine wood disease widespread in Argentina that decreases vineyard productivity and longevity. This study was conducted during two consecutive vintages to assess its influence on the general composition, sensory attributes and preference of Vitis vinifera L. cv Malbec wines. Batches of 120 kg of grapes harvested from vines with different degrees of (visual symptoms of the disease were separately vinified. Grapes were grouped in three treatments: T1, grapes from vines with no symptoms; T2, grapes from vines with 10%–50% symptoms; and T3, grapes from vines with 50%–100% symptoms. Basic analyses of the grapes prior to crushing, and basic wine analysis were undertaken, together with spectrophotometric analyses of the wines after three months of bottle aging. The kinetics of alcoholic fermentation (AF was followed daily and additionally the wines were assessed by a sensory panel. T3 grapes were characterized by comparatively lower initial sugar contents and higher titratable acidity. The AF kinetics were unaffected in the wines arising from the diseased grapes. There was no clear-cut effect of the disease on the wines’ pH, volatile acidity, and total acidity; however, the later spectrophotometric analyses showed that the total phenolic index was the highest in T2 wines for both vintages. In 2005, the color index (CI was higher in T3 and showed the lowest value in 2006. The sensory properties of the wines were different in the two vintages. In 2005, T2 and T3 wines were perceived as having higher color intensity, violet hue and spicy notes, T2 being the most preferred wine. In 2006, T1 and T2 showed a much better sensory

  16. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Biasi

    2014-01-01

    Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  17. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  18. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  19. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  20. Segmentation and drivers of wine liking and consumption in US wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering GJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gary J Pickering,1–3 Arun K Jain,4 Ram Bezawada4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 2Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 4School of Management, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: This study examined the influence of selected experiential (wine expertise, psychological (alcoholic beverage adventurousness, and biological (age, sex, 6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP] responsiveness factors on self-reported liking and consumption of 14 wine styles in a sample of 1,010 US wine consumers. Cluster analysis of wine liking scores revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments, namely red wine lovers, dry table wine likers and sweet dislikers, and sweet wine likers. These clusters differ in key demographic measures, including sex, age, household income, and education, as well as wine expertise and PROP responsiveness. Wines were collapsed into five categories (dry table, sparkling, fortified, sweet, and wine-based beverages to examine more closely the factors affecting wine liking, total annual intake, and consumption frequency (analysis of variance [ANOVA] followed by Tukey's honest significant difference [HSD] 0.05. Wine expertise was most strongly associated with liking and consumption measures, while PROP responsiveness and alcoholic beverage adventurousness were also important contributors. Neither age nor sex had any large and consistent effects on liking or consumption, although the sex × expertise interaction was significant for some styles. These data provide an example of multifactorial segmentation of a wine market using Northeastern United States as an example, and indicate opportunities for targeted alignment of marketing to cohorts identified here. Keywords: market segmentation, taste genetics, PROP, wine expertise, wine liking

  1. (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis of the effect of moderate wine consumption on subjects with cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Alcaro, Francesca; Rodríguez Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Vinaixa Crevillent, Maria; Chiva Blanch, Gemma; Estruch Riba, Ramon; Correig Blanchar, Xavier; Andrés Lacueva, Ma. Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Moderate wine consumption is associated with health-promoting activities. An H-NMR-based metabolomic approach was used to identify urinary metabolomic differences of moderate wine intake in the setting of a prospective, randomized, crossover, and controlled trial. Sixty-one male volunteers with high cardiovascular risk factors followed three dietary interventions (28 days): dealcoholized red wine (RWD) (272mL/day, polyphenol control), alcoholized red wine (RWA) (272mL/day) and gin (GIN) (100m...

  2. Study of the effect of H2S, MeSH and DMS on the sensory profile of wine model solutions by Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Valentin, Dominique; Ballester, Jordi; Rodrigues, Heber; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-09-01

    The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) on the odor properties of three wine models-WM- (young white, young red and oaked red wines) was studied. Wine models were built by mixing a pool of common wine volatile and non-volatile compounds and further spiked with eight different combinations of the three sulfur compounds present at two levels (level 0: 0μgL -1 and level 1: 40μgL -1 of H 2 S, 12μgL -1 of MeSH; 55μgL -1 of DMS). For each wine matrix eight WMs were produced and further submitted to sensory description by Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method. Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol were clearly involved in the formation of reductive aromas and shared the ability to act as strong suppressors of fruity and floral attributes. Specifically, hydrogen sulfide generated aromas of rotten eggs, while methanethiol generated significant increases in camembert and decreases in citrus, smoky/roasted and oxidation aromas. The simultaneous presence of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol enhanced the intensity of the unspecific term reduction, while the specific nuances individually imparted by each of the two compounds could not be further identified. DMS did not exert any outstanding effect on the reductive character of wines and its sensory effect was matrix-dependent. It was involved in the formation of fruity notes such as cooked/candied and red/black fruits in young wines, and vegetal notes (canned vegetables) in oaked red WMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A cost-effective peripheral venous port system placed at the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, R; Albrink, M H; Hart, M B; Rosemurgy, A S

    1992-07-01

    High costs and a paucity of available operating time have led us to seek alternatives to operatively placed vascular access systems. This prospective study is the initial report of a peripheral port system (P.A.S. PORT System, Pharmacia Deltec, Inc.) placed at the bedside. Seventy-nine patients (52 male, 27 female), ages 3-92 years, had ports implanted by surgical residents with attending supervision. Sixty-eight (86%) received the P.A.S. PORT for long-term antibiotics, antifungal, or antiviral therapy; four (5%) for TPN infusion; three (4%) for blood products; two (3%) for chemotherapy; and two (3%) for iv narcotics. Ports were placed in 10 (13%) HIV(+) patients, three (4%) who were fully anticoagulated, and one who was a hemophiliac with a platelet count of zero. Eight patients (10%) developed superficial phlebitis, all of which resolved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents within 48 hr without port removal. Seven patients (9%) had their port removed due to infection. The average hospital charge to place the P.A.S. PORT System was $1488.00 vs $2811.00 for a tunneled external chest catheter and $3729.00 for the placement of a chest port. Bedside insertion of vascular access devices can be safely performed with acceptable infection rates allowing more efficient use of hospital operating rooms and with substantial cost savings.

  4. Effect of Saccharomyces strains on the quality of red wines aged on lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loira, I; Vejarano, R; Morata, A; Ricardo-da-Silva, J M; Laureano, O; González, M C; Suárez-Lepe, J A

    2013-08-15

    Ageing on lees involves ageing the wine in contact with yeast cells after fermentation. If combined with the addition of oak chips, it can soften the wood flavour and increase the aromatic complexity of wine. The aim of the present work is to optimise both ageing techniques through selection of an adequate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The study lasted 6 months and content of polysaccharides, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, volatile compounds, colour parameters and sensory analysis, were periodically evaluated. Among the strains tested, G37 showed the highest release of polysaccharides (24.4±5.5 mg l(-1)). Vanillin, syringaldehyde and furfuryl alcohol increased with ageing time in 7VA2 treatment. The wine aged with CTPL14 strain presented fewer monomeric and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (12.4±0.6 and 83.4±8.3 mg l(-1), respectively), and showed the lowest astringency and bitterness sensations. Results show an improvement in the sensory profile of the red wine aged with a combination of these two techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Parra, Diego; Chirife, Jorge; Zamora, Clara; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2018-04-07

    Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF). More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3- O -glucoside, malvidin 3- O -(6″-acetyl-glucose), petunidin-3- O -glucoside, quercetin-3- O -glucuronide, syringenin-3- O -glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA).

  6. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  7. Effect of condensed tannins addition on the astringency of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Susana; Sousa, André; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2012-02-01

    Astringency has been defined as a group of sensations involving dryness, tightening, and shrinking of the oral surface. It has been accepted that astringency is due to the tannin-induced interaction and/or precipitation of the salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in the oral cavity, as a result of the ingestion of food products rich in tannins, for example, red wine. The sensory evaluation of astringency is difficult, and the existence of fast and reliable methods to its study in vitro is scarce. So, in this work, the astringency of red wine supplemented with oligomeric procyanidins (condensed tannins), and the salivary proteins (SP) involved in its development were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of human saliva after its interaction with red wine and by sensorial evaluation. The results show that for low concentration of tannins, the decrease of acidic PRPs and statherin is correlated with astringency intensity, with these families having a high relative complexation and precipitation toward condensed tannins comparatively to the other SP. However, for higher concentrations of tannins, the relative astringency between wines seems to correlate's to the glycosylated PRPs changes. This work shows for the first time that the several families of SP could be involved in different stages of the astringency development.

  8. Growth inhibitory effect of grape phenolics against wine spoilage yeasts and acetic acid bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastorková, E.; Žáková, T.; Landa, Přemysl; Nováková, J.; Vadlejch, J.; Kokoška, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 3 (2013), s. 209-213 ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phenolic compound * Antimicrobial activity * Wine spoilage microorganism Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2013

  9. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rocha-Parra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF. More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-(6″-acetyl-glucose, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, syringenin-3-O-glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA.

  10. EFFECT OF CHRONIC INGESTION OF WINE ON THE GLYCEMIC, LIPID AND BODY WEIGHT HOMEOSTASIS IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    de BRITO-FILHO, Sebastião Barreto; de MOURA, Egberto Gaspar; dos SANTOS, Orlando José; SAUAIA-FILHO, Euler Nicolau; AMORIM, Elias; SANTANA, Ewaldo Eder Carvalho; BARROS-FILHO, Allan Kardec Dualibe; SANTOS, Rennan Abud Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The health benefits associated with moderate wine consumption, as with ethanol and phenolic compounds, include different mechanisms still little understandable. Aim: Evaluate glycemic and weight variations, and the deposit of triglycerides, cholesterol and liver glycogen with red wine consumption. Methods: 60 ApoE knockout mice were divided into three groups of 20: Wine Group (WG), Ethanol Group (EG) and Water Group (WAG). They received daily: WG 50 ml of wine and 50 ml water; EG 6 ml ethanol and WAG 94 ml of water. All groups were followed for four months. The food intake was monitored daily, in the period from eight to ten hours and held every five days. The measurement of water intake was also made every five days. The weighing of the animals took place every ten days. Results: The WG had higher weight increase as compared to the other groups. The concentration of hepatic triglyceride was higher in WG (57%) and the EG group was lower (31.6%, pwine or some unknown property that led to significant increase in subcutaneous andretroperitoneal fat in mice. PMID:27759775

  11. Effect of bunch rot on the sensory characteristics of the Gewürztraminer wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Meneguzzo

    2008-06-01

    Significance and impact of the study: In viticultural regions characterized by rainy and hot summers many pathogens have appropriate conditions to develop. In this way, to make quality wines it is very important to control grape rot diseases in the vineyards and to avoid grapes infected with pathogens related to these diseases during vinification.

  12. Developing the port of Belawan as a modern and international port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study discusses the processes of government to pass the port development plan in Indonesia with the Port of Belawan and its port expansion as the study case. The study uses a descriptive approach by reviewing and analyzing some of relevant literature as the sources. It also reviews and examines the port development theoretical concepts and models giving attention to the international hub port models resulted from the previous studies. The international hub port aspects assessed to be further applied and compared to the actual situation of the Port of Belawan. This process draws the conclusion on which concept and model the port classified, followed by some recommendations concerning the necessary actions to be taken. The results show that: (1) The port planning regulated in port master plan is the guideline and foundation to implement the port development; (2) Spatial and zoning plan regulations are very important in the preparation, planning, and implementation of port development; (3) It has not provided the necessary facilities and criteria of the global hub port model has not been met completely. The port is strategic to be completely developed as the regional hub port to compete with the major ports of neighboring countries. Eventually, this study requires further analysis to examine the economic feasibility of the Port of Belawan in more comprehensive way functioning as an international hub port along with the ongoing development of Kuala Tanjung Port to achieve its ultimate objectives, among other things, the port effectiveness, efficiency, and competitiveness.

  13. Safety and Effectiveness of Percutaneously Inserted Peritoneal Ports Compared to Surgically Inserted Ports in a Retrospective Study of 87 Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma over a 10-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley-Cook, Joel; Tarulli, Emidio; Tan, Kong T.; Rajan, Dheeraj K.; Simons, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    PurposePlacement of peritoneal ports has become a favorable technique for direct chemotherapy infusion in treating peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer. We aim to outline an approach to the percutaneous insertion of peritoneal ports and to characterize success and complication rates compared to surgically inserted ports.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis was collected from 87 patients who had peritoneal port insertion (28 inserted surgically and 59 percutaneously) for treatment of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer from July 2004 to July 2014. Complications were classified according to the SIR Clinical Practice Guidelines as major or minor.ResultsTechnical success rates for surgically and percutaneously inserted ports were 100 and 96.7 %, respectively (p = 0.44), with the two percutaneous failures successful at a later date. There were no major complications in either group. Minor complication rates for surgically versus percutaneously inserted ports were 46.4 versus 22.0 %, respectively (p = 0.02). The infection rate for surgically inserted versus percutaneously inserted ports was 14.3 and 0 %, respectively (p = 0.002). The relative risk of developing a complication from percutaneous peritoneal port insertion without ascites was 3.4 (p = 0.04). For percutaneously inserted ports, the mean in-room procedure time was 81 ± 1.3 min and mean fluoroscopy time was 5.0 ± 4.5 min.ConclusionPercutaneously inserted peritoneal ports are a safe alternative to surgically inserted ports, demonstrating similar technical success and lower complication rates.

  14. Safety and Effectiveness of Percutaneously Inserted Peritoneal Ports Compared to Surgically Inserted Ports in a Retrospective Study of 87 Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma over a 10-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley-Cook, Joel, E-mail: jwoodleycook@gmail.com [The Scarborough Hospital, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada); Tarulli, Emidio; Tan, Kong T.; Rajan, Dheeraj K.; Simons, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    PurposePlacement of peritoneal ports has become a favorable technique for direct chemotherapy infusion in treating peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer. We aim to outline an approach to the percutaneous insertion of peritoneal ports and to characterize success and complication rates compared to surgically inserted ports.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis was collected from 87 patients who had peritoneal port insertion (28 inserted surgically and 59 percutaneously) for treatment of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer from July 2004 to July 2014. Complications were classified according to the SIR Clinical Practice Guidelines as major or minor.ResultsTechnical success rates for surgically and percutaneously inserted ports were 100 and 96.7 %, respectively (p = 0.44), with the two percutaneous failures successful at a later date. There were no major complications in either group. Minor complication rates for surgically versus percutaneously inserted ports were 46.4 versus 22.0 %, respectively (p = 0.02). The infection rate for surgically inserted versus percutaneously inserted ports was 14.3 and 0 %, respectively (p = 0.002). The relative risk of developing a complication from percutaneous peritoneal port insertion without ascites was 3.4 (p = 0.04). For percutaneously inserted ports, the mean in-room procedure time was 81 ± 1.3 min and mean fluoroscopy time was 5.0 ± 4.5 min.ConclusionPercutaneously inserted peritoneal ports are a safe alternative to surgically inserted ports, demonstrating similar technical success and lower complication rates.

  15. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  16. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, su...

  17. Effects of using mixed wine yeast cultures in the production of Chardonnay wines Efecto del uso de cultivos mixtos de levaduras en la producción de vinos Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. García

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using mixed cultures of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in the physicochemical and sensory qualities of the wines were analyzed in this study. Based on growth curves, sugar consumption and glycerol production in synthetic must, Candida membranifaciens L1805 was selected from a group of four Candidas spp. isolates from Chile and Argentina. This yeast was subsequently used in combination with S. cerevisiae in Chardonnay must. A monoculture of S. cerevisiae was used as control. The wines fermented with mixed cultures had lower volatile acidity and ethanol concentration than the control. Furthermore, the chromatographic analysis showed that the wines from mixed cultures presented differences in the concentration of esters and propanol. These characteristics positively influenced the sensory qualities of the wines produced with mixed cultures, which was reflected in the preference for these wines by a panel of enologists. This study shows that the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts could be a strategy to obtain distinctive wines using the native microorganisms from each winemaking area.En este estudio se analizó el efecto del uso de cultivos mixtos de levaduras no-Saccharomyces y Saccharomyces cerevisiae en las cualidades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales de los vinos. Candida membranifaciens L1805 fue elegida de un grupo de cuatro Candida spp. aisladas de Chile y Argentina, sobre la base de las curvas de crecimiento, el consumo de azúcar y la producción de glicerol en mosto sintético. Posteriormente, esta levadura fue usada en cultivo mixto con S. cerevisiae en mosto Chardonnay. Como control se utilizó un monocultivo de S. cerevisiae. Los vinos producidos por cultivos mixtos tuvieron menor acidez volátil y producción de etanol que los correspondientes al control. Los análisis cromatográficos mostraron que estos vinos presentaron diferencias en la concentración de ésteres y de propanol. Estas caracter

  18. Tears of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  19. Different preferences for wine communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sillani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the presence of variations in the reactions of different types of audiences to certain communication tools for wine. Five samples of audiences were compared: wine professionals, organic produce specialists, wine tourists, and two samples of general tourists. The following bundle of attributes were considered: name of the grape; information on organic production methods; type of closure; QR code; landscape; advertising language. Diverse audience’s preferences were measured by conjoint analysis. The results have shown a common sensitivity to certain attributes, and a different or contrary sensitivity to others. In particular, all samples have demonstrated that: 1 certified organic wines communicated in standard wine-market style have the potential of becoming market leaders; 2 photographs facilitate the acceptance of technologically-advanced closures; 3 the presence of the QR code in printed advertisements increases the expected value of the product; 4a landscape characterised by holistic “garden viticulture” increases preferences. Textual language was more effective with professionals, while photographic language was more effective with tourists. Supplementary information on the organic production methods, in addition to the mandatory labelling requirements, increased the preferences of professionals and wine tourists, and was counterproductive with the general tourists.

  20. Different techniques for reducing alcohol levels in wine: A review⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Burcu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide technical and practical information covering the outstanding techniques that may be used to adjust elevated alcohol concentration in wine and their effects on wine from the point of organoleptic characteristics view.

  1. Effects of initiating moderate wine intake on abdominal adipose tissue in adults with type 2 diabetes: a 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Shemesh, Elad; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Witkow, Shula; Friger, Michael; Chassidim, Yoash; Liberty, Idit F; Sarusi, Benjamin; Serfaty, Dana; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Cohen, Noa; Ben-Avraham, Sivan; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-02-01

    To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Soroka-Medical Center and the Nuclear Research Center Negev, Israel. Alcohol-abstaining adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight participants (red wine, n 27; mineral water, n 21) who completed a second MRI measurement were included in the 2-year analysis. Similar weight losses (sd) were observed: red wine 1·3 (3·9) kg; water 1·0 (4·2) kg (P=0·8 between groups). Changes (95 % CI) in abdominal adipose-tissue distribution were similar: red wine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) -3·0 (-8·0, 2·0) %, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT) +5·2 (-1·1, 11·6) %, superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) -1·9 (-5·0, 1·2) %; water, VAT -3·2 (-8·9, 2·5) %, DSAT +2·9 (-2·8, 8·6) %, SSAT -0·15 (-3·3, 2·9) %. No changes in antidiabetic medication and no substantial changes in energy intake (+126 (sd 2889) kJ/d (+30·2 (sd 690) kcal/d), P=0·8) were recorded. A 2-year decrease in glycated Hb (β=0·28, P=0·05) was associated with a decrease in VAT. Moderate wine consumption, as part of a Mediterranean diet, in persons with controlled diabetes did not promote weight gain or abdominal adiposity.

  2. Between wine consumption and wine tourism: Consumer and spatial behavior of Israeli wine tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Shor, Noa; Mansfeld, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    The development of wine tourism worldwide has been accompanied by academic research on wine tourism and wine tourists. Wine tourists and wine enthusiasts have been found to share many socio-demographic similarities. It has been found that people visiting wineries consume wine on a regular basis, have an average to high level of knowledge about wine, and visit wineries and wine-producing regions a few times a year. Their involvement with wine is apparent both from their daily consumption and f...

  3. Green Port / Eco Port Project - Applications and Procedures in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Burak

    2017-12-01

    As being the heartlands of international trade, sea ports are the junction points of land and sea routes. The growth of global trade has led to the development of number and capacity as well as the service quality of ports. The policies and procedures applied during construction, operation and development of ports under development with environmental considerations scope has evolved in accordance with the needs of global trends. Although maritime transportation provides the most ecofriendly transportation method, the reduction of potential environmental threats and continuous improvement of ports and their vicinity is paramount from environmental concerns with regards to the international environmental standards. In the context of the study, national and international legal regulations governing the control of the environmental impacts of the activity groups causing pollution in Turkey based sea ports were viewed. In addition, the models applied during the measurement and documentation of environmental impacts were investigated. The most important aspects in terms of the effectiveness of the environmental management models are legal regulations. However, the standards applied at the ports without any legal obligation, such as EcoPorts applications, ISO 14001 standard, and the EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme) were sought in the scope of the study. The boundaries of the study were determined as the EU based Environmental Management Systems and the Green Port/Eco Port Project which is being administered by the Turkish Ministry of Transport, Maritime and Communication. “Marport”, which is Turkey’s first certified Green Port / Eco Port is designated as the experimental study site. In addition, the provisions in the ports of ESPO member countries are approached in order to compare the effectiveness and applicability of Green Port / Eco Port Project.

  4. European consumers’ perception of moderate wine consumption on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Vecchio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the perceptions that French, Italian and Spanish consumers have about the possible health effects of what they consider to be a moderate wine consumption. Furthermore, it identifies whether the following factors positively or negatively influence consumer opinion – wine appreciation, environmental awareness, environmental labels, local legislation and media coverage. Perceptions were identified through an online survey of 1183 respondents. The respondents perceive wine as a rather healthy product if consumed moderately. Wine appreciation positively influences the perception of a healthy effect of moderate wine consumption. French policies advising constraints on wine consumption indirectly influence consumer opinion about the unhealthy effects caused by wine. French and Spanish consumers with high environmental awareness perceive a wine with an eco-label to be healthier than a conventional one.

  5. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  6. Climate change effects and adaptation strategies in the wine sector: a quantitative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sacchelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative literature review focusing on how scientific research analysed climate change impact on wine chain as well as potential adaptation strategies. The work is based on content analysis and text mining and takes into account researches from 1990 to 2015. A particular emphasis was given to the evaluation of suggested or implemented adaptation strategies at both global and national levels. Data were analysed using cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling and specificity evaluation. Results show that the study of climate change impacts on the wine sector is a recently emerging research topic. Adaptation strategies have not yet been explored thoroughly in the literature, and in-depth uncertainty quantification is also needed. Finally, additional research gaps and potential future issues are suggested.

  7. Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Arneborg, Nils; Toldam-Andersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia viticola, Metschnikowia fructicola and Hanseniaspora uvarum) indigenously isolated...... in Denmark were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars, Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines. RESULTS......: The different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, five acids, two ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulfur compound. The use of M. viticola...

  8. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  9. "Enjoy glass of wine before eating:" a randomized trial to test the orexigenic effects of this advice in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatoi, Aminah; Qin, Rui; Satele, Daniel; Dakhil, Shaker; Kumar, Pankaj; Johnson, David B; Thomas, Sachdev P; Stella, Philip J; Castillo, Jose; Li, Min; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Because the extant literature suggests wine increases appetite, this study sought to determine whether this effect could be observed in advanced cancer patients with appetite loss. Advanced cancer patients with self-reported loss of appetite were randomly assigned to white wine with ≤15 % alcohol content twice a day for 3-4 weeks versus a nutritional supplement, such as Boost® or Ensure®. Patients assigned to wine were encouraged to also take a nutritional supplement, whereas patients assigned to the nutritional supplement arm were told to abstain completely from alcohol. Patient-reported outcomes were captured with a validated questionnaire to assess the primary endpoint of appetite improvement. A total of 141 patients (118 evaluable) were enrolled. Twenty-eight patients (48 %) in the wine arm reported an improvement in appetite at some point during the treatment period, whereas 22 patients (37 %) assigned to the nutritional supplement arm also reported improvement (p = 0.35). Other appetite-related questions and questionnaire items showed no statistically significant differences between treatment arms. In both arms, approximately 9 % of patients achieved weight stability (p = 0.98); median survival was not statistically different. Both interventions were well tolerated. As prescribed in this trial, wine does not improve appetite or weight in advanced cancer patients.

  10. Grey relational analysis for evaluating the effects of different rates of wine lees-derived biochar application on a plant-soil system with multi-metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhu, Qihong; Wu, Jun; He, Yan; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaoyu; Peng, Hong; Wang, Lilin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, grey relational analysis (GRA) was used to investigate the effects of different application rates of wine lees-derived biochar on a plant-soil system with multi-metal contamination. A pot experiment was conducted to determine rice growth in multi-metal-contaminated soil amended with samples of wine lees-derived biochar, and 47 indicators (including soil properties, microbial activity, and plant physiology) were selected as evaluation indexes to assess the plant-soil system. The results indicated that higher wine lees-derived biochar application rates (2% W/W) were favorable for soil fertility, the bioconcentration factor (BF), and the mobility factor (MF, %) (with the exception of Cr, Zn, and Hg), but an application of 1% produced the highest plant growth, enzymatic activities, and bacterial diversity. The richness of the bacterial communities was reduced in the soil amended with the wine lees-derived biochar. According to the GRA assessment, the 1% application rate of wine lees-derived biochar was more suitable for restoring the holistic plant-soil system than were the application rates of 0, 0.5, and 2% (W/W). Furthermore, this study shows that GRA is a useful method for evaluating plant-soil systems.

  11. Exposure risk assessment to ochratoxin A through consumption of juice and wine considering the effect of steam extraction time and vinification stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachery, Bruna; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Dal Magro, Lucas; Manfroi, Vitor; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively. The highest levels of this toxin were found in the Concord grapes used for juice production. Although greater reduction in OTA levels occurred during juice production (73%) compared to winemaking (66 and 44%, for red and white, respectively), the estimated OTA exposure through juice was higher than the tolerable intake established for this toxin by JECFA. The risk associated with juice consumption, rather than wine, can be explained by (i) higher OTA levels found in Concord must than those of Cabernet and Moscato, indicating that Concord grapes appear to be more susceptible to OTA production by toxigenic fungi; and (ii) the daily recommended juice consumption is higher than those proposed to red wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Precursors on Volatile Compounds in Papaya Wine Fermented by Mixed Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Rou Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the addition of fusel oil or amino acids on the volatile compounds in papaya wine fermented with a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus R2 and Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC 2251 at a ratio of 1:1000 was studied. Fusel oil addition increased the fraction of alcohols and promoted the production of isoamyl octanoate, isoamyl decanoate and isobutyl decanoate, while decreased the fraction of ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The addition of amino acids enhanced the formation of total volatile fatty acids, 2-phenylethanol and some ethyl esters. The papaya wine with added amino acids possessed more acidic and buttery notes than the control, while that with added fusel oil had an overall aroma profile comparable to that of the control. This study suggests that papaya juice fermentation with mixed yeasts in conjunction with the added fusel oil or selected amino acids may be another method of modulating the flavour of papaya wine.

  14. Research on variable swirl intake port for high-speed multivalve DI diesel engine. Effects of port configuration on flow characteristics and swirl generation capacity; 4 ben kogata kosoku DI diesel engine no kahen swirl kyuki port ni kansuru kenkyu. Kyuki port haichi ga ryudo tokusei to swirl seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, J; Ogawa, H; Tsuru, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In our previous papers, the variable swirl intake port system which can control a wide swirl ratio range (from 4 to 10) was described. This system consisted of two separate intake ports, one of them has a flow control valve for changing the swirl ratio. In this type of variable swirl system, some variations of port combination, port shape, and position can be designed. In this paper, the intake flow characteristics of various port combinations were analyzed on the basis of a steady-state air flow test and 3-dimensional computations. The results indicate that the total performance of the twin ports can be estimated from that of a single port in any kind of port combination. Some difference in flow patterns were found in a variety of port combinations even if each swirl ratio is similar. The selected port combinations in our previous study are good for a wide swirl control range. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effect of cluster sun exposure on chemical composition and technological properties of grapes and wine from cultivars Cabernet sauvignon and mavrud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambalov, V.; Rijchev, V.; Botyanski, P.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of direct solar radiation on grape clusters of cvs Cabernet sauvignon and Mavrid, formed under four different microclimatic conditions: Vo- control; V1 - clusters exposed naturally to direct sunlight; V2 - clusters formed under natural shading; V3 - clusters formed under artificial shading.The positive impact of direct solar radiation on the formation of wine structure, character and body indicated the primary role of agrotechnical practices for ensuring better sunlight exposure of clusters and microclimatic conditions to enable the production of good wine-making materials

  16. Metals in wine--impact on wine quality and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, Blanka

    2011-12-01

    Metals in wine can originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and its concentration can be a significant parameter affecting consumption and conservation of wine. Since metallic ions have important role in oxide-reductive reactions resulting in wine browning, turbidity, cloudiness, and astringency, wine quality depends greatly on its metal composition. Moreover, metals in wine may affect human health. Consumption of wine may contribute to the daily dietary intake of essential metals (i.e., copper, iron, and zinc) but can also have potentially toxic effects if metal concentrations are not kept under allowable limits. Therefore, a strict analytical control of metal concentration is required during the whole process of wine production. This article presents a critical review of the existing literature regarding the measured metal concentration in wine, methods applied for their determination, and possible sources, as well as their impact on wine quality and human health. The main focus is set on aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc, as these elements most often affect wine quality and human health.

  17. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  18. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages by HPLC with a refractive index detector: First Action 2013.12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupina, Steve; Roman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of an HPLC-refractive index (RI) detector method for the determination of the combined amounts of sugars, glycerol, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in wines and wine-like beverages. Nine collaborating laboratories representing major winery, contract laboratories, and government laboratories tested eight different materials as blind duplicates using the proposed method. Sample materials included red and white wines, port, wine cooler, and nonalcoholic wine. One material was a negative control, and one material was a reference material. Samples were either treated with an ion-exchange resin to remove interfering organic acids prior to analysis or left untreated to include organic acids and phenolics. Red wine samples were treated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone to remove potential interferences from phenolics prior to analysis. The HPLC analyses were performed on a Bio-Rad Fast Acid Analysis Column using RI detection. Reproducibility (RSD(R)) for untreated samples (sugars + phenolics + organic acids) ranged from 6.6% for Titrivin AA4 reference material to 11.0% for dry red wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) ranged from 6.8% for white zinfandel to 18.9% for dry white wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) + glycerol ranged from 6.4% for white zinfandel to 19.8% for dry red wine. Based on these results, the method was adopted as Official First Action status for determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages.

  20. Effect of acclimation medium on cell viability, membrane integrity and ability to consume malic acid in synthetic wine by oenological Lactobacillus plantarum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Tymczyszyn, E E; Gómez-Zavaglia, A; Semorile, L

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of acclimation on the viability, membrane integrity and the ability to consume malic acid of three oenological strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Cultures in the stationary phase were inoculated in an acclimation medium (Accl.) containing 0, 6 or 10% v/v ethanol and incubated 48 h at 28°C. After incubation, cells were harvested by centrifugation and inoculated in a synthetic wine, containing 14% v/v ethanol and pH 3.5 at 28°C. Viability and membrane integrity were determined by flow cytometry (FC) using carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and propidium iodide. Bacterial growth and malic acid consumption were monitored in a synthetic wine during 15 days. In nonacclimated strains, the damage of bacterial membranes produced a dramatic decrease in microbial viability in synthetic wine. In contrast, survival of strains previously acclimated in Accl. with 6 and 10% v/v ethanol was noticeable higher. Therefore, acclimation with ethanol increased the cultivability in synthetic wine and consequently, the consumption of l-malic acid after 15 days of growth. Acclimation of oenological strains in media containing ethanol prior to wine inoculation significantly decreases the membrane damage and improves viability in the harsh wine conditions. The role of membrane integrity is crucial to warrant the degradation of l-malic acid. The efficiency of multiparametric FC in monitoring viability and membrane damage along with the malic acid consumption has a strong impact on winemaking because it represents a useful tool for a quick and highly reliable evaluation of oenological parameters. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis of the effect of moderate wine consumption on subjects with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Alcaro, Francesca; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Vinaixa, Maria; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Estruch, Ramon; Correig, Xavier; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Moderate wine consumption is associated with health-promoting activities. An H-NMR-based metabolomic approach was used to identify urinary metabolomic differences of moderate wine intake in the setting of a prospective, randomized, crossover, and controlled trial. Sixty-one male volunteers with high cardiovascular risk factors followed three dietary interventions (28 days): dealcoholized red wine (RWD) (272mL/day, polyphenol control), alcoholized red wine (RWA) (272mL/day) and gin (GIN) (100mL/day, alcohol control). After each period, 24-h urine samples were collected and analyzed by (1) H-NMR. According to the results of a one-way ANOVA, significant markers were grouped in four categories: alcohol-related markers (ethanol); gin-related markers; wine-related markers; and gut microbiota markers (hippurate and 4-hydroxphenylacetic acid). Wine metabolites were classified into two groups; first, metabolites of food metabolome: tartrate (RWA and RWD), ethanol, and mannitol (RWA); and second, biomarkers that relates to endogenous modifications after wine consumption, comprising branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolite (3-methyl-oxovalerate). Additionally, a possible interaction between alcohol and gut-related biomarkers has been identified. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach has been applied in a nutritional intervention with red wine. The results show the capacity of this approach to obtain a comprehensive metabolome picture including food metabolome and endogenous biomarkers of moderate wine intake. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effect of micro-oxygenation on color and anthocyanin-related compounds of wines with different phenolic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-López, Marta; Pardo-Mínguez, Francisco; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cedric; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; López-Roca, Jose María; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2008-07-23

    Several factors may affect the results obtained when micro-oxygenation is applied to red wines, the most important being the moment of application, the doses of oxygen, and the wine phenolic characteristics. In this study, three red wines, made from Vitis vinifera var. Monastrell (2005 vintage) and with different phenolic characteristics, were micro-oxygenated to determine as to how this technique affected the formation of new pigments in the wines and their chromatic characteristics. The results indicated that the different wines were differently affected by micro-oxygenation. In general, the micro-oxygenated wines had a higher percentage of new anthocyanin-derived pigments, being that this formation is more favored in the wines with the highest total phenol content. These compounds, in turn, significantly increased the wine color intensity. The wine with the lowest phenolic content was less influenced by micro-oxygenation, and the observed evolution in the degree of polymerization of tannins suggested that it might have suffered overoxygenation.

  3. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  4. Ports Primer: 3.2 Port Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments are important players in port governance and in oversight of transportation projects that may affect ports. Private corporations may also play a role if they lease or own a terminal at a port.

  5. Model for voluntary wine and alcohol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, L; Roig, R; Cascón, E; Brunet, M J; Fornós, N; Sabaté, M; Raga, X; Batista, J; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C

    1997-08-01

    It has been suggested that moderate consumption of ethanol and wine has a protective effect on human health. Animal models used to date for alcohol consumption can not mimic real situations in humans because the consumption is forced and/or excessive. The present study proposes to determine the effects of a voluntary and ad lib consumption model more similar to that of human behavior. Male Wistar rats had free access to either standard diet and water or the same diet plus red wine, sweet wine, or a solution equivalent to red wine (13.5% ethanol) or to sweet wine (20% ethanol + 130 g/L sucrose) for 30 days or 6 months. Daily wine consumption was 15.8 +/- 0.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/day for sweet and red wines, respectively. The consumption of each of the alcoholic solutions was similar to that of the wine they were simulating. Drinking wine or ethanol did not affect food and water intakes or growth rate. Plasma metabolites were not substantially affected by consumption of wine or ethanol. Although moderate and high wine consumption did not change the activity of plasma marker enzymes of tissue damage, the consumption of the 2 alcoholic solutions caused a long-term increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase. It seems that wine consumption protects the organism from hepatic lesions induced by ethanol alone.

  6. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  7. Interactions between yeast lees and wine polyphenols during simulation of wine aging: I. Analysis of remnant polyphenolic compounds in the resulting wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2005-07-13

    Wine aging on yeast lees is a traditional enological practice used during the manufacture of wines. This technique has increased in popularity in recent years for the aging of red wines. Although wine polyphenols interact with yeast lees to a limited extent, such interactions have a large effect on the reactivity toward oxygen of wine polyphenolic compounds and yeast lees. Various domains of the yeast cell wall are protected by wine polyphenols from the action of extracellular hydrolytic enzymatic activities. Polysaccharides released during autolysis are thought to exert a significant effect on the sensory qualities of wine. We studied the chemical composition of polyphenolic compounds remaining in solution or adsorbed on yeast lees after various contact times during the simulation of wine aging. The analysis of the remnant polyphenols in the wine indicated that wine polyphenols adsorption on yeast lees follows biphasic kinetics. An initial and rapid fixation is followed by a slow, constant, and saturating fixation that reaches its maximum after about 1 week. Only very few monomeric phenolic compounds remained adsorbed on yeast lees, and no preferential adsorption of low or high polymeric size tannins occurred. The remnant condensed tannins in the wine contained fewer epigallocatechin units than the initial tannins, indicating that polar condensed tannins were preferentially adsorbed on yeast lees. Conversely, the efficiency of anthocyanin adsorption on yeast lees was unrelated to its polarity.

  8. Inhibition of the Decrease of Volatile Esters and Terpenes During Storage of Wines and a Model Wine Medium by Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Lambropoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of red wine phenolic extracts on the stability of wine volatile esters and terpenes was examined. Muscat (white and Xinomavro (red wines were enriched with each extract at 120 or 200 mg/L, and stored in open bottles at 20 °C for 3 and 2.5 days, respectively. Moreover, a model wine medium containing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and linalool was enriched with each extract at 100 mg/L, and stored in sealed bottles at 20 °C for 45–90 days. All samples were analysed for volatiles using SPME along with GC-MS analysis. Phenolic composition of wine extracts was determined using HPLC-DAD. No effect on the concentration of any volatiles was observed as a result of the addition of each extract in each wine or the model medium. A wine extract rich in phenolic acids and another one rich in anthocyanins and flavanols inhibited the decrease of volatile esters and terpenes in one or both wines and the model medium. Among them were several important for the aroma of wine such as ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and linalool. The results presented here indicate that wine phenolic acids, and anthocyanins or flavanols may be taken into account as potent inhibitors of the disappearance of volatile esters and terpenes in wines.

  9. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  10. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  11. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B₆, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-12

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B₆). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B₆ supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  12. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  13. A letter by the Regional Editor for Oceania: China and wine: Its impact on the global wine trade

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lockshin

    2014-01-01

    China׳s growing wine consumption is having a major effect on the global trade in wine. Growing awareness and consumption of grape-based wine in China has moved from a small number of very wealthy and often older buyers to an increasing number of younger, middle-class consumers. In this editorial, I will explore some of the effects I think this growing market is having on the wine trade and how this shapes the future research agenda for wine business related to China.

  14. Study of the health effects of low-level exposure to environmental radiation contamination in Port Hope, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R.; Lees, R.E.M.; Roberts, J.H.

    1984-06-01

    From 1939 to 1948 residues from radium production at Eldorado Nuclear Ltd.'s plant in Port Hope, Ontario were disposed of in and around the town of Port Hope. In 1980 a study was set up to determine the health effects of these residues. This report concerns phase two a case- control study of lung cancer in the exposed population. Doses for the 118 cases and controls were reconstructed to give the final year of exposure, the residences occupied during the period of exposure, and the total estimated exposure for various latency periods. Statistical analysis of the data gathered could not give coherent results or show an identifiable increased risk of lung cancer from elevated alpha radiation levels due to the confounding effect of cigarette smoking. Ninety percent of the cases of lung cancer found were attributable to smoking

  15. Wine, resveratrol and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; García-Parrilla, Maria C; Puertas, Belén; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2009-05-01

    Several studies have cited the Mediterranean diet as an example of healthy eating. In fact, the Mediterranean diet has become the reference diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Red wine seems to be an essential component of the diet, since moderate consumption of wine is associated with lower risk and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is also accumulating that wine helps prevent the development of certain cancers. Of all the many components of wine, resveratrol, which is a natural component specifically present in wine, has been identified as being mainly responsible for these health-promoting properties. Many valuable properties such as cardioprotective and anticarcinogenic activity have been attributed to resveratrol; however, its bioavailability is quite low. The bioactivity of metabolites derived from resveratrol, and the accumulation of resveratrol in vital organs are still under study, but there are high expectations of positive results. Other stilbene compounds are also considered in this review, despite being present in undetectable or very small quantities in wine. The present paper reviews all aspects of the health properties of wine, bioactive compounds found in wine, and their concentrations, bioavailability and possible synergistic effects.

  16. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-03-25

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant ( p tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50-62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  17. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhijing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC, mean degree of polymerization (mDP, and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05 impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62% and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material. This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  18. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. PMID:29587406

  19. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  20. The Effect of Fishing Basin Construction On the Behaviour of a Footbrdge Over the Port Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyrzowski Łukasz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses possible causes of failure of the rotating footbridge over the Ustka port channel. In July, 2015, strange behaviour of this object was observed in the form of excessive vibrations of bridge platform suspension rods, with the accompanying acoustic effects. A preliminary geotechnical analysis has revealed that this destructive effect was caused by the nearby construction works, namely construction of a fishing basin and communication routes in the area close to the bridge, which affected the bridge lashing rod foundation settings. Ground vibrations generated by certain construction activities were likely to have direct impact on decreasing the bearing capacity of these rods and increasing the susceptibility od the piles to extraction. After detecting the above problems in bridge operation, its geodetic monitoring was started. The data recorded during this monitoring, along with the results of force measurements in the rods, have made the basis for a series of numerical simulations, performed in the Finite Element Method (FEM formalism. The bridge structure was analysed in the conditions defined as the emergency state. Extreme efforts of bridge elements and its dynamic characteristics were examined. A possible source of strange behaviour of the footbridge during its operation which was recognised during these simulations was the coincidence of the global natural frequency of the entire bridge structure with local vibrations of suspension rods, at the frequency approximately equal to 1 Hz. This situation was likely to lead to the appearance of the so-called internal resonance phenomenon. As a final conclusion of the research, recommendations were formulated on possible object oriented corrective actions.

  1. Effects of natural plant extracts and gamma rays on lactobacillus isolated from Korean traditional raw rice wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Recently, Korean traditional raw rice wines (RRW) have received attention because they are a nutritious food with health properties. But the rapid deterioration of fermented RRW is one of the serious problems for brewing and marketing in the world beyond Korea. The goal of this study was to develop a way to enhance the quality and to lengthen the period of circulation of the RRW. A lactic acid bacterium was isolated from RRW. It was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (98%) based on its biochemical properties, and 16S rRNA sequence. Treatments of RRW with gamma radiation and green tea extracts reduced the bacterial population except for yeasts and Lactobacillus in the RRW. This result suggested that the natural plant extracts and catechin products can be used as an effective natural storage agent.

  2. Effects of natural plant extracts and gamma rays on lactobacillus isolated from Korean traditional raw rice wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Korean traditional raw rice wines (RRW) have received attention because they are a nutritious food with health properties. But the rapid deterioration of fermented RRW is one of the serious problems for brewing and marketing in the world beyond Korea. The goal of this study was to develop a way to enhance the quality and to lengthen the period of circulation of the RRW. A lactic acid bacterium was isolated from RRW. It was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (98%) based on its biochemical properties, and 16S rRNA sequence. Treatments of RRW with gamma radiation and green tea extracts reduced the bacterial population except for yeasts and Lactobacillus in the RRW. This result suggested that the natural plant extracts and catechin products can be used as an effective natural storage agent

  3. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío eVelázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by S. cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odour descriptors, including those with the greatest odour activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odours. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S

  4. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L; Hernández, Luis M; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae.

  5. Use of two osmoethanol tolerant yeast strain to ferment must from Tempranillo dried grapes: effect on wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lerma, N; Peinado, R A

    2011-01-31

    The must from Tempranillo dried grapes was divided into four batches to produce sweet wine. The first one was fortified with ethanol up to 12% (v/v) to avoid fermentation (traditional way). Other two batches were partially fermented with two osmoethanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (X4 and X5). The last one was fermented with native yeast by spontaneous fermentation. Wines fermented partially with the strains X4 and X5 show high volatile acidity values (above 2g/L expressed as acetic acid), and a glycerol concentration around 20 g/L. Both strains also produce high amount of carboxylic acids and therefore the wines show a high ethyl ester concentration. Aromatic series were obtained for all the wines by grouping aroma compounds according to their odor descriptors. The series of the fermented wines with higher values in relation with the control wine were fruity, sweet and fatty, emphasizing the fruity series in the samples fermented with the X4 and X5 strains. The sensorial analysis of the wine samples by a tasting panel put in evidence that the musts fermented with the osmoethanol tolerant yeasts were better valued than the rest of the wine samples. The must fermented with the X4 strain obtained the maximum score in terms of aroma and flavour. So, the use of these osmoethanol tolerant S. cerevisiae strains could be a suitable alternative to produce sweet wines from must with high sugar concentration. The wines obtained this way are chemically and organoleptically more complex than those elaborated traditionally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.; Hernández, Luis M.; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae. PMID

  7. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  8. Effect of five enological practices and of the general phenolic composition on fermentation-related aroma compounds in Mencia young red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añón, Ana; López, Jorge F; Hernando, Diego; Orriols, Ignacio; Revilla, Eugenio; Losada, Manuel M

    2014-04-01

    The effects of five technological procedures and of the contents of total anthocyanins and condensed tannins on 19 fermentation-related aroma compounds of young red Mencia wines were studied. Multifactor ANOVA revealed that levels of those volatiles changed significantly over the length of storage in bottles and, to a lesser extent, due to other technological factors considered; total anthocyanins and condensed tannins also changed significantly as a result of the five practices assayed. Five aroma compounds possessed an odour activity value >1 in all wines, and another four in some wines. Linear correlation among volatile compounds and general phenolic composition revealed that total anthocyanins were highly related to 14 different aroma compounds. Multifactor ANOVA, considering the content of total anthocyanins as a sixth random factor, revealed that this parameter affected significantly the contents of ethyl lactate, ethyl isovalerate, 1-pentanol and ethyl octanoate. Thus, the aroma of young red Mencia wines may be affected by levels of total anthocyanins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECT OF CHRONIC INGESTION OF WINE ON THE GLYCEMIC, LIPID AND BODY WEIGHT HOMEOSTASIS IN MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Filho, Sebastião Barreto de; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Santos, Orlando José Dos; Sauaia-Filho, Euler Nicolau; Amorim, Elias; Santana, Ewaldo Eder Carvalho; Barros-Filho, Allan Kardec Dualibe; Santos, Rennan Abud Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits associated with moderate wine consumption, as with ethanol and phenolic compounds, include different mechanisms still little understandable. Evaluate glycemic and weight variations, and the deposit of triglycerides, cholesterol and liver glycogen with red wine consumption. 60 ApoE knockout mice were divided into three groups of 20: Wine Group (WG), Ethanol Group (EG) and Water Group (WAG). They received daily: WG 50 ml of wine and 50 ml water; EG 6 ml ethanol and WAG 94 ml of water. All groups were followed for four months. The food intake was monitored daily, in the period from eight to ten hours and held every five days. The measurement of water intake was also made every five days. The weighing of the animals took place every ten days. The WG had higher weight increase as compared to the other groups. The concentration of hepatic triglyceride was higher in WG (57%) and the EG group was lower (31.6%, pwine or some unknown property that led to significant increase in subcutaneous andretroperitoneal fat in mice. Os benefícios para a saúde associados ao consumo moderado de vinho, como etanol e compostos fenólicos, incluem mecanismos diferentes ainda pouco compreensíveis. Avaliar as variações da glicemia, peso e depósito de triglicrideos, colesterol e glicogênio hepático com o uso de vinho tinto. Sessenta camundongos ApoE knockout foram divididos em três grupos de 20: Grupo do Vinho (WG), grupo do Etanol (EG) Grupo Água (WAG). Cada grupo recebeu diariamente: WG 50 ml de vinho e 50 ml de água; EG 6 ml de etanol e WAG 94 ml de água. O WG teve aumento de peso mais elevado em comparação com os outros grupos. A concentração de triglicerídeos foi maior no WG (57%) e no grupo EG inferior (31,6%) do que no controle (p <0,01). A concentração de colesterol foi inferior no WG (23,6%) e no EG (24,5%, p<0,05). A concentração de glicogênio foi maior no WG (16%); a glicemia capilar foi maior no EG em comparação com os outros grupos, mas

  10. Immunostimulatory Effects of Polysaccharides Isolated from Makgeolli (Traditional Korean Rice Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Won Cho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Makgeolli is a traditional Korean rice wine, reported to have various biological functions. In this study, the immunostimulatory activity of a polysaccharide from makgeolli (PSM was investigated. The polysaccharide fraction was isolated from makgeolli by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and lyophilization. The major constituents in PSM were neutral sugars (87.3%. PSM was composed of five different sugars, glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose. In normal mice, PSM treatment increased the spleen index (p < 0.05 as well as splenocyte proliferation (p < 0.05 in combination with concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. The immunostimulatory activities of PSM were also examined in cyclophosphamide (CY-induced immunosuppressed mice. Mice treated with PSM exhibited increased splenocyte proliferation (p < 0.05, natural killer cell activity, and white blood cell counts (p < 0.01 compared with immunosuppressed mice. These results indicate that PSM can enhance immune function in normal mice and CY-induced immunosuppressed mice.

  11. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-09

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p astringent tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  12. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  13. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  14. Effects of Six Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains on Phenolic Attributes, Antioxidant Activity, and Aroma of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv.) Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingchen; Cao, Lin; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Ranran; Jiang, Zijing; Che, Zhenming; Lin, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    “Hayward” kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv.), widely planted all around the world, were fermented with six different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (BM4×4, RA17, RC212, WLP77, JH-2, and CR476) to reveal their influence on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and aromatic components. Significant differences in the levels of caffeic acid, protocatechuate, and soluble solid content were found among wines with the six fermented strains. Wines fermented with RC212 strain exhibited the highest total phenolic acids as well as DPPH radical scavenging ability and also had the strongest ability to produce volatile esters. Wines made with S. cerevisiae BM 4×4 had the highest content of volatile acids, while the highest alcohol content was presented in CR476 wines. Scoring spots of wines with these strains were separated in different quadrants on the components of phenolics and aromas by principal component analyses. Kiwifruit wines made with S. cerevisiae RC212 were characterized by a rich fruity flavor, while CR476 strain and WLP77 strain produced floral flavors and green aromas, respectively. Altogether, the results indicated that the use of S. cerevisiae RC212 was the most suitable for the fermentation of kiwifruit wine with desirable characteristics. PMID:28251154

  15. ROOTSTOCKS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BORDÔ, ISABEL AND IAC 138-22 MÁXIMO MUST AND WINE

    OpenAIRE

    MARLON JOCIMAR RODRIGUES DA SILVA; LUCIANA TREVISAN BRUNELLI; MARA FERNANDES MOURA; JOSÉ LUIZ HERNANDES; SARITA LEONEL; MARCO ANTONIO TECCHIO

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been demonstrated that rootstocks can influence grape characteristics, but there are few data in literature about the rootstocks influence in the wine characteristics, especially in wines elaborated with Vitis labrusca or hybrid grapes. This study evaluated the influence of ‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstocks on the physicochemical characteristics of ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and ‘IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts and wines. The musts were evaluated for pH, soluble solids, total acidity and...

  16. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  18. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from wine...

  19. Effects of salicylic acid-induced wine rich in anthocyanins on metabolic parameters and adipose insulin signaling in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; de Rosas, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Ponce, María Teresa; Martinez, Liliana; Miatello, Roberto M; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of Syrah red wine treated with salicylic acid (RW SA) and its control red wine (RW) on metabolic parameters, systolic blood pressure and adipose tissue insulin signaling in high-fructose (F) fed rats. Grape treated with SA increased the anthocyanin (ANTs) levels in RW. F induced increased systolic blood pressure, dislipidemia and insulin resistance (HOMA:IR). F rats treated with RW significantly prevented these alterations while RW SA partially attenuated triglycerides levels and HOMA:IR without modifications in HDL cholesterol levels. F impaired the adipose tissue response to insulin. Supplementation with RW and RW SA partially attenuated these alterations. Rats supplemented with RW SA had lesser beneficial effects on metabolic alterations than control RW, while both RW and RW SA attenuated altered adipose response to insulin. More studies are necessary to deeply evaluate the effect on SA-induced RW rich in ANTs levels on metabolic alterations associated to MetS.

  20. Micro-drinking behaviours and consumption of wine in different wine glass sizes: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Z; Pechey, R; Couturier, D L; Hollands, G J; Marteau, T M

    2017-06-12

    Tableware size may influence how much food and non-alcoholic drink is consumed. Preliminary evidence of the impact of glass size on purchasing of alcoholic drinks shows an increase in wine sales of almost 10% when the same portion of wine is served in a larger glass. The primary aim of the current study is to test if micro-drinking behaviours act as a mechanism that could underlie this effect, through an increase in drinking rate, sip duration and/or number of sips from a larger glass. In a between-subjects experimental design, 166 young women were randomised to drink a 175 ml portion of wine from either a smaller (250 ml) or larger (370 ml) wine glass. Primary outcomes were three micro-drinking behaviours, assessed observationally using video recordings: drinking rate, sip number and sip duration. Other possible mechanisms examined were satisfaction with the perceived amount of wine served and pleasure of the drinking experience, assessed using self-report measures. Wine drunk from the larger, compared with the smaller glass, was consumed more slowly and with shorter sip duration, counter to the hypothesised direction of effect. No differences were observed in any of the other outcome measures. These findings provide no support for the hypothesised mechanisms by which serving wine in larger wine glasses increases consumption. While micro-drinking behaviours may still prove to be a mechanism explaining consumption from different glass sizes, cross-validation of these results in a more naturalistic setting is needed.

  1. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  2. Effect of antioxidant protection of must on volatile compounds and aroma shelf life of Falanghina (Vitis vinifera L.) wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moio, Luigi; Ugliano, Maurizio; Genovese, Alessandro; Gambuti, Angelita; Pessina, Rita; Piombino, Paola

    2004-02-25

    Two vinification methods involving different degrees of antioxidant protection of Falanghina must during prefermentative steps, and referred as HAMP (high antioxidant must protection) and LAMP (low antioxidant must protection), were compared in terms of fermentation performances of four different yeast strains, composition of the volatile fraction of wines at the end of alcoholic fermentation, and shelf life of wines during storage. The use of HAMP technology resulted in wines with lower volatile acidity and higher concentrations of medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters, acetates, and volatile fatty acids. For two of the four strains a lower concentration of isoamyl alcohol was also observed. HAMP wines also revealed increased shelf life because of the higher concentration of odor active esters at the end of storage and better preservation of varietal aromas.

  3. The effect of monsoon variability on fish landing in the Sadeng Fishing Port of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarna, D.

    2018-03-01

    The volume of landing fish of the Sadeng Fishing Port within certain months showed an increase from year to year, especially during June, July and August (JJA). While in other months the fish production was low. The purpose of this research was to understand the influence of monsoon variability on fish landing in the Sadeng Fishing Port. Data were analyzed descriptively as spatial and temporal catch. Data were namely catch fish production collected from fishing port, while satellite and HYCOM model during 2011–2012 period were selected. The wind data, sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a were analyzed from ASCAT and MODIS sensors during the Southeast Monsoon. The result showed the wind from the southeasterly provide wind stress at sea level and caused Ekman Transport to move away water mass from the sea shore. The lost water mass in the ocean surface was replaced by cold water from deeper layer which was rich in nutrients. The distribution of chlorophyll-a during the Southeast Monsoon was relatively higher in the southern coast of Java than during the Northwest monsoon. The SST showed approximately 25.3 °C. The abundance of nutrients indicated by the distribution of chlorophyll-a around the coast during the Southeast Monsoon, will enhance the arrival of larger fish. Thus, it can be understood that during June, July, and August the catch production is higher than the other months.

  4. The effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase and esterase activity on the flavour profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Mariska; Bauer, Florian F; Lambrechts, Marius G; Swiegers, Jan H; Cozzolino, Daniel; Pretorius, Isak S

    2006-07-15

    The fruity odours of wine are largely derived from the synthesis of esters and higher alcohols during yeast fermentation. The ATF1- and ATF2-encoded alcohol acetyltransferases of S. cerevisiae are responsible for the synthesis of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate esters, while the EHT1-encoded ethanol hexanoyl transferase is responsible for synthesizing ethyl caproate. However, esters such as these might be degraded by the IAH1-encoded esterase. The objectives of this study were: (a) to overexpress the genes encoding ester-synthesizing and ester-degrading enzymes in wine yeast; (b) to prepare Colombard table wines and base wines for distillation using these modified strains; and (c) to analyse and compare the ester concentrations and aroma profiles of these wines and distillates. The overexpression of ATF1 significantly increased the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and ethyl caproate, while the overexpression of ATF2 affected the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate to a lesser degree. The overexpression of IAH1 resulted in a significant decrease in ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, hexyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The overexpression of EHT1 resulted in a marked increase in ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate. The flavour profile of the wines and distillates prepared using the modified strains were also significantly altered as indicated by formal sensory analysis. This study offers prospects for the development of wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capability that could assist winemakers in their effort to consistently produce wine and distillates such as brandy to definable flavour specifications and styles.

  5. Flow effects due to pulsation in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using POD analysis to identify large coherent flow structures in a complex geometry. • Flow field alters significant for constant and pulsating boundary conditions. • The discharge coefficient of the exhaust port decreases 2% with flow pulsation. • Pulsation causes a pumping mechanism due to a phase shift of pressure and momentum. - Abstract: In an internal combustion engine, the residual energy remaining after combustion in the exhaust gasses can be partially recovered by a downstream arranged device. The exhaust port represents the passage guiding the exhaust gasses from the combustion chamber to the energy recovering device, e.g. a turbocharger. Thus, energy losses in the course of transmission shall be reduced as much as possible. However, in one-dimensional engine models used for engine design, the exhaust port is reduced to its discharge coefficient, which is commonly measured under constant inflow conditions neglecting engine-like flow pulsation. In this present study, the influence of different boundary conditions on the energy losses and flow development during the exhaust stroke are analyzed numerically regarding two cases, i.e. using simple constant and pulsating boundary conditions. The compressible flow in an exhaust port geometry of a truck engine is investigated using three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The results contrast the importance of applying engine-like boundary conditions in order to estimate accurately the flow induced losses and the discharge coefficient of the exhaust port. The instantaneous flow field alters significantly when pulsating boundary conditions are applied. Thus, the induced losses by the unsteady flow motion and the secondary flow motion are increased with inflow pulsations. The discharge coefficient decreased about 2% with flow pulsation. A modal flow decomposition method, i.e. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), is used to analyze the coherent structures induced with the particular

  6. The Practice of Guangzhou Port Planning Environmental Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhao, Junjie; Shou, Youping; Qiao, Jianzhe; Dong, Shipei; Zhang, Lu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the implementation of Guangzhou port plan were analyzed from hydrological condition, water environment and ecological environment. Regional water environmental carrying capacity was analyzed. Guangzhou port is a main port in the coast of China, it is an important port of foreign trade in south China, it is an important port for energy supplies and raw materials in Guangdong province [1]. With the shipping channel condition improvement and the construction of large specialized container port area, Guangzhou port will gradually become trunk line port of container transport in south China.

  7. Effect of grape juice press fractioning on polysaccharide and oligosaccharide compositions of Pinot meunier and Chardonnay Champagne base wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégou, Sandrine; Hoang, Duc An; Salmon, Thomas; Williams, Pascale; Oluwa, Solomen; Vrigneau, Céline; Doco, Thierry; Marchal, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Press fractioning is an important step in the production of sparkling base wines to segregate the grape juices with different qualities. Grape juice fractions were collected during the pressing cycle at industrial and laboratory scales. The Pinot meunier and Chardonnay Champagne base wines obtained from the free-run juice and the squeezed juices exhibited strong differences from the beginning to the last step of pressing cycle for numerous enological parameters. Significant changes in polysaccharide (PS) and oligosaccharide (OS) base wine composition and concentration were found as the pressing cycle progressed. During the pressing cycle, the total PS concentration decreased by 31% (from 244 to 167mg/L) and 32% (from 201 to 136mg/L) in the Pinot meunier and Chardonnay wines respectively. The wine OS amounts varied between 97 and 139mg/L. The polysaccharide rich in arabinose and galactose (39-54%) and mannoproteins (38-55%) were the major PS in the base wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  9. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  10. Mapping of wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Віліна Пересадько; Надія Максименко; Катерина Біла

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very un...

  11. The effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline on combustion and emission characteristics of a port injection gasoline engine

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochen Wang; Zhenbin Chen; Jimin Ni; Saiwu Liu; Haijie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Comparative experiments were conducted on a port injection gasoline engine fueled with hydrous ethanol gasoline (E10W), ethanol gasoline (E10) and pure gasoline (E0). The effects of the engine loads and the additions of ethanol and water on combustion and emission characteristics were analyzed deeply. According to the experimental results, compared with E0, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressure at high load. Increases in peak heat release rates were observed for E10W fuel at all the op...

  12. The Effect of Temperature, pH and SO/sub 2/ on Ethanol Concentration and Sugar Consumption Rate (SCR) in Apple Wine Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoglu, M. D.; Ertunc, S.; Akay, B.; Vural, N.; Hapoglu, H.; Demirci, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of operating parameters on ethanol concentration (ethanol) in apple wine production process. Examined parameters were temperature (T), pH and sulphur dioxide concentration (SO/sub 2/). Experiments were planned and executed according to a full two-level factorial experimental design method. The studied levels were 18 degree C and 25 degree C for temperature, 3 and 4 for pH and 50 and 150 ppm for SO/sub 2/. Ethanol concentration of apple wine for each set of experiments was determined by GC/MS. Experimental data were analyzed by using both graphical and quantitative Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) Techniques. The main effect of each factor on sugar consumption rate (SCR) was also examined. The results show that the effect of examined operating parameters on ethanol was negative. High temperature level caused faster fermentation rate than the one caused by low temperature. Low level of pH and high level of SO/sub 2/ inhibited the activities of both harmful microorganisms and wine yeast. (author)

  13. Effects of red wine, grape juice and resveratrol consumption on bone parameters of Wistar rats submitted to high-fat diet and physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Letícia Monteiro da Fonseca; Pimenta, Nina Da Matta Alvarez; Fiochi, Raiza Da Silva Ferreira; Mota, Bruna Ferreira Mota; Monnerat, Juliana Arruda de Souza; Teixeira, Cristiane Correia; Ramalho, Renata Beatriz Da Rocha; Maldronato, Isabelle Waleska; Dolisnky, Manuela; Boaventura, Gilson Teles; Blondet, Vilma; Barroso, Sergio Girão; Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da; Rocha, Gabrielle De Souza

    2017-10-27

    intake of diets with high saturated fat may produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization. Lifestyle changes help reduce the bone loss observed in osteoporosis. Resveratrol, present in grape juice and red wine, has osteogenic and osteoinductive effects, being potentially beneficial for bone health. to evaluate the effects of red grape juice, red wine and resveratrol consumption on bone parameters in Wistar rats submitted to a high-fat diet and physical training. female Wistar rats, with 90 days of age, were divided into five groups and followed up for 60 days: a) control group; b) high-fat group; c) grape juice group; d) red wine group; and e) resveratrol group. The different groups of animals performed a physical training protocol. Animal's weight and consumption were monitored weekly. After 60 days, femoral dimensions, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were evaluated. there was no difference in body mass; however, all groups consuming the high-fat diet had higher consumption (p diet.

  14. Wine, spirits and the lung: good, bad or indifferent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Stephan L

    2006-01-01

    The putative cardiovascular risks and benefits of the ingestion of wine and alcohol-containing spirits have been well publicized; however, less attention has been focused upon the health effects of wine and spirits consumption on the respiratory system. This paper will highlight epidemiologic, clinical and experimental data on the effects of wine and distilled spirits [and the chemical components thereof] on lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progression, lung cancer risk, risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome, high altitude pulmonary edema and wine [sulfite] associated asthma. Several studies have demonstrated a positive [beneficial] effect of light-to-moderate wine consumption on pulmonary function, while chronic ingestion of distilled spirits may have either no effect, or a negative effect. Studies in Scandinavia, Europe and South America have suggested a possible protective effect of wine ingestion against lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. Resveratrol [3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene] a polyphenolic compound found in red wine, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogen agonist effects and may be responsible for some of the health benefits of wine. The spectrum of potentially beneficial clinical effects of resveratrol and other wine-derived compounds is discussed.

  15. Principal Ports and Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...

  16. Principal Ports and Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...

  17. Phenolic Compounds from Wine as Natural Preservatives of Fish Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Aredes Aredes-Fernández; María Cristina Manca de Nadra; María José Rodríguez-Vaquero

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the antibacterial effect of phenolic compound combinations and total polyphenols of Argentinean red wine varieties against Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Listeria monocytogenes using commercial fish meat as model food. Rutin-quercetin combination and three wine varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and Merlot) caused cellular death of both bacteria on fish meat at 4 °C. Rutin-quercetin combination was effective on fish meat even at 20 °C. Clarified wine...

  18. Wine, Spirits and the Lung: Good, Bad or Indifferent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamholz, Stephan L

    2006-01-01

    The putative cardiovascular risks and benefits of the ingestion of wine and alcohol-containing spirits have been well publicized; however, less attention has been focused upon the health effects of wine and spirits consumption on the respiratory system. This paper will highlight epidemiologic, clinical and experimental data on the effects of wine and distilled spirits [and the chemical components thereof] on lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progression, lung cancer risk, r...

  19. Wine consumers' subjective responses to wine mouthfeel and understanding of wine body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Danner, Lukas; Li, Luxing; Bossan, Hélène; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    Wine mouthfeel is considered important for wine quality by experts, while consumers understanding of mouthfeel and the role of wine body in their wine choice is unknown. One experiment determined the influence of intrinsic wine mouthfeel on consumers' wine liking and emotions, and the other, how consumers understand the term wine body. The first experiment used a 2 astringency level×2 body level experimental design. The samples were base wine with; nothing added (control), added xanthan gum (for increased body), added grape seed extract (GSE, for increased astringency), and with both added xanthan gum and GSE. The consumer taste trial (n=112) indicated that wine with increased body did not influence wine liking and emotions; while increased astringency decreased liking and elicited more intense negative emotions. The second experiment examined consumers' knowledge of wine body through an online survey (n=136). Consumers described wine body most frequently using words such as flavour, fullness, and strength. Wine body was therefore understood by consumers predominantly as a holistic multi-sensory perception of flavour. Wine flavour was indicated by consumers to be the most important factor driving purchase decisions followed by balance of flavours and wine body. It is crucial that wine professionals carefully communicate wine characteristics to consumers to prevent possible misunderstandings such as the meaning of wine body and as a result better meet consumer expectations. In future, the term body may benefit from a clearer definition for academic research as well as industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    for weeks, months and years. Since grape and wine polyphenols are chemically distinct, their antioxidant activities cannot be the same. So, eating grapes might well lead to beneficial effects on human health, due to the variety and sometimes large amounts of their polyphenolic content. However, epidemiological surveys have focused on wines, not on grapes....

  1. Effects of Red Wine Vinegar Beverage on the Colonic Tissue of Rodents: Biochemical, Functional and Pharmacological Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhsaikhan, Azjargal; Takahara, Akira; Nakamura, Yuji; Goto, Ai; Chiba, Koki; Lubna, Nur Jaharat; Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Mihoko; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Ando, Kentaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Sugiyama, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    A beverage made of red wine vinegar and grape juice (Yamanashi-no-megumi™) was developed as a supplemental fluid containing polyphenols, which has been clinically shown to enhance the colonic transit. In this study, we assessed the mechanism of its prokinetic action by analyzing the effects on both the colonic phosphodiesterase activity of rats (n=4) and the isolated colonic strip preparation of guinea pigs (n=4). The 7% (v/v) solution of the beverage significantly decreased the phosphodiesterase activity by 9% (n=4). The beverage in concentrations of 0.7, 2.1 and 7% (v/v) relaxed the colonic strips pre-contracted by 1 µmol/L of carbachol in a concentration-related manner with 50, 58 and 79%, each response of which was diminished to 11, 19 and 46%, respectively in the presence of 100 µmol/L of L-nitro-arginine methyl ester. These results obtained by biochemical, functional and pharmacological analyses suggest that the beverage could relax the colon through both cAMP-associated and nitric oxide-dependent pathways, which may partly explain clinically observed prokinetic effect of the beverage.

  2. STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF BREAKWATER STRUCTURES OF THE “EASTERN PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY” JSC OIL REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS PORT COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhod’ko Oleg Alekseevich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of MGSU Corporation for testing of design solutions of the “Eastern petrochemical company” JSC oil refinery and petrochemical plants port complex using the physical modeling method. Construction of the marine terminal of the oil refinery and petrochemical plants port complex is planned to be on the Eastern shore of the Vostok Bay which is the part of Peter the Great Bay in the Sea of Japan. The port area is created by means of an artificial land site. The water area of the terminal will be guarded against sea waves by a breakwater. Experiments on the study of wave propagation in the port model water area at the Eastern and Western breakwaters were performed in the laboratory wave basin in three-dimensional layout, with the aim of obtaining of data about wave heights at berthing facilities. Effectiveness of the breakwater designs was studied in two-dimensional layout in a wave flume. During the port model construction all the designed waterworks as well as the project bathymetry of the port water area were reproduced at a scale of 1:100. Analysis of the experiment results with the slope protection embodiment version demonstrates that this engineering solution is able to withstand waves of the design parameters.

  3. Partial and weak oestrogenicity of the red wine constituent resveratrol: consideration of its superagonist activity in MCF-7 cells and its suggested cardiovascular protective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J; Tinwell, H; Pennie, W; Brooks, A N; Lefevre, P A; Beresford, N; Sumpter, J P

    1999-01-01

    It was recently reported that the red wine phytoestrogen resveratrol (RES) acts as a superagonist to oestrogen-responsive MCF-7 cells. This activity of RES was speculated to be relevant to the 'French paradox' in which moderate red wine consumption is reported to yield cardiovascular health benefits to humans. We report here that RES binds to oestrogen receptors (ER) isolated from rat uterus with an affinity approximately 5 orders of magnitude lower than does either the reference synthetic oestrogen diethylstilboestrol (DES) or oestradiol (E2). In comparison with E2 or DES, RES is only a weak and partial agonist in a yeast hER-alpha transcription assay and in cos-1 cell assays employing transient transfections of ER-alpha or ER-beta associated with two different ER-response elements. Resveratrol was also concluded to be inactive in immature rat uterotrophic assays conducted using three daily administrations of 0.03-120 mgkg(-1)/day(-1) RES (administered by either oral gavage or subcutaneous injection). These data weaken the suggestion that the oestrogenicity of RES may account for the reported cardiovascular protective effects of red wine consumption, and they raise questions regarding the extent to which oestrogenicity data derived for a chemical using MCF-7 cells (or any other single in vitro assay) can be used to predict the hormonal effects likely to occur in animals or humans.

  4. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm, E. B.; Klatsky, A.; Grobbee, D.; Stampfer, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the effect of specific types of alcoholic drink on coronary risk. DESIGN: Systematic review of ecological, case-control, and cohort studies in which specific associations were available for consumption of beer, wine, and spirits and risk of coronary heart disease. SUBJECTS: 12 ecological, three case-control, and 10 separate prospective cohort studies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alcohol consumption and relative risk of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Most ecological studies suggested that wine was more effective in reducing risk of mortality from heart disease than beer or spirits. Taken together, the three case-control studies did not suggest that one type of drink was more cardioprotective than the others. Of the 10 prospective cohort studies, four found a significant inverse association between risk of heart disease and moderate wine drinking, four found an association for beer, and four for spirits. CONCLUSIONS: Results from observational studies, where alcohol consumption can be linked directly to an individual's risk of coronary heart disease, provide strong evidence that all alcoholic drinks are linked with lower risk. Thus, a substantial portion of the benefit is from alcohol rather than other components of each type of drink. PMID:8605457

  5. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šperková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and restaurants. In a smaller scale it is done through internet sales, own outlets and wine auctions. According to the research of Focus agency, Marketing & Social Research, done in 2009, customers buy wine mostly in retail chains and decide on sort and quality of wine directly at the moment of purchase. Selection is based except wine quality also on the shape of the bottle, etiquette, and also cork (consumers explicitly prefer cork, and the screw top rather discourages. Certain part of customers – specifically those, who are more acquainted with wine – buy wine in special wine-shops. The research shows a decrease of direct wine-sales.When using services of independent trade organizations, producers have to control the intensity of commercial activities and knowledge of technical characteristics of products. Small wine producers, though, do not have to use this distribution channel, and can focus only on direct sales. For some small wine producers, specifically those operating in the areas with an extended possibility for wine-tourism, this channel can be more suitable and effective than using retail chains. This way of distribution does not require extensive start-up investments, it is directly dependent on producers own effort, and can be done as a supplementary activity to the main source of income.Regardless the particular choice of a distribution channel by a small wine producer it is necessary to be judged not only from the viewpoint of its advantages and

  6. Effect of sequential inoculation (Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the first fermentation on the foam properties of sparkling wine (Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina-Trujillo Laura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we reported that sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the first fermentation increased the protein concentration and improved the foaming properties of a base wine. Since effervescence and foam of sparkling wines are key quality factors, the interest of this practice for sparkling wine industry is obvious. In this paper we study whether the foaming properties of the sparkling wines produced from the base wines obtained by sequential inoculation with T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae remains better than those of their controls produced from base wines fermented only with S. cerevisiae. The obtained results confirmed that sequential inoculation in the production of the base wine originated sparkling wines with significantly higher maximum heights of foam than conventional inoculation, probably because autolysis of the T. delbrueckii cells in the base wine released higher amounts of proteins, especially of the low molecular weight fraction.

  7. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.42 Section 27.42...

  8. "I like the sound of that!" Wine descriptions influence consumers' expectations, liking, emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Johnson, Trent E; Ristic, Renata; Meiselman, Herbert L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated how information, typically presented on wine back-labels or wine company websites, influences consumers' expected liking, informed liking, wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines. Regular white wine consumers (n=126) evaluated the same set of three commercially available white wines (mono-varietal Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc) under three information levels. Session 1, blind tasting (no information provided) and Session 2, informed tasting (held at least 1week later) with both basic (sensory description of the wines) and elaborate (sensory plus high wine quality and favourable winery information) descriptions followed by liking, wine-evoked emotions (measured with the Australian Wine Evoked Emotions Lexicon (AWEEL)) and willingness to pay evaluations. Before tasting the wine in session 2, consumers also rated expected liking. Results showed that information level had a significant effect on all investigated variables. The elaborate information level evoked higher expectations before tasting the wines, plus resulted in higher liking ratings, elicitation of more intense positive (e.g. contented, happy and warm-hearted) and less intense negative emotions (e.g. embarrassed and unfulfilled), and a substantial increase in willingness to pay after tasting the wines compared to the blind condition, with the basic condition ranging in-between. These results were consistent across the three wine samples. Furthermore, if the liking rating after tasting the wines matched the expected liking or exceeded the expectations by 1 point on a 9-point hedonic scale, participants felt the most intense positive emotions and the least intense negative emotions. Whereas, if the expectations were not met or the actual liking exceeded the expectations by >2 points, participants felt less intense positive and more intense negative emotions. This highlights not only the importance of well written and accurate wine descriptions

  9. Effect of wine-based marinades on the behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and background flora in beef fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisiotou, A; Chorianopoulos, N G; Gounadaki, A; Panagou, E Z; Nychas, G-J E

    2013-06-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the wine-based marinades to control the survival of acid-adapted and non-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium and background flora of fresh beef stored aerobically or under modified atmosphere. Beef slices were inoculated with a 3-strain cocktail of acid-adapted or non-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium strains DT 193, 4/74 and DSM 554 and marinated by immersion in wine (W) or wine supplemented with 0.3% thyme essential oil (WEO), for 12h at 4°C. Marinated slices were then stored under air or modified atmosphere conditions at 5°C. S. Typhimurium and background flora were followed for a 19-day period of storage. S. Typhimurium individual strains were monitored by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Marination with wine significantly (Pwine marinade. The epidemic multi-drug resistant DT 193, the 4/74 and DSM 554 strains survived marination (for both W and WEO) and were detected at about similar proportions as revealed by PFGE results. Present results indicate that wine-based marinades are efficient, from a safety and shelf life stand point, in reducing pathogen's levels as well as the background beef flora. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the effect of 8 closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of a red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of the closure are two key factors of the shelf life of wine in bottles before bringing them to market. The impact of four screw caps, two synthetic and two technical corks was evaluated on a red wine of Merlot/Tannat. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b* was carried out during 538 days of storage at 20 °C. Two sensory analyses at 10 and 17 months completed the study. The wine was bottled with an average total oxygen content of 2 mg/L. The heterogeneity intra and inter procedure was controlled, including for the dissolved carbon dioxide content. Conclusion: Unlike closures with highest OTR, the two technical corks and the two screw caps with Saranex seal, harboring the lowest OTR, matched with the wines exhibiting a low total O2 content at equilibrium (from 4th to 18th month, with more free SO2 and less changed colour. However this OTR gradient (5 to 67 μg/d observed through the physicochemical analyses was not necessarily confirmed by both sensory analyses performed. Significance and impact of study: This study puts into perspective the impact of OTR closure on sensory characteristics evolution of wine consumed during the first two years, especially when the total oxygen at bottling exceeds 1.5 mg/L.

  11. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect data from more than 1000 U.S. wine consumers. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference across demographic segments in terms of the level of health consciousness. Millennials and Asians are the most concerned, whereas Whites are the least, about health in their respective segments. Red wine is considered the healthiest wine type compared to other colors and styles. Moreover, more than 80% of the sample believes drinking red wine is healthier than drinking beer or spirits. However, nearly 50% of the sample thinks sulfites in wine can cause headaches. Managerial implications are discussed.

  12. D-A type sensor array for differentiation and identification of white wine varieties based on specific solvent effect activated by CT-LE transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingqi; Zhang, Xin; Li, Hao; Hou, Yue; Hou, Jingdan; Li, Zhongfeng; Yang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Han, Tianyu

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we synthesize a series of compounds with electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) units. They show general solvent effect in aprotic solvents, suggesting a charge transfer (CT) process. While in protic solvents including water, ethanol and methanol, the spectra exert no polarity-dependence but a remarkable hypochromatic shift together with the fading of CT band. Dynamic analysis implies that intermolecular hydrogen bond will be formed between carboxylic acid and protic solvent, boosting another deactivation pathway that jumps off a bigger energy gap, in other words, favoring the locally excited (LE) state emission. The CT-LE transition involves variations in both absorption and emission spectra, and further poses competition with other mechanisms including activated/restricted intramolecular rotation (IR/RIR). Inspired by the cross-reactivity, we turn our attention to the development of sensor array, in order to identify white wine varieties. The differential spectral responses are recorded, generating multiple factors including absorption wavelength (λab), emission wavelength (λem), absorbance (Abs.) and emission intensity (Int.). These factors are processed with principal component analysis (PCA), creating a three-dimensional fingerprint data base for white wines. The data points in the coordinate system are clustered into 10 different groups, demonstrating a clear differentiation of all the white wines. More importantly, as our final test for whether the sensor array can identify the counterfeits, an adulterated liquor sample, which is provided by police officers, is fingerprinted on the three-dimensional diagram. Its canonical factors fall into an area distinct from the adulterated wine, indicating a clear identification.

  13. Structural characterization of blackberry wine polysaccharides and immunomodulatory effects on LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro Caillot, Adriana Rute; de Lacerda Bezerra, Iglesias; Palhares, Laís Cristina Gusmão Ferreira; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Chavante, Suely Ferreira; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2018-08-15

    Three polysaccharide fractions were isolated from blackberry wine. The crude extract BWPs was obtained with ethanol precipitation and freeze-thawing process, it was then submitted to Fehling treatment, giving soluble BWPFs and insoluble BWPFp fractions. These fractions were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Major polysaccharides were identified for each fraction: mannan, type II arabinogalactan and type I rhamnogalacturonan for BWPs, a mannan formed by a major chain of α-Manp(1 → 6)-linked units, O-2 substituted with α-d-Manp(1 → 2)-linked side chains for BWPFp and a AG II formed by a major chain of β-d-Galp(1 → 3)-linked, substituted at O-6 by side chains of the β-d-Galp(1 → 6)-linked, which then are substituted at O-3 by non-reducing units of α-l-Araf and a RG I, formed by [→4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→] n for BWPFs. Anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fractions were evaluated in RAW 264.7 cells. Fractions markedly reduced nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) in LPS-treated cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of heat treatment on the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of red wine pomace seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; González-SanJosé, María L; Rivero-Pérez, María D; García-Lomillo, Javier; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-04-15

    The impact of thermal processing on the phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity (TAC) of powdered red wine pomace seasonings (RWPSs) obtained from different sources (seedless: Sk-S; whole: W-S; seeds: Sd-S) was assessed. High contents in anthocyanins, flavonol-3-O-glycosides, phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols were found in Sk-S, whereas flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids were the main compounds identified in Sd-S. Reductions in the anthocyanidin and flavonol-3-ol contents mainly determined the effect of heat on the total phenolic contents (Sk-S: -29.4%; W-S: -28.0%; Sd-S: -5.78%), although heating affected positively the phenolic acid and flavonol aglycon contents. Slight TAC decreases were observed in the RWPS-derived extracts (classical Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS assays). However, higher TAC reductions were detected when the powdered RWPSs were used directly as samples (QUENCHER approach). In conclusion, there is little evidence against submitting RWPSs to thermal processing, as heating affects differently each type of phenolic compound and does not induce very severe TAC decreases in these seasonings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of copper fining on the wine content in sulfur off-odors and on their evolution during accelerated anoxic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Eduardo; Hernández-Orte, Purificación; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2017-09-15

    Three different red wines with reductive character have been treated with two different doses of copper sulfate (0.06 and 0.5mg/L) and with a commercial copper-containing product at the recommended dose (0.6mg/L). Wines were in contact with copper one week, centrifuged and stored at 50°C in strict anoxia for 2weeks (up to 7 in one case). Brine-releasable (BR-) and free fractions of Volatile Sulfur Compounds were determined throughout the process. Relevant increases of BR-H 2 S suggest that those wines contained other H 2 S precursors non-detectable by the brine dilution method. Copper treatments had two major effects: 1) immediate decrease the levels of free H 2 S and methanethiol (MeSH); 2) slow the rate at which free H 2 S (not MeSH) increases during anoxic storage. After 7weeks of anoxia levels of free H 2 S and MeSH were high and similar regardless of the copper treatment. Higher copper doses could induce the accumulation of BR-H 2 S. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FORWINE - Statistical Downscaling of Seasonal forecasts for wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The most renowned viticulture regions in the Iberian Peninsula have a long standing tradition in winemaking and are considered world-class grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) producing regions. Portugal is the 11th wine producer in the world, with internationally acclaimed wines, such as Port wine, and vineyards across the whole territory. Climate is widely acknowledged of one of the most important factors for grapevine development and growth (Fraga et al. 2014a and b; Jackson et al. 1993; Keller 2010). During the growing season (April-October in the Northern Hemisphere) of this perennial and deciduous crop, the climatic conditions are responsible for numerous morphologically and physiological changes. Anomalously low February-March mean temperature, anomalously high May mean temperature and anomalously high March precipitation tend to be favourable to wine production in the Douro Valley. Seasonal forecast of precipitation and temperature tailored to fit critical thresholds, for crucial seasons, can be used to inform management practices (viz. phytosanitary measures, land operations, marketing campaigns) and develop a wine production forecast. Statistical downscaling of precipitation, maximum, minimum temperatures is used to model wine production following Santos et al. (2013) and to calculate bioclimatic indices. The skill of the ensemble forecast is evaluated through anomaly correlation, ROC area, spread-error ratio and CRPS

  18. Singlet Oxygen Detection Using Red Wine Extracts as Photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunes, Irene; Vázquez-Ortega, Fernanda; Trigos, Ángel

    2017-09-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine provides beneficial effects to health. This is attributed to polyphenol compounds present in wine such as resveratrol, quercetin, gallic acid, rutin, and vanillic acid. The amount of these antioxidants is variable; nevertheless, the main beneficial effects of red wine are attributed to resveratrol. However, it has been found that resveratrol and quercetin are able to photosensitize singlet oxygen generation and conversely, gallic acid acts as quencher. Therefore, and since resveratrol and quercetin are some of the most important antioxidants reported in red wines, the aim of this research was to evaluate the photosensitizing ability of 12 red wine extracts through photo-oxidation of ergosterol. The presence of 1 O 2 was detected by ergosterol conversion into peroxide of ergosterol through 1 H NMR analysis. Our results showed that 10 wine extracts were able to act as photosensitizers in the generation of singlet oxygen. The presence of 1 O 2 can damage other compounds of red wine and cause possible organoleptic alterations. Finally, although the reaction conditions employed in this research do not resemble the inherent conditions in wine making processing or storing, or even during its consumption, this knowledge could be useful to prevent possible pro-oxidant effects and avoid detrimental effects in red wines. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Port of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The port of Rotterdam is one of the largest ports in the World and has great significance for the Dutch and European economy. Newly appointed TU/e professor Albert Veenstra explains if and how the Port of Rotterdam is affected by the economic crisis. With other European ports closing in, what can

  20. Strategic port development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Peter Bjerg; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    While large global ports are recognised as playing a central role in many supply chains as logistic gateways, smaller regional ports have been more stagnant and have not reached the same level of development as the larger ports. The research literature in relation to port development is also...

  1. The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duthie, GG; Pedersen, M W; PC, Morrice

    1998-01-01

    wine, malt whisky or unmatured 'new make'spirit. Each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Bloodsamples were obtained from the anticubital vein at intervals up to 4h after consumption of the beverages when a urinesample was also obtained....... RESULTS: Within 30 min of consumption of the wine and whisky, there was a similar andsignificant increase in plasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity as determined by the ferric reducing capacityof plasma (FRAP). No changes were observed following consumption of 'new make' spirit. CONCLUSIONS......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 100 ml of whisky or red wine by healthy male subjects increasedplasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: A Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effectswhereby, after an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 100 ml of red...

  2. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-05-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for connectors used with electronic devices, such as input and/or output ports to connect peripheral equipment or accessories. More specifically, various flat-port are provided that can be used in place of standard connectors including, but not limited to, audio jacks and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports. The flat-port connectors are an alternate connection design to replace the traditional receptacle port (female-port), making the device more sealed creation more dust and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot of space and contribute to the increase thickness of the device. The flat-port receptacle improves the overall appearance of the device and makes it more resistant to dust and water.

  3. Relations between must clarification and organoleptic attributes of wine varietes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blowdown musts is important operation performed in winemaking, which can have a major impact on the future quality of the wine. Blowdown of the wine removes components that may carry elements that negatively affect the hygienic and sensory quality of the wine. Fining of musts and wines is carried either by a static method or using different fining preparations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different methods of decanting on the wine quality varieties of Sauvignon. The overall sensory quality was evaluated (100 - points system, and semantic differential and the aromatic profile (profile method. All sensory evaluations were practiced by skilled sensory panel in controled conditions of Faculty sensory lab. Wine samples were clarified by static manner or with the assistance of the preparation applied to the clarification of wine in two different doses. By the results and their visualization of flavour and smell profile by spider plots we could conclude that pure cultures have positive effect on processed wine. Based on the results we found a beneficial effect of clearing by the clarification of the preparation based on cellulose, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, gelatin and mineral adsorbents at 100 g.100 L-1  of the sensory quality of the wine.

  4. Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution.

  5. Effects of resveratrol and other wine polyphenols on the proliferation, apoptosis and androgen receptor expression in LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruelo, A; Romero, I; Cabrera, P M; Arance, I; Andrés, G; Angulo, J C

    2014-01-01

    To address the effect of resveratrol and other red wine polyphenols on cell proliferation, apoptosis and androgen receptor (AR) expression in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells (5 × 102) were cultured in microtiter plate modules and treated with gallic acid, tannic acid and quercetin (1, 5 and 10 μM), rutin and morin (25, 50 and 75 μM) and resveratrol (5, 10 and 25 μM). To address the extent of proliferation at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, a colorimetric immunoassay method was used. An activity caspase 3/7 detection assay was used to disclose apoptosis at 24, 48 and 72 hours. AR mARN levels were determined by real time RT-PCR. All polyphenols studied significantly inhibited (P<.05) cell proliferation compared to control. However, there were moderate differences between them. Resveratrol was the strongest inhibitor at different times and doses. Also, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activity was significantly higher (P<.05) than control in the presence of all the compounds, but the earlier response was achieved by resveratrol. Resveratrol, quercetin and morin were the only nutrients that significantly inhibited AR mRNA expression. Again resveratrol produced the highest inhibition (90-250 times less than control), followed by morin (67-100 times) and quercetin (55-91 times). All polyphenols studied showed important antiproliferative effects and induced apoptosis when added to LNCaP cells culture. We confirm that resveratrol, morin and quercetin may achieve such effect through reduced expression of AR. The synergistic effects of these compounds and their potential to prevent progression of hormone-dependent prostate cancer merit further study. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Beneficial effects of a red wine polyphenol extract on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, Stéphanie; Maillard, Elisa; Bietiger, William; Peronet, Claude; Pinget, Michel; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS) show several metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and oxidative stress (OS). Diet is one of the factors influencing the development of MS, and current nutritional advice emphasises the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption. Here, we assessed the effects of naturally occurring antioxidants, red wine polyphenols (RWPs), on MS and OS. Wistar rats (n = 20) weighing 200-220 g received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 months before they were divided into two groups that received either HFD only or HFD plus 50 mg/kg RWPs in their drinking water for an additional 2 months. A control group (n = 10) received a normal diet (ND) for 4 months. Rats receiving HFD increased body weight over 20 % throughout the duration of the study. They also showed increased blood levels of C-peptide, glucose, lipid peroxides, and oxidised proteins. In addition, the HFD increased OS in hepatic, pancreatic, and vascular tissues, as well as induced pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia and hepatic steatosis. Addition of RWPs to the HFD attenuated these effects on plasma and tissue OS and on islet cell hyperplasia. However, RWPs had no effect on blood glucose levels or hepatic steatosis. RWPs showed an antioxidant mechanism of action against MS. This result will inform future animal studies exploring the metabolic effects of RWPs in more detail. In addition, these findings support the use of antioxidants as adjunctive nutritional treatments for patients with diabetes.

  7. Comparison of the effect of 8 closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Jean-Claude; Caille, Soline; Samson, Alain; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of the closure are two key factors of the shelf life of wine in bottles before bringing them to market. The impact of four screw caps, two synthetic and two technical corks was evaluated on a red wine of Merlot/Tannat. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b*) was carried out during 538 days of storage at 20 °C. Two sensory analyses at 10 and 17 months completed the stu...

  8. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  9. Port Card Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Port Card will be one link in the data acquisition system for the D0 Silicon Vertex Detector. This system consists of the following parts, starting at the detector: Silicon strip detectors are mounted in a spaceframe and wire-bonded to custom bare-die integrated circuits (SVX-II chips) that digitize the charge collected by the strips. The 128-channel chips are mounted on a High-Density Interconnect (HDI) that consists of a small flex circuit that routes control signals and eight data bits for each of three to ten chips onto a common data bus. A cable then routes this bus approximately thirty feet out from the detector to the Port Card. The Port Card houses a commercial chipset that serializes the data in real time and converts the signal into laser light impulses that are then transmitted through a multi-mode optical fiber about 150 feet to a Silicon Acquisition and Readout board (SAR). Here, the data is transformed back to parallel electrical signals that are stored in one of several banks of FIFO memories. The FIFOs place their data onto the VME backplane to a VME Buffer Driver (VBD) which stores the event data in buffers for eventual readout over a thirty-two signal ribbon cable to the Level Two Computers and subsequent tape storage. Control and sequencing of the whole operation starts with the Silicon Acquisition/Readout Controller (SARC) working in tandem with the D0 Clock System. The SARC resides in the same VME crate as the SARs, and transforms signals from the Trigger System into control codes distributed to the various Port Cards via optical fibers operating at 53 Mb/s. It is through these control codes that data taking operations such as data-acquisition, digitization, readout, and various resets can be carried out. The Port Card receives the control codes and manipulates the SVX-II chips in the proper way to effect proper data taking. There will be a total of about 700,000 channels, which translates into about 5580 SVX-II chips, 66 to 100 Port Cards

  10. Evaluación de una Estrategia Colaborativa: un estudio de caso en el sector del vino de OportoAvaliação de uma Estratégia Colaborativa: um estudo de caso no setor do vinho do PortoEvaluation of a Collaborative Strategy: a case study in the Port wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREIRA, António Carrizo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe rapid and all-encompassing changes in regional and world wine markets have stimulated us to carry out this study. Accordingly, based on the competitiveness of an important Port wine producer in Portugal, this article analyzes a strategic alliance between this company and another important multinational one that is present in many different worldwide distribution markets. Basically, the article seeks to understand, on the one side, the impact of a strategic alliance on a small Port wine producer when becoming involved with a multinational company, and, on the other hand, to identify differences, before and after the alliance, to the markets where the small company was made present. This work is centered on a case study and involves the use of econometrics methodologies that analyze panel data, in order to grasp differences of strategic pre- and post-alliance actions. The conclusions are important, since they allow one to compare, on one hand, difference between the company´s performance over two different time horizons. On the other hand, econometrics methods are robust, since they allow one to come to relational conclusions, keeping the case study in mind.RESUMOAs rápidas e abrangentes mudanças nos mercados mundial e regional de vinhos estimularam a realização desta investigação. Assim, tendo por base a competitividade de uma importante empresa produtora de vinho do Porto, em Portugal, este artigo analisa uma aliança estratégica entre essa empresa e uma importante empresa multinacional, presente nos diversos mercados internacionais de distribuição. Em concreto, o artigo procura compreender, por um lado, qual o impacto de uma aliança estratégica para uma pequena empresa produtora de vinho do Porto ao envolver-se com uma empresa multinacional e, por outro, identificar as diferenças antes e depois da aliança para os mercados onde a pequena empresa esteve presente. Este trabalho está centrado em um estudo de caso e

  11. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  12. Reducing the negative sensory impact of volatile phenols in red wine with different chitosans: Effect of structure on efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2018-03-01

    "Brett character" is a negative sensory attribute acquired by red wines when contaminating Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts produce 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, known as volatile phenols (VPs), from cinnamic acid precursors. In this study, chitins and chitosans with different structural features, namely deacetylation degree (5-91%) and molecular weight (24-466kDa) were used for the reduction of this sensory defect. Chitins and chitosans decreased 7-26% of the headspace abundance of VPs without changing their amounts in wines. The efficiency of reduction increased with the deacetylation degree and applied dose. Reduction of headspace abundance of VPs by chitosans enabled significant decreases in the negative phenolic and bitterness attributes and increased positive fruity and floral attributes. Results show that chitosan with high deacetylation degrees, including fungal chitosan, which is already approved for use in wines, is an efficient approach for reducing the negative sensory impact of VPs in red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of yeast strain and some nutritional factors on tannin composition and potential astringency of model wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Aponte, Maria; Moio, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, isolated from different sources, were tested for their ability to reduce tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, and potentially responsible for wine astringency. Strains were preliminary genetically characterized and evaluated for physiological features of technological interest. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed in three synthetic media: CT) containing enological grape tannin; CTP) CT supplemented with organic nitrogen sources; CTPV) CTP supplemented with vitamins. Adsorption of total tannins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, yellow pigments, phenolics having antioxidant activity, and total phenols, characterizing the enological tannin, was determined by spectrophotometric methods after fermentation. The presence of vitamins and peptones in musts greatly influenced the adsorption of tannins reactive towards salivary proteins (4.24 g/L gallic acid equivalent), thus promoting the reduction of the potential astringency of model wines. With reference to the different phenolic classes, yeast strains showed different adsorption abilities. From a technological point of view, the yeast choice proved to be crucial in determining changes in gustative and mouthfeel profile of red wines and may assist winemakers to modulate colour and astringency of wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine (WCPT) on chemically induced oxidative DNA damage in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, C; Lodovici, M; Briani, C; Paganelli, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Dolara, P

    1999-08-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants occurring in vegetables and fruits as well as beverages such as tea and wine which have been thought to influence oxidative damage. We wanted to verify whether a complex mixture of wine tannins (wine complex polyphenols and tannins, WCPT) prevent chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by measuring the ratio of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (80HdG)/ 2-deoxyguanosine (2dG) x 10(-6) in hydrolyzed DNA using HPLC coupled with electrochemical and UV detectors. We treated rats with WCPT (57 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 d, a dose 10-fold higher than what a moderate wine drinker would be exposed to. WCPT administration significantly reduced the ratio of 80HdG/2dG x 10(-6) in liver DNA obtained from rats treated with 2-nitropropane (2NP) relative to controls administered 2NP only (33. 3 +/- 2.5 vs. 44.9 +/- 3.2 x 10(-6) 2dG; micro +/- SE; p<0.05). On the contrary, pretreatment with WCPT for 10 d did not protect the colon mucosa from oxidative DNA damage induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). 2NP and DMH are hepatic and colon carcinogens, respectively, capable of inducing oxidative DNA damage. WCPT have protective action against some types of chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo.

  15. Chemical, chromatic, and sensory attributes of 6 red wines produced with prefermentative cold soak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Bolcato, Esteban A; Sari, Santiago E

    2015-05-01

    Six red grape cultivars, Barbera D'Asti, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Syrah, were produced with or without prefermentative cold soak (CS). Cold soak had no effect on the basic chemical composition of the wines. At pressing, CS wines were more saturated and with a higher red component than control wines. After 1 year of bottle aging, CS wines retained 22% more anthocyanins than control wines, but tannins and total phenolics remained unaffected. Both saturation and the red component of colour were slightly higher in CS wines. From a sensory standpoint, CS only enhanced colour intensity in Barbera D'Asti and Cabernet Sauvignon wines, whereas it diminished colour intensity in Pinot Noir. Cold soak had no effect on perceived aroma, bitterness, astringency, and body of the wines. Principal Component Analysis suggested that the outcome of CS is contingent upon the specific cultivar to which the CS technique is applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pole and pontoon hulas: an effective way of ecological engineering to increase productivity and biodiversity in the hard-substrate environment of the port of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalvast, P.; van Wesenbeeck, B.K.; te Velde, G.; de Vries, Mindert

    2012-01-01

    Underwater environments in ports are designed for harbour activities solely. However, by simple and cost-effective measures, suitable habitat for underwater flora and fauna can be created. This is expected to have positive effects on higher trophic levels, such as fish, and improve water quality, by

  17. Micro-oxygenation of red wine: techniques, applications, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C; Scollary, Geoff R

    2011-02-01

    Wine micro-oxygenation (MOX) is the controlled addition of oxygen to wine in a manner designed to ensure that complete mass transfer of molecular oxygen from gaseous to dissolved state occurs. MOX was initially developed to improve the body, structure, and fruitfulness in red wines with high concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins, by replicating the ingress of oxygen thought to arise from barrel maturation, but without the need for putting all wine to barrel. This review describes the operational parameters essential for the effective performance of the micro-oxidation process as well as the chemical and microbiological outcomes. The methodologies for introducing oxygen into the wine, the rates of oxygen addition, and their relationship to oxygen solubility in the wine matrix are examined. The review focuses on the techniques used for monitoring the MOX process, including sensory assessment, physicochemical properties, and the critical balance of the rate of oxygen addition in relation to maintaining the sulfur dioxide concentration. The chemistry of oxygen reactivity with wine components, the changes in wine composition that occur as a consequence of MOX, and the potential for wine spoilage if proper monitoring is not adopted are examined. Gaps in existing knowledge are addressed focusing on the limitations associated with the transfer of concepts from research trials in small volume tanks to commercial practice, and the dearth of kinetic data for the various chemical and physical processes that are claimed to occur during MOX.

  18. Antioxidant potentials of local fruits and foreign wines sold in Ile-Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some locally consumed fruits, sugarcane and wines sold in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were investigated for their phenol content and antioxidant potential of the methanolic extracts with a view of exploring the healthpromoting effect of the fruits and wines. The total phenolic content in each fruit and wines was determined ...

  19. New techniques for wine aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging of wine requires a long time therefore it can cause loss of time and money. Therefore using of new techniques for wine aging shortens the length of aging time and wines may be placed on the market more quickly. Nowadays, gamma irradiation, ultrasonic waves, AC electric field and micro-oxygenation are the new techniques for wine aging. Gamma irradiation (after fermentation is accelerated physical maturation method. Gamma irradiation, in a suitable dosage (200 Gy, is a suitable method for improving some wine defects and producing a higher taste quality in wine. The 20 kHz ultrasonic waves aged wine much more quickly than standard aging, with similar quality. The wine treated by 20 kHz ultrasonic waves had a taste equivalent to 1 year aged wine. Wine maturing with AC electric field promises novel process accelerating aging process of fresh wine when suitable conditions are applied. As a result of research, an optimum treatment (electric field 600 V/cm and duration time 3 min was identified to accelerate wine aging. Harsh and pungent raw wine become harmonious and dainty. This process is equivalent to 6 month aging in oak barrel. Microoxygenation is a very important technique used in aging wines in order to improve their characteristics. The techniques of wine tank aging imply the use of small doses of oxygen (2 ml L−1 month−1 and the addition of wood pieces of oak to the wine. Studies concerning these new techniques demonstrated that maturation of wines become more quickly than standard maturation procedures with keeping and improving the wine quality.

  20. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  1. A role for anthocyanin in determining wine tannin concentration in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmister, Rachel L; Mazza, Marica; Baker, Nardia K; Faulkner, Peta; Downey, Mark O

    2014-01-01

    Four wines were made to investigate the effect of different anthocyanin and tannin fruit concentrations on wine phenolics and colour. Wines that were made from fruit with high anthocyanin concentration had high tannin concentrations regardless of the concentration of tannin in fruit, while wines made from fruit with low anthocyanin also had low tannin concentration. It was found that fruit anthocyanin concentration correlated with wine tannin concentration, wine colour and polymeric pigment formation. Anthocyanin concentration might be a key component for increasing tannin solubility and extraction into wine and the formation of polymeric pigments. Industry implications include managing tannin and anthocyanin fruit concentration for targeting tannin extraction and polymeric pigment formation in wine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine. Those...

  3. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  4. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made in...

  5. Wine tourism and sustainable environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa González San José

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a model of development in which the present actions should not compromise the future of future generations, and is linked to economic and social development which must respect the environment. Wine tourism or enotourism is a pleasant mode of tourism that combines the pleasure of wine-tasting, with cultural aspects related to the wine culture developing in wine regions over time until the present day. It can be affirmed that wine culture, and its use through wine tourism experiences, is clearly correlated to social (socially equitable, economic (economically feasible, environmental (environmentally sound and cultural aspects of the sustainability of winegrowing regions and territories.

  6. Old Wine in New Bottles? Researching Effective Schools in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines the current status of effective-schools research in the developing world and identifies underlying concerns, including effects of World Bank structural-adjustment policies. Posits a contextually related view of school effectiveness--the need to eschew "objective" checklists and gather different stakeholders' perceptions about…

  7. Are Seagrass effective Sentinels of Ecosystem Health in Port Phillip Bay, Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. S.; Cook, P. L. M.; Jenkins, G.; Nayar, S.; Hirst, A.; Keough, M. J.; Smith, T.; Ferguson, A.; Gay, J.; Longmore, A. R.; Macreadie, P.; Sherman, C.; Ross, J.; York, P.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are an important part of many coastal systems, but are also under threat in many areas, as a result of a wide range of human activities, including habitat loss and changes to water quality. Due to these sensitivities seagrass are often selected as sentinels of change for coastal marine ecosystems, but could these sensitivities be too complex and varied to provide a clear or reliable measure of change? A recent three year study focused on the resilience of Zostera seagrasses in Port Phillip Bay, Southern Australia, where these ecosystem "engineers", have a dramatic influence on biodiversity and ecosystem function. This large temperate embayment experiences extreme climatic variability, significant loading from urbanized catchments and inflows from the largest sewage treatment facility in Australia, making it a challenging case study for assessing seagrass as a suitable ecosystem metric. Studies on the influence of nutrients, light and sediments using modelling, chemical analyses and field experiments assessed characteristics of Zostera habitat within the bay. Nutrients could be obtained directly in dissolved form from the water column, or sediment, or as atmospheric nitrogen fixed by bacteria associated with the root/rhizome system. Isotopic nutrients were traced to a variety of sources including river inflows, sewage discharges, groundwater, the open ocean, the atmosphere and indirectly via phytoplankton and detritus. Broad-scale seagrass coverage is often depth limited by light, however for regions of significant wave exposure deeper beds existed adjacent to less favorable shallows. Ephemeral beds in more exposed regions showed the greatest potential for responding to change. For these beds, resilience was dependent on bed architecture, connectivity to indirect nutrient sources, and genetic interactions with seagrass communities around the bay. While observed changes in seagrass cover may be a symptomatic trigger of ecosystem health, much as high blood

  8. Effectiveness of Single-Port Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy in Controlling Pain in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bagheri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a persistent pancreatic inflammatory disease. In chronic pancreatitis, recurrent episodes of inflammation lead to the replacement of pancreatic parenchyma with fibrotic connective tissue. Chronic pancreatitis pain, which may initially mimic acute pancreatitis, is severe, frequent, and continual and has a major impact on the quality of life and social functioning of patients. The standard treatments for this disease are endoscopy, surgery, splanchnic nerve denervation, thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy (TS, and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS. Considering the advantages of the single-port method, we attempted to describe the post-treatment conditions of the patients undergoing this therapeutic approach.Materials & Methods: Ten chronic pancreatitis patients with severe resistant pain volunteered to enter the study. We recorded the data on patients’ age, gender, pre-operative pain level, surgical complications, and post-operative pain level (two weeks after surgery were recorded. Visual analogue scale (VATS was used for pain assessment and paired sample t-test was performed for statistical evaluation of response to the treatment for pain.Results: The participants included one female and nine male patients with the mean age of 53.3±0.8 years. The mean duration of severe pain before the onset of treatment was 13 months (range: 6 to 20 months. The pain level was determined 3 to 5 days before the operation and re-graded two weeks post-operation. Pre- and post-operative pain scores showed a significant reduction in the severity of pain before and after surgery (P

  9. Effect of a passive exhalation port on tracheostomy ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Andrea; Arcaro, Giovanna; Molena, Beatrice; Iovino, Silvia; Gallan, Federico; Turato, Cristian; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients often require long-term tracheostomy ventilation (LT-TV) because of progressive ventilatory failure. Although widely used for non-invasive ventilation (NIV), passive exhalation port systems have not been gaining popularity for TV because of the possibility of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) rebreathing. The current study set out to investigate the effect of a Whisper Swivel connector in comparison to an active exhalation valve on gas exchange and symptoms in ALS patients requiring LT-TV. A prospective randomized controlled trial was carried out to compare the clinical outcome of ten ALS patients receiving LT-TV by means of a Trilogy 100 ventilator with a Whisper Swivel passive exhalation port (group A) and of 10 ALS patients connected to an Airox Legendair ventilator with an active exhalation valve (group B). The study's main outcome measure was CO 2 retention at the 30-day follow-up assessment. One patient in each of the two cohorts showed significant CO 2 retention. At the 30-day assessment, scores on the following measures were not significantly different in the two groups: the Borg dyspnea scale {2 [1-3] vs. 1 [1-3]; P=0.2891}, the visual analogue scale (VAS) dyspnea {20 [10-85] vs. 20 [0-50]; P=0.8571}, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) {8 [4-10] vs. 5.5 [0-12]; P=0.1443}, the EuroQol-VAS (EQ-VAS) {55 [50-80] vs. 50 [30-80]; P=0.4593} and the relative stress scale (RSS) {49 [30-65] vs. 52 [25-64]; P=0.8650}. At the 3-month follow-up assessment, the numbers of hospitalizations and deaths were likewise similar in the two groups. The efficacy of the Whisper Swivel connector is similar to that of an active exhalation valve in ALS patients undergoing LT-TV.

  10. Aroma release in the oral cavity after wine intake is influenced by wine matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, María; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study has been to investigate if wine matrix composition might influence the interaction between odorants and oral mucosa in the oral cavity during a "wine intake-like" situation. Aroma released after exposing the oral cavity of three individuals to different wines (n=12) previously spiked with six target aromas was followed by an -in vivo intra-oral SPME approach. Results showed a significant effect of wine matrix composition on the intra-oral aroma release of certain odorants. Among the wine matrix parameters, phenolic compounds showed the largest impact. This effect was dependent on their chemical structure. Some phenolic acids (e.g. hippuric, caffeic) were associated to an increase in the intra-oral release of certain odorants (e.g. linalool, β-ionone), while flavonoids showed the opposite effect, decreasing the intra-oral release of aliphatic esters (ethyl hexanoate). This work shows for the first time, the impact of wine composition on oral-mucosa interactions under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A study on the effects of the intake port configurations on the swirl flow generated in a small D.I. diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yungjin; Han, Yongtaek; Lee, Kihyung

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the effect of intake port configuration on the swirl that is generated within a direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. The in-cylinder flow characteristics are known to have significant effects on fuel-air mixing, combustion, and emissions. To clarify how to intensify the swirl flow, a swirl control valve (SCV) and a bypass were selected as design parameters for enhancing the swirl flow. The optimal intake port shape was also chosen as a parameter needed to efficiently generate a high swirl ratio. The results revealed that a key factor in generating a high swirl ratio was to control the intake airflow direction passing through the intake valve seat. Further, the swirl intensity was influenced by changing the distance between the helical and tangential ports, and the swirl flow was changed by the presence of a bypass near the intake valve seat. Additionally, the effect of intake port geometry on the in-cylinder flow field was investigated by using a laser sheet visualization method. The experimental results showed a correlation of swirl ratio and mass flow rate. In addition, we found that employing the bypass was an effective method to increase swirl ratio without sacrificing mass flow rate.

  12. Port Authority Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best practices for port authorities include near-port community collaboration, anti-idling policies, expanding off-peak hours, development of EMS, developing an emissions inventory, education, electric power and substituting trucking for rail or barge.

  13. US Ports of Entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  14. Climate variability and wine quality over Portuguese regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Gani, Érico A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between the characteristics of wine and its geographic origin is frequently used to explain the hierarchy of high-quality wines. Port wine is produced from grapes grown in selected areas of the Douro valley, in Portugal, the so-called Região Demarcada do Douro, the first wine-producing region of the world (dating from 1758). The Douro region presents distinctive climatic, topographic and soil characteristics. Moreover Portugal possesses a large array of native varietals, producing an abundant diversity of different wines. The most protected wines, produced only with some authorised grape varietals in the demarcated regions, are labelled D.O.C. (Denominação de Origem Controlada, similar to the French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC)) which secures a superior wine quality. Recent warming trends in Portugal are associated with the significant increase in the frequency and duration of heat waves, and the increase in the frequency of hot days and tropical nights, especially in spring and summer, together with a significant decrease in the frequency of cold waves and frost days (Santo et al., 2014). Moreover a predominantly negative tendency in precipitation indices was also found (de Lima et al., 2014). These trends and associated changes in temperature and precipitation regimes may exert strong influences on agriculture systems. In this work we have performed an analysis of the distinct behaviour of several meteorological fields in vintage versus non-vintage years for Port Wine on one hand and Alentejo and Dão/Bairrada DOC regions on the other hand, during the period spanning from 1964-1995. The relative importance of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and frost days is assessed for each individual month of the vegetative cycle and their importance to the wine quality is evaluated. Furthermore, composites of 500 hPa geopotential height and sea level pressure fields over the Euro Atlantic region are also compared for years

  15. A new wine superpower? An analysis of the Chinese wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the most attractive wine markets and a hopeful wine producer in the twenty-first century. Current studies of wine in China tend to focus on the wine market but seldom analyze the domestic wine industry, which contributes approximately 70% of the total wine consumed in the country. This paper reviews the wine history and the development of wine in China and analyses the current situation and perspectives of the Chinese wine industry, considering both traditional con...

  16. ASPECTS REGARDING WINE PRODUCTION AND WINE SECTOR COMPETITIVENESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine sector competitiveness in Romania. Vineyards have an important share in Romanian agriculture, Romania being ranked on 11th position in the world and on 5th position in the European Union in terms of vineyards surface, while the wine industry is an important contributor to the GDP. The research method was based on analyze of wine sector evolution in the last years. The paper presents current global context of wine market at international level and focus on Romanian wine production sector and wine trade, seen in the light of competitiveness. The competitiveness of Romanian wine sector need to be related with measures that are able to increase the attractiveness of Romanian wines, both on domestic and external markets.

  17. Determination of tritium in wine and wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotarlea, Monica-Ionela; Paunescu, Niculina; Galeriu, D.; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.; Marin, G.

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive method for evaluating the tritium content in wine and wine yeast was applied to estimate tritium impact on the environment in the surrounding area of nuclear power plant Cernavoda, where the vineyards are part of representative agricultural ecosystem. Analytical procedures were developed to determine HTO in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractionating distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation followed by fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples obtained after fractional distillation were normally distilled with KMO 4 . The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine yeast samples from Mulfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  18. Identification of ballast water discharge profiles of a port to enable effective ballast water management and environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Penko, Ludvik

    2018-03-01

    Information about the profile of ballast water discharges in a port is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in ballast water risk assessment and management, and supports the evaluation of dimensions and processes of aquatic species invasions with vessels ballast water. In the lack of ballast water reporting, ballast water discharge assessments need to be conducted. In this study we have assessed and compared ballast water discharge profiles of two ports with different maritime traffic and cargo profiles, the Port of Hamburg (Germany) and the Muuga Harbour, Port of Tallinn (Estonia). This study shows methods and approaches which can be used to assess volumes and donor ports of ballast water discharges for a port at the level of each vessel call. These methods and approaches can be applied to any port to support the implementation of feasible and efficient ballast water management measures and to enable environmental studies including long-term accumulation risks of disinfection by-products from ballast water management systems making use of active substances, as well as for discharges of other chemical compounds.

  19. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot

  20. Getting Port Governance Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Langen, Peter; Saragiotis, Periklis

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relevance of ports for economic development and next identifies port governance as a critical determinant of a well-functioning port industry. While in the past decades privately owned terminal operating companies have emerged and contributed to more efficient supply ch...

  1. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio García-Estévez; Cristina Alcalde-Eon; Víctor Puente; M. Teresa Escribano-Bailón

    2017-01-01

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the...

  2. Study of wine tartaric acid salt stabilization by addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC: comparison with the « protective colloids » effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gerbaud

    2010-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: The OIV-OENO 366-2009 and OIV-OENO 02/2008 resolutions recently authorized the use of CMC to prevent tartaric acid salt precipitation. With no impact on health, and stable under heating and in acid solution, CMC is an efficient candidate for tartaric stabilization. The optimal concentration of 20 mg.L-1 (2 g.hL-1 should however be adapted to local wine storage conditions and KHT crystallization risk.

  3. Analysis of selected chemical parameters in Piemontese wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Agnieszka E; Stawarczyk, Kinga; Bilek, Maciej; Kędziora, Katarzyna M

    2015-01-01

    Piemontese wines are well known and valued all over the world. The most popular of them are Barolo and Barbaresco wines. However, in Poland, they are still little known and only now are being gradually introduced to a wider range of consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of inorganic anions, minerals, sugars and glycerol of Piemontese wines from micro-region Langhe, classified as DOCG ("Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita", ie. controlled designation of origin guaranteed) and DOC ("Denominazione di Origine Controllata", ie. controlled designation of origin) products. Seven types of red wines and one type of white wine were tested. High Performance Ion Chromatography with conductometric detection (HPLC-CD) was used to measure the content of inorganic anions, ie. fluorides, chlorides, sulfates and phosphates. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) was used to measure the content of minerals, ie. magnesium, calcium, sodium, copper, potassium, zinc and iron, while High Performance Liquid Chromatography with charged aerosol detection (HPLC-CAD) was used to measure the content of glycerol and sugars, ie. fructose, glucose and sucrose. Our studies show that although Piemontese wines are characterized by a relatively low content of minerals in comparison with the wines from other regions, they contain a lot of ingredients that have beneficial effects for human health. Moreover, we observed that the studied wines contain particularly high concentration of inorganic ions--phosphates and fluorides. Furthermore, all tested red wines show far reaching similarities in their chemical properties, which is possibly a direct consequence of using in their production locally cultivated grape varieties. Analysis of the wines from the Piemont region, classified as DOCG, DOC, confirmed that these are dry wines of a high quality.

  4. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Production of fermentation aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts: effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen on two model strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Francisco M; Medina, Karina; Farina, Laura; Boido, Eduardo; Henschke, Paul A; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    The contribution of yeast fermentation metabolites to the aromatic profile of wine is well documented; however, the biotechnological application of this knowledge, apart from strain selection, is still rather limited and often contradictory. Understanding and modeling the relationship between nutrient availability and the production of desirable aroma compounds by different strains must be one of the main objectives in the selection of industrial yeasts for the beverage and food industry. In order to overcome the variability in the composition of grape juices, we have used a chemically defined model medium for studying yeast physiological behavior and metabolite production in response to nitrogen supplementation so as to identify an appropriate yeast assimilable nitrogen level for strain differentiation. At low initial nitrogen concentrations, strain KU1 produced higher quantities of esters and fatty acids whereas M522 produced higher concentrations of isoacids, gamma-butyrolactone, higher alcohols and 3-methylthio-1-propanol. We propose that although strains KU1 and M522 have a similar nitrogen consumption profile, they represent useful models for the chemical characterization of wine strains in relation to wine quality. The differential production of aroma compounds by the two strains is discussed in relation to their capacity for nitrogen usage and their impact on winemaking. The results obtained here will help to develop targeted metabolic footprinting methods for the discrimination of industrial yeasts.

  6. EFFECT OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPLEX FROM WINE ON RATS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY AT X-RAY IRRADIATION LOW DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. V. Datsyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the consumption of natural polyphenolic complex from grape wine in drinking water in the daily dose 2.5 ± 1.1 mg polyphenols/kg body mass of rats during the 10 day before exposure to radiation leads to increased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione reductase activities in peripheral blood on 24 and 48 hours after full body X-ray irradiation (30 cGy. The of catalase, gluthathione peroxidase activities and the of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances content in total lysates of peripheral blood within 72 hours after exposure are comparable to those in control rats. Marked decreased of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at 24, 48 and 24 hours, respectively, was observed after exposure to ionizing radiation and increased content of lipid peroxidation products in all above mentioned time points. The decreased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione peroxidase activities in lysates of rats aorta at 48 hour and increased content of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances during 72 hours after radiation exposure were observed. The consumption of polyphenolic complex from wine did not change the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in lysates of aorta rats treated with ionizing radiation, whereas gluthathione reductase and gluthathione peroxidase activities was increased during 72 hours after radiation influence. The content of TBA reactive substances was significantly decreased in lysates of aorta rats that were exposed to radiation and polyphenols of grape wine, compared with those of animals that were exposed to radiation alone.

  7. Effects of rehydration nutrients on H2S metabolism and formation of volatile sulfur compounds by the wine yeast VL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gal; Henschke, Paul A; Higgins, Vincent J; Ugliano, Maurizio; Curtin, Chris D

    2011-11-02

    In winemaking, nutrient supplementation is a common practice for optimising fermentation and producing quality wine. Nutritionally suboptimal grape juices are often enriched with nutrients in order to manipulate the production of yeast aroma compounds. Nutrients are also added to active dry yeast (ADY) rehydration media to enhance subsequent fermentation performance. In this study we demonstrate that nutrient supplementation at rehydration also has a significant effect on the formation of volatile sulfur compounds during wine fermentations. The concentration of the 'fruity' aroma compounds, the polyfunctional thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), was increased while the concentration of the 'rotten egg' aroma compound, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), was decreased. Nutrient supplementation of the rehydration media also changed the kinetics of H2S production during fermentation by advancing onset of H2S production. Microarray analysis revealed that this was not due to expression changes within the sulfate assimilation pathway, which is known to be a major contributor to H2S production. To gain insight into possible mechanisms responsible for this effect, a component of the rehydration nutrient mix, the tri-peptide glutathione (GSH) was added at rehydration and studied for its subsequent effects on H2S formation. GSH was found to be taken up during rehydration and to act as a source for H2S during the following fermentation. These findings represent a potential approach for managing sulfur aroma production through the use of rehydration nutrients.

  8. Wine and Maths: Mathematical Solutions to Wine-Inspired Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, L.; Cauli, A.

    2018-01-01

    We deal with an application of partial differential equations to the correct definition of a wine cellar. We present some historical details about this problem. We also discuss how to build or renew a wine cellar, creating ideal conditions for the ageing process and improving the quality of wines. Our goal is to calculate the optimal depth…

  9. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  10. The New World challenge: Performance trends in wine production in major wine-exporting countries in the 2000s and their implications for the Australian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan Fleming

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anderson, K., Nelgen, S., 2011. Global Wine Markets, 1961 to 2009: A Statistical Compendium. University of Adelaide Press, Adelaide publication of an index of revealed comparative advantage suggests that the Australian wine industry had come under increased competition from other “New World” producers in the first decade of this century. We examine this influence by comparing the transformation of winegrapes into wine volume and value in the 11 largest wine-exporting countries during the years, 2000–2009. Our focus is on the challenge issued by other New World producers from the Southern Hemisphere to Australian producers, and the continuing challenge to Old World global supremacy by New World producers and its response. Four performance measures are used this study. Two key trends are evident. First, all countries migrated to higher price points, albeit with differing degrees of success: slightly declining productivity in transforming winegrapes into wine output was overwhelmed by price/quality effects, leading to substantial gains in transforming winegrapes into wine value. Second, New World producers plus Portugal and Spain were much more successful in achieving gains in their export value proposition than they were in extracting value in their domestic markets. Results show that Australian wine producers had lost some of their competitive advantage during the 2000s as their pre-existing strategy dominated by the export of high-volume wines by large companies at low to medium price points, and their reliance on a reputation for reliable good quality for the price point was beginning to fail in the face of competition from both New World and Old World producers. Acknowledgement of this outcome has led to a good deal of introspection, and recognition of the need to promote the wine regions of Australia, based on higher-quality wines, and to select and promote quality indicators.

  11. Consumer perceptions of organic wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IORDACHESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a study on the Romanians’ attitudes towards the organic wines. The analysis has been done in two stages – at a quantitative level and a qualitative one. The quantitative study has been done on a sample of 122 respondents – consumers and non-consumersin low percentage. The questionnaire investigated the general perception of wines, and included a dedicated section for the organic wines, addressed to the respondents aware of this product.The qualitative stage has been realized through a sensorial analysis, where three white wines and two red wines have been tasted by trained tasters. Among the five wines, one white – Chardonnay was organicwine. Both studies proved that the organic wine has a potential in Romania due to the sensorial qualities and people’s perception. However, the development of organic wine market won’t be a quick process and it will require first of all improving Romanians’ ‘organic’ culture.

  12. Wine glass size and wine sales: a replication study in two bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Hollands, Gareth J; Mantzari, Eleni; Zupan, Zorana; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-08-01

    Wine glass size may influence perceived volume and subsequently purchasing and consumption. Using a larger glass to serve the same portions of wine was found to increase wine sales by 9.4% (95% CI 1.9, 17.5) in a recent study conducted in one bar. The current study aimed to replicate this previous work in two other bars using a wider range of glass sizes. To match the previous study, a repeated multiple treatment reversal design, during which wine was served in glasses of the same design but different sizes, was used. The study was conducted in two bars in Cambridge, England, using glass sizes of 300, 370, 510 ml (Bar 1) and 300 and 510 ml (Bar 2). Customers purchased their choice of a 750 ml bottle, or standard UK measures of 125, 175 or 250 ml of wine, each of which was served with the same glass. Bar 1 Daily wine volume (ml) purchased was 10.5% (95% CI 1.0, 20.9) higher when sold in 510 ml compared to 370 ml glasses; but sales were not significantly higher with 370 ml versus 300 ml glasses (6.5%, 95% CI -5.2, 19.6). Bar 2 Findings were inconclusive as to whether daily wine purchased differed when using 510 ml versus 300 ml glasses (-1.1%, 95% CI -12.6, 11.9). These results provide a partial replication of previous work showing that introducing larger glasses (without manipulating portion size) increases purchasing. Understanding the mechanisms by which wine glass size influences consumption may elucidate when the effect can be expected and when not. Trial registration This study is a replication study, based on the procedure set out in the trial registration for the study that it attempts to replicate (ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN12018175).

  13. Effects of winery wastewater on soil, grape nutrition, and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many wineries are interested in recycling wastewater for irrigation. This project investigates the effects on winemaking when winery wastewater (WW) is recycledfor irrigation. Water samples and soils samples were collected from one Napa Valley and one Sonoma vineyard. Leaf and berry samples were col...

  14. Spectrochemical determination of lead in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MARKOVIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of lead in wines of different origin was performed by means of atomic emission spectroscopy with argon stabilized DC. U-shaped arc and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The comparison of the results obtained by the direct and standard addition method has indicated the presence of a depressive effect of the complex organic matrix. The effect is avoided successfully by mineralization, as well as by dissolution of the samples. Thus, a relative simple but precise and sensitive method involving the application of a stabilized arc and photoelectric detection with time integration of the emission signals is recommended for the determination of low concentrations of lead in wines. The complex organic matrix was investigated by recording the IR spectra of different wine fractions.

  15. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Higgins; Marianne McGarry Wolf; Mitchell J. Wolf

    2014-01-01

    As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine th...

  16. Effects of de-alcoholised wines with different polyphenol content on DNA oxidative damage, gene expression of peripheral lymphocytes, and haemorheology: an intervention study in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Lisa; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Luceri, Cristina; Giannini, Lucia; Toti, Simona; Salvini, Simonetta; Sera, Francesco; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Veronique; Sofi, Francesco; Mannini, Lucia; Gori, Anna Maria; Abbate, Rosanna; Palli, Domenico; Dolara, Piero

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and with a reduced mortality for all causes, possibly due to increased antioxidant defences. The present intervention study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo effects of wine polyphenols on gene expression in humans, along with their supposed antioxidant activity. Blood haemorheology and platelet function were also evaluated. In order to avoid interferences from alcohol, we used de-alcoholised wine (DAW) with different polyphenol content. A randomised cross-over trial of high-proanthocyanidin (PA) red DAW (500 mL/die, PA dose = 7 mg/kg b.w.) vs. low-PA rosé DAW (500 mL/die, PA dose = 0.45 mg/kg) was conducted in 21 post-menopausal women in Florence, Italy. Oxidative DNA damage by the comet assay and gene expression by microarray was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes, collected during the study period. Blood samples were also collected for the evaluation of haematological, haemostatic, haemorheological, and inflammatory parameters. The results of the present study provide evidence that consumption of substantial amounts of de-alcoholised wine for 1 month does not exert a protective activity towards oxidative DNA damage, nor modifies significantly the gene expression profile of peripheral lymphocytes, whereas it shows blood-fluidifying actions, expressed as a significant decrease in blood viscosity. However, this effect does not correlate with the dosage of polyphenols of the de-alcoholised wine. More intervention studies are needed to provide further evidence of the health-protective effects of wine proanthocyanidins.

  17. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  18. Predominant mycotoxins, mycotoxigenic fungi and climate change related to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R Russell M; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson; Guilloux-Bénatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Wine is a significant contributor to the economies of many countries. However, the commodity can become contaminated with mycotoxins produced by certain fungi. Most information on mycotoxins in wine is from Spain, Italy and France. Grapes can be infected by mycotoxigenic fungi, of which Aspergillus carbonarius producing ochratoxin A (OTA) is of highest concern. Climate is the most important factor in determining contamination once the fungi are established, with high temperatures being a major factor for OTA contamination: OTA in wine is at higher concentrations in warmer southern Europe than northern. Contamination by fumonisins is a particular concern, related to Aspergillus niger producing these compounds and the fungus being isolated frequently from grapes. Aflatoxins can be present in wine, but patulin is seldom detected. Alternaria mycotoxins (e.g. alternariol) have been frequently observed. There are indications that T-2 toxin may be common. Also, the combined effects of mycotoxins in wine require consideration. No other mycotoxins are currently of concern. Accurate fungal identifications and mycotoxin detection from the fungi are important and a consideration of practical methods are required. There is a diversity of wines that can be contaminated (e.g. red, white, sweet, dry and fortified). The occurrence of OTA is higher in red and sweet than white wines. Steps to control mycotoxins in wine involve good agriculture practices. The effect of climate change on vines and mycotoxins in wine needs urgent consideration by well-constructed modelling studies and expert interpretation of existing data. Reliable models of the effect of climate change on vines is a priority: the health of vines affects mycotoxin contamination. A modelling study of OTA in grapes at higher temperatures over 100years is required. Progress has been made in reducing OTA in wine. The other mycotoxins require consideration and the effects of climate change will become crucial. Copyright

  19. The effect of addition of olive oil and "Aceto balsamico di Modena" wine vinegar in conjunction with active atmosphere packaging on the microbial and sensory quality of "Lollo Verde" lettuce and rocket salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Bouletis, Achilleas D; Papa, Eirini A; Gkagtzis, Dimitrios C; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Papaloucas, C

    2011-12-01

    Fresh rocket "Eruca Sativa" and lettuce "Lollo Verde" leaves were stored with the addition of olive oil and wine vinegar "Aceto balsamico di Modena" under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (5% O(2)/10% CO(2)/85% N(2) for MAP A and 2% O(2)/5% CO(2)/93% N(2) for MAP B). The microbial (mesophilic, psychrotrophic bacteria and Enterobacteriacae), physical (color and firmness) and sensory parameters of samples were studied in relation to storage time (up to 10 days at 5 ± 1 °C). The effect of wine vinegar and the application of both MAP treatments reduced the growth of all bacteria populations (p shelf-life to 3 days (p wine vinegar while samples with olive oil stored under MAP A maintained firmness close to normal. Color attributes were maintained better under both MAP treatments (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  1. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  2. Flavoured Wine – Fad, Fashion or Trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Damien

    2016-01-01

    With this divergence between publicity and market behaviour being echoing across the globe, wine producers need to be able to determine whether a new category represents an opportunity to consider a strategic change in business direction. Although publicity has been shown to effect a change in wine consumer behaviour, the conditions surrounding a new wine category's growth from fad, trend and fashion are analysed for the purpose of strategic management. This study extends findings from historical narratives through the use of empirical evidence from both European and New World wine markets. The evidence is contrasted with a contemporary phenomenological experience expressed by influencers within both of those markets, as a means to illustrate the disparity between the contemporary appeal of popular publicity, and the challenges faced by wine producers having to respond to the market reality. This study illustrates that implementing strategic decisions on whether to engage in a new trend, depends on the innovative category being consistent with existing strategy and able to impact the market without reliance on external publicity.

  3. Fun with Singing Wine Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency…

  4. Non-Saccharomyces in Wine: Effect Upon Oenococcus oeni and Malolactic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaseda, Aitor; Bordons, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This work is a short review of the interactions between oenological yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially Oenococcus oeni , the main species carrying out the malolactic fermentation (MLF). The emphasis has been placed on non- Saccharomyces effects due to their recent increased interest in winemaking. Those interactions are variable, ranging from inhibitory, to neutral and stimulatory and are mediated by some known compounds, which will be discussed. One phenomena responsible of inhibitory interactions is the media exhaustion by yeasts, and particularly a decrease in L-malic acid by some non- Saccharomyces . Clearly ethanol is the main inhibitory compound of LAB produced by S. cerevisiae , but non- Saccharomyces can be used to decrease it. Sulfur dioxide and medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) produced by yeasts can exhibit inhibitory effect upon LAB or even result lethal. Interestingly mixed fermentations with non- Saccharomyces present less MCFA concentration. Among organic acids derived as result of yeast metabolism, succinic acid seems to be the most related with MLF inhibition. Several protein factors produced by S. cerevisiae inhibiting O. oeni have been described, but they have not been studied in non- Saccharomyces . According to the stimulatory effects, the use of non- Saccharomyces can increase the concentration of favorable mediators such as citric acid, pyruvic acid, or other compounds derived of yeast autolysis such as peptides, glucans, or mannoproteins. The emergence of non- Saccharomyces in winemaking present a new scenario in which MLF has to take place. For this reason, new tools and approaches should be explored to better understand this new winemaking context.

  5. Non-Saccharomyces in Wine: Effect Upon Oenococcus oeni and Malolactic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Balmaseda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of the interactions between oenological yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB, especially Oenococcus oeni, the main species carrying out the malolactic fermentation (MLF. The emphasis has been placed on non-Saccharomyces effects due to their recent increased interest in winemaking. Those interactions are variable, ranging from inhibitory, to neutral and stimulatory and are mediated by some known compounds, which will be discussed. One phenomena responsible of inhibitory interactions is the media exhaustion by yeasts, and particularly a decrease in L-malic acid by some non-Saccharomyces. Clearly ethanol is the main inhibitory compound of LAB produced by S. cerevisiae, but non-Saccharomyces can be used to decrease it. Sulfur dioxide and medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs produced by yeasts can exhibit inhibitory effect upon LAB or even result lethal. Interestingly mixed fermentations with non-Saccharomyces present less MCFA concentration. Among organic acids derived as result of yeast metabolism, succinic acid seems to be the most related with MLF inhibition. Several protein factors produced by S. cerevisiae inhibiting O. oeni have been described, but they have not been studied in non-Saccharomyces. According to the stimulatory effects, the use of non-Saccharomyces can increase the concentration of favorable mediators such as citric acid, pyruvic acid, or other compounds derived of yeast autolysis such as peptides, glucans, or mannoproteins. The emergence of non-Saccharomyces in winemaking present a new scenario in which MLF has to take place. For this reason, new tools and approaches should be explored to better understand this new winemaking context.

  6. Sea freight - Antwerp Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEACSU Nicoleta Andreea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shipping plays a vital role in achieving the movement of goods, both in terms of quantity and efficiency. This paper presents the role and advantages of shipping in the global economy and analyzes the development and Antwerp Port activity. Currently, the second most important trading port in Europe and 14th in the ranking of most important ports that handle containers worldwide, the Port of Antwerp, Belgium is a port in the heart of Europe, accessible to large sized vessels. 200 years of constructing infrastructure and logistics around the central location, as well as pressure from Rotterdam, that had an impact on the competitiveness of the port of Antwerp, all this led the port to occupy a leading position in the top rankings.

  7. New Uses of Hawthorn Fruits in Tonic Wines Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruţa Elena MUREŞAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tonic wines are true natural elixirs, having the property to fortify the organism. To achieve a complex product and to supplement the antioxidant properties of the wine, the hawthorn fruits were added. They completed the product by maceration, so that the tonic wine got major active substances which have great medicinal value being effective in treating cardiovascular diseases. The content of polyphenols of tonic wine is about six times higher than in simple wine, the hawthorn representing a product rich in polyphenols (510.2 mg GAE/100g. Antioxidant capacity increased when hawthorn fruits were added, as they have an important contribution in terms of new product antioxidant properties. Hawthorn, honey and rosemary added extra minerals in the total dry extract. The relative density increased due to the substances present in hawthorn. The concentration of alcohol slightly increased due to the fermentation which triggers during maceration. The acidity of the new tonic wine developed here was higher, as compared to the simple wine. Higher acidity also contributed to the palatability, the new tonic wine showing a pleasant refreshing taste.

  8. Affinity and selectivity of plant proteins for red wine components relevant to color and aroma traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Tiziana Mariarita; Ferranti, Pasquale; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco

    2018-08-01

    The effects of fining with various plant proteins were assessed on Aglianico red wine, using both the young wine and wine aged for twelve and twenty-four months, and including wine unfined or fined with gelatin as controls. Color traits and fining efficiency were considered, along with the content of various types of phenolics and of aroma-related compounds of either varietal or fermentative origin. All agents had comparable fining efficiency, although with distinct kinetics, and had similar effects on wine color. Individual plant proteins and enzymatic hydrolyzates differed in their ability to interact with some anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins complexes, and with some aroma components of fermentative origin. Changes in varietal aroma components upon fining were very limited or absent. Effects of all the fining agents tested in this study on the anthocyanidin components were most noticeable in young red wine, and decreased markedly with increasing wine ageing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulia, Danae S., E-mail: ntoulia@mail.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Anagnos, Efstathios K. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Liapis, Konstantinos S. [Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 7 Ekalis Str., Kiphissia, Athens GR-14561 (Greece); Klimentzos, Demetrios A. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  10. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doulia, Danae S.; Anagnos, Efstathios K.; Liapis, Konstantinos S.; Klimentzos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  11. Consumer demand for low-alcohol wine in an Australian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba, Linda A Ovington, Carmen C MoranCharles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The aim of this paper is to inform wine producers and marketers of those in the population who are interested in low-alcohol wine by describing the results of an Australian survey.Method: In the present study, 851 adult wine consumers completed an online questionnaire on their purchasing and consumption of wine, demographics, knowledge, and reasons for consuming wine. Reasons for consumption were defined using Brunner and Siegrist’s validated model. Self-reported interest in low-alcohol wine was used to determine the likely maximum possible market size.Results: The majority of respondents considered “low-alcohol wine” to contain around 3%–8% alcohol. Results indicated that those most likely to purchase low-alcohol wine were female and those who drink wine with food. Those who drank wine more frequently showed interest in wine sold in known-dose quantities, such as one standard drink. Reasons for preferring a low-alcohol wine included driving after drinking, to lessen the adverse effects of alcohol, and to consume more without the effects of a higher-alcohol wine. Finally, results pointed to the importance of taste as a driver of consumption.Conclusion: This is the first study to define the opportunity market for low-alcohol wine in Australia agnostic to intervening variables, thus defines the likely upper limit. Further, we showed what consumers currently define as low alcohol. Both of these findings allow wine companies to make a decision on the profitability of the low-alcohol market in Australia.Keywords: consumer demand, low alcohol, wine, consumer preference

  12. Effects of Port Shape on Steady Flow Characteristics in an SI Engine with Semi-Wedge Combustion Chamber (2) - Velocity Distribution (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Inkyoung; Ohm, Inyong [Seoul Nat’l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study is the second investigation on the steady flow characteristics of an SI engine with a semi-edge combustion chamber as a function of the port shape with varying evaluation positions. For this purpose, the planar velocity profiles were measured from 1.75B, 1.75 times of bore position apart from the bottom of head, to 6.00B positions using particle – image velocimetry. The flow patterns were examined with both a straight and a helical port. The velocity profiles, streamlines, and centers of swirl were almost the same at the same valve lift regardless of the measuring position, which is quite different from the case of the pent-roof combustion chamber. All the eccentricity values of the straight port were out of distortion criterion 0.15 through the lifts and the position. However, the values of the helical port exceeded the distortion criterion by up to 4 mm lift, but decreased rapidly above the 3.00B position and the 5 mm lift. There always existed a relative offset effect in the evaluation of the swirl coefficient using the PIV method due to the difference of the ideal impulse swirl meter velocity profile assumption, except for the cylinder-center-base estimation that was below 4 mm of the straight port. Finally, it was concluded that taking the center as an evaluation basis and the assumption about the axial velocity profile did not have any qualitative effect on swirl evaluation, but affected the value owing to the detailed profile.

  13. The Impact of Wine Style and Sugar Addition in liqueur d’expedition (dosage Solutions on Traditional Method Sparkling Wine Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wine style and cane sugar addition in the liqueur d’expedition (dosage solution on volatile aroma compounds (VOCs in traditional method sparkling wine. There were 24 bottles of each treatment produced. Treatments were sparkling wine zero dosage (ZD; NV sparkling wine + sugar (BS; unoaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (UC; Pinot noir 2009 sparkling wine + sugar (PN; Niagara produced Brandy + sugar (B and Icewine (IW. The control treatment in the sensory analysis was an oaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (OC because the zero-dosage wine was not suitable for a difference test that compared wines with sugar to one without. Standard wine chemical parameters were analysed before disgorging and after liqueur d’expedition was added and included; pH, titratable acidity (TA g/L, alcohol (v/v %, residual sugar (RS g/L, free and total SO2 and total phenolics (A.U.. Volatile aroma compounds (VOCs analysed by Headspace Solid- Phase Micro-Extraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS included two alcohols, and six ethyl esters. ZD wines had the highest foam height and highest dissolved oxygen level. Sugar affected VOC concentrations in all treatments at five weeks post-disgorging, but by 15 weeks after liqueur d’expedition addition, the wine with added sugar had similar VOC concentrations to the ZD wines. The type of wines used in the dosage solutions had more influence on VOC concentrations than sugar addition.

  14. INSTITUTIONAL AND MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE OF RUSSIAN ARCTIC SEA PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bryzgalov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Institutional and management structure of any sea port is a system of interaction between commercial enterprises engaged in cargo operations in port, a subsidiary of Rosmorport FSUE, Sea Port Authority and a number of services (immigration, customs and sanitary-veterinary. Institutional and management structure of some Russian Arctic sea ports is significantly different from the typical one resulting in management problems for these socially significant objects of the Russian Arctic. A plan is proposed to improve the organizational and administrative structure of these ports based on the use of domestic and international experience in port infrastructure management including effective cooperation between the state and the private business.

  15. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  16. STUDY ON PROMOTING WINE BRANDS ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CRISTACHE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to emphasize the role and importance of social media as a powerful wine promotion instrument. The necessity of approaching this issue is justified by the fact that we live in a Google-centric world and that companies’ marketing strategy as well as their content must constantly adapt to the online searching and information gathering behaviour. To this purpose, our research efforts concentrated on examining the top ten wine producers in Romania, pointing out that corporate rigor supports effective web-sites and social media accounts for wine producers. Form the marketing management perspective, the development of a model to assess the web-site and social media account is highly required as it is useful for winemaking companies. From the academic perspective, it aims at identifying the correlation between the behaviour of modern consumer and the social media impact on all aspects of life.

  17. 1H-NMR metabolic profiling of wines from three cultivans, three soil types and two contrasting vintages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Elias Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Significance and impact of study: After validation on a larger number of wine samples this chemical profiling will be a useful new method to the qualify wines in relation to climate, soil, and cultivar effects which contribute to the terroir.

  18. Red Wine Polyphenols Do Not Lower Peripheral or Central Blood Pressure in High Normal Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Ilse P. G.; Draijer, Richard; Westerhof, Berend E.; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Zock, Peter L.; van den Meiracker, Anton H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological data suggest that modest red wine consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Red wine polyphenols improved human endothelial vascular function and reduced blood pressure (BP) in animal studies, but the results of human intervention studies investigating the effect

  19. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample.